WorldWideScience

Sample records for giardia lamblia cysts

  1. Immunofluorescence and morphology of Giardia lamblia cysts exposed to chlorine.

    Sauch, J F; Berman, D.

    1991-01-01

    Giardia cyst-like objects detected by immunofluorescence in chlorinated water samples often cannot be positively identified by their morphological appearance. To determine the effect of chlorine on cyst immunofluorescence and morphology, Giardia lamblia cysts were exposed to chlorine for 48 h. The majority of cysts exposed to chlorine concentrations of 1 to 11 mg/liter at 5 and 15 degrees C lost their internal morphological characteristics necessary for identification, but most of them were s...

  2. Excystation of in vitro-derived Giardia lamblia cysts.

    Boucher, S E; Gillin, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    This is the first in-depth analysis of the excystation of Giardia lamblia cysts prepared in vitro. Its goals were both to achieve efficient excystation and to gain insights into this crucial but poorly understood process. To identify the critical elements of excystation, we tested the sequential low-pH induction and protease treatments which had been reported to be important for excystation of fecal cysts. The optimal pH for induction of excystation was 4.0. Emergence was greatly (approximate...

  3. A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays

    Widmer Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metabolism as the parasite encysts in the host's intestine and excysts upon ingestion by a new host. Results To investigate the magnitude of the transcriptional changes occurring during the G. lamblia life cycle we compared the transcriptome of G. lamblia trophozoites and cysts using single-color oligonucleotide microarrays. Cysts were found to possess a much smaller transcriptome, both in terms of mRNA diversity and abundance. Genes encoding proteins related to ribosomal functions are highly over-represented. The comparison of the transcriptome of cysts generated in culture or extracted from feces revealed little overlap, raising the possibility of significant biological differences between the two types of cysts. Conclusions The comparison of the G. lamblia cyst and trophozoite transcriptome showed that transcripts of most genes are present at a lower level in cysts. This global view of the cyst and trophozoite transcriptome complements studies focused on the expression of selected genes during trophozoite multiplication, encystation and excystation.

  4. A Novel WRKY-like Protein Involved in Transcriptional Activation of Cyst Wall Protein Genes in Giardia lamblia*

    Pan, Yu-Jiao; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Kao, Yu-Yun; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of a protective cyst wall is required for survival outside of the host and for infection of Giardia lamblia. Little is known of gene regulation of the cyst wall proteins (CWPs) during differentiation into dormant cysts. WRKY homologues constitute a large family of DNA-binding proteins in plants that are involved in several key cellular functions, including disease resistance, stress response, dormancy, and development. A putative wrky gene has been identified in the G. lamblia genom...

  5. Inactivation of gerbil-cultured Giardia lamblia cysts by free chlorine.

    Rubin, A J; Evers, D P; Eyman, C M; Jarroll, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Giardia lamblia cysts were harvested from Mongolian gerbils and exposed to free chlorine in buffered water at pH 5, 7, and 9 at 15 degrees C. The contact times required to obtain a 2-log reduction in cyst survival (i.e., a 99% kill) were interpolated from survival curves generated at fixed concentrations of chlorine in the range of 0.25 to about 16 mg/liter. Concentration-time (C.t') products for 99% inactivation ranged from about 120 to nearly 1,500 mg.min/liter. These values are higher than...

  6. In-vitro giardicidal effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Asafoetida on Giardia lamblia cyst

    Mohammadreza Rezaiemanesh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Giardia lamblia, Giardiasis causative protozoa, is one of the most common etiologic agents of diarrhea throughout the world especially in Iran. Asafoetida, an oleo-gum-resin (called Anjodan in Farsi obtained from an Iranian endemic herb, Ferula Assa-foetida has been used in treating of different diseases, particularly parasitic ones. The aim of this study was in-vitro evaluating of the effect of Asafoetida aqueous and alcoholic extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts. Materials and Methods: 500 µl of each of 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 20 mg/ml concentrtions of asafoetida aqueous and ethanol extracts was added to 500 µl of purified Giardia cysts,respectively. The mixtures were kept at 4, 24 and 37°C. The Giardicidal activity of the extracts was measured 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hour (s after exposure through 0.1% eosin dye staining and microscopic enumeration method. The gathered data was analyzed by means of one- way variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Independent T-test. Results: The highest Giardicidal effect of Asafoetida ethanol extract was 100% at 37°C, belonging to 20 mg/ml and in the 4th hour after experiment, while the maximum Giardicidal effect of Asafoetida aqueous extract was 57.23% at the same temperature and with the same concentration, in the 5th hour. There was a significant difference between Giardicidal effect of ethanol and water extracts with all concentrations and at different whiles and temperatures (P<0.005. Giardicidal effect of both extracts significantly increased due to rising the concentration, time and temperature (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Ethanol and aqueous extracts of asafetida have in-vitro Giardicidal effect on Giardia lamblia cysts. Ethanol extract has more Giardicidal effect.

  7. Field portable mobile phone based fluorescence microscopy for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water samples

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Gorocs, Zoltan; McLeod, Euan; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that causes an intestinal infection, known as giardiasis, and it is found not only in countries with inadequate sanitation and unsafe water but also streams and lakes of developed countries. Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of this pathogen is important for monitoring of drinking water. Here we present a cost-effective and field portable mobile-phone based fluorescence microscopy platform designed for automated detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in large volume water samples (i.e., 10 ml) to be used in low-resource field settings. This fluorescence microscope is integrated with a disposable water-sampling cassette, which is based on a flow-through porous polycarbonate membrane and provides a wide surface area for fluorescence imaging and enumeration of the captured Giardia cysts on the membrane. Water sample of interest, containing fluorescently labeled Giardia cysts, is introduced into the absorbent pads that are in contact with the membrane in the cassette by capillary action, which eliminates the need for electrically driven flow for sample processing. Our fluorescence microscope weighs ~170 grams in total and has all the components of a regular microscope, capable of detecting individual fluorescently labeled cysts under light-emitting-diode (LED) based excitation. Including all the sample preparation, labeling and imaging steps, the entire measurement takes less than one hour for a sample volume of 10 ml. This mobile phone based compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform together with its machine learning based cyst counting interface is easy to use and can even work in resource limited and field settings for spatio-temporal monitoring of water quality.

  8. The application of on-chip optofluidic microscopy for imaging Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts.

    Lee, Lap Man; Cui, Xiquan; Yang, Changhuei

    2009-10-01

    The optofluidic microscope (OFM) is a lensless, low-cost and highly compact on-chip device that can enable high-resolution microscopy imaging. The OFM performs imaging by flowing/scanning the target objects across a slanted hole array; by measuring the time-varying light transmission changes through the holes, we can then render images of the target objects at a resolution that is comparable to the holes' size. This paper reports the adaptation of the OFM for imaging Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts, a disease-causing parasite species that is commonly found in poor-quality water sources. We also describe our study of the impact of pressure-based flow and DC electrokinetic-based flow in controlling the flow motion of Giardia cysts--rotation-free translation of the parasite is important for good OFM image acquisition. Finally, we report the successful microscopy imaging of both Giardia trophozoites and cysts with an OFM that has a focal plane resolution of 0.8 microns. PMID:19365730

  9. A real-time RT-PCR method to detect viable Giardia lamblia cysts in environmental waters.

    Baque, Robert H; Gilliam, Amy O; Robles, Liza D; Jakubowski, Walter; Slifko, Theresa R

    2011-05-01

    Currently, USEPA Method 1623 is the standard assay used for simultaneous detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in various water matrices. However, the method is unable to distinguish between species, genotype, or to assess viability. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to address the shortcomings of USEPA Method 1623 by developing a novel molecular-based method that can assess viability of Giardia cysts in environmental waters and identify genotypes that pose a human health threat (assemblage groups A and B). Primers and TaqMan() probes were designed to target the beta-giardin gene in order to discriminate among species and assemblages. Viability was determined by detection of de-novo mRNA synthesis after heat induction. The beta-giardin primer/probe sets were able to detect and differentiate between Giardia lamblia assemblages A and B, and did not detect Giardia muris (mouse species) or G. lamblia assemblages C, D, E and F (non-human), with the exception of Probe A which did detect G. lamblia assemblage F DNA. Additionally, DNA or cDNA of other waterborne organisms were not detected, suggesting that the method is specific to Giardia assemblages. Assay applicability was demonstrated by detection of viable G. lamblia cysts in spiked (assemblage B) and unspiked (assemblage A and B) reclaimed water samples. PMID:21501854

  10. Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis ▿ †

    Keserue, Hans-Anton; Füchslin, Hans Peter; Egli, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is an important waterborne pathogen and is among the most common intestinal parasites of humans worldwide. Its fecal-oral transmission leads to the presence of cysts of this pathogen in the environment, and so far, quantitative rapid screening methods are not available for various matrices, such as surface waters, wastewater, or food. Thus, it is necessary to establish methods that enable reliable rapid detection of a single cyst in 10 to 100 liters of drinking water. Conventi...

  11. New Method Using Sedimentation and Immunomagnetic Separation for Isolation and Enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts

    Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the isolation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts from biosolid samples has been developed that utilizes sedimentation and immunomagnetic separation. The method was used to recover stained cysts and oocysts (spike organisms) from primary settled sewage sludge, anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and bovine manure. Recovery efficiencies associated with this method were approximately 40 to 60% and were significantly greater than those associated with s...

  12. Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro.

    Golami, Shirzad; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Mousavi, Parisa; Marhaba, Zahra; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic cosmopolitan disease that the rate of infection in developing countries is considerable. This infection directly is associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. Reinfection and drug resistance are two major problems in endemic areas. Recently, researchers are concentrating on herbal drugs as a proper solution. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. G. lamblia cysts were prepared from faces of giardiasis patients from different hospitals of Mazandaran Medical University. Four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of chloroformic extract of A. annua were utilized for 1, 5, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of G. lamblia cysts was confirmed by 0.1 % Eosin staining. Cyst and trophozoite contact (intermix) of G. lamblia with extract of A. annua with variant concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 1 and 180 min caused following cyst and trophozoite elimination rates: (67, 69, 71 and 73 %), (65, 67, 67 and 72 %), (94, 96, 97 and 99 %) and (100, 100, 100 and 100 %), respectively. Authors from the current investigation draw a conclusion that chloroformic extract of A. annua has the ability to eliminate G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites in vitro. PMID:27065604

  13. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF MONGREL DOGS WITH 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' CYSTS AND CULTURED TROPHOZOITES

    In light of recent epidemiologic data implicating wild and domestic animals in the transmission of giardiasis, a study was undertaken to determine whether mongrel dogs could be infected with Giardia lamblia. After careful screening by stool examination (a minimum of six stools ex...

  14. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  15. Evaluation of a tangential-flow multiple-filter technique for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water.

    Isaac-Renton, J L; Fung, C P; Lochan, A

    1986-01-01

    A system of tangential-flow filtration was evaluated for use in the detection of Giardia cysts in drinking water. This method was more sensitive in recovering cysts than a frequently used wound-orlon system of through-filtration.

  16. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria; Sousa, Maria; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium s...

  17. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques; Barreiros Juliana Teixeira; Papp Karina Maria; Steindel Mário; Simões Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Barardi Célia Regina Monte

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA), was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS...

  18. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite. PMID:26072999

  19. Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia

    Hanevik, Kurt; Bakken, R.; Brattbakk, Hans-Richard; Saghaug, Christina Skår; Langeland, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Clinical isolates from protozoan parasites such as Giardia lamblia are at present practically impossible to culture. By using simple cyst purification methods, we show that Giardia whole genome sequencing of clinical stool samples is possible. Immunomagnetic separation after sucrose gradient flotation gave superior results compared to sucrose gradient flotation alone. The method enables detailed analysis of a wide range of genes of interest for genotyping, virulence and drug resistance.

  20. Binding of cholera toxin to Giardia lamblia.

    McCardell, B. A.; Madden, J. M.; Stanfield, J T; Tall, B D; Stephens, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Binding of cholera toxin to Giardia lamblia was demonstrated by two slightly different methods: an immunofluorescence technique using antibody to cholera toxin and anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, and a one-step fluorescence method in which G. lamblia was incubated with the B subunit of cholera toxin conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate.

  1. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies.

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria Lusa; Sousa, Maria C; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 were studied by FISH and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated MAbs. Eighteen percent of the fecal samples parasitologically positive for G. lamblia presented viable and nonviable cysts, and 5% of those positive for Cryptosporidium spp. presented viable and nonviable oocysts. Of the 18 water supply samples analyzed, 6 (33%) presented Giardia spp. viable and nonviable cysts and 2 (11%) presented viable and nonviable Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. G. lamblia identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene in the fecal and water samples found positive by FISH and FITC-conjugated MAbs. C. parvum and Cryptosporidium muris were identified, by PCR and sequencing of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene, in seven and one water samples, respectively. Our results confirm that this technique enables simultaneous visualization, species-specific identification, and viability determination of the organisms present in human fecal and water supply samples. PMID:16261356

  2. EFFECT OF HALOGENS ON 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of chlorine and other disinfecting agents on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. The agents studied included free residual chlorine and six different methods recommended for emergency disinfection of small quantities of water...

  3. PURE CULTURE METHOD: GIARDIA LAMBLIA FROM DIFFERENT STOOL SAMPLES

    H.A YOUSEFI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.
    Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool samples by use of floating of a four - layer of sucrose method. The cysts were transfered to an inducing solution. Subsequently, they were cultured in a modified culture medium (TYIS-33. Following excystation of trophozoite and its multiplication, the parasite was caltured and purified.
    Findings. Excitation of trophozoite was observed in 40 samples (80 percent from which 22 samples (55 percent yielded pure culture. The doubling time was approximately 13hr and the peak of parasite was observed between third and fourth days.
    Conclusion. The proliferation and growth rate of Giardia lamblia have enabled us to use this method widely. Cystein and ascorbic acid which are present in the induction solution, have a key role in excystation of trophozoite. Purification and passage of samples has facilitated the culture of this parasite in vitro. Therefore this method has yielded better results in comparison with other studies. This is probably due to a decrease in the amount of bovine bile or using different strains of Giardia lamblia in the present study.

  4. Giardia lamblia and Helicobater pylori Coinfection

    R Shafie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two flagellate microorganisms that grow in duodenum and stom­ach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of them in patients with dyspepsia and other GI disorders. "nMethods: In this cross-sectional study, co-infection of above-mentioned agents was investigated in a group of 130 patients [me­dian age of 40 yr (range=11-79 including 76 males (58.8%] with dyspepsia using three methods of duodenal aspiration sam­ple, duodenal biopsy samples and evaluation of stool samples."nResults: : From 105 patients (59 males, 46 females, median age 40 years, range 11-79 entering this study from 3 hospitals, 4 patients (3.8% had G. lamblia and 61 patients (58% had H. pylori. All 4 patients infected by Giardia had also H. pylori infec­tion. Tenesmus (3 out of 4 patients was the most common symptom in patients with H. pylori infection (48 out of 61 pa­tients was reflux. Other symptoms in patients infected with both organisms (4 patients included diarrhea (2 cases, weight loss (2 cases, and loss of appetite (1 case but no report of vomiting."nConclusion: In patients co-infected with Giardia, H.pylori differentiation by physical examination is not possible. So in those patients with positive Rapid Urease Test (RUT, stool examination for Giardia detection is recommended. In addition, met­ronidazole (broad spectrum, anti-protozoal drug can be useful in H. pylori infection.

  5. A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia

    Dilek Karakuş; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

    2009-01-01

    Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and tre...

  6. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of 3H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei

  7. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

    1987-05-01

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of /sup 3/H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei.

  8. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Semíramis Guimarães

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  9. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Guimarães Semíramis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  10. [Giardia lamblia as a rare cause of reactive arthritis].

    Krol, Arkadiusz

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis is a disease of gut, which is caused by the non-invasive (it does not pass the gut/blood barrier) protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. It infects humans and animals like beavers, dogs and cattle. Contaminated water or uncooked food is a major source of transmission and G. lamblia occurs worldwide. High-risk groups are young children, travellers and immunocompromised individuals. Good hand hygiene is necessary to prevent the transmission. PMID:25353256

  11. Gene duplication in the genome of parasitic Giardia lamblia

    Flores Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia are a group of widespread intestinal protozoan parasites in a number of vertebrates. Much evidence from G. lamblia indicated they might be the most primitive extant eukaryotes. When and how such a group of the earliest branching unicellular eukaryotes developed the ability to successfully parasitize the latest branching higher eukaryotes (vertebrates is an intriguing question. Gene duplication has long been thought to be the most common mechanism in the production of primary resources for the origin of evolutionary novelties. In order to parse the evolutionary trajectory of Giardia parasitic lifestyle, here we carried out a genome-wide analysis about gene duplication patterns in G. lamblia. Results Although genomic comparison showed that in G. lamblia the contents of many fundamental biologic pathways are simplified and the whole genome is very compact, in our study 40% of its genes were identified as duplicated genes. Evolutionary distance analyses of these duplicated genes indicated two rounds of large scale duplication events had occurred in G. lamblia genome. Functional annotation of them further showed that the majority of recent duplicated genes are VSPs (Variant-specific Surface Proteins, which are essential for the successful parasitic life of Giardia in hosts. Based on evolutionary comparison with their hosts, it was found that the rapid expansion of VSPs in G. lamblia is consistent with the evolutionary radiation of placental mammals. Conclusions Based on the genome-wide analysis of duplicated genes in G. lamblia, we found that gene duplication was essential for the origin and evolution of Giardia parasitic lifestyle. The recent expansion of VSPs uniquely occurring in G. lamblia is consistent with the increment of its hosts. Therefore we proposed a hypothesis that the increment of Giradia hosts might be the driving force for the rapid expansion of VSPs.

  12. The Study of the Multilayer Filtration Process Efficiency on Giardia lamblia Elimination in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant

    Zahra Mosaviyan; Ali-Asghar Rastegari; Saeed Abedi,

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Giardia lamblia is a waterborne highly infectious protozoan parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. The multilayer filtration is used in many applications such as turbidity removes from surface waters and Bacteria, Viruses and protozoan removes. This study was investigated in full-scale the efficiency of filtration process during water treatment that remove Giardia cyst in water at Isfahan province. Materials and methods: We used Information Collection Rule meth...

  13. Pacientes con Giardia lamblia diagnosticada por frotis duodenal / Patients with Giardia lamblia diagnosed through duodenal smear

    Hidelisa, Herrero Aguirre; Jess, Fernndez Duharte; Suleidy, Vega Sam; Jos Antonio, Candel Herrero.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectu un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 105 pacientes mayores de 15 aos con infeccin por Giardia lamblia, diagnosticada por frotis duodenal mediante endoscopia en el Servicio de Gastroenterologa del Policlnico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirrgico "Saturn [...] ino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2012, con vistas a caracterizarles. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, sntomas digestivos referidos, positividad del frotis e imagen endoscpica. Se utiliz el porcentaje como medida de resumen. Predominaron el sexo femenino (58,0 %), el grupo etario de 29-39 aos (38,0 %), la epigastralgia como sntoma principal (66,6 %) y las imgenes endoscpicas grados I y II como las ms frecuentes (68,4 y 41,3 %, respectivamente). El ndice de positividad a la giardiasis fue relevante Abstract in english A descriptive and cross sectional study of 105 patients older than 15 years with infection by Giardia lamblia, diagnosed through duodenal smear by means of endoscopy was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Teaching Provincial Clinica [...] l Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2012, with the objective of characterizing them. Among the analyzed variables there were: age, sex, referred digestive symptoms, positivity of the smear and endoscopic image. The percentage was used as summary measure. Female sex (58.0%), the age group 29-39 years (38.0%), the epigastralgia as main symptom (66.6%) and the endoscopic images grades I and II prevailed as the most frequent (68.4 and 41.3%, respectively). The positivity index for giardiasis was relevant

  14. Azasterols impair Giardia lamblia proliferation and induces encystation

    The effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth and fine structure of Giardia lamblia P1 strain cultures were analyzed. Azasterols demonstrated high efficacy in killing cells. The IC50 values for 22,26-azasterol and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol were 7 μM and 170 nM, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that azasterols induced changes in G. lamblia ultrastructure. The most significant alterations were: (a) considerable increase of the size of the peripheral vesicles, which are part of the parasite endosomal-lysosomal system; (b) appearance of autophagosomal structures; and (c) induction of differentiation, followed by an abnormal enlargement of encystation secretory vesicles. We propose that azasterols are effective chemotherapeutic drugs against Giardia lamblia in vitro and may have another target in cells besides sterol biosynthesis

  15. Ensayo inmunoenzimtico en fase slida para la deteccin de antgenos de Giardia lamblia

    DINORAH TORRES

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se normaliz un sandwich ELISA para la deteccin de antgenos de Giardia lamblia en heces humanas. Se estudiaron 175 muestras: 77 positivas, 61 negativas a quistes y/o trofozotos por el examen directo de las heces y 19 muestras positivas a otros parsitos diferentes de G. lamblia. La sensibilidad de la tcnica fue de 94,8 % y la especificidad de 98,3 %; el mtodo detecta una concentracin de antgenos de 31 ng. El procedimiento es simple, sensible y especfico, por lo que pudiera ser til para el diagnstico y en estudios epidemiolgicos.An ELISA sandwich for the detection of Giardia lamblia antigens in human faeces was standardized. 175 samples were studied: 77 positive, 61 negative to cysts and/or trophozoites by direct faeces test, and 19 positive to other parasite different from G. lamblia. The sensitivity of the technique was 94,8 % and the specificity 98,3 %. The method detects an antigen concentration of 31 ng. The procedure is simple, sensitive and specific so, it may be useful for diagnosis and in epidemiological studies.

  16. What Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia tell us about the evolution of eukaryotic diversity

    J Samuelson

    2002-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are microaerophilic protists, which have long been considered models of ancient pre-mitochondriate eukaryotes. As transitional eukaryotes, amoebae and giardia appeared to lack organelles of higher eukaryotes and to depend upon energy metabolism appropriate for anaerobic conditions, early in the history of the planet. However, our studies have shown that amoebae and giardia contain splicoeosomal introns, ras-family signal-transduction proteins, ATP-binding casettes (ABC)-family drug transporters, Golgi, and a mitochondrion-derived organelle (amoebae only). These results suggest that most of the organelles of higher eukaryotes were present in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes, and so dispute the notion of transitional eukaryotic forms. In addition, phylogenetic studies suggest many of the genes encoding the fermentation enzymes of amoebae and giardia derive from prokaryotes by lateral gene transfer (LGT). While LGT has recently been shown to be an important determinant of prokaryotic evolution, this is the first time that LGT has been shown to be an important determinant of eukaryotic evolution. Further, amoebae contain cyst wall-associated lectins, which resemble, but are distinct from lectins in the walls of insects (convergent evolution). Giardia have a novel microtubule-associated structure which tethers together pairs of nuclei during cell division. It appears then that amoebae and giardia tell us less about the origins of eukaryotes and more about the origins of eukaryotic diversity.

  17. Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection

    Hanevik Kurt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 1230 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

  18. Comparison of microscopy, rapid immunoassay, and molecular techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Maqati, Thekra N; Hussein, Mohi I; Adam, Ahmed A; Hassan, Mohamed M Abu; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2013-04-01

    Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are recognized as the most common protozoan infections in Saudi Arabia. Microscopic examination of stool samples, either direct or concentrated, for the recovery of G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites and C. parvum oocysts is still the most commonly used for the diagnosis of both parasites. We compared the conventional parasitological techniques of iodine-stained wet mount for G. lamblia and Kinyoun's acid-fast for C. parvum against ImmunoCard STAT Cryptosporidium/Giardia and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detecting the 18S rRNA gene of G. lamblia and conventional PCR detecting the same gene of C. parvum at a tertiary hospital in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Out of 148 stool samples, 19 and 12 true positives were identified for G. lamblia and C. parvum, respectively, using a composite reference standard. In this case, true positives and negatives were considered as those with at least two positive or negative results out of the three tests. Both ImmunoCard STAT! and PCR methods were more sensitive than the microscopic tests of a single stool specimen of 85.7% (CI=62.6-96.2%) and 85.7% (CI=56.2-97.5%) for G. lamblia and C. parvum, respectively. However, specificity of microscopic tests was higher than other techniques for both parasites. Although PCR seems to be most sensitive for both G. lamblia and C. parvum, its low specificity may render its superiority over other techniques. When a single stool sample is used for detection of G. lamblia and C. parvum, better results can be obtained when coupled with serological testing. Although PCR is the most sensitive method for the detection of both G. lamblia and C. parvum, its use requires attention in relation to the increased possible false positives. PMID:23411740

  19. Viability and fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in tubular anaerobic digesters.

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Trimmer, John; Izurieta, Ricardo; Cunningham, Jeffrey; Ergas, Sarina J

    2016-06-01

    In many developing countries where pathogenic diseases of animal waste origin, such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, are often prevalent, facilities are limited to treat livestock waste. However, household-scale anaerobic digesters are currently being promoted for bioenergy production from livestock manure. Since the effluent is often used as a fertilizer for food crops, it is critical to understand the effect of environmental conditions within household-scale digesters on the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. In this study, key environmental parameters affecting (oo)cyst inactivation were measured in four tubular anaerobic digesters, which are a type of household-scale digester promoted for treatment of swine waste in rural Costa Rica. Interviews and participant observations were used to understand digester operation and maintenance procedures. Ambient temperatures (21-24°C), near-neutral pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations<250mg/L and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) between 23 and 180days were observed. Laboratory (oo)cysts inactivation studies were performed in bench-scale digesters, which were maintained under conditions similar to those observed in the field. Apparent first-order inactivation rate coefficients for Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were 0.155±0.041 and 0.054±0.006day(-1), respectively. Temperature and volatile fatty acids were the main factors contributing to Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia inactivation. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the concentration of (oo)cysts in the liquid effluent of tubular digesters like those observed in Costa Rica. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the concentration of (oo)cysts in the liquid effluent of tubular digesters like those observed in Costa Rica. Two dimensionless groups can be used to predict the performance of the digesters for inactivating pathogens; both dimensionless groups depend upon the average HRT in the digester. This is the first study to combine mathematical modeling with qualitative analysis, field and laboratory studies to predict the concentrations of (oo)cysts in tubular digester effluents. PMID:26950630

  20. Giardiavirus-resistant Giardia lamblia lacks a virus receptor on the cell membrane surface.

    Sepp, T.; Wang, A. L.; WANG, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus that infects specifically the parasitic protozoan G. lamblia. Among the many collected strains of G. lamblia, a few turn out to be highly resistant to the virus infection. Two of these strains, Ac and JH, were subjected to electroporation with the RNA from GLV-infected G. lamblia WB strain. Subsequent studies indicated the presence of GLV double-stranded RNA and GLV protein in the electroporated and propagated cells...

  1. Sensitive and rapid detection of Giardia lamblia infection in pet dogs using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Li, Jie; Wang, Peiyuan; Zhang, Aiguo; Zhang, Ping; Alsarakibi, Muhamd; Li, Guoqing

    2013-04-01

    Giardia lamblia is recognized as one of the most prevalent parasites in dogs. The present study aimed to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and specific detection of G. lamblia from dogs. The fecal samples were collected and prepared for microscopic analysis, and then the genomic DNA was extracted directly from purified cysts. The concentration of DNA samples of G. lamblia were diluted by 10-fold serially ranging from 10(-1) to 10(-5) ng/µl for LAMP and PCR assays. The LAMP assay allows the amplification to be finished within 60 min under isothermal conditions of 63℃ by employing 6 oligonucleotide primers designed based on G. lamblia elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α) gene sequence. Our tests showed that the specific amplification products were obtained only with G. lamblia, while no amplification products were detected with DNA of other related protozoans. Sensitivity evaluation indicated that the LAMP assay was sensitive 10 times more than PCR. It is concluded that LAMP is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific DNA amplification technique for detection of G. lamblia, which has implications for effective control and prevention of giardiasis. PMID:23710094

  2. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers Detecção de anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia em crianças de creches

    Semíramis Guimarães

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.OBJETIVOS: Detectar anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia entre crianças atendidas em creches e estimar a freqüência de infecção por Giardia lamblia em área endêmica. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas três amostras de fezes de cada uma das 147 crianças de três creches da rede municipal de Botucatu, SP, com idade variando de 0 a 6 anos, e as amostras foram processadas pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea e flutuação pelo sulfato de zinco. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas da polpa digital, coletadas em papel de filtro e testadas pelos métodos de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e de reação imunoenzimática (Elisa para pesquisa de IgG anti-Giardia. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: De um total de 147 crianças, 93 (63,3% apresentaram cistos de Giardia nas fezes. Dos 147 eluatos testados, 93 (63,3% e 100 (68% foram positivos para Giardia em IFI e em Elisa, respectivamente. A sensibilidade de IFI foi de 82% e de Elisa, 72%. Contudo, Elisa foi menos específica (39% do que IFI (70%. A imunofluorescência indireta apresentou maior concordância com o exame de fezes do que Elisa.

  3. Proteomic analysis of the ventral disc of Giardia lamblia

    Lourenço Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia is a multiflagellated protozoan that inhabits the small intestine of vertebrates, causing giardiasis. To colonize the small intestine, the trophozoites form of the parasite remains attached to intestinal epithelial cells by means of cytoskeletal elements that form a structure known as the ventral disc. Previous studies have shown that the ventral disc is made of tubulin and giardins. Results To obtain further information on the composition of the ventral disc, we developed a new protocol and evaluated the purity of the isolation by transmission electron microscopy. Using 1D- and 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry, we identified proteins with functions associated with the disc. In addition to finding tubulin and giardin, proteins known to be associated with the ventral disc, we also identified proteins annotated in the Giardia genome, but whose function was previously unknown. Conclusions The isolation of the ventral disc shown in this work, compared to previously published protocols, proved to be more efficient. Proteomic analysis showed the presence of several proteins whose further characterization may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the attachment of the protozoan to epithelial cells.

  4. Kinetics of lymphocyte subpopulation in intestinal mucosa of protein deficient Giardia lamblia infected mice.

    Upadhyay, P; Ganguly, N.K.; Walia, B. N.; Mahajan, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetics of gut lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in normal and malnourished groups of mice infected with Giardia lamblia. The maximum parasite load was observed at second, third, and first week of postinfection in normal controls, moderate (8%) and severe (3%) protein deficient groups respectively. The number of G lamblia trophozoite in 3% protein deficient group was low compared with control groups. A significant increase in T cell population of intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina p...

  5. Chromosome-size variation in Giardia lamblia: the role of rDNA repeats.

    Adam, R D

    1992-01-01

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites contain at least five sets of chromosomes that have been categorized by chromosome-specific probes. Pulsed field separations of G. lamblia chromosomes also demonstrated minor bands in some isolates which stained less intensely with ethidium than the major chromosomal bands. Two of the minor bands of the E11 clone of the ISR isolate, MBa and MBb, were similar to each other and to chromosomal band I by hybridization to total chromosomal DNA and by hybridization of s...

  6. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba spp from river waters in Iran.

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Ehsan; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-12-01

    In this study, DNA from 55 surface and river water samples, which were collected from some water sources of Tehran and the Guilan Province, Iran, were extracted and examined for Entamoeba spp. and Giardia lamblia by PCR and genotyping. Twenty-seven samples, which were concentrated using the immunomagnetic separation technology (IMS) method, were examined for Giardia alone. Twenty-eight samples, which were concentrated using the sucrose flotation (SF) method, were examined for both Giardia and Entamoeba species. The results showed that 27/55 (17/27 and 10/28) (49 %), 4 /28 (14.28 %) and 3/28 (10.7 %) of the samples were positive for Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba spp and mixed infections (Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp.), respectively. Sixteen out of 55 samples were negative. Entamoeba genus-specific PCR primers in single-round PCR were used to differentiate between the Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii). With respect to the 7 samples that were positive for Entamoeba, (14.28 %) 4 out of 28 were positive for E. moshkovskii, (7.14 %), 2 out of 28 were positive for E. histolytica and (3.57 %) 1 out of 28 was positive for E. dispar. Genus-specific PCR primers in a semi-nested PCR assay was performed to genotype Giardia species. Of the 27 samples that were positive for Giardia, 10 samples were sequences. All 10 successfully sequenced samples contained assemblage B of Giardia lamblia.This is first study to investigate the G. lamblia genotypes in the water supply of the Tehran and Guilan provinces, and it is the first study to investigate Entamoeba species in the water supplies of Iran. The investigated river water supplies, which are used for agriculture, camping and animal farming, were heavily contaminated by the human pathogenic Entamoeba and Giardia parasites. There is a potential risk of waterborne outbreaks in humans and animals. PMID:26350378

  7. Effect of Giardia lamblia Infection on the Cognitive Function of School children

    F Partovi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between helminthic parasitic infection and cognitive function has long been recognized, however there are few reports about Giardia lamblia infection. This paper describes a study about the effect of G. lamblia infection on the cognitive function. Methods: One hundred thirty two children infected with G. lamblia from Robat Karim south of western Tehran, Iran were compared with 150 children without any parasitic infection. These two groups were identical in socioeconomic and nutritional status. Cognitive function was assessed using, three tests from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children and one subset of the Clinical Evolution of Language Function. Results: Comparison of two groups revealed that uninfected children improved significantly more than children who had G. lamblia infection in the tests of Fluency (P< 0.02 and Digit-span Forwards/ Backwards (P< 0.004. Conclusion: Regular stool examination is suggested in areas with low hygienic conditions, since G. lamblia infection might be present without any clinical manifestation.

  8. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in effluent from sewage treatment plant from eastern Poland.

    Sroka, Jacek; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia (synonyms: Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis) are emerging protozoa causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. These parasites can pose a serious threat to immunocompromised people, for whom the symptoms are more severe and may include abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea, nausea, headaches, malaise, and fever. One of the sources of these parasites can be treated wastewater from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). Samples of treated wastewater (effluent), each of 10 L volume, were collected from 13 municipal WTPs located in eastern Poland. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were separated by the immunomagnetic method. The presence and/or concentration of protozoan (oo)cysts in effluent samples were determined by direct immunofluorescent microscopy, nested PCR and Real Time PCR. Viability of (oo)cysts was determined by double-staining with the use of Live/Dead BacLight kit (Invitrogen). Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 8 WTPs (61.5%) and Giardia spp. cysts in 11 WTPs (84.6%) by microscopic analysis. Both pathogens were detected in samples from 7 WTPs. Median concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in 13 examined samples were 2.2/L and 6.6/L, respectively, while mean concentrations were 28.5/L and 113.6/L, respectively. In positive samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts concentrations ranged from 0.4 - 154.1 oocysts per litre, and Giardia cysts concentrations ranged from 0.7 - 660 cysts per litre. By nested PCR, Giardia DNA was detected in 4 samples of the 13 examined, (30.8%) while Cryptosporidium DNA was never detected. In Real Time PCR, positive results for Giardia were obtained in 5 samples (38.5%) and in none of the samples for Cryptosporidium, with the exception of one equivocal result. Viable (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 3 out of 4 samples examined, in the ranges of 12.5 - 60% and 50 - 100% of total (oo)cysts, respectively. In view of our preliminary study, the presence of oocysts and cysts (largely viable) in effluents from WTPs imply a risk of transmission of waterborne protozoan parasites to humans. Therefore, additional wastewater purification procedures are necessary. PMID:25000844

  9. Human Memory CD4+ T Cell Immune Responses against Giardia lamblia.

    Saghaug, Christina Skår; Sørnes, Steinar; Peirasmaki, Dimitra; Svärd, Staffan; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia may cause severe prolonged diarrheal disease or pass unnoticed as an asymptomatic infection. T cells seem to play an important role in the immune response to Giardia infection, and memory responses may last years. Recently, TH17 responses have been found in three animal studies of Giardia infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the human CD4(+) T cell responses to Giardia. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 21 returning travelers with recent or ongoing giardiasis and 12 low-risk healthy controls and stimulated in vitro with Giardia lamblia proteins. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-10, and IL-4 was measured in CD4(+) effector memory (EM) T cells after 24 h by flow cytometry. After 6 days of culture, activation and proliferation were measured by flow cytometry, while an array of inflammatory cytokine levels in supernatants were measured with multiplex assays. We found the number of IL-17A-producing CD4(+) EM T cells, as well as that of cells simultaneously producing both IL-17A and TNF-α, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals after 24 h of antigen stimulation. In supernatants of PBMCs stimulated with Giardia antigens for 6 days, we found inflammation-associated cytokines, including 1L-17A, as well as CD4(+) T cell activation and proliferation, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals. We conclude that symptomatic Giardia infection in humans induces a CD4(+) EM T cell response of which IL-17A production seems to be an important component. PMID:26376930

  10. Three-Dimensional Structure of a Protozoal Double-Stranded RNA Virus That Infects the Enteric Pathogen Giardia lamblia

    Janssen, Mandy E.W.; Takagi, Yuko; Parent, Kristin N.; Cardone, Giovanni; Nibert, Max L; Baker, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small, nonenveloped, nonsegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting Giardia lamblia, the most common protozoan pathogen of the human intestine and a major agent of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. GLV (genus Giardiavirus) is a member of family Totiviridae, along with several other groups of protozoal or fungal viruses, including Leishmania RNA viruses and Trichomonas vaginalis viruses. Interestingly, GLV is more closely related than other Toti...

  11. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.

    Agnieszka Kolasa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection.

  12. Age-related rate of seropositivity of antibody to Giardia lamblia in four diverse populations.

    Miotti, P. G.; Gilman, R. H.; Santosham, M.; Ryder, R. W.; Yolken, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    We used a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay to determine the age-specific rates of acquisition of antibody to Giardia lamblia in populations living in an inner city area of Baltimore, Md., on an Apache Indian reservation in Arizona, in a rural area of Panama, and in an urban area of Peru (Lima). Antibody to G. lamblia was found in a portion of the adults living in all of the study areas. Similar prevalence rates and quantitative levels of antibody were found in the adults living in Arizona (44%)...

  13. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  14. Tetracyclines as antiparasitic agents: lipophilic derivatives are highly active against Giardia lamblia in vitro.

    Edlind, T D

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of the inhibitory activities of different tetracyclines have been reported for Plasmodium falciparum but no other parasites. The in vitro response of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia to six tetracyclines in current use was determined. In addition, the experimental drug thiacycline (EMD 33,330) was evaluated. Three groups were discerned, with representative 50 and 90% inhibitory concentrations of, respectively, 36 and 130 (tetracycline), 6.4 and 22 (doxycycline), and 1.8 and...

  15. Detection and Genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by Oligonucleotide Microarray

    Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J; Stenger, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. In this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and...

  16. Long Double-stranded RNA Produces Specific Gene Downregulation in Giardia lamblia

    Rivero, Maria R.; Kulakova, Liudmila; Maria C. Touz

    2010-01-01

    In many eukaryotes, the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into cells triggers the degradation of mRNAs through a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism called RNA interference or RNAi. In this study, we found that endogenous long-dsRNA was substantially more effective at producing interference than endogenous or exogenous short-dsRNA expression in Giardia lamblia. The effects of this interference were not evident in the highly expressed proteins tubulin or the stage-specific c...

  17. Incidence of Giardia lamblia Subspecies by PCR-RFLP in Stool Specimens of Hospitalized Children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

    Khosro Hazrati Tappeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent intestinal flagellate protozoa that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts causing severe intestinal disorder in children.This study was performed to determine subspecies of G.lamblia by the PCR-RFLP method, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase(gdhlocus, in hospitalized children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province,Iran and determining the infection transformational storages in this area.Overall, 720 stool specimens were collected from the hospitalized children, 34 samples were positive and Giardia cysts were detected under the microscope. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method and then washed with sterile distilled water to remove effectively the PCR inhibitors. Genomic DNA of G. lamblia isolates was extracted by freeze-thaw cycles followed by phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. The single step PCR-RFLP assay was used to differentiate the assemblages between A and B, which were found in humans. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified, and then for detection of subspecies, specific restriction RsaI and BspLI enzymes were used.Totally 34 samples were positive in terms of Giardia cyst out of 720 examined samples microscopically, so the parasite spread rate is reported 4.72%. Analysis PCR-RFLP on these samples revealed that 28 samples (93.3% have the genotype BIII and 2 samples (6.7% belong to the subgroup BIV.PCR-RFLP is a proper analytical method for determining the genotype among parasite types, using the glutamate dehydrogenizes zone's genes. Based on the results, an animal origin of infection cycle is suggested.

  18. Sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression of Giardia lamblia α-18 giardin gene.

    Wu, Sheng; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Hu, Wei; Pan, Weida; Shi, Xianli; Tan, Liping; Song, Meiran; Li, Guoqing

    2016-03-01

    To study the genetic variation and prokaryotic expression of α18 giardin gene of Giardia lamblia zoonotic assemblage A and host-specific assemblage F, the α18 genes were amplified from G. lamblia assemblages A and F by PCR and sequenced. The PCR product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+) and the positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) strain for the expression. The expressed α18 giardin fusion protein was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis, and purified by Ni-Agarose resin. The putative sequence of α18 giardin amino acid was analyzed by bioinformatics software. Results showed that the α18 giardin gene was 861bp in length, encoding 286 amino acids; it was 100% homologous between human-derived and dog-derived G. lamblia assemblage A, but it was 86.8% homologous with G. lamblia assemblage F (cat-derived). Giardin α18 was about 36kDa in molecular weight, with good reactivity. Prediction based on in silico analyses: it had hydrophobicity, without signal peptide and transmembrane domain, and contained 11 alpha regions, 13 beta sheets, 1 beta turn and 7 random coils in secondary structure. The above information would lay the foundation for research about the subcellular localization and biological function of α18 giardin in G. lamblia. PMID:26656833

  19. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

    Larson, Eric T.; Kim, Jessica E.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A., E-mail: merritt@u.washington.edu [Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa, (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine.

