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1

REMOVAL OF 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' CYSTS BY DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

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A study was conducted to evaluate the removal of Giardia lamblia cysts and cyst-sized particles by coagulation/sedimentation and filtration, or direct filtration using 2.3 L/min (0.6 gpm) pilot plants and by diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration using a 3.8 L/min DE pilot filter. Th...

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Development and testing of a filter system for isolation of Giardia lamblia cysts from water.  

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An inexpensive, practical, and reliable method for isolation of Giardia lamblia cysts from potable and environmental water has been developed from commercially available components. This system was successfully used to isolate cysts from well water associated with a family outbreak of giardiasis.

Hausler, W. J.; Davis, W. E.; Moyer, N. P.

1984-01-01

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A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metabolism as the parasite encysts in the host's intestine and excysts upon ingestion by a new host. Results To investigate the magnitude of the transcriptional changes occurring during the G. lamblia life cycle we compared the transcriptome of G. lamblia trophozoites and cysts using single-color oligonucleotide microarrays. Cysts were found to possess a much smaller transcriptome, both in terms of mRNA diversity and abundance. Genes encoding proteins related to ribosomal functions are highly over-represented. The comparison of the transcriptome of cysts generated in culture or extracted from feces revealed little overlap, raising the possibility of significant biological differences between the two types of cysts. Conclusions The comparison of the G. lamblia cyst and trophozoite transcriptome showed that transcripts of most genes are present at a lower level in cysts. This global view of the cyst and trophozoite transcriptome complements studies focused on the expression of selected genes during trophozoite multiplication, encystation and excystation.

Widmer Giovanni

2011-05-01

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Inhibition of Giardia lamblia excystation by antibodies against cyst walls and by wheat germ agglutinin.  

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Although excystation is crucial to the initiation of infection by Giardia lamblia, little is known about the regulation of this important process. We have been able to reliably induce excystation in vitro by mimicking cyst passage through the stomach and upper small intestine by the exposure of in vitro-derived cysts to an acidic, reducing environment (stage I) followed by protease treatment at a slightly alkaline pH (stage II). Preexposure of cysts to polyclonal rabbit antiserum against purified cyst walls (PCWs) or to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) inhibited excystation by > 90%. Adsorption of either ligand with PCWs eliminated inhibition, demonstrating specificity for cyst wall epitopes. Inhibition by WGA was reversed by either chitotriose or sialic acid, while inhibition by polyclonal antibodies against PCWs (anti-PCW) was reversed only by sialic acid, which also inhibited binding of both ligands to intact cysts and to cyst wall antigens in immunoblots. Binding of anti-PCW did not affect acidification of cyst cytoplasm during stage I. Exposure of cysts to anti-PCW and WGA prior to, but not after, stage II was sufficient to inhibit excystation, and inhibition could be partially reversed by increasing the protease concentration during stage II. A 7- to 10-fold higher proportion of WGA- and anti-PCW-treated cysts than control cysts remained intact after stage II. Our results suggest that these ligands, which bind cyst wall epitopes, inhibit excystation, most likely by interfering with proteolysis of cyst wall glycoproteins during stage II. PMID:8675320

Meng, T C; Hetsko, M L; Gillin, F D

1996-06-01

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Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.  

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In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that mineral domain of soil has an important role in such retention. PMID:23722173

Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

2013-10-15

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Evaluation of a tangential-flow multiple-filter technique for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water.  

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A system of tangential-flow filtration was evaluated for use in the detection of Giardia cysts in drinking water. This method was more sensitive in recovering cysts than a frequently used wound-orlon system of through-filtration.

Isaac-renton, J. L.; Fung, C. P.; Lochan, A.

1986-01-01

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A Simple Method for Demonstrating the Giardia Lamblia Trophozoite  

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Introduction Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite of man. Only 2 stages i.e. the trophozoite and the cyst forms are observed in the life cycle of Giardia. The Giardia infection is acquired from drinking water or by eating food which is contaminated with cysts. The symptoms of the Giardia infection are foul smelling diarrhoea, flatulence, steatorrhoea, etc. Stool samples from the patients are examined for the detection of the motile trophozoites and cysts. As the trophozoites disintegrate rapidly, the stool sample should be observed within 15 minutes of its passage. Hence, we developed a staining method to stain the Giardia trophozoite permanently. Materials and Methods Smears of the stool samples were prepared and they were fixed with methanol. The staining was done by using a 1% methylene blue solution. Results All the 15 known Giardia lamblia trophozoite positive samples were also found to be positive by the Methylene blue staining. The Giardia lamblia cysts could not be stained by this method. 20 stool samples were used as negative controls. Conclusion We developed the methylene blue staining for demonstrating the trophozoite of Giardia, which is a very simple permanent staining method. The slides can be kept for a permanent record. PMID:23285438

Rajurkar, Monali N.; Lall, Niharika; Basak, Silpi; Mallick, Sanjay K.

2012-01-01

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INDUCTION OF ALBENDAZOLE RESISTANCE IN GIARDIA LAMBLIA  

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Previous studies have shown that Giardia lamblia resistance to metronidazole can be induced in the laboratory, and treatment failures with this drug have also been documented. As replacement theraples, anthelmintic benzimidazoles have antigiardial activity with few clinical side ...

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Antigenic conservation and variation in Giardia cysts from various vertebrate hosts.  

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Monoclonal antibodies produced against Giardia muris cysts reacted in indirect immunofluorescence with homologous cysts and cysts from a Giardia-infected wild Norway rat but did not cross-react with Giardia lamblia cysts of human, dog, or beaver sources. Another monoclonal antibody raised against Giardia simoni cysts from the Norway rat reacted with homologous cysts (rat) and cross-reacted with cysts from a cow. The demonstration of antigenic differences at the cyst surfaces of Giardia organi...

Riley, E. T.; Stibbs, H. H.

1989-01-01

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Rotifers ingest Giardia cysts.  

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Seven species of rotifers representing 6 genera, Epiphanes, Plationus, Asplanchna, Philodina species A, Philodina species B. Platyias, and Brachionus, were exposed to Giardia cysts isolated from the feces of experimentally infected holstein calves. Giardia cysts were prestained with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody and mixed with viable rotifers on 3-well Teflon-coated microscope slides. Organisms were observed with phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. Five rotifer species, Epiphanes brachionus, Plationus patulus, Philodina (both A and B), and Platyias quadricornis, ingested varying numbers of cysts, which were retained within the rotifers' bodies throughout the observation period. Rotifer ingestion of Giardia cysts may represent a means of reducing water contamination. PMID:12435156

Trout, J M; Walsh, E J; Fayer, R

2002-10-01

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A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia  

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Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and tre...

Dilek Karaku?; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

2009-01-01

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Effect of Giardia lamblia on duodenal disaccharidase levels in humans.  

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The study was conducted to detect the effect of giardiasis on human disaccharidase levels. Forty patients attending the medical outpatient department of PGIMER, Chandigarh were enrolled. Twenty patients, positive for Giardia lamblia comprised the study group while 20 patients negative for Giardia lamblia were taken as controls. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all patients. Estimation of lactase, sucrase, maltase and trehalase was done in biopsies. Histopathological investigation was carried out in all biopsy specimens after Haematoxylin and Eosin staining. Complaints of pain abdomen and bloating occurred commonly in giardiasis. Four biopsy samples in study group showed mild increase in lymphomononuclear infiltrate. Giardia lamblia was detected in 7 biopsies. Lactase levels were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in giardiasis. Rest of the enzymes were comparable to the controls. No differences in the enzyme activities were observed between males and females in either group and with the duration of symptoms. PMID:11194577

Singh, K D; Bhasin, D K; Rana, S V; Vaiphei, K; Katyal, R; Vinayak, V K; Singh, K

2000-01-01

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Susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to Hovenia dulcis extracts.  

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Giardia lamblia is the causative agent of giardiasis, a common parasitic infection of the human and animal digestive tract. Although several drugs have been available to treat this infection, they present unpleasant side effects or cytotoxicity. In order to find a more natural treatment for the disease, we analyzed the effects of the methanolic extract and three fractions obtained from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae) leaves on G. lamblia. Comparing all fractions, dichloromethane was more efficient in reducing Giardia growth. The exposition of G. lamblia to this fraction lead to degenerations in the surface, modifications in the cell shape and alterations in the localization of nuclei. Besides that, the adhesion of G. lamblia was also altered. Experiments revealed that the obtained fraction did not present cytotoxic effects in mammalian cells. In summary, dichloromethane fraction has strong antigiardial effects and could become an important new substance for the treatment of giardiasis. PMID:16151735

Gadelha, A P R; Vidal, F; Castro, T M; Lopes, C S; Albarello, N; Coelho, M G P; Figueiredo, S F L; Monteiro-Leal, L H

2005-11-01

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Ingestion of Giardia lamblia trophozoites by murine Peyer's patch macrophages.  

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Macrophages in Peyer's patches are important in the initiation of gastrointestinal immune responses to enteric pathogens. To examine their potential role in giardiasis, murine mononuclear cells were isolated from collagenase-treated Peyer's patches by their adherence to glass. These cells were incubated with Giardia lamblia trophozoites in the presence of nonimmune or immune (anti-Giardia antibody titer, greater than or equal to 1:1,024) mouse serum. Macrophages ingested trophozoites at low l...

Hill, D. R.; Pohl, R.

1990-01-01

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Antigenic switching of TSA 417, a trophozoite variable surface protein, following completion of the life cycle of Giardia lamblia.  

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Expression of TSA 417, the predominant cysteine-rich variable surface protein of Giardia lamblia WB clone C6 trophozoites, did not change during encystation in vitro. However, in vitro excystation of cysts derived in vitro or in vivo consistently produced TSA 417 nonexpressing trophozoite populations, suggesting that completion of the life cycle leads to antigenic switching. Images PMID:8225614

Meng, T C; Hetsko, M L; Gillin, F D

1993-01-01

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Comparison of Metronidazole and Furazolidone Against Giardia lamblia in Children  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted on children infected by Giardia lamblia to evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of Metronidazole and Furazolidone drugs in Kashan. One hundred twenty two individuals infected with Giardia lamblia were assigned in 2 groups. They were 5-12 years old. Patients were surveyed four weeks following the therapy with Metronidazole and Furazolidone. Results were compared using chi-square method. Of 122 infected patients, 68.8% were urban residents, 43.4% were females and 56.6% were males. Abdominal pain was the most common clinical symptoms (84.2%. Four weeks after the therapy, the efficacy of metronidazole and furazolidone were 87 and 81.6%, respectively. Malaise (12.9% and dark urine (25% was the most frequents side effects of metronidazole and furazolidone, respectively. With respect to the efficacy of antiparasite drugs in the treatment of giardiasis, further studies in different parts of the country are highly recommended.

S.A. Talari

2006-01-01

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Ensayo inmunoenzimático en fase sólida para la detección de antígenos de Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Se normalizó un sandwich ELISA para la detección de antígenos de Giardia lamblia en heces humanas. Se estudiaron 175 muestras: 77 positivas, 61 negativas a quistes y/o trofozoítos por el examen directo de las heces y 19 muestras positivas a otros parásitos diferentes de G. lamblia. La sensibilidad de la técnica fue de 94,8 % y la especificidad de 98,3 %; el método detecta una concentración de antígenos de 31 ng. El procedimiento es simple, sensible y específico, por lo que pudiera ser útil para el diagnóstico y en estudios epidemiológicos.An ELISA sandwich for the detection of Giardia lamblia antigens in human faeces was standardized. 175 samples were studied: 77 positive, 61 negative to cysts and/or trophozoites by direct faeces test, and 19 positive to other parasite different from G. lamblia. The sensitivity of the technique was 94,8 % and the specificity 98,3 %. The method detects an antigen concentration of 31 ng. The procedure is simple, sensitive and specific so, it may be useful for diagnosis and in epidemiological studies.

DINORAH TORRES

1997-04-01

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Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

Hanevik Kurt

2009-04-01

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Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine). Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites). This effect was inhib [...] ited (>90%) by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM) and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml). Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively). A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml) was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM). The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM). These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

P.D., Fernandes; J., Assreuy.

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Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine). Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites). This effect was inhib [...] ited (>90%) by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM) and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml). Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively). A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml) was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM). The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM). These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

P.D., Fernandes; J., Assreuy.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
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INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA BY FREE CHLORINE: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL  

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EPA's Office of Drinking Water is interested in using the C.t concept for providing guidance as to adequate disinfection for inactivating Giardia cysts. sing both animal infectivity and excystation data a model has been developed for predicting C.t values. his model is then incor...

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[In vitro effect of osthole on ultrastructure of Giardia lamblia].  

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Giardia lamblia trophozoites were cultivated axenically in TYI-S-33 modified medium containing 1.345 mg/ml of osthole (24 h IC50). The parasites were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopes after treated with osthole for 24 h. The surface of the trophozoites treated with osthole was rough. The surface of ventral sucker and median body had obvious lesions, the cell membrane was damaged and the content spilled out. There were a lot of vacuoles in the cytoplasm. And the nuclear was severely deformed with a serrated edge and marginated nuclear chromatin. The microtubules of sucker had partially disintegrated. PMID:25223065

Li, Wen-Chao; Gu, You-Fang; Liu, Chang; Wu, Na; Luo, Wen-Wu; Gong, Peng-Tao; Li, He; Li, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xi-Chen

2014-06-01

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Flagellar generated flow mediates attachment of Giardia lamblia  

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Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite responsible for widespread diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. Attachment to the host intestinal mucosa and resistance to peristalsis is necessary for establishing infection, but the physical basis for this attachment is poorly understood. We report results from TIRF and confocal fluorescence microscopy that demonstrate that the regular beating of the posterior flagella generate a flow through the ventral disk, a suction-cup shaped structure that is against the substrate during attachment. Finite element simulations are used to compare the negative pressure generated by the flow to the measured attachment force and the expected performance of the flagellar pump.

Urbach, Jeffrey; Luo, Haibei; Picou, Theodore; McAllister, Ryan; Elmendorf, Heidi

2011-03-01

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Actividad lactásica en niños con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, de corte transversal y analítico, con el propósito de establecer posibles diferencias en el comportamiento de la actividad lactásica en niños menores de 2 años con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia tratados en el Servicio de Diarreas del Hospital Pediátrico [...] Docente "Dr. Ángel A. Aballí", en el período de diciembre de 1994 a noviembre de 1995. Se determinaron los niveles de la actividad enzimática según diferentes categorías de variables de caracterización del niño y su enfermedad. Los resultados permitieron afirmar su reducción en estos niños, y que tal actividad tiene un comportamiento diferencial asociado con la edad, estado nutricional y grado de atrofia de la mucosa. Abstract in english A prospective analytical cross-sectional study was made with the objective of setting likely differences in Beta-galactosidase performance in under 2 years-old children admitted with diarrheal disease due to Giardia lamblia to «Ángel A. Aballí» Teaching Pediatric Hospital’s Diarrhea Service Unit fro [...] m December 1994 to November 1995. Levels of the enzime activity were determined according to the several characterization variable categories of the child and his disease. The outcome showed the decline in diarrheal disease in thesechildren and the different performance patterns of this enzime depending on age, nutrition and mucosa atrophic level.

Arnaldo, Izquierdo Estévez; Carlos M., Hernández Fernández; Ramiro E., León García; Tomás L., Padrón Concepción.

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A new set of carbohydrate-positive vesicles in encysting Giardia lamblia.  

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Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that presents both trophozoite and cyst forms. In this study, the distribution of the different sugar residues and the origin of the carbohydrate components of the cyst wall were studied using transmission electron microscopy, ultrastructural cytochemistry for carbohydrate detection and immunocytochemistry. Immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-cyst wall protein 1 (CWP1) and gold- and fluorescent-conjugated lectins, such as WGA and DBA, were also used. Interestingly, a population of carbohydrate-containing vesicles, distinct from the encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs) was found in the encysting cells and was named encystation carbohydrate-positive vesicles (ECVs). The differences between the ECVs and the ESVs were: (1) they are electron-translucent, whereas ESVs are electron dense; (2) they do not react with antibodies against cyst wall proteins; (3) the contents are positive for carbohydrates, whereas ESVs display a negative reaction; and (4) they exhibit a positive labeling for DBA indicating the presence of N-acetyl-galactosamine, whereas ESVs are negative. To evaluate if ECVs could be vesicles involved in the endocytic pathway, endocytic markers were used. No co-localization of these markers with ECVs was observed. We suggest that the ECVs may represent a new structure involved in cyst wall formation. PMID:23266141

Midlej, Victor; Meinig, Isadora; de Souza, Wanderley; Benchimol, Marlene

2013-03-01

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Comparison of Metronidazole and Furazolidone Against Giardia lamblia in Children  

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This study was conducted on children infected by Giardia lamblia to evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of Metronidazole and Furazolidone drugs in Kashan. One hundred twenty two individuals infected with Giardia lamblia were assigned in 2 groups. They were 5-12 years old. Patients were surveyed four weeks following the therapy with Metronidazole and Furazolidone. Results were compared using chi-square method. Of 122 infected patients, 68.8% were urban residents, 43.4% we...

Talari, S. A.; Momtazmanesh, N.; Talebian, A.; Khorshidi, A.; Taghavi, A.; Fakharian, E.; Talari, M. R.; Mokhtari, Z.

2006-01-01

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/ Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis emergent opportunists / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis, oportunistas emergentes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es un hecho conocido que las infecciones oportunistas por protozoos y hongos han aumentado en los últimos años, debido especialmente al aumento de las infecciones por VIH. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis son protozoos y hongo, respectivamente, mundialmente recono [...] cidos como agentes oportunistas emergentes, responsables de brotes epidémicos provocados por la ingestión de agua potable contaminada, incluso después de una correcta desinfección. La ingestión de estos protozoos puede provocar diferentes grados de enfermedad, entre aguda o leve (población sana) hasta situaciones más graves y agresivas, hasta a veces mortales (pacientes inmunocomprometidos y/o inmunodeprimidos). A pesar de ser responsables de muchos brotes epidémicos, su diagnóstico de laboratorio permanece arduo y trabajoso, incluso utilizando las nuevas técnicas desarrolladas en los últimos años. En esta revisión se resumen las consideraciones generales de estos oportunistas emergentes, así como los métodos de diagnóstico más usuales, incluso los más recientes y específicos. Abstract in english Epidemiological data, regarding parasitic and fungi opportunist infections, have changed in the last years, especially due to HIV infection. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are protozoan and fungi, respectively, worldwide known as opportunistic emergent agents, [...] being responsible by epidemic outbreaks after ingestion of contaminated water, even following a correct disinfection treatment. Its ingestion can cause different effects on individuals’ health, from light or acute among the healthy population, to serious, aggressive or even deadly among the immunodepressed or immunocompromised patients. Contaminated water ingestion can result in outbreaks but protozoa laboratory diagnosis still remains very laborious, even after the development of more sensitive and specific techniques in the last years. In this paper, a revision of these emergent opportunists, their main characteristics and diagnostic tools are described, including the most recent and specific techniques.

Joana, Barbosa; Maria José, Espinar; Acácio, Gonçalves Rodrigues; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

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/ Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis emergent opportunists / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis, oportunistas emergentes  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es un hecho conocido que las infecciones oportunistas por protozoos y hongos han aumentado en los últimos años, debido especialmente al aumento de las infecciones por VIH. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis son protozoos y hongo, respectivamente, mundialmente recono [...] cidos como agentes oportunistas emergentes, responsables de brotes epidémicos provocados por la ingestión de agua potable contaminada, incluso después de una correcta desinfección. La ingestión de estos protozoos puede provocar diferentes grados de enfermedad, entre aguda o leve (población sana) hasta situaciones más graves y agresivas, hasta a veces mortales (pacientes inmunocomprometidos y/o inmunodeprimidos). A pesar de ser responsables de muchos brotes epidémicos, su diagnóstico de laboratorio permanece arduo y trabajoso, incluso utilizando las nuevas técnicas desarrolladas en los últimos años. En esta revisión se resumen las consideraciones generales de estos oportunistas emergentes, así como los métodos de diagnóstico más usuales, incluso los más recientes y específicos. Abstract in english Epidemiological data, regarding parasitic and fungi opportunist infections, have changed in the last years, especially due to HIV infection. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are protozoan and fungi, respectively, worldwide known as opportunistic emergent agents, [...] being responsible by epidemic outbreaks after ingestion of contaminated water, even following a correct disinfection treatment. Its ingestion can cause different effects on individuals’ health, from light or acute among the healthy population, to serious, aggressive or even deadly among the immunodepressed or immunocompromised patients. Contaminated water ingestion can result in outbreaks but protozoa laboratory diagnosis still remains very laborious, even after the development of more sensitive and specific techniques in the last years. In this paper, a revision of these emergent opportunists, their main characteristics and diagnostic tools are described, including the most recent and specific techniques.