  20. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramn; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48?h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8??7.1?g/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8??2.3?g/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2??34.7?g/mL), spring (IC50 102.5??15.3?g/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0??3.1?g/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1??0.9?g/mL (222.1??3.2?M)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7??20.7?g/mL (461.8??76.3?M)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6??24.8?g/mL (494.9??82.2?M)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4??26.0?g/mL (680.6??101.7?M)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the in vitro growth of G. lamblia trophozoites. PMID:26008200

  1. A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope

    Alberto J. Solari

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

  2. Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia

    Jairo Ivo dos Santos; Cidônia de Lourdes Vituri

    1996-01-01

    Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients exclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin concentration, a...

  3. Detection of a Giardia lamblia coproantigen by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil Avaliação do ProSpeT Giardia ensaio em microplaca na detecção de coproantígenos de Giardia lamblia, em fezes de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

    Míriam Oliveira e ROCHA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that fecal examination to detect Giardia lamblia cysts or trophozoites produces a high percentage of false-negative results. A commercially available immunoenzymatic assay (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay, Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS to detect G. lamblia specific coproantigen was evaluated for the first time in Brazil. A total of 90 specimens were tested. Each specimen was first tested as unpreserved stool, and then it was preserved in 10% Formalin to be tested 2 months later. The assay was able to identify all the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 100.0% by visual or spectrophotometric examination in the unpreserved specimens and was negative in 57 of the 60 patients without G. lamblia (specificity = 95.0%. The assay identified 27 of the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 90.0% and was negative in 59 of the 60 negatives (specificity = 98.3% in the preserved stools according to both readings. A marked difference was observed in the optical densities in both groups, preserved and unpreserved stools, when the G. lamblia-positive specimens were compared to the negative or positive for other intestinal parasites than G. lamblia. The assay seems a good alternative for giardiasis diagnosis, especially when the fecal examination was repeatedly negative and the patient presents giardiasislike symptoms.O diagnóstico da giardíase através da pesquisa de trofozoítos ou cistos do parasita nas fezes apresenta uma elevada percentagem de resultados falso-negativos. No presente trabalho foi feita, pela primeira vez no Brasil, uma avaliação do ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca (Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS, utilizando amostras fecais de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Um total de 90 amostras fecais foram testadas, primeiramente como fezes frescas e, então, preservadas em formalina 10%, para um novo teste 2 meses após. Com as amostras frescas, o ensaio imunoenzimático, através de leitura visual ou no espectrofotômetro, foi capaz de identificar todos os 30 pacientes positivos no exame parasitológico de fezes (EPF e foi negativo em 57 dos 60 pacientes sem G. lamblia (sensibilidade = 100,0%, especificidade = 95,0%. Com as amostras preservadas em formalina 10% durante 2 meses, o teste identificou 27 das 30 amostras fecais positivas (sensibilidade = 90,0% e foi negativo em 59 das 60 amostras negativas no EPF (especificidade = 98,3%. Comparando-se as leituras das densidades óticas nas amostras fecais positivas para G. lamblia com as amostras com EPF negativo ou contendo outros parasitas intestinais que não a G. lamblia, foi observada uma nítida diferença, tanto nas fezes frescas como nas fezes conservadas em formalina 10% durante 2 meses. O ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca mostrou-se uma boa alternativa para o diagnóstico da G. lamblia, especialmente para aqueles casos em que o EPF foi repetidamente negativo e o paciente apresenta sintomas compatíveis com a giardíase.

  4. Effects of the extract and glycoalkaloids of Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill on Giardia lamblia trophozoites

    Gilmarcio Z Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solanum lycocarpum has great importance for food and medicinal traditional use. Recently, it was also evidenced that extracts of S. lycocarpum St. Hill (Solanaceae and its glycoalkaloids, solamargine (Sg and solasonine (Sn, are active against flagellated protozoa. Objective: The aim was to assess the effects of the extract of S. lycocarpum and its glycoalkaloids, Sn, and Sg, on Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Materials and Methods: A crude extract (96% ethanol (EB of fruits of S. lycocarpum was prepared and fractionated by partition with 40% ethanol and n-hexane: Ethyl acetate. Glycoalkaloids, Sn, and Sg were recognized in the ethanol fraction (EF and further isolated by column chromatography. EB, EF, the isolated Sn and Sg and a mixture (1:1 of both glycoalkaloids were tested on cultures of G. lamblia trophozoites and macrophages. Results: EB, EF and glycoalkaloids of S. lycocarpum showed activity against Giardia (95.0 < Inhibitory concentration 50 [IC 50 ] ≤120.3 μg/mL. The mixture of glycoalkaloids (1:1 was more active (IC 50 = 13.23 μg/mL than each one individually, suggesting a synergic effect. Moreover, the mixture is nontoxic to macrophage cells. Conclusion: Results are optimistic concerning the anti-Giardia potential of the mixture Sn + Sg. Further studies, in vitro and in vivo, will be required to consolidate the usefulness of the mixture of Sn + Sg in view of a new therapeutic strategy for giardiasis.

  5. Α1-giardin based live heterologous vaccine protects against Giardia lamblia infection in a murine model.

    Jenikova, Gabriela; Hruz, Petr; Andersson, Mattias K; Tejman-Yarden, Noa; Ferreira, Patricia C D; Andersen, Yolanda S; Davids, Barbara J; Gillin, Frances D; Svärd, Staffan G; Curtiss, Roy; Eckmann, Lars

    2011-11-28

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, yet preventive medical strategies are not available. A crude veterinary vaccine has been licensed for cats and dogs, but no defined human vaccine is available. We tested the vaccine potential of three conserved antigens previously identified in human and murine giardiasis, α1-giardin, α-enolase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase, in a murine model of G. lamblia infection. Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains were constructed that stably expressed each antigen, maintained colonization capacity, and sustained total attenuation in the host. Oral administration of the vaccine strains induced antigen-specific serum IgG, particularly IgG(2A), and mucosal IgA for α1-giardin and α-enolase, but not for ornithine carbamoyl transferase. Immunization with the α1-giardin vaccine induced significant protection against subsequent G. lamblia challenge, which was further enhanced by boosting with cholera toxin or sublingual α1-giardin administration. The α-enolase vaccine afforded no protection. Analysis of α1-giardin from divergent assemblage A and B isolates of G. lamblia revealed >97% amino acid sequence conservation and immunological cross-reactivity, further supporting the potential utility of this antigen in vaccine development. Together. These results indicate that α1-giardin is a suitable candidate antigen for a vaccine against giardiasis. PMID:22001876

  6. Simultaneous Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Fecal Samples by Using Multiplex Real-Time PCR

    Verweij, Jaco J; Blangé, Roy A.; Templeton, Kate; Schinkel, Janke; Brienen, Eric A. T.; van Rooyen, Marianne A. A.; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polderman, Anton M.

    2004-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium are three of the most important diarrhea-causing parasitic protozoa. For many years, microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the “gold standard” for diagnosis of E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum infections. Recently, more specific and sensitive alternative methods (PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and direct fluorescent-antibody assay) have been introduced for all three of these parasitic in...

  7. Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro

    Aimée Echevarría; Dinorah Torres Idavoy

    2001-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcenta...

  8. Cryopreservation of Giardia lamblia with dimethyl sulfoxide using a Dewar flask.

    Lyman, J R; Marchin, G L

    1984-04-01

    This study examined the effect of varying freezing conditions on the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia (Portland-1 strain) using a constant vacuum in a Dewar flask and an ethanol bath to regulate the cooling rate. The cryopreservation of the trophozoite stage was investigated. Dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), the cryoprotective agent of choice, was added directly to Giardia growth medium. Me2SO toxicity assays were conducted on those concentrations used in the freezing protocol. The results of this study indicated a 6.5% (v/v) Me2SO concentration yields a 90% survival based upon organism motility. A 30.9% cell viability was obtained by freezing in medium without a cryoprotective agent. Recommendations are offered concerning alternate viability criteria. PMID:6713946

  9. Significantly Diverged Did2/Vps46 Orthologues from the Protozoan Parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Dutta, Somnath; Saha, Nabanita; Ray, Atrayee; Sarkar, Srimonti

    2015-09-01

    The endosomal compartment performs extensive sorting functions in most eukaryotes, some of which are accomplished with the help of the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. This pathway depends on the sequential action of complexes, termed the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). After successful sorting, the crucial step of recycling of the ESCRT complex components requires the activation of the AAA ATPase Vps4, and Did2/Vps46 plays an important role in this activation event. The endolysosomal system of the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia appears to lack complexity, for instead of having distinct early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes, there are only peripheral vesicles (PVs) that are located close to the cell periphery. Additionally, comparative genomics studies predict the presence of only a subset of the ESCRT components in G. lamblia. Thus, it is possible that the MVB pathway is not functional in G. lamblia. To address this issue, the present study focused on the two putative orthologues of Did2/Vps46 of G. lamblia as their function is likely to be pivotal for a functional MVB sorting pathway. In spite of considerable sequence divergence, compared to other eukaryotic orthologues, the proteins encoded by both these genes have the ability to function as Did2/Vps46 in the context of the yeast ESCRT pathway. Furthermore, they also localized to the cellular periphery, where PVs are also located. Thus, this report is the first to provide experimental evidence indicating the presence of a functional ESCRT component in G. lamblia by characterizing the putative Did2/Vps46 orthologues. PMID:26068593

  10. An Improved PCR-RFLP Assay for Detection and Genotyping of Asymptomatic Giardia lamblia Infection in a Resource-Poor Setting.

    Hawash, Yoursry; Ghonaim, M M; Al-Shehri, S S

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory workers, in resource-poor countries, still consider PCR detection of Giardia lamblia more costly and more time-consuming than the classical parasitological techniques. Based on 2 published primers, an in-house one-round touchdown PCR-RFLP assay was developed. The assay was validated with an internal amplification control included in reactions. Performance of the assay was assessed with DNA samples of various purities, 91 control fecal samples with various parasite load, and 472 samples of unknown results. Two cysts per reaction were enough for PCR detection by the assay with exhibited specificity (Sp) and sensitivity (Se) of 100% and 93%, respectively. Taking a published small subunit rRNA reference PCR test results (6%; 29/472) as a nominated gold standard, G. lamblia was identified in 5.9% (28/472), 5.2%, (25/472), and 3.6% (17/472) by PCR assay, RIDA(®) Quick Giardia antigen detection test (R-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany), and iodine-stained smear microscopy, respectively. The percent agreements (kappa values) of 99.7% (0.745), 98.9% (0.900), and 97.7% (0.981) were exhibited between the assay results and that of the reference PCR, immunoassay, and microscopy, respectively. Restriction digestion of the 28 Giardia-positive samples revealed genotype A pattern in 12 and genotype B profile in 16 samples. The PCR assay with the described format and exhibited performance has a great potential to be adopted in basic clinical laboratories as a detection tool for G. lamblia especially in asymptomatic infections. This potential is increased more in particular situations where identification of the parasite genotype represents a major requirement as in epidemiological studies and infection outbreaks. PMID:26951972

  11. Development of a Method for Detection of Giardia duodenalis Cysts on Lettuce and for Simultaneous Analysis of Salad Products for the Presence of Giardia Cysts and Cryptosporidium Oocysts▿

    Cook, N.; Nichols, R.A.B.; Wilkinson, N; Paton, C. A.; Barker, K; Smith, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    We report a method for detecting Giardia duodenalis cysts on lettuce, which we subsequently use to examine salad products for the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The method is based on four basic steps: extraction of cysts from the foodstuffs, concentration of the extract and separation of the cysts from food materials, staining of the cysts to allow their visualization, and identification of cysts by microscopy. The concentration and separation steps are performed by c...

  12. Effects of essential oils on the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Machado, Marisa; Sousa, Maria do Cu; Salgueiro, Lgia; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most important worldwide causes of intestinal infections produced by protozoa. Current therapy for giardiasis is unsatisfactory due to high incidence of undesirable side effects and significant failure in clearing parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. In the search for new therapeutic agents, we report on the effect of several essential oils on G. lamblia growth. Among eighteen tested essential oils, those with phenolic compositions were the most active, particularly if containing high contents of carvacrol, such as Thymbra capitata and Origanum virens (IC50 values of 71 and 85 microg x mL(-1), respectively). The oils from Syzygium aromaticum and Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris (IC50 values from 100 to 200 microg x mL(-1)), as well as, those from Mentha x piperita and Lippia graveolens (IC50 values over 200 microg x mL(-1)) were less active. Results support the concept that several essential oils or some of their constituents may be useful in the clinical management of Giardia infections. PMID:20184039

  13. Molecular Characterization of the Iranian Isolates of Giardia Lamblia: Application of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase Gene

    L Akhlaghi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine of molecular epidemiology of the Giardia lamblia by PCR-RFLP method in Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods: Thirty eight stool samples were randomly selected from 125 patients diagnosed with giardiasis using microscopy in Tehran. DNA extraction of some samples were performed by phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method and to raise the sensitivity of the PCR assay, the genomic DNA of the others were extracted using glass beads and the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit in order to effectively remove the PCR inhibitors. A single step PCR-RFLP assay, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh locus, was used to differentiate within and between assemblages A and B that have been found in humans. Results: Of the 38 isolates, 33 samples (87% were found as G. lamblia (genotype AII, 3 (7.8% belonged to assemblage B, genotype BIII, the mixed of genotype AII and B were detected only in two samples (5.2%. Conclusions: PCR-RFLP is a sensitive and powerful analytical tool that allows effective genotype discrimination within and between assemblages at targeting gdh gene, and makes it possible to identify the presence of mixed genotypes. Our data suggest that there is an anthroponotic origin of the infection route, assemblage A group II, in Tehran so it seems that the main reservoir of Giardia infection is humans in the area studies.

  14. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Recombinant, NADH Oxidase from Giardia lamblia.

    Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Méndez, Sara Teresa; Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    The NADH oxidase family of enzymes catalyzes the oxidation of NADH by reducing molecular O2 to H2O2, H2O or both. In the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia, the NADH oxidase enzyme (GlNOX) produces H2O as end product without production of H2O2. GlNOX has been implicated in the parasite metabolism, the intracellular redox regulation and the resistance to drugs currently used against giardiasis; therefore, it is an interesting protein from diverse perspectives. In this work, the GlNOX gene was amplified from genomic G. lamblia DNA and expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-Tagged protein; then, the enzyme was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, characterized, and its properties compared with those of the endogenous enzyme previously isolated from trophozoites (Brown et al. in Eur J Biochem 241(1):155-161, 1996). In comparison with the trophozoite-extracted enzyme, which was scarce and unstable, the recombinant heterologous expression system and one-step purification method produce a stable protein preparation with high yield and purity. The recombinant enzyme mostly resembles the endogenous protein; where differences were found, these were attributable to methodological discrepancies or artifacts. This homogenous, pure and functional protein preparation can be used for detailed structural or functional studies of GlNOX, which will provide a deeper understanding of the biology and pathogeny of G. lamblia. PMID:26685698

  15. Commercial assay for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimens by rapid solid-phase qualitative immunochromatography.

    Garcia, Lynne S; Shimizu, Robyn Y; Novak, Susan; Carroll, Marilyn; Chan, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The ImmunoCard STAT! Cryptosporidium/Giardia rapid assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects and distinguishes between Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens (fresh, frozen, unfixed, or fixed in 5 or 10% formalin or sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin). By using specific antibodies, antigens specific for these organisms are isolated and immobilized on a substrate. After the addition of appropriate reagents, a positive test is detected visually by the presence of a gray-black color bar (regardless of the intensity) next to the organism name printed on the test device. A control is included in the device. Steps include tube preparation (buffer, patient specimen, conjugates A and B), testing (addition of sample onto the test device), and visual reading (total time, 12 min). Test performance was evaluated with known positive and negative stool specimens (170 specimens positive for Giardia and 231 specimens negative for Giardia) (85 specimens positive for Cryptosporidium and 316 specimens negative for Cryptosporidium); they were tested with trichrome, iron-hematoxylin, or modified acid-fast stains or the Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Giardia/Cryptosporidium Merifluor combination reagent; specimens with discrepant results were retested by using the Merifluor combination reagent. On the basis of the results of the reference methods, the sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were as follows: for G. lamblia, 93.5, 100, 100, and 95.5%, respectively; for C. parvum, 98.8, 100, 100, and 99.7%, respectively. False-negative results for G. lamblia were obtained with specimens with low parasite numbers (n = 7) or specimens containing trophozoites only (n = 3); one specimen with a false-negative result contained numerous cysts. The one specimen false negative for C. parvum was confirmed to be positive by immunofluorescence. No cross-reactivity was seen with 10 different protozoa (152 challenges), nine different helminths (35 challenges), or human cells (4 challenges) found in fecal specimens. This rapid test system may be very beneficial in the absence of trained microscopists; however, for patients who remain symptomatic after a negative result, the ova and parasite examination and special stains for other coccidia and the microsporidia should always remain options. PMID:12517850

  16. Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany

    Stark Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously. We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified the proportion of cases acquired in Germany in order to investigate risk factors for sporadic autochthonous Giardia infections. Methods We identified Giardia cases notified by 41 local health authorities between February 2007 and January 2008 and interviewed them on their clinical symptoms, underlying morbidities, travel abroad and potential risk factors for the disease. We conducted a case-control-study including laboratory-confirmed (microscopy or antigen-test autochthonous Giardia cases with clinical manifestations (diarrhoea, cramps, bloating and randomly selected controls from the local population registry matched by county of residence and age-group (0-5, 6-19, ?20 years. Secondary cases, controls with diarrhoea and persons who had travelled outside Germany in the three weeks prior to disease onset (exposure period were excluded. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI using conditional logistic regression. Results Of 273 interviewed cases, 131 (48% had not travelled abroad during the defined exposure period. Of these 131, 85 (65% were male, 68 (54% were living in communities with >100,000 inhabitants and 107 (83% were aged 20 years or older. We included 120 cases and 240 controls in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be male (aOR 2.5 CI 1.4-4.4, immunocompromised (aOR 15.3 CI 1.8-127 and daily consumers of green salad (aOR 2.9 CI 1.2-7.2. Contact with animals (pets/farm animals and exposure to surface water (swimming/water sports were not associated with symptomatic disease. Conclusions A substantial proportion of Giardia lamblia cases in Germany are indigenously acquired. Symptomatic cases are significantly more likely to be immunocompromised than control persons from the general population. Physicians should consider Giardia infections among patients with no recent history of travel abroad, particularly if they have immune deficiencies. Green salads may be an important vehicle of infection. Information campaigns highlighting this food-borne risk should emphasise the risk to persons with immune deficiencies.

  17. Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley The effect of malnourishment on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Martha Elvia Díaz-Cinco

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados.Objective. To assess the effect of malnutrition on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, using different inoculum sizes of Giardia lamblia cysts. Material and Methods. An experimental study was conducted between 1995 and 1999 at Centro de Investigación, Alimentación y Desarrollo (Center for Research, Food, and Development, in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The study population consisted of two groups of six to eight experimental units that were fed two different diets and inoculated five different concentrations of Giardia lamblia cysts. Data were collected on excretion of cysts, weight gain, food intake, bowel contents, and macro and microscopic lesions in the intestinal mucosa. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance and residuals. Results. Animals fed with a diet meeting nutritional requirements required an infecting inoculum of 60 cysts, while malnourished rats required only six cysts to develop mucosal lesions. Conclusions. Weight gain monitored during ten days was not a good indicator of Giardia lamblia infection. Infection depended on cyst inoculum size as well as on the nutritional status of the tested animals.

  18. Hydrologic and Vegetative Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate Microspheres in Coastal Wetlands

    Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal par...

  19. Immunodominant proteins α-1 giardin and β-giardin are expressed in both assemblages A and B of Giardia lamblia

    Rópolo Andrea S; Hellman Ulf; Pistoresi-Palencia María C; Rivero María R; Merino María C; Feliziani Constanza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To date, eight assemblages of Giardia lamblia have been described, but only assemblages A and B are known to infect humans. Despite the fact that the genomic, biological, and clinical differences found between these two assemblages has raised the possibility that they may be considered different species, there is relatively limited information on their phenotypic differences. In the present study, we developed monoclonal antibodies against alpha-1 and beta giardin, two imm...

  20. An ancient spliceosomal intron in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a of Giardia lamblia

    Gray Michael W

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad. This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a non-canonical 5' intron boundary sequence, CT, instead of GT. Results We have identified a second spliceosomal-type intron in G. lamblia, in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a, that possesses a canonical GT 5' intron boundary sequence. A comparison of the two known Giardia intron sequences revealed extensive nucleotide identity at both the 5' and 3' intron boundaries, similar to the conserved sequence motifs recently identified at the boundaries of spliceosomal-type introns in Trichomonas vaginalis (a parabasalid. Based on these observations, we searched the partial G. lamblia genome sequence for these conserved features and identified a third spliceosomal intron, in an unassigned open reading frame. Our comprehensive analysis of the Rpl7a intron in other eukaryotic taxa demonstrates that it is evolutionarily conserved and is an ancient eukaryotic intron. Conclusion An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and properties of the Rpl7a intron suggests its utility as a phylogenetic marker to evaluate particular eukaryotic groupings. Additionally, analysis of the G. lamblia introns has provided further insight into some of the conserved and unique features possessed by the recently identified spliceosomal introns in related organisms such as T. vaginalis and Carpediemonas membranifera.

  1. Stop codon recognition in the early-diverged protozoans Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Chai, Baofeng; Li, Cui; Yu, Jingfei; Hao, Yanrong; Guo, Ping; Shen, Quan

    2015-07-01

    Two classes of polypeptide release factors (RFs) are responsible for maintaining accuracy in translation termination; however, their detailed mechanism of action and evolutionary history of these factors remain elusive. The structure and function of RFs vary in bacteria and eukaryotes, a fact that is suggestive of evolutionary changes in the translation termination system. Giardia lamblia (Diplomonada) and Trichomonas vaginalis (Parabasalia) are considered as early-diverged eukaryotes. The class II release factor, eRF3, of Giardia (Gl-eRF3) appears to have only one domain that corresponds to EF-1α and lacks the N-terminal domain, similar to that of eRF3 of other organisms. In the present study, we show that the chimeric molecules Gl/Sc eRF1 and Tv/Sc eRF1, which are composed of the N-terminal domain of Gl-eRF1 or Tv-eRF1, fused to the core domain (M and C domain) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eRF1 (Sc-eRF1), resulting in loss of the RF properties of the N-terminal domain. This suggests that the conformation of eRF1 for stop codon recognition in Giardia and Trichomonas varies from the eRF1s of other eukaryotes, including ciliates and yeast. Further studies using intra-N-terminal chimeras of eRF1 indicated that the combination of the GTS loop and NIKS motif from Gl-eRF1 and the Y-C-F motif from Sc-eRF1within the N terminal domain of hybrid eRF1 could restore UGA, but not UAG and UGA recognition. In contrast, the combination of the GTS loop and the NIKS motif of Sc-eRF1 and the Y-C-F motif of Gl-eRF1 could restore UAG and UAA recognition, but not UGA recognition. Thus, these results confirm the findings of previous studies that three motifs in eRF1 are necessary for discrimination of the three bases of stop codons. The NIKS motif is responsible for recognition of the first two bases of UAA and UAG, and the Y-C-F motif identifies the second base of UGA by Gl-eRF1. Amino acid residue substitutions in Gl/Sc-eRF1 by corresponding residues of Sc-eRF1 could change and even restore RF activity, further suggesting different conformation of eRF1 are used for stop codon recognition in Giardia and in Saccharomyces. PMID:26310515

  2. Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana

    Nguah Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. Method A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. Results The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%. Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. Conclusion Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples of children within the Ashanti Akim North Municipality and its prevalence significantly increases with age. Measures must be put in place to educate the community on proper personal hygiene to reduce giardiasis.

  3. A detailed look at the cytoskeletal architecture of the Giardia lamblia ventral disc.

    Brown, Joanna R; Schwartz, Cindi L; Heumann, John M; Dawson, Scott C; Hoenger, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protistan parasite that infects and colonizes the small intestine of mammals. It is widespread and particularly endemic in the developing world. Here we present a detailed structural study by 3-D negative staining and cryo-electron tomography of a unique Giardia organelle, the ventral disc. The disc is composed of a regular array of microtubules and associated sheets, called microribbons that form a large spiral, held together by a myriad of mostly unknown associated proteins. In a previous study we analyzed by cryo-electron tomography the central microtubule portion (here called disc body) of the ventral disc and found a large portion of microtubule associated inner (MIPs) and outer proteins (MAPs) that render these microtubules hyper-stable. With this follow-up study we expanded our 3-D analysis to different parts of the disc such as the ventral and dorsal areas of the overlap zone, as well as the outer disc margin. There are intrinsic location-specific characteristics in the composition of microtubule-associated proteins between these regions, as well as large differences between the overall architecture of microtubules and microribbons. The lateral packing of microtubule-microribbon complexes varies substantially, and closer packing often comes with contracted lateral tethers that seem to hold the disc together. It appears that the marginal microtubule-microribbon complexes function as outer, laterally contractible lids that may help the cell to clamp onto the intestinal microvilli. Furthermore, we analyzed length, quantity, curvature and distribution between different zones of the disc, which we found to differ from previous publications. PMID:26821343

  4. Evaluation Of Cytokines Changes In Patients Infected With Giardia lamblia In Comparison With Healthy Subjects

    Mitra Zarebavani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Human Giardisis infection is caused by the flagellate protozoa. Giardia lamblia, which lives in the small intestine, causing damage and may also cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This parasitic disease has a worldwide distribution and prevalence varies from 5% to 30%. The role of both humeral and cellular immune response in the host defense against parasites has proven. Since an immune response is directly affected by cytokine, study of cytokines changes in patients with giardiosis is of particular importance. Materials and Methods: In this study the serum levels of IL-2 - 4 - 6 to 17 and 23 in patients and healthy subjects were measured and compared. Fasting blood samples were taken from the volunteers, ELISA was performed to measure cytokines. Results: In this study, the amount of IL-2 and IL-6 in infected patients was significantly more than the controls, but IL-4 levels were significantly lower in infected individuals (P=0.0001. Also for the first time in people with giardiasis IL-17 and IL-23 was measured and there was a significant aifference in these cytokines between the infected patients healthy controls(respectively P=0.044 and P=0.03 Conclusion: Host defense response against parasitic infections, is directly and affected by cytokines. Increased interleukin 2, 6, 17 and 23 in patients with Giardiosis was probably caused by immune response and local intestinal inflammation.

  5. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Solo-Gabriele Helena Mara

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L than Giardia cysts (6/100 L, suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

  6. STUDY OF LEPTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN CHILDREN INFECTED WITH ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA\\DISPARE AND GIARDIA LAMBLIA PARASITES

    SHAKER MOHAMMED JASIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptin, a 16-kDa protein secreted from white adipocytes, has been implicated in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, and whole-body energy balance in humans, therefore may be a mediator of anorexia associated with acute and chronic inflammation. In all parasitic infections there is loss of appetite and anorexia. Objective: The aim of the present study is to analyze serum leptin concentration in children infected with intestinal parasites (Entamoeba histolytica\\dispare and Giardia lamblia and compare them with healthy controls. Patients and methods: A total of 70 males and females patients infected with intestinal parasites presented to the Central Teaching Hospital for Pediatric in Baghdad city - Iraq, during the period from April to September, 2013. The age of patients ranged from 5 to 15 years. Thirty healthy parasite-free individuals consider to be a control group. Stool samples were collected from patients for direct microscopic examination, then body weight, height and body mass index (BMI were measured for all patients and controls. Serum leptin concentrations were detected by immunoenzymometric assay using the DRG Company Leptin ELISA kit. Statistical analysis was made by Chi-Square test using SAS version 9.1. Results: In this study 70 Patients infected with intestinal parasites, 40 patients confirmed to be positive for E. histolytica\\dispare and 30 patients for G. lamblia. The results showed serum leptin levels were not statistically significant between patient: 2.234±0.13ng/ml and control: 2.171±0.23; p > 0.05, at the same time, highly differences noticed between two age groups of patients with concentration of leptin, related to that leptin levels are increased in aged paralleling changes in fat mass. In addition, we found significant differences between age, weight and BMI with concentration of leptin. but the height of patients were not statistically significant with concentration of leptin. Conclusion: We need further investigations with the different parasites for analyze the role of leptin in parasitic infections.

  7. Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia

    Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2013-06-15

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an α/β fold consisting of a four-stranded β-sheet with two anti-parallel α-helices packed against a face of the β-sheet. An additional short β-strand aligns anti-parallel to β4 of the β-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous β-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

  8. Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach

    Williams Christopher W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously appreciated. We suggest that the missing components of the exosome complex provide an explanation for the stable abundance of sterile RNA species in Giardia.

  9. X-ray structure and characterization of carbamate kinase from the human parasite Giardia lamblia

    Galkin, Andrey; Kulakova, Liudmila; Wu, Rui; Nash, Theodore E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of carbamate kinase from the human parasite G. lamblia has been determined at 3 Å resolution. Steady-state kinetic parameters have been determined and dsRNA-silencing experiments indicate that the enzyme is essential for the survival of G. lamblia.

  10. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J. A.; Riber, Ulla; Kurtzhals, J. A. L.; Enemark, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    AimsTo develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water.Methods and ResultsThis unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx...... assessed by seeding ColorSeed (10 replicates) into the filter unit followed by air backwash to a glass slide and counting of (oo-)cysts by epifluorescent microscopy. High recovery rates (meanSD) were found: 849%48 for Giardia cysts and 70%+/- 65 for Cryptosporidium oocysts. DNA of seeded wild type (oo...

  11. Comparative characterisation of two nitroreductases from Giardia lamblia as potential activators of nitro compounds.

    Müller, Joachim; Rout, Samuel; Leitsch, David; Vaithilingam, Jathana; Hehl, Adrian; Müller, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, a diarrhoeal disease affecting humans and various animal species. Nitro drugs such as the nitroimidazole metronidazole and the nitrothiazolide nitazoxanide are used for treatment of giardiasis. Nitroreductases such as GlNR1 and GlNR2 may play a role in activation or inactivation of these drugs. The aim of this work is to characterise these two enyzmes using functional assays. For respective analyses recombinant analogues from GlNR1 and GlNR2 were produced in Escherichia coli. E. coli expressing GlNR1 and GlNR2 alone or together were grown in the presence of nitro compounds. Furthermore, pull-down assays were performed using HA-tagged GlNR1 and GlNR2 as baits. As expected, E. coli expressing GlNR1 were more susceptible to metronidazole under aerobic and semi-aerobic and to nitazoxanide under semi-aerobic growth conditions whereas E. coli expressing GlNR2 were susceptible to neither drug. Interestingly, expression of both nitroreductases gave the same results as expression of GlNR2 alone. In functional assays, both nitroreductases had their strongest activities on the quinone menadione (vitamin K3) and FAD, but reduction of nitro compounds including the nitro drugs metronidazole and nitazoxanide was clearly detected. Full reduction of 7-nitrocoumarin to 7-aminocoumarin was preferentially achieved with GlNR2. Pull-down assays revealed that GlNR1 and GlNR2 interacted in vivo forming a multienzyme complex. These findings suggest that both nitroreductases are multifunctional. Their main biological role may reside in the reduction of vitamin K analogues and FAD. Activation by GlNR1 or inactivation by GlNR2 of nitro drugs may be the consequence of a secondary enzymatic activity either yielding (GlNR1) or eliminating (GlNR2) toxic intermediates after reduction of these compounds. PMID:27099829

  12. COMPARACIN DE MTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS / COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES

    Edwin, Cardona; Silvia, Castaeda; Mara Elena, lvarez; Jorge Enrique, Prez; Fredy Arvey, Rivera Pez; Germn Ariel, Lpez Gartner.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los protozoarios del gnero Giardia representan algunos de los parsitos humanos ms comunes en el mundo y estn entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La deteccin del parsito se fundamenta generalmente en los mtodos por concentraci [...] n y microscopa convencional, pero estas tcnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnstico. En procura de mejorar los mtodos de diagnstico, las tcnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD) de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas). Para la deteccin de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres mtodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los mtodos convencionales de concentracin de la muestra y observacin microscpica, anlisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto) y finalmente la amplificacin de dos secuencias gnicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentracin y microscopa convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por tcnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnsticas rutinarias basadas en microscopa convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen ms bajo porcentaje de deteccin de este parsito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementacin de mtodos de diagnstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnstico de este protozoo. Abstract in english The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniq [...] ues have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD) in the city of Manizales (Caldas) were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA) and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan.

  13. FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES. VOLUME 1. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth filtration of drinking water was studied under various operating conditions for removal of Giardia cysts, total coliform bacteria, standard plate count bacteria, turbidity, and particles. Seven grades of diatomaceous earth were used. Temper...

  14. Method to enumerate oocysts of cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been recognized as etiological agents of gastrointestinal illness in humans with severe consequences on children and immunocompromised individuals. Water seems to be vehicle of infection. In last years many efforts have been done to evaluate a method to enumerate oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in waters. Throughout filtration and concentration steps, the two procedures proposed allow to enumerate oocysts and cysts belonging to the two genera of protozoa

  15. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María; Ager Jr.,Arba LeRoy; Lindo John Fitzgerald; Dubón José María; Neumeister Shondra Michelle; Baum Marianna Karas; Palmer Carol Jean

    1998-01-01

    During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 210...

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of α-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    α-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. α-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of α-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of α-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of α-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    Pathuri, Puja; Nguyen, Emily Tam [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Luecke, Hartmut, E-mail: hudel@uci.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    α-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. α-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of α-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of α-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis.

  18. Hydrologic and vegetative removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate microspheres in coastal wetlands.

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2013-03-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type ("pure" versus "environmental") on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality. PMID:23315738

  19. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Escolástico Aguiar González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  20. Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia

    Gautam Pennathur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite.

  1. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    J. A. Gil Ruiz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra.

  2. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA, low-zinc (ZnL, high-zinc (ZnH and supplemented-zinc (ZnS diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days. Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

  3. Comparison of selected methods for recovery of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in wastewater.

    Medeiros, Raphael Corrêa; Daniel, Luiz Antonio

    2015-09-01

    More precise methods are needed to recover Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts from wastewater in order to advance research related to their inactivation, removal, quantification, and species differentiation. This study applied different methods to recover the maximum number of (oo)cysts from wastewater samples using ColorSeed®. Immunomagnetic separation assisted in capturing oocysts mainly in samples with medium and low turbidity. A triple centrifugation method reached recovery rates of 85% and 20%, for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively, in raw wastewater, and 62.5 and 17.5% in secondary-treated effluent. For low turbidity-treated effluent, membrane filtration reached 67.5% recovery for Giardia cysts and 22.5% for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Simple, quick and low-cost methods do not involve much handling of the samples and could be useful, particularly in developing countries. PMID:26322766

  4. Factores de riesgo de la infeccin por Giardia lamblia en nios de guarderas infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba / Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Fidel ngel, Nez; Jorge Luis, Lpez; Ana Margarita, de la Cruz; Carlos M., Finlay.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderas infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de nios con tendencia o "predisposicin" a la infeccin por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontr con sntomas clnicos ms asociados a las diarr [...] eas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarroll para conocer si algunos factores socioeconmicos y hbitos higinicos estaban asociados con este fenmeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el ndice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos elctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predomin una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y despus de defecar, pero se encontr un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hbito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehculo de transmisin en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiolgicos. Abstract in english We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical sympt [...] oms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

  5. COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES / COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS

    Edwin Cardona

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniques have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD in the city of Manizales (Caldas were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan. RESUMEN: Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentración y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas. Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo.

  6. MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY BASED ANALYSIS OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA

    Giardia is the protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of giardiasis. This illness is the most common parasitic disease, estimated to infect 2.5 million people in the United States and up to 280 million people worldwide each year [8,19]. Symptoms of giardiasis range from ...

  7. In vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and -pyrimidines, individually and in combination with albendazole.

    Velázquez-Olvera, Stephanía; Salgado-Zamora, Héctor; Jiménez-Cardoso, Enedina; Campos-Aldrete, Maria-Elena; Pérez-González, Cuauhtémoc; Ben Hadda, Taibi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a major diarrheal disease found throughout the world, the causative agent being the flagellate protozoan Giardia intestinalis. Infection is more common in children than in adults. The appearance of drug resistance has complicated the treatment of several parasitic diseases, including giardiasis. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to make an in vitro evaluation of the antigiardia response of synthetic derivatives 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines 1 and -pyrimidines 2 against trophozoites of Giardia lamblia WB, in comparison with the reference drug, albendazole. Additionally, the synergistic action of albendazole in combination with each of the most active 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and pyrimidines was also assessed. Based on the IC50 values obtained, the best anti-Giardia activity was provided by the 3-hydroxymethyl-4-fluorophenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivative 2c and the corresponding imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine with the p-tolyl substituent 2d, followed by 2a and 2b. These four compounds showed effectiveness at a concentration similar to that of albendazole. Regarding synergism, the IC50 of the combination of albendazole with 2a, 2b or 2c gave the best anti-Giardia action, showing greater efficacy than albendazole alone. Hence, G. lamblia WB showed high susceptibility to some 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a] pyrimidines, which acted synergistically when used in combination with albendazole. PMID:26657313

  8. Occurrence of Giardia sp. cysts and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in faeces from public parks in the west of Scotland.

    A.M. Grimason; Smith, H.V.; Parker, J. F.; Jackson, M. H.; Smith, P. G.; Girdwood, R W

    1993-01-01

    One hundred faecal specimens, randomly collected from various locations within seven public parks in the west of Scotland, were examined for the presence of Giardia sp. cysts and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. Eleven percent of samples contained Giardia sp. cysts and 1% contained Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. Occurrence data from individual parks varied from 0 to 40% for Giardia and 0 to 2.4% for Cryptosporidium. The occurrence of parasitic organisms in public parks, especially in the vicinity o...

  9. Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis

    Hugo D. Luján

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the parasite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

  10. Predominance of Giardia lamblia assemblage A among iron deficiency anaemic pre-school Egyptian children.

    Hussein, Eman M; Zaki, Wafaa M; Ahmed, Shahira A; Almatary, Amal M; Nemr, Nader I; Hussein, Abdalla M

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal parasites and nutritional deficiency can coexist and influence each other. This study aimed to clarify the association between Giardia genotypes and presence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) among pre-school Egyptian children. Two groups (IDA and non-anaemic) of giardiasis children (44/group) were selected according to their recovery response after treatment of giardiasis. Each group included 24 and 20 gastrointestinal symptomatic and asymptomatic, respectively. Giardia human genotypes were performed by intergenic spacer (IGS) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting curve (HRM). PCR/HRM proved that Tms of assemblage A and B ranged from 79.31 ± 0.29 to 84.77 ± 0.31. In IDA patients, assemblages A and B were found among 40/44 (90.9 %) and 4/44 (9.1 %), respectively, while in non-anaemic patients, assemblages A and B were found in 10/44 (22.7 %) and 32/44 (72.7 %), respectively, beside two (4.6 %) cases had mixed infection. The difference was statistically significant. No significant relation was found between symptomatic or asymptomatic assemblages and IDA as assemblage A was found in 21/24 (87.5 %) and 19/20 (95 %) of symptomatic and asymptomatic, respectively, while 3/24 (12.5 %) and 1/20 (5 %) of assemblage B were symptomatic was asymptomatic, respectively. A significant relation was found between assemblage A subtypes distribution among IDA patients as AI and AII were detected on 23 (52.3 %) and 16 (36.4 %) of patients, respectively, while one case (2.3 %) had mixed infection. In conclusion, assemblage A is predominant among IDA giardiasis children suggesting its role in enhancing the occurrence of IDA while B has a protective role. PMID:26758448

  11. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA, 44 (9,9% apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052, número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015, número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059, higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024, usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034, ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03 e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012. Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada.

  12. INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Giardia lamblia POR ACCIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO Y METANÓLICO DE SEMILLAS DE Cucurbita pepo

    María Porfiria Barrón González; Ramón Gerardo Rodríguez Garza; Yadira Quiñones Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia es el protozoario parásito causante de la giardiasis, la cual se caracteriza por molestia abdominal, pérdida de peso y desnutrición. La droga de elección para su tratamiento es el metronidazol sin embargo, presenta diversos efectos secundarios adversos en el paciente. Por otra parte, en la herbolaria se conoce a la semilla de Cucurbita pepo por sus propiedades desparasitante, principalmente sobre Entamoeba histolytica y Taenia solium. Por lo anterior se planteó la hipótesis de...

  13. Rational Design Synthesis and Evaluation of First Generation Inhibitors of the Giardia Lamblia Fructose-1 6-biphosphate Aldolase

    Z Li; Z Liu; D Cho; J Zou; M Gong; R Breece; A Galkin; L Li; H Zhao; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Inhibitors of the Giardia lamblia fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (GlFBPA), which transforms fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, were designed based on 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone and 1,2-dihydroxypyridine scaffolds that position two negatively charged tetrahedral groups for interaction with substrate phosphate binding residues, a hydrogen bond donor to the catalytic Asp83, and a Zn{sup 2+} binding group. The inhibition activities for the GlFBPA catalyzed reaction of FBP of the prepared alkyl phosphonate/phosphate substituted 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinones and a dihydroxypyridine were determined. The 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone inhibitor 8 was found to bind to GlFBPA with an affinity (K{sub i} = 14 {micro}M) that is comparable to that of FBP (K{sub m} = 2 {micro}M) or its inert analog TBP (K{sub i} = 1 {micro}M). The X-ray structure of the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex (2.3 {angstrom}) shows that 8 binds to the active site in the manner predicted by in silico docking with the exception of coordination with Zn{sup 2+}. The observed distances and orientation of the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH relative to Zn{sup 2+} are not consistent with a strong interaction. To determine if Zn{sup 2+} coordination occurs in the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex in solution, EXAFS spectra were measured. A four coordinate geometry comprised of the three enzyme histidine ligands and an oxygen atom from the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH was indicated. Analysis of the Zn{sup 2+} coordination geometries in recently reported structures of class II FBPAs suggests that strong Zn{sup 2+} coordination is reserved for the enediolate-like transition state, accounting for minimal contribution of Zn{sup 2+} coordination to binding of 8 to GlFBPA.