Joana, Barbosa; Maria José, Espinar; Acácio, Gonçalves Rodrigues; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

2013-12-01

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Transcriptional Analysis of Three Major Putative Phosphatidylinositol Kinase Genes in a Parasitic Protozoan, Giardia lamblia  

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The current investigation evaluates the expression of phosphatidylinositol kinase (PIK) genes in the parasitic protozoan, Giardia lamblia. The G. lamblia Genome Database revealed the presence of two putative phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (gPI3K) and one phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase (gPI4K) genes resembling the catalytic subunit of eukaryotic PIKs. Primers, designed to amplify mRNA of these three genes, were used to measure transcription by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain ...

Hernandez, Yunuen; Zamora, Gus; Ray, Suparna; Chapoy, Jaime; Chavez, Edna; Valvarde, Robert; Williams, Ebonye; Aley, Stephen B.; Das, Siddhartha

2007-01-01

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Development of a direct DNA extraction protocol for real-time PCR detection of Giardia lamblia from surface water.  

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Giardia lamblia is one of the most recognized waterborne protozoan parasites causing gastrointestinal disease. A simple but effective DNA extraction protocol for real-time PCR detection from surface water samples was developed in this study. Eleven protocols were compared, which consisted of freeze-thaw treatments (liquid N(2) and boiling water) and purification using the Qiagen DNeasy kit, together with different combinations of proteinase K, PVP360, GITC and Chelex 100 incubation. Using concentrated surface water samples spiked with G. lamblia cysts, the necessary steps for high DNA recovery were shown to be freeze-thaw, DNeasy purification and Chelex 100 incubation. Multiple rounds of freeze-thaw treatment (five cycles per round) were reported for the first time in this study to significantly increase the DNA yield from G. lamblia cysts, from ~20% after one round of freeze-thaw to 40 and 70% after two and three-rounds of freeze-thaw, respectively. More than three rounds of freeze-thaw treatment did not promote additional DNA recovery. The final protocol included three-three-rounds of freeze-thaw treatment, DNeasy purification and Chelex 100 incubation. This method was simpler, more cost-effective, and had a comparable DNA recovery to methods involving immunomagnetic separation. PMID:19499328

Yu, Xin; Van Dyke, Michele I; Portt, Andrea; Huck, Peter M

2009-08-01

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Structural basis for inactivation of Giardia lamblia carbamate kinase by disulfiram.  

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Carbamate kinase from Giardia lamblia is an essential enzyme for the survival of the organism. The enzyme catalyzes the final step in the arginine dihydrolase pathway converting ADP and carbamoyl phosphate to ATP and carbamate. We previously reported that disulfiram, a drug used to treat chronic alcoholism, inhibits G. lamblia CK and kills G. lamblia trophozoites in vitro at submicromolar IC50 values. Here, we examine the structural basis for G. lamblia CK inhibition of disulfiram and its analog, thiram, their activities against both metronidazole-susceptible and metronidazole-resistant G. lamblia isolates, and their efficacy in a mouse model of giardiasis. The crystal structure of G. lamblia CK soaked with disulfiram revealed that the compound thiocarbamoylated Cys-242, a residue located at the edge of the active site. The modified Cys-242 prevents a conformational transition of a loop adjacent to the ADP/ATP binding site, which is required for the stacking of Tyr-245 side chain against the adenine moiety, an interaction seen in the structure of G. lamblia CK in complex with AMP-PNP. Mass spectrometry coupled with trypsin digestion confirmed the selective covalent thiocarbamoylation of Cys-242 in solution. The Giardia viability studies in the metronidazole-resistant strain and the G. lamblia CK irreversible inactivation mechanism show that the thiuram compounds can circumvent the resistance mechanism that renders metronidazole ineffectiveness in drug resistance cases of giardiasis. Together, the studies suggest that G. lamblia CK is an attractive drug target for development of novel antigiardial therapies and that disulfiram, an FDA-approved drug, is a promising candidate for drug repurposing. PMID:24558036

Galkin, Andrey; Kulakova, Liudmila; Lim, Kap; Chen, Catherine Z; Zheng, Wei; Turko, Illarion V; Herzberg, Osnat

2014-04-11

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Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in effluent from sewage treatment plant from eastern Poland.  

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Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia (synonyms: Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis) are emerging protozoa causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. These parasites can pose a serious threat to immunocompromised people, for whom the symptoms are more severe and may include abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea, nausea, headaches, malaise, and fever. One of the sources of these parasites can be treated wastewater from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). Samples of treated wastewater (effluent), each of 10 L volume, were collected from 13 municipal WTPs located in eastern Poland. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were separated by the immunomagnetic method. The presence and/or concentration of protozoan (oo)cysts in effluent samples were determined by direct immunofluorescent microscopy, nested PCR and Real Time PCR. Viability of (oo)cysts was determined by double-staining with the use of Live/Dead BacLight kit (Invitrogen). Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 8 WTPs (61.5%) and Giardia spp. cysts in 11 WTPs (84.6%) by microscopic analysis. Both pathogens were detected in samples from 7 WTPs. Median concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in 13 examined samples were 2.2/L and 6.6/L, respectively, while mean concentrations were 28.5/L and 113.6/L, respectively. In positive samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts concentrations ranged from 0.4 - 154.1 oocysts per litre, and Giardia cysts concentrations ranged from 0.7 - 660 cysts per litre. By nested PCR, Giardia DNA was detected in 4 samples of the 13 examined, (30.8%) while Cryptosporidium DNA was never detected. In Real Time PCR, positive results for Giardia were obtained in 5 samples (38.5%) and in none of the samples for Cryptosporidium, with the exception of one equivocal result. Viable (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 3 out of 4 samples examined, in the ranges of 12.5 - 60% and 50 - 100% of total (oo)cysts, respectively. In view of our preliminary study, the presence of oocysts and cysts (largely viable) in effluents from WTPs imply a risk of transmission of waterborne protozoan parasites to humans. Therefore, additional wastewater purification procedures are necessary. PMID:25000844

Sroka, Jacek; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2013-01-01

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An integrated microfludic device for culturing and screening of Giardia lamblia.  

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In vitro culturing of trophozoites was important for research of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia), especially in discovery of anti-Giardia agents. The current culture methods mainly suffer from lab-intension or the obstacle in standardizing the gas condition. Thus, it could benefit from a more streamlined and integrated approach. Microfluidics offers a way to accomplish this goal. Here we presented an integrated microfluidic device for culturing and screening of G. lamblia. The device consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip with an aerobic culture system. In the microchip, the functionality of integrated concentration gradient generator (CGG) with micro-scale cell culture enables dose-response experiment to be performed in a simple and reagent-saving way. The diffusion-based culture chambers allowed growing G. lamblia at the in vivo like environment. It notable that the highly air permeable material of parallel chambers maintain uniform anaerobic environment in different chambers easily. Using this device, G. lamblia were successfully cultured and stressed on-chip. In all cases, a dose-related inhibitory response was detected. The application of this device for these purposes represents the first step in developing a completely integrated microfluidic platform for high-throughput screening and might be expanded to other assays based on in vitro culture of G. lamblia with further tests. PMID:24316463

Zheng, Guo-Xia; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Yang, Yu-Suo; Zeng, Shu-Rui; Wei, Jun-Feng; Wang, Yun-Hua; Li, Ya-Jie

2014-02-01

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Rapid Reinfection by Giardia Lamblia After Treatment in a Hyperendemic Community, During One Year Follow up  

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Background: Giardia lamblia is the most common intestinal parasite in the most parts of Iran, including Hamadan. Treatment of healthy cyst passers is a controversial challenge in view of public health features. The aim of this study was to determine the reinfection rate of G. lamblia after treatment during one year follow up.

Methods: In the endemic area for giardiasis, Hamadan, the west of Iran, 87 individuals out of 120 school children cyst passers, aged between 7-14 years were effectively treated for G. lamblia with metronidazole. Stools were examined monthly in a period of 12 months after treatment, to determine the rate of reinfection. Eighty seven children were eligible to analysis after one year follow up.

Results: Totally 83% of children were reinfected within 12 months, and reinfection rate was significantly higher than the second six months during first half of study, i.e, October through March (P < 0.05. The cumulative rate of reinfection with this parasite was almost linear. No significant association observed between the age and sex of the children and duration of parasite elimination after treatment, but reinfection rate in some parts of the city was significantly higher and occurred sooner than the other parts (P < 0.001.

 Conclusion: We concluded that, reinfection rate for G. lamblia was rapid and high in this area. Treatment of all symptomless G. lamblia infections in a hyper endemic region of a developing country is of questionable value because of rapid reinfection.

M Fallah

2011-09-01

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Prevalence of Giardia lamblia in Different Water Sources of District Nowshehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.  

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Giardia lamblia is a cosmopolitan parasite that occurs worldwide and generally effects gastrointestinal tract. Water played a media for transmission of Giardia to different hosts. A total of 300 water samples were examined from different water sources, i.e. tap, open well, bore well and drain waters and DNA was extracted by trizol method through prescribed protocol. DNA was amplified through PCR. The overall prevalence of G. lamblia was 27.66% (83/300). Among these 2.5% (1/40) in bore well water, 29% (29/100) open well, 18.83% (11/60) tap water and 42% (42/100) drain water. It is concluded from the study that Giardia is frequently found in all water sources and is the main cause of ill health.

khan, Shaukat Ali; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Khan, Imran

2012-12-01

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In Vitro Effects of Metronidazole and Albendazole on Giardia lamblia Isolated from Iranian Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and albendazole against clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia in vitro. Methods: From all human samples of containing cysts, 10 isolates were successfully excysted in vitro. Trophozites viability was assessed by eosine 0.1% and cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 modified medium supplemented with heat inactivated bovine serum 10%. All cultures were incubated in 37°C for 24-48 h. After this time trophozoites were exposed to different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 2, 10, 50 µg/ml of drugs at 37º for 4 h.  The IC50 estimated between 0.1 and 10µg/ml for metronidazole and 0.062 and 0.1 µg/ml for albendazole. Results: Eight isolates were found susceptible to the metronidazole while all isolates were found susceptible to the albendazole. Statistical results indicated that there was significant difference (P<0.05 in the sensitivity to metronidazole and albendazole in all isolates.

A Dalimi

2008-04-01

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Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.  

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Full Text Available The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection.

Agnieszka Kolasa

2010-08-01

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Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.  

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The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa) or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection. PMID:20675273

Mokrzycka, Ma?gorzata; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Kosierkiewicz, Anita; Wiszniewska, Barbara

2010-01-01

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Lysosomal protein trafficking in Giardia lamblia: common and distinct features  

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Giardia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that has to face different microenvironments during its life cycle in order to survive. All cells exchange materials with the extracellular medium through the reciprocal processes of endocytosis and secretion. Unlike more evolved cells, Giardia lacks a defined endosomal/lysosomal system, but instead possesses peripheral vacuoles that play roles in endocytosis, degradation, recycling, and secretion of proteins during growth and differentiation of the...

Touz, Maria C.; Rivero, Maria R.; Miras, Silvana L.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

2012-01-01

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Cysteine-dependent zinc binding by membrane proteins of Giardia lamblia.  

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The abundant, highly variable surface proteins (VSPs) which cover the surface of Giardia lamblia trophozoites compose a group of extremely cysteine (C)-rich proteins in which more than half of the cysteines are in the motif CXXC. Because of the constancy of these features among the known VSPs and the prominence of cysteine and particularly CXXC in proteins that bind zinc and other metals, we asked whether G. lamblia VSPs bind zinc in vitro. VSPs are the major protein component of Triton X-114...

Zhang, Y. Y.; Aley, S. B.; Stanley, S. L.; Gillin, F. D.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
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GIARDIA LAMBLIA: STIMULATION OF GROWTH BY HUMAN INTESTINAL MUCUS AND EPITHELIAL CELLS IN SERUMFREE MEDIUM (JOURNAL VERSION)  

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Giardia lamblia trophozoites specifically colonize the upper human small intestine which is normally serum-free, but grow in vitro only in medium supplemented with serum or serum fractions. Recently, biliary lipids were shown to support the growth of G. lamblia without serum. Now...

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Nitroimidazole drugs vary in their mode of action in the human parasite Giardia lamblia.  

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Giardia lamblia (syn. duodenalis, intestinalis) is a globally occurring micro-aerophilic human parasite that causes gastrointestinal disease. Standard treatment of G. lamblia infections is based on the 5-nitroimidazole drugs metronidazole and tinidazole. In two other micro-aerophilic parasites, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis, 5-nitroimidazole drugs bind to proteins involved in the thioredoxin-mediated redox network and disrupt the redox equilibrium by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase and depleting intracellular thiol pools. The major aim of this study was to assess whether nitroimidazoles exert a similar toxic effect on G. lamblia physiology. The 5-nitroimidazoles metronidazole and tinidazole were found to bind to the same subset of proteins including thioredoxin reductase. However, in contrast to E. histolytica and T. vaginalis, none of the other proteins bound are candidates for being involved in the thioredoxin-mediated redox network. Translation elongation factor EF-1?, an essential factor in protein synthesis, was widely degraded upon treatment with 5-nitroimidazoles. 2-Nitroimidazole (azomycin) and the 5-nitroimidazole ronidazole did not bind to any G. lamblia proteins, which is in contrast to previous findings in E. histolytica and T. vaginalis. All nitroimidazoles tested reduced intracellular thiol pools in G. lamblia, but metronidazole, also in contrast to the situation in the other two parasites, had the slightest effect. Taken together, our results suggest that nitroimidazole drugs affect G. lamblia in a fundamentally different way than E. histolytica and T. vaginalis. PMID:24533278

Leitsch, David; Schlosser, Sarah; Burgess, Anita; Duchêne, Michael

2012-12-01

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Lectin Activation in Giardia lamblia by Host Protease: A Novel Host-Parasite Interaction  

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A lectin in Giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. Incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. Accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and Pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. When activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. The lectin was most specific to mannose-6-phosphate and apparently was bound to the plasma membrane. Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of hostparasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site.

Lev, Boaz; Ward, Honorine; Keusch, Gerald T.; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

1986-04-01

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Variant-specific surface proteins of Giardia lamblia are zinc-binding proteins.  

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Giardia lamblia undergoes surface antigenic variation. The variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) are a distinct family of cysteine-rich proteins. Characteristically, cysteine residues occur mostly as CXXC tetrapeptides. Four of the reported five VSPs contain a putative metal-binding domain that resembles other metal-binding motifs; the fifth is closely related but lacks an essential histidine. Three different native VSPs bound Zn2+. Co2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+ inhibited Zn2+ binding. ...

Nash, T. E.; Mowatt, M. R.

1993-01-01

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Susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to aminoglycoside protein synthesis inhibitors: correlation with rRNA structure.  

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The very limited development of antiparasitic agents targeting protein synthesis stems in part from the belief that parasite and host ribosomes are sufficiently similar to preclude selective toxicity. However, recent studies have revealed that Giardia lamblia rRNA has an unusual size and sequence; consequently, this organism and its homogeneous rRNA provide a useful model for the development of protein synthesis inhibitors with antiparasitic activity. In this study, I determined the sequence ...

Edlind, T. D.

1989-01-01

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Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality  

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Full Text Available Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

N. Abreu Acosta

2002-06-01

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Modified PEHPS Medium as an Alternative for the In Vitro Culture of Giardia lamblia  

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Commercial culture media present interlot variations in biological activity. We have previously designed a homemade and economic culture medium, PEHPS medium, for the axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. Trophozoites of amoebae and trichomonads grow well in this medium. Furthermore, the medium is stable for several months when stored frozen or refrigerated. The objective of this work was to modify PEHPS medium to support the in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia. Inocula of 5 × 103 trophozoites/mL of G. lamblia were incubated at 36.5°C in modified PEHPS or TYI-S-33 medium. Then, the growths of the three Giardia strains in both media were compared. The logarithmic growth phase lasted 72?h; the mean yield of the strains ranged from 10.06 to 11.43 × 105Giardia trophozoites/mL, and the range of duplication time in the three strains was from 5.67 to 6.06 in modified PEHPS medium. These growth characteristics were not significantly different from those obtained with TYI-S-33 medium. We conclude that modified PEHPS medium might be used for the axenic cultivation of G. lamblia. PMID:24982905

Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Mata-Cardenas, Benito D.; Hernandez-Garcia, Magda E.; Garza-Gonzalez, Jesus N.; De La Garza-Salinas, Laura H.; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco

2014-01-01

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Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients exclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV, hemoglobin concentration, and relative and absolute number of eosinophils and lymphocytes. No significant differences in the mean values of MCV, hemoglobin levels and absolute relative lymphocyte numbers between the two groups could be detected. When the giardiasis and control groups were separated by pediatric (0-18 years old and adult (older than 18 years classes, a very significant difference in both relative and absolute number of eosinophils in the adult class was observed. With respect of the pediatric class, no differences, either in relative and absolute number of eosinophils, could be observed. Our findings suggest that, during G. lamblia infection, some kind of parasite allergen(s could be secreted and be responsible for the increasing of eosinophil counts in peripheral blood of adults.Até este momento poucos relatos de alterações hematológicas causadas pela Giardia lamblia têm sido descritos. Procuramos então avaliar alguns parâmetros hematológicos em pacientes infectados exclusivamente com G. lamblia (n=55, provenientes do Hospital Universitário, comparando-os com pacientes, pareados por sexo e idade, sem nenhum parasitismo (n=55. Foram avaliados: volume corpuscular médio (VCM, níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de eosinófilos e linfócitos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os valores médios de VCM, níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de linfócitos para os dois grupos estudados. No caso dos eosinófilos, tanto as contagens relativas quanto as absolutas diferiram significativamente nas faixas etárias acima de 18 anos (percentagem média de eosinófilos de 8,1 para pacientes com giardíase, e de 3,1 para pacientes não-parasitados, com P=0,0042; e contagens absolutas com média de 609 para pacientes com giardíase, comparado com média de 257, para pacientes-controle, com P=0,0120. No caso de faixas etárias abaixo de 18 anos não foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre os dois grupos. Diante disto, nossos achados sugerem que a G. lamblia poderia secretar um ou mais alérgenos, que seriam responsáveis pelo aumento do número de eosinófilos no sangue periférico de pessoas adultas, e que tal fenômeno deva ser melhor avaliado em crianças

Jairo Ivo dos Santos

1996-04-01

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The transcriptional response to encystation stimuli in Giardia lamblia is restricted to a small set of genes.  

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The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia undergoes stage differentiation in the small intestine of the host to an environmentally resistant and infectious cyst. Encystation involves the secretion of an extracellular matrix comprised of cyst wall proteins (CWPs) and a ?(1-3)-GalNAc homopolymer. Upon the induction of encystation, genes coding for CWPs are switched on, and mRNAs coding for a Myb transcription factor and enzymes involved in cyst wall glycan synthesis are upregulated. Encystation in vitro is triggered by several protocols, which call for changes in bile concentrations or availability of lipids, and elevated pH. However, the conditions for induction are not standardized and we predicted significant protocol-specific side effects. This makes reliable identification of encystation factors difficult. Here, we exploited the possibility of inducing encystation with two different protocols, which we show to be equally effective, for a comparative mRNA profile analysis. The standard encystation protocol induced a bipartite transcriptional response with surprisingly minor involvement of stress genes. A comparative analysis revealed a core set of only 18 encystation genes and showed that a majority of genes was indeed upregulated as a side effect of inducing conditions. We also established a Myb binding sequence as a signature motif in encystation promoters, suggesting coordinated regulation of these factors. PMID:20693303

Morf, Laura; Spycher, Cornelia; Rehrauer, Hubert; Fournier, Catharine Aquino; Morrison, Hilary G; Hehl, Adrian B

2010-10-01

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Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lam [...] blia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

Jael, Quintero; Diana Carolina, Figueroa; Rafael, Barcelo; Linda, Breci; Humberto, Astiazaran-Garcia; Lucila, Rascon; Ramon, Robles-Zepeda; Adriana, Garibay-Escobar; Enrique, Velazquez-Contreras; Gloria Leon, Avila; Jose Manuel, Hernandez-Hernandez; Carlos, Velazquez.

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Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lam [...] blia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

Jael, Quintero; Diana Carolina, Figueroa; Rafael, Barcelo; Linda, Breci; Humberto, Astiazaran-Garcia; Lucila, Rascon; Ramon, Robles-Zepeda; Adriana, Garibay-Escobar; Enrique, Velazquez-Contreras; Gloria Leon, Avila; Jose Manuel, Hernandez-Hernandez; Carlos, Velazquez.

2013-08-01

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A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope  

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Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

Alberto J. Solari

2003-12-01

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A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin d [...] irectly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

Alberto J., Solari; Monica I., Rahn; Alicia, Saura; Hugo D., Lujan.

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Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia / COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua d [...] estilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial). Los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente. La combinación de buffer de lisis E y Chelex fue un método simple y económico, que produjo alto rendimiento de ADN con baja pureza. Ella técnica comercial fue un método simple, más costoso que produjo bajas cantidades de ADN con un nivel de pureza apropiado para estudios moleculares Abstract in english The efficiency of lysis procedures and DNA purification treatments of Giardia lamblia trophozoites were evaluated regarding the breaking-up efficiency, quantity and pureness of DNA, processing time and costs. Five lysis methods (distilled water and heating; distilled water, heating and proteinase K; [...] buffer D Lysis; buffer E lysis, and commercial kit), and three DNA purification methods (phenol:chloroform:isoamilic, Chelex 100 and commercial kit) were tested. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. The buffer E lysis and Chelex combination was simple and economic method which produced high DNA performance with low pureness. Commercial kit was simple and expensive method which generated low yields of DNA with appropriate purity level for molecular analysis

NORA B, MOLINA; DANIELA, POLVERINO; MARTA C, MINVIELLE; MARÍA, APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO, AGUILAR; JUAN A, BASUALDO.

2006-12-01

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Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia / COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua d [...] estilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial). Los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente. La combinación de buffer de lisis E y Chelex fue un método simple y económico, que produjo alto rendimiento de ADN con baja pureza. Ella técnica comercial fue un método simple, más costoso que produjo bajas cantidades de ADN con un nivel de pureza apropiado para estudios moleculares Abstract in english The efficiency of lysis procedures and DNA purification treatments of Giardia lamblia trophozoites were evaluated regarding the breaking-up efficiency, quantity and pureness of DNA, processing time and costs. Five lysis methods (distilled water and heating; distilled water, heating and proteinase K; [...] buffer D Lysis; buffer E lysis, and commercial kit), and three DNA purification methods (phenol:chloroform:isoamilic, Chelex 100 and commercial kit) were tested. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. The buffer E lysis and Chelex combination was simple and economic method which produced high DNA performance with low pureness. Commercial kit was simple and expensive method which generated low yields of DNA with appropriate purity level for molecular analysis

NORA B, MOLINA; DANIELA, POLVERINO; MARTA C, MINVIELLE; MARÍA, APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO, AGUILAR; JUAN A, BASUALDO.

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Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil / Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao r [...] esponsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA), 44 (9,9%) apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052), número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015), número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059), higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024), usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034), ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03) e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012). Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administe [...] red to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%). A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052), number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015), number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059), food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024), day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034), living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03) and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012). Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.

Maria das Graças Cabral, Pereira; Edward Robert, Atwill; Alverne Passos, Barbosa.

2007-06-01

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Differential gene expression in Giardia lamblia under oxidative stress: significance in eukaryotic evolution.  

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Giardia lamblia is a unicellular, early branching eukaryote causing giardiasis, one of the most common human enteric diseases. Giardia, a microaerophilic protozoan parasite has to build up mechanisms to protect themselves against oxidative stress within the human gut (oxygen concentration 60 ?M) to establish its pathogenesis. G. lamblia is devoid of the conventional mechanisms of the oxidative stress management system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione cycling, which are present in most eukaryotes. NADH oxidase is a major component of the electron transport chain of G. lamblia, which in concurrence with disulfide reductase, protects oxygen-labile proteins such as pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase against oxidative stress by sustaining a reduced intracellular environment. It also contains the arginine dihydrolase pathway, which occurs in a number of anaerobic prokaryotes, includes substrate level phosphorylation and adequately active to make a major contribution to ATP production. To study differential gene expression under three types of oxidative stress, a Giardia genomic DNA array was constructed and hybridized with labeled cDNA of cells with or without stress. The transcriptomic data has been analyzed and further validated using real time PCR. We identified that out of 9216 genes represented on the array, more than 200 genes encoded proteins with functions in metabolism, oxidative stress management, signaling, reproduction and cell division, programmed cell death and cytoskeleton. We recognized genes modulated by at least ? 2 fold at a significant time point in response to oxidative stress. The study has highlighted the genes that are differentially expressed during the three experimental conditions which regulate the stress management pathway differently to achieve redox homeostasis. Identification of some unique genes in oxidative stress regulation may help in new drug designing for this common enteric parasite prone to drug resistance. Additionally, these data suggest the major role of this early divergent ancient eukaryote in anaerobic to aerobic organism evolution. PMID:24321693

Raj, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Esha; Mukherjee, Avik K; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Ganguly, Sandipan

2014-02-10

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Prevalence of Giardia lamblia and risk factors for infection among children attending day-care facilities in Denver.  

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A sample of children in the toddler age group was surveyed in Denver, CO, to determine the prevalence of Giardia lamblia and to identify risk factors for the intestinal disease. The sample consisted of 236 children attending day-care centers (DCC) and 79 who were not attending. Thirty-eight children (16 percent) attending DCCs and 7 (9 percent) who had not were positive for G. lamblia in stool samples. Risk factors for those attending DCC facilities included increasing duration of attendance,...

Novotny, T. E.; Hopkins, R. S.; Shillam, P.; Janoff, E. N.

1990-01-01

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Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection / Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia co [...] mpleta del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra. Abstract in english Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means ne [...] w perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.

J. A., Gil Ruiz; P., Gil Simón; R., Aparicio Duque; J. L., Mayor Jerez.

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Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra.

J. A. Gil Ruiz

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
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In vitro susceptibilities of 25 Giardia lamblia isolates of human origin to six commonly used antiprotozoal agents.  

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The role drug resistance plays in the occurrence of chronic and recurrent giardiasis has not been established. Extensive data on the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of living Giardia spp. trophozoites from human origin are lacking. We have determined with a macrodilution method in semisolid medium the in vitro susceptibility of 25 Giardia lamblia isolates, all obtained by routine cultivation of the duodenal fluid of children to six commonly used antiprotozoal drugs. The results showed ...

Gordts, B.; Hemelhof, W.; Asselman, C.; Butzler, J. P.

1985-01-01

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Clathrin-dependent pathways and the cytoskeleton network are involved in ceramide endocytosis by a parasitic protozoan, Giardia lamblia  

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Although identified as an early-diverged protozoan, Giardia lamblia shares many similarities with higher eukaryotic cells, including an internal membrane system and cytoskeleton, as well as secretory pathways. However, unlike many other eukaryotes, Giardia does not synthesize lipids de novo, but rather depends on exogenous sources for both energy production and organelle or membrane biogenesis. It is not known how lipid molecules are taken up by this parasite and if endocytic pathways are inv...

Hernandez, Yunuen; Castillo, Cynthia; Roychowdhury, Sukla; Hehl, Adrian; Aley, Stephen B.; Das, Siddhartha

2007-01-01

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Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality  

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Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

Escolástico Aguiar González

2002-06-01

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Current infection rate of Giardia lamblia in two provinces of Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to survey for the current rate of Giardia lamblia infection in three different districts in two provinces of Thailand, Surin and Samut Sakhon, in March 2002, October 2003, and March 2004. Two districts are rural areas and another is sub-urban. Volunteers of any age from Surin Province and children aged between 5 to 7 years old from three secondary schools in Samut Sakhon were enrolled for the stool examination. The method used was stool examination by both simple smear and normal saline concentration technique on fresh collected feces. All samples were tested in duplicate. Out of 3,358 healthy individuals from rural Surin Province, 75 cases (2.2%) were found positive for G. lamblia, 30 of which were below 10 years of age. By comparison, 656 individuals from sub-urban Samut Sakhon Province volunteered and 43 (6.5%) were positive for G. lamblia. Other intestinal parasites, both helminth and protozoa, were also identified from these two groups: hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, and Blastocystis hominis. From this study, the data showed that parasitic infection acquired via fecal-oral route is still a significant problem for these two provinces of Thailand. PMID:16438174

Wongjindanon, Nuttapong; Suksrichavalit, Thummaruk; Subsutti, Wanitcha; Sarachart, Titima; Worapisuttiwong, Utsanee; Norramatha, Pakawat

2005-01-01

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Conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia / Knowledge, perceptions and practice of dermatologists with respect to Giardia lamblia infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: conocer sobre los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia. MÉTODOS: previo consentimiento informado de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana, a un número próximo al universo de estos (50 de 58), s [...] e le aplicó una encuesta sobre conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas en relación con esta parasitosis. La preparación de la encuesta pasó por 4 fases: entrevistas a médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis; preparación de un cuestionario preliminar sobre la base de los resultados de esas entrevistas; sometimiento del instrumento a criterio de expertos; y validación de este mediante su aplicación a un pequeño grupo de galenos. RESULTADOS: se evidenció que en relación con la giardiasis y, de manera particular, con las manifestaciones cutáneas asociadas a esta, los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana mostraban conocimientos insuficientes (de 19 interrogantes que evaluaban aspectos cognoscitivos, la media de respuestas correctas entre todos los participantes fue 10,18), percepciones inadecuadas y prácticas incorrectas. CONCLUSIONES: en la dirección de atenuar estas dificultades se hace necesario una intervención de tipo académica, que haga énfasis en los aspectos formativos relacionados con las enfermedades parasitarias, en general, y la giardiasis, en particular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the level of knowledge, the perceptions and practice of dermatologists in the City of Havana with respect to Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: with prior informed consent given by the dermatologists from the City of Havana, 50 dermatologists- a number very close to the univ [...] erse of these experts in the province- were administered a survey of their knowledge, perceptions and practice about this parasitosis. The survey was prepared in 4 phases; that is, interviews to physicians on diagnosis, treatment and control of giardiasis; drafting of a preliminary questionnaire based on the interview results; submission of this instruments to the experts, and finally its validation through its application to a small group of physicians. RESULTS: it was evinced that the dermatologists in the City of Havana had poor knowledge about giardiasis, particularly its cutaneous manifestations (out of 19 questions on cognitive aspects, the correct answer mean was 10,18), inadequate perceptions on this disease and practice was not good. CONCLUSIONS: with the aim of mitigating these difficulties, some academic intervention is needed to make emphasis on the formative aspects related to parasitic diseases in general and giardiasis in particular.

Tania, Iglesias Hernández; Saleh, Ali Almannoni; María Elena, Rodríguez; Lizet, Sánchez Valdés; Deisy, Martín Pupo; Julián, Manzur Katrib; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

66

Conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia Knowledge, perceptions and practice of dermatologists with respect to Giardia lamblia infection  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conocer sobre los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia. MÉTODOS: previo consentimiento informado de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana, a un número próximo al universo de estos (50 de 58, se le aplicó una encuesta sobre conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas en relación con esta parasitosis. La preparación de la encuesta pasó por 4 fases: entrevistas a médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis; preparación de un cuestionario preliminar sobre la base de los resultados de esas entrevistas; sometimiento del instrumento a criterio de expertos; y validación de este mediante su aplicación a un pequeño grupo de galenos. RESULTADOS: se evidenció que en relación con la giardiasis y, de manera particular, con las manifestaciones cutáneas asociadas a esta, los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana mostraban conocimientos insuficientes (de 19 interrogantes que evaluaban aspectos cognoscitivos, la media de respuestas correctas entre todos los participantes fue 10,18, percepciones inadecuadas y prácticas incorrectas. CONCLUSIONES: en la dirección de atenuar estas dificultades se hace necesario una intervención de tipo académica, que haga énfasis en los aspectos formativos relacionados con las enfermedades parasitarias, en general, y la giardiasis, en particular.OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the level of knowledge, the perceptions and practice of dermatologists in the City of Havana with respect to Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: with prior informed consent given by the dermatologists from the City of Havana, 50 dermatologists- a number very close to the universe of these experts in the province- were administered a survey of their knowledge, perceptions and practice about this parasitosis. The survey was prepared in 4 phases; that is, interviews to physicians on diagnosis, treatment and control of giardiasis; drafting of a preliminary questionnaire based on the interview results; submission of this instruments to the experts, and finally its validation through its application to a small group of physicians. RESULTS: it was evinced that the dermatologists in the City of Havana had poor knowledge about giardiasis, particularly its cutaneous manifestations (out of 19 questions on cognitive aspects, the correct answer mean was 10,18, inadequate perceptions on this disease and practice was not good. CONCLUSIONS: with the aim of mitigating these difficulties, some academic intervention is needed to make emphasis on the formative aspects related to parasitic diseases in general and giardiasis in particular.

Tania Iglesias Hernández

2010-04-01

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Impaired parasite attachment as fitness cost of metronidazole resistance in Giardia lamblia.  

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Infections with the diarrheagenic protozoan pathogen Giardia lamblia are most commonly treated with metronidazole (Mz). Treatment failures with Mz occur in 10 to 20% of cases and Mz resistance develops in the laboratory, yet clinically, Mz-resistant (Mz(r)) G. lamblia has rarely been isolated from patients. To understand why clinical Mz(r) isolates are rare, we questioned whether Mz resistance entails fitness costs to the parasite. Our studies employed several newly generated and established isogenic Mz(r) cell lines with stable, high-level resistance to Mz and significant cross-resistance to tinidazole, nitazoxanide, and furazolidone. Oral infection of suckling mice revealed that three of five Mz(r) cell lines could not establish infection, while two Mz(r) cell lines infected pups, albeit with reduced efficiencies. Failure to colonize resulted from a diminished capacity of the parasite to attach to the intestinal mucosa in vivo and to epithelial cells and plastic surfaces in vitro. The attachment defect was related to impaired glucose metabolism, since the noninfectious Mz(r) lines consumed less glucose, and glucose promoted ATP-independent parasite attachment in the parental lines. Thus, resistance of Giardia to Mz is accompanied by a glucose metabolism-related attachment defect that can interfere with colonization of the host. Because glucose-metabolizing pathways are important for activation of the prodrug Mz, it follows that a fitness trade-off exists between diminished Mz activation and reduced infectivity, which may explain the observed paucity of clinical Mz(r) isolates of Giardia. However, the data also caution that some forms of Mz resistance do not markedly interfere with in vivo infectivity. PMID:21825286

Tejman-Yarden, Noa; Millman, Maya; Lauwaet, Tineke; Davids, Barbara J; Gillin, Frances D; Dunn, Linda; Upcroft, Jacqueline A; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Eckmann, Lars

2011-10-01

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An ER-directed transcriptional response to unfolded protein stress in the absence of conserved sensor-transducer proteins in Giardia lamblia.  

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The protozoan Giardia lamblia has a minimized organelle repertoire, and most strikingly lacks a classical stacked Golgi apparatus. Nevertheless, Giardia trophozoites constitutively secrete variant surface proteins, and dramatically increase the volume of protein secretion during differentiation to cysts. Eukaryotic cells have evolved an elaborate system for quality control (QC) of protein folding and capacity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Upon ER-overload, an unfolded protein response (UPR) is triggered on transcriptional/translational level aiming at alleviating ER stress. In Giardia, a minimized secretory machinery and absence of glycan-dependent QC suggests that a genetically conserved UPR (or functional equivalent) to cope with insults to the secretory system has been eliminated. We tested this hypothesis of UPR elimination by profiling the transcriptional response during induced ER-folding stress. We show that on the contrary, ER-folding stress triggers a stressor-specific, ER-directed response with upregulation of only ~ 30 genes, with different kinetics and scope compared with the UPR of other eukaryotes. Computational genomics revealed conserved cis-acting motifs in upstream regions of responder genes capable of stressor-specific gene regulation in transfected cells. Interestingly, the sensors/transducers of folding stress, well conserved in model eukaryotes, are absent in Giardia suggesting the presence of a novel version of this essential eukaryotic function. PMID:23617761

Spycher, Cornelia; Herman, Emily K; Morf, Laura; Qi, Weihong; Rehrauer, Hubert; Aquino Fournier, Catharine; Dacks, Joel B; Hehl, Adrian B

2013-05-01

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Does breast-feeding protect the child from Giardia lamblia infection?  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent protozoa infections of the human small intestine. Although anyone can be infected by Giardia, women and children are more susceptible. Giardia infection can cause malnutrition, diarrhea and indigestion of fat. In this study, the effect of breast-feeding on the prevalence of Giardia among children is investigated. "nMethods: A total of 482 children, aged 6 to 24 months, from the urban areas of Semnan, Damghan and Garmsar in Iran, were enrolled in this survey. Each mother underwent an interview and filled out a questionnaire that included mother's age, family size, birth order of the child, age and sex of the child and type of milk consumed, among other variables. Then, each mother was given a sample container with 30cc of phenol alcohol formaldehyde (PAF and an applicator for sampling her child's stool. Each mother was trained to consecutively sample her child's stool for three days, to put the stool into the provided container using the applicator and to shake it until the sample and liquid appeared homogenous. The sample was examined using the direct method, using formalin-ether and thionine. Data was analyzed using the c2 test and logistic regression using SPSS version 11.5."n"nResults: The mean age of the children was 13.6(±5.6 months. Of these children, 45.6% were girls. The prevalence of G. lamblia infection was 8.5%. There was a significant relationship between Giardia and the age of the child, education level of the mother and type of milk the child consumed (p<0.05, such that children who had not consumed their mothers' milk were more likely to be infected compared to those who had been breast fed (OR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.13-5.03, P=0.023."n"nConclusions: Results show that breast-feeding is a safer method of feeding with regard to Giardia infection. Therefore, mothers should be educated to breast-feed their children and not use other types of milk or milk substitutes. This important issue must be considered by policy makers for education and subsidy programs. "n"n Keywords: Giardia lamblia, breast-feeding, formula milk, cow's milk.

Ghorbani R

2008-09-01

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Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously. We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified the proportion of cases acquired in Germany in order to investigate risk factors for sporadic autochthonous Giardia infections. Methods We identified Giardia cases notified by 41 local health authorities between February 2007 and January 2008 and interviewed them on their clinical symptoms, underlying morbidities, travel abroad and potential risk factors for the disease. We conducted a case-control-study including laboratory-confirmed (microscopy or antigen-test autochthonous Giardia cases with clinical manifestations (diarrhoea, cramps, bloating and randomly selected controls from the local population registry matched by county of residence and age-group (0-5, 6-19, ?20 years. Secondary cases, controls with diarrhoea and persons who had travelled outside Germany in the three weeks prior to disease onset (exposure period were excluded. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI using conditional logistic regression. Results Of 273 interviewed cases, 131 (48% had not travelled abroad during the defined exposure period. Of these 131, 85 (65% were male, 68 (54% were living in communities with >100,000 inhabitants and 107 (83% were aged 20 years or older. We included 120 cases and 240 controls in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be male (aOR 2.5 CI 1.4-4.4, immunocompromised (aOR 15.3 CI 1.8-127 and daily consumers of green salad (aOR 2.9 CI 1.2-7.2. Contact with animals (pets/farm animals and exposure to surface water (swimming/water sports were not associated with symptomatic disease. Conclusions A substantial proportion of Giardia lamblia cases in Germany are indigenously acquired. Symptomatic cases are significantly more likely to be immunocompromised than control persons from the general population. Physicians should consider Giardia infections among patients with no recent history of travel abroad, particularly if they have immune deficiencies. Green salads may be an important vehicle of infection. Information campaigns highlighting this food-borne risk should emphasise the risk to persons with immune deficiencies.