  14. A comparative study of different methods used in the detection of Giardia lamblia on fecal specimens of children

    Muhammad Farooq Baig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained using a single fecal specimen for ova and parasite (O and P examination, direct immunofluorescent assay (DFA, and two conventional staining methods. Design: Fecal specimens of 150 children were collected and examined by each method. The O and P and the DFA were used as the reference methods. Setting: The study was performed at the laboratory in the Basic Medical Science Institute JPMC Karachi. Materials and Methods: The fecal specimens were collected from children with a suspected Giardia lamblia infection. Agreement and disagreement between the methods was determined based on (1 the presence of giardiasis in our population and (2 the sensitivity and specificity of each method. Results: There was 45 (30% positive and 105 (70% negative cases found with DFA, 41 (27.4% positive and 109 (72.6% negative cases detected by iodine method, and 34 (22.6% positive and 116 (77.4% negative cases found with saline method. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparison to iodine were 92.2 and 92.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparison to saline method were 91.2 and 87.9%, respectively. The sensitivities of iodine method and saline method in comparison to DFA were 82.2 and 68.8%, respectively. There is marked difference in sensitivity of DFA compared to conventional methods. Conclusion: The study supported the findings of other investigators who concluded that DFA method has the greatest sensitivity. The immunologic methods were more efficient and quicker than the conventional O and P method.

  15. ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children

    Claudia Rodríguez-Ulloa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú.OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Giardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

  16. Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Klinting, M.; Mogensen, C.; Kurtzhals, J.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry....... Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors...

  17. The anti-giardial effectiveness of fungal and commercial chitosan against Giardia intestinalis cysts in vitro.

    Yarahmadi, Mohammad; Fakhar, Mahdi; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Chabra, Aroona; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman

    2016-03-01

    Chitosan with poly-N-acetylglucosamine sequences is a deacetylated derivative of chitin that can be found in the exoskeletons of crabs, shrimp and lobsters, the cuticles of insects and the cell walls of fungi. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of fungal chitosan (FC) prepared from the cell walls of Penicillium viridicatum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum with commercially available chitosan (CC) against Giardia intestinalis cysts in vitro. The giardia cysts were isolated using a sucrose method. Four concentrations (50, 100, 200 and 400 μg/ml) of each type of prepared chitosan were applied for 10, 30, 60 and 180 min. The viability of the cysts was checked via 0.1 % eosin staining. Our results indicate that P. viridicatum (with a 47.5 % DD) and P. aurantiogriseum (with a 47.3 % DD) at different concentrations after 180 min precipitated, respectively, 56, 69, 81 and 100 %, and 63, 75, 86 and 100 % mortality rates. CC (with a 54 % DD) showed 79, 84, 93 and 100 % mortality rates. In conclusion, both FC and CC at 400 μg/ml concentrations after 180 min of exposure showed the most potent effect against G. intestinalis cysts. Accordingly, chitosan could be suggested as a new natural nanoform agent for future research in the safe and effective treatment of Giardia infections. PMID:27065602

  18. INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Giardia lamblia POR ACCIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO Y METANÓLICO DE SEMILLAS DE Cucurbita pepo

    María Porfiria Barrón González

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es el protozoario parásito causante de la giardiasis, la cual se caracteriza por molestia abdominal, pérdida de peso y desnutrición. La droga de elección para su tratamiento es el metronidazol sin embargo, presenta diversos efectos secundarios adversos en el paciente. Por otra parte, en la herbolaria se conoce a la semilla de Cucurbita pepo por sus propiedades desparasitante, principalmente sobre Entamoeba histolytica y Taenia solium. Por lo anterior se planteó la hipótesis de que las semillas de C. pepo contienen principios activos capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de G. lamblia bajo condiciones axénicas in vitro. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la actividad biológica del extracto acuoso y metanólico de las semillas de C. pepo sobre el crecimiento de G. lamblia. Tanto el extracto metanólico como el acuoso se identificaron siete grupos funcionales y la actividad antioxidante no fue significativa

  19. Longitudinal studies of Giardia contamination in two community drinking water supplies: cyst levels, parasite viability, and health impact.

    Isaac-Renton, J.; Moorehead, W; Ross, A.

    1996-01-01

    Giardia cyst concentrations were determined in an inventory of 153 raw and 91 chlorinated drinking water samples collected at 86 sites from throughout the western Canadian province of British Columbia. Sixty-four percent of raw water samples were cyst positive (69% of sites). Cyst concentrations were lower in chlorinated than in raw water. The viability of cysts in drinking water samples assessed by infectivity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was decreased in chlorinated water. T...

  20. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette; Mogensen, Claus; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at...... predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia...

  1. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp. Oocyst and Giardia sp. cyst in faucet water samples from cattle and goat farms in Taiwan.

    Watanabe, Yuko; Kimura, Kenji; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2005-12-01

    A survey on the presence of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst in livestock drinking water as well as the urban tap water throughout Taiwan was carried out. Water examination for the presence of the protozoa was conducted by filtering through a PTFE membrane followed by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and immunostaining the sediment with commercially available monoclonal antibody against Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Of the 55 different water samples from various sources examined, 2 were found to contain both of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst, 1 was found to contain Cryptosporidium oocyst only. These protozoa-positive water samples, originating from underground well and from the mountain spring, were also used as drinking water for livestock. However, no Cryptosporidium oocyst was found in the city tap water. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst being found in the drinking water for livestock. PMID:16397394

  2. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India.

    Daniels, ME; Shrivastava, A.; Smith, WA; P. Sahu; Odagiri, M; Misra, PR; Panigrahi, P; Suar, M; Clasen, T; Jenkins, MW

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmen...

  3. Validation of housekeeping genes as an internal control for gene expression studies in Giardia lamblia using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Fierro, Francisco; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Garcia-Torres, Itzhel; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    2016-04-25

    The analysis of transcript levels of specific genes is important for understanding transcriptional regulation and for the characterization of gene function. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a powerful tool to quantify gene expression. The objective of this study was to identify reliable housekeeping genes in Giardia lamblia. Twelve genes were selected for this purpose, and their expression was analyzed in the wild type WB strain and in two strains with resistance to nitazoxanide (NTZ) and metronidazole (MTZ), respectively. RefFinder software analysis showed that the expression of the genes is different in the three strains. The integrated data from the four analyses showed that the NADH oxidase (NADH) and aldolase (ALD) genes were the most steadily expressed genes, whereas the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was the most unstable. Additionally, the relative expression of seven genes were quantified in the NTZ- and MTZ-resistant strains by RT-qPCR, using the aldolase gene as the internal control, and the results showed a consistent differential pattern of expression in both strains. The housekeeping genes found in this work will facilitate the analysis of mRNA expression levels of other genes of interest in G. lamblia. PMID:26778241

  4. THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT

    M.R SHAH MANSOURI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of 89.95±4.25 . Discussion. The comparison of the efficiency obtained with those obtained across the world from the application of other techniques associated with this method indicated that this filter was advantages to similar filters, keeping in mind also that this filter can be used in field situations. It is essential to modify in each region the method of cyst removal from sediments using Sucrose gradient according to the particular morphological characteristics and density of cystes. The optimization of Sucrose gradient and the centrifugation duration and speed seems equally important.

  5. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis cysts in the Oreto River (Sicily, Southern Italy

    Maria Antonella Di Benedetto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The presence of Giardia was investigated along the Oreto river between January 2008 and May 2009 with the aim of understanding the source of contamination by molecular typing of cysts.

    Methods: A total of 38 water samples (10 collected from the river mouth, 24 from the whole Oreto basin and 4 sewage samples from the Monreale treatment plant were processed. In addition, 22 faecal samples of livestock living close to the Oreto area, were analyzed. The presence of Giardia was determined by immunofluorescence assay and their genetic characterization was achieved by a nested PCR assay targeting the triosephosphate isomerase gene.

    Results: All water samples from the river mouth were positive for Giardia, even if the concentration of cysts fluctuated considerably among sampling occasions. Our investigation showed that the Vadduneddu and Altofonte torrents, two influents of the river, were the principal sources of contamination. Moreover, the genotypes of Vadduneddu torrent were the same as those detected in human wastewater taken from the activated sludge plant of Monreale city. Assemblages A and B were found in water samples with a predominance of Assemblage A, subtype AII. Assemblage E was only found in a single calf isolate.

    Conclusions: The data show that the high cyst counts regularly detected in the Oreto river are due to contamination with wastewater of human origin. This finding is relevant for public health, particularly because river water is used for agricultural purposes.

  6. Recovery of DNA of Giardia intestinalis cysts from surface water concentrates measured with PCR and real time PCR

    Adamska, M.; Leo?ska-Duniec, A; A Maciejewska; Sawczuk, M.; Skotarczak, B.

    2011-01-01

    The most important restriction for the detection in water samples is the low concentration of Giardia intestinalis cysts, additional difficulty is the presence of PCR inhibitors. We have carried out trials in order to assess the sensitivity of semi-nested PCR and TaqMan real time PCR on the basis of DNA extracted from G. intestinalis cysts coming from spiked environmental and distilled water samples, filtrated with the use of Filta-Max equipment (1623 Method). Removal of inhibitors was carri...

  7. Occurence of Giardia lamblia in children of municipal day-care centers from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil Ocorrência de Giardia lamblia em crianças atendidas em creches municipais de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Semíramis Guimarães

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the number of day-care centers for pre-school-age children has expanded rapidly in developing countries, and that these institutions presenting conditions that facilitate the transmission of many enteric agents, a parasitological survey was carried out in three municipal day-cares from Botucatu: two in the urban area (one in downtown area and the other one in the city periphery area and the third in the rural area. Three separate stool specimens were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 72 months old and 20 staff members. Each stool specimen was processed by Lutz and zinc sulfate flotation methods. The frequency of giardiasis observed among children of downtown, periphery and rural day-cares was 69.6%, 52.7% and 69.6%, respectively. Only one employee was positive for G. lamblia. The examination of three stool specimens increased the positivity for G. lamblia: from the ninety three final positive examinations, 24 (25.5% and 8 (8.5% were positives only after examination of the second and third samples, respectively. Others intestinal organisms like Ascaris lumbricoides (20.4%, Trichuris trichiura (19.0%. Hymenolepis nana (8.8%, Entamoeba coli (22.4% and Blastocystis hominis (32.0% were frequently found in the children. There was no significant association among localization of the day-cares, sex of the children and the levels of G. lamblia infection. According to the age, G. lamblia was found mainly in children between 12 to 47 months old.Foi realizado um levantamento parasitológico em três creches da rede municipal: duas na área urbana, uma no centro da cidade e a outra na periferia, e a terceira na zona rural. Três amostras de fezes, coletadas com intervalo de 7 dias, foram obtidas de 147 crianças com idade variando de 0 a 6 anos e de 20 funcionários. Cada amostra foi processada pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea e centrífugo - flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Os resultados demonstraram que das 147 crianças examinadas, 93 (63,3% apresentaram cistos de G. lamblia nas fezes. Apenas 1 funcionário foi positivo para G. lamblia. O uso de 3 amostras de fezes aumentou a positividade do exame para o diagnóstico deste parasita, uma vez que dos 93 casos positivos, 24 (25,5% e 8 (8,5% foram diagnosticados somente após exame da segunda e terceira amostras, respectivamente. Outros parasitas e comensais intestinais como Ascaris lumbricoides (20,4%, Trichuris trichiura (19,0%, Hymenolepis nana (8,8%, Entamoeba coli (22,4% e Blastocystis hominis (32,0% foram diagnosticados. A análise estatística revelou não haver associação entre localização das creches, sexo e a frequência de infecção por G. lamblia. As porcentagens mais altas de infecção por Giardia foram observadas entre as crianças com idade variando de 1 a 4 anos.

  8. Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose

    Valdênia M. O. Souza; Iana R. F. Sales; Peixoto, Décio M; Vláudia M. Assis Costa; Rizzo, José A.; Almerinda R. Silva; Roberta Faria Camilo; Felipe Faria Pierotti; Dirceu Solé; Sarinho, Emanuel S. C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica resp...

  9. Apo And Calcium-Bound Crystal Structures of Alpha-11 Giardin, An Unusual Annexin From 'Giardia Lamblia'

    Pathuri, P.; Nguyen, E.T.; Svard, S.G.; Luecke, H.; /UC, Irvine /Uppsala U. /Karolinska Inst.

    2007-07-12

    Alpha-11 giardin is a member of the multi-gene alpha-giardin family in the intestinal protozoan, Giardia lamblia. This gene family shares an ancestry with the annexin super family, whose common characteristic is calcium-dependent binding to membranes that contain acidic phospholipids. Several alpha giardins are highly expressed during parasite-induced diarrhea in humans. Despite being a member of a large family of proteins, little is known about the function and cellular localization of alpha-11 giardin, although giardins are often associated with the cytoskeleton. It has been shown that Giardia exhibits high levels of alpha-11 giardin mRNA transcript throughout its life cycle; however, constitutive over-expression of this protein is lethal to the parasite. Determining the three-dimensional structure of an alpha-giardin is essential to identifying functional domains shared in the alpha-giardin family. Here we report the crystal structures of the apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound forms of alpha-11 giardin, the first alpha giardin to be characterized structurally. Crystals of apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin diffracted to 1.1 angstroms and 2.93 angstroms, respectively. The crystal structure of selenium-substituted apo alpha-11 giardin reveals a planar array of four tandem repeats of predominantly {alpha}-helical domains, reminiscent of previously determined annexin structures, making this the highest-resolution structure of an annexin to date. The apo alpha-11 giardin structure also reveals a hydrophobic core formed between repeats I/IV and II/III, a region typically hydrophilic in other annexins. Surprisingly, the Ca{sup 2+}-bound structure contains only a single calcium ion, located in the DE loop of repeat I and coordinated differently from the two types of calcium sites observed in previous annexin structures. The apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin structures assume overall similar conformations; however, Ca2+-bound alpha-11 giardin crystallized in a lower-symmetry space group with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. Vesicle-binding studies suggest that alpha-11 giardin, unlike most other annexins, does not bind to vesicles composed of acidic phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner.

  10. PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN

    Pourbabak

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

  11. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

  12. Strategies To Discover the Structural Components of Cyst and Oocyst Walls

    Samuelson, John; Bushkin, G. Guy; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Robbins, Phillips W.

    2013-01-01

    Cysts of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum are the infectious and sometimes diagnostic forms of these parasites. To discover the structural components of cyst and oocyst walls, we have developed strategies based upon a few simple assumptions. Briefly, the most abundant wall proteins are identified by monoclonal antibodies or mass spectrometry. Structural components include a sugar polysaccharide (chitin for Entamoeba, β-1,3-l...

  13. Recovery of DNA of Giardia intestinalis cysts from surface water concentrates measured with PCR and real time PCR.

    Adamska, M; Leo?ska-Duniec, A; Maciejewska, A; Sawczuk, M; Skotarczak, B

    2011-11-01

    The most important restriction for the detection in water samples is the low concentration of Giardia intestinalis cysts, additional difficulty is the presence of PCR inhibitors. We have carried out trials in order to assess the sensitivity of semi-nested PCR and TaqMan real time PCR on the basis of DNA extracted from G.intestinalis cysts coming from spiked environmental and distilled water samples, filtrated with the use of Filta-Max equipment (1623 Method). Removal of inhibitors was carried out with addition of BSA in different concentrations. During the filtration and concentration of water samples, losses of cysts have been recorded. Moreover, addition of BSA to the PCR and real time PCR mix increases the sensitivity of reaction. The optimal concentration of BSA for semi?nested PCR was 15 and 20 ng/?l, whereas for real time PCR 5ng/?l. PMID:22091466

  14. Comparative Analysis of the 15.5kD Box C/D snoRNP Core Protein in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia Reveals Unique Structural and Functional Features

    Biswas, Shyamasri; Buhrman, Greg; Gagnon, Keith; Mattos, Carla; Brown, II, Bernard A.; Maxwell, E. Stuart (NCSU); (UTSMC)

    2012-07-11

    Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) guide the 2'-O-methylation of targeted nucleotides in archaeal and eukaryotic rRNAs. The archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD box C/D RNP core protein homologues initiate RNP assembly by recognizing kink-turn (K-turn) motifs. The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 {angstrom}. The Giardia 15.5kD protein exhibits the typical {alpha}-{beta}-{alpha} sandwich fold exhibited by both archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD proteins. Characteristic of eukaryotic homologues, the Giardia 15.5kD protein binds the K-turn motif but not the variant K-loop motif. The highly conserved residues of loop 9, critical for RNA binding, also exhibit conformations similar to those of the human 15.5kD protein when bound to the K-turn motif. However, comparative sequence analysis indicated a distinct evolutionary position between Archaea and Eukarya. Indeed, assessment of the Giardia 15.5kD protein in denaturing experiments demonstrated an intermediate stability in protein structure when compared with that of the eukaryotic mouse 15.5kD and archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae proteins. Most notable was the ability of the Giardia 15.5kD protein to assemble in vitro a catalytically active chimeric box C/D RNP utilizing the archaeal M. jannaschii Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins. In contrast, a catalytically competent chimeric RNP could not be assembled using the mouse 15.5kD protein. Collectively, these analyses suggest that the G. lamblia 15.5kD protein occupies a unique position in the evolution of this box C/D RNP core protein retaining structural and functional features characteristic of both archaeal L7Ae and higher eukaryotic 15.5kD homologues.

  15. NL MIND-BEST: a web server for ligands and proteins discovery--theoretic-experimental study of proteins of Giardia lamblia and new compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum.

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Haddad, Mohamed; Maurel Chevalley, Séverine; Valentin, Alexis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Dea-Ayuela, María A; Teresa Gomez-Muños, María; Munteanu, Cristian R; José Torres-Labandeira, Juan; García-Mera, Xerardo; Tapia, Ricardo A; Ubeira, Florencio M

    2011-05-01

    There are many protein ligands and/or drugs described with very different affinity to a large number of target proteins or receptors. In this work, we selected Ligands or Drug-target pairs (DTPs/nDTPs) of drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different targets. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models become a very useful tool in this context to substantially reduce time and resources consuming experiments. Unfortunately most QSAR models predict activity against only one protein target and/or have not been implemented in the form of public web server freely accessible online to the scientific community. To solve this problem, we developed here a multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR) classifier using the MARCH-INSIDE technique to calculate structural parameters of drug and target plus one Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) to seek the model. The best ANN model found is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with profile MLP 20:20-15-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 611 out of 678 DTPs (sensitivity=90.12%) and 3083 out of 3408 nDTPs (specificity=90.46%), corresponding to training accuracy=90.41%. The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series. The model classifies correctly 310 out of 338 DTPs (sensitivity=91.72%) and 1527 out of 1674 nDTP (specificity=91.22%) in validation series, corresponding to total accuracy=91.30% for validation series (predictability). This model favorably compares with other ANN models developed in this work and Machine Learning classifiers published before to address the same problem in different aspects. We implemented the present model at web portal Bio-AIMS in the form of an online server called: Non-Linear MARCH-INSIDE Nested Drug-Bank Exploration & Screening Tool (NL MIND-BEST), which is located at URL: http://miaja.tic.udc.es/Bio-AIMS/NL-MIND-BEST.php. This online tool is based on PHP/HTML/Python and MARCH-INSIDE routines. Finally we illustrated two practical uses of this server with two different experiments. In experiment 1, we report by first time Quantum QSAR study, synthesis, characterization, and experimental assay of antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of oxoisoaporphine alkaloids derivatives as well as NL MIND-BEST prediction of potential target proteins. In experiment 2, we report sampling, parasite culture, sample preparation, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF, and -TOF/TOF MS, MASCOT search, MM/MD 3D structure modeling, and NL MIND-BEST prediction for different peptides a new protein of the found in the proteome of the human parasite Giardia lamblia, which is promising for anti-parasite drug-targets discovery. PMID:21277861

  16. COMPARISON OF DIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE, IODINE-SAL INE WET MOUNT AND MODIFIED ACID FAST STAINING METHODS F OR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AND GIARDIA SPP. IN HU MAN FECAL SPECIMENS

    Prakriti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis are leading causes o f parasitic intestinal diseases. There are various methods to d etect them including iodine-saline wet mount for Giardia, Modified Acid fast (MAF staining for Cryptosporidia and Direct Fluorescent Antigen detection (DFA method. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to compare three methods f or the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in fecal s amples. METHOD: 44 stool specimens from patients with history of diarrhea were examined for Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum by using a direct immunofluores cent-monoclonal antibody stain (for unspun specimens, Iodine- saline wet mount method fo r Giardia cysts & trophozoites and Modified acid-fast for Cryptosporidium oocysts. RESULTS: From the total of 44 specimens; 29 (65.9 % Cryptosporidia oocysts were isolated and 6 ( 13.6% Giardia cysts by all the Iodine- Saline wet mount, MAF, DFA methods. The direct immu nofluorescent-monoclonal antibody method resulted in a significantly increased detect ion of both Giardia cysts (5 versus 1 specimens, p value =0.01 and Cryptosporidium oocysts ( 19 versus 10 specimens, p value=0.01. CONCLUSIONS: DFA is a sensitive method for detection of Cryptospo ridium oocysts and Giardia cysts in fecal samples whereas M AF is a reliable screening method.

  17. Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 em cães (Canis familiaris avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 in dogs (Canis familiaris available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil

    Cristiane Beck

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107 entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162 totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004. O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level. For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107 when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162, the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples, 15.67% (23 of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004. The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

  18. Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose

    Valdênia M. O. Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110. A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075, elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701, IgE específica (p = 0,250 ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças.

  19. Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil

    Beck Cristiane; Araújo Flávio Antônio Pacheco de; Olicheski Adriana Tarnowski; Breyer Adriana Schneider

    2005-01-01

    Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os g...

  20. Cyst wall biosynthesis inhibitors: A new class of anti-Giardia agents

    Suk, D. H.; Rejman, Dominik; Bonnac, L.; Dykstra, Ch.; Patterson, S.

    Bern : DCB University of Bern, 2006. s. 280. [IRT-International Roundtable on Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids /17./. 03.09.2006-07.09.2006, Bern] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Giardia * Toxoplasma gondii * Cryptosporidia * metronidazole Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. Method to enumerate oocysts of cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water; Metodi per il rilevamento dei cisti e oocisti di protozoi patogeni nelle acque

    Briancesco, R.; Bonadonna, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    2000-02-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been recognized as etiological agents of gastrointestinal illness in humans with severe consequences on children and immunocompromised individuals. Water seems to be vehicle of infection. In last years many efforts have been done to evaluate a method to enumerate oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in waters. Throughout filtration and concentration steps, the two procedures proposed allow to enumerate oocysts and cysts belonging to the two genera of protozoa. [Italian] Cryptosporidium e Giardia sono protozoi parassiti responsabili di gravi forme di gastroenterite nell'uomo e in particolare negli individui immunocompromessi e nei bambini. Perche' e' considerata il primo veicolo di infezione, il controllo della diffusione dei due parassiti nei corpi idrici, pone come prioritaria la necessita' di disporre di metodi di analisi facilmente applicabili ed efficienti. Attraverso fasi di filtrazione e di concentrazione, i metodi di seguito proposti consentono la determinazione quantitativa, a livello di genere, di oocisti di Cryptosporidium e di cisti di Giardia nelle acque.

  2. Development of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Giardia and analysis of the prevalence, cyst shedding and genotypes of Giardia present in sheep across four states in Australia.

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-02-01

    A novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Giardia at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus was developed and validated. The qPCR was used to screen a total of 3412 lamb faecal samples collected from approximately 1189 lambs at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms across South Australia (SA), New South Wales (NSW), Victoria (Vic) and Western Australia (WA). The overall prevalence was 20.2% (95% CI 18.9-21.6) and of the 690 positives, 473 were successfully typed. In general, the prevalence of Giardia varied widely across the different farms with the highest prevalence in one WA farm (42.1%) at pre-slaughter sampling and the lowest prevalence in one Victorian farm (7.2%) at weaning. The range of cyst shedding at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter overall across all states was 63-1.310(9) cysts g(-1) (median=1.710(4)), 63-1.110(9) cysts g(-1) (median=9.610(3)), 63-4.710(9) cysts g(-1) (median=8.110(4)) respectively. Assemblage specific primers at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) locus identified assemblage A in 22.4% (106/473) of positive samples typed, assemblage E in 75.9% (359/473) and mixed A and E assemblages in 1.7% (8/473) of samples. A subset of representative samples from the 8 farms (n=32) were typed at both the gdh and beta-giardin loci and confirmed these results and identified sub-assemblage AII in 16 representative assemblage A isolates across the 8 farms. This demonstrates a prevalence of Giardia previously not recognised in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research to quantify the production impacts of this protozoan parasite. PMID:24355868

  3. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India.

    Daniels, Miles E; Shrivastava, Arpit; Smith, Woutrina A; Sahu, Priyadarshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmental loading rates. Oocysts/cysts were detected in 12% of diarrhea patients. Detection ranged from 0% to 35% for Cryptosporidium and 0% to 67% for Giardia across animal hosts. Animal loading estimates indicate the greatest contributors of environmental oocysts/cysts in the study region are cattle. Ponds were contaminated with both protozoa (oocysts: 37%, cysts: 74%), as were tube wells (oocysts: 10%, cysts: 14%). Future research should address the public health concern highlighted from these findings and investigate the role of domestic animals in diarrheal disease transmission in this and similar settings. PMID:26123963

  4. Deteco de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliao crtica dos mtodos / Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods

    Luciana Urbano dos, Santos; Romeu, Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno, Franco; Jos Roberto, Guimares.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficincia dos mtodos centrfugo-concentrao e filtrao em membrana, na deteco de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estao de tratamento de esgoto, Samambai [...] a, Campinas, em So Paulo). As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL), 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfeco por luz ultravioleta (EFL) e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV). Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os mtodos mostraram-se eficientes na deteco destes protozorios em todos os tipos de amostras, alm de apresentarem baixo custo por anlise. Abstract in english In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in So Paulo). The samples we [...] re collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL), 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL), and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV). Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

  5. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  6. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Núñez Fidel Ángel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  7. Giardia and Vilem Dusan Lambl

    Lipoldová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2014), e2686. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : History of Science * Giardia lamblia * Infectious disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  8. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia.

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  9. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  10. Molecular typing of canine Giardia duodenalis isolates from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Fava, Natlia M N; Soares, Rodrigo M; Scalia, Luana A M; Rodrigues da Cunha, Maria Jlia; Faria, Elaine S M; Cury, Mrcia Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia) is a widespread intestinal parasite in mammals, including humans and pets worldwide. It should be considered a species complex and comprises eight assemblage (A-H). This works aimed to determine the genotypic variability among G.duodenalis isolates from dogs from Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Fecal samples of 97 dogs, from 1-to-10 months old from 15 commercial kennels, were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation technique, to determine their positivity for G.duodenalis cysts. Cysts pellets were stored and submitted to PCR and nested-PCR reactions with gdh and tpi primers, and then sequencing. Among positive samples (n=19), fragment amplifications of gdh and tpi genes was observed in 16 (84,2%) and 14 (73,6%), respectively. In total, 30 sequences were obtained. Sequencing analysis showed that for gdh, all isolates were identified as host-specific genotype D, and for tpi, besides host-specific genotype C, were also observed zoonotic genotypes A and B. This study provides, for the first time, current information about genetic characterization of G.duodenalis isolates found in dogs in Minas Gerais state. PMID:26704664

  11. Genotyping of Giardia in Dutch patients and animals: a phylogenetic analysis of human and animal isolates.

    van der Giessen, J. W. B.; Vries, A. De; Roos, M; Wielinga, Peter; Kortbeek, L. M.; Mank, T. G.

    2006-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is a protozoan organism that can infect the intestinal tract of many animal species including mammals. Genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis is well described but the zoonotic potential is still not clear. In this study, we analysed 100 Giardia DNA samples directly isolated from human stool specimens, to get more insight in the different G. duodenalis assemblages present in the Dutch human population. Results showed that these h...

  12. MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

    The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

  13. Comparison of efficiency of various DNA extraction methods from cysts of Giardia intestinalis measured by PCR and TaqMan real time PCR

    Adamska M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to work out an effective method of extraction of DNA from Giardia intestinalis cysts as well as a sensitive and specific method for detection of DNA of this protozoan using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Twelve protocols for DNA extraction have been compared. Purification and extraction of DNA were preceded by additional actions in order to destroy the cysts’ wall. The highest effectiveness of DNA extraction was obtained in case of alternating application of freezing the samples in liquid nitrogen and their incubation in water bath in the temperature of 100 ˚C, and then the extraction with the QIAamp DNA Tissue Mini Kit (QIAGEN – T kit – with an all night long incubation with proteinase K in 56 ˚C. Effectiveness of DNA extraction with the use of each kit after extraction with each treatment was measured by nested PCR product of β-giardin gene fragment and CT values of real time PCR of the SSU rRNA gene of G. intestinalis. The detection limit, defined as the lowest number detected in 100 % cases, was 100 cysts per 200 μl when effectiveness was evaluated with nested PCR and 50 oocysts with real time PCR after extraction DNA with T kit. Results of our comparative studies have shown that all stages preceding the molecular detection of G. intestinalis DNA are equally important, and materially influence on the final effect and this version of method seems to be very useful for the sensitive detection of DNA of G. intestinalis.

  14. Real-Time PCR for Quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Environmental Water Samples and Sewage

    Guy, Rebecca A.; Payment, Pierre; Krull, Ulrich J.; Horgen, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The protozoan pathogens Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are major causes of waterborne enteric disease throughout the world. Improved detection methods that are very sensitive and rapid are urgently needed. This is especially the case for analysis of environmental water samples in which the densities of Giardia and Cryptosporidium are very low. Primers and TaqMan probes based on the β-giardin gene of G. lamblia and the COWP gene of C. parvum were developed and used to detect DNA co...

  15. Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran

    Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani

    Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods. Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively.Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

  16. NEW METHOD FOR EXCYSTATION OF GIARDIA

    In vitro excystation of Giardia is used to estimate cyst viability and may also be used to obtain trophozoites and cyst walls for analysis. Recently published excystation procedures include the use of trypsin, serum or bile salts in the excystation step. Trypsin, serum or bile sa...

  17. Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods

    Luciana Urbano dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambaia, Campinas, em São Paulo. As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL, 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV. Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise.In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo. The samples were collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL, 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL, and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

  18. First record of Giardia in cattle in Denmark

    Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that...... Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in cattle and to be transmitted to other animal species and humans, finding the parasite in cattle may be of major epidemiological significance. Future work should focus on elucidating the pathogenicity, transmission patterns and the genetic structure of...... Giardia populations in cattle in Denmark....

  19. Comparison of Routine Method with Antibody and Antigen Ones for Diagnosing Giardia-Entamoeba Histolytica in Stool and Blood

    Gharavi, MJ. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are the most prevalent human intestinal pathogenic protozoa, worldwide. The clinical features of Giardia infection are acute diarrhea, a chronic condition with continuous diarrhea and malabsorption. Entamoeba histolytica invade intestinal tract without any typical clinical indications, and it can involve liver and other organs too. Therefore, we aimed to study these protozoa by serological and parasitological methods. Material and Methods: In this comparative study, the stool and blood specimens were collected from 1025 patients selected via simple random sampling in three different laboratories located in Tehran and Karaj, Iran (2012. Formalin Detergent test was performed on all samples. Both serum and stool positive samples of this method were analyzed for antigen and antibodies related to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, respectively. Results: of 1025 stool specimens, 76 (4.7% were positive for Giardia lamblia and 19 (1.8% for Entamoeba histolytica using Formalin-detergent method. In ELISA, 81 (7.9% coproantibodies to Giardia lamblia and 24 (2.3% coproantibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, 78 (7.6% corproantigen for Giardia lamblia, and 5 (0.4% for Entamoeba histolytica were observed. circulatory antibodies to Entamoeba histlytica were detected in 22 cases (2.1% Conclusion: Sensitivity of microscopic method compared to serological methods is higher than 90%; therefore, Formalin-detergent method can be the best method for stool examination.

  20. Giardia & Pets

    ... follow-up appointments. References The Merck Veterinary Manual. Giardiasis: Introduction. United States: Merck; 2011. Thompson, RCA. The zoonotic significance and molecular epidemiology of Giardia and giardiasis. Vet Parasitol. 2004;126(1-2):15-35. ...

  1. Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil

    Guimarães A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9% of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19. In 82% (9/11 calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75% positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30 sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm. They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

  2. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed. PMID:26301853

  3. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats

    Sotiriadou Isaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans.

  4. Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites

    Ankarklev Johan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic heterogeneity has become a major inconvenience in the genotyping and molecular epidemiology of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, in particular for the major human infecting genotype, assemblage B. Sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia from patient fecal samples, where one or several of the commonly used genotyping loci (beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase are implemented, is often hampered due to the presence of sequence heterogeneity in the sequencing chromatograms. This can be due to allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH and /or co-infections with parasites of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. Thus, two important questions have arisen; i does ASH occur at the single cell level, and/or ii do multiple sub-genotype infections commonly occur in patients infected with assemblage B, G. intestinalis isolates? Results We used micromanipulation in order to isolate single Giardia intestinalis, assemblage B trophozoites (GS isolate and cysts from human patients. Molecular analysis at the tpi loci of trophozoites from the GS lineage indicated that ASH is present at the single cell level. Analyses of assemblage B Giardia cysts from clinical samples at the bg and tpi loci also indicated ASH at the single cell level. Additionally, alignment of sequence data from several different cysts that originated from the same patient yielded different sequence patterns, thus suggesting the presence of multiple sub-assemblage infections in congruence with ASH within the same patient. Conclusions Our results conclusively show that ASH does occur at the single cell level in assemblage B Giardia. Furthermore, sequence heterogeneity generated during sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B isolates may possess the complexity of single cell ASH in concurrence with co-infections of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. These findings explain the high abundance of sequence heterogeneity commonly found when performing sequence based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia, and illuminates the necessity of developing new G. intestinalis genotyping tools.

  5. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational water in Belgium.

    Ehsan, Md Amimul; Casaert, Stijn; Levecke, Bruno; Van Rooy, Liesbet; Pelicaen, Joachim; Smis, Anne; De Backer, Joke; Vervaeke, Bart; De Smedt, Sandra; Schoonbaert, Filip; Lammens, Saskia; Warmoes, Thierry; Geurden, Thomas; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different recreational water bodies in Belgium and to estimate the infection risk associated with swimming and other recreational activities. Cryptosporidium oocysts and/or Giardia cysts were detected in three out of 37 swimming pools, seven out of 10 recreational lakes, two out of seven splash parks and four out of 16 water fountains. In the swimming pools no infection risk for Cryptosporidium could be calculated, since oocysts were only detected in filter backwash water. The risk of Giardia infection in the swimming pools varied from 1.1310(-6) to 2.4910(-6) per swim per person. In recreational lakes, the infection risk varied from 2.7910(-5) to 5.7410(-5) per swim per person for Cryptosporidium and from 7.0410(-5) to 1.4610(-4) for Giardia. For other outdoor water recreation activities the estimated infection risk was 5.7110(-6) for Cryptosporidium and 1.4710(-5) for Giardia. However, most positive samples in the recreational lakes belonged to species/genotypes that are either animal-specific or predominantly found in animals. No Cryptosporidium was found in splash parks and water fountains, but the presence of Giardia cysts suggests a risk for human infection. The infection risk of Giardia infection during a 3.5-minute visit to a splash park for children equalled 1.6810(-4). PMID:26322773

  6. Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in water bodies of Galicia, Spain.

    Castro-Hermida, Jos Antonio; Garca-Presedo, Ignacio; Gonzlez-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mean concentration (per litre) of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in recreational river areas (n=28), drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs; n=52) and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs; n=50) in Galicia (NW Spain). Water samples from rivers and from the influent (50-100l) and the treated effluent (100l) of the water plants were filtered using Filta-Max filters (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA). A total of 232 samples were processed and the (oo)cysts were concentrated, clarified by IMS and then detected by IFAT. The viability was determined by applying fluorogenic vital dye (PI). In the recreational areas, infective forms of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 16(57.1%; 1-60 oocysts per litre) and 17 (60.7%; 1-160 cysts per litre) samples, respectively. In the water flowing into the water treatment plants, oocysts were detected in 21 DWTPs (40.4%; 1-13 oocysts per litre) and cysts were observed in 22 DWTPs (42.3%; 1-7 cysts per litre). In the effluents from the treatment plants, Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were identified in 17 DWTPs (32.7%; 1-4 oocysts per litre) and in 19 DWTPs (36.5%; 1-5 cysts per litre), respectively. The highest concentrations of (oo)cysts were found in the WWTPs; specifically, oocysts were detected in 29 (58.0%; 1-80 oocysts per litre) and cysts in 49 (98.0%; 2-14.400 cysts per litre) WWTP effluents. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 32 (64.0%; 1-120 oocysts per litre) and 48 (96.0%; 2-6.000 cysts per litre) WWTP effluents, respectively. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0%. In all samples analysed. Moreover, it was found that the effluents from coastal WWTPs were discharged directly into the sea, while inland WWTPs were discharged directly into rivers. The concentrations of both enteropathogens detected in effluents from WWTPs therefore represent a significant risk to human and animal health. These results demonstrate the wide distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the environment, the ineffectiveness of treatments in DWTPs and WWTPs in reducing/inactivating both protozoa and the need to monitor the presence, viability and infectivity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water bodies. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. PMID:20673950

  7. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in harp and hooded seals from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    Appelbee, A J; Thompson, R C A; Measures, L M; Olson, M E

    2010-10-11

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are protozoan parasites known to cause enteric disease in terrestrial wildlife species (mammals, reptiles and birds). Few surveys for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in marine wildlife species, such as pinnipeds, have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotype of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in two species of pinnipeds, harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Faecal samples were collected from pup and adult seals and examined for the presence of cysts of Giardia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium using microscopy and immunofluorescent staining. Tissues from the small intestine of adult seals were also collected and examined for infections using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Giardia cysts were found in the faeces of 42% (16/38) of adult harp seals, but in none of the harp seal pups (0/20). Although Giardia cysts were not detected in faeces of adult hooded seals (0/10) using microscopy, 80% tested positive for Giardia using PCR of intestinal tissue indicative of a true replicating infection. Both harp and hooded seals harboured infections with the zoonotic strain, Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A, as determined using a nested-PCR technique to amplify a small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rRNA) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium was not detected by microscopy, nor using the PCR technique on intestinal tissues from any of the 68 seals examined. PMID:20594649

  8. Encystation commitment in Giardia duodenalis: a long and winding road

    Argüello-Garciá R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol and bile salts are relevant modulators of Giardia encystation. Although several molecules within signaling cascades have been identified, and changes in their expression observed during giardial encystation, their underlying interactions leading to expression of cyst wall markers (CWPs and precursors of the GalNAc homopolymer are not well defined. Recent experimental data and the completion of the Giardia Genome Project Database (GiardiaDB allow us now to consider the role of bile salts as “natural stimuli” and the potential involvement of a Raf/MEK/ERK pathway mediating cholesterol-regulated expression of cyst-specific genes. These new findings may provide promising targets for diagnostics, drug design and prophylactic intervention against giardiasis.

  9. Tratamento anaerbio de esgoto e sua eficincia na reduo da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process

    Rosangela C. Paulino

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalncia e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozorios presentes em biosslido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaerbio em estaes de tratamento de esgoto onde so empregados reatores anaerbios de lodo fluidizado (RALF, na regio metropolitana de Curitiba, Paran. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5,5%, Trichuris sp (4,5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%, H. nana (1% e Taenia sp (0,4%, Protozorios: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferena significativa quanto ao nmero de ovos viveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estaes estudadas. A reduo da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biolgico baseado na digesto anaerbia a eficcia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes so necessrios para a utilizao do lodo produzido por digesto anaerbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para sade humana e animal.This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5.5%, Trichuris sp (4.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3.7%, H. nana (1% and Taenia sp (0.4%, protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

  10. Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus

    João Fabio Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

  11. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies

    Sofía Duque-Beltrán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate. One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%; specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%; positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%; and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%. This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

  12. Tarlov Cysts

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Tarlov Cysts Information Page Synonym(s): Perineural Cysts, Sacral Nerve Root ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What are Tarlov Cysts? Tarlov cysts are sacs filled with cerebrospinal fluid ...

  13. Molecular Diagnosis and Characterization of Two Intestinal Protozoa : Entamoeba histolytica & Giardia intestinalis

    Lebbad, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis are two of the most important and most widespread diarrhea-related parasitic protozoa in the world. Approximately 1200 1500 cases of Giardia and 200 400 cases of Entamoeba are reported each year in Sweden, whereas the corresponding numbers are much higher in developing countries like Nicaragua. Traditionally, diagnosis of these parasites depends on microscopic detection of cysts or trophozoites, even though such methodology is ...

  14. ULTRASTRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIA, VIRAL-LIKE PARTICLES, AND MYCOPLASMA-LIKE ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH 'GIARDIA' SPP. (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Giardia trophozoites and cysts, isolated from mammalian and avian hosts, were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by fluorescent light microscopy for the presence of microbial symbionts. Mycroplasma-like organisms were obser...