Stark Klaus

2010-01-01

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Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron [...] incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL), que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL. Abstract in english The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú) on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 [...] hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL). An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

Aimée, Echevarría; Dinorah, Torres Idavoy.

2001-09-01

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In Vitro Effect of Folic Acid and Cobalamin (Vitamin B12 on Adhesion and Growth of Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal protozoan parasites infecting human in the world. The goal of this study was searching for in-vitro effect of folic acid and cobalamin on adhesion and growth of G. lamblia as two important mechanisms in the pathogenesis in TYI-S-33 medium. G. lamblia trophozoites were obtained by in- vitro excystation procedure. Three groups of Giardia trophozoites were analyzed: control group, G.lamblia was cultured in TYI-S-33 without any vitamin, 2nd group with 0.1 µg/ml vitamin B12 or folic acid, and 3rd group with 0.5 µg/ml of vitamin B12 or folic acid. All culture media tubes incubated at 37 ºC. After 2 h of incubation, the adherence into borosilicate culture tubes, and after 24 h the growth of trophozoites were measured .The results showed that in vitamin B12 groups, the growth was increased significantly (P? 0.05 but the adherence decreased significantly (P? 0.05. Folic acid inhibited the growth rate significantly (P? 0.05, but it increased adherence in axenic culture significantly (P? 0.05. The results showed that vitamin B12 and folic acid altogether might reduce pathogenesis of G. lamblia by reducing adherence and growth, respectively.

H Dalimi Asl

2006-08-01

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Evolutionarily divergent spliceosomal snRNAs and a conserved non-coding RNA processing motif in Giardia lamblia  

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Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have diverse essential biological functions in all organisms, and in eukaryotes, two such classes of ncRNAs are the small nucleolar (sno) and small nuclear (sn) RNAs. In this study, we have identified and characterized a collection of sno and snRNAs in Giardia lamblia, by exploiting our discovery of a conserved 12 nt RNA processing sequence motif found in the 3? end regions of a large number of G. lamblia ncRNA genes. RNA end mapping and other experiments indicate t...

Hudson, Andrew J.; Moore, Ashley N.; Elniski, David; Joseph, Joella; Yee, Janet; Russell, Anthony G.

2012-01-01

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Structure-activity relationships of pentamidine analogs against Giardia lamblia and correlation of antigiardial activity with DNA-binding affinity.  

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1,5-Di(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (pentamidine) and 38 analogs of pentamidine were screened for in vitro activity against the enteric protozoan Giardia lamblia WB (ATCC 30957). All compounds were active against G. lamblia as measured by a [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Antigiardial activity varied widely, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 0.51 +/- 0.13 microM (mean +/- standard deviation) for the most active compound to over 100.0 microM for the least active com...

Bell, C. A.; Cory, M.; Fairley, T. A.; Hall, J. E.; Tidwell, R. R.

1991-01-01

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Cloning and sequencing of an acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) gene from the amitochondriate protist, Giardia lamblia.  

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A Giardia lamblia gene, Glacs, was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escheria Coli. This gene codes for a 726 residue long acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming). This enzyme is responsible for the formation of acetate, a metabolic endproduct of G. lamblia. It is known from only two Type I amitochondriate eukaryotes, G. lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica and from the archaebacterium, Pyrococcus furiosus. With Glacs as query, homologous unidentified open reading frames were detected in the complete genomes of only a few archaebacteria and eubacteria. These form a new protein family present in all three domains of life, which probably plays a central role in the acyl-CoA metabolism but is of restricted taxonomic distribution. PMID:10375639

Sánchez, L B; Morrison, H G; Sogin, M L; Müller, M

1999-06-11

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Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose / Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a [...] giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110). A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075), elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701), IgE específica (p = 0,250) ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between g [...] iardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Valdênia M. O., Souza; Iana R. F., Sales; Décio M., Peixoto; Vláudia M. Assis, Costa; José A., Rizzo; Almerinda R., Silva; Roberta Faria, Camilo; Felipe Faria, Pierotti; Dirceu, Solé; Emanuel S. C., Sarinho.

2012-06-01

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Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110. A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075, elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701, IgE específica (p = 0,250 ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças.OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between giardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110. Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075, high total IgE levels (p = 0.701, positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250, or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Valdênia M. O. Souza

2012-06-01

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Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. Method A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. Results The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%. Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. Conclusion Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples of children within the Ashanti Akim North Municipality and its prevalence significantly increases with age. Measures must be put in place to educate the community on proper personal hygiene to reduce giardiasis.

Nguah Samuel

2011-08-01

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Whipple's disease concomitant with candida esophagitis and subsequent Giardia lamblia coinfection.  

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Whipple's disease is a rare systemic condition resulting from a chronic infection by Tropheryma whipplei. Clinical presentation can be widely heterogeneous, often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, little is known about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms, although several abnormalities in immune cell function have been observed. We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman presenting with dysphagia, odynophagia, long-lasting low-grade fever, and malabsorption syndrome who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showing esophageal candidiasis. On the same occasion, duodenal biopsies were also performed, with evidence of mucosal infiltration of periodic acid-Schiff-positive and CD68+ foamy macrophages at microscopic examination. Such findings were suggestive of Whipple's disease, as also confirmed by molecular analysis by PCR for T. whipplei. No specific risk factors were identified in our patient that could explain the occurrence of an opportunistic infection such as candida esophagitis, thus leading to the hypothesis of a direct correlation with Whipple's disease. Interestingly, a Giardia lamblia coinfection was subsequently identified, which is consistent with an underlying immune deficit although still undefined. PMID:25014626

Sulis, Giorgia; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Missale, Guido; Salemme, Marianna; Castelli, Francesco; Caligaris, Silvio

2014-10-01

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Evaluation Of Cytokines Changes In Patients Infected With Giardia lamblia In Comparison With Healthy Subjects  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Human Giardisis infection is caused by the flagellate protozoa. Giardia lamblia, which lives in the small intestine, causing damage and may also cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This parasitic disease has a worldwide distribution and prevalence varies from 5% to 30%. The role of both humeral and cellular immune response in the host defense against parasites has proven. Since an immune response is directly affected by cytokine, study of cytokines changes in patients with giardiosis is of particular importance. Materials and Methods: In this study the serum levels of IL-2 - 4 - 6 to 17 and 23 in patients and healthy subjects were measured and compared. Fasting blood samples were taken from the volunteers, ELISA was performed to measure cytokines. Results: In this study, the amount of IL-2 and IL-6 in infected patients was significantly more than the controls, but IL-4 levels were significantly lower in infected individuals (P=0.0001. Also for the first time in people with giardiasis IL-17 and IL-23 was measured and there was a significant aifference in these cytokines between the infected patients healthy controls(respectively P=0.044 and P=0.03 Conclusion: Host defense response against parasitic infections, is directly and affected by cytokines. Increased interleukin 2, 6, 17 and 23 in patients with Giardiosis was probably caused by immune response and local intestinal inflammation.

Mitra Zarebavani

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Evolutionarily divergent spliceosomal snRNAs and a conserved non-coding RNA processing motif in Giardia lamblia  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have diverse essential biological functions in all organisms, and in eukaryotes, two such classes of ncRNAs are the small nucleolar (sno) and small nuclear (sn) RNAs. In this study, we have identified and characterized a collection of sno and snRNAs in Giardia lamblia, by exploiting our discovery of a conserved 12 nt RNA processing sequence motif found in the 3? end regions of a large number of G. lamblia ncRNA genes. RNA end mapping and other experiments indicate the motif serves to mediate ncRNA 3? end formation from mono- and di-cistronic RNA precursor transcripts. Remarkably, we find the motif is also utilized in the processing pathway of all four previously identified trans-spliced G. lamblia introns, revealing a common RNA processing pathway for ncRNAs and trans-spliced introns in this organism. Motif sequence conservation then allowed for the bioinformatic and experimental identification of additional G. lamblia ncRNAs, including new U1 and U6 spliceosomal snRNA candidates. The U6 snRNA candidate was then used as a tool to identity novel U2 and U4 snRNAs, based on predicted phylogenetically conserved snRNA–snRNA base-pairing interactions, from a set of previously identified G. lamblia ncRNAs without assigned function. The Giardia snRNAs retain the core features of spliceosomal snRNAs but are sufficiently evolutionarily divergent to explain the difficulties in their identification. Most intriguingly, all of these snRNAs show structural features diagnostic of U2-dependent/major and U12-dependent/minor spliceosomal snRNAs. PMID:23019220

Hudson, Andrew J.; Moore, Ashley N.; Elniski, David; Joseph, Joella; Yee, Janet; Russell, Anthony G.

2012-01-01

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ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú / ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia [...] 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Gi [...] ardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Claudia, Rodríguez-Ulloa; Marco, Rivera-Jacinto.

2011-12-01

83

ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú / ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia [...] 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Gi [...] ardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Claudia, Rodríguez-Ulloa; Marco, Rivera-Jacinto.

2011-12-01

84

Comparison of rapid methods for detection of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (oo)cysts using transportable instrumentation in a field deployment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliable, sensitive, quantitative, and mobile rapid screening methods for pathogenic organisms are not yet readily available, but would provide a great benefit to humanitarian intervention units in disaster situations. We compared three different methods (immunofluorescent microscopy, IFM; flow cytometry, FCM; polymerase chain reaction, PCR) for the rapid and quantitative detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts in a field campaign. For this we deployed our mobile instrumentation and sampled canal water and vegetables during a 2 week field study in Thailand. For purification and concentrations of (oo)cysts, we used filtration and immunomagnetic separation. We were able to detect considerably high oo(cysts) concentrations (ranges: 15-855 and 0-240 oo(cysts)/liter for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, respectively) in 85 to 300 min, with FCM being fastest, followed by PCR, and IFM being slowest due to the long analysis time per sample. FCM and IFM performed consistently well, whereas PCR reactions often failed. The recovery, established by FCM, was around 30% for Giardia and 13% for Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts. It was possible to track (oo)cysts from the wastewater further downstream to irrigation waters and confirm contamination of salads and water vegetables. We believe that rapid detection, in particular FCM-based methods, can substantially help in disaster management and outbreak prevention. PMID:22816735

Keserue, Hans-Anton; Füchslin, Hans Peter; Wittwer, Matthias; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Nguyen, Thuy Tram; Surinkul, Narong; Koottatep, Thammarat; Schürch, Nadia; Egli, Thomas

2012-08-21

85

Viability of Giardia cysts suspended in lake, river, and tap water.  

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Numerous waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have occurred since 1965, yet little or no information has been reported on the viability of Giardia cysts in different aquatic environments. We have studied the viability of Giardia muris cysts suspended in lake, river, and tap water, while also monitoring water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and other water quality parameters. Fecal pellets containing G. muris cysts were placed in glass vials covered with filter paper and exposed to (i) lake w...

Deregnier, D. P.; Cole, L.; Schupp, D. G.; Erlandsen, S. L.

1989-01-01

86

COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES / COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS  

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Full Text Available The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniques have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD in the city of Manizales (Caldas were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan. RESUMEN: Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentración y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas. Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo.

Edwin Cardona

2014-03-01

87

Hydrologic and vegetative removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate microspheres in coastal wetlands.  

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Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type ("pure" versus "environmental") on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality. PMID:23315738

Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

2013-03-01

88

Evaluation of immunofluorescence techniques for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from environmental samples.  

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Cryptosporidium and Giardia species are enteric protozoa which cause waterborne disease. The detection of these organisms in water relies on the detection of the oocyst and cyst forms or stages. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were compared for their abilities to react with Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts after storage in water, 3.7% formaldehyde, and 2.5% potassium dichromate, upon exposure to bleach, and in environmental samples. Three monoclonal antibodies to Cryptosporidium...

Rose, J. B.; Landeen, L. K.; Riley, K. R.; Gerba, C. P.

1989-01-01

89

Atrofia Villositaria Duodenal, un Hallazgo Inesperadamente Frecuente en Infestación por Giardia Lamblia / Duodenal villous atrophy, an unexpectedly common finding in giardia lamblia infestation  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Estudiar la presencia y frecuencia de los cambios histopatológicos tales como atrofia villositaria, linfocitosis intraepitelial, hiperplasia linfoide nodular y presencia de eosinófilos en biopsis duodenales informadas como Giardiasis. METODOLOGÍA: Se recolectó todos los casos diagnosticado [...] s como giardiasis duodenal durante el período 2005 a 2009 en 5 diferentes servicios de anatomía patológica y fueron revisados por un grupo de patólogos. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 30 casos. Se observó atrofia de las vellosidades en el 61,2%, incremento de linfocitos intraepiteliales en 63,3%, presencia de folículos linfoides en el 43,3% el promedio de eosinófilos en lámina propia por campo de alto poder fue aprox. 7. DISCUSIÓN: Nuestro porcentaje de atrofia villositaria es mucho mayor que lo reportado por otros autores, los casos con atrofia presentaron mayor frecuencia de linfocitosis 83,3% que los casos sin atrofia. (30%). Este hallazgo coincide con la relación directa entre linfocitos intraepiteliales /atrofia de vellosidades descrita por varios autores. Ninguno de los casos con hiperplasia linfoide, presentó ausencia de células plasmáticas que nos hiciera sospechar histológicamente de algún tipo de inmunodepresión humoral. El número de eosinófilos encontrado fue levemente elevado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the histological changes observed in Giardia positive biopsies obtained from the duodenum.: The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), grade of villous atrophy, presence of lymph follicles and number of eosinophils in the lamina propria per HPF were assessed. METHODS: All g [...] iardia positive biopsies diagnosed during period 2005-2009 in 5 pathology units were reevaluated by a group of pathologists. RESULTS: Thirty cases were included. Atrophic villous architecture was seen in 61,2%, increase in number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in 63,3% The occurrence of lymphoid follicles in 43,3%. DISCUSSION: Villous atrophy was higher than reported by others authors, cases with atrophy showed greater frequency of increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes than cases without atrophy. No cases with lymph follicle showed lack of plasmatic cells, the number of eosinophils was subtly increased.

Fernando, Arévalo; Violeta, Aragón; Domingo, Morales L.; Domingo, Morales Caramutti; Jannitza, Arandia; Gabriel, Alcocer.

2010-09-01

90

Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice  

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Full Text Available Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA, low-zinc (ZnL, high-zinc (ZnH and supplemented-zinc (ZnS diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days. Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

Humberto Astiazarán-García

2013-09-01

91

Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba / Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarr [...] eas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos. Abstract in english We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical sympt [...] oms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

Fidel Ángel, Núñez; Jorge Luis, López; Ana Margarita, de la Cruz; Carlos M., Finlay.

92

Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba / Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarr [...] eas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos. Abstract in english We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical sympt [...] oms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

Fidel Ángel, Núñez; Jorge Luis, López; Ana Margarita, de la Cruz; Carlos M., Finlay.

93

Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) River System.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of the river water frequently used by the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) indicated that 66.7% of the river water samples were Giardia cyst positive and 5.6% were Cryptosporidium oocyst positive. Although Giardia cysts were detected in samples from all the sites (e.g. upstream, midstream, and downstream), Cryptosporidium was only present in one river water sample taken from downstream from a village. The only sample of upstream water which contained Giardia cysts had a concentration of 0.7 cysts/l. All samples taken from midstream contained cysts with a mean concentration of 9.8 +/- 6.6 cysts/l (range = 1-20 cysts/l). Eighty-three point three percent of the samples collected from downstream contained cysts and 16.7% had oocysts. The average concentration of cysts was 12.9 +/- 16.4 cysts/l (range = 0-44 cysts/l), whereas the oocyst concentration was 0.4 oocysts/l. All river samples tested positive for the presence of E. coli, indicating fecal contamination. The results of this study imply that the river system is contaminated with fecal-oral transmitted parasites. The river water, used by the Orang Asli, is a probable route for Giardia and Cryptosporidium transmission in this community. Long term strategies, incorporating health education regarding personal hygiene, and provision of toilets and the importance of their proper usage, need to be embraced by this community in order to control the spread of these parasites. PMID:15916072

Lim, Y A L; Aahmad, R A

2004-12-01

94

Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon / Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além [...] de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z) para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI), altura-idade (AI), peso-altura (PA) e perímetro braquial-idade (PBI). Os exames parasitológicos foram realizados através dos métodos de Ritchie (n = 307), Kato-Katz (n = 278), Baermann-Moraes (n = 238) e Safranina-Azul-de-Metileno (n = 307). A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações independentes entre Giardia lamblia e PI (beta = -0.195, p = 0.003), PA (beta = -0.161, p = 0.018) e PBI (beta = -0.197, p = 0.011), após controle para idade, sexo, renda familiar e infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. O modelo multivariado demonstrou ainda que a única variável associada aos níveis de hemoglobina foi a idade. O estudo concluiu que a giardíase está associada, nos sujeitos pesquisados, a menores médias para os parâmetros antropométricos estudados e que um controle efetivo das parasitoses intestinais poderia contribuir para o pleno desenvolvimento das crianças na área estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and so [...] cioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ) parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307), Kato-Katz (n = 278), Baermann-Moraes (n = 238) and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307). Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282). Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242). Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003), WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018) and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011), controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.

Filipe Anibal, Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga, Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira, Lassance; Luanda Macedo da, Silva Neto; Carla Alexandra Almeida, Salmazo; Marcio Neves, Bóia.

2007-06-01

95

Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira  

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Full Text Available The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and socioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ, height for age (HAZ, weight for height (WHZ and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307. Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282. Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242. Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003, WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018 and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011, controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI, altura-idade (AI, peso-altura (PA e perímetro braquial-idade (PBI. Os exames parasitológicos foram realizados através dos métodos de Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 e Safranina-Azul-de-Metileno (n = 307. A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações independentes entre Giardia lamblia e PI (beta = -0.195, p = 0.003, PA (beta = -0.161, p = 0.018 e PBI (beta = -0.197, p = 0.011, após controle para idade, sexo, renda familiar e infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. O modelo multivariado demonstrou ainda que a única variável associada aos níveis de hemoglobina foi a idade. O estudo concluiu que a giardíase está associada, nos sujeitos pesquisados, a menores médias para os parâmetros antropométricos estudados e que um controle efetivo das parasitoses intestinais poderia contribuir para o pleno desenvolvimento das crianças na área estudada.

Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

2007-06-01

96

Giardia y giardiasis / Giardia and giardiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobre [...] vivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the par [...] asite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

Hugo D., Luján.

97

Giardia lamblia binding immunoglobulin protein triggers maturation of dendritic cells via activation of TLR4-MyD88-p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs.  

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Much remains unknown about the mammalian immune response to Giardia lamblia, a protozoan pathogen that causes diarrhoeal outbreaks. We fractionated protein extracts of G. lamblia trophozoites by Viva-spin centrifugation, DEAE ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Resultant fractions were screened for antigenic molecules by western blots analysis using anti-G. lamblia antibodies (Abs), resulting in identification of G. lamblia binding immunoglobulin protein (GlBiP). Maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in response to recombinant GlBiP (rGlBiP) was detected by increased expression of surface molecules such as CD80, CD86 and MHC class II; these mature DCs, produced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-12 and IL-6). Especially, the truncated rGlBiP containing the heat-shock protein 70 domain-induced cytokine production from mouse DCs. rGlBiP-induced DC activation was initiated by TLR4 in a MyD88-dependent way and occurred through activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs as well as increased activity of NF-?B and AP-1. Moreover, CD4(+) T cells stimulated with rGlBiP-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-2 and IFN-?. Together, our results suggest that GlBiP contributes to maturation of DCs via activation of TLR4-MyD88-p38, ERK1/2 MAPK, NF-?B and AP-1. PMID:24871487

Lee, H-Y; Kim, J; Noh, H J; Kim, H-P; Park, S-J

2014-12-01

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Fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts during secondary wastewater treatments.  