  15. A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Berg, T.; Mogensen, T.; Kurtzhals, J. A. L.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and...... carefully chosen pore size. On the reverse side of the filter a transducer delivers ultrasound waves in order to release trapped cysts and particles from the filter and break up parasite clusters. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were injected into the concentration unit and exposed to...

  16. Sensor detection of parasite eggs and (oo-)cysts - possibilities and challenges

    Enemark, Heidi

    cysts ((oo-)cysts) of the protozoan genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea. Methods for routine recovery and detection of waterborne Giardia and/or Cryptosporidium include filtration, immunomagnetic separation and detection by microscopy of......-time sensor detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water. This novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the protozoal content present in a sample. High sensitivity of the system is acquired through a combination of a new, patented filtration...... system and ultrasound to obtain high recovery rates of apparently undamaged protozoa: 84.9% (Standard deviation (±) 4.8) for Giardia cysts and 70% (± 6.5) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Ultrasound in the current system is tuned into a useful tool for enhanced elution of filtered (oo-)cysts. The combined...

  17. Incidence of and risks associated with Giardia infections in herds on dairy farms in the New York City Watershed

    Schaaf Stephanie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aims of this study were to determine the incidence of Giardia infections in dairy herds on farms in the New York City Watershed region and to evaluate risk factors associated with infections. Because co-infections of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. are common in this population, we also evaluated the effect of herd infection status on Giardia infections. Methods Farms were grouped into three cohorts based on their prior infection status with Giardia and/or Cryptosporidium spp. The sampling plan included collecting fecal samples from all calves below 30 days of age and proportional sampling of calves, young stock, and adults. A total of 10,672 fecal samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of Giardia cysts using zinc sulfate flotation. Herds enrolled in the study were sampled seasonally for a study period of two years. The probability of shedding cysts past a certain age and the factors that influenced the likelihood of shedding were evaluated using survival analysis. Linear regression was used to evaluate factors that were associated with the intensity of shedding. Results The majority of Giardia infections occurred in calves within their first 180 days of age, with the most number of calves shedding Giardia cysts between 11 and 20 days of age. The incidence of shedding of Giardia cysts ranged from 0.0004 per animal day for cattle in the low risk cohort to 0.0011 per animal day for cattle in the high risk cohort. The likelihood of shedding was influenced by the prior infection status of the herd and the season of collection. Infected animals shed on average 9,658 cysts/gram and the intensity of shedding Giardia cysts varied significantly with the age (p Conclusion Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the New York City watershed, particularly in calves less than 6 months of age. Seasonality may be an important factor in the perpetuation of infections based on changes in management practices corresponding to weather patterns of a particular season. A dairy herd's prior infection status with Cryptosporidium influences the likelihood of infection with Giardia.

  18. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.

    Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2012-06-01

    Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC()) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT()) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points in at least one of the three applied diagnostic techniques within 33-61 days after treatment. Furthermore, all dogs had episodes of diarrhea (for 1-4 days) within 14-31 days after treatment and unformed feces during the whole experiment. The positive effect of ronidazole against Giardia infections in dogs could be confirmed in this study. In particular, the combination of ronidazole treatment combined with the disinfection of the environment and shampooing of the dogs was highly effective in reducing Giardia cyst excretion and may therefore constitute an alternative control strategy for canine giardiosis. PMID:22240238

  19. Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Human and Animal Reservoirs by PCR-RFLP

    Esmaeel Fallah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia duodenalis from human and animal feces and their epidemiological in Iran. Molecular characterization of cysts of human and animal origin represents an objective means to approve or reject this hypothesis. In this study, cysts of Giardia duodenalis were collected from feces of naturally infected cats (n = 2, human (n = 34, dog (n = 2 and cattle (n = 3. PCR-RFLP analysis of the 34 specimens recovered from humans revealed 6 G. duodenalis assemblage AII, 8 G. duodenalis assemblage BIII and 4 G. duodenalis assemblage BIV. Among samples from cats, 1 was classified into assemblage AI. Genetic subgenotypes identified from human reveals that genetic diversity of this protozoan in East Azerbaijan, Iran, is similar to that of Giardia from other parts of the world. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. duodenalis genotypes in Iran.

  20. Phosphonoxins: Rational design and discovery of a potent nucleotide anti-Giardia agent

    Suk, D. H.; Rejman, Dominik; Dykstra, Ch.; Pohl, Radek; Pankiewicz, K. W.; Patterson, S. E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2007), s. 2811-2816. ISSN 0960-894X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Giardia * encystation * cyst wall synthase * nucleotide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.604, year: 2007

  1. Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs

    Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kolehmainen, J.; Toropainen, P.; Hanninen, M.L.

    The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity...... but only 71% sensitivity. The Giardia ELISA correlated well with IF (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%) and was capable of detecting animal specific Giardia duodenalis genotypes. Visual interpretation appeared appropriate for assessment of ELISA results. The proportion of positive samples and possible...... zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs...

  2. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    Heyworth, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H). Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only) G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin. PMID:26984116

  3. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    Heyworth Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H. Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin.

  4. Evaluation of three commercial assays for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium organisms in fecal specimens.

    Johnston, Stephanie P; Ballard, Melissa M; Beach, Michael J; Causer, Louise; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2003-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for diagnostic testing for Giardia intestinalis (G. lamblia) and Cryptosporidium parvum, with a priority being placed on obtaining diagnostic results in an efficient and timely manner. Several commercial companies have developed rapid diagnostic tests that are simple to perform and can be completed in less time than traditional methods for detecting Giardia and Cryptosporidium: We compared one of these rapid tests, the ImmunoCard STAT! (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) lateral-flow immunoassay, with the MERIFLUOR direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) test, the ProSpecT EZ microplate assay for Giardia and the ProSpecT microplate assay for Cryptosporidium, and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stained smears for the detection of Cryptosporidium using 246 specimens. The MERIFLUOR DFA (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) test detected the largest number of cases (32 Giardia and 37 Cryptosporidium) infections and was used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the other tests. For Giardia, the sensitivities of the ImmunoCard STAT! and the ProSpecT Giardia EZ microplate assay (Alexon-Trend, Inc.) were 81 and 91%, respectively. For detection of Cryptosporidium, the sensitivities of the ImmunoCard STAT!, the ProSpecT Cryptosporidium microplate assay (Alexon-Trend, Inc.), and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stained smears were 68, 70, and 78%, respectively. Test specificities were equal to or greater than 99%. Specimens with very small numbers of organisms were not detected by the ImmunoCard STAT!, the ProSpecT microplate assay or modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stained smears. PMID:12574257

  5. Giardia spp. Are Commonly Found in Mixed Assemblages in Surface Water, as Revealed by Molecular and Whole-Genome Characterization.

    Prystajecky, Natalie; Tsui, Clement K-M; Hsiao, William W L; Uyaguari-Diaz, Miguel I; Ho, Jordan; Tang, Patrick; Isaac-Renton, Judith

    2015-07-01

    Giardia is the most common parasitic cause of gastrointestinal infections worldwide, with transmission through surface water playing an important role in various parts of the world. Giardia duodenalis (synonyms: G. intestinalis and G. lamblia), a multispecies complex, has two zoonotic subtypes, assemblages A and B. When British Columbia (BC), a western Canadian province, experienced several waterborne giardiasis outbreaks due to unfiltered surface drinking water in the late 1980s, collection of isolates from surface water, as well as from humans and beavers (Castor canadensis), throughout the province was carried out. To better understand Giardia in surface water, 71 isolates, including 29 from raw surface water samples, 29 from human giardiasis cases, and 13 from beavers in watersheds from this historical library were characterized by PCR. Study isolates also included isolates from waterborne giardiasis outbreaks. Both assemblages A and B were identified in surface water, human, and beavers samples, including a mixture of both assemblages A and B in waterborne outbreaks. PCR results were confirmed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for one waterborne outbreak and supported the clustering of human, water, and beaver isolates within both assemblages. We concluded that contamination of surface water by Giardia is complex, that the majority of our surface water isolates were assemblage B, and that both assemblages A and B may cause waterborne outbreaks. The higher-resolution data provided by WGS warrants further study to better understand the spread of Giardia. PMID:25956776

  6. Giardial Triosephosphate Isomerase as Possible Target of the Cytotoxic Effect of Omeprazole in Giardia lamblia

    Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Ypez-Mulia, Lilian; Hernndez-Alcntara, Gloria; Figueroa-Salazar, Rosalia; Garca-Torres, Itzhel; Gmez-Manzo, Sal; Mndez, Sara T.; Vanoye-Carlo, Amrica; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Torres-Arroyo, Anglica; Oria-Hernndez, Jess; Gutirrez-Castrelln, Pedro; Enrquez-Flores, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is highly prevalent in the developing world, and treatment failures with the standard drugs are common. This work deals with the proposal of omeprazole as a novel antigiardial drug, focusing on a giardial glycolytic enzyme used to follow the cytotoxic effect at the molecular level. We used recombinant technology and enzyme inactivation to demonstrate the capacity of omeprazole to inactivate giardial triosephosphate isomerase, with no adverse effects on its human counterpart. To est...

  7. Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq

    E.D. Hadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study revealed the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in fecal samples which collected from stray dogs and cats in Mosul city. The total percentage of infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. in dogs were 42%, 26%, while the percentages in cats were 52%, 16% respectively and the single infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats and dogs formed highest rate was 75%, 50% respectively. The infection rate with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. appeared higher in animals aged less than one year. High percentage of infection with Giardia spp. appeared in the females of cats and dogs were 28.12%, 17.5%, while the high infection rate with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. appeared in males of dogs and cats were 50%, 60% respectively

  8. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Nchito, M.; Olsen, A.

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The...... faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12...

  9. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    ... remove Giardia from my drinking water? What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE-are-DYE-uh-sis) is a diarrheal ... of the United States. For more information about giardiasis and treatment, please visit CDC's Giardia website. Where ...

  10. Impact of Environmental Conditions on the Survival of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on Environmental Surfaces

    Absar Alum; Isra M. Absar; Hamas Asaad; Joseph R. Rubino; M. Khalid Ijaz

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The...

  11. Using native riparian barriers to reduce Giardia in agricultural runoff to freshwater ecosystems.

    Winkworth, Cynthia L; Matthaei, Christoph D; Townsend, Colin R

    2010-12-01

    Waterway degradation in agricultural settings is caused by direct and diffuse sources of pollution. Waterway fencing focuses on reducing direct faecal contamination, but the extent to which it reduces overland surface runoff of pathogens is unknown. This study evaluated the potential of four riparian treatments to reduce Giardia in saturation excess surface runoff entering the waterway. Treatment 1 comprised exotic pasture grass and weeds that regenerated from bare soil between the fence and the waterway in the absence of cattle grazing and was compared with three others comprising monocultural plantings of New Zealand native grassland plants. Runoff experiments involving Giardia were performed after planting, both prior to and following the summer growing season. Giardia was not detected from any plot prior to cyst addition. In spring the native 'C. secta', 'A. lessoniana' and 'C. richardii' treatments showed significantly greater reductions in Giardia in runoff than the 'exotic grasses' treatment, while in autumn the 'C. richardii' treatment reduced Giardia more than the 'exotic grasses/weeds'. A reduction in public health risk should follow from riparian vegetation, whether exotic or native, but with an added benefit in the case of the native tussock grass C. richardii, due to the associated lower runoff rate. PMID:20705977

  12. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Galicia (Northwest Spain).

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-06-01

    Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds. PMID:25669618

  13. Genotyping and subtyping of Giardia and Cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in China.

    Zhao, Z; Wang, R; Zhao, W; Qi, M; Zhao, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Liu, A

    2015-05-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. Rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. In the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in China. We collected 33 Asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents were microscopy-positive for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively. All 14 Giardia isolates were identified as Giardia duodenalis assemblage G at a minimum of one or maximum of three gene loci (tpi, gdh and bg). By small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing, Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 12) and Cryptosporidium muris (n = 7) were identified. The gp60 gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was successfully amplified and sequenced in nine C. parvum isolates, all of which belonged to the IIdA15G1 subtype. Observation of the same IIdA15G1 subtype in humans (previously) and in rodents (here) suggests that rodents infected with Cryptosporidium have the potential to transmit cryptosporidiosis to humans. PMID:25579244

  14. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats. PMID:25959691

  15. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil

    Matheus Hillard Farret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

  16. Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry

    Joana Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis trophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ. Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

  17. Identification and genotyping of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. isolates in aquatic birds in the Salburua wetlands, Álava, Northern Spain.

    Cano, Lourdes; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Cardona, Guillermo A; Muadica, Aly Salimo Omar; Lobo, Luis; Carmena, David

    2016-05-15

    Aquatic birds are known to be suitable hosts for a number of avian-specific species and genotypes of the enteric protozoan parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Waterbirds have also been reported as sporadic carriers of species of both pathogens from human or domestic animal origin via environmental contamination. Because aquatic birds can shed substantial amounts of infective Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts to the environment including surface waters intended for human consumption, this situation may pose a potential risk of waterbone zoonotic disease. A total of 265 waterbird faecal samples were collected from May 2014 to June 2015 at Salburua (Álava), one of the most valued continental wetlands in northern Spain. The detection of Giardia oocyst and Cryptosporidium oocysts was carried out by direct fluorescence microscopy and molecular (PCR and sequence analysis) methods targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of the parasites. Typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates at the sub-assemblage level was based on the specific amplification and sequencing of a partial fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. Overall, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 22 (8.3%) and 6 (2.3%), respectively, of the 265 faecal samples analysed. The two only Giardia isolates characterized (one novel, one known) were assigned to the sub-assemblage BIV of G. duodenalis, none of them previously reported in Spanish human isolates. This finding raises doubts about the actual origin of the infection and whether waterbirds may serve as potential source of infective Giardia cysts to humans via waterborne transmission or through direct contact. The six Cryptosporidium isolates obtained were characterized as avian genotype III (n=4), duck genotype b (n=1), and goose genotype Id (n=1), all considered avian-specific and therefore of negligible risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:27084487

  18. In vitro activity of 'Mexican Arnica' Heterotheca inuloides Cass natural products and some derivatives against Giardia intestinalis.

    Rodrguez-Chvez, Jos Luis; Rufino-Gonzlez, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha; Delgado, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal disease that affects humans and other animals caused by parasitic protists of the genus Giardia. Giardia intestinalis (Syn. Giardia lamblia; Giardia duodenalis) infections can cause acute or chronic diarrhoea, dehydration, abdominal discomfort and weight loss. Metronidazole is the most widely used drug for treating giardiasis. Although effective, metronidazol has undesirable secondary effects. Plants used in traditional medicine as antidiarrhoeals or antiparasitics may represent alternative sources for new compounds to treat giardiasis. Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae/Compositae) plant is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine. The following secondary metabolites were isolated from H. inuloides flowers: 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), 7-hydroxycadalene (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-3(4H)-isocadalen-4-one (3), 1R,4R-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocadalen-15-oic acid (4), quercetin (5), quercetin-3,7,3'-trimethyl ether (6), quercetin-3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether (7) and eriodictyol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (8). The activity of these compounds against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites was assessed in vitro as was the activity of the semisynthetic compounds 7-acetoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (9), 7-benzoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (10), 7-acetoxycadalene (11), 7-benzoxycadalene (12), quercetin pentaacetate (13) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14). Among these, 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14) were the most active, whereas the remaining compounds showed moderate or no activity. The G. intestinalis trophozoites exposed to compound 1 showed marked changes in cellular architecture along with ultrastructural disorganization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the giardicidal activity of selected H. inuloides metabolites and some semisynthetic derivatives using an in vitro experimental model of giardiasis. PMID:25363565

  19. Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Xiao, Guosheng; Qiu, Zhiqun; Qi, Junsheng; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Fengdan; Liu, Wenyi; Luo, Jiaohua; Shu, Weiqun

    2013-05-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the biggest lake in the world and a major water source in China. There is no information about occurrence and impact of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on the aquatic ecosystem. 61 surface water samples from 23 monitoring sites and 5 treated effluent samples were collected and analyzed. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found, respectively, in 86.4% and 65.2% of a total of 66 water samples, with high concentrations in treated effluent. The mean percent recovery was 29.14% for oocysts and 34.86% for cysts. A seasonal pattern was observed, with positive samples for Cryptosporidium more frequent in flood period and positive samples for Giardia more frequent in impounding period. Counts of enterococci, fecal coliforms and total coliforms, and turbidity were significantly associated with Cryptosporidium concentration in backwater (water in a main river which is backed up by the Three Gorges Dam) areas of tributaries but not Giardia. High associations were also found between oocyst and cyst in backwater areas of tributaries and cities. The risks of infection and illness due to water consumption in four different exposure routes were estimated. The results showed that swimming in the TGR has the highest infection risk with 1.39 × 10(-3) per time (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-600.3 × 10(-5)) for Cryptosporidium and 2.08 × 10(-4) per time (95% CI: 0.05-878.87 × 10(-6)) for Giardia, while directly drinking unboiled tap water treated with the conventional process has the highest morbidity with 524.98 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 10.35-2040.26) for Cryptosporidium and 5.89 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 0.08-22.67) for Giardia. This study provides new useful information for drinking water plants, health care workers and managers to improve the safety of tap water and deduce the risk of surface water contamination in China. PMID:23478072

  20. [Choledochal cyst].

    Zeithaml, J; Třeška, V; Moláček, J; Heidenreich, F

    2015-09-01

    Choledochal cyst is a rare disease with a considerably higher incidence found in the Asian population. Although its etiology is not completely known, the disease is believed to be associated with anomalies in the anatomy of the biliary tract. While being a benign unit, it is considered as a precancerosis with the risk of conversion to the biliary tract carcinoma. Radical surgical removal with biliary tract reconstruction is the only curative solution. The authors present the case report of a patient with choledochal cyst type I according to Todani PMID:26537103

  1. Evaluation of an inhouse rapid ELISA test for detection of giardia in domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Hankenson, F Claire

    2010-11-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent shedding. We wished to determine whether a commercial rapid ELISA used for Giardia detection in dogs and cats could be used in sheep. Fecal samples collected from sheep (n = 93) were tested with a combination of 6 methods: reference laboratory fecal flotation, reference laboratory ELISA, inhouse fecal flotation, and commercially available tests (enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescence antibody assay, and rapid ELISA). Prevalence of Giardia infection in facility sheep was 11.8% (11 of 93 animals). Of the 11 samples considered positive, 3 were confirmed by multiple testing methods, and 5 were positive by microscopy alone. Inhouse fecal flotation for 8 samples was positive on only 1 of 2 consecutive testing days. The rapid ELISA test exhibited 0% sensitivity for sheep giardiasis. Overall, the examined methods had low sensitivities and low positive predictive values. Despite limitations, microscopic analysis of repeat fecal samples remained the most accurate diagnostic method for ovine giardiasis among the methods tested. PMID:21205445

  2. Population-based analyses of Giardia duodenalis is consistent with the clonal assemblage structure

    Takumi Katsuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite of humans and animals. Genetic characterization of single loci indicates the existence of eight groups called assemblages, which differ in their host distribution. Molecular analyses challenged the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal diplomonad by providing evidence of recombination within and between assemblages. Particularly, inter-assemblage recombination events would complicate the interpretation of multi-locus genotyping data from field isolates: where is a host infected with multiple Giardia genotypes or with a single, recombined Giardia genotype. Methods Population genetic analyses on the single and multiple-locus level on an extensive dataset of G. duodenalis isolates from humans and animals were performed. Results Our analyses indicate that recombination between isolates from different assemblages are apparently very rare or absent in the natural population of Giardia duodenalis. At the multi-locus level, our statistical analyses are more congruent with clonal reproduction and can equally well be explained with the presence of multiple G. duodenalis genotypes within one field isolate. Conclusions We conclude that recombination between G. duodenalis assemblages is either very rare or absent. Recombination between genotypes from the same assemblage and genetic exchange between the nuclei of a single cyst needs further investigation.

  3. Hepatic cysts

    The case of a 38 year-old woman is mentioned, to who was diagnosed hepatic cysts; it consulted for a clinical square of constant abdominal pain in the right hypochondrium, of several months of evolution, not associated with the ingestion of foods. They are practiced among other exams the TAC and echography and it is practiced surgical resection

  4. Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity

    Vanessa do A., Neiva; Maria Nilce S., Ribeiro; Flvia R. F., Nascimento; Maria do Socorro S., Cartgenes; Denise F., Coutinho-Moraes; Flavia M. M. do, Amaral.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared quest [...] ionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50%) of a single plant (64.25%) collected from backyards and gardens (44.34%) and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52%) attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ? IC50 ? 500 ?g/ml), C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ? IC50 ? 250 ?g/ml), and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50 ? 100 ?g/ml). This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.

  5. The generation gap: Proteome changes and strain variation during encystation in Giardia duodenalis.

    Emery, Samantha J; Pascovi, Dana; Lacey, Ernest; Haynes, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in humans is partly owed to its direct and simple life cycle, as well as the formation of the environmentally resistant and infective cysts. Proteomic and transcriptomic studies have previously analysed the encystation process using the well-characterised laboratory genomic strain, WB C6. This study presents the first quantitative study of encystation using pathogenically relevant and alternative assemblage A strains: the human-derived BRIS/82/HEPU/106 (H-106)and avian-derived BRIS/95/HEPU/2041 (B-2041). We utilised tandem MS/MS with a label-free quantitative approach to compare cysts and trophozoite life stages for strain variation, as well as confirm universal encystation markers of assemblage A. A total of 1061 non-redundant proteins were identified from both strains, including trophozoite- and cyst-specific proteomes and life-stage differentially expressed proteins. Additionally, 24 proteins previously classified in the literature as encystation-specific were confirmed as strain-independent markers of encystation. Functional cluster analysis of differentially expressed proteins saw significant overlap between strains, including protein trafficking and localisation in cysts, NEK kinase function, and carbohydrate metabolism in trophozoites. Two significant points of strain specific adaptations in cysts were also identified. B-2041 possessed major up-regulation of the ankyrin repeat protein 21.1 family compared to H-106. Furthermore, cysts of B-2041 retained near-complete VSP variant diversity between cysts and trophozoites, while H-106 lost 45% of its VSP variant diversity between life cycle stages, a constriction previously observed in studies of WB C6. This is the first report of strain variation in the cyst stage in G. duodenalis, and highlights cyst variation and its impacts on reinfection and life cycle success. PMID:26045354

  6. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Alava, North of Spain

    Cardona, Guillermo A. [Livestock Laboratory, Regional Government of Alava, Ctra. de Azua 4, 01520 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Carabin, Helene [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, 801 Northeast 13th Street, Room 309, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Goni, Pilar [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Arriola, Larraitz [Epidemiology Unit, Public Health Division of Guipuzcoa, Basque Government, Av. Navarra 4, 2013 San Sebastian (Spain); Robinson, Guy [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Crespo, Juan C. [Sub-direction of Public Health of Alava, Department of Health, Basque Government, Avda. Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Clavel, Antonio [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Chalmers, Rachel M. [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Carmena, David, E-mail: d.carmena@imperial.ac.uk [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Alava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%-2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%-5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%-9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%-6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Alava.

  7. GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS / Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality

    Saleh, Ali Almannoni; Deisy, Martn Pupo; Alexis, Monzote Lpez; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podra ser capaz de producir daos en rganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se [...] revisaron, previa bsqueda en Medline , todos los artculos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el perodo 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografas y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado tambin fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesin en sal y pimienta del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las ms rigurosamente demostradas. En relacin con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseos e instrumentacin adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qu punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, adems de la continuacin de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploracin de los conocimientos, percepciones y prcticas de los mdicos relacionados con el diagnstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es as, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatolgicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the [...] location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and reactive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

  8. Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs

    Kerem Ural

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purposes of this study were to determine whether secnidazole administered at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, orally, lessens or eliminates Giardia cyst shedding, and to validate the benefit of secnidazole treatment on clinical signs and faecal consistency in lambs naturally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 12 weeks of age lambs were selected and randomly assigned into two groups based on placebo (group C, n=7 untreated control group or treatment (group S, n=10 lambs treated with a single dose of secnidazole at 10 mg/kg. Results. On days 0 and 10, before and after treatment, respectively, reduction in cyst excretion was determined. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded at each sampling day. Conclusions. During the study there was a high (99.98% reduction in cyst excretion in the secnidazol treatment group compared to the positive control group on day 10, resulting in a significant (p<0.001 reduction, making secnidazole highly effective treatment option.

  9. Giardia duodenalis in feedlot cattle from the central and western United States

    Pereira Maria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that has emerged as a significant opportunistic human pathogen. G. duodenalis may have a deleterious effect on animal growth and performance, therefore its potential as a production limiting organism should not be discounted. We therefore undertook this study to determine management and environmental factors in feedlots that influence the prevalence and environmental load of G. duodenalis cysts in fecal material deposited by feedlot cattle in the central and western United States. Results Twenty two feedlots from 7 states were included in the study, and up to 240 fecal samples were collected from pen floors of up to 6 pens per feedlot. Giardia duodenalis cysts were identified and counted using direct immunofluorescent microscopy. The estimated overall point prevalence of G. duodenalis was 19.1%, representing feedlots from a wide range of climates and management systems. Pen-level prevalence varied from 0 to 63.3%, with pen-level shedding estimates ranging from 0 to 261,000 cysts/g feces. Higher environmental temperatures, increased animal density, and increased time in the feedlot were associated with a lower prevalence of G. duodenalis. Removing manure before placing a new group of cattle in a pen was associated with a decreased prevalence of G. duodenalis in fecal pats. Using coccidiostats as a feed additive was associated with a higher prevalence of Giardia. Conclusion Management practices could be employed that would limit the probability that feedlot cattle shed G. duodenalis in their feces and therefore potentially limit contamination of their environment.

  10. Giardia Prevention and Control: General Public

    ... important for children in diapers). If diagnosed with giardiasis, do not swim for at least 1 week ... Risk of Getting Shigellosis, which also applies to giardiasis. Clean up after ill pets and people. Giardia ...

  11. Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites

    Ankarklev Johan; Svärd Staffan G; Lebbad Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetic heterogeneity has become a major inconvenience in the genotyping and molecular epidemiology of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, in particular for the major human infecting genotype, assemblage B. Sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia from patient fecal samples, where one or several of the commonly used genotyping loci (beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are implemented, is often hampered due to th...

  12. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia. PMID:26071205

  13. Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Fars Province, Iran.

    Mohammad Rayani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common human intestinal protozoan parasites worldwide and is endemic throughout the world with a vast range of mammalian hosts. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of G. duodenalis isolates and determine the most common of its assemblages in the patients referring to health centers and hospitals in Fars province, Iran that will be subjected to further molecular investigation.We collected 1000 human fecal samples from health centers and hospitals in Shiraz, Iran in a one year period from September 2009 to August 2010. Microscopic examination for the presence of G. duodenalis cysts and trophozoites was performed by direct wet mount before and after the concentration techniques. Extraction of DNA was performed by Phenol-Chloroform-Isoamylalcohol (PCI. G. duodenalis-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR. A fragment of the SSU-rDNA (292 bp gene was amplified by PCR using the forward primer RH11 and the reverse primer RH4. Genotyping was performed using sequence analysis of G. duodenalis glutamate dehydrogenase gene using primers GDHeF, GDHiF, and GDHiR.The prevalence of Giardia infection was 10.7% (107/1000 examined based on microscopic examination. PCR identified 80% (40/50 of the samples as positive for G. duodenalis based on SSU-rDNA amplification on sucrose gradient samples. Besides, genotyping results indicated 32 isolates (80% as assemblage AII and 8 isolates (20% as assemblage BIII and BIV based on the DNA sequence analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase locus of G. duodenalis.The findings of this study emphasize that Iran (Fars Province is a favorable area for giardiasis with an anthroponotic infection route.

  14. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. dissemination during wastewater treatment and comparative detection via immunofluorescence assay (IFA), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Plutzer, Judit; Noack, Michael J; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-01

    Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters. PMID:26880717

  15. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants one of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection. There are different ways to disinfect these waters, however to date the most common disinf...

  16. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia - Abstract

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater effluents go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants in the United States. One of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection, and to date the most common disinfectants still remain chemi...

  17. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis among children and dogs in a closed socially deprived community from Italy.

    Marangi, M; Berrilli, F; Otranto, D; Giangaspero, A

    2010-12-01

    Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis cysts from humans and animals living in well-defined contexts is useful to study the circulation of isolates and represents a tool to evaluate zoonotic infection risk. The presence of giardiasis in children living in a disadvantaged and socially deprived small Rom community, as well in dogs roaming freely in the same context was carried out by microscopic analysis and beta-giardin gene amplification. Five out of 14 children were found positive at microscopic examination for G. duodenalis and six positive at PCR, while eight out of 14 dogs tested both microscopically and molecularly positive for G. duodenalis. Moreover, most of the children and dogs were symptomatic. Molecular characterization of Giardia positive samples from children and dogs showed 99.5% identity with Giardia Assemblage A1. The dog-specific genotypes C and D were not found. The findings of this survey provide the first European evidence to support the possible role of dogs in zoonotic transmission involving children and stray dogs in a closed context with very low standards of hygiene (i.e. Rom community), and these results show the need to monitor the health of marginal populations to safeguard ethnic minority groups. PMID:20042065

  18. Simplified protocol for DNA extraction and amplification of 2 molecular markers to detect and type Giardia duodenalis.

    Uda-Shimoda, Carla Fernanda; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Pavanelli, Mariana Felgueira; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lcia; Gomes, Mnica Lcia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of 3 kits: QIAmp DNA stool mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), PureLink PCR Purification, and PureLink Genomic DNA (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for DNA extraction, and of 2 molecular markers (heat shock protein [HSP] and ?-giardin genes) for detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis stool samples. The detection and typing limits of the markers were determined by the DNA concentration of trophozoites and cysts and were tested in 26 clinical samples. Of the 3 kits tested, the PureLink PCR Purification gave the best results when tested with clinical samples with low, intermediate, and high numbers of cysts. The DNA extracted from trophozoites and cysts was diluted successively in 1:2 ratios until it was no longer possible to observe the amplified product in polyacrylamide gel. Similarly, a suspension of cysts was diluted until no cysts were observed, and then the DNA was extracted. The amount of DNA of trophozoites and cysts for the typing of the parasite was smaller for the HSP marker than for ?-giardin. Combined use of both markers allowed us to detect DNA of Giardia in parasitologically positive samples in a higher percentage (75%) than the results obtained for each marker and in 1 parasitologically negative sample, indicating that this combination increased the potential to accurately detect and genotype this parasite. We also concluded that the HSP marker has a higher limit of detection and typing than the ?-giardin marker and that the DNA extraction method tested for G. duodenalis is simpler and more efficient than those that are currently in use and can be applied on a large scale. PMID:24207076

  19. Comparative analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and direct microscopy for the diagnosis of Giardia intestinalis in fecal samples

    Shipra Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Giardiasis is one of the most common nonviral infections causing diarrheal illness worldwide. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we evaluated the RIDASCREEN ® Giardia kit for detection of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples and compared the results with direct microscopy. Materials and methods: A total of 360 fecal samples were collected. They were then processed by wet film, iodine preparation and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit to determine the presence of Giardia trophozoites and cysts. Statistical analysis was performed by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy. Results and Conclusion: Of the 360 cases, 17.2% samples were positive for Giardia by direct microscopy and 23.6% were found to be positive by ELISA (sensitivity ~97%, but specificity was ~92% only. Because of less specificity, we need to perform ELISA in congruence with direct microscopy, etc. Further studies need to be performed on a larger sample size using other molecular tests in order to get more accurate estimations.

  20. Biological and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolates from five hydrographical basins in northern Portugal.

    Almeida, Andr; Moreira, Maria Joo; Soares, Snia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, Joo; Magalhes, Elisabete Silva; Castro, Antnio; Viana Da Costa, Alexandra; Correia da Costa, Jos Manuel

    2010-06-01

    To understand the situation of water contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the northern region of Portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. A total of 283 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623 EPA, USA. Genetic characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing of genes 18S rRNA of Cryptosporidium spp. and beta-giardin of Giardia spp. Infectious stages of the protozoa were detected in 72.8% (206 of 283) of the water samples, with 15.2% (43 of 283) positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, 9.5% (27 of 283) positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and 48.1% (136 of 283) samples positive for both parasites. The most common zoonotic species found were G. duodenalis assemblages A-I, A-II, B, and E genotypes, and Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cryptosporidium muris. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are important public health issues in northern Portugal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw water samples in the northern region of Portugal. PMID:20585525

  1. Hydatid cyst within a choledochal cyst

    Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Shukla, Ram Mohan; Maitra, Sujay; Bhattacharya, Malay; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath

    2013-01-01

    A 5 year 4 months old male child presenting with pain abdomen and jaundice was diagnosed to have type 1 choledochal cyst on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography. On exploration, the cystic dilatation of common bile duct was found to have a hydatid cyst (HC) inside it. The per-operative findings were confirmed by histopathology. Association of HC within a choledochal cyst is extremely rare and has been reported only twice before in the available English literature. PMID:24347872

  2. Pilonidal cyst resection

    Pilonidal abscess; Pilonidal dimple; Pilonidal disease; Pilonidal cyst; Pilonidal sinus ... An infected pilonidal cyst or abscess requires surgical drainage. It will not heal with antibiotic medicines. If you continue to have infections, ...

  3. An infected urachal cyst

    Gami, Bhavna L; Biswas, S

    2013-01-01

    Urachal cysts present very uncommonly in adults. We describe a 25-year-old man who attended with a discharging umbilical swelling and pain. Ultrasonography and CT scan demonstrated an infected urachal cyst which, following cystoscopy, was excised without complication.

  4. Baker’s cyst

    Baker's cyst is a buildup of joint fluid (synovial fluid) that forms a cyst behind the knee. ... in the fluid that lubricates the knee joint (synovial fluid). When pressure builds up, fluid bulges into the ...

  5. Posttraumatic spinal subarachnoid cyst

    A case of posttraumatic compressive subarachnoid cyst of the thoracic spine studied by MR, myelography, and myelo-CT is reported. This cyst was surgically confirmed and treated by shunting. (orig.). With 4 figs

  6. Population-based laboratory surveillance for Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a large Canadian health region

    Laupland Kevin B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia (intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the two most important intestinal parasites infecting North Americans but there is a paucity of active population-based surveillance data from Canada. This study determined the incidence of and demographic risk factors for developing Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a general Canadian population. Methods Population-based laboratory surveillance was conducted among all residents of the Calgary Health Region (CHR; population ≅ 1 million during May 1, 1999 and April 30, 2002. Results Giardia sp. infection occurred at a rate of 19.6 per 100,000 populations per year. Although the yearly incidence was stable, a significant seasonal variation was observed with a peak in late summer to early fall. Males were at higher risk for development of this infection as compared to females (21.2 vs. 17.9 per 100,000/yr; relative risk (RR 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.00–1.40, p = 0.047, and there was a significant decrease in risk associated with an increasing age. Cryptosporidium sp. infection occurred at an overall rate of 6.0 per 100,000 populations per year although a large outbreak of Cryptosporidium sp. infections occurred in the second half of the summer of 2001. During August and September of 2001, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis was 55.1 per 100,000 per year as compared to 3.1 per 100,000 per year for the remainder of the surveillance period (p Conclusion This study provides important information on the occurrence and demographic risk groups for acquisition of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in a non-selected Canadian population.

  7. Keratinizing dentigerous cyst

    Vaishnavi Sivasankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratinizing dentigerous cyst is a rare entity. This article reports a case of keratinizing dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted mandibular canine. Clinical and radiological features, cone-beam computed tomography findings and histological features of the case are reported along with a discussion on keratinizing odontogenic cysts and the need for follow-up.

  8. Beware the Tarlov cyst.

    Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions. PMID:19110185

  9. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste, E-mail: jeanbaptiste.burnet@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Université de Liège (ULg), Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, 165 avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium); Penny, Christian, E-mail: penny@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Ogorzaly, Leslie, E-mail: ogorzaly@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Cauchie, Henry-Michel, E-mail: cauchie@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2014-02-01

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 10} (oo)cysts.d{sup −1}, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log{sub 10} removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} (oo)cysts.d{sup −1}) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 11} (oo)cysts.day{sup −1}) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 109 and 1010 (oo)cysts.d−1, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log10 removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (106 to 107 (oo)cysts.d−1) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 103 to 1011 (oo)cysts.day−1) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution

  11. Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.

    Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custdio, Jos B A; Sousa, Maria do Cu

    2010-04-01

    The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p < 0.001) since the first hour of incubation and were able to kill almost 50% of the parasites population in a time-dependent manner. The main ultrastructural alterations promoted by essential oils were deformations in typical trophozoite appearance, often roundly shape, irregular dorsal and ventral surface, presence of membrane blebs, electrodense precipitates in cytoplasm and nuclei, and internalization of flagella and ventral disc. Our data suggest that essential oils induced cell death probably by processes associated to the loss of osmoregulation caused by plasmatic membrane alterations. Experiments revealed that the essential oils did not present cytotoxic effects in mammalian cells. In conclusion, T. capitata, O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Romania.

    Mircean, Viorica; Györke, Adriana; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-03-23

    The protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a mammalian-infecting parasite that produces diarrhoea and malabsorption in its hosts. A survey to investigate canine infections with G. duodenalis in Romania was undertaken between June 2008 and December 2009. The objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in different dog populations (kennels, shelters, shepherd, household) using microscopy and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit; (ii) to establish the level of agreement and characteristics of the tests; and (iii) to identify risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression models. Faecal samples were collected from 614 dogs aged from 1 month to 16 years (mean ± SD=2.88 ± 2.86 years). Each sample was tested for the presence of cysts using a flotation method with saturated sodium chloride solution and 416 out of 614 stool samples were further examined for the presence of G. duodenalis specific antigens using Giardia Microwell ELISA (SafePath™ Laboratories). Giardia cysts were identified in 8.5% of total dogs (52/614) and statistical significantly more frequently in dogs living in communities. The cysts prevalence according with dog populations was as follows: 7.2%(9/125) in kennel dogs; 16.5%(27/164 in shelter dogs; 4.3%(2/46) in shepherd dogs; 4.8%(4/84) in household dogs from urban areas; and 5.1%(10/195) in household dogs from rural areas. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection by ELISA was 34.6% (144/416). The prevalence was significantly higher in kennel dogs (50%; 13/26), shelter dogs (47.7%; 74/155) and shepherd dogs (40.5%; 17/42) than in household dogs from urban areas (34.1%; 15/44) and household dogs from rural areas (16.8%; 25/149). It was noticed poor agreement between microscopy and ELISA (k=0.19). The microscopy performed best, with an Youden Index of 0.74, a Se of 73.68% and a Sp of 100%. ELISA had 100% Sp, but only 19.44% Se. Young dogs (up to 12 months age) and living in communities were identified as risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression analysis. 71.2% (37/52) Giardia cysts positive dogs presented co-infections with other intestinal parasites: Toxocara canis (14/52; 26.9%), Isospora ohioensis (12/52; 23.1%), Ancylostoma caninum (9/52; 17.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (7/52; 13.5%), Trichocephalus vulpis (6/52; 11.5%), Hammondia heydorni/Neospora caninum (5/52; 9.6%), Sarcocystis spp. (5/52; 9.6%), Isospora canis (4/52; 7.7%), Capillaria aerophila (3/52; 5.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (2/52; 93.8%), Dipylidium caninum (1/52; 1.9%) and Toxascaris leonina (1/52; 1.9%). PMID:21899952

  13. Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life

    Camila Belmonte Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá is a neo-tropical mammal with has a wide distribution in Brazil. In the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, RS, a fecal sample from a specimen captured for treatment was collected and analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate for research of parasites. A large number of cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. The results indicate that L. weeidi is a host of these protozoa.

  14. Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst

    Amber Şenel; Rıfat Rasier; Alper Şengül; Erdal Yüzbaşıoğlu; Özgür Artunay; Halil Bahçecioğlu

    2011-01-01

    Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

  15. Pathophysiology of enteric infections with Giardia duodenalis

    Buret A.G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia is the most prevalent human intestinal parasitic protist in the world, and one of the most common parasite of companion animals and young livestock. Giardia is a major cause of diarrhea in children and in travelers. The host-microbial interactions that govern the outcome of infection remain incompletely understood. Findings available to date indicate that the infection causes diarrhea via a combination of intestinal malabsorption and hypersecretion. Malabsorption and maldigestion mainly result from a diffuse shortening of epithelial microvilli. This enterocytic injury is mediated by activated host T lymphocytes. Pathophysiological activation of lymphocytes is secondary to Giardia-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions, which in turn increases intestinal permeability. Loss of epithelial barrier function is a result of Giardia-induced enterocyte apoptosis. Recent findings suggest that these effects may facilitate the development of chronic enteric disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and allergies, via mechanisms that remain poorly understood. A newly discovered SGLT-1 glucose uptake-mediated host cytoprotective mechanism may represent an effective modulator of the epithelial apoptosis induced by this parasite, and, possibly, by other enteropathogens. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of giardiasis will shed light on new potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Identification of Zoonotic Genotypes of Giardia duodenalis

    Sprong, H.; Cacciò, S.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B; Enemark, Heidi L.; ZOOPNET network and partners, on behalf of the

    2009-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. Transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect...

  17. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Álava, North of Spain

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Álava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%–2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%–5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%–9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%–6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Álava.