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This study investigates the fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts at four Irish municipal wastewater treatment plants (i.e., Plant A, B, C, and D) that utilize sludge activation or biofilm-coated percolating filter systems for secondary wastewater treatment. The fate of these pathogens through the sewage treatment processes was determined based on their viable transmissive stages, i.e., oocysts for Cryptosporidium and cysts for Giardia. Analysis of final effluent indicated that over 97% of viable oocysts and cysts were eliminated, except at Plant C, which achieved only 64% of oocyst removal. A significant correlation between the removal of oocysts and cysts was found at Plants A, B, and D (R = 0.98, P wastewater processes and in end-products, and can enter the aquatic environment with consequent negative implications for public health. PMID:19396463

Cheng, Hui-Wen A; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Broaders, Michael A; Tamang, Leena; Connolly, Michelle

2009-09-01

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sequence of Gl-MIF and the other Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia  

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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y?R) and 100 (V?D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V?R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins. PMID:23709284

Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

2013-01-01

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Both endo-siRNAs and tRNA-derived small RNAs are involved in the differentiation of primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.  

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Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), regulate most important biologic processes in eukaryotes, such as cell division and differentiation. Although sRNAs have been extensively studied in various eukaryotes, the role of sRNAs in the early emergence of eukaryotes is unclear. To address these questions, we deep sequenced the sRNA transcriptome of four different stages in the differentiation of Giardia lamblia, one of the most primitive eukaryotes. We identified a large number of endo-siRNAs in this fascinating parasitic protozoan and found that they were produced from live telomeric retrotransposons and three genomic regions (i.e., endo-siRNA generating regions [eSGRs]). eSGR-derived endo-siRNAs were proven to target mRNAs in trans. Gradual up-regulation of endo-siRNAs in the differentiation of Giardia suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of this process. This hypothesis was supported by the impairment of the differentiation ability of Giardia when GLDICER, essential for the biogenesis of endo-siRNAs, was knocked down. Endo-siRNAs are not the only sRNA regulators in Giardia differentiation, because a great number of tRNAs-derived sRNAs showed more dramatic expression changes than endo-siRNAs in this process. We totally identified five novel kinds of tRNAs-derived sRNAs and found that the biogenesis in four of them might be correlated with that of stress-induced tRNA-derived RNA (sitRNA), which was discovered in our previous studies. Our studies reveal an unexpected complex panorama of sRNA in G. lamblia and shed light on the origin and functional evolution of eukaryotic sRNAs. PMID:25225396

Liao, Jian-You; Guo, Yan-Hua; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Li, Yan; Xu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Yu-Chan; Zhou, Hui; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Ayala, Francisco J; Qu, Liang-Hu

2014-09-30

 
 
 
 
101

GIS-based analysis of the fate of waste-related pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia and Escherichia coli in a tropical canal network.  

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Urban canals play a major socio-economic role in many tropical countries and, particularly, Thailand. One of the overlooked functions that they perform is a significant attenuation of waste-related pathogens posing considerable health risk, as well as pollution attenuation in general. The study dealt with a comparison of three canals receiving: (i) municipal, (ii) mainly industrial and (iii) mainly agricultural wastewater, listed in order of progressively decreasing organic loading. The occurrence and fate of waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia and Escherichia coli were monitored in the canals by both real-time PCR and conventionally for 12 months. The pathogens are etiological agents of an estimated 38% and 47% of diarrhea cases worldwide and in Thailand, respectively. The geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate and map point and, particularly, non-point pollution sources which allowed differentiating the canal sections in terms of predominant pathogen sources. The flowthrough canals, which can be viewed as waste stabilization ponds, were found to be efficiently removing the pathogens at the following generalized specific rates: 0.3 (C. parvum), 1.2 (G. lamblia), 1.8 (E. coli) log10/km.d in the dry season. The rates decreased in the rainy season for E. coli and G. lamblia, but increased for C. parvum which indicated different removal mechanisms. Data suggest that E. coli and G. lamblia were mainly removed through sedimentation and sunlight (UV) irradiation, while the likely mechanism for C. parvum was predation. Overall, the specific pathogen removal rates positively correlated with the canal organic loading rates in the rainy season. As an important result, an estimate of the municipal pollution mitigation by over 2280 km canals in the Greater Bangkok suggests that concomitant to the pathogens at least 36-95 tons of BOD5 is being removed daily, thereby saving the receiving Chao Phraya River and Bight of Bangkok, by far exceeding current, from major eutrophication problems. PMID:18957782

Diallo, Mamadou B C; Anceno, Alfredo J; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Tripathi, Nitin K; Wangsuphachart, Voranuch; Shipin, Oleg V

2009-03-01

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NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY: CORRELATION OF FLUORESCEIN DIACETATE AND PROPIDIUM IODIDE STAINING WITH ANIMAL INFECTIVITY  

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The viability of Giardia muris cysts was studied using the fluorogenic dyes, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI). Using the mouse model for giardiasis, FDA or PI stained cysts were inoculated into neonatal mice. Feces were examined at days 3, 5, 8, and 11 post-i...

103

The biology of Giardia spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gardia spp. are flagellated protozoans that parasitize the small intestines of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The infectious cysts begin excysting in the acidic environment of the stomach and become trophozoites (the vegetative form). The trophozoites attach to the intestinal mucosa through the suction generated by a ventral disk and cause diarrhea and malabsorption by mechanisms that are not well understood. Giardia spp. have a number of unique features, including a predominantly anaerobic metabolism, complete dependence on salvage of exogenous nucleotides, a limited ability to synthesize and degrade carbohydrates and lipids, and two nuclei that are equal by all criteria that have been tested. The small size and unique sequence of G. lamblia rRNA molecules have led to the proposal that Giardia is the most primitive eukaryotic organism. Three Giardia spp. have been identified by light lamblia, G. muris, and G. agilis, but electron microscopy has allowed further species to be described within the G. lamblia group, some of which have been substantiated by differences in the rDNA. Animal models and human infections have led to the conclusion that intestinal infection is controlled primarily through the humoral immune system (T-cell dependent in the mouse model). A major immunogenic cysteine-rich surface antigen is able to vary in vitro and in vivo in the course of an infection and may provide a means of evading the host immune response or perhaps a means of adapting to different intestinal environments. PMID:1779932

Adam, R D

1991-12-01

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THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT  

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Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of 89.95±4.25 . Discussion. The comparison of the efficiency obtained with those obtained across the world from the application of other techniques associated with this method indicated that this filter was advantages to similar filters, keeping in mind also that this filter can be used in field situations. It is essential to modify in each region the method of cyst removal from sediments using Sucrose gradient according to the particular morphological characteristics and density of cystes. The optimization of Sucrose gradient and the centrifugation duration and speed seems equally important.

M.R SHAH MANSOURI

2001-09-01

105

New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens

2012-01-01

106

Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in Sagami river and its tributaries; Sagamigawa suikei ni okeru Cryptoporidium oyobi Giardia no osen level  

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With the Sagami river system flowing in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan as an object, investigations were conducted on levels of pollution caused by two kinds of protozoans: Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. Water samples were taken at 12 locations for the first investigation, and six locations thereof for the second investigations. The water samples were taken on a 100-liter basis. The results of the investigations may be summarized as follows: Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected from all of the water samples taken at seven locations; in the remaining five locations, Giardia cysts or Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected; in two locations where especially high concentration was detected, one location was observed with a great amount of foams thought attributable to detergents, suggesting household waste water flowing in; the other location has a hog raising barn 50 meters upstream, from which wastewater was discharged into the river; these two locations tend to show relatively high index bacterial concentration when protozoan concentration is high; and this tendency suggests a possibility that pollution caused by excrements of human and animals is a cause of the protozoan pollution. 10 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

Hashimoto, A.; Hirata, T. [Azabu University, Kanagawa (Japan)

1998-02-10

107

Total and infectious Cryptosporidium oocyst and total Giardia cyst concentrations from distinct agricultural and urban contamination sources in Eastern Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cyst concentrations are frequently used for assessing drinking water safety. The widely used USEPA Method 1623 provides total counts of (oo)cysts, but may not be accurate for human health risk characterization, since it does not provide infectivity information. The total counts and infectious fraction of Cryptosporidium oocysts and the total counts of Giardia cysts were assessed in major fecal pollution sources. Fresh calf and cow feces, their manure, and the discharge point were sampled in a small rural sub-watershed (n = 20, 21, 10, 10). Median concentrations for total (oo)cysts were higher in calves (333 oocysts g(-1); 111 cysts g(-1)) than in cows (52 oocysts g(-1); 7 cysts g(-1)). Infectious oocysts were found in 17 (7%) of the samples and none were found in manure or at the discharge point. Urban sources were sampled in the influent and effluent (n = 19, 18) of two wastewater treatment plants. Peak concentrations were 533 oocysts L(-1) and 9,010 cysts L(-1) for influents and 89 oocysts L(-1) and 472 cysts L(-1) for effluents. Infectious oocyst fractions varied from below the detection limit to 7-22% in the effluent and influent respectively. These infectious fractions are significantly lower than those currently used for quantitative microbial risk assessment estimates. PMID:22361710

Lalancette, Cindy; Généreux, Mylène; Mailly, Jacinthe; Servais, Pierre; Côté, Caroline; Michaud, Aubert; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

2012-03-01

108

Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O-. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, can be facilitated by sonication. Methods: We studied the effects of ultrasound with different sonication power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection of parasites for further study. The specific operational conditions may be tailored to control survival rates and collection efficiency.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2011-01-01

109

IMS-free DNA extraction for the PCR-based quantification of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in surface and waste water.  

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Extremely limited knowledge exists on the occurrence of protozoan pathogens in surface and waste water in the developing world. The article addresses one of the major reasons for this: prohibitively costly immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and commercial DNA extraction kits are required for the pathogen detection. As the presence of inhibitory substances critically impedes the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in environmental samples, several direct DNA extraction methods based on the combination of physico-chemical means were evaluated in terms of reducing the impact of PCR inhibitors present in (oo)cyst-spiked water concentrates. Modifications that included the use of guanidine thiocyanate as a lysis agent and a sonication step were found to be more efficient in extracting DNA from (oo)cysts, while treatment with Chelex 100 chelating resin at post-lysis proved to be effective in the removal of the PCR inhibitors rather than the inclusion of the PCR facilitators during thermocycling. Direct DNA extraction protocol at a substantially reduced cost is proposed for the use in the PCR-based detection/quantification of the pathogens. PMID:17613093

Anceno, Alfredo J; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Houpt, Eric R; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Chuluun, Buyan; Shipin, Oleg V

2007-08-01

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PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN  

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Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

Pourbabak

1996-06-01

111

Prevalence and distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wastewater and the surface, drinking and ground waters in the Lower Rhine, Germany.  

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Samples from different water sources (n = 396) were collected during 2009 and 2011. Wastewater (2-5 l) was purified by aluminium sulphate flocculation. Surface, ground and drinking waters (400-6400 l) were collected by filtration. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were further concentrated by sucrose centrifugation. (Oo)cysts were identified by IFT (immunofluorescence test), DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining and DICM (difference interference contrast microscopy). Out of 206 wastewater samples, 134 (65·0%) were found to be positive for Giardia cysts and 64 (31·1%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Parasite numbers ranged from 0 to 2436 cysts/l and 0 to 1745 oocysts/l. Eight (4·2%) surface and drinking water samples (n = 190) were found to be positive for Giardia cysts (0-56000/100 l), and 18 (9·5%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts (2400/100 l). The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence and concentrations of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. by detecting (oo)cysts from water samples. This study provides substantial evidence that G. lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts are able to enter and circulate in the aquatic environment with negative implications for public health. PMID:23010178

Gallas-Lindemann, C; Sotiriadou, I; Plutzer, J; Karanis, P

2013-01-01

112

Recovery of DNA of Giardia intestinalis cysts from surface water concentrates measured with PCR and real time PCR  

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The most important restriction for the detection in water samples is the low concentration of Giardia intestinalis cysts, additional difficulty is the presence of PCR inhibitors. We have carried out trials in order to assess the sensitivity of semi-nested PCR and TaqMan real time PCR on the basis of DNA extracted from G. intestinalis cysts coming from spiked environmental and distilled water samples, filtrated with the use of Filta-Max® equipment (1623 Method). Removal of inhibitors was carried out with addition of BSA in different concentrations. During the filtration and concentration of water samples, losses of cysts have been recorded. Moreover, addition of BSA to the PCR and real time PCR mix increases the sensitivity of reaction. The optimal concentration of BSA for semi-nested PCR was 15 and 20 ng/?l, whereas for real time PCR 5 ng/?l. PMID:22091466

Adamska, M.; Leonska-Duniec, A.; Maciejewska, A.; Sawczuk, M.; Skotarczak, B.

2011-01-01

113

Comparative Analysis of the 15.5kD Box C/D snoRNP Core Protein in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia Reveals Unique Structural and Functional Features  

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Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) guide the 2'-O-methylation of targeted nucleotides in archaeal and eukaryotic rRNAs. The archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD box C/D RNP core protein homologues initiate RNP assembly by recognizing kink-turn (K-turn) motifs. The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 {angstrom}. The Giardia 15.5kD protein exhibits the typical {alpha}-{beta}-{alpha} sandwich fold exhibited by both archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD proteins. Characteristic of eukaryotic homologues, the Giardia 15.5kD protein binds the K-turn motif but not the variant K-loop motif. The highly conserved residues of loop 9, critical for RNA binding, also exhibit conformations similar to those of the human 15.5kD protein when bound to the K-turn motif. However, comparative sequence analysis indicated a distinct evolutionary position between Archaea and Eukarya. Indeed, assessment of the Giardia 15.5kD protein in denaturing experiments demonstrated an intermediate stability in protein structure when compared with that of the eukaryotic mouse 15.5kD and archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae proteins. Most notable was the ability of the Giardia 15.5kD protein to assemble in vitro a catalytically active chimeric box C/D RNP utilizing the archaeal M. jannaschii Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins. In contrast, a catalytically competent chimeric RNP could not be assembled using the mouse 15.5kD protein. Collectively, these analyses suggest that the G. lamblia 15.5kD protein occupies a unique position in the evolution of this box C/D RNP core protein retaining structural and functional features characteristic of both archaeal L7Ae and higher eukaryotic 15.5kD homologues.

Biswas, Shyamasri; Buhrman, Greg; Gagnon, Keith; Mattos, Carla; Brown, II, Bernard A.; Maxwell, E. Stuart (NCSU); (UTSMC)

2012-07-11

114

The abundance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in treated effluents produced by four wastewater treatment plants in the Gauteng Province of South Africa  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of 4 wastewater treatment plants of the Gauteng Province, namely Zeekoegat, Baviaanspoort, Rayton and Refilwe Water Care Works (WCW), in the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Wastewater influent and treated effluent samples were taken w [...] eekly between January and April 2008. Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts were detected by immunofluorescence and immunomagnetic separation, according to a modified US EPA 1623 method. Effluent samples were subjected to a molecular study for the identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype I and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A. The 18S rRNA gene for restriction digests was therefore used to characterise these (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were repeatedly detected in effluent samples collected from all wastewater treatments at lower concentration (range

M, Dungeni; MNB, Momba.

115

PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA IN BEAVER AND MUSKRAT POPULATIONS IN NEW ENGLAND STATES AND MINNESOTA: DETECTION OF INTESTINAL TROPHOZOITES AT NECROPSY PROVIDES GREATER SENSITIVITY THAN DETECTION OF CYSTS IN FECAL SAMPLES  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys on the prevalence of Giardia in animal populations have relied on the detection of cysts in fecal samples. e have determined the prevalence of Giardia in beaver and muskrat in four New England states plus Minnesota using both the detection of trophozoites in mucosal scrap...

116

Occurrence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in the City of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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The consumption of bottled mineral water has significantly increased in Brazil so that it is in the interest of public health to determine the parasitological and microbiological status of some brands of Brazilian mineral water available in the town of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, detection of protozoa by direct immunofluorescence technique and microbiological parameters were determined for each specimen after membrane filtration. Giardia cysts were not present while crypto...

Rmb, Franco; Cantusio Neto R

2002-01-01

117

Development of monoclonal antibodies specifically recognizing the cyst stage of Entamoeba histolytica.  

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Protozoan cysts were isolated according to a two-step sucrose gradient procedure. Pure cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, in fixed and native states, were injected into BALB/c mice intraperitoneally for immunization. The spleens of these animals were used for fusion with AG8 mouse myeloma cells. Hybridomas were obtained and tested for the recognition of E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Jodamoeba biitschlii, and Giardia lamblia. Three monoclonal antibodies were identified that reacted only with cysts and trophozoites of E. histolytica. These can be used for differentiation and identification of E. histolytica in feces. PMID:9749623

Walderich, B; Burchard, G D; Knobloch, J; Müller, L

1998-09-01

118

Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambaia, Campinas, em São Paulo. As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL, 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV. Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise.In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo. The samples were collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL, 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL, and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

Luciana Urbano dos Santos

2011-06-01

119

Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos / Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambai [...] a, Campinas, em São Paulo). As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL), 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL) e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV). Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise. Abstract in english In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo). The samples we [...] re collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL), 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL), and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV). Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

Luciana Urbano dos, Santos; Romeu, Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno, Franco; José Roberto, Guimarães.

2011-06-01

120

Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil / Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Giardia e Cryptosporidium causaram vários surtos epidêmicos de gastroenterite, associados à água potável. Efluentes de esgoto contaminados foram incriminados como uma fonte potencial de cistos e oocistos. Uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cry [...] ptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado de uma Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto. Para isto as amostras foram submetidas: i) a concentração pelo processo de clarificação com éter (ECP) e ii) método de purificação por flutuação em sacarose (SFM) e, as alíquotas dos sedimentos foram examinadas por imunofluorescência. Cistos de Giardia estiveram presentes em todas as amostras avaliadas (100,0%; n = 8) quando utilizado ECP e kit 1, enquanto o kit 2 resultou em 6 amostras positivas (85,7%; n = 7). Para SFM, cistos de Giardia foram detectados em 75,0% e 100,0% destas amostras (para kit 1 e 2 respectivamente). Considerando os oocistos de Cryptosporidium, duas amostras (25,0%; kit 1 e 28,5% kit 2) foram positivas usando-se ECP enquanto para SFM, apenas uma amostra (examinada pelo kit 1) foi positiva (12,5%). Os resultados do experimento-controle revelaram que as taxas de recuperação para Giardia e Cryptosporidium, quando utilizado ECP foi de 54,5% e 9,6% e para SFM, foi de 10,5% e 3,2%, respectivamente. Considerando a detecção de alta concentração desses protozoários, é recomendada a avaliação prévia do lodo ativado antes de sua aplicação na agricultura e, com alguma melhora, ECP pode ser uma técnica apropriada e simples para a detecção de protozoários em amostras de esgoto. Abstract in english Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Br [...] azil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i) concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP) and to ii) purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM) and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8) when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7). As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively). Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2) were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1) was positive (12.5%). The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.

Luciana Urbano, Santos; Taís Rondello, Bonatti; Romeu, Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno, Franco.

2004-12-04

 
 
 
 
121

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw water from the Atibaia river, Campinas, Brazil / Ocorrência de oocistos de Cryptosporidium e cistos de Giardia em águas do Rio Atibaia, Campinas, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cryptosporidium parvum e Giardia duodenalis são parasitos transmitidos pela água e têm causado muitos surtos de doenças gastrointestinais associados à ingestão de água. Devido à falta de estudo sobre a ocorrência destes protozoários na água, no Sudeste do Brasil, uma investigação foi conduzida para [...] verificar a presença de cistos e oocistos na água superficial do rio Atibaia. As amostras de água foram submetidas à filtração em membrana e a eluição foi processada por: (1) lavagem e raspagem da membrana (RM) e (2) dissolução em acetona (ADM). Parâmetros microbiológicos e químicos foram analisados. Alíquotas do sedimento foram examinadas por imunofluorescência. Todas as amostras de água foram positivas, a despeito da alta turbidez. Maior taxa de recuperação ocorreu em amostras tratadas pelo RM que por ADM. A meta em futuros trabalhos é determinar a viabilidade de cistos e oocistos para se obter o significado deste achado em Saúde Pública. Abstract in english Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are waterborne parasites that have caused several outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease associated with drinking water. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these protozoa in water in the Southeast of Brazil, an investigation was conducted [...] to verify the presence of cysts and oocysts in superficial raw water of the Atibaia River. The water samples were submitted to membrane filtration (3.0 mum) and elution was processed by (1) scraping and rinsing of membrane (RM method) and (2) acetone-dissolution (ADM method). Microbiologic and chemical parameters were analyzed. Aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence (Merifluor, Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio). All water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in spite of the high turbidity. Higher recovery rates occurred in samples treated by the RM method than by the ADM technique. The goal for future work is the assessment of viability of cysts and oocysts to determine the public health significance of this finding.

Regina Maura Bueno, FRANCO; Rosângela, ROCHA-EBERHARDT; Romeu, CANTUSIO NETO.

122

Diarrea crónica refractaria y malabsorción secundaria a hipogammaglobulinemia común variable, infestación crónica por giardia lamblia y gastrectomía total por adenocarcinoma gástrico: un manejo nutricional complejo Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management  

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Full Text Available El adenocarcinoma gástrico es una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo, siendo la cirugía el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, aunque los efectos adversos digestivos y nutricionales son frecuentes y abundantes. La hipogammaglobulinemia variable común es causa de frecuentes manifestaciones digestivas, derivándose las más importantes en diarrea crónica causada por giardiasis, hiperplasia nodular linfoide o atrofia vellosa, siendo frecuente la malabsorción y la desnutrición. Los déficits nutricionales secundarios a la malabsorción (postgastrectomía y asociada a la atrofia vellosa y la giardiasis por hipogammaglobulinemia variable común son asimismo frecuentes. Presentamos el caso de un paciente gastrectomizado por adenocarcinoma gástrico y con hipogammaglobulinemia variable común e infestación crónica por giardiasis que presenta una importante diarrea crónica refractaria a tratamiento y malabsorción.Gastric cancer is a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Surgery is the only potentially curative therapy, although the adverse effects of surgery are common and considerable. Common variable immunodeficiency is in many cases cause of gastrointestinal system problems such as chronic diarrhea caused by infestation with giardia lamblia, nodular lymphoid hiperplasia ad loss of villi leading frequently to malapsortion and malnutrition. Nutritional deficiencies due to malapsorption (postgastrectomy and secondary to loss of villi, giardiasis and common variable inmunodeficiency are common. We present the case of a patient with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy with common variable hipogammaglobulinemia and chronic infestation by giardia lamblia, with serious diarrhea resistant to treatment and malabsorption.

M. E. Domínguez-López

2011-08-01

123

Diarrea crónica refractaria y malabsorción secundaria a hipogammaglobulinemia común variable, infestación crónica por giardia lamblia y gastrectomía total por adenocarcinoma gástrico: un manejo nutricional complejo / Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adenocarcinoma gástrico es una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo, siendo la cirugía el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, aunque los efectos adversos digestivos y nutricionales son frecuentes y abundantes. La hipogammaglobulinemia variable común es causa de frecuentes [...] manifestaciones digestivas, derivándose las más importantes en diarrea crónica causada por giardiasis, hiperplasia nodular linfoide o atrofia vellosa, siendo frecuente la malabsorción y la desnutrición. Los déficits nutricionales secundarios a la malabsorción (postgastrectomía y asociada a la atrofia vellosa y la giardiasis por hipogammaglobulinemia variable común) son asimismo frecuentes. Presentamos el caso de un paciente gastrectomizado por adenocarcinoma gástrico y con hipogammaglobulinemia variable común e infestación crónica por giardiasis que presenta una importante diarrea crónica refractaria a tratamiento y malabsorción. Abstract in english Gastric cancer is a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Surgery is the only potentially curative therapy, although the adverse effects of surgery are common and considerable. Common variable immunodeficiency is in many cases cause of gastrointestinal system problems such as chro [...] nic diarrhea caused by infestation with giardia lamblia, nodular lymphoid hiperplasia ad loss of villi leading frequently to malapsortion and malnutrition. Nutritional deficiencies due to malapsorption (postgastrectomy and secondary to loss of villi, giardiasis and common variable inmunodeficiency) are common. We present the case of a patient with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy with common variable hipogammaglobulinemia and chronic infestation by giardia lamblia, with serious diarrhea resistant to treatment and malabsorption.

M. E., Domínguez-López; I., González-Molero; C. P., Ramírez-Plaza; F., Soriguer; G., Olveira.

2011-08-01

124

Occurrence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in the City of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The consumption of bottled mineral water has significantly increased in Brazil so that it is in the interest of public health to determine the parasitological and microbiological status of some brands of Brazilian mineral water available in the town of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, detection of protozoa by direct immunofluorescence technique and microbiological parameters were determined for each specimen after membrane filtration. Giardia cysts were not present while cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in two samples. The counts of protozoa varied from 0.2 to 0.5 oocysts/l. The detected level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic bacteria reflected the level of organic enrichment of the water.

RMB Franco

2002-03-01

125

Occurrence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in the City of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The consumption of bottled mineral water has significantly increased in Brazil so that it is in the interest of public health to determine the parasitological and microbiological status of some brands of Brazilian mineral water available in the town of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, [...] detection of protozoa by direct immunofluorescence technique and microbiological parameters were determined for each specimen after membrane filtration. Giardia cysts were not present while cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in two samples. The counts of protozoa varied from 0.2 to 0.5 oocysts/l. The detected level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic bacteria reflected the level of organic enrichment of the water.

RMB, Franco; R, Cantusio Neto.

126

Detection and characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Hungarian raw, surface and sewage water samples by IFT, PCR and sequence analysis of the SSUrRNA and GDH genes.  

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We investigated the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and analysed the genotypes in 36 samples collected from different water sources and various geographic areas in Hungary. Samples were collected from drinking water and sewage treatment plants and from the recreation area of Lake Balaton. The (oo)cysts were purified according to the US EPA 1623 method and they were detected by immunofluorescence test (IFT). Genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and then the GDH target gene for Giardia and the SSUrDNA for both Giardia and for Cryptosporidium species were amplified by PCR. 24 out of 36 samples (67%) were Giardia positive and 15 (42%) were Cryptosporidium positive by IFT. PCR confirmed that 13 out of 36 samples (36%) were Giardia positive and 10 (28%) contained Cryptosporidium. Twelve Giardia and two Cryptosporidium PCR products were successfully sequenced. In seven samples G. lamblia Assemblage A and in one sample Assemblage B and in four cases Assemblages A and B have been found. In one sample C. parvum and in the other separate sample C. meleagridis were detected. Sequence analysis revealed a new subtype of G. duodenalis complex, clustered close to the Assemblage A group. This study provides the first report on simultaneous detection and genotyping of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species from water supplies in Hungary. PMID:18550431

Plutzer, Judit; Karanis, Panagiotis; Domokos, Klarissza; Törökné, Andrea; Márialigeti, Károly

2008-10-01

127

MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM  

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The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

128

SPECIES AND GENUS DIFFERENTIATION OF PARASITES (GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM) BY MALDI - MASS SPECTROMETRY  

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The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

129

Zoonotic potential of Giardia.  

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Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. PMID:23856595

Ryan, Una; Cacciò, Simone M

2013-11-01

130

Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran  

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Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods. Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively.Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani

131

Strategies To Discover the Structural Components of Cyst and Oocyst Walls  

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Cysts of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum are the infectious and sometimes diagnostic forms of these parasites. To discover the structural components of cyst and oocyst walls, we have developed strategies based upon a few simple assumptions. Briefly, the most abundant wall proteins are identified by monoclonal antibodies or mass spectrometry. Structural components include a sugar polysaccharide (chitin for Entamoeba, ?-1,3-linked glucose for Toxoplasma, and ?-1,3-linked GalNAc for Giardia) and/or acid-fast lipids (Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium). Because Entamoeba cysts and Toxoplasma oocysts are difficult to obtain, studies of walls of nonhuman pathogens (E. invadens and Eimeria, respectively) accelerate discovery. Biochemical methods to dissect fungal walls work well for cyst and oocyst walls, although the results are often unexpected. For example, echinocandins, which inhibit glucan synthases and kill fungi, arrest the development of oocyst walls and block their release into the intestinal lumen. Candida walls are coated with mannans, while Entamoeba cysts are coated in a dextran-like glucose polymer. Models for cyst and oocyst walls derive from their structural components and organization within the wall. Cyst walls are composed of chitin fibrils and lectins that bind chitin (Entamoeba) or fibrils of the ?-1,3-GalNAc polymer and lectins that bind the polymer (Giardia). Oocyst walls of Toxoplasma have two distinct layers that resemble those of fungi (?-1,3-glucan in the inner layer) or mycobacteria (acid-fast lipids in the outer layer). Oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium have a rigid bilayer of acid-fast lipids and inner layer of oocyst wall proteins. PMID:24096907

Bushkin, G. Guy; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Robbins, Phillips W.

2013-01-01

132

Strategies to discover the structural components of cyst and oocyst walls.  

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Cysts of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum are the infectious and sometimes diagnostic forms of these parasites. To discover the structural components of cyst and oocyst walls, we have developed strategies based upon a few simple assumptions. Briefly, the most abundant wall proteins are identified by monoclonal antibodies or mass spectrometry. Structural components include a sugar polysaccharide (chitin for Entamoeba, ?-1,3-linked glucose for Toxoplasma, and ?-1,3-linked GalNAc for Giardia) and/or acid-fast lipids (Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium). Because Entamoeba cysts and Toxoplasma oocysts are difficult to obtain, studies of walls of nonhuman pathogens (E. invadens and Eimeria, respectively) accelerate discovery. Biochemical methods to dissect fungal walls work well for cyst and oocyst walls, although the results are often unexpected. For example, echinocandins, which inhibit glucan synthases and kill fungi, arrest the development of oocyst walls and block their release into the intestinal lumen. Candida walls are coated with mannans, while Entamoeba cysts are coated in a dextran-like glucose polymer. Models for cyst and oocyst walls derive from their structural components and organization within the wall. Cyst walls are composed of chitin fibrils and lectins that bind chitin (Entamoeba) or fibrils of the ?-1,3-GalNAc polymer and lectins that bind the polymer (Giardia). Oocyst walls of Toxoplasma have two distinct layers that resemble those of fungi (?-1,3-glucan in the inner layer) or mycobacteria (acid-fast lipids in the outer layer). Oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium have a rigid bilayer of acid-fast lipids and inner layer of oocyst wall proteins. PMID:24096907

Samuelson, John; Bushkin, G Guy; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Robbins, Phillips W

2013-12-01

133

Identification of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar cysts in stool by polymerase chain reaction.  

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An attempt to identify cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar in human stool was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers (p11 plus p12 and p13 plus p14) specific for either species of ameba. The cysts in stool specimens obtained from 12 infected individuals were concentrated, freeze-thawed, and treated with Triton X-100 before their examination by PCR. The results of PCR on the cysts were generally consistent with data obtained by PCR on ameba trophozoites hatched from the cysts, by zymodeme analysis, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and with clinical findings. This PCR was negative for the stool containing large numbers of cysts of either E. coli, E. hartmanni, or Giardia lamblia as well as for the stool specimens obtained from uninfected individuals. The ameba cyst in stool processed using the present method was effective for the PCR analysis even after 1 month of storage at 4 degrees C. The present PCR was sensitive enough to detect ten cysts of either of the amebae. PMID:9000244

Sanuki, J; Asai, T; Okuzawa, E; Kobayashi, S; Takeuchi, T

1997-01-01

134

Giardia Disease  

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... Compartir Disease Giardia trophozoites stained with trichrome. Credit: Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, CDC Giardiasis is the most frequently ... and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases (DFWED) Notice: Linking to a non-federal site ...

135

Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods  

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Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambaia, Campinas, em São Paulo). As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL), 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (E...

Luciana Urbano dos Santos; Romeu Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno Franco; José Roberto Guimarães

2011-01-01

136

Occurrence and genotype of Giardia cysts isolated from faecal samples of children and dogs and from drinking water samples in an aboriginal area of central Taiwan.  

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To investigate some aspects of Giardia infection, we performed a cross-sectional study on schoolchildren from an aboriginal area of Nantou County in central Taiwan. Faecal samples from 209 participants and samples of dog faeces and of water from mountain springs found in the area were collected. The participants also filled a questionnaire pertaining to demographic data. Giardia duodenalis was detected in eight of the 209 participants, and all positive isolates belonged to assemblage A. In addition, assemblage A isolates were obtained from four of the 22 water samples, and assemblage C or D isolates were obtained from four of the 42 canine faecal samples. Our results suggest that the risk of Giardia transmission is greater from waterborne than canine transmission in this study area. PMID:22542987

Liang, Chao-hua; Tsaihong, John Chin; Cheng, Ya-yin; Peng, Shih-yi

2012-06-01

137

Giardia prevalence in wild cervids in Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 181 faecal samples were collected from wild cervids in two regions of Poland. Specimens were taken from 65 fallow deer (Dama dama), 61 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 50 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and five moose (Alces alces). Giardia cysts were detected in one faecal specimen from the red deer and in two samples from the roe deer. Although this study has demonstrated that Giardia infection is remarkably rare in wild cervids, it should be emphasized that there are large populations of these animals in Poland. PMID:23914615

Majewska, Anna C; Solarczyk, Piotr; Moskwa, Bozena; Cabaj, W?adys?aw; Jankowska, Wies?awa; Nowosad, Piotr

2012-01-01

138

Prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver colony and the resulting environmental contamination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver (Castor canadensis) colony in Colorado was determined by the collection and analysis of fecal samples over a period of 14 mo. Environmental contamination was monitored through the use and analysis of water filter samples. Beaver shed cysts of Giardia sp. in their feces throughout the year with temporal variations in the prevalence, and became infected as kits and remained infected as juveniles and adults. Beaver served as amplification hosts for Giardia sp. and contaminated surface waters downstream from their dams in late spring and early fall. In slow moving waters the cysts of Giardia sp. settled rapidly. Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were the only other species of wildlife shedding cysts of Giardia sp. on the study area. PMID:3682082

Monzingo, D L; Hibler, C P

1987-10-01

139

Reservoirs of Giardia spp. in southwestern Alberta.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of potential hosts of Giardia spp. was carried out during 1982 and 1983 in the Kananaskis Valley and Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Diagnosis was based mainly on fecal analysis but a few animals were examined at necropsy and scrapings from the small intestine analyzed. A total of 304 specimens was examined from humans (Homo sapiens L.) and a variety of animal species. Cysts and/or trophozoites of Giardia were found in 10.5% of the specimens examined. Positive samples were found from 20 of 21 red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi Vigors), two of six meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord), one of three long-tailed voles (Microtus longicaudus Allen), five of 50 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus Mearns), and two of 58 beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl). Cysts obtained from a beaver were successfully introduced to gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards) and the trophozoites obtained were cultured in vitro. PMID:6397598

Wallis, P M; Buchanan-Mappin, J M; Faubert, G M; Belosevic, M

1984-10-01

140

Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in water bodies of Galicia, Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the mean concentration (per litre) of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in recreational river areas (n = 28), drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs; n = 52) and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs; n = 50) in Galicia (NW Spain). Water samples from rivers and from the influent (50-100 l) and the treated effluent (100 l) of the water plants were filtered using Filta-Max filters (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA). A total of 232 samples were processed and the (oo)cysts were concentrated, clarified by IMS and then detected by IFAT. The viability was determined by applying fluorogenic vital dye (PI). In the recreational areas, infective forms of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 16 (57.1%; 1-60 oocysts per litre) and 17 (60.7%; 1-160 cysts per litre) samples, respectively. In the water flowing into the water treatment plants, oocysts were detected in 21 DWTPs (40.4%; 1-13 oocysts per litre) and cysts were observed in 22 DWTPs (42.3%; 1-7 cysts per litre). In the effluents from the treatment plants, Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were identified in 17 DWTPs (32.7%; 1-4 oocysts per litre) and in 19 DWTPs (36.5%; 1-5 cysts per litre), respectively. The highest concentrations of (oo)cysts were found in the WWTPs; specifically, oocysts were detected in 29 (58.0%; 1-80 oocysts per litre) and cysts in 49 (98.0%; 2-14.400 cysts per litre) WWTP effluents. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 32 (64.0%; 1-120 oocysts per litre) and 48 (96.0%; 2-6.000 cysts per litre) WWTP effluents, respectively. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0%. In all samples analysed. Moreover, it was found that the effluents from coastal WWTPs were discharged directly into the sea, while inland WWTPs were discharged directly into rivers. The concentrations of both enteropathogens detected in effluents from WWTPs therefore represent a significant risk to human and animal health. These results demonstrate the wide distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the environment, the ineffectiveness of treatments in DWTPs and WWTPs in reducing/inactivating both protozoa and the need to monitor the presence, viability and infectivity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water bodies. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. PMID:20673950

Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO SUBSTRATE BINDING AND STEREOSELECTIVITY OF GIARDIA FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATE ALDOLASE*  

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Giardia lamblia fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA)1 is a member of the Class II zinc-dependent aldolase family that catalyzes the cleavage of D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). In addition to the active site zinc, the catalytic apparatus of FBPA employs an aspartic acid, Asp83 in the G. lamblia enzyme, which when replaced by an alanine residue renders the enzyme inactive. A comparison of the crystal structure...

Galkin, Andrey; Li, Zhimin; Li, Ling; Kulakova, Liudmila; Pal, Lipika R.; Dunaway-mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

2009-01-01

142

Giardia Infection Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... Treatment Giardia trophozoites under scanning electron microscope. Credit: Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, CDC Several drugs can be used ... and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases (DFWED) Notice: Linking to a non-federal site ...

143

Axenic isolation of Giardia strains from primates and rodents.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the examination of animals at the Poznan Zoological Gardens, attempts were made to isolate Giardia strains. Using an in vitro excystation procedure, eight samples of cysts from animals with asymptomatic giardiasis were inoculated on BI-S-33 medium. The ease of isolation and axenization of Giardia was surprising; five axenic isolates of Giardia, belonging to the G. duodenalis morphological group, were established from primates (slow loris, lesser slow loris and siamang) and from rodents (Gambian giant pouched rat and cuis). The growth of all isolates was abundant and similar; the peak number of trophozoites on the seventh day (depending on the Giardia isolate) was 2.3 X 10(6)-3.2 X 10(6) and generation times were 8.2-19.3 h. The easy establishment of these isolates confirmed that they belong to the G. duodenalis morphological group. The recent hypothesis that Giardia may be introduced to a human population from an animal source implies the necessity to isolate and differentiate parasite strains from various hosts. In this respect, the first isolation of Giardia strains from non-human primates and from rodents is of particular importance. PMID:2343527

Majewska, A C; Kasprzak, W

1990-02-01

144

Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos / Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado ( [...] RALF), na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5,5%), Trichuris sp (4,5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%), H. nana (1%) e Taenia sp (0,4%), Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal. Abstract in english This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5.5%), Trichuris sp (4.5%), Hymenolepis [...] diminuta (3.7%), H. nana (1%) and Taenia sp (0.4%), protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

Rosangela C., Paulino; Edilene A., Castro; Vanete, Thomaz-Soccol.