  18. Cyst vallecula unusual presentation

    Nathani, Naresh; Verma, P. C.; Sharma, Man Prakash

    2006-01-01

    Laryngeal cysts, particularly cyst vallecula are generally benign lesions which cause mild dysphagia or change in voice. We report here a case of cyst vallecula that caused soreness of throat, dysphagia and change in voice. A 22-year male presented with progressive dysphagia and muffled voice secondary to a large cystic mass involving entire vallecula and during coughing presented in oral cavity. Per oral marsupilization done and the problem resolved.

  19. Hemorrhagic Lumbar Synovial Cyst

    Park, Hyun Seok; Sim, Hong Bo; Kwon, Soon Chan; Park, Jun Bum

    2012-01-01

    Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are an uncommon cause of back and radicular pain. These cysts most frequently present as back pain, followed by chronic progressive radiculopathy or gradual onset of symptoms secondary to spinal canal compromise. Although less common, they can also present with acute spinal cord or root compression symptoms. We report of a case in which hemorrhaging into a right L2-3 facet synovial cyst caused an acute onset of back pain and radiculopathy, requiring surgical...

  20. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without e...

  1. Hydatid cyst of mediastinum

    Sehgal S; Mishra B; Thakur A; Dogra V; Loomba P; Banerjee A.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of hydatid cyst of the mediastinum in a 32-year-old female patient who was admitted with chest pain. CT scan reported posterior mediastinal mass towards the right side. Surgical exploration revealed a loculated cyst in posterior mediastinum on the right side, adherent to the overlying lung and underlying bone. Posterolateral thoracotomy was performed for cyst aspiration and excision. The patient was discharged on albendazole.

  2. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst

    Vivek Manchanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts occur due to the anomalous development of the primitive tracheobronchial tree early in fetal life. They are usually present in middle mediastinum. Rarely, they have been found in other locations. We describe two patients with subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts located over manubrium sterni with special emphasis on the difficulties in pre-operative diagnosis. The two boys were managed by complete excision of the cysts. The children are well on follow-up.

  3. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in dairy calves in British Columbia.

    M. E. Olson; Guselle, N J; O'Handley, R M; Swift, M L; McAllister, T. A.; Jelinski, M D; Morck, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Giardia infections in dairy calves and to compare Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections in calves of different ages. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 386 male and female Holstein calves (newborn to 24 wk) in 20 dairies located in the lower Fraser river valley area of British Columbia. Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium muris were enumerated in each sample after concentration by sucrose gradient centri...

  4. Pineal cysts in children.

    Lacroix-Boudhrioua, V; Linglart, A; Ancel, P Y; Falip, C; Bougnères, P F; Adamsbaum, C

    2011-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of pineal cysts found on MRI in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective monocentric study of all brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed under the same technical conditions for checking the idiopathic nature of short stature (ISS group, n = 116) and for the investigation of central precocious puberty (CPP) over a 3-year period (n = 56). Dimensions, wall and septal thickness, number of locules, signal intensity, and the presence of a solid component were analysed. Ten of 19 cysts were re-evaluated (follow-up interval 4-28 months). The prevalence of the pineal cysts was compared between the two groups using χ2 and Fisher's exact tests, and a significance threshold of p < 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of cysts was comparable in the two groups, CPP (10.7%) and ISS (11.2%). Cyst characteristics were similar in the two groups and 74% had thin septations. None of the cysts changed on follow-up. None of the children with pineal cysts exhibited neurological signs. CONCLUSION: Benign pineal cysts are a common finding in young children. High-resolution MRI demonstrates that these cysts are often septated. This pattern is a normal variant and does not require follow-up MR imaging or IV contrast media. PMID:22347985

  5. Management of ovarian cysts

    Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Tabor, Ann; Mosgaard, Berit Jul; Andersen, Erik Soegaard; Kjer, Jens Jørgen; Hahn-Pedersen, Suzanne; Toftager-Larsen, Kim; Mogensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    diagnosis and the treatment are assessed in relation to age, menopausal status, pregnancy, and whether the cyst is presumed to be benign or malignant. In general, expectant management is the choice in premenopausal and pregnant women with non-suspicious cysts and normal levels of CA-125. In postmenopausal...... women, unilocular, anechoic cysts less than 5 cm in diameter together with a normal CA-125 may be followed up. Operation is recommended in women with cysts larger than 5 cm and/or elevated levels of CA-125. Women with symptoms should be operated regardless of age, menopausal status, or ultrasound...

  6. Identification of Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an epizoological investigation of a laboratory colony of prairie dogs, Cynomys ludovicianus.

    Roellig, Dawn M; Salzer, Johanna S; Carroll, Darin S; Ritter, Jana M; Drew, Clifton; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Keckler, M Shannon; Langham, Gregory; Hutson, Christina L; Karem, Kevin L; Gillespie, Thomas R; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Damon, Inger K; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-05-30

    Since 2005, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) have been collected for use as research animals from field sites in Kansas, Colorado, and Texas. In January of 2012, Giardia trophozoites were identified by histology, thin-section electron microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining in the lumen of the small intestine and colon of a prairie dog euthanized because of extreme weight loss. With giardiasis suspected as the cause of weight loss, a survey of Giardia duodenalis in the laboratory colony of prairie dogs was initiated. Direct immunofluorescent testing of feces revealed active shedding of Giardia cysts in 40% (n=60) of animals held in the vivarium. All tested fecal samples (n=29) from animals in another holding facility where the index case originated were PCR positive for G. duodenalis with assemblages A and B identified from sequencing triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) genes. Both assemblages are considered zoonotic, thus the parasites in prairie dogs are potential human pathogens and indicate prairie dogs as a possible wildlife reservoir or the victims of pathogen spill-over. Molecular testing for other protozoan gastrointestinal parasites revealed no Cryptosporidium infections but identified a host-adapted Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype group. PMID:25881801

  7. NITAZOXANIDE FOR THE TREATMENT OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS INFECTION: A COMPARATIVE TRIAL WITH SECNIDAZOLE

    Katia BRİTO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nitazoxanide is a 5-nitrothiazolyl derivative with broad-spectrum activity against numerous intestinal protozoa, helminths and anaerobic bacteria licensed in the United States for the treatment of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide (NTZ versus secnidazole (SNZ in the treatment of giardiasis. Method: A randomized controlled open-label trial was carried out at the Cuban Institute of Gastroenterology in adults with confirmed Giardia duodenalis mono-infection. 125 patients were randomly assigned to receive either NTZ [500 mg two times daily for three days (n= 62] or SNZ [2 g single dose (n= 63]. The evaluation of the efficacy was based on parasitological response. All patients were asked to provide three faecal samples on days 3, 5, and 10 after treatment completion. Patients were considered to be cured, if no Giardia trophozoites or cysts were found in any of the three post-treatment faecal specimens evaluated by direct wet mounts and/or after Ritchie concentration techniques. Results: The frequency of cure was a little higher for NTZ [95.2%- (59/62] than for SNZ [93.7%- (59/63] but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Bitter taste was only reported in SNZ treated group were as yellowish coloration of the urine and rash were only reported in NTZ treated group. Nausea and headache were more common in patients treated with SNZ (P<0.05. Conclusion: NTZ, for three days, is as efficacious as a single dose SNZ in the treatment of giardiasis in adults.

  8. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities as aquatic bioindicators of contamination by Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

    Reboredo-Fernndez, Aurora; Prado-Merini, scar; Garca-Bernadal, Teresa; Gmez-Couso, Hiplito; Ares-Mazs, Elvira

    2014-05-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates (community composed mostly by aquatic forms of insects, such as stonefly nymphs, dragonfly nymphs, water bugs or beetle larvae) are often used in biological monitoring programmes to evaluate the ecological status of rivers and thus to indicate the repercussions of anthropogenic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of this indicator community to detect human enteroprotozoan parasites that are transmitted via water. In total, 32 samples of macroinvertebrates were collected, with the aid of surber nets of mesh size 500 ?m, from nine rivers in Galicia (NW Spain), on different occasions between 2005 and 2009. The samples were homogenised (0.04 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2), sieved (150 and 45 ?m mesh), and concentrated (by a diphasic method). Aliquots of the sediments were then analysed by a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies against Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia cysts were detected in one (3.1%) of the samples and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in four (12.5%) of the samples. This work is the first study carried out to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this benthic community. The results demonstrate that benthic invertebrates could be used as bioindicators of contamination by these waterborne protozoans. Moreover, as this aquatic organisms act as intermittent accumulators and its monitoring enables chronological analysis of perturbations, in both the short- and mid-term, this may represent a suitable alternative or complementary method to the usual techniques of detecting human and animal enteropathogens in water samples. PMID:24553978

  9. Prevalence and first genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in beef calves in Vietnam.

    Nguyen, Sam Thi; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Little information is available on the epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis in beef cattle from Vietnam. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and genotypes/assemblages of G. duodenalis in native beef calves younger than 6 months in the region. A total of 412 calf fecal samples, randomly selected from 99 small-scale farms located in DacLac and KhanhHoa provinces, central Vietnam, were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis cysts using the zinc-sulfate flotation method followed by iodine staining. The overall prevalence on the sample and herd levels were 13.8 % (57/412) and 42.4 % (42/99), respectively. Molecular analysis in the β-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes demonstrated the presence of only G. duodenalis assemblage E in the animals. Since assemblage E has been rarely reported in humans, the zoonotic risk in beef calves in the region appears to be minimal. PMID:26922741

  10. Prevalence and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolated from sheep in Henan Province, central China.

    Wang, Haiyan; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Kaifang; Li, Junqiang; Huang, Jianying; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a gastrointestinal protozoan that infects sheep. It is a well-known zoonotic pathogen and sheep have been implicated as a source of human infection. However, there have been few studies of its potential threat to public health in China. We used a multilocus analysis of the beta-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes to examine the occurrence and genotype distribution of G. duodenalis in sheep in China. In total, 716 fresh faecal specimens, including 89 from pre-weaned lambs (3months old) from nine intensive sheep farms in Henan Province, China, were examined for Giardia cysts with microscopy. Of these specimens, 6.65% (47/716; 99% CI: 6.2%-6.92%) from five farms were positive for G. duodenalis. The infection rate was significantly higher in pre-weaned lambs than in post-weaned sheep (12.36% versus 5.74%, respectively; Pgiardiasis in human and sheep in Henan province, central China. PMID:26861620

  11. Detection of Cryptosporidium felis and Giardia duodenalis Assemblage F in a cat colony.

    Fayer, Ronald; Santn, Mnica; Trout, James M; Dubey, J P

    2006-08-31

    Eighteen cats, 3-6 months of age, bred and housed in a closed colony, were transferred from that colony and placed in separate stainless steel cages in a building designed for housing animals. At daily intervals, feces were collected from the litter pans in each cage, pans and cages were cleaned, and fresh food and water were provided. Beginning 4 weeks after the transfer, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were detected in the feces of two cats by brightfield microscopy. For the following 21 days, with minor exceptions, feces from each cat were collected daily and examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and by molecular methods that included DNA extraction, 18S rDNA gene amplification, and DNA sequence analysis. Within those 22 days, every cat was found to be infected with Cryptosporidium felis and excreted oocysts for 6-18 days. Eight of these 18 cats also excreted cysts of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage F, a genotype found only in cats. Six Giardia infections were concurrent during part of the patency with C. felis infections. Neither diarrhea nor other signs of illness were observed in any of the cats during this time. Because C. felis is zoonotic these findings suggest that care should be taken by veterinary health care providers and others in close contact with cats, even when cats appear healthy and asymptomatic. PMID:16621289

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections.

    Thompson, R C A; Ash, A

    2016-06-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are ubiquitous enteric protozoan pathogens of vertebrates. Although recognised as the aetiological agents of disease in humans and domestic animals for many years, fundamental questions concerning their ecology have been unresolved. Molecular tools have helped to better understand their genetic diversity and in so doing have helped to resolve questions about their transmission patterns and associated impacts on public health. However, the value of molecular tools is often complicated by questions concerning their applications, interpretation of results and terminology. Taxonomic issues have, until recently, made it difficult to determine the epidemiology of infections with both Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Similarly, improved understanding of their respective phylogenetic relationships has helped to resolve questions about zoonotic potential and distribution in wildlife. In the case of Cryptosporidium, imaging technologies have complemented phylogenetic studies in demonstrating the parasite's affinities with gregarine protozoa and have further supported its extracellular developmental capability and potential role as an environmental pathogen. PMID:26458528

  13. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring

    Yasemin Bayram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

  14. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oocysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    Maxim Sheludchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP with (n = 1 and without (n = 3 baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation.

  15. Simultaneous detection of the protozoan parasites Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia in food matrices and their persistence on basil leaves.

    Hohweyer, Jeanne; Cazeaux, Catherine; Travaillé, Emmanuelle; Languet, Emilie; Dumètre, Aurélien; Aubert, Dominique; Terryn, Christine; Dubey, Jitender P; Azas, Nadine; Houssin, Maryline; Loïc, Favennec; Villena, Isabelle; La Carbona, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis are emerging pathogen parasites in the food domain. However, without standardized methods for their detection in food matrices, parasitic foodborne outbreaks remain neglected. In this study, a new immunomagnetic separation assay (IMS Toxo) targeting the oocyst's wall of T. gondii was developed using a specific purified monoclonal antibody. Performance of this IMS Toxo coupled to microscopic and qPCR analyses was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and recovery rate (RR) on: i) simple matrix (LOD = 5 oocysts; RR between 5 and 56%); ii) raspberries and basil (LOD = 33 oocysts/g; RR between 0.2 and 35%). Finally, to simultaneously extract the three protozoa from these food matrices, T. gondii oocysts were directly concentrated (without IMS Toxo) from the supernatant of the IMS of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. This strategy associated to qPCR detection led to LOD <1 to 3 (oo)cysts/g and RR between 2 and 35%. This procedure was coupled to RT-qPCR analyses and showed that the three protozoa persisted on the leaves of basil and remained viable following storage at 4 °C for 8 days. These data strengthen the need to consider these protozoa in food safety. PMID:27052700

  16. Epidermoid cyst post dermofasciectomy.

    Henry, Francis P

    2010-01-01

    We report the finding of an unusual presentation of an epidermoid cyst 3 years following dermofasciectomy for Dupuytren\\'s disease. Epidermoid cysts remain a rare entity in the palmoplanter distribution but also a very unusual finding within the confines of a full thickness skin graft.

  17. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention. (orig.)

  18. Arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture.

    Marques, Inês Brás; Vieira Barbosa, José

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital cerebrospinal fluid collections, usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally in children or adolescents. They may become symptomatic after enlargement or complications, frequently presenting with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. We report an unusual case of progressive refractory headache in an adult patient due to an arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture. Although clinical improvement occurred with conservative treatment, the subdural hygroma progressively enlarged and surgical treatment was ultimately needed. Spontaneous rupture is a very rare complication of arachnoid cysts. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space causes sustained intracranial hypertension that may be life-threatening and frequently requires surgical treatment. Patients with arachnoid cysts must be informed on their small vulnerability to cyst rupture and be aware that a sudden and severe headache, especially if starting after minor trauma or a Valsalva manoeuvre, always requires medical evaluation. PMID:24581205

  19. [Primary Retroperitoneal Hydatid Cyst].

    Tali, Servet; Aksu, Ali; Bozdağ, Pınar Gündoğan; Bozdağ, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitosis which is created by Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cysts most of ten settled in the liver and lungs. Hydatid cyst is rarely seen in retroperitoneal. Sixty-three year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of abdominal distention and with back pain in the Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography images, on the posterior of the left kidney, in paravertebral area approximately 15 x 10 cm in size septal cystic lesion was observed retroperitoneally. At laparotomy, partial excision of the retroperitoneal cyst was performed and drainage of the cyst pouch was provided by suction drain. Suction drain was removed 5 days after surgery. Histopathological diagnosis is was reported as hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease is a endemic disease in our country and it should be known that has a typical placements. PMID:26470935

  20. Imaging of tailgut cysts.

    Shetty, Anup S; Loch, Ronald; Yoo, Naomi; Mellnick, Vincent; Fowler, Kathryn; Narra, Vamsi

    2015-10-01

    Tailgut cysts are congenital lesions that arise from the primitive hindgut in the true embryonic tail but fail to regress during gestation. These lesions are rare and more frequently encountered later in life and more commonly in women, and are the most common primary retrorectal tumor. Tailgut cysts may be asymptomatic or cause rectal bleeding, pain, or symptoms related to mass effect on the rectum or bladder. Pathologically, tailgut cysts are typically multilocular, lined with a variety of epithelial cell types, and are most frequently benign. Imaging is the linchpin of diagnosis due risks associated with biopsy. The purpose of this pictorial review is to present the spectrum of imaging findings associated with tailgut cysts on CT and MRI with focus on the use of advanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging. We present case examples of tailgut cysts, their CT and MR imaging findings, and diagnostic and management considerations. PMID:26017036

  1. Oesophageal duplication cyst mimicking hydatid cyst in endemic areas.

    Akin, Melih; Erginel, Basak; Yildiz, Abdullah; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Sever, Nihat; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2015-09-01

    The cystic appearance of both oesophageal duplications and pulmonary hydatid cysts can cause a misdiagnosis very easily due to rarity of cystic oesophageal duplications beside the higher incidence of hydatid cyst, especially in endemic areas. Here we report a 7-year-old girl with an oesophageal duplication cyst on the left side misdiagnosed as a hydatid cyst. The aim of the study is to report rare oesophageal duplications in the differential diagnosis of intrathoracic cysts. PMID:26702290

  2. Oesophageal duplication cyst mimicking hydatid cyst in endemic areas

    AKIN, Melih; Erginel, Basak; Abdullah YILDIZ; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Sever, Nihat; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    The cystic appearance of both oesophageal duplications and pulmonary hydatid cysts can cause a misdiagnosis very easily due to rarity of cystic oesophageal duplications beside the higher incidence of hydatid cyst, especially in endemic areas. Here we report a 7-year-old girl with an oesophageal duplication cyst on the left side misdiagnosed as a hydatid cyst. The aim of the study is to report rare oesophageal duplications in the differential diagnosis of intrathoracic cysts.

  3. Oesophageal duplication cyst mimicking hydatid cyst in endemic areas

    Akin, Melih; Yildiz, Abdullah; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Sever, Nihat; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    The cystic appearance of both oesophageal duplications and pulmonary hydatid cysts can cause a misdiagnosis very easily due to rarity of cystic oesophageal duplications beside the higher incidence of hydatid cyst, especially in endemic areas. Here we report a 7-year-old girl with an oesophageal duplication cyst on the left side misdiagnosed as a hydatid cyst. The aim of the study is to report rare oesophageal duplications in the differential diagnosis of intrathoracic cysts. PMID:26702290

  4. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recycled waters used for irrigation and first description of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. muris in Greece.

    Spanakos, Gregory; Biba, Anastasia; Mavridou, Athena; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-05-01

    Here, we present the first time findings regarding the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in sewage waters and the first molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species in Greece. Biological treatment plants from three regions in Greece have been investigated. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was by modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast (MZN-AF) and by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFT) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts, whereas nested PCR based on the SSU rDNA assay was used for molecular detection of Cryptosporidium followed by sequencing for the genetic characterization of the species. In total, 73 samples (37 raw sewage samples and 38 of treated water samples) were collected and analyzed. Of the 73 water samples, 4 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and staining, 12 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by nested PCR; 9 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT. We showed that Cryptosporidium cysts are found both in the input and the discharge of the biological treatment plants. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene resulted in the determination of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris Greek isolates. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in wastewaters and the first molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in Greek environments. As the treated water is used for irrigation, or it is discharged into the sea, our findings indicate that biological treatment facilities constitute a possible risk for public health because the related species are prevalent in humans; the results invite for further epidemiological investigations to evaluate the real public health risk in Greece. PMID:25687523

  5. Symptomatic Sacral Perineurial (Tarlov) Cysts

    Sajko, Tomislav; Kova?, Damir; Kudeli?, Nenad; Kova?, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (?1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in ...

  6. [Cysts of the liver

    Hillingso, J.G.; Kirkegaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    Cysts of the liver are discovered in connection with a scope of diseases ranging from simple, infectious, or parasitic to neoplastic cysts. Symptoms, paraclinical, radiological and diagnostic characteristics are described with emphasis on ruling out malignancy. The treatment options from ultrasound...... guided drainage to resections and liver transplantation are discussed. It is concluded that up to 25% of cysts must be treated surgically, because recurrence after percutaneous or laparoscopic treatment is between 5% and 71%, and only resection or liver transplantation are curative Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/14...

  7. Bilateral Testicular Epidermoid Cysts

    Norman Loberant; Shweta Bhatt; Edward Messing; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Testicular epidermoid cysts are the most common benign tumors of the testes, but account for only 1-2% of all testicular tumors. In a young man presenting with a testicular mass, a high index of suspicion must be maintained for the malignant testicular germ cell tumor, which is 50-times more common than testicular epidermoid cyst. Bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts are a very rare condition, with only a few reports in the literature. It is extremely important in this condition to make a co...

  8. ALBENDAZOLE AND ITS ANALOGUES

    J. El harti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of albendazole gainst Echinococcus granulosus cysts is proved, but limited by its poor bioavailability. Some prodrugs of albendazole have been described but no bioavailability study has shown their interest to present. Other authors have synthesized analogues of albendazole that have a better activity against some parasites namely; Toxocara cani, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Taenia crassiceps.

  9. DISINFECTION AND THE CONTROL OF WATERBORNE GIARDIASIS

    In the early 1970's, when giardiasis began to be recognized as an important waterborne disease, the understanding of the effects of disinfectants on the cysts of the etiologic agent, Giardia lamblia, was extremely limited. The results of more recent studies, using improved method...

  10. Apyretic gastrointestinal disorders due to giardiasis contracted in Morocco

    Michael K. Hole

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 32-year-old French man who presented with morning nausea, bloating, frequent flatulence, burping, occasional pyrosis, and alternating diarrhea and constipation two weeks after a trip to Morocco. The diagnosis was established by a parasitological stool exam that revealed cysts of Giardia lamblia. He was successfully treated with tinidazole.

  11. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    Naess Halvor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

  12. Spinal arachnoid cysts

    The clinical and radiological findings in six extradural and nine intradural arachnoid cysts are discussed in relation to previous reports. Only two cysts failed to opacify during positive contrast myelography; in both cases Myodil was used and in one of them contrast medium had entered the cyst on delayed films taken at 24 h. Pain was always improved and generally cured by operation, only two patients having some residual backache. There was permanent improvement of neurological function in only eight cases. The factors associated with poor permanent recovery after surgical treatment were: 1) very marked thinning of the spinal cord by the cyst, and 2) relatively longer duration of paresis - only one case had paresis for under 2 years (mean 4.8 years) compared with only two cases for over 1 year (mean 2 years) in those with good recovery. (orig.)

  13. Simple Kidney Cysts

    ... Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Simple Kidney Cysts Page Content On this page: What are ...

  14. Testicular epidermoid cyst

    Basri akiroglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a benign, non-teratomatous tumour. It is often possible to make the diagnosis pre-operatively, combining typical sonographic features with normal biochemical tumour markers. The accurate pre-operative diagnosis will allow for testis-sparing surgery and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. An 11-year-old boy with testicular epidermoid cyst who presented with pain in testis was presented in this report.

  15. Spinal dermoid cyst

    A 25-year-old male complained of intermittent, sharp pains about the left eye and in the left side of the chest. Neurological examination revealed paresthesia and impaired perception of touch and pin-pricks in the dermatomes of Th8 and Th9 on the left side. In all four extremities, the muscle stretch reflexes were equal and slightly hyperactive, without weakness or sensory deficits. Metrizamide myelography showed defective filling at the level between the upper 8th and 9th thoracic vertebrae. The lesion was also demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) scan performed 1 hour later, appearing as an oval, radiolucent mass in the left dorsal spinal canal, which compressed the spinal cord forward and toward the right. Serial sections of the spinal canal revealed the lesion to be partly filled with contrast medium. Repeat CT scan 24 hours after metrizamide myelography showed more contrast medium in the periphery of the lesion, giving it a doughnut-shaped appearance. At surgery a smooth-surfaced cyst containing sebum and white hair was totally removed from the intradural extramedullary space. The histological diagnosis was dermoid cyst. There have been a few reported cases of intracranial epidermoid cyst in which filling of the cyst was suggested on metrizamide CT myelography. These findings may complicate the differential diagnosis of arachnoid cyst and dermoid or epidermoid cyst when only CT is used. (author)

  16. Growing Hemorrhagic Choroidal Fissure Cyst

    Gelal, Faz?l; Gurkan, Gokhan; Feran, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal fissure cysts are often incidentally discovered. They are usually asymptomatic. The authors report a case of growing and hemorrhagic choroidal fissure cyst which was treated surgically. A 22-year-old female presented with headache. Cranial MRI showed a left-sided choroidal fissure cyst. Follow-up MRI showed that the size of the cyst had increased gradually. Twenty months later, the patient was admitted to our emergency department with severe headache. MRI and CT showed an intracystic hematoma. Although such cysts usually have a benign course without symptoms and progression, they may rarely present with intracystic hemorrhage, enlargement of the cyst and increasing symptomatology.

  17. Primary Posterior Mediastinum Hydatid Cyst

    Primary posterior mediastinal hydatid cyst is a serious health problem for the Mediterranean countries. We diagnosed a case of a 46-year-old female with a primary posterior mediastinum hydatid cyst on CT and MRI. It was provisionally identified as either a hydatid cyst or bronchogenic cyst or neuroenteric cyst. CT guided aspiration with 18 gauge needle confirmed as hydatid sand. This is very rare in this population but it should be kept in mind when one is looking at any cyst in the posterior mediastinum. (author)

  18. Ovarian chocolate cysts

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

  19. Choledochal cysts: diagnosis and treatment.

    Popova-Jovanovska, R; Genadieva-Dimitrova, M; Trajkovska, M; Serafimoski, V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the different diagnostic procedures and treatment in patients diagnosed with congenital choledochal cysts. Choledochal cysts are congenital anomalies of the bile ducts and include cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic and intrahepatic biliary ducts or both. The study shows ten patients diagnosed as having choledochal cysts. Diagnosis was established by clinical and radiographic findings including: ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatograpy (MRCP), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and cytological examination of the bile juice. In the study choledochal cysts were classified according to the Todani classification. Most common cysts were type I (six cases); type III (one case), type IVa (one case) and two patients were type V cysts (Caroli disease). The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain, jaundice and cholangitis. US findings were sensitive for the preliminary diagnosis of choledochal cysts in all the patients. MRCP accurately defined the cyst anatomy and the site of the biliary origin in all the cases with extrahepatic cysts. In three cases ERCP clearly demonstrated the cyst and by PTC smaller cysts were well defined. Cytological examination of the bile juice obtained during the PTC procedure showed malignant cells in one case. Therefore pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed and pathological examination showed associated cholangiocarcinoma. Five years after the operation the patient was well and free of the disease. Five patients underwent surgical treatment with a total cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy while the surgical approach in two patients was partial cyst excision and cystojejunostomy. Patients with Caroli disease were conservatively treated and 3 with interventional endoscopic procedures. Despite US evidence suggesting choledochal cyst diagnosis, other supportive radiographic imaging modalities such as MRCP, ERCP and PTC are required to define the precise cyst anatomy and are essential for the preoperative assessment. Total cyst excision is recommended for reducing cyst-related complications and risk of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:22952094

  20. Evaluation of silymarin in the treatment on asymptomatic Giardia infections in dogs.

    Chon, Seung-Ki; Kim, Nam-Soo

    2005-12-01

    We have reported previously the efficacy of antiprotozoal drugs against canine giardiasis (In press, Journal of Veterinary Clinic, the Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics). Fenbendazole was found to be the most efficacious for the treatment of canine giardiasis. There were no significant differences between the efficacy of albendazole and fenbendazole against canine giardiasis. On the other hand, the efficacy of metronidazole for the treatment of canine giardiasis, the efficacy was lower when compared to that of albendazole and fenbendazole. On the basis of these results, to evaluate clinical effect of silymarin, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of metronidazole alone, or combined with silymarin for 2 weeks for canine giardiasis. In addition, to observe effects on nutrition, we investigated the changes of body weight, the serum biochemical indicators for liver inflammation (GOT, GPT, NH3), the liver cell regeneration indicators (total protein, albumin) and the hematological changes during treatment (WBC, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC). The dogs were allocated to four groups; one group was treated with silymarin (3.5 mg/kg once a day, oral), another with metronidazole (50 mg/kg once a day, oral), and the other group with silymarin (3.5 mg/kg once a day, oral) plus metronidazole (50 mg/kg once a day, oral), while control group remained nontreated. The fecal samples from all the dogs were examined, using the ZSCT and giardia antigen test kit (SNAP(*) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories), from each dog of each group for three times a week for 2 weeks. Dogs were considered to have giardiasis when one or more of the fecal samples had positive results for Giardia cysts. Seven days after treatment, the efficacy of silymarin plus metronidazole was found 79%, whereas that of metronidazole was 72%. Ten days post-treatment the efficacy of metronidazole plus silymarin (91%) was significantly different in comparison with that of metronidazole (75%). Two weeks post-treatment no cysts were detected in the fecal samples in the dogs of metronidazole or silymarin plus metronidazole-treated groups. Whereas, the fecal samples of all the dogs of the control and only silymarin-treated groups were giardia positive. Signs of side effects were not observed in silymarin plus metronidazole-treated dogs. But poor appetite and intermittent vomiting signs were observed in two dogs of the metronidazole-treated group that resolved when metronidazole administration was discontinued. The body weight of those treated with metronidazole was significantly decreased in comparison with those treated with silymarin and metronidazole plus silymarin. There were significant differences of body weight between the dogs treated with silymarin and metronidazole. Two weeks after metronidazole treatment, serum concentration of GOT, GPT and NH3 were significantly increased in comparison with those treated with silymarin. On the other hand, the serum concentration of GOT, GPT and NH3 were not significantly increased when treated with silymarin plus metronidazole compared to those treated with metronidazole. Serum total protein and albumin concentrations were decreased after metronidazole treatment as compared to those treated with silymarin and silymarin plus metronidazole. The concentrations of serum total protein and albumin decreased significantly in metronidazole-treated group as compared to that of treated with silymarin. The numbers of WBC and RBC did show significant differences in the dogs treated with metronidazole, while MCV, MCH were significant by different between silymarin and metronidazole-treated dogs. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in MCHC in any groups. These data suggest that silymarin, in supplement with antiprotozoal drugs, can influence the therapy of canine giardiasis. PMID:16151741

  1. Symptomatic pineal cyst: case report.

    Maurer, P K; Ecklund, J; Parisi, J E; Ondra, S

    1990-09-01

    Pineal cysts are being described with increasing frequency since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging. Although pineal cysts are incidental findings in as many as 4% of magnetic resonance imaging studies, symptomatic pineal cysts are quite rare. We present a case of pineal cyst causing aqueductal obstruction with symptomatic hydrocephalus and resultant headache and syncope, which was treated by surgical resection. A review of the relevant literature and discussion follow. PMID:2234341

  2. Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico

    Julio Csar Torres-Romero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were isolated (33/429 from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples or assemblage B (6 samples. RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

  3. Giant Intraabdominal Endometrial Cyst

    Endometriosis is the condition where endometrium gets implanted and flourishes outside the uterine cavity, most commonly in ovary and on the peritoneum which lines the abdominal cavity and viscera. Endometrial cells in areas outside the uterus are influenced by hormonal changes and respond in a way similar to the endometrium inside the uterus. Symptoms often worsen with the menstrual cycle. We present a case of 50 years old female who presented with gross abdominal distension and abdominal pain over years. CT scan showed a huge intraabdominal cyst of unknown origin which was compressing adjacent structures. Patient underwent a high risk operation and whole cyst weighing 214 kg (471 lbs) was removed along with both ovaries and uterus. Histopathologically, it was reported as endometrial cyst. (author)

  4. Pilonidal cyst of the clitoris.

    Kanis, Margaux J; Momeni, Mazdak; Zakashansky, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    A pilonidal cyst is an epithelialized sinus tract or cyst containing hair follicles with a surrounding inflammatory reaction. It usually develops in the sacrococcygeal region with few reports of its development in the genitalia. We present a case of a periclitoral pilonidal cyst in a young woman and its management. PMID:25181383

  5. CERVICAL SYNOVIAL CYST: CASE REPORT

    Found, Ernest; Bewyer, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    A 47-year-old female school teacher with a six-week history of left-sided scapular and arm pain is presented. We report her evaluation and treatment Although lumbar degenerative synovial cysts have been reported over 200 times in the literature,6 cervical synovial cysts are much more rare. This case reports a cervicothoracic junction degenerative synovial cyst presenting as radiculopathy.

  6. Arthroscopic management of popliteal cysts

    Amite Pankaj; Deepak Chahar; Devendra Pathrot

    2016-01-01

    Background: Management of popliteal cyst is controversial. Owing to high failure rates in open procedures, recent trend is towards arthroscopic decompression and simultaneous management of intraarticular pathology. We retrospectively analysed clinical results of symptomatic popliteal cysts after arthroscopic management at 24 month followup. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of hospital database for patients presenting with pathology suggestive of a popliteal cyst from June 2007...

  7. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  8. New observations on meniscal cysts

    Anderson, Jada Jean; Connor, Gregory F.; Helms, Clyde A. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meniscal cysts, assess the frequency of various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, and emphasize radiographic observations not commonly reported. A total of 2,095 consecutive knee MR imaging reports from a 22 month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of meniscal cysts. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the cases where cysts were reported. A meniscal cyst was considered present if abnormally increased signal was identified within an enlarged meniscus (i.e., intrameniscal cyst) or if a loculated fluid-intensity lesion with a clear connection to the adjacent meniscus was identified (i.e., parameniscal cyst). Presence or absence of a meniscal tear, intrameniscal and parameniscal signal intensity, patient age, sex, location of meniscal cyst, presence of discoid meniscus, and size of the parameniscal cyst component were recorded. All knee imaging examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR unit. Imaging findings were correlated with arthroscopic reports when available. A total of 167 cases (8.0%) of meniscal cysts were diagnosed in 161 patients. Of the 167 cysts, 69 (41.3%) were located in the lateral meniscus and 98 (58.7%) in the medial meniscus. In 6 patients (3.7%), meniscal cysts were present in both menisci of the same knee. Twelve (7.2%) meniscal cysts were associated with discoid menisci. Ninety-seven (57.8%) meniscal cysts were associated with meniscal tears. Of the total number of meniscal cysts, 104 (62.3%) had a parameniscal cyst. An isolated intrameniscal cyst was present in 63 (37.7%) cases. One hundred (96%) of the parameniscal cyst components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. All cysts exhibited abnormal intrameniscal signal. Only 14 (8.4%) of the intrameniscal components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. The arthroscopic reports of 88 of the 161 (54.7%) patients were available for review and correlation. A tear extending to the articular surface of the meniscus was reported to be present in 74 of the 88 (84%) arthroscopic examinations. Knowledge of the spectrum of findings and the relative frequency of various MR imaging characteristics as well as common potential pitfalls is important to the accurate diagnosis and management of mensical cysts. In particular, controversy exists as to the incidence of articular surface tears in association with meniscal cysts, with some authors reporting greater than 98% correlation with tears. Only 58% of cysts were associated with an articular surface tear. Ninety six percent of the parameniscal signal was isointense to fluid, only 8% of the intramensical signal was isointense to fluid. (orig.)

  9. Abdominal neurenteric cyst

    Radoje Colovi?, Marjan Micev, Miodrag Jovanovi?, Slavko Mati?, Nikica Grubor, Henry Dushan E Atkinson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurenteric cysts are extremely rare congenital anomalies, often presenting in the first 5 years of life, and are caused by an incomplete separation of the notochord from the foregut during the third week of embryogenesis. They are frequently accompanied with spinal or gastrointestinal abnormalities, but the latter may be absent in adults. Although usually located in the thorax, neurenteric cysts may be found along the entire spine. We present a 24-year-old woman admitted for epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, low grade fever and leucocytosis. She underwent cystogastrostomy for a loculated cyst of the distal pancreas at the age of 4 years, which recurred when she was at the age of 11 years. Ultrasound and computer tomography (CT scan revealed a 16 cm 15 cm cystic mass in the body and tail of pancreas, with a 6-7 mm thickened wall. Laboratory data and chest X-ray were normal and spinal radiographs did not show any structural abnormalities. The patient underwent a complete cyst excision, and after an uneventful recovery, remained symptom-free without recurrence during the 5-year follow-up. The cyst was found to contain 1200 mL of pale viscous fluid. It was covered by a primitive single-layered cuboidal epithelium, along with specialized antral glandular parenchyma and hypoplastic primitive gastric mucosa. Focal glandular groups resembling those of the body of the stomach were also seen. In addition, ciliary respiratory epithelium, foci of squamous metaplasia and mucinous glands were present. The wall of the cyst contained a muscular layer, neuroglial tissue with plexogenic nerve fascicles, Paccini corpuscle-like structures, hyperplastic neuro ganglionar elements and occasional psammomatous bodies, as well as fibroblast-like areas of surrounding stroma. Cartilagenous tissue was not found in any part of the cyst. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of neurogenic elements marked by S-100, GFAP, NF and NSE. The gastric epithelium showed mostly CK7 and EMA immunoexpression, and the respiratory epithelium revealed a CK8 and CK18 immunoprofile without CK 10/13 positive elements, though neither CEA or AFP positive cells were found. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an abdominally located neurenteric cyst with no associated spinal anomalies.

  10. Odonto calcifying cyst

    Nalini Aswath; Kader Mastan; Tirupathi Manikandan; Gigi Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO) may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%). The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5%) was a well-defined, mixed radiolucen...

  11. Giant synovial cysts

    Giant synovial cysts (GSC) are large, well-defined cavities, containing synovial fluid and lined by a synovium-like membrane, which extend for a variable distance outside the joint cavity. We are reporting 15 cases of GSC of various joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common disease process reported in association with GSC. We suggest that trauma may be a more important cause of GSC than has previously been described. Arthrography and ultrasonography are both helpful in diagnosing these large cysts, especially in the knee to aid in differentiating GSC from thrombophlebitis. (orig.)

  12. Congenital pancreatic cysts

    Seddighy A

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cyst of the pancreas is an uncommon problem in the pediatric patient. The common symptoms at the time of diagnosis have been abdominal mass and pain or fullness, nausea and vomiting. Despite of various paraclinic methods for diagnosis, ultrasound is now recognized as the most effective and best noninvasive method for diagnosis of pancreatic cyts. Surgical intervention is the best mode of therapy. Upper abdominal cystic mass are seen in the fetus and newborn infants. In Amirkabir Hospital, during 12 years from 1981 to 1993, 8 pancreatic cysts have been operated on and only in this case it was congenital.

  13. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Enemark, Heidi L.; Vigre, Håkan

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and...... sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg...... groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf...

  14. Giardia duodenalis genotypes in domestic and wild animals from Romania identified by PCR-RFLP targeting the gdh gene.

    Adriana, Gy?rke; Zsuzsa, Kalmr; Mirabela Oana, Dumitrache; Mircea, Gherman C?lin; Viorica, Mircean

    2016-02-15

    Sixty Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic (n=49) and wild (n=11) animals (dogs, cats, deers, wolves, raccoon dog and muskrat) were analysed by PCR-RFLP at glutamate dehydrogenase locus (gdh). The isolates were obtained from positive feces samples for Giardia cysts analysed by flotation technique with saturated sodium chloride solution (specific gravity 1.28). Three G. duodenalis genotypes were identified: C (10/60; 16.7%); D (42/60; 70.0%); and E (7/60; 11.7%). In dogs all three genotypes were found, with the following prevalences: 76.9% genotype D (30/39); 23.1% C (9/39); 2.6% genotype E (1/39). One dog was co-infected with C and D genotypes. In cats we identified only G. duodenalis genotype D. Wolves and raccoon dog harbored infection with G. duodenalis genotype D, deers with E type and muskrat C type. This is the first study regarding genotyping of G. duodenalis in cats and wild animals from Romania. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblages E in roe deers; assemblage C in wolves and muskrat; and assemblage D in raccoon dog. PMID:26827864

  15. Imaging of nasopharyngeal cysts and bursae

    Cysts and bursae of the nasopharynx are uncommon and seldom symptomatic when compared with malignant tumors of this region. However, it is noteworthy that in the presence of symptoms, a good knowledge of their radiological appearance is useful to establish the correct diagnosis. Cysts of Rathke's pouch, pharyngeal bursa of Luschka, Tornwaldt's cysts, retentional cysts of the seromucinous glands, oncocytic cysts, intra-adenoid cysts, branchial cysts, prevertebral or retropharyngeal abscess and pseudocysts of the nasopharynx will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  16. Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.

    Sajko, Tomislav; Kova?, Damir; Kudeli?, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

    2009-12-01

    Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts. PMID:20102100

  17. Intrathoracic duplication cyst

    Retrospective review of thoracic enteric cysts diagnosed in a Regional Children's Hospital over a 28-year period are presented. Fifteen of the 17 children presented in the first year of life. There were eight associated anomalies of the gastrointestinal and nervous system. The radiological findings are discussed in detail. 16 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Odonto calcifying cyst

    Nalini Aswath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%. The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5% was a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a single large cyst with tooth-like structures as an integral part, giving the impression of a single lesion. In addition to the unique histologic features, differences in gender and distribution were found between the cases of COCaO and those of simple COC. COCaO may be regarded as a separate entity and classified as a benign, mixed odontogenic tumor. The term odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst is suggested.

  19. Preliminary data on the efficacy of a Giardia vaccine in puppies.

    Olson, M. E.; Morck, D W; Ceri, H.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty puppies were vaccinated with a trophozoite-derived Giardia vaccine on day 0 and boosted on day 21 (Group 1); 10 control puppies received only saline (Group 2). Both groups were experimentally infected on day 35 with 1 x 10(6) Giardia duodenalis trophozoites by intraduodenal injection. Immunization provided protection to experimental Giardia infection.