145

Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos / Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado ( [...] RALF), na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5,5%), Trichuris sp (4,5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%), H. nana (1%) e Taenia sp (0,4%), Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal. Abstract in english This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5.5%), Trichuris sp (4.5%), Hymenolepis [...] diminuta (3.7%), H. nana (1%) and Taenia sp (0.4%), protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

Rosangela C., Paulino; Edilene A., Castro; Vanete, Thomaz-Soccol.

2001-10-01

146

Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado (RALF, na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5,5%, Trichuris sp (4,5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%, H. nana (1% e Taenia sp (0,4%, Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal.This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5.5%, Trichuris sp (4.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3.7%, H. nana (1% and Taenia sp (0.4%, protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

Rosangela C. Paulino

2001-10-01

147

Immunological aspects of Giardia infections  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-specific) and invariant proteins. Nitric oxide (NO) appears to contribute to host clearance of Giardia trophozoites. Arginine is a precursor of NO and is metabolised by Giardia trophozoites, possibly reducing its availability for generation of NO by the host. Work with mice suggests that T lymphocytes and interleukin-6 (IL-6) contribute to clearance of Giardia infection via mechanisms independent of antibodies. PMID:25347704

Heyworth, Martin F.

2014-01-01

148

How Giardia Swim and Divide  

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To determine how binuclear giardia swim, we used video microscopy to observe trophozoites of Giardia intestinalis, which were labeled with an amino-specific Alexa Fluor dye that highlighted the flagella and adherence disc. Giardia swam forward by means of the synchronous beating of anterior, posterolateral, and ventral flagella in the plane of the ventral disc, while caudal flagella swam in a plane perpendicular to the disc. Giardia turned in the plane of the disc by means of a rudder-like mo...

Ghosh, Sudip; Frisardi, Marta; Rogers, Rick; Samuelson, John

2001-01-01

149

Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia species, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. between January 2002 and December 2004. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Protist parasites were detected in 6.4% of the beavers. All were subadults and kits. Microsporidia species were not detected. Giardia spp. was detected by IFA from four beavers; Cryptosporidium spp. was also detected by IFA from two of these beavers. However, gene sequence data for the ssrRNA gene from these two Cryptosporidium spp.-positive beavers were inconclusive in identifying the species. Nucleotide sequences of the TPI, ssrRNA, and beta-giardin genes for Giardia spp. (deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts. PMID:17315434

Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; DeStefano, Stephen; Koenen, Kiana; Kaur, Taranjit

2006-12-01

150

ULTRASTRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIA, VIRAL-LIKE PARTICLES, AND MYCOPLASMA-LIKE ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH 'GIARDIA' SPP. (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia trophozoites and cysts, isolated from mammalian and avian hosts, were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by fluorescent light microscopy for the presence of microbial symbionts. Mycroplasma-like organisms were obser...

151

Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points in at least one of the three applied diagnostic techniques within 33-61 days after treatment. Furthermore, all dogs had episodes of diarrhea (for 1-4 days) within 14-31 days after treatment and unformed feces during the whole experiment. The positive effect of ronidazole against Giardia infections in dogs could be confirmed in this study. In particular, the combination of ronidazole treatment combined with the disinfection of the environment and shampooing of the dogs was highly effective in reducing Giardia cyst excretion and may therefore constitute an alternative control strategy for canine giardiosis. PMID:22240238

Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

2012-06-01

152

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Most women have ovarian cysts sometime during their lives. Fortunately, most ovarian cysts are benign and do ... Most women have ovarian cysts sometime during their lives. Fortunately, most ovarian cysts are benign and do ...

153

Ovarian Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... These include: • Dermoid cysts • Endometriomas • Cystadenomas • Polycystic ovaries Dermoid cysts. The cells in the ovary are able to make hair, teeth, and other growing tissues that become part of a forming ovarian cyst. These cysts can become large and cause ...

154

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Cysts Introduction Ovarian cysts are a very common female condition. An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac on an ovary in the female reproductive system. Most women have ovarian cysts sometime ...

155

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... layer of the uterus is called the endometrium. Causes An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled tissue ... ovarian cyst. These cysts can become large and cause pain. Endometriomas. These cysts develop in women who ...

156

Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Giardia from animals at the zoo of Poznan, Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study total of 266 fecal samples from 242 animals belonging to 113 species kept in the Poznan Zoological Garden were examined for Giardia. The cysts of Giardia were found only in five samples of feces collected from a giant toad (Bufo marinus), tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) and three individuals of cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus). Fragments of beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes were successfully amplified only from the Giardia isolate obtained from the tamandua. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the Giardia isolate from the tamandua belonged to the B assemblage and showed homologies of 99% to 100% at bg, gdh and tpi loci of the same markers of parasites isolated from humans and animals in various parts of the world. This is the first molecular characterization of G. duodenalis from tamandua. PMID:22165739

Solarczyk, Piotr; Majewska, Anna C

2011-01-01

157

A field and laboratory evaluation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of Giardia coproantigens in humans and dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) was evaluated for its ability to detect Giardia coproantigens in the faeces of humans and dogs in the Perth metropolitan area and Aboriginal communities in Fitzroy Crossing, Western Australia. Using zinc sulphate flotation and light microscopy, Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were observed in 8 of 57 (14%) human stool samples from Perth and 21 of 55 (38%) stool samples from Fitzroy Crossing, after 2 separate examinations. Analysis of diagnostic sensitivity using the ELISA revealed that coproantigens were detected in all 29 human samples (100%) in which Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were also present. Coproantigens were detected in one further sample from Perth and in 3 samples from Fitzroy Crossing in which no Giardia cyst or trophozoite was observed. The specificity of the test, as defined using Fitzroy Crossing samples free from Giardia, was 91%. The assay did not cross-react with Giardia-free stool samples containing Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Chilomastix mesnili or Ancylostoma duodenale. Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were also observed in 11 of 32 dog faecal samples (34%) in Perth and 11 of 29 dog samples (38%) in Fitzroy Crossing, after one zinc sulphate examination. The sensitivity of the ELISA for dogs was 64% and 55% for Perth and Fitzroy Crossing specimens respectively. The specificity was 95% when Fitzroy Crossing samples were used. Other parasites observed in Giardia-free faecal samples from dogs which did not produce a positive reaction with the kit were Ancylostoma caninum, Sarcocystis sp. and Isospora sp.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8465392

Hopkins, R M; Deplazes, P; Meloni, B P; Reynoldson, J A; Thompson, R C

1993-01-01

158

Ovarian Cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

MENU Return to Web version Ovarian Cyst Overview What is an ovarian cyst? An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac in or on the ovary. There are several types of ovarian cysts. Many ovarian cysts are noncancerous cysts that ...

159

Giardia in beaver (Castor canadensis) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) from east Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the prevalence of Giardia sp. infection in nuisance beaver (Castor canadensis) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) in east Texas. From October 1992 through September 1993, 100 beaver and 30 nutria were collected in routine wildlife management activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Texas Animal Damage Control Service. Fecal and duodenal mucoid samples were preserved from each animal. Fecal samples were examined for the occurrence of Giardia sp. cysts using the Merifluor immunoassay detection kit: 30 beaver (30.0%) and 20 nutria (66.7%) were positive for Giardia sp. Duodenal mucoid samples were examined for Giardia sp. trophozoites using trichrome staining. with 26 beaver (26.0%) and 20 nutria (73.3%) testing positive. Combining both techniques resulted in 33 beaver (33.0%) and 22 nutria (73.3%) testing positive for Giardia sp. We found no relationship between Giardia sp. and host age, sex, river system, habitat, county, or season in beaver. However, a relationship was found when season and habitat were considered together. No relationship was found between Giardia sp. and age, river system, habitat, county, or season in nutria: however, more males (87.5%) were infected than females (46.4%). PMID:12537124

Dunlap, Brett G; Thies, Monte L

2002-12-01

160

Minimal infectious doses and prepatent periods in Giardia muris, Spironucleus muris and Tritrichomonas muris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The minimal infectious doses (MID) of Giardia muris cysts, Spironucleus muris cysts and Tritrichomonas muris pseudocysts for athymic mice were determined. A novel micromanipulator-aided technique was developed for selecting small exact numbers of specified fresh or old cysts/pseudocysts from a faecal homogenate. This technique can also be of value in manipulating protozoan parasites of any particular species. Only fresh cysts/pseudocysts, which appeared bright under phase contrast optics, were infectious. Older cysts and pseudocysts which appeared dark in phase contrast were not infectious. The MID for three murine intestinal flagellates addressed above were: 10 (between 5 and 20), 1 and 5 cysts/pseudocysts respectively. Corresponding prepatent periods (PP) were 8, 5 and 10 days. A relation was evident between the infectious dose and the PP: The prepatent period shortened with an increased infectious dose. PMID:6673420

Stachan, R; Kunstýr, I

1983-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Application of monitoring data for Giardia and Cryptosporidium to boil water advisories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the problems associated with analyzing water samples for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, the data can be very useful if their strengths and weaknesses are understood. Two municipalities in northern Ontario, Temagami and Thunder Bay, both issued boil water advisories for Giardia contamination. Data from these two cities are compared to show that only one municipality experienced a real outbreak, whereas the other did not. The concentration of Giardia cysts was much higher than background during the outbreak at Temagami, and the postoutbreak concentrations of cysts were very similar to the long-term average cyst concentration at Thunder Bay. The waterborne outbreak of giardiasis at Temagami was characterized by consistent positive results from water samples, concentrations two to three orders of magnitude higher than normal, and an obvious increase in the number of cases of giardiasis in the population. No outbreak was experienced at Thunder Bay, but a boil water advisory (BWA) was set in place for more than a year on the basis of a single sample from Loch Lomond in which only two cysts were detected but the sample equivalent volume was low. This gave the impression of a sudden increase in concentration, but 39 of 41 subsequent samples were negative. Additional factors that led to a BWA at Thunder Bay are described, and recommendations are presented to help determine when a BWA is necessary and when it should be rescinded. PMID:11824683

Wallis, P M; Matson, D; Jones, M; Jamieson, J

2001-12-01

162

Giardia duodenalis Infection Reduces Granulocyte Infiltration in an In Vivo Model of Bacterial Toxin-Induced Colitis and Attenuates Inflammation in Human Intestinal Tissue  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn’s disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain Giardia infections may attenuate PMN accumulation by decreasing the expression of the mediators responsible for their recruitment. PMID:25289678

Cotton, James A.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L. Patrick; Hirota, Simon A.; Beck, Paul L.; Buret, Andre G.

2014-01-01

163

Extra-intestinal and long term consequences of Giardia duodenalis infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiasis is the most common waterborne parasitic infection of the human intestine worldwide. The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia), is a flagellated, binucleated protozoan parasite which infects a wide array of mammalian hosts. Human giardiasis is a true cosmopolitan pathogen, with highest prevalence in developing countries. Giardiasis can present with a broad range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, to acute or chronic diarrheal disease associated with abdominal pain and nausea. Most infections are self-limiting, although re-infection and chronic infection can occur. Recent evidence indicating that Giardia may cause chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal complications have made it a topic of intense research. The causes of the post-infectious clinical manifestations due to Giardia, even after complete elimination of the parasite, remain obscure. This review offers a state-of-the-art discussion on the long-term consequences of Giardia infections, from extra-intestinal manifestations, growth and cognitive deficiencies, to post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. The discussion also sheds light on some of the novel mechanisms recently implicated in the production of these post-infectious manifestations. PMID:24379622

Halliez, Marie C M; Buret, André G

2013-12-21

164

Ovarian Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... new cysts. A health problem that may involve ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with ... male hormones, irregular or no periods and small ovarian cysts. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office ...

165

Ganglion Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Surgery for Ganglion Cysts Introduction Ganglion cysts are common. They may cause pain and discomfort in the ... motion. The cyst may also recur. After the Surgery Your hand will be bandaged. Your doctor will ...

166

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... cyst. These cysts can become large and cause pain. Endometriomas. These cysts develop in women who have ... sticky gel. They can become large and cause pain. This document is for informational purposes and is ...

167

Giardia Infection Prevention and Control  

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... CDC.gov . Parasites - Giardia Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control On This Page Practice good hygiene. Avoid ... on: Preventing Illness While Traveling Back To Top Prevent contact and contamination with feces (poop) during sex. ...

168

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in inflowing water and harvested shellfish in a lagoon in Southern Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. are important enteric protozoan pathogens for humans and animals, and have been found to contaminate water as well as edible shellfish all over the world. This is the first study to simultaneously investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in inflowing water and harvested shellfish in a geographically closed environment (Varano Lagoon, Southern Italy). Samples of treated wastewater were collected each month - at the outlet from the treatment plant, and downstream at the inlet into the lagoon - from the channels flowing into the Lagoon, together with specimens of Ruditapes decussatus and Mytilus galloprovincialis from shellfish-farms on the same lagoon. Giardia cysts were found by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy in 16 out of 21 samples of treated wastewater and in 7 out of 21 samples from downstream water channels, and viable cysts were also detected by a beta-giardin RT-PCR. G. duodenalis Assemblages A and B were identified by small ribosomal subunit (18S-rDNA) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi)-PCR, followed by sequencing. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found by IF in 5 out of 21 wastewater samples, and in 8 out of 21 samples from water channels. Molecular analysis identified the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum by oocyst wall protein (COWP)-PCR and sequencing. Higher concentrations of Giardia cysts than Cryptosporidium oocysts were registered in almost all wastewater and water samples. IF and molecular testing of shellfish gave negative results for both protozoa. Wastewaters carrying Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts are discharged into the Lagoon; however, the shellfish harvested in the same environment were found to be unaffected, thus suggesting that physical, ecological and climatic conditions may prevent contamination of harvested shellfish. PMID:18760378

Giangaspero, Annunziata; Cirillo, Roberta; Lacasella, Vita; Lonigro, Antonio; Marangi, Marianna; Cavallo, Pasqua; Berrilli, Federica; Di Cave, David; Brandonisio, Olga

2009-03-01

169

Giardia muris: ultrastructural analysis of in vitro excystation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia muris cysts were examined by transmission electron microscopy before treatment, after induction, and at timed intervals during the incubation phase of in vitro excystation. Untreated G. muris cysts had a thick cyst wall composed of a fibrous outer wall and a thin, electron-dense inner membrane which extended from the trophozoite plasma membrane. The cytoplasm was devoid of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies,and mitochondria. Numerous large vacuoles were present within the ectoplasm just beneath the plasma membrane in untreated cysts. Following induction these cysts lacked ectoplasmic vacuoles. Concurrently, numerous membrane bound vesicles were seen in the peritrophic space closely adhering to the surface of the trophozoite. These vesicles appear to be of cytoplasmic origin. The cytoplasm of fully excysted trophozoites lacked ectoplasmic vacuoles but displayed well-developed ribbons of microtubular bodies, probably precursors of ventral disk, lateral flange, and median bodies and also contained extensive granular endoplasmic reticulum. No more than two nuclei were observed within each organism. The earliest excysted organisms were observed 0-5 min after incubation had begun and most organisms had excysted within 10 min. Cytokinesis occurred only after excystation was complete. PMID:3956682

Coggins, J R; Schaefer, F W

1986-04-01

170

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Ovarian Cysts Introduction Ovarian cysts are a very common female condition. An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac on an ovary in the female reproductive system. Most women have ovarian cysts sometime during their lives. Fortunately, most ovarian ...

171

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... These include: • Dermoid cysts • Endometriomas • Cystadenomas • Polycystic ovaries Dermoid cysts. The cells in the ovary are able to make hair, teeth, and other growing tissues that become part of a forming ovarian cyst. These cysts can become large and cause ...

172

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the endometrium. Causes An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled tissue sac that appears on the ovary. The sac can be within or on the surface of the ovary. Some cysts fail to release the egg and can grow up to 1 or 2 inches. These cysts are called follicular cysts. They usually disappear in 2 - 3 menstrual ...

173

Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study revealed the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in fecal samples which collected from stray dogs and cats in Mosul city. The total percentage of infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. in dogs were 42%, 26%, while the percentages in cats were 52%, 16% respectively and the single infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats and dogs formed highest rate was 75%, 50% respectively. The infection rate with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. appeared higher in animals aged less than one year. High percentage of infection with Giardia spp. appeared in the females of cats and dogs were 28.12%, 17.5%, while the high infection rate with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. appeared in males of dogs and cats were 50%, 60% respectively

E.D. Hadi

2014-06-01

174

Persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus in treated sewage in São Paulo state, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract :? The persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus in samples of raw and treated sewage collected monthly in 2010 at the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, was analyzed. The USEPA Method 1623 was used to detect and quantify Giardia and Cryptosporidium. An enzyme immunoassay was carried out to test Rotavirus and Adenovirus antigen optical density (Rotascreen® and Adenoscreen®). The results show a significant decrease in the concentrations of Giardia, Rotavirus and Adenovirus (P Cryptosporidium densities, without statistical significance. Giardia concentrations ranged from 120 to 2,200 cysts/L in raw sewage and from 0.45 to 3.5 cysts/L in treated sewage. Cryptosporidium concentration ranged from undetectable to 28.9 oocysts/L in raw sewage and undetectable to 1.05 oocysts/L in treated sewage. Rotavirus presented absorbance values that ranged from 1.17 ± 0.81 in raw sewage to 0.46 ± 0.32 in treated sewage. Adenovirus, in turn, presented absorbance values of 0.64 ± 0.20 in raw sewage and of 0.45 ± 0.04 in treated sewage. There was no significant seasonal tendency observed in the distribution of protozoa (oo)cysts and in the viral antigen density in the monthly sewage samples during 2010 (P > 0.05). Even though these pathogenic agents decreased after treatment, the remaining loads observed in treated sewage can reach the watercourses receiving it. Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus are pathogens with very low infectious doses, representing a public health risk especially for vulnerable groups, such as children living near these watercourses and homeless people using this water for various purposes. Studies addressing the environmental persistence of opportunistic pathogens in watercourses are hugely important in the public health sphere, especially in developing countries, where economic, social, cultural, and environmental factors still persist that are favorable to population's exposure to diarrhea-causing agents. PMID:23718640

Tonani, K A A; Padula, J A; Julião, F C; Fregonesi, B M; Alves, R I S; Sampaio, C F; Beda, C F; Hachich, E M; Segura-Muñoz, S I

2013-12-01

175

Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas Enzymes Activate Metronidazole (Nitroreductases) and Inactivate Metronidazole (Nitroimidazole Reductases) ? †  

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Infections with Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis, which cause diarrhea, dysentery, and vaginitis, respectively, are each treated with metronidazole. Here we show that Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas have oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (ntr) genes which are homologous to those genes that have nonsense mutations in metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates. Entamoeba and Trichomonas also have nim genes which are homologous to those genes expressed in metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Recombinant Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas nitroreductases used NADH rather than the NADPH used by Helicobacter, and two recombinant Entamoeba nitroreductases increased the metronidazole sensitivity of transformed Escherichia coli strains. Conversely, the recombinant nitroimidazole reductases (NIMs) of Entamoeba and Trichmonas conferred very strong metronidazole resistance to transformed bacteria. The Ehntr1 gene of the genome project HM-1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica had a nonsense mutation, and the same nonsense mutation was present in 3 of 22 clinical isolates of Entamoeba. While ntr and nim mRNAs were variably expressed by cultured Entamoeba and Trichomonas isolates, there was no relationship to metronidazole sensitivity. We conclude that microaerophilic protists have bacterium-like enzymes capable of activating metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivating metronidazole (NIMs). While Entamoeba and Trichomonas displayed some of the changes (nonsense mutations and gene overexpression) associated with metronidazole resistance in bacteria, these changes did not confer metronidazole resistance to the microaerophilic protists examined here. PMID:19015349

Pal, Dibyarupa; Banerjee, Sulagna; Cui, Jike; Schwartz, Aaron; Ghosh, Sudip K.; Samuelson, John

2009-01-01

176

Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas enzymes activate metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivate metronidazole (nitroimidazole reductases).  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis, which cause diarrhea, dysentery, and vaginitis, respectively, are each treated with metronidazole. Here we show that Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas have oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (ntr) genes which are homologous to those genes that have nonsense mutations in metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates. Entamoeba and Trichomonas also have nim genes which are homologous to those genes expressed in metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Recombinant Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas nitroreductases used NADH rather than the NADPH used by Helicobacter, and two recombinant Entamoeba nitroreductases increased the metronidazole sensitivity of transformed Escherichia coli strains. Conversely, the recombinant nitroimidazole reductases (NIMs) of Entamoeba and Trichmonas conferred very strong metronidazole resistance to transformed bacteria. The Ehntr1 gene of the genome project HM-1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica had a nonsense mutation, and the same nonsense mutation was present in 3 of 22 clinical isolates of Entamoeba. While ntr and nim mRNAs were variably expressed by cultured Entamoeba and Trichomonas isolates, there was no relationship to metronidazole sensitivity. We conclude that microaerophilic protists have bacterium-like enzymes capable of activating metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivating metronidazole (NIMs). While Entamoeba and Trichomonas displayed some of the changes (nonsense mutations and gene overexpression) associated with metronidazole resistance in bacteria, these changes did not confer metronidazole resistance to the microaerophilic protists examined here. PMID:19015349

Pal, Dibyarupa; Banerjee, Sulagna; Cui, Jike; Schwartz, Aaron; Ghosh, Sudip K; Samuelson, John

2009-02-01

177

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... an ovary in the female reproductive system. Most women have ovarian cysts sometime during their lives. Fortunately, ... and cause pain. Endometriomas. These cysts develop in women who have endometriosis, when tissue from the lining ...