  20. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia.

  1. Pineal cysts in children

    Lacroix-Boudhrioua, V.; Linglart, A; Ancel, P. Y.; Falip, C.; Bougnères, P F; Adamsbaum, C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and characteristics of pineal cysts found on MRI in children. Methods This is a retrospective monocentric study of all brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed under the same technical conditions for checking the idiopathic nature of short stature (ISS group, n = 116) and for the investigation of central precocious puberty (CPP) over a 3-year period (n = 56). Dimensions, wall and septal thickness, number of locules, signal intensity, a...

  2. Maxillary Air Cyst

    Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and v...

  3. A Wayward Cyst

    Antwan Atia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Pseudocysts are a common complication of acute and chronic pancreatitis. These are usually located within the pancreas but they can occur at other sites as well, including the mediastinum, neck, pelvis and rarely in the liver as in our case. The diagnosis of intrahepatic pancreatic pseudocyst relies on the demonstration of a high amylase level in the sampled cystic fluid in the absence of infection or neoplasm. Case report A 60-year-old man with a history of chronic pancreatitis presents with a clinical and laboratory picture suggestive of acute exacerbation of his pancreatitis. A computed tomogram (CT scan of the abdomen revealed a pancreatic pseudocyst and a cystic lesion involving both lobes of the liver. CT diagnostic aspiration of the intrahepatic cyst revealed high amylase level (greater than 20,000 U/L. The cyst was treated with percutaneous drainage with complete resolution of the cyst. Conclusion In the setting of pancreatitis, intrahepatic pancreatic pseudocyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesion of the liver.

  4. Radiculopathy Caused by Discal Cyst

    Kim, Sae Young

    2013-01-01

    Discal cyst is an intraspinal cyst with a distinct communication with the corresponding intervertebral disc. It is a rare condition and could present with radiculopathy similar to that caused by lumbar disc herniation. We present a patient with a large discal cyst in the ventrolateral epidural space of the 5th lumbar vertebral (L5) level that communicated with the adjacent 4th lumbar and 5th lumbar intervertebral disc, causing L5 radiculopathy. We alleviated the radiating pain with selective ...

  5. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney.

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female. PMID:26941503

  6. Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Trout, James M; Santn, Mnica; Fayer, Ronald

    2006-06-01

    Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes. PMID:17312792

  7. Impact of environmental conditions on the survival of cryptosporidium and giardia on environmental surfaces.

    Alum, Absar; Absar, Isra M; Asaad, Hamas; Rubino, Joseph R; Ijaz, M Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The die-off coefficient rates (K) were calculated using first-order exponential formula. For both parasites, the fastest die-off was recorded on fabric, followed by ceramic, formica, skin, and steel. Die-off rates were directly correlated to the incubation temperatures and surface porosity. The presence of organic matter enhanced the survivability of the resting stages of test parasites. The decay rates calculated in this study can be used in models for public health decision-making process and highlights the mitigation role of hand hygiene agents in their prevention and control. PMID:25045350

  8. Characterization and separation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia cells using on-chip dielectrophoresis.

    Narayanan Unni, Harikrishnan; Hartono, Deny; Yue Lanry Yung, Lin; Mah-Lee Ng, Mary; Pueh Lee, Heow; Cheong Khoo, Boo; Lim, Kian-Meng

    2012-03-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been shown to have significant potential for the characterization of cells and could become an efficient tool for rapid identification and assessment of microorganisms. The present work is focused on the trapping, characterization, and separation of two species of Cryptosporidium (C. parvum and C. muris) and Giardia lambia (G. lambia) using a microfluidic experimental setup. Cryptosporidium oocysts, which are 2-4??m in size and nearly spherical in shape, are used for the preliminary stage of prototype development and testing. G. lambia cysts are 8-12??m in size. In order to facilitate effective trapping, simulations were performed to study the effects of buffer conductivity and applied voltage on the flow and cell transport inside the DEP chip. Microscopic experiments were performed using the fabricated device and the real part of Clausius-Mossotti factor of the cells was estimated from critical voltages for particle trapping at the electrodes under steady fluid flow. The dielectric properties of the cell compartments (cytoplasm and membrane) were calculated based on a single shell model of the cells. The separation of C. muris and G. lambia is achieved successfully at a frequency of 10?MHz and a voltage of 3 Vpp (peak to peak voltage). PMID:22662073

  9. Molecular identification of zoonotic and livestock-specific Giardia-species in faecal samples of calves in Southern Germany

    Gillhuber, Julia; Pallant, Louise; Ash, Amanda; Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Giardia-infection in cattle is often subclinical or asymptomatic, but it can also cause diarrhoea. The livestock-specific species Giardia bovis is the most frequently observed in cattle, however, the two zoonotic species Giardia duodenalis and Giardia enterica have also been found. Therefore calves are thought to be of public health significance. The aim of this study was to obtain current data about the frequency of the different Giardia-species in calves in Southern Germany. Fin...

  10. [Rathke's pouch cyst: case report].

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Madalosso, Fabiola A; Hohmann, Fbio B

    2003-06-01

    The Rathke's pouch cysts are a relatively common autopsy finding, but rarely have they been reported as a clinical entity. We report a Rathke's pouch cyst patient's case with visual impairment and emphasize aspects like clinical presentation, radiological studies and treatment. Many published series about this pathology have been reviewed and compared with the present case. PMID:12806513

  11. Intracranial and orbital hydatid cysts

    Parasitic diseases involving brain and orbit are relatively rare in Tunisia; the most frequently encountered is the hydatid cyst, 55 examples of which were seen since CT scanning was introduced into Tunisia 2 years ago. Various aspects of the intracerebral and orbital hydatid cysts are reported and a tentative classification is made based on characteristics revealed by CT. (orig.)

  12. Fictitious pancreatitis in choledochal cyst.

    Stringel, G; Filler, R M

    1982-08-01

    The classical presentation of choledocal cyst has been regarded as a triad of abdominal pain, jaundice and a palpable abdominal mass; unusual presentations include rupture of the choledocal cyst with bile peritonitis, pancreatitis and bleeding esophageal varices. We are reporting 3 children presenting clinically as recurrent acute pancreatitis with elevated serum amylase and found to have type I choledocal cyst. Despite elevated serum amylase there was no evidence of pancreatic inflammation at laparotomy. High amylase concentration was found in fluid contained within the cyst. This was probably responsible for the elevated serum amylase and also the inflammatory reaction seen in the wall of the choledocal cyst. These cases support the hypothesis that pancreatic reflux into the bile ducts is the etiological factor in the development of choledocal cyst. Our 3 cases were treated by cyst excision and have remained asymptomatic. The presence of hyperamylasemia should not delay appropriate surgical management. The treatment of choice is cyst excision, since it will eliminate factors contributing to the development of cholangitis and hyperamylasemia. PMID:6181241

  13. DNA extraction from protozoan oocysts/cysts in feces for diagnostic PCR.

    Hawash, Yousry

    2014-06-01

    PCR detection of intestinal protozoa is often restrained by a poor DNA recovery or by inhibitors present in feces. The need for an extraction protocol that can overcome these obstacles is therefore clear. QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) was evaluated for its ability to recover DNA from oocysts/cysts directly from feces. Twenty-five Giardia-positive, 15 Cryptosporidium-positive, 15 Entamoeba histolytica-positive, and 45 protozoa-free samples were processed as control by microscopy and immunoassay tests. DNA extracts were amplified using 3 sets of published primers. Following the manufacturer's protocol, the kit showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% towards Giardia and Entamoeba. However, for Cryptosporidium, the sensitivity and specificity were 60% (9/15) and 100%, respectively. A series of optimization experiments involving various steps of the kit's protocol were conducted using Cryptosporidium-positive samples. The best DNA recoveries were gained by raising the lysis temperature to the boiling point for 10 min and the incubation time of the InhibitEX tablet to 5 min. Also, using a pre-cooled ethanol for nucleic acid precipitation and small elution volume (50-100 l) were valuable. The sensitivity of the amended protocol to Cryptosporidium was raised to 100%. Cryptosporidium DNA was successfully amplified by either the first or the second primer set. When applied on parasite-free feces spiked with variable oocysts/cysts counts, ? 2 oocysts/cysts were theoretically enough for detection by PCR. To conclude, the Qiagen kit with the amended protocol was proved to be suitable for protozoan DNA extraction directly from feces and support PCR diagnosis. PMID:25031466

  14. Paraurethral cyst. A case report

    Emilio Vega Azcúe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paraurethral or Skene’s duct cyst, is a rare diagnostic entity in a newborn. It represents less than 0,5 % of congenital malformations of the urinary tract. All over the world it is reported an incidence of 1:2000 to 1:7000 in female births. In the newborn, the paraurethral cyst is caused by retention of secretions in the Skene's gland due to the obstruction of its ducts. Most of these cysts decrease in size during the first four to eight weeks, but they may cause symptoms of infection or urinary obstruction. They can also get formed from persistent embryonic remains of the mesonephric ducts (Wolffian duct, known as Gartner cysts and from the occlusion of unfused paramesonephric ducts (Müllerian. The case of a 25-day-old female, diagnosed with paraurethral cyst that underwent surgery and evolved successfully is presented.

  15. Intraepithelial giardia intestinalis: a case report and literature review.

    Martínez-Gordillo, Mario Noé; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Montijo-Barrios, Ericka; Ponce-Macotela, Martha

    2014-12-01

    The giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease. The WHO has estimated more than 280 million of human infections each year; however, intraepithelial giardiasis is a rare entity, there are only 5 reports showing invasive giardiasis. A pediatric female patient with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea, or pasty stools, without fever, was seen in the Gastroenterology and Nutrition Service. The stool studies were negative for pathogens and lactose hydrogen breath test was positive. The presumptive clinical diagnosis was giardiasis and the patient was empirically treated with nitazoxanide. But, the patient persisted with abdominal pain and pasty stools. Endoscopy was indicated to search for Helicobacter and Giardia. Guardian and patient gave written informed consent. Hematological profile was normal. The endoscopy was performed under general anesthesia and the biopsies and duodenal aspirate were obtained. The microscopic analyses of duodenal fluid showed Giardia trophozoites. Electron microscopic analysis was negative for Helicobacter pylori, but Giardia trophozoites with a typical crescent shape within the tissue were found. The patient was treated with tinidazole, subsequent tests showed that lactose absorption was normal, stool examinations were negative for Giardia and abdominal pain had stopped. This case suggest that intraepithelial giardiasis could be a common entity but unseen because the giardiasis diagnosis is usually made on fecal samples. Future studies are necessary to determine the role of intraepithelial trophozoites in giardiasis pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25546671

  16. Transcriptional profiling of Giardia intestinalis in response to oxidative stress.

    Ma'ayeh, Showgy Y; Knrr, Livia; Svrd, Staffan G

    2015-12-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a microaerophilic parasite that infects the human upper small intestine, an environment that is fairly aerobic with reactive oxygen species being produced to fight off the parasite. It is quite perplexing how Giardia, lacking conventional eukaryotic antioxidant machinery (e.g. catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase), can cope with the oxidative stress in this environment. We used transcriptomics (RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR) to study giardial gene expression changes in response to oxygen (O2; 1h) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 150?M, 500?M and 1mM for 1h). The results showed phenotypic and transcriptional differences between Giardia isolates of different genotypes (WB, assemblage A and GS, assemblage B), with GS being more tolerant to H2O2 and exhibiting higher basic transcript levels of antioxidant genes (e.g. NADH oxidase lateral transfer candidate, peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) and thioredoxin (Trx)-like proteins). Cysteine is a major antioxidant in Giardia and its role in oxidative defense could be highlighted here by the up-regulation of gene transcripts encoding the cysteine-rich variable surface proteins (VSPs) and high cysteine membrane proteins (HCMPs). Genes in the thioredoxin system (Prx1, Trx and Trx reductase) occupied a central role in the gene expression response to oxidative stress, together with genes encoding metabolic (NADPH-producing enzymes, glutathione and glycerol biosynthetic enzymes) and O2-consuming nitric oxide detoxification enzymes (e.g. nitroreductase, flavohemoprotein and a flavodiiron protein). This study reveals the intricate network of genes associated with the oxidative stress response in Giardia, and provides a stepping-stone towards future studies at the protein level. PMID:26341007

  17. Surgical management of symptomatic pineal cysts.

    Wisoff, J H; Epstein, F

    1992-12-01

    The authors present a series of six patients with large symptomatic benign pineal cysts and review the 27 patients previously reported in the literature. Patients with symptomatic pineal cysts most often present with one of three syndromes: 1) paroxysmal headache with gaze paresis; 2) chronic headache, gaze paresis, papilledema, and hydrocephalus; or 3) pineal apoplexy with acute hydrocephalus. Surgical intervention with radical cyst removal is the treatment of choice for all symptomatic pineal cysts. Complete cyst removal is desirable; however, radical subtotal resection is appropriate if the cyst cannot be easily separated from the quadrigeminal plate. Ventricular shunting should be reserved for patients with persistent hydrocephalus after cyst resection. PMID:1432132

  18. Imaging of nasopharyngeal cysts and bursae

    Ben Salem, D.; Ricolfi, Frederic [CHU DIJON, Service de Neuroradiologie et de Radiologie des Urgences, Dijon, Cedex (France); Duvillard, Christian; Ballester, Michel [CHU DIJON, Service d' ORL, Dijon, Cedex (France); Assous, Dorothee [CHU DIJON, Service d' Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques Faculte de Medecine, Dijon, Cedex (France); Krause, Denis [CHU DIJON, Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle, Dijon, Cedex (France)

    2006-10-15

    Cysts and bursae of the nasopharynx are uncommon and seldom symptomatic when compared with malignant tumors of this region. However, it is noteworthy that in the presence of symptoms, a good knowledge of their radiological appearance is useful to establish the correct diagnosis. Cysts of Rathke's pouch, pharyngeal bursa of Luschka, Tornwaldt's cysts, retentional cysts of the seromucinous glands, oncocytic cysts, intra-adenoid cysts, branchial cysts, prevertebral or retropharyngeal abscess and pseudocysts of the nasopharynx will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  19. A giant traumatic iris cyst

    Lott Pooi Wah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 52 year-old construction worker presented with progressive painful blurring of vision in the left eye associated with redness for past 1 month. There was a history of penetrating injury in the same eye 10 years ago and he underwent primary wound toilet and suturing, lens removal with intraocular lens implantation. Slit lamp examination revealed a corneal scar at 9oclock, a large transilluminant iris cyst superotemporally and adherent to corneal endothelium. It was extended from angle of the pupil and obstructing the visual axis. The patient underwent excision of an iris cyst through superior limbal incision. Viscodissection was done to separate the cyst from the corneal endothelium and underlying iris stroma. Trypan blue ophthalmic solution was injected into the cyst to stain the cyst capsule. Post operatively 7 days, vision improved to 6/7.5 without complication. There was no recurrence up to 1 year postoperation. Histopathological finding revealed a benign cyst mass lined by simple cuboidal to nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. We had achieved a good surgical outcome with no complication to date for our case study. We advocate this modified surgical method to completely remove iris cyst.

  20. Computed tomography of arachnoid cyst

    The preoperative diagnosis of intracranial arachnoid cysts has been simplified, and made more rapid and accurate with computed tomography (CT). Using CT cisternography, detailed anatomic and physiologic information of arachnoid cysts could be obtained. CT features of pathologically proven 21 arachnoid cysts that were examined at Chonnam National University Hospital from June 1983 to May 1987 were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1.Prevalent age group was the 1st decade (8 cases) and male to female ratio was 17:4. 2.Clinical features were related to the location of arachnoid cyst, common symptoms were headache (53.3%), convulsion, mental change and walking disturbance. 3.Location of the arachnoid cyst were in supratentorial region (15 cases) most in middle cranial fossa (12 cases), and infratentorial region (6 cases), common at the retrocerebellar cisternal space (3 cases). 4.Shapes of arachnoid cyst were biconvex with straight inner margin (8 cases), spherical (7 cases), simple biconvex (3 cases) and others (3 cases). 5.Size of the arachnoid cyst, in the greatest dimension, was ranged from 2cm to 9cm and commonly distributed between 3cm to 5cm (14 cases). 6.Of all 14 cases, who did CT cisternography using metrizamide (11 cases) and iopamidol (3 cases), 2 cases had communication with the subarachnoid space

  1. Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts

    Tarlov, I. M.

    1970-01-01

    Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

  2. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  3. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  4. MR imaging of pineal cysts

    Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

  5. Aberrent Thoracic Duct Cyst in Postrior Mediastinum

    Park, Soo Jin; Park, Seonng Yong; Choi, Ho

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic duct cysts in the upper portion of the diaphragm are mostly found in the neck and are rarely found in the mediastinum. Thoracic duct cysts should be differentiated from other mediastinal tumors or cysts, and surgical treatment is required to avoid the development of chylothorax if the cyst ruptures. Herein, we report the case of a patient with a thoracic cyst located just above the diaphragm that was treated with surgical resection.

  6. [Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].

    Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

    2008-01-01

    Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery. PMID:19143297

  7. A rare case of tubeculous mesenteric cyst

    Ajay Ashok Gujar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 17 year old female weighing 85 kg with chronic abdominal pain. Radiological imaging techniques revealed it as an enteric duplication cyst or mesenteric cyst. Diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed the cyst originating from mesentery. After laparoscopic excision of this cyst histopathology report was unusual, as a tuberculous mesenteric cyst. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3424-3426

  8. [Large simple liver cyst treated laparoscopically].

    Lazauskas, T; Greif, F; Michowitz, M; Lelcuk, S

    1994-01-01

    Simple liver cysts of various sizes are present in 1% of the population. Most are found incidentally and require no treatment. However, in a few the cyst is symptomatic and requires surgery: celiotomy and unroofing of the cyst. A 64-year-old woman with a symptomatic, simple cyst of the liver underwent laparoscopic surgery. After an uneventful course she was discharged on the 3rd postoperative day. Simple liver cysts can be safely treated by laparoscopic surgery. PMID:8138207

  9. A Rare Case of Mediastinal Cyst: Thoracic Duct Cyst

    Duygu Mergan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic duct cysts are very rarely observed cysts of the mediastinum. These cysts, which can become established in the costovertebral sulcus or the visceral compartment, have generally been reported at the level of the 10th and 11th vertebrae; however, they can be observed at any location along the ductus [1]. A 37-year-old male patient complained of chest pain for the last 3 months that especially increased after meals. He complained of shortness of breath while walking or going up the stairs, for the last month. The lung graphy showed an increased darkening at a 5x6cm smooth (clean-cut, regular, orderly bordered shadow just behind the heart shadow. The patient%u2019s computed thorax tomography showed a retrocardiac-paravertebral, middle line positioned, 8.5x7x6 cm proportioned, regular bordered, thin walled, homogenous cystic bulk at the subcarinal level. The patient, who could not be relieved with medical treatment, was taken to surgery. The lesion was reached by right posterolateral thoracotomy, and drainage of lymph-containing cystic fluid and excision of the cyst walls were performed by incising the thoracic duct cyst with a mediastinal pleura incision. Mass ligation was then performed to the thoracic duct. We wanted to present our thoracic duct cyst case in this article due to the currently limited number of actual cases reported in the literature.

  10. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

    Nagy John

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  11. Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya

    Getrude Shepelo Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal diseases are among the leading causes of calf morbidity and mortality in Kenya and elsewhere. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in calves on smallholder dairy farms (SDF in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya. These infections have been associated with economic losses by decreased growth rates, decreased productivity, and increased susceptibility to other diseases. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted on 109 farms in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya, where 220 calf fecal samples (each calf at 4 and 6 weeks of age from 110 calves (1 set of twins were collected and analyzed for Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and helminth parasites. Results: Eimeria oocysts, Cryptosporidia oocysts, and Strongyloides eggs were detected in the fecal samples examined, but no Giardia cysts were found. The overall period prevalence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 42.7% (47/110, 13.6% (15/110, and 5.4% (6/110, respectively. The prevalence at 4 weeks of age for Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 30.0% (33/110, 8.2% (9/110, and 3.7% (4/109, respectively, while the prevalence at 6 weeks of age was 20.2% (22/109, 6.5% (7/107, and 2.7% (3/110, respectively. There was, however, no significant difference in the prevalence at 4 and 6 weeks (p>0.05. Conclusion: Findings from this study show that Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides, are prevalent in the study area and indicate the need to adopt optimal management practices to control infections in calves.

  12. Giant adrenal cyst: case study.

    Poiana, Catalina; Carsote, Mara; Chirita, Corina; Terzea, Dana; Paun, S; Beuran, M

    2010-01-01

    One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst. We present the case of a 61-year-old male patient diagnosed with peritonitis. During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered. The patient was referred to endocrinology. 6 months later the diameter of the tumor is 7 times bigger than the initial stage. It has no secretory phenotype, except for the small increase of serum aldosterone and the 24-h 17-ketosteroids. Open right adrenalectomy is performed and a cyst of 15 cm is removed. The evolution after surgery is good. The pathological exam reveals an adrenal cyst with calcifications and osteoid metaplasia. The immunohistochemistry showed a positive reaction for CD34 and ACT in the vessels and VIM in the stroma. The adrenal cysts are not frequent and represent a challenge regarding the preoperative diagnostic and surgical procedure of resection. The pathological exam highlights the major aspects. PMID:20945822

  13. Pancreatic cyst in the mediastinum

    On concrete example it is shown that diagnosis of pancreatic cyst localized in thoracic and peritoneal cavities is difficult. The diagnosis may be corrected only after histological analysis and dynamic observation

  14. NASOLABIAL CYST: A CASE REPORT

    Sharma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial cyst is a rare nonodontogenic , soft - tissue cyst occurring in the sublabial area and anterior maxillary region. The cyst is derived from epithelial cells retained in the mesenchyme after fusion of the medial and lateral nasal processes and the maxillary prominence during fetal life due to the persistence of epithelial remnants from the nasolacrimal duct extending between the lateral nasal process and the maxillary prominence. The patient usually presents with a slowly enlarging asymptomatic swelling. They are usually diagnosed in early stages because of cosmetic problems. In our paper we report a nasolabial cyst of a 62 - year - old female and discuss the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and review of literature.

  15. Tuberculosis cysts of the mediastinum

    A 71-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with polycystic deformations in the left pulmonary hilus in the mediastinum, found in a routine chest X-ray. The patient had earlier been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. Mediastinotomia was performed and thin-walled cysts with a creamy type of were found. Microbiological examinations revealed evidence of bacilli tubercles. Medical treatment for tuberculosis was begun, which led to recovery with regression of the cysts. (orig.)

  16. Hydatid cyst of the tibia.

    Madiwale C

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A case of hydatid cyst of the tibia, which manifested as a pathologic fracture is being reported. Pain and swelling of left lower limb with inability to bear the weight were the main features. Tender swelling was also noted at the upper and middle third of tibia. Open biopsy revealed the hydatid cyst wall and scolices of Echinococcus granulosus. Albendazole treatment was followed by curettage and bone grafting.

  17. Efficacy of Drontal Flavour Plus (50 mg praziquantel, 144 mg pyrantel embonate, 150 mg febantel per tablet) against Giardia sp in naturally infected dogs.

    Montoya, Ana; Dado, Diana; Mateo, Marta; Espinosa, Carmen; Miró, Guadalupe

    2008-10-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel (Drontal Flavour Plus) for three and five consecutive days was evaluated for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs. In the study, 24 dogs naturally infected with Giardia were divided into three groups of eight dogs each. Dogs were treated at the recommended dosage for three or five consecutive days, and a control group remained untreated. Faecal samples from each dog were submitted to coprological examination from day-4 to -2 and at days 5, 7, 9 and 11. Faecal consistency was also assessed daily to study end. All dogs in the control group remained positive until study end. Giardia cysts were not detected in faeces of six of the eight dogs in the group treated on three consecutive days, and in faeces of five of the dogs in the group treated on five consecutive days. Unformed to diarrhoeic faeces were more often reported in dogs in the untreated control group than in dogs in both treatment groups. Efficacy of treatment for five consecutive days was not statistically better than treatment for three consecutive days. PMID:18661153

  18. Performance of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Triose Phosphate Isomerase Genes in the Analysis of Genotypic Variability of Isolates of Giardia duodenalis from Livestocks

    Fava, Natália M. N.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Scalia, Luana A. M.; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Pena, Isabella F.; Vieira, Carlos U.; Faria, Elaine S. M.; Cunha, Maria J.; Couto, Talles R.; Cury, Márcia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a small intestinal protozoan parasite of several terrestrial vertebrates. This work aims to assess the genotypic variability of Giardia duodenalis isolates from cattle, sheep and pigs in the Southeast of Brazil, by comparing the standard characterization between glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) primers. Fecal samples from the three groups of animals were analyzed using the zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique. Out of 59 positive samples, 30 were from cattle, 26 from sheep and 3 from pigs. Cyst pellets were stored and submitted to PCR and nested-PCR reactions with gdh and tpi primers. Fragment amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed in 25 (42.4%) and 36 (61.0%) samples, respectively. Regarding the sequencing, 24 sequences were obtained with gdh and 20 with tpi. For both genes, there was a prevalence of E specific species assemblage, although some isolates have been identified as A and B, by the tpi sequencing. This has also shown a larger number of heterogeneous sequences, which have been attribute to mixed infections between assemblages B and E. The largest variability of inter-assemblage associated to the frequency of heterogeneity provided by tpi sequencing reinforces the polymorphic nature of this gene and makes it an excellent target for studies on molecular epidemiology. PMID:24308010

  19. Hydatid Cyst of Ovary: A Case Report

    Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is considered the major cause of humanhydatid cysts. Usually the duration of cyst formation is 10-20 years. This period shortens significantly upon rupture of aprimary cyst. The literature describes low incidence of primaryinvolvement of ovary as a site of hydatid cyst formation. Ourcase is the first report on ovarian hydatid cyst in Iran. A 60-year-old woman was presented with abdominal pain in the leftlower quadrant area. Paraclinical data were suggestive of neoplasiaand preoperative diagnosis was ovarian tumor. Duringlaparotomy, multiple cysts resembling hydatid cysts were observedin the left ovary. Pathological examination confirmed thediagnosis of hydatid cyst. Although there is a small possibilityof secondary ovarian echinococcal disease, it is more probablefor this case to be primary infection, as the patient had developedovarian hydatid cysts 15 years after hepatic involvementand recurrence after 30 months is very uncommon.

  20. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

    2011-10-15

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-}) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR{sub Gi}) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T{sub final}) with Fe{sup 3+} ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK{sub a} = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR{sub Gi} reacts with O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k{sub 1} = 1.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T{sub 1}; this in turn rapidly decays to the T{sub final} state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR{sub Gi} is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  1. Cryptosporidium and Giardia: new challenges to the water industry

    Medema, Gerriet Jan

    1999-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis have emerged as significant waterborne pathogens over the past decades. Many outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recorded, primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom.Chapter 1 gives an overview on the currently available knowledge on the parasites, the disease, the transmission through drinking water and the measures to prevent waterborne transmission. The disease caus...

  2. Percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy of oophoritic cysts

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy in oophoritic cysts. Methods: Seventy six oophoritic cysts incluoling 48 simple and 28 chocolate cysts of 64 patients were treated with percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy under CT guidance. 4F multisideholes pigtail catheter was introduced into cyst using absolute alcohol as sclerosing agents. Results: The successful rate of percutaneous oophoritc cyst puncture was 100% in all 64 patients. Among them 58 were cured (90.6%), 6 improved significantly (9.4%). The total effective rate reached 100% with no serious complications. Conclusions: Catheterization sclerotherapy for oophoritic cyst is a simple, complete, safe and effective method. (authors)

  3. Spontaneous hygroma in intracranial arachnoid cyst

    Anamnesis and treatment of two cases of arachnoid cysts extending into the subarachnoid space are described. No traumatic incident was discovered in the previous history of these two patients. The causal genesis of neurological signs of deficiency in patients with arachnoid and acquired cysts is discussed. However, the cause of the development of a subdural hygroma in arachnoid cysts remains unclarified. CT findings of arachnoid cysts with a hypodense zone between brain surface and the vault of the cranium always require an investigation into the possibility of a spontaneous emptying of the cyst or of a congenital and not only localised extension of the cyst itself. (orig.)

  4. Giant intracranial hydatid cyst

    A Trivedi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the infestation of the larvae of Taenia echinococcus. The definite hosts of echinococcus are various carnivores, the common being the dog. All mammals (more often being sheep and cattle are hosts. Humans are infected through the feco-oral route by the ingestion of food or milk contaminated by dog feces that contain the ova of the parasite or by direct contact with dogs. The eggs lose their enveloping layer in the stomach, releasing the embryos. The embryos pass through the wall of the gut into the portal system and are carried to the liver where most of the larvae are entrapped and encysted. Some may reach the lungs, and occasionally, some may pass through the capillary filter of the liver and lungs and enter into the systemic circulation. We report a case of giant intracranial left temporoparietooccipital extra-axial hydatid cyst with a size of 12.5 x 8.5 cm in a 5-year-old male presented with holocranial headache with the diminution of vision and papilledema with right hemiperesis successfully managed in our department surgically.

  5. Dermoid cyst of the ovary

    Unsuspectable chronic rupture was discovered during surgical remotion of a very large ovarian dermoid cyst. Abdomen X-ray, US and CT examinations were presurgically performed. Standing X-ray projection of the abdomen allowed the appearing of a new radiographic finding of dermoid cyst, the ''fat floating'' as the equivalent of the ''gravity dependent layering'' in US and CT features. Thisding of dermoid cyst, the ''fat floating'' as the equivalent of the ''gravity dependent layering'' in US and CT features. This radiographic sign appears as an horizontal line between two soft tissues of different opacity; it is caused by oleous and sebaceous fluid floating over serous fluid and over serous fluid and over intracystic debris. Literature was reviewed and radiographic findings in dermoid cyst were reconsidered; the sign of ''fat floating'' could enhance the diagnostic accuracy of abdomen X-ray. So when a pelvic or an abdominal-pelvic mass is discovered in a young woman, standing projection is required for abdomen X-ray. Rupture of a dermoid cyst may happen without notice and chronically; CT has been more accurate than US in evaluating rupture, in particular the peritoneal spread of oleous pseudocyst

  6. Dermoid cyst with respiratory manifestations

    Calle-Cabanillas MI, Ibañez-Muñoz C, Pérez-Sáez J, Navazo-Eguía AI, Clemente-García A, Sánchez-Hernández JM.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermoid cysts are congenital tumors caused by entrapment of ectoderm during embryogenesis. The most common localization are the gonads and less than 10% are in the head and neck. They are slow growing and generally observed between the second and third decades of life, being unusual in chilhood. Description: We report a case of a 5 year old male with recurrent respiratory infections, mouth breathing and snoring with apneas and daytime sleepiness. On physical examination tonsillar hypertrophy and a 4 cm sublingual tumor are detected. As complementary tests are performed overnight polysomnography with AHI of 18.3 / h and ultrasonography, reported as cystic mass with multiple rounded echogenic structures inside. Results: The patient was diagnosed with severe OSA and tonsillectomy and intraorally enucleation of tumor (as diagnosis and treatment were performed; with histopathological diagnosis of dermoid cyst. In the postoperative control we check the resolution of respiratory events and snoring. Discussion: Dermoid cysts of the oral cavity (where sublingual localization is the most common represent only 0,01% of all cysts and 1,6% of all dermoid cysts. Usually present as slow-growing asymptomatic mass, even if they reach large size can compromise swallowing, speech or breathing and eventually cause, as in our case, a severe OSA. The surgical treatment allows to confirm the diagnosis an avoid the risk of infectious complications and eventual malignant transformation.

  7. MRI of a dermoid cyst containing hair

    A fourth ventricular dermoid cyst examined by CT, MRI and angiography is reported. The combination of CT density and MRI signal indicated the presence of hair within the cyst, which was confirmed at surgery. (orig.)

  8. Choroid plexus cysts. MR and CT findings

    The MRI and CT characteristics of choroid plexus cysts in the lateral ventricles were investigated. Of eight patients with choroid plexus cysts, six had bilateral and multiple cysts that were small in size, and two patients had unilateral solitary cysts. Choroid plexus cysts were well visualized on T2-WI and proton density-WI with higher signal intensity than the CSF in the lateral ventricles. The walls of cysts were well enhanced with Gd-DTPA. MRI has a distinct advantage over conventional CT for visualization of choroid plexus cysts that are small in size, which may be multiple and bilateral. With the widespread use of MRI, asymptomatic choroid plexus cysts may become common incidental findings. (author)

  9. Primary Peritoneal Hydatid Cyst Presenting as Ovarian Cyst Torsion: A Rare Case Report.

    Gandhiraman, Kavitha; Balakrishnan, Renukadevi; Ramamoorthy, Rathna; Rajeshwari, Raja

    2015-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, E.multilocularis or E.Vogli. The most common primary site is liver (75%) followed by lungs (5-15%) and other organs constitute 10-20%. Peritoneal hydatid cysts are very rare especially primary peritoneal hydatid. Secondary peritoneal hydatid cysts are relatively common, which usually occurs due to rupture of primary hepatic hydatid cyst. We present a rare case of large primary peritoneal hydatid cyst misdiagnosed as torsion of ovarian cyst that underwent Laparotomy with cyst excision and postoperative Albendazole therapy. PMID:26436004

  10. Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57Co-vitamin B12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B12 was unimpaired. (author)

  11. Absorption and transport of radioactive /sup 57/Co-vitamin B/sub 12/ in experimental giardiasis in rats

    Deka, N.C.; Sehgal, A.K.; Chnuttani, P.N. (Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India))

    1981-11-01

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of /sup 57/Co-vitamin B/sub 12/ in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B/sub 12/ was unimpaired.

  12. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  13. Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

    2012-01-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal...

  14. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  15. Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst

    Fee, Dominic B.; Karin R Swartz; Dianne Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009.

  16. Diagnosis and management of bilateral nasolabial cysts

    Rajkumar Parwani; Simran Parwani; Sangeeta Wanjari

    2013-01-01

    Nasolabial cysts are painless, submucosal, non-odontogenic jaw cysts presenting as soft tissue swellings in the maxillary anterior mucolabial fold lateral to midline, leading to elevation of nasal ala. Present case documents bilateral nasolabial cysts in a 69-year-old Asian female patient. In the present case, extraoral swelling of maxillary lip and elevation of nasal ala was observed on right side of the face. Intraorally, soft and fluctuant bilateral cysts were observed. Straw-colored fluid...

  17. [Epipleural branchiogenic cervical cyst (author's transl)].

    Kley, H A

    1978-05-01

    A case of a 71-year-old male patient with a branchiogenetic cervical cyst is presented. In addition to the clinical manifestation in the eight decade the speciality of this cyst was epipleural localisation. The longest diameter of the cyst was parallel to the right clavicule under the M. omohyoid. The cyst medially filled up the venous angle. Embryology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis as well as the therapy and prognosis are discussed in regard of cases of literature. PMID:651490

  18. Subclinical Giardia in dogs: a veterinary conundrum relevant to human infection.

    Tysnes, Kristoffer Relling; Skancke, Ellen; Robertson, Lucy J

    2014-11-01

    Human infection with Giardia duodenalis tends to be associated with diarrheal disease requiring treatment - despite our awareness that often it is asymptomatic and sometimes, perhaps, even protective. We discuss here whether canine giardiasis can serve as a model to help to understand why Giardia is pathogenic. We discuss factors that should be considered when Giardia is identified in dogs, challenging the assumption that infection necessarily means disease that requires chemotherapeutic treatment. To make the best treatment decision for canine Giardia infection we need to think about zoonotic risks, transmission possibilities, and risk factors for disease development. In addition, in both humans and dogs, Giardia sometimes may be considered as a harmless passenger, or even as a beneficial friend. PMID:25246022

  19. Concomitant bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign germ tumor, comprising 1-2% of all resected benign testicular masses. Approximately 300 cases have been reported to date. Unilateral involvement has often been reported in the English literature. However, bilateral occurrence is very rare and to the best of our knowledge, there only 3 previous reports of bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts. The fact that they are completely benign makes them amenable to treatment by local excision, thereby saving patient from orchidectomy. Recognition of their characteristic ulatrsonographic features is very important to avoid unnecessary intervention. We present here, a case of bilateral epidermoid cyst in which characteristic ultrasound (US) findings allowed testis-sparing enucleation instead of radical orchiectomy. (author)

  20. Congenital mediastinal cysts: imaging findings

    Congenital mediastinal cysts are uncommon benign lesions generally caused by an abnormal embryological development of the foregut or coelomic cavity. They are expansive lesions, frequently asymptomatic that may manifest as a result from compression of adjacent structures. Bronchogenic, pericardial, enteric, thymic, esophageal duplication cysts and lymphangiomas are the main entities in this group of lesions. Congenital mediastinal cysts morphology is typical and imaging methods allow a correct diagnosis in a great number of cases. Surgical treatment is indicated only in cases of symptomatic lesions, considering that these lesions present no potential for malignant degeneration. The present study was aimed at commenting and illustrating the most relevant imaging findings of these lesions based on a retrospective review of ten cases collected in the records of the involved institutions. (author)

  1. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    Youngjoon Kim; Hyunjung Kim

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male pat...

  2. Ginkgolide B inhibits renal cyst development in in vitro and in vivo cyst models

    Zhou, Hong; Gao, Jinsheng; ZHOU, Li; LI, Xin; Li, Weidong; Xuejun LI; Xia, Yin; Yang, Baoxue

    2012-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited disease characterized by massive enlargement of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney. However, there is no effective therapy yet for this disease. To examine whether ginkgolide B, a natural compound, inhibits cyst development, a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cyst model, an embryonic kidney cyst model, and a PKD mouse model were used. Interestingly, ginkgolide B significantly inhibited MDCK cyst formation dose dependentl...

  3. Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst

    Cicuendez, Marta; Jose F Alen; Ana RAMOS; Lobato, Ramiro D.; Lagares, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature.

  4. Ventricular Tachycardia Caused by Mesothelial Cyst

    Amirahmadi, Ali; Emkanjoo, Zahra; Mollazadeh, Reza; Mozaffari, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    A 27 year-old- lady was evaluated due to recurrent ventricular tachycardia. After performing echocardiography and cardiac MRI, she was found to have large pericardial cyst. Pathologic examination confirmed it as mesothelial pericardial cyst. Up to our knowledge it is the first presentation of simple pericardial cyst as ventricular a tachycardia.

  5. Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine

    Hidetoshi Nojiri; Soichi Uta; Yoshio Sakuma

    2009-01-01

    We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

  6. Simple cyst of urinary bladder

    Yang Bo

    2014-01-01

    Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was...

  7. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

  8. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation

    Ramadan, Qasem, E-mail: qasem.alramadan@epfl.ch [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; ShuJun, Li; Hua, Feng Han [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

    2010-07-12

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

  9. Multiplex PCR for the detection and quantification of zoonotic taxa of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma in wastewater and mussels.

    Marangi, Marianna; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Lacasella, Vita; Lonigro, Antonio; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii are important parasitic protists linked to water- and food-borne diseases. The accurate detection of these pathogens is central to the diagnosis, tracking, monitoring and surveillance of these protists in humans, animals and the environment. In this study, we established a multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR), coupled to high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, for the specific detection and quantification of each G. duodenalis (assemblage A), C. parvum and T. gondii (Type I). Once optimised, this assay was applied to the testing of samples (n = 232) of treated wastewater and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Of 119 water samples, 28.6% were test-positive for G. duodenalis, C. parvum and/or both pathogens; of 113 mussel samples, 66.6% were test-positive for G. duodenalis, C. parvum and/or both pathogens, and 13.2% were test-positive for only T. gondii. The specificity of all amplicons produced was verified by direct sequencing. The oo/cysts numbers (per 5 μl of DNA sample) ranged from 10 to 64. The present multiplex assay achieved an efficiency of 100% and a R(2) value of >0.99. Current evidence indicates that this assay provides a promising tool for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of three key protist taxa. PMID:25591902

  10. Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.

    Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirdağ), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites. PMID:19851968

  11. HYDATID CYST PRESENTING AS OVARIAN CYST : A CASE REPORT

    Helen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease which may present as potential health hazard to human. In developing country like India , it is a significant health problem. Surgery is the treatment of choice for hydatid cyst. Recurrence may be avoided by antihelminthic supplements post - surgery

  12. Biochemical composition of benign thyroid cyst fluid.

    Ozata, M; Kurt, I; Serdar, M A; Onde, M E; Aydin, A; Corakci, A; Gundogan, M A

    1997-04-01

    Although the availability of thyroid cyst fluid is easy by fine-needle aspiration, less is known about the biochemical composition of thyroid cyst fluid. The authors have, therefore, determined the biochemical composition of 18 benign thyroid cyst fluid specimens. They found that the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the concentrations of total protein, total bilirubin, and uric acid were highly increased in thyroid cyst fluid specimens when compared with normal human serum specimens. The concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in cyst fluid were within normal serum limits. Selenium (Se) concentrations in most cyst fluids were low. Moreover, there was no correlation between Se and other biochemical parameters. Protein electrophoresis of cyst fluid specimens yielded high concentrations of alpha 1 and especially alpha 2 globulin fractions indicating an inflammation. The concentrations or activities of biochemical analytes were not significantly different in pure and mixed cysts. Those parameters were also not significantly different between cyst fluids of different colors. The gross appearance of the fluid and the presence of certain biochemical analytes were consistent with a hemorrhagic origin of most of the cyst fluid specimens. However, some biochemical markers indicate that autolysis or necrosis of thyroid tissue may also contribute the composition of thyroid cyst fluid. The reason for lower Se concentration in the thyroid cyst fluid may be the lower Se concentration in the Turkish population. These results also suggest that the fluid color or nature of cyst, e.g., pure or mixed cyst, is not a main determinant of biochemical composition of benign thyroid cyst fluid. PMID:9258464

  13. Molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates from German travellers.

    Broglia, A; Weitzel, T; Harms, G; Cacció, S M; Nöckler, K

    2013-10-01

    Giardia duodenalis isolates from German travellers returning from tropical areas were characterised by PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the beta-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Assignment of isolates to specific G. duodenalis assemblages was found to differ according to the marker used. Indeed, at the bg locus, assemblages A and B were identified, with a higher prevalence of the former over the latter, whereas at the tpi and gdh loci, most samples were classified as assemblage B. In agreement with previous studies, sequence analysis showed that assemblage B isolates have a higher genetic polymorphism than assemblage A isolates, and novel variants were described. The degree of polymorphism was shown in a graphical representation of the polymorphic sites generating a novel sequence, the heterogeneous positions common to assemblages A and B (double peaks), that may represent mixed assemblage infection and the heterogeneous positions detected at random sites. Notably, assemblage D, which is considered to be adapted to dogs, was found at the gdh locus in two samples originating from southern Asia, as novel genotypes. By comparing the geographical origin of the infected cases and the number of German travellers visiting the areas considered, India and west Africa appeared to be the areas associated to the highest risk of acquiring Giardia infection. The analysis of the geographical distribution of the genotypes did not suggest any particular geographical clustering pattern, but it may be useful to evaluate these results with a higher number of isolates. Most of the samples typed at the three markers could not be assigned unequivocally to either assemblage A or B, and this was confirmed also by a real-time PCR assay, using a set of assemblage-specific primers. The results of this study reinforce the notion that genetic exchanges and allelic sequence heterogeneity represent major obstacles towards understanding the epidemiology of giardiasis and that exposure to Giardia parasites in endemic areas often results in mixed infections in returning travellers. PMID:23892479

  14. Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

    2012-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

  15. Diagnosis of Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst by Bronchoscopy.

    Yaşar, Zehra; Acat, Murat; Turgut, Erhan; Onaran, Hilal; Dincer, Huseyin Erhan; Arda, Naciye; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2015-10-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Lungs are the second most common site of involvement after liver. The diagnosis of complicated pulmonary hydatid cysts may not be easy because hydatid cyst disease mimics tuberculosis, lung cancer, empyema, or abscess. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy can be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of the infestation by visualization of hydatid cyst membrane. Here, we report the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with hemoptysis and chest discomfort and was diagnosed with a hydatid cyst by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. PMID:26492607

  16. A rare large symptomatic simple hepatic cyst

    Banerjee, Rupjani; Lakhoo, Kokila

    2013-01-01

    A fit and well 4-year-old girl presented with a 1-year history of abdominal distension, pain and vomiting with signs of non-shifting dullness on the right side of the abdomen. An abdominal CT revealed a 19 cm epigastric cyst that did not appear to connect to any solid organ and was therefore thought to represent a mesenteric cyst. However, laparotomy revealed that the cyst was arising from the liver. The cyst was resected and subsequent histology revealed a simple hepatic cyst. The patient ha...

  17. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  18. Bilateral Radicular Cyst in Mandible: An Unusual Case Report

    Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. Th...

  19. Arachnoid cyst of the middle cranial fossa

    The middle cranial fossa is the most common site for intracranial arachnoid cysts. Galassi and his associates have provided a useful classification of middle fossa arachnoid cysts based on their computed tomographic appearances. The Type I cyst is a small lenticular lesion. The Type II cyst is quadrangular in shape, reflecting a completely open insula. The Type III cyst appears as a large area of smoothly rounded lucency, with a significant compression of the brain. We report a 2-year-old boy with a middle fossa arachnoid cyst. This cyst differed from the type of Galassi's classification in its extension. Computerized tomograms showed low-density lesions of the bilateral middle cranial fossa and suprasellar area, which was not enhanced with contrast medium. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed a CSF-like pattern (Kjos) and revealed delicate anatomical structures in the surrounding brain. Arachnoid cysts are usually single lesions. However, not infrequently these cystic cavities may be divided by membranous septa into two or more compartments. Bilateral, more or less symmetrical arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa as seen in this patient, however, seem to be very rare. Only a few such cases have been reported previously. MRI was superior to X-ray CT in characterizing intracranial cystic lesions because of its ability to categorize cysts into Kjos's three groups on the basis of the intensity pattern of the cyst contents, thereby improving diagnostic specificity and patient management. (author)

  20. Symptomatic Tarlov cyst: report and review.

    Chaiyabud, Pradit; Suwanpratheep, Kitti

    2006-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand. PMID:16881441

  1. A giant splenic hydatid cyst.

    Singal, Rikki; Sandhu, Karamjot Singh; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Samita; Jindal, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with pain in the left hypochondrium, which had been progressing for 5 months. Examination revealed large splenomegaly, and ultrasonography showed a huge hydatid cyst in the spleen. Preoperative planning and postoperative care lead to successful management of this entity. Radiological investigations also play a major role in diagnosis and decrease morbidity. PMID:26722171

  2. A giant splenic hydatid cyst

    SINGAL, Rikki; Sandhu, Karamjot Singh; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Samita; Jindal, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with pain in the left hypochondrium, which had been progressing for 5 months. Examination revealed large splenomegaly, and ultrasonography showed a huge hydatid cyst in the spleen. Preoperative planning and postoperative care lead to successful management of this entity. Radiological investigations also play a major role in diagnosis and decrease morbidity.

  3. Lymphoepithelial Cyst of the Mediastinum

    Ulku, Refik; YILMAZ, Fahri; Eren, Sevval; ONAT, Serdar

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of lymphoepithelial cyst of the mediastinum. A 38-year-old woman was found to have a right paratracheal mediastinal mass on chest radiograph. Computed tomographic scanning showed a cystic mass on the right side of the trachea. The encapsulated mass was situated in the upper mediastinum and was adherent to the trachea.

  4. Sntesis de las enzimas de piruvato, oxidorreductasa de ferredoxina y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion de Giardia intestinalis Synthesis of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase and alcohol dehydrogenase E enzymes during Giardia intestinalis excystation

    Moiss Wasserman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin. Giardia intestinalis es un parsito unicelular diseminado mundialmente. Causa una enfermedad intestinal conocida como giardiosis y, probablemente, es el microorganismo eucarionte ms tempranamente divergente.
    Objetivo. En el presente estudio se determin la expresin de las enzimas de piruvato oxidorreductasa ferredoxina (PFOR y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol (ADHE en los estadios de quiste y trofozoto, y durante el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion. Previamente se haban demostrado cambios en sus ARNm.
    Materiales y mtodos. Se generaron protenas recombinantes de PFOR y ADHE que fueron usadas como antgenos para la produccin de anticuerpos policlonales. stos se emplearon para la deteccin de las protenas nativas por Western blot. Evaluamos la actividad enzimtica de ADHE y de la glutamato deshidrogenasa (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH por ensayos espectrofotomtricos.
    Resultados. Las protenas PFOR (139 kDa y ADHE (97 kDa se detectaron en trofozotos, pero no en quistes. Durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion, la protena ADHE se detect slo despus de la primera fase de induccin y la protena PFOR slo despus de la segunda fase. Esto indica que ambas protenas son sintetizadas durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion, aunque en un momento diferente. La actividad enzimtica de ADHE est presente slo en los trofozotos y no en los quistes, mientras que la actividad de la enzima GDH se detect en trofozotos y quistes.
    Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados muestran de forma concluyente que las enzimas PFOR y ADHE son traducidas en el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion y esto demuestra que existe un proceso activo de sntesis de protenas durante l.Introduction. Giardia intestinalis is a unicellular parasite of worldwide distribution. It causes an intestinal illness known as giardiasis, and it is probably the earliest diverging eukaryotic microorganism. Previously, changes have been reported in the expression of mRNAs at several stages of the life cycle; however specific enzymatic activity changes have not been explored.
    Objective. The expression of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE enzymes was measured in cyst and trophozoite stages, and during the excystation process.
    Materials and methods. Recombinant proteins were generated for PFOR and ADHE to be used as antigens in the production of polyclonal antibodies for the detection of native proteins by Western Blot. The enzymatic activity of ADHE and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH was evaluated by spectrophotometric assays.
    Results. PFOR (139 kDa and ADHE (97 kDa proteins were detected in trophozoites, but not in cysts. During excystation, ADHE protein was detected after the first phase of induction, but the PFOR protein appeared only after the second phase. This indicated that both proteins were synthesized during excystation, although at different times. ADHE enzymatic activity was present only in trophozoites and not in cysts whereas GDH activity was detected in both stages.
    Conclusion. These results conclusively showed that PFOR and ADHE enzymes were translated during the excystation process and is strong evidence that active protein synthesis was occurring during excystation.

  5. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

    Andersson Jan O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

  6. Urban park-related risks for Giardia spp. infection in dogs.

    Smith, A F; Rock, M; Neumann, N; Massolo, A

    2015-11-01

    Giardia spp. is a common gastrointestinal (GI) parasite of multiple host species, including dogs and humans, with the potential for zoonotic transmission. The risk of GI parasitism in dogs (including Giardia spp.) may increase with park use in urban areas. This study aimed to (1) determine whether park attendance is a risk factor for Giardia spp. infection in dogs and (2) characterize the behavioural and demographic risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in park-attending and non-park-attending dogs. From August to September 2012, a total of 1293 dog owners completed a survey and 860 corresponding dog faecal samples were collected. Dog faeces were screened for Giardia spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay and associations assessed among behaviours, demographics, and Giardia spp. infection. Main results included off-leash and swimming frequencies within parks as significantly positively associated with Giardia spp. infection in dogs. Dog-owner age was negatively associated with off-leash and swimming frequencies in parks. The results suggest some recreational behaviours in parks and certain demographics are risk factors for parasitism in pet dogs. PMID:25865261

  7. Serological versus antigen detection methods for Giardia duodenalis diagnosis.

    Bashir, M; Farid, A; Rabia, I; Mostafa, B; El Amir, A

    2014-12-01

    Giardiasis constitutes an important public health problem in the world. Contamination of the water with fecal materials including viruses and pathogenic protozoa still represents an environmental health hazard, especially in rural areas. The survey study evaluated the relation between seropositivity and some risk factors. Moreover, the study compared between the serological IgG and IgM level and antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of giardiasis. The results indicate that sex distribution and age were the mean risk factors for seroprevelence. In this study, sera samples were employed in sandwich ELISA assay, to detect circulating Giardia antigens. None of the negative control serum samples gave a positive reaction, but cross reaction was encountered with 3 case of Cryptosporidium. The specificity of the assay was 94.830/a. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the Giardia patient's sera was 94.12% which was higher than that of IgG (86.25%) and IgM (87.50%) secretion measurements. In conclusion, antigen detection methods give better and earlier diagnosis for giardiasis can be performed quickly and do not require an experienced and skilled morphologist. PMID:25643512

  8. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan; Enemark, Heidi L.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two...... calves. For Giardia, 82 and 145 isolates from pigs and cattle, respectively, were analysed at the 18S rDNA locus and/or the gdh gene. Giardia isolates belonging to the zoonotic Assemblage A was found in both young and older calves, as well as in weaners and piglets, whereas cows seemed to be infected...

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq

    E. T. Butty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107, while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was 19.63% (21 out of 107. This study represents the first trial to explore cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis in equines as in Nineveh there is no survey of these intestinal protozoa.

  10. Acetic acid sclerotheraphy of renal cysts

    Sclerotherapy for renal cysts was performed, using 50% acetic acid as new sclerosing agent. We report the methods and results of this procedure. Fifteen patients underwent sclerotherapy for renal cyst, using 50% acetic acid. Because four patients were lost to follow-up, only 11 of the 15 were included in this study. The renal cysts, including one infected case, were diagnosed by ultrasonograpy (n=3D10) ormagnetic resonance imaging (n=3D1). The patient group consisted of four men and seven women(mean age, 59 years; range, 23-77). At first, the cyst was completely aspirated, and 25 volume% of aspirated volume was replaced with 50% sterile acetic acid through the drainage catheter. During the follwing 20 minutes, the patient changed position, and the acetic acid was then removed from the cyst. Finally, the drainage catheter was removed, after cleaning the cyst with saline. After treatment of infection by antibiotics and catheter drainage for 7 days, sclerotherapy in the infected case followed the same procedure. In order to observe changes in the size of renal cysts and recurrence, all patients were followed up by ultrasound between 2 and 8 months. We defined response to therapy as follows:complete regression as under 5 volume%, partial regression as 5-50 volume% and no response as more than 50 volume% of initial cyst volume. No clinically significant complication occured during the procedures or follow-up periods. All cysts regressed completely during follow-up of 8 months. Complete regression occurred as follows: two cysts at 2 months, seven cysts at 4 months, two cysts at 6 months. Two cysts showed residues at the last follow-up, at 4 and 6 months, respectively. The volume of residual cysts decreased to under 5 volume% of initial volume, however. Completely regressed cysts did not recurr during follow-up. Acetic acid sclerotherapy for renal cysts showed good results, regardless of the dilution of sclerosing agent with residual cyst fluid, and no significant complications. The procedure, therefore, appears to provide effective therapy for renal cysts.=20

  11. Laparoscopic management of hydatid cyst in the lesser sac.

    Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Kumar, Saurabh; Panda, Srikanta; Shameel, P Ahammed

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Various anatomical location of hydatid cyst has been described in literature. Liver is the most common site of hydatid cyst and lungs are the second most common site. Hydatid cyst of lesser sac is a rare entity. Here we present a rare case report of laparoscopic management of hydatid cyst in lesser sac. PMID:27073313

  12. Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst; a case report

    M Seyed-majidi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst first described by Gorlin in 1962. It is considered as extremely rare and accounts for only 1% of jaw cysts reported. Because of its diverse histopathology, there has always been confusion about its nature as a cyst, neoplasm or hamartoma.Case Report: In this report, we present a rare case of calcifying odontogenic cyst with ameloblastic proliferation, an extremely rare histologic variant, in a 15 year old female in the left mandibular molar region. The lesion was surgically removed. After enucleation and curettage, no recurrence recorded in next two years.Conclusion: Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst, microscopically resembles unicystic ameloblastoma except for the ghost cells and dystrophic calcifications within the proliferative epithelium. There has always been confusion about its nature as a cyst, neoplasm or hamartoma. Microscopically, this cyst shows ameloblastic proliferation in the connective tissue but no characteristics of basal cell hyperchromatism, vacuolization and nuclear polarization which is often seen in ameloblastoma, are present here. Ameloblastoma ex COC and ameloblastomatous COC are morphologically and clinically entirely different and easily distinguishable.Key words: Calcifying odontogenic cyst, Ghost cell, Gorlin Cyst, Ameloblastic proliferation

  13. Congenital cervical bronchogenic cyst: A case report

    Kiralj Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital anomalies of the embryonic foregut. They are caused by abnormal budding of diverticulum of the embryonic foregut between the 26th and 40th day of gestation. Bronchogenic cysts can appear in the mediastinum and pulmonary parenchyma, or at ectopic sites (neck, subcutaneous tissue or abdomen. So far, 70 cases of cervical localization of bronchogenic cysts have been reported. Majority of bronchogenic cysts have been diagnosed in the pediatric population. Bronchogenic cysts of the cervical area are generally asymptomatic and symptoms may occur if cysts become large or in case of infection of the cyst. The diagnosis is made based on clinical findings, radiological examination, but histopathologic findings are essential for establishing the final diagnosis. Treatment of cervical bronchogenic cyst involves surgical excision. Case Outline. Authors present a case of a 6-year-old female patient sent by a pediatrician to a maxillofacial surgeon due to asymptomatic lump on the left side of the neck. The patient had frequent respiratory infections and respiratory obstructions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the neck was performed and a well-circumscribed cystic formation on the left side of the neck was observed, with paratracheal location. The complete excision of the cyst was made transcervically. Histopathological findings pointed to bronchogenic cyst. Conclusion. Cervical bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital malformations. Considering the location, clinical findings and the radiological features, these cysts resemble other cervical lesions. Surgical treatment is important because it is both therapeutic and diagnostic. Reliable diagnosis of bronchogenic cysts is based on histopathological examination.

  14. Complex renal cysts associated with crizotinib treatment

    An apparent causal association between crizotinib treatment and renal cyst development emerged during clinical trials in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Serious adverse event (SAE) reports of renal cysts from a safety database of 1375 patients from four clinical trials were reviewed. A blinded, retrospective, independent radiologic review (IRR) was performed using scans from patients on study for ≥6 months in three clinical trials; risk factors for renal cyst development were assessed. Among 17 patients with renal cysts reported as SAEs, evidence of invasion into adjacent structures was noted in seven patients, with no evidence of malignancy found. These patients generally did not require dose reductions, none required permanent crizotinib discontinuation due to this AE, and most continued treatment with clinical benefit. In the blinded IRR, among 255 crizotinib-treated patients, 22%, 3%, and 2% had preexisting simple cysts, complex cysts, or both, respectively. At the 6-month tumor assessment, 9% of all patients had acquired new cysts, and 2% of patients with preexisting cysts had developed new cysts and enlargements (>50%) of preexisting simple cysts. Asians appeared to have an increased risk of developing new cysts on treatment; Koreans in particular had 5.18 times higher odds of developing cysts than non-Asians (95% confidence interval, 1.51–17.78; P = 0.05). Crizotinib treatment appears to be associated with an increased risk of development and progression of renal cysts in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. While close monitoring is recommended, dosing modification was not generally necessary, allowing patients to remain on crizotinib treatment

  15. Müllerian-type, cutaneous ciliated cyst in the gluteal cleft mimicking a pilonidal cyst.

    Oh, Jin Sol; Bhalla, Varun K; Needham, Lance; Sharma, Suash; Pipkin, Walter L; Hatley, Robyn M; Howell, Charles G

    2014-05-01

    A cutaneous ciliated cyst is a rare entity found predominantly in the lower extremities and perineal region of young females. Although initially described by Hess in 1890, the present day term, "cutaneous ciliated cyst," was proposed by Farmer in 1978 and includes a wide array of cyst types. Despite their typical female predominance and location, many have described cutaneous ciliated cysts in males and atypical locations. In addition, Mullerian cysts in the posterior mediastinum and the retroperitoneum have been reported. To date, only 40 cases have been reported in the literature of a Mullerian-type, cutaneous ciliated cyst. Here, we report a case of 13-year-old female with one in the gluteal cleft, initially presenting as a pilonidal cyst. We also discuss the differential diagnosis of pediatric sacrococcygeal lesions and pathogenesis of a Mullerian-type, cutaneous ciliated cyst. PMID:23913265

  16. Recurrent Primary Spinal Hydatid Cyst

    Okan Turk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid disease of spine is rare and spinal hydatitosis constitute only 1% of all hydatitosis. We report a case of recurrent primary intraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the thoracic region causing progressive paraparesis. The patient was operated 16 years ago for primary spinal hydatid disease involvement and was instrumented dorsally for stabilization. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of thoracic spine showed a cystic lesion at T11-12 level and compressed spinal cord posterolaterally. Intraspinal cyst was excised through T11-12 laminectomy which made formerly. The early postoperative period showed a progressive improvement of his neurological deficit and he was discharged with antihelmintic treatment consisting of albendazole and amoxicillin-sulbactam combination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 84-89

  17. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Salgado, R. [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

  18. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A diagnostic dilemma.

    Shah, Amisha A; Sangle, Amit; Bussari, Smita; Koshy, Ajit V

    2016-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare and uncommon jaw bone cyst of odontogenic origin described in 1987 by Gardener et al. as a distinct entity. It is a cyst having an unpredictable, potentially aggressive behavior, and has the propensity to grow in large size with relatively high recurrence rate. It poses a diagnostic challenge as it can be clinically and histopathologically confused with lateral periodontal cyst, botryoid odontogenic cyst, radicular and residual cysts with mucous metaplasia, and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The present case report describes GOC in both male and female patients with intra-oral swelling following extraction of 36 and 46, respectively. Careful histopathological examination is needed to diagnose GOC, and a careful long-term follow-up is advocated. PMID:27134453

  19. Unusual Cases of Epidermoid cyst: Case Series

    Lalita Yadav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the oro-facial region cystic lesions of different etiologies are encountered owing to the presence of the teeth in the jaw bones. A bewildering variety of developmental, odontogenic and non-odontogenic cysts are seen. Epidermoid cyst is a rare developmental cyst of the oro-facial region which results from entrapped epidermal elements without adnexal appendages. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts occur in oro-facial region with an incidence of 6.9-7% and represents less than 0.01% of all oral cavity cysts. Here we report two cases of epidermoid cysts occurring at unusual locations involving upper left maxillary region lateral to the nose and pinna of the ear.

  20. CT diagnosis of simple renal cysts

    CT is indispensable in the evaluation of renal masses, providing noninvasive and clear transverse images. With wider clinical application of CT, renal cysts have been found more frequently. CT examinations on 500 patients, who underwent CT for the diagnosis of renal diseases except for renal cysts, have been reviewed and analysed. The incidence of renal cysts was 9.6 % without prediction for sexes, but the incidence and sizes of the cysts increased with the advancing age. The upper portion of the kidneys was more frequently involved, but there was no relationship between number, sex and age of the patients. Since renal cysts produce mass effect in the kidneys, understanding of the nature and incidence of the renal cysts is important in diagnosing renal mass lesions. (author)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging for postoperative maxillary cyst

    Magnetic resonance images of 47 patients with postoperative maxillary cyst were analyzed for size, location, and signal intensity. The smallest cyst was confirmed at surgery to be 1 cmx1 cmx1 cm and the largest 5 cmx5 cmx5 cm. The cysts were usually found in the superomedial and inferomedial parts of the maxillary sinus (44%). Many patients (60%) had multiple cysts or bilateral cysts (30%). In most the signal intensity was low in the T1-weighted SE (500/40) images and high in the T2-weighted SE (2000/80) images. Cysts with a hemorrhagic component, though rare, showed high signal intensity in both T1-and T2-weighted images. (author)

  2. MRI identification of intraventricular cysts

    Neurocysticercosis has a high prevalence rate in southern Brazil, presenting a large scope of clinical and pathological manifestations. When hydrocephalus is present the demonstration of intraventricular cysts may have prognostic and therapeutic implications, nevertheless its pre-operative identification has been difficult by the low sensibility of the imaging methods employed so far. The authors report 7 cases of intraventricular cysticercosis shown by magnetic resonance imaging. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  3. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biritiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98. Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro. Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê. Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um, Akodon montensis (três e Coendou villosus (dois, três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois e Marmosops incanus (um e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento.The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba, located in the municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and Biritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98. Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus. The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis, 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans. Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.; 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita; 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata. This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

  4. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., spatial clustering and patterns of shedding in dairy calves from Córdoba, Argentina Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., distribuição espacial e padrões de eliminação em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina

    Karina Tiranti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate calf and herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., the herd prevalence clustering, spatial distribution according to soil type and shedding patterns in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina. Six hundred twenty calves younger than 7 weeks of age from 43 dairy herds were sampled. Samples were processed with the formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Univariate analysis and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used. Factors associated were subjected to multivariate analysis with calf shedding intensity as the response variable. Clustering of herd prevalence was assessed by a scan method, and spatial analysis was applied to explore the overlapping of high prevalence herds and soil type. Overall calf prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were 19.35% (95% CI: 16.14; 22.54 and 34.50% (95% CI: 30.69; 38.34, respectively. Calves younger than two weeks of age were almost four times more likely to be infected with Cryptosporidium, in comparison to older ones (RR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.27; 6.26. Giardia spp. shedding showed a similar age pattern (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.75. A primary cluster of high Cryptosporidium prevalence was found, and high prevalence herds were located in areas with poor drained soil.Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., a presença de aglomerados, a distribuição espacial de acordo com o tipo de solo e padrões de eliminação de cistos e oocistos em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina. Amostras fecais foram colhidas de 620 bezerros com menos de sete semanas de idade, provenientes de 43 propriedades leiteiras e examinadas pelas técnicas de formol-éter e Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Foram realizadas uma análise univariada e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e, em seguida, uma análise multivariada com a intensidade de eliminação de cistos e oocistos, como um evento. A presença de aglomerados foi determinada com o método de varredura e a análise espacial foi realizada para explorar a sobreposição de rebanhos com alta prevalência e tipo de solo. A prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foi de 19,35% (IC 95%: 16,14; 22,54 e 34,50% (IC 95%: 30,69; 38,34, respectivamente. A probabilidade de infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. foi quase quatro vezes maior para bezerros com menos de 2 semanas em comparação com os bezerros mais velhos (RR: 3,78, IC 95% 2,27; 6,26. O mesmo padrão de infecção relacionada à idade foi observado para Giardia spp. (RR: 1,33, IC 95% 1,02; 1,75. Foi encontrado um aglomerado primário com alta prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp., e rebanhos com alta prevalência foram localizados em solos mal drenados.

  5. SEM (SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY) EVIDENCE FOR A NEW SPECIES, 'GIARDIA PSITTACI' (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Giardia trophozoites were isolated from the small intestine of budgerigars (parakeets) and examined morphologically with light and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of a claw-hammer shape median body suggested classification of these trophozoites as G. duodenalis. Howeve...

  6. EVALUATING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AND GIARDIA IN STORMWATER AS A THREAT TO DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreak in the United Kingdom in 1983, thepathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have become the subject of growing local, state, andnational concern. Both organisms have been the causative agent of many gastrointestinalilln...

  7. Uncommon locations of hydatid cyst

    The objective was to document the hydatid cyst cases in the endemic Cukurova region of Turkey, by their involvement sites in the body, and discuss the clinical and morphological features of the cases with rare localization. Archival materials of 153 hydatid cyst cases that were diagnosed in 2 different medical centers in Adana, Turkey Cukurova region between the years 2000-2006 were included in the study. Cases with rare localizations were re-evaluated in terms of clinical and laboratory findings, and histopathological features. Involvement sites of the cases were documented, cases with rare localizations are discussed. The liver was the most common localization with 63 cases followed by lungs with 54 cases. Uncommon locations were spleen n=4, bone n=3, intra-arterial n=1, ovary n=1, adrenal n=1, heart n=1, mesenteric n=2, retroperitoneal n=2, subcutaneous tissue n=4, breast n=1, intramuscular tissue n=4. The diagnosis of hydatic cyst should be considered in patients with a cystic mass, who live or have lived in a geographic region that has a high risk for Echinococcus granulosus, or visited an endemic area. (author)

  8. Cysts of the semilunar cartilage

    On the basis of the studies listed in the bibliography, this dissertation reports on the pathology, clinical symptoms and radiology of cysts of the semilunar cartilage. The author analyses 118 cases of his own, with special regard to the results of pneumo-arthrographic investigations carried through according to a special technique by Schaefer. In the course of this work, measurements of the meniscal base are for the first time used as radiological criteria indicating the presence of a cyst of the semilunar cartilage. Furthermore the well-known radiological signs of cysts, such as bone defects according to Albert and Keller, light central spot in the meniscal body, as well as Rauber's sign and horizontal rupture, are investigated as to the frequency of their incidence. For that purpose all the X-ray pictures were subjected to a further dose scrutiny. A list of all the 118 cases with their clinical and radiological data is found in the annex, together with the results of the operations and patho-anatomical investigations. (orig.)

  9. Tarlov cysts: a report of two cases.

    Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Goyal, Tarun; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Chakraborty, Soumya

    2012-04-01

    Perineural cysts are common and usually detected incidentally during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. Treatment is indicated only when the cyst is symptomatic. We report one such patients presented with cauda equina syndrome and another with low back pain with claudication. They underwent excision and duraplasty; both motor and sensory fibres were carefully separated from the cyst wall using a nerve root retractor and penfield. There was no nerve root damage or neural deficit. Symptoms were relieved postoperatively. PMID:22535818

  10. Diagnosis and evaluation of renal cysts.

    Waterman, Jack

    2014-12-01

    Renal cysts are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Although most cysts found on routine imaging studies are benign, there must be an index of suspicion to exclude a neoplastic process or the presence of a multicystic disorder. This article focuses on the more common adult cystic diseases, including simple and complex renal cysts, autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, and acquired cystic kidney disease. PMID:25439536

  11. Combined roentgenoultrasonic diagnosis of false pancreatic cysts

    X-ray and ultrasound semiotics of false pancreatic cysts in 21 patients have been described. Such a study proves to be highly informative permitting early detection of false pancreatic cysts and observation of the stages of their formation and development of complications. The ultrasound method has advantages for the investigation of patients in early time of false cyst formation and provides an opportunity to detect formations of minimum sizes

  12. Microendoscopic medial facetectomy for lumber facet cyst

    We report on three cases of lumbar intraspinal facet cysts treated by microendoscopic resection. The chief complaint in all three cases was radiculopathy, which was confirmed by a facetgram. A CT facetgram showed the connection between the degenerated facet joints and the cysts. Microendoscopic medial facetectomy was performed, and the cysts were resected. There was no increase in lumbar segmental instability, and the patients have been symptom-free for 13 to 20 months postoperatively. (author)

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatic Cysts : Case Report

    Radiofrequency ablation has been frequently performed on intra-hepatic solid tumor, namely, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic tumor and cholangio carcinoma, for take the cure. But, the reports of radiofrequency ablation for intrahepatic simple cysts are few. In vitro experiment of animal and in vivo treatment for intrahepatic cysts of human had been reported in rare cases. We report 4 cases of radiofrequency ablation for symptomatic intrahepatic cysts

  14. Syringomyelia Associated with a Spinal Arachnoid Cyst

    Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Seong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    While syringomyelia is not a rare spinal disorder, syringomyelia associated with a spinal arachnoid cyst is very unusual. Here, we report a 62-year-old man who suffered from gait disturbance and numbness of bilateral lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the presence of a spinal arachnoid cyst between the 7th cervical and 3rd thoracic vertebral segment and syringomyelia extending between the 6th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebral segment. The cyst had compressed t...

  15. Relationship of Simple Renal Cyst to Hypertension

    Kim, Su-Mi; Chung, Tae-Heum; Oh, Myoung-Soon; Kwon, Sung-Gul; Bae, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Simple renal cyst is the most common cystic deformation found in adults. However, there were a few systematic Korean reports for the clinical symptoms and complications of simple renal cysts. The author's purpose was to determine the relationship between simple renal cysts diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and hypertension. Methods Among 13,482 persons who took a routine physical examination at Ulsan University Hospital in 2002, 5,127 persons who took medical examinations agai...

  16. Young girl with multiple intracranial hydatid cyst

    Sen, Nani; Laha, Debal; P K Gangopadhyay; Mohanty, B.C.

    2012-01-01

    8 years young girl presented with uncontrolled seizures in obtunded and bedridden state. MRI brain showed multiple extra-axial coalescent cystic lesions in bilateral frontotemporo parietal regions – diagnosed as multiple hydatid cyst. We used irrigation saline during surgery and a total 35 cysts were removed intact, one by one separately and histologically confirmed as hydatid cyst. Postoperatively, patient showed marked neurological improvement and was seizure free.

  17. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  18. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst.

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Muthu, Valliappan; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum. Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:26664169

  19. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum. Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  20. Radicular cyst masquerading as a multilocular radiolucency.

    Krishnamurthy, Vasavi; Haridas, Sheetal; Garud, Mandavi; Vahanwala, Sonal; Nayak, Chaitanya D; Pagare, Sandeep S

    2013-01-01

    Radicular cysts are the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. Most of these lesions involve the apex of the offending tooth and appear as well-defined periapical radiolucencies. This case presents an unusually large multilocular radicular cyst crossing the midline and involving almost the entire body of the mandible. The clinical and radiographic appearance mimicked an aggressive cyst or benign tumor. The lesion was surgically excised, and the teeth were endodontically treated without any postoperative complications. PMID:23444164

  1. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst

    Sahajal Dhooria; Valliappan Muthu; Ritesh Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum. Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tu...

  2. Caroli's disease misdiagnosed as hydatid liver cysts.

    Akoglu, M.; B. R. Davidson

    1991-01-01

    A 27 year old woman who presented with upper abdominal pain was found on ultrasonography to have multiple liver cysts consistent with hydatid disease. Three years previously she had undergone evacuation of multiple infected liver cysts thought to be due to hydatid disease. Computed tomographic scanning supported the diagnosis of hydatid disease affecting the right lobe of the liver. At laparotomy the right lobe contained multiple cysts which were removed by right lobectomy. Histology revealed...

  3. [A neonate with an interlabial cyst].

    Kuipers, Bart C W; Jansen, Esther J S; van Mil, Edgar G A H

    2015-01-01

    During a routine physical examination of a term, healthy neonate of Somalian origin we observed an anteriorly located interlabial yellow cyst with visible vascularisation on the outer surface. It caused lateralisation of the urinary meatus without notable obstruction. A Skene's duct cyst, or paraurethral cyst, was clinically diagnosed with spontaneous regression. This is a self-limiting phenomenon of unknown origin that rarely requires surgical drainage in case of urinary obstruction. PMID:25563786

  4. Surgical treatment of sacral perineural cyst--case report.

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Miki, Takanori; Miyaji, Yuki; Minami, Hiroaki; Masuda, Atsushi; Tominaga, Shogo; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Yamaura, Ikuya; Natsume, Shigeatsu; Yoshida, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    A 67-year-old man presented with persistent penis and scrotum pain due to S-2 and S-3 radiculopathy caused by a sacral perineural cyst. The cyst was treated with microsurgical partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication, together with closure of the point through which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flowed from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity. His pain resolved without recurrence of the cyst or complications. Symptomatic perineural cysts are quite rare. Surgical closure of the point through which CSF flows from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity is the most important intervention for symptomatic perineural cysts. If the source of CSF leakage cannot be detected, placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt should be considered in addition to partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication. PMID:22198114

  5. Thoracic Duct Cyst in Mediastinum - A case report -

    Kwak, Mu-yeop; Bae, Chi-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The thoracic duct cyst is an extremely rare cystic lesion in the mediastinum. Surgical treatment of the cyst is necessary to confirm histologic diagnosis and prevent potential complications such as spontaneous or traumatic rupture of the cyst and chylothorax.

  6. Craniofacial Procedure to Treat Encephalocele and an Arachnoid Cyst

    Full Text Available ... to get to the arachnoid cyst, this big bubble that’s inside the head. Now arachnoid cysts are ... is not cancer. This is a cyst, a bubble, a lining of the surface of the brain. ...

  7. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Giardia duodenalis ISOLATES FROM NONHUMAN PRIMATES HOUSED IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO

    Erica Boarato David; Mariella Patti; Silvana Torossian Coradi; Teresa Cristina Goulart Oliveira-Sequeira; Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla; Semiramis Guimaraes

    2014-01-01

    Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP) housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4...

  8. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those ag...

  9. Inhibition of Giardia intestinalis by Extracellular Factors from Lactobacilli: an In Vitro Study

    Pérez, Pablo F.; Minnaard, Jessica; Rouvet, Martine; Knabenhans, Christian; Brassart, Dominique; Antoni, Graciela L. De; Schiffrin, Eduardo J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of spent culture supernatants of different strains of lactobacilli on giardia trophozoites. The growth of Giardia intestinalis strain WB, as well as the attachment to the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2, was evaluated by using proliferation and adhesion assays with radiolabeled parasites. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometric analysis were performed. The effect of spent culture supernatants from lactob...

  10. Giardia Patients in Bergen with Continued Complaints: Current Status on Gastrointestinal Complaints, anxiety, depression and neuroticism

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to investigate 111 former Giardia patients in Bergen, in context of the subjective health complaints field. Gastrointestinal complaints and its relation to anxiety, depression and neuroticism were assessed with GSRS, ROME II, HADS, and EPQ-R(N). Gender differences on these variables were investigated. We found that gender differences are related to complaints prior to Giardia infection. Anxiety and depression levels are high and only related to complaints prior to G...

  11. Common Coinfections of Giardia intestinalis and Helicobacter pylori in Non-Symptomatic Ugandan Children

    Ankarklev, Johan; Hestvik, Elin; Lebbad, Marianne; Lindh, Johan; Kaddu-Mulindwa, Deogratias H.; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2012-01-01

    Background: The protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis and the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori are well known for their high prevalences in human hosts worldwide. The prevalence of both organisms is known to peak in densely populated, low resource settings and children are infected early in life. Different Giardia genotypes/assemblages have been associated with different symptoms and H. pylori with induction of cancer. Despite this, not much data are available from sub-Saharan...

  12. The Minimal Proteome in the Reduced Mitochondrion of the Parasitic Protist Giardia intestinalis

    Jedelsk, Petr L.; Doleal, Pavel; Rada, Petr; Pyrih, Jan; md, Ond?ej; Hrd, Ivan; edinov, Miroslava; Marcin?ikov, Michaela; Voleman, Lubomr; Perry, Andrew J.; Beltrn, Neritza Campo; Lithgow, Trevor; Tachezy, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis are thought to be mitochondria highly-reduced in response to the oxygen-poor niche. We performed a quantitative proteomic assessment of Giardia mitosomes to increase understanding of the function and evolutionary origin of these enigmatic organelles. Mitosome-enriched fractions were obtained from cell homogenate using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. To distinguish mitosomal proteins from contamination, we used a quantitative shot-gun strategy based on i...

  13. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst

    We reviewed the clinical, radiological and surgical findings in patients with both pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst. We retrospectively selected patients with both lesions from the 374 patients in whom a sellar/juxtasellar lesion was detected on MRI at 1.5 tesla. All patients received intravenous contrast medium. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst were found in eight patients (2.1 %). The frequency of the combination was 3.5 % of pituitary adenomas and 11 % of Rathke's cleft cysts. Symptoms were always due to the adenoma, secreting adrenocorticotrophin in two patients and growth hormone in six. The adenoma was larger in five patients, and the cyst in three. The cysts gave variable signal. The adenoma was adjacent to the cyst in seven patients, and enclosed it in the other patient. As a result of experience with MRI, concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst are now known not to be as rare as thought previously. When a nonenhancing cyst-like structure is demonstrated in a patient with pituitary adenoma, the possibility of a coexisting Rathke's cleft cyst should be considered. (orig.)

  14. Breast cysts in adolescents - diagnostics, monitoring, treatment

    Background: The aim of the paper was the US evaluation of hormonal disorders and treatment results in adolescent girls and boys with breast cysts. Material/Methods: In the years 2001 - 2009, US examination of the breast was performed in 427 children aged 10 - 18 years, with clinically suspected breast pathologies. The indications for US examination typically included pain, breast swelling and a palpable tumor. The US examination was performed using a 7 - 12 MHz linear transducer. Results: Breast cysts were found in 42 children: 36 adolescent girls and 6 boys with gynaecomastia. Infected cysts were found in 35 children. The cysts ranged in size from 5 mm to 30 mm. In 5 of the girls, large cysts were treated by an incision and drainage, and in all the children with infected cysts, antibiotic therapy was used. Hormonal disorders were found in 30 girls. A follow-up examination was performed, and the observation time varied from 1/12 to 2 years. The cysts disappeared completely in 30 children. Hormonal therapy was introduced in 5 girls. Conclusions: Breast cysts found in US examinations are indications for check-up examinations including endocrinological diagnostics and, if the cyst is persistent, possibly for hormonal treatment. (authors)

  15. MRI of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.

    Araki, Y; Tsukaguchi, I; Ishida, T; Ootani, M; Yamamoto, T; Tomoda, K; Mitomo, M

    1992-01-01

    Sacral perineural cyst is a relatively rare condition. To our knowledge, reports of MR findings associated with sacral perineural cyst have been limited to only six cases. We present for the first time high field MR findings in a case of sacral perineural cyst. The cyst appeared as a cystic lesion in the sacral spinal canal and had intermediate signal intensity on T1W images and high signal intensity on T2*W images compared with CSF. Slight erosion remodeling of the sacrum was also seen anteriorly. Our case was symptomatic and present with radiculopathy (sciatic pain). Surgical treatment was done to result in dramatic improvement of the sciatic pain. PMID:1337620

  16. Multidirectional Instability Accompanying an Inferior Labral Cyst

    Moon, Chang-Yun; Ji, Jong-Hun; Kim, Sung-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Paralabral cyst of the shoulder joint can be observed in 2% to 4% of the general population, particularly in men during the third and fourth decade. On average, these cysts measure 10 mm to 20 mm in diameter and are located preferentially on the postero-superior aspect of the glenoid. The MRI has increased the frequency of the diagnosis of paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint. Paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint usually develop in the proximity of the labrum. The relationship between sho...

  17. A Case Report of Enterogenous Cyst

    M. Amini, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Foregut cysts are various congenital lesions originated from emberyonic foregut. Bronchogenic, enterogenous and neuroenteric cysts are the most frequent forms of foregut cysts. They create different clinical symptoms based on their location. Enterogenous cysts comprise 4-5 percent of posterior mediastinal cysts and include esophageal, gastric and enteric cysts. A 61 year old woman referred to surgical clinic with dysphasia and regurgitation 6 months ago whose illness aggravared over the last 3 months. In physical examination, a lesion was seen in the right site of posterior mediastinum. Surgical excision was done and a ciliated columnar epithelium with two thin muscular layers were reported in pathology. In reality, the distinction between esophageal and bronchogenic cysts is not always clear. Both cysts present in mediastinum and their epithelial tissues are non-specific, however presence or lack of muscle layer in cyst-wall, proximity to gastrointestinal tract or tracheobronchial tree, adaption of clinical symptoms with paraclinic results and observations during surgical procedure can reveal certain diagnosis.

  18. Symptomatic supratentorial arachnoid cysts in children.

    Galarza, Marcelo; Pomata, Hugo B; Pueyrredón, Francisco; Bartuluchi, Marcelo; Zuccaro, Graciela N; Monges, Jorge A

    2002-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical and radiologic long-term outcome of symptomatic primary arachnoid cysts in pediatric patients. Thirty-three children, ranging from 2 months to 17 years of age (mean age, 6 years) were treated. Craniotomy and fenestration of the cyst were used for temporal fossa and midline cysts in 24 patients (73%); later, two patients required shunt placement. Shunting device implantation was performed for cerebral convexity cysts in nine patients (27%), and two patients required a subsequent craniotomy and fenestration of the cyst. Four patients (12%) required additional surgery because of clinical progression rather than for cyst enlargement. Eleven patients (33%) experienced a cyst reduction of more than 50% compared with the original size on imaging studies. There was a significant correlation with the alleviation of symptoms (P < 0.005), regardless of the treatment used. Complete alleviation of symptoms was achieved in all patients after treatment, regardless of cyst reduction. Long-term follow-up of 70 +/- 9.3 months demonstrated no recurrence of symptoms or progressive enlargement of the arachnoid cyst in all children. PMID:12393127

  19. Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, So Paulo, Brazil / Estudo clssico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianas atendidas em uma creche na regio de Presidente Prudente, So Paulo, Brasil

    Nair Toshiko, Tashima; Maria Jacira Silva, Simes; Clarice Queico Fujimura, Leite; Antonio, Fluminhan; Marco Antonio, Nogueira; Ana Carolina, Malaspina.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos epidemiolgicos sobre giardase por tcnicas moleculares como a RAPD (Amplificao aleatria do DNA polimrfico) podem contribuir para o entendimento de fatores relacionados transmisso de Giardia duodenalis. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia de G. duodenalis em 101 cri [...] anas atendidas em uma creche em Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brasil. Aps exames parasitolgicos em amostras de fezes, 15 crianas apresentaram cistos de G. duodenalis. Seus respectivos pais, irmos e animais domsticos, alm dos funcionrios da creche, foram submetidos a exames parasitolgicos de fezes. Destes, sete mes e nove irmos apresentaram G. duodenalis, enquanto os pais, funcionrios da creche e animais de estimao (ces) no apresentaram o parasita. Alm dos 15 casos com G. duodenalis, outras 23 crianas apresentaram outros enteroparasitas (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura). As amostras contendo cistos de G. duodenalis das crianas e de seus parentes foram submetidas anlise molecular por RAPD aps extrao do DNA genmico e amplificao de um fragmento de uma regio do rDNA 18S por PCR. Entre os 31 isolados de G. duodenalis (crianas e suas respectivas mes e irmos), concluiu-se que a transmisso dos parasitas ocorreu entre as crianas, provavelmente durante seu convvio na creche, mas no foi decorrente do convvio familiar ou animais de estimao. Abstract in english Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a [...] daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, besides the daycare center workers, also had their feces submitted to parasitological analysis. Seven mothers and nine brothers also presented G. duodenalis cysts, while fathers, daycare workers and pets (dogs) did not presented the parasite. Besides the 15 cases with G. duodenalis, other 23 children presented other enteroparasites (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). Samples of G. duodenalis cysts from children and their relatives were submitted to molecular typing by RAPD after genomic DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rDNA region by PCR. After examining 31 isolates of G. duodenalis (children and their respective mothers and brothers), it was concluded that the parasite transmission occurred in children, probably during daily cohabitation at the daycare center, but not at home among their relatives or pets.

  20. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature

    Prashad Bhagwat; Jain Anil; Dhammi Ish

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as inciden...

  1. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    EB David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  2. Molecular Characterization and Risk Factors of Giardia duodenalis among School Children from La Habana, Cuba.

    Jerez Puebla, Luis Enrique; Núñez, Fidel A; Martínez Silva, Isabel; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Martínez González, Marta; Méndez Sutil, Yuliet; Ayllón Valdés, Lucía; Atencio Millán, Iraís; Müller, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common protozoan infecting humans worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of eight groups (assemblages A to H) which differ in their host distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 639 children from La Habana between January and December 2013. Two assemblage-specific PCRs were carried out for the molecular characterization. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.9%. DNA from 63 of 76 (82.9%) samples was successfully amplified by PCR-tpi, while 58 from 76 (76.3%) were detected by PCRE1-HF. Similar results by both PCRs were obtained in 54 from 76 samples (71%). According to these analyses, assemblage B and mixed assemblages A + B account for most of the Giardia infections in the cohort of children tested. Our current study identified assemblage B as predominant genotype in children infected with Giardia. Univariate analysis indicated that omission of washing hands before eating and keeping dogs at home were significant risk factors for a Giardia infection. In the future, novel molecular tools for a better discrimination of assemblages at the subassemblages level are needed to verify possible correlations between Giardia genotypes and symptomatology of giardiasis. PMID:26693345

  3. The invasive potential of Giardia intestinalis in an in vivo model.

    Reynoso-Robles, R; Ponce-Macotela, M; Rosas-López, L E; Ramos-Morales, A; Martínez-Gordillo, M N; González-Maciel, A

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that affects primarily children, in whom it delays physical and mental development. The pathophysiology of giardiasis in not well understood, and most reports have identified Giardia intestinalis trophozoites only in the lumen and on the brush border of the small intestine. We identified Giardia trophozoites within the epithelium of the small intestine of a lactose intolerance patient. The Giardia trophozoites were obtained and cultured in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated Giardia trophozoite invasion in an animal model. Giardia trophozoites invaded the intestinal mucosa and submucosa of infected gerbils. The invasive trophozoites were observed at 21, 30 and 60 days age, and the average numbers of invaded sites were 17 ± 5, 15 ± 4, and 9 ± 3, respectively. We found trophozoites between epithelial cells, at the base of empty goblet cells, in lacteal vessels and within the submucosa. The morphological integrity of the invasive trophozoites was demonstrated via electron microscopy. The analysis of the gerbils infected with the trophozoites of the WB reference strain did not show intraepithelial trophozoites. These results demonstrate another Giardia pathogenic mechanism, opening the door to numerous future studies. PMID:26470844

  4. Prevalence of Giardia in dairy cattle in Lusaka and Chilanga districts, Zambia.

    Kakandelwa, Cliff; Siwila, Joyce; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B; Phiri, Isaac G K

    2016-01-15

    Giardia is an intestinal protozoan parasite of mammals including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of Giardia infections in smallholder and commercial dairy herds in Chilanga and Lusaka districts of Zambia. A total of 377 calves aged from 1 to 365 days were sampled on 34 farms. All faecal samples were analyzed for Giardia antigen using a commercially available ELISA kit. Overall prevalence of Giardia was 34.5% (95% CI=29.7-39.3). Among smallholder farms, animal level prevalence ranged from 0 to 100% (mean=44.636.9 standard deviations) and 12.5 to 60.9% (mean=33.516.7 standard deviations) within commercial herds. Prevalence was highest in calves less than three months old (p=0.010), and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between smallholder and commercial farms (p=0.300). Giardia prevalence was not associated with occurrence of diarrhoea in the calves (p=0.205). The study demonstrates that Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the study areas, especially in calves less than three months of age. PMID:26790746

  5. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimares.

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  6. Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Infected With Giardia Intestinalis

    SM Sadjjadi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is the most common intestinal parasite in human worldwide. It can produce a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to assess the nutritional status of preschool children infected with Giardia intestinalis, a cross sectional study was made in Marvdasht city, Fars Province, Southern Iran. A total of 337 preschool boys and girls aged 3-6 years were randomly selected for stool examination of intestinal parasites as well as measurement of height, weight, head and arm circumferences. A total of 77 individuals were infected with G. intestinalis. Seventy-one individuals who had only G. intestinalis and 229 with no parasitic infections were selected as infected and control groups, respectively. Z-Score of -2SD was used as cut off point of malnutrition. A total of 9 (12.7% of infected children and 18 (7.9% of non infected individuals had a height for age Z-score (HAZ below -2SD. Eight (11.3% of former group had a weight for age Z-score (WAZ under-2SD. In control group 4.4% of preschool children had WAZ under-2SD. 4.2% of infected children had a weight for height Z-score (WHZ under-2SD but none of the controls had it. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in height, weight, head circumference, HAZ, and WAZ between infected and control children (P<0.05. Also, HAZ and WAZ, was significantly different between these two groups, but not for WHZ. A higher infection with G. intestinalis in the children with lower parents’ education was observed. However the distribution of malnutrition was not significantly different between boys and girls. In conclusion the present study indicated that giardiasis retarded growth of preschool children in this region.

  7. Multi-vesicular pulmonary hydatid cyst, the potent underestimated factor in the formation of daughter cysts of pulmonary hydatid disease

    Mohsen Sokouti; Babak Sokouti; Behrooz Shokouhi; Mohammad Hossein Rahimi-Rad

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary multi-vesicular hydatid disease (HD) with Echinococcus granulosus is rare. A 28-year-old woman presented to our center with cough and respiratory distress. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography scan revealed bilateral giant cysts with water-lily sign (ruptured hydatid cysts). The left cyst was in vicinity of heart. With thoracotomy cysts of both lungs were removed. Thousands of translucent, homogenized small daughter cysts were discovered from the left side cyst. Pathologic examin...

  8. Two cases of symptomatic perineural cysts (tarlov cysts) in one family: a case report.

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Il Sup; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

    2008-09-01

    Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

  9. Mullerian cyst of the uterus misdiagnosed as ovarian cyst on pelvic sonography.

    Lui, Man-Wa; Ngu, Siew-Fei; Cheung, Vincent Y T

    2014-01-01

    Mullerian cyst of the uterus, also known as endosalpingiosis, is rare and often can be misdiagnosed as adnexal cyst on pelvic sonography. A 47-year-old woman was referred for an incidental finding of a right adnexal mass on pelvic sonography, suspected to be an ovarian cyst. During laparoscopy, a pedunculated cystic mass arising from the right anterior uterine wall was seen. The mass was resected laparoscopically and histologic examination showed a benign Mullerian cyst of the uterus. Diagnosis of Mullerian cyst of the uterus can be challenging. However, with increased awareness, preoperative diagnosis of this condition should be possible sonographically. PMID:23949900

  10. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    Daniel M Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunica albuginea (TA cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries.

  11. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: Case study

    Veselinović Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. Case Outline. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Niš, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Conclusion. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.

  12. Portal hypertension due to choledochal cyst

    A case of portal hypertension secondary to choledochal cyst is reported. A young female presented with haematemesis, malena and splenomegaly in addition to the classic triad of jaundice, pain and abdominal mass. Oesophagogastroscopy revealed second degree varices. Excision of cyst and hepaticojejunostomy was performed. At six months follow up patient was completely asymptomatic with no endoscopic evidence of varices. (author)

  13. Retroperitoneal Cyst: An Uncommon Presentation of Filariasis

    Senthil Ganesan; Saurabh Galodha; Rajan Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal parasitic cysts are rare. Here we report about a middle aged male patient from rural north India with a recent onset of central abdominal retroperitoneal lump, pain, and fever. After surgical resection due to diagnostic uncertainty, at histopathology, it turned out be a filarial cyst. After receiving a course of diethylcarbamazine, the patient is asymptomatic at 4 months' follow-up.

  14. Arachnoid cysts with intracystic and subdural haematoma

    Two cases of arachnoid cysts with acute intracystic and subdural haematomas are described. CT examination was performed in both cases, and showed a hyperdense expansion with thinning of the inner table of the skull. The different ways in which subdural haematomas associated with arachnoid cysts may be seen on CT are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Arachnoid cysts with intracystic and subdural haematoma.

    Romero, F J; Rovira, M; Ibarra, B; Piqueras, J; Rovira, M

    1989-05-01

    Two cases of arachnoid cysts with acute intracystic and subdural haematomas are described. CT examination was performed in both cases, and showed a hyperdense expansion with thinning of the inner table of the skull. The different ways in which subdural haematomas associated with arachnoid cysts may be seen on CT are discussed. PMID:2743985

  16. Arachnoid cysts with intracystic and subdural haematoma

    Romero, F.J.; Rovira, M. Jr.; Ibarra, B.; Piqueras, J.; Rovira, M. (Hospital General ' Vall d' Hebron' , Barcelona (Spain). Servicio de Neuroradiologia)

    1989-05-01

    Two cases of arachnoid cysts with acute intracystic and subdural haematomas are described. CT examination was performed in both cases, and showed a hyperdense expansion with thinning of the inner table of the skull. The different ways in which subdural haematomas associated with arachnoid cysts may be seen on CT are discussed. (orig.).

  17. Treatment options for intracranial arachnoid cysts

    Holst, Anders Vedel; Danielsen, Patricia L; Juhler, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    reviewed.Cysts were located infratentorially in 20% (n = 14) and supratentorially in 80% (n = 55); of these 73% (n = 40) were in the middle cranial fossa. Mean cyst size was 61 mm (range 15-100 mm). The most common symptoms were headache (51%), dizziness (26%), cranial nerve dysfunction (23%), seizure (22...

  18. Cardiac hydatid cyst revealed by ventricular tachycardia

    Ibn Elhadj, Zied; Boukhris, Marouane; Kammoun, Ikram; Halima, Afef Ben; Addad, Faouzi; Kachboura, Salem

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a human parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus Granulosus. The liver and the lungs are the most common locations. Cardiac involvement is rare and accounts for 0.5–2% of all hydatid disease. We report an unusual presentation of cardiac hydatid cyst revealed by ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a history of cerebral hydatid cyst.

  19. Bilateral Pulmonary Cyst in a Child

    Ravinder K Gupta, Ritu Gupta

    2008-01-01

    A four year old male child presented with history of cough for last six months. Chest skiagram and CTscan of mediastinum revealed bilateral pulmonary hydatid cyst. Serology did authenticate diagnosis. Thechild was prescribed albendazole for 6 months and was advised to come for follow up. The case ofbilateral pulmonary hydatid cyst is being presentated because of rarity.

  20. Bilateral Pulmonary Cyst in a Child

    Ravinder K Gupta, Ritu Gupta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A four year old male child presented with history of cough for last six months. Chest skiagram and CTscan of mediastinum revealed bilateral pulmonary hydatid cyst. Serology did authenticate diagnosis. Thechild was prescribed albendazole for 6 months and was advised to come for follow up. The case ofbilateral pulmonary hydatid cyst is being presentated because of rarity.

  1. Hydatid cyst of ovary- a rare entity

    Sailes Ray

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. It is prevalent in areas where livestock is raised in association with dogs. Humans are the accidental intermediate host. Primary peritoneal echinococcosis is a rarely observed clinical condition. We report a case of peritoneal hydatid cyst diagnosed incidentally during an operation performed for suspected ovarian cyst.

  2. Retrobulbar Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report.

    Yalçın, Özben; Başak, Tülay; Yakar, Rabia; Doğukan, Fatih Mert; Ergen, Erdem; Kabukçuoğlu, Fevziye

    2015-12-01

    Hydatid cyst is an infectious disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, transmitted by dogs and encountered mostly in liver and lungs. As the central nervous system involvement is considered, retrobulber disease is seen pretty rarely. In this subject; a patient complaining from an impaired vision diagnosed as hydatid cyst disease via radiological imagings and histopathological findings. PMID:26809919

  3. Epidermoid cyst of clitoris mimicking clitoromegaly

    Aggarwal Satish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clitoromegaly in pediatric and adolescent age group is usually indicative of a disorder of sexual differentiation. We report a girl child presenting with clitoral enlargement due to an epidermoid cyst. The cyst was excised with complete cosmetic recovery.

  4. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis. (orig.)

  5. Intraosseous keratin cyst of the distal phalanx

    Rohini Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratin or epidermoid cysts of the phalanges are rare lesions mimicking osteolytic lesions such as infection, malignancy and other tumours. Definitive diagnosis can be made by histopathology only and treatment is by simple excision and curettage. We present a case of intraosseous keratin cyst of the distal phalanx and review of literature.

  6. Giant adrenal cyst: case study

    Poiana, C; Carsote, M; Chirita, P.; Terzea, D; Paun, S.; M. Beuran

    2010-01-01

    One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst. We present the case of a 61Z–year old male patient diagnosed with peritonitis. During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered. The patient was referred to endocrinology. 6 months later the diameter of the tumor is 7 times bigger than the initial stage. It has no secretory phenotype, except for the small increase of serum aldosterone and the 24–h 17–ketosteroids. Open right adrenalectomy is perform...

  7. Giant Tarsal Keratinous Cyst Mimicking Chalazion

    Melis Palamar Onay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reports on keratinous cysts involving the tarsal plate are very rare. Herein, we present a 69-year-old male patient with a giant tarsal keratinous cyst of the right upper eyelid who was misdiagnosed as chalazion of the eyelid. Interventional case report with cytopathologic correlation. Due to recurrence after the surgery for presumed chalazion, the patient was referred to our clinic for tumor evaluation. In the second surgery, which was performed in our clinic, the lesion was found to have a fine capsule and was totally excised. Histopathologic examination revealed keratinous cyst of the tarsal plate. Keratinous cyst must be considered in the differential diagnosis of tarsal plate lesions, as the curettage of the keratinous cyst might result in multiple recurrences. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 138-9

  8. Chronic suppurative inflammatory cyst in the sacrum.

    Seo, Jun-Yeong; Ha, Kee-Yong

    2012-11-01

    Sacral bone remodeling with abnormal dilatation of intervertebral foramina is usually associated with Tarlov's perineurial cysts but can also be caused by slow-growth lesions. In this case report, an atypical inflammatory sacral cyst with bone scalloping was found and some possible causes are suggested. A 77-year-old woman complained of severe back pain and claudication with anal tone weakness. A plain roentgenogram and CT showed spinal canal expansion and characteristic border scalloping of the sacrum. MRI showed septated cystic content with peripheral enhancement. Laminectomy was performed. The cyst contained yellowish viscous material that was easily removed. The neurological symptoms improved after surgery. The cystic wall was composed of dense fibrous tissue without epithelial cell lining; the cystic content was, on histology, inflammatory cells including neutrophils and lymphocytes. Patients who have sacral intraspinal cysts should be identified before doing the treatment such as acupuncture and epidural steroid injection to avoid infection to those cysts. PMID:26662739

  9. Lateral meniscal cyst causing common peroneal palsy

    Lateral meniscal cysts are relatively common, but only in rare instances do they cause common peroneal nerve irritation. There are, we believe, no cases reported in which both the sensory and motor functions of the nerve have been compromised. We present a case of a lateral meniscal cyst that became palpable and led to symptoms of numbness and weakness in the distribution of the common peroneal nerve. The MRI findings were of an oblique tear of the lateral meniscus with an associated multiloculated meniscal cyst that coursed behind the biceps tendon before encroaching on the common peroneal nerve. Surgical resection confirmed the tract as located on the MRI and histology confirmed the mass to be a synovial cyst. Resection of the cyst and arthroscopic excision of the meniscal tear led to resolution of the symptoms in 3 months. (orig.)

  10. Lateral meniscal cyst causing common peroneal palsy

    Jowett, Andrew J.L.; Johnston, Jaquie F.A. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Level 7, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Gaillard, Francesco; Anderson, Suzanne E. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Radiology, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Lateral meniscal cysts are relatively common, but only in rare instances do they cause common peroneal nerve irritation. There are, we believe, no cases reported in which both the sensory and motor functions of the nerve have been compromised. We present a case of a lateral meniscal cyst that became palpable and led to symptoms of numbness and weakness in the distribution of the common peroneal nerve. The MRI findings were of an oblique tear of the lateral meniscus with an associated multiloculated meniscal cyst that coursed behind the biceps tendon before encroaching on the common peroneal nerve. Surgical resection confirmed the tract as located on the MRI and histology confirmed the mass to be a synovial cyst. Resection of the cyst and arthroscopic excision of the meniscal tear led to resolution of the symptoms in 3 months. (orig.)

  11. Sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation.

    Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2009-03-01

    Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

  12. Pilonidal cyst on the vault: case report

    BORGES GUILHERME

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilonidal cysts and sinuses are described as dermoid cysts which contain follicles of hairs and sebaceous glands. They clinically present as a classic case of inflammation which comes with pain, local infection and redness. The origin of pilonidal disease remains controverse. There are many hypothesis as lack of hygiene on the affected area and a penetration and growth of a hair in the subcutaneus tissue caused by constant friction or direct trauma on the damaged area. The option for clinical treatment is very frequent. However, taking into consideration the incidence and the possibility of recidive, surgical treatment is presently recommended. Complications include cellulitis and abscess formation. Pilonidal cysts are mostly found on the sacral region. In the literature is found description of pilonidal cysts on the penis, interdigital region on the hands as well as on the cervical region. We present a case of pilonidal cyst located on the vault biparietal region, without malignant degeneration.

  13. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris.

    Fleming, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach.

  14. Infection rate and genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis in pet and stray dogs in Henan Province, China.

    Qi, Meng; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Rongjun; Li, Junqiang; Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Longxian; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important protozoan parasite that is known to be zoonotic. To assess the potential zoonotic transmission of giardiasis from dogs and to identify genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in dog populations, we examined the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in both pet dogs (from pet dog farms, pet shops, pet hospitals, pet markets) and stray dogs of different ages in Henan Province, China. A total of 940 fresh fecal specimens were collected from 2007 to 2013 in Henan Province. The overall infection rate of G. duodenalis was 14.3% (134/940) as determined by microscopy, with the highest infection rate (17.3%) observed in dogs from shelters. Young dogs were more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs, and G. duodenalis cysts were found more frequently in diarrheic dogs. All G. duodenalis-positive isolates were characterized at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) loci, and 37, 51, and 48 sequences were obtained, respectively. The dog-specific assemblages C and D were identified using multi-locus sequence analysis. Six novel sequences of the tpi locus, one novel sequence of the gdh locus and two novel sequences of the bg locus were detected among the G. duodenalis assemblage C isolates, while two novel sequences of the gdh locus were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage D isolates. Our data indicate that G. duodenalis is a common parasite and cause of diarrheal disease in dogs in Henan Province. However, there was no evidence for zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in the study population. PMID:26631754

  15. Detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B in human feces by simple, assemblage-specific PCR assays.

    Vanni, Ilaria; Cacciò, Simone Mario; van Lith, Lindy; Lebbad, Marianne; Svärd, Staffan G; Pozio, Edoardo; Tosini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The flagellated protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of mammals, including humans. Molecular characterizations have shown the existence of eight genetic groups (or assemblages) in the G. duodenalis species complex. Human infections are caused by assemblages A and B, which infect other mammals as well. Whether transmission routes, animal reservoirs and associations with specific symptoms differ for assemblage A and assemblage B is not clear. Furthermore, the occurrence and clinical significance of mixed (A+B) infections is also poorly understood. To date, the majority of PCR assays has been developed to identify all G. duodenalis assemblages based on the use of primers that bind to conserved regions, yet a reliable identification of specific assemblages is better achieved by ad hoc methods. The aim of this work was to design simple PCR assays that, based on the use of assemblage-specific primers, produce diagnostic bands of different lengths for assemblage A and B. We first generated novel sequence information from assemblage B, identified homologous sequences in the assemblage A genome, and designed primers at six independent loci. Experiments performed on DNA extracted from axenic cultures showed that two of the six assays can detect the equivalent of a single cyst and are not negatively influenced by disproportions between DNA of each assemblage, at least up to a 9:1 ratio. Further experiments on DNAs extracted from feces showed that the two assays can detect both assemblages in single tube reactions with excellent reliability. Finally, the robustness of these assays was demonstrated by testing a large collection of human isolates previously typed by multi-locus genotyping. PMID:22953009

  16. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis from human and animal samples from Brazil using beta-giardin gene: a phylogenetic analysis.

    Voloto, A C; Costa-Macedo, L M; Haddad, F S M; Brando, A; Peralta, J M; Fernandes, O

    2007-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the major diarrhea agents in human and animals distributed worldwide, and present high levels of genetic diversity, showing seven genotypes: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. Only Assemblages A and B have been detected in humans and in a wide range of other mammalians hosts, whereas the remaining Assemblages (C-G) are host-specific. Molecular characterization of cysts of human and animal origin are useful to address the co-circulate isolates between these host, and represents an objective means to evaluate zoonotic infection hypothesis. In the present work the G. duodenalis genotypes were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and DNA sequencing analysis of PCR products of the beta-giardin gene. The cysts were collected in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, from a population composed by humans (n=366, 310 children and 56 adults), domestic animals (n=11) from a municipal daycare center in the surroundings of a slum and neighborhood medium-high class domestic animals (n=18). Parasitological exams were developed in human fecal samples. Parasites were found in 60% (186/310) and 66% (37/56) of the samples from children and adults, respectively. Among children's samples, 27.7% (86/310) were positive for G. duodenalis. Only 1.7% (1/56) of the adults was positive for this parasite. In general a total of 87 fecal samples (86 from children and 1 from adult) from all population studied were positive for G. duodenalis, and 62 of these were subjected to molecular analysis using a PCR that amplified a fragment of the beta-giardin gene. Sixty samples were typed as genotype A1, two as genotype A2 and genotype B was not encountered. Among domestic animals samples (n=29), eight (seven dogs and one cat) from the slum community were identified as genotype A1, and all control samples (n=18) were negative in the molecular assay. The host-specific genotypes C, D and, F were not found. In this study we described single case of G. duodenalis infection associated with a child and her dog and both isolates characterized as genotype A1. Despite the low incidence, this data suggest the putative existence of a zoonotic cycle of G. duodenalis in the studied population. PMID:17428432

  17. CT findings of thyroglossal duct cyst

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of thyroglossal duct cysts. Sixteen patients with pathologically proved thyroglossal duct cysts were included in the study. CT scans were assessed retrospectively for shape, size, location, density of the central portions, septations, rim enhancement, changes in the adjacent fascial planes and investment within the strap muscles in the infrahyoid cysts. Thirteen cases of thyroglossal duct cysts were seen as round or oval cystic masses, two cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped lobulated cystic masses, and one case was seen as ovoid soft tissue mass. The cysts were from 1.4 to 5.7 cm in diameter (mean, 2.6 cm). The cyst was infrahyoid in 15 cases and suprahyoid in one case. The cyst was located in midline in eight cases, off midline in four cases, and both midline and off midline in four cases. The density of the central portions ranged from 15 to 82HU (mean, 32HU). Septations were noted in four cases. Rim enhancement was seen in 14 cases (93%), and heterogeneously enhancing soft tissue mass was seen in one case. In four cases, abnormal fascial planes were observed. All but one of the infrahyoid cysts (14/15) were embedded within the strap muscles, and one case of them was located anteriorly to strap muscles. CT permits one to make the diagnosis a thyroglossal duct cyst with a high degree of accuracy, as it can differentiate thyroglossal duct cysts from the other anterior neck masses by their typical location, characteristic morphology, and investment within the strap muscles

  18. Giardia duodenalis in Damascus, Syria: Identification of Giardia genotypes in a sample of human fecal isolates using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyzing method.

    Skhal, Dania; Aboualchamat, Ghalia; Al Nahhas, Samar

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals. It is most prevalent in many developing and industrialized countries. G. duodenalis is considered to be a complex species. While no morphological distinction among different assemblages exist, it can be genetically differentiated into eight major assemblages: A to H. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis in human isolates (a study conducted for the first time in Syria). 40 fecal samples were collected from three different hospitals during the hot summer season of 2014. Extraction of genomic DNA from all Giardia positive samples (based on a microscopic examination) was performed using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. β-giardin gene was used to differentiate between different Giardia assemblages. The 514 bp fragment was amplified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction method, followed by digestion in HaeIII restriction enzyme. Our result showed that genotype A was more frequent than genotype B, 27/40 (67.5%); 4/40 (10%) respectively. A mixed genotype of A+B was only detected in 9 isolates (22.5%). This is the first molecular study performed on G. duodenalis isolates in Syria in order to discriminate among the different genotypes. Further expanded studies using more genes are needed to detect and identify the Giardia parasite at the level of assemblage and sub-assemblage. PMID:26524628

  19. Sports participation with arachnoid cysts.

    Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe. PMID:26636254

  20. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    Kim, Youngjoon; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts. PMID:26491452

  1. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    Tarja Pitkänen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria. Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies.

  2. Surgical treatment of congenital biliary duct cyst

    Wang De-chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is acknowledged that total cyst excision is a safe and ideal surgical treatment for congenital biliary duct cyst, compared to simple internal drainage. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal operation occasion and the effect of laparoscopy on congenital biliary duct cyst based upon total cyst excision. Methods From January 2002 to January 2011, 217 patients were admitted to Southwest Hospital for congenital biliary duct cyst. To determine the optimal surgery occasion, we divided these subjects into three groups, the infant group (age ? 3 years, the immaturity group (3 18 years, and then evaluated the feasibility, risk and long-term outcome after surgery in the three groups. To analyze the effect of laparoscopic technique on congenital biliary duct cyst, we divided the patients into the laparoscopy and the open surgery groups. Results Among the three groups, the morbidity from cholangiolithiasis before surgical treatment had obvious discrepancy (p 0.05. Similarly, no significant discrepancy was observed in the morbidity from postoperative complications or long-term postoperative complications (p > 0.05 between the laparoscopic and the open surgery groups. Conclusions We conclude that total cyst excision should be performed as early as possible. The optimal treatment occasion is the infant period, and laparoscopic resection may be a new safe and feasible minimally invasive surgery for this disease.

  3. Role of sonographic examination in Baker's cyst

    To evaluate the characteristic sonographic findings of Baker's cyst and to find out the possible factors which can influence the decision of treatment plan we performed a retrospective analysis of ultrasonograms of 21 proved Baker's cyst in 20 patients. The cysts were ovoid (52%) or elongated (48%) in shape. In 90.5%, there was tail-likelapering end toward the joint space of the knee. In 19%, there was tail-like tapering end toward the joint space of the knee. In 19%, there was fine or coarse eye-catching within the cyst. The coarse internal eye-catching was confirmed as hemorrhage within the cyst. In 62%, the connecting stalk could be traced to the head of gastrocnemiusmuscle. It was sharp in 69.2% and blunt in 30.8%. Fifty percent of cysts with blunt connecting stalk developed post-operative recurrence. In conclusion, ultrasonography of Baker's cyst should be performed with special emphasis on the internal eye-catching for the evaluation of the possible complication and on the connecting stalk for the decision of the surgical approach

  4. CT Imaging Findings of Ruptured Ovarian Endometriotic Cysts: Emphasis on the Differential Diagnosis with Ruptured Ovarian Functional Cysts

    Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of abnormal CT findings in patients with surgically proven ruptured endometriotic cysts, as compared with those abnormal CT findings of ruptured ovarian functional cysts. This study included 13 retrospectively identified patients with surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian endometriotic cysts and who had also undergone preoperative CT scanning during the previous seven years. As a comparative group, 25 cases of surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian functional cysts were included. We assessed the morphologic features of the cysts and the ancillary findings based on CT. For the endometriotic cysts, the mean maximum cyst diameter was significantly larger than that of the functional cysts (70.1 mm versus 36.4 mm, respectively, p < 0.05). The endometriotic cysts frequently had a multilocular shape and a thicker cyst wall, as compared to that of functional cysts, and these differences were statistically significant. Among the ancillary findings, endometriotic cysts showed a significantly higher prevalence of loculated ascites, ascites confined to the pelvic cavity without extension to the upper abdomen, and peritoneal strandings and infiltrations (p < 0.05). Although 11 of the 25 cases of functional cysts showed active extravasation of contrast material at the ovarian bleeding site, only one of 13 cases of endometriotic cysts showed active extravasation. The diagnosis of ruptured endometriotic cyst should be suspected for a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of multilocular or bilateral ovarian cysts with a thick wall and loculated ascites confined to the pelvic cavity with pelvic fat infiltrations

  5. CT Imaging Findings of Ruptured Ovarian Endometriotic Cysts: Emphasis on the Differential Diagnosis with Ruptured Ovarian Functional Cysts

    The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of abnormal CT findings in patients with surgically proven ruptured endometriotic cysts, as compared with those abnormal CT findings of ruptured ovarian functional cysts. This study included 13 retrospectively identified patients with surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian endometriotic cysts and who had also undergone preoperative CT scanning during the previous seven years. As a comparative group, 25 cases of surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian functional cysts were included. We assessed the morphologic features of the cysts and the ancillary findings based on CT. For the endometriotic cysts, the mean maximum cyst diameter was significantly larger than that of the functional cysts (70.1 mm versus 36.4 mm, respectively, p < 0.05). The endometriotic cysts frequently had a multilocular shape and a thicker cyst wall, as compared to that of functional cysts, and these differences were statistically significant. Among the ancillary findings, endometriotic cysts showed a significantly higher prevalence of loculated ascites, ascites confined to the pelvic cavity without extension to the upper abdomen, and peritoneal strandings and infiltrations (p < 0.05). Although 11 of the 25 cases of functional cysts showed active extravasation of contrast material at the ovarian bleeding site, only one of 13 cases of endometriotic cysts showed active extravasation. The diagnosis of ruptured endometriotic cyst should be suspected for a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of multilocular or bilateral ovarian cysts with a thick wall and loculated ascites confined to the pelvic cavity with pelvic fat infiltrations

  6. Sublingual epidermoid cyst: a case report

    Kandogan Tolga

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidermoid and dermoid cysts represent less than 0.01% of all oral cavity cysts. The cysts can be defined as epidermoid when the lining presents only epithelium, dermoid cysts when skin adnexa are found, and teratoid cysts when other tissue such as muscle, cartilage, and bone are present. In this article, we present the case of an epidermoid cyst, with an oral as well as a submental component, in an 11 year old boy who presented with complaints of a mass in the oral cavity, difficulty chewing and swallowing of solid foods for about 3 years. He was admitted to the otolaryngology department. On examination, a mass displacing the tongue superiorly and posteriorly was noticed. An MRI scan was done and showed a 40 35 mm well-circumscribed non-enhancing cystic mass extending from the sublingual area to the level of the thyroid notch. The content of the cyst was homogenous. On examining the neck, a firm swelling was also noticed in the submental area, extending down to the thyroid notch. Under general anesthesia and with nasotracheal intubation, the patient underwent surgical removal of the mass. Extraorally, a midline submental horizontal incision was performed through the mucosa overlying the swelling and the cyst was dissected from the surrounding tissues and removed. On histological examination, acidophilic stratum corneum and basophilic dot like staining of stratum granulosum, which is the hallmark of an epidermoid cyst, were seen. The patient did well postoperatively, and no recurrence was noticed at the 6-months follow-up.

  7. Progress of dinoflagellate cyst research in the China seas

    Haifeng Gu; Tingting Liu; Dongzhao Lan

    2011-01-01

    The resting cyst plays an important role in the life cycle of certain dinoflagellates. Cyst formation is of great significance to populations in terms of perseverance and dispersal. Dinoflagellates producing cysts spend much more time in the sediment than in the water column, and studies on cysts help to uncover dinoflagellate diversity. Cyst diversity and abundance within sediments can reflect the history of overlying dinoflagellates and environmental conditions, and thus serve as a historic...

  8. Multiple Giant Pilar Cyst Distributed Over the Body Since Childhood.

    Asilian, Ali; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Shahmoradi, Zabiolah; Shariat, Sheila; Moghadam, Nooshin Afshar; Soozangar, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Trichilemmal cyst or pilar cyst is defined as a cyst containing keratin and its breakdown products. It is usually situated on the scalp with a wall resembling external hair root sheath. In this case report we present a 55-year-old man with multiple giant pilar cysts that were distributed over the whole body since childhood. One of the cyst on the chest was transformed to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). PMID:26955134

  9. Ganglion Cyst of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament Causing Lumbar Radiculopathy

    Cho, Sung-Min; Rhee, Woo-Tack; Lee, Sang-Youl; Lee, Sang-Bok

    2010-01-01

    Degenerated conditions such as herniated disc or spinal stenosis are common etiologies of lumbar radiculopathy. Less common etiologies include spinal extradural cyst such as synovial cysts and ganglion cysts. Ganglion cyst of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) of the spine is a rare entity that can result in classical sciatica. Posterior longitudinal ligament cyst has no continuity with the facet joint and has no epithelial lining. Two young male patients presented with unilateral scia...

  10. Type IVA Choledochal Cyst: Is Hepatic Resection Necessary?

    Russell Strong

    1996-01-01

    Background: This study concerns patients who have choledochal cyst with intrahepatic and extrahepatic involvement (type IVA cyst). The extent of excision and the necessity of hepatectomy, including the intrahepatic cyst in these patients have not been clarified. Study design: We have performed excision of the extrahepatic cyst with hepaticojejunostomy upon 13 patients with type IVA cyst during a 16 year period. The present study was done to examine the size of the anastomotic opening by direc...

  11. Surgical Management of Post-Traumatic Iris Cyst

    Philip, Swetha Sara; John, Deepa Rebecca; Ninan, Fini; John, Sheeja Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : Epithelial cysts of the iris may be primary or secondary. The management of secondary, posttraumatic iris cysts is often challenging. The purpose of this work is to report the successful surgical management of a post-traumatic iris cyst. Case Report: A 38 year-old man presented with an iris cyst associated with epithelial downgrowth and total cataract, six years after sustaining a penetrating injury to his right eye. The iris cyst was excised in toto with the epithelial downgrowth, ...

  12. Current Therapies for Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst and its Complications

    Ali Kılıçgün; Suat Gezer

    2011-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the first presenting complaints and operative results of patients who were operated for lung hydatid cyst and to determine the rate of co-existing liver hydatid cysts. Methods: Seventy patients who had been operated for lung hydatid cyst between 2004 and 2008 were included in the study. Clinical, radiological and surgical data of these patients were evaluated retrospectively. Results: The cyst(s) were perforated in 30 patient...

  13. Rare Bilateral Nasopalatine Duct Cysts: A Case Report

    Cicciù, Marco; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Borgonovo, Andrea; Santoro, Giacomo; Pallotti, Francesco; Maiorana, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC) is the most common of the non-odontogenic cyst of the jaws. This cysts are usually central or unilateral with no prevalence of side occurrence. The NPDC is the most frequent developmental, nonodontogenic cyst of the jaws. This cyst originates from epithelial remnants from the nasopalatine duct. The cells could be activated spontaneously during life, or are eventually stimulated by the irritating action of various agents (infection, etc.). Generally, patients ...

  14. Bilateral orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: A rare case report and review

    Rahul Devidas Pimpalkar; Barpande, Suresh R; Bhavthankar, Jyoti D; Mandale, Mandakini S

    2014-01-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a developmental cyst of jaw and was initially considered by the World Health Organization (1992) as the uncommon orthokeratinized variant of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). However, studies have shown that OOC has peculiar clinicopathologic aspects when compared with other developmental odontogenic cysts, especially OKC. So orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst now stands out to be a distinct entity. Clinically, it occurs as a single cyst, shows a predilec...

  15. Multicentric calcified trichilemmal cysts with alopecia universalis affecting siblings

    Haneef N Sadath; Ramachandra, S.; Metta A Kumar; K. Haritha

    2013-01-01

    Trichilemmal cyst, also known as "pilar cyst," is a benign cyst containing keratin and its breakdown products with a wall resembling external root sheath of hair. It occurs mostly in females as a solitary firm nodule over scalp. Occurrence of multiple trichilemmal cysts in areas other than scalp is extremely rare. We are reporting a case of a 40-years-old female who presented with multiple calcified trichilemmal cysts in multicentric distribution associated with alopecia universalis. Similar ...

  16. Multiple giant pilar cyst distributed over the body since childhood

    Ali Asilian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichilemmal cyst or pilar cyst is defined as a cyst containing keratin and its breakdown products. It is usually situated on the scalp with a wall resembling external hair root sheath. In this case report we present a 55-year-old man with multiple giant pilar cysts that were distributed over the whole body since childhood. One of the cyst on the chest was transformed to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC.

  17. Clinical Experiences of Fetal Ovarian Cyst: Diagnosis and Consequence

    Kwak, Dong Wook; Sohn, Yong Seok; Kim, Sei Kwang; Kim, In Kyu; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian cysts are the most frequent, prenatally diagnosed intra-abdominal cysts. Fetal ovarian cyst often presents complication such as torsion and seems to be an indication for surgical intervention. In this study, we reviewed pre- and post-natal medical records and ultrasonography of 17 fetuses that were diagnosed with ovarian cysts. In a total of 17 cases, postnatal surgery was performed in 7 infants. Of these cases, four cases of ovarian cyst torsion were confirmed. In the remaining 10 fe...

  18. Cysts

    ... Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain ... Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain ...

  19. Z PLASTY IN PILONIDAL CYST REPAIR

    A BEHDAD

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The present study was coducted to evaluate the outcome and complications of Z plasty in pilonidal cyst repair. Methods. Sixty patients with pilonidal cyst were selected and repaired by Z plasty method in Al-Zahra hospital (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. The patients were followed for 6 months and complications such as seruma, infection and replapse wre evaluated. Results. The incidence of seruma, infection and relapse after Z plasty was 6.6, 1.6 and 3.4 percent, respectively. Discussion. Z plasty is a choice operation for pilonidal cyst repair.

  20. Sacral perineural cysts: imaging and treatment options.

    Landers, J; Seex, K

    2002-04-01

    Perineural cysts are an uncommon radiological finding and a rare cause of radicular leg pain. We report the clinical findings, imaging and operative appearances of a patient who presented with radicular leg and perineal pain, which was found to be associated with multiple sacral perineural cysts. The diagnostic and treatment options are explored. In particular, the use of percutaneous fine-needle cyst drainage as a guide to the value of surgery is discussed. Postoperative complications, such as pseudomeningocoele can occur, but may be effectively treated with lumbar drainage. PMID:12046741