178

Ganglion Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... Introduction Ganglion cysts are common. They may cause pain and discomfort in the hand and may affect ... can accumulate and form ganglion cysts. It causes pain and discomfort in the hand and affects its ...

179

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... common female condition. An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac on an ovary in the female ... forms on the ovary. A cyst is a fluid-filled area. When the egg is released, it ...

180

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... The sac can be within or on the surface of the ovary. Some cysts fail to release ... These cysts develop from cells on the outer surface of the ovary. They are often filled with ...

 
 
 
 
181

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... cyst could be cancerous. CA-125 is a chemical that is found in the blood of patients ... frequent functional cysts may be put on birth control pills. Birth control pills stop the ovaries from ...

182

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... During laparoscopy, the doctor may take a sample tissue for analysis by a pathologist under a microscope. This is called a biopsy. Treatment Treatment of ovarian cysts depends on the age of the patient, the size of the cyst, and the symptoms. Small cysts in young patients who have not reached ...

183

40 CFR 141.2 - Definitions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...3-log inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts. Diatomaceous earth filtration means a process resulting in substantial...particulate removal in which (1) a precoat cake of diatomaceous earth filter media is deposited on a support...

2010-07-01

184

40 CFR 141.2 - Definitions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...3-log inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts. Diatomaceous earth filtration means a process resulting in substantial particulate removal in which (1) a precoat cake of diatomaceous earth filter media is deposited on a support...

2010-07-01

185

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.

Enemark, Heidi L.

2013-01-01

186

Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal / Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oo)cistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação d [...] e tratamento de esgoto (ETE) e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oo)cistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oo)cistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente). Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.). O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4)/l), mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oo)cistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oo)cistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.). A significativa ocorrência de (oo)cistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano. Abstract in english The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oo)cysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB), at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, [...] a sewage treatment plant (STP) and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3.92 and 3.62 (oo)cysts/l for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively). Positive cattle farms were detected during all the period, and the correspondent mean prevalences were: 36.4% for Giardia spp. and 18.0% for Cryptosporidium spp. STP effluent presented high concentration of Giardia spp. (geometric average of cysts in the order of 10(4)/l). However, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were not detected. The results showed that (oo)cysts concentration were influenced by climate factors. Precipitation and (oo)cysts concentration data were well correlated (R²=98.3%; P=0.0087 for Giardia spp. and R²=91.8%; P=0.0421 for Cryptosporidium spp.). Cysts and oocysts levels were remarkably high in the raw water source, pointing out the role of land use in an unprotected watershed as a source of protozoa. The results demonstrate the importance of preventive measures rather than relying on, sometimes unreliable, corrective measures such as water treatment, in order to minimize human health risks.

G.M.F., Dias; P.D., Bevilacqua; R.K.X., Bastos; A.A., Oliveira; G.M.M., Campos.

187

Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal / Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oo)cistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação d [...] e tratamento de esgoto (ETE) e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oo)cistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oo)cistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente). Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.). O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4)/l), mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oo)cistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oo)cistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.). A significativa ocorrência de (oo)cistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano. Abstract in english The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oo)cysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB), at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, [...] a sewage treatment plant (STP) and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3.92 and 3.62 (oo)cysts/l for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively). Positive cattle farms were detected during all the period, and the correspondent mean prevalences were: 36.4% for Giardia spp. and 18.0% for Cryptosporidium spp. STP effluent presented high concentration of Giardia spp. (geometric average of cysts in the order of 10(4)/l). However, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were not detected. The results showed that (oo)cysts concentration were influenced by climate factors. Precipitation and (oo)cysts concentration data were well correlated (R²=98.3%; P=0.0087 for Giardia spp. and R²=91.8%; P=0.0421 for Cryptosporidium spp.). Cysts and oocysts levels were remarkably high in the raw water source, pointing out the role of land use in an unprotected watershed as a source of protozoa. The results demonstrate the importance of preventive measures rather than relying on, sometimes unreliable, corrective measures such as water treatment, in order to minimize human health risks.

G.M.F., Dias; P.D., Bevilacqua; R.K.X., Bastos; A.A., Oliveira; G.M.M., Campos.

1291-13-01

188

Odontogenic Cysts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this review was to determine the prevalence of cysts in the oral"nand maxillofacial regions, specially odontogenic cysts, as determined by age, sex and"nlocation."nThis research reviewed 6826 biopsies from department of oral pathology school of"ndentistry at the medical sciences university of Tehran from 1360-1376 (1981-1997."nThe results obtained revealed that 19.48% of biopsy lesions were cysts of osseous"nstructures, of which 81.9% were odontogenic cysts, 12.4% psuedocyst and 5.7% were"nNon- odontogenic in origin."nThe most common lesions of the oral cavity were odontogenic cysts of which the"nsubgroup of radicular cysts (which belong to the category of inflammatory odontogenic"ncysts consisted of 49.15% radicular cysts occurred with the higher incidence in males in"ntheir third decade of life and were found most commonly associated with the upper jaw."nDentigerous cysts fall in the second most common group at 25.71% of odontogenic cysts."nThese cysts had a male predilection with a peak incidence in the second decade and were"nmost common in the lower jaw."nIn the third group were the keratinized odontogenic cysts at 19.25%. These cysts had a"nmale predilection with a peak incidence in the third decade and the lower jaws were twice"nas likely to be involved as the upper jaw. Other types of odontogenic cysts were noted to"nbe less common in occurrence."nIn this study it was discovered that mcoceles consisted of 63.5% of pseudocysts and were"nfound most commonly in the lower lip, with surgical ciliated cysts at 33.7% were the"nmost common Non- odontogenic cysts and were found exclusively in the upper jaw"nadjacent to the maxillary sinus."nOver all it can be stated that about y5 of all oral and maxillofacial lesions were cysts."nThe most common cysts were odontogenic cysts which due to their higher prevalence and"nvarious types, most be carefully examined at the histopathological level to diagnose and"ntherefore administer definitive treatment.

Forouzandeh A

1999-01-01

189

Giardia infection: Protein-losing enteropathy in an adult with immunodeficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The case of a 52-year-old woman with a past history of thymoma resection who presented with chronic diarrhea and generalized edema is the focal point of this article. A diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection was established, which was complicated by protein-losing enteropathy and severely low serum protein level in a patient with no urinary protein loss and normal liver function. After anti-helmintic treatment, there was recovery from hypoalbuminemia, though immunoglobulins persisted at low serum levels leading to the hypothesis of an immune system disorder. Good’s syndrome is a rare cause of immunodeficiency characterized by the association of hypogammaglobulinemia and thymoma. This primary immune disorder may be complicated by severe infectious diarrhea secondary to disabled humoral and cellular immune response. This is the first description in the literature of an adult patient with an immunodeficiency syndrome who presented with protein-losing enteropathy secondary to giardiasis.

Alexandre Khodr Furtado

2012-01-01

190

Mesenteric cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal findings. Due to absent or unspecific clinical presentation, very low incidence, and lack of adequate classification these cysts may sometimes represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report a case of 37-year-old man with vague palpatory tenderness in left hypochondrium and paraumbilically and with palpable large intra-abdominal mass in whom mesenteric cyst was diagnosed using US and CT imaging. He was operated and cyst was extirpated in toto. Histopathological examination revealed a thick fibrous cyst wall with the signs of chronic inflammation and without inner epithelial lining, which suggested its traumatic origin. Considering the possibility of malignancy mesenteric cysts should be radically resected (with resection of adjacent organs if necessary due to their strong relapsing potential and a tendency for sudden, progressive local enlargement if not removed in toto.

Miljkovi? Dragoslav

2007-01-01

191

Simple Kidney Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Topics and Titles : Simple Kidney Cysts Simple Kidney Cysts On this page: What are simple kidney cysts? ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled sacs ...

192

Antibody and cytokine responses to Giardia excretory/secretory proteins in Giardia intestinalis-infected BALB/c mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The humoral and cellular responses against excretory/secretory proteins and soluble extracts of Giardia intestinalis were evaluated in the course of experimental G. intestinalis infection in BALB/c mice. Production of IgG1, IgG2a, IgA, and IgE antibodies against excreted/secreted proteins and soluble extract was detected after infection by G. intestinalis. Specific IgA antibody against E/S proteins and soluble extract form intestinal fluids in infected mice was detected by ELISA. The Western blotting identified proteins of 30, 58, 63, and 83 kDa for IgA and IgG, respectively. High proliferation rate in vitro of spleen cell and secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4) at 21 days p.i. after stimulation with excreted/secreted proteins and low proliferative response in the presence of soluble extract in infected BALB/c mice was observed. High production of interferon gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) at the time of decreasing cyst output (14-21 days p.i.) in infected mice was recorded, suggesting the important role of these cytokines in the control of the infection. Interestingly, progressive and gradual increase of the interleukin-10 after stimulation with both preparations was recorded from 7 days until 28 days after infection, indicating the possible regulatory effect of these antigens on the immune response during Giardia infection. Therefore, the infection by Giardia duodenalis stimulates a mixed response Th1 and Th2, mainly stimulated by excretory/secretory antigens. The immunogenicity of these antigens may be a suitable for identification of the proteins related with the effective immune response in the course of infection by G. duodenalsis. PMID:24867815

Jiménez, Juan C; Fontaine, Josette; Creusy, Colette; Fleurisse, Laurence; Grzych, Jean-Marie; Capron, Monique; Dei-Cas, Eduardo

2014-07-01

193

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... ovarian cysts may increase the risk of ovarian cancer. Malignant tumors, or cancer of the ovaries, can start as a cyst ... found in the blood of patients with ovarian cancer. However, not all patients who have that substance ...

194

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... cysts. A CAT scan of the pelvis and abdomen may be needed. Ultrasound Blood tests can help your doctor determine whether a cyst could be cancerous. CA-125 is a chemical that is found in the blood of patients with ovarian cancer. However, not all patients who have that substance ...

195

Oral Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... a result of an infection in the tooth pulp, or nerve. This infection typically is caused by decay. A dentigerous cyst forms at the crown of a tooth that has not yet come into the mouth. This type of cyst can cause roots of already erupted teeth in the area to resorb (dissolve). Symptoms A ...

196

Kidney Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In ... most common type of PKD end up with kidney failure. PKD also causes cysts in other parts of the body, such as ...

197

Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared quest [...] ionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50%) of a single plant (64.25%) collected from backyards and gardens (44.34%) and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52%) attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ? IC50 ? 500 ?g/ml), C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ? IC50 ? 250 ?g/ml), and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50 ? 100 ?g/ml). This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.

Vanessa do A., Neiva; Maria Nilce S., Ribeiro; Flávia R. F., Nascimento; Maria do Socorro S., Cartágenes; Denise F., Coutinho-Moraes; Flavia M. M. do, Amaral.

2014-04-01

198

Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Alava, North of Spain  

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The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Alava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%-2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%-5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%-9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%-6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Alava.

Cardona, Guillermo A. [Livestock Laboratory, Regional Government of Alava, Ctra. de Azua 4, 01520 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Carabin, Helene [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, 801 Northeast 13th Street, Room 309, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Goni, Pilar [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Arriola, Larraitz [Epidemiology Unit, Public Health Division of Guipuzcoa, Basque Government, Av. Navarra 4, 2013 San Sebastian (Spain); Robinson, Guy [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Crespo, Juan C. [Sub-direction of Public Health of Alava, Department of Health, Basque Government, Avda. Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Clavel, Antonio [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Chalmers, Rachel M. [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Carmena, David, E-mail: d.carmena@imperial.ac.uk [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

2011-12-15

199

GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS / Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podría ser capaz de producir daños en órganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se [...] revisaron, previa búsqueda en Medline , todos los artículos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el período 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografías y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado también fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesión en “sal y pimienta” del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las más rigurosamente demostradas. En relación con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseños e instrumentación adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qué punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, además de la continuación de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploración de los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es así, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnóstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the [...] location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and reactive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

Saleh, Ali Almannoni; Deisy, Martín Pupo; Alexis, Monzote López; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

200

GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality  

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Full Text Available Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podría ser capaz de producir daños en órganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se revisaron, previa búsqueda en Medline , todos los artículos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el período 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografías y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado también fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesión en “sal y pimienta” del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las más rigurosamente demostradas. En relación con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseños e instrumentación adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qué punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, además de la continuación de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploración de los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es así, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnóstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente.The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and reactive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

Saleh Ali Almannoni

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. The purposes of this study were to determine whether secnidazole administered at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, orally, lessens or eliminates Giardia cyst shedding, and to validate the benefit of secnidazole treatment on clinical signs and faecal consistency in lambs naturally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 12 weeks of age lambs were selected and randomly assigned into two groups based on placebo (group C, n=7 untreated control group or treatment (group S, n=10 lambs treated with a single dose of secnidazole at 10 mg/kg. Results. On days 0 and 10, before and after treatment, respectively, reduction in cyst excretion was determined. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded at each sampling day. Conclusions. During the study there was a high (99.98% reduction in cyst excretion in the secnidazol treatment group compared to the positive control group on day 10, resulting in a significant (p<0.001 reduction, making secnidazole highly effective treatment option.

Kerem Ural

2014-03-01

202

Improved method for concentration of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and poliovirus from water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods for the concentration of enteric viruses and the protozoan parasites, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, from drinking water currently require the use of two different types of filters. Electropositive or electronegative microporous filters (0.2-0.45 microm nominal porosity) are used for the collection of enteroviruses, while polypropylene spun-fiber filters (1 microm porosity) and small pleated cartridge filters are used for the collection of protozoan parasites from water. Since the filter mechanically traps the protozoa by size exclusion, a microporous filter with an appropriately small nominal porosity could possibly be used for co-collection of both protozoa and enteroviruses. This study compared the concentration efficiencies of a polypropylene fiber cartridge (DPPPY) filter and two different microporous filters (Filterite and IMDS) with poliovirus (type 1), with respect to their ability to concentrate Giardia and Cryptosporidium from water. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were added to 4001 of either tap water or tertiary treated wastewater and passed through the test filter. The protozoa were eluted from the polypropylene filter by hand-washing in a detergent solution. Viruses and protozoa were eluted from the microporous filter by two consecutive back-washes with a 1.5% beef extract, 0.1% Tween 80 solution. The eluent was then centrifuged to remove the parasites and the supernatant assayed for viruses. The overall efficiency was greater for the Filterite filter (40.4% for Giardia; 36.6% for Cryptosporidium) when compared to the spun fiber filter (10.1% for Giardia; 16.0% for Cryptosporidium). The Filterite filters were easier and faster to process than the polypropylene spun fiber filters. There was no significant difference in the recovery of protozoa from 1MDS and DPPPY filters. Co-collection of viruses and protozoan parasites from water onto the same filter is possible and can reduce the time and cost of routine water monitoring. PMID:11929071

Watt, Pamela M; Johnson, Dana C; Gerba, Charles P

2002-03-01

203

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... production of specialized hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone. • Ovulation, which is the release of eggs that ... cysts in young patients who have not reached menopause yet may not need treatment. The gynecologist will ...

204

Ganglion Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... motion. The cyst may also recur. After the Surgery Your hand will be bandaged. Your doctor will ask you to keep your hand elevated above heart level to reduce swelling. When you shower, you ...

205

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... benign ovarian cysts may increase the risk of ovarian cancer. Malignant tumors, or cancer of the ovaries, can ... is found in the blood of patients with ovarian cancer. However, not all patients who have that substance ...

206

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... produced by the ovaries are very important in keeping ovulation regular. These hormones also ... the location and the size of ovarian cysts. A CAT scan of the pelvis and abdomen may be ...

207

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... They can grow up to 4 inches in size. They usually also disappear within a few weeks. ... be needed to determine the location and the size of ovarian cysts. A CAT scan of the ...

208

Ganglion Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... women. These cysts could increase and decrease in size and may go away on their own. They ... is painful and whether it has changed in size. He or she will then feel it and ...

209

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... its own. Women who tend to form frequent functional cysts may be put on birth control pills. ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com og290105 Last ...

210

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... The female reproductive organs are located in the pelvis, between the urinary bladder and the rectum. The ... ovarian cysts include: • Pain in the abdomen or pelvis. If the pain becomes extremely severe, it might ...

211

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... the symptoms of ovarian cysts is important to avoid complications. Thanks to medical advances, several options are ... do not disappear on their own or that cause you discomfort. This document is for informational purposes ...

212

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... lining of the uterus to proceed with a pregnancy. Before the egg is released a small cyst ... weight in the abdominal area. • Symptoms similar to pregnancy including nausea, vomiting, or fever may also be ...

213

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... sac on an ovary in the female reproductive system. Most women have ovarian cysts sometime ... for the advice of a doctor or healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment ...

214

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... doctor determine whether a cyst could be cancerous. CA-125 is a chemical that is found in ... patients with ovarian cancer have high levels of CA-125. Other blood tests may be done to ...

215

Ovarian Cysts  

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... ovary that causes pain. Cysts that bleed or rupture (burst) may lead to serious problems requiring ... Two glands, located on either side of the uterus, that contain the eggs released at ovulation and ...

216

Ganglion Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... specialized covering called a sheath. Symptoms and Their Causes The lubricating fluid in the joints or around ... tendons can accumulate and form ganglion cysts. It causes pain and discomfort in the hand and affects ...

217

Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira  

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The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and socioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WH...

Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira Lassance; Luanda Macedo da Silva Neto; Carla Alexandra Almeida Salmazo; Marcio Neves Bóia

2007-01-01

218

Ganglion Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... and see if it is attached to a joint X-rays of the hand and possibly an MRI of the hand may ... also the possibility that the operation may restrict joint motion. The cyst may also recur. After the Surgery Your hand will be bandaged. Your doctor will ask you ...

219

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... care. • Another symptom is severe pain around the time of the menstrual period. • Pain during sexual intercourse is another symptom. • Pain upon going to the bathroom. This could happen because the cyst is putting pressure on the bladder or rectum. This pressure can ...

220

Ganglion Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... cyst. The operation can be done under local, regional, or general anesthesia. This document is for informational purposes and is ... procedure can be done using different types of anesthesia, local, regional or general. Your surgeon will tell you which ...

 
 
 
 
221

Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs / Tratamiento con dosis única con secnidazol en corderos naturalmente infectados con Giardia duodenalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la administración oral de una dosis única de secnidazol de 10mh/kg reduce o elimina la presencia de quistes de Giardia y validar el beneficio del tratamiento con secnidazol en los signos clínicos y la consistencia fecal de corderos infectados n [...] aturalmente con Giardia duodenalis. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron corderos destetados de 12 semanas de edad que fueron asignados al azar a dos grupos con base a placebo (grupo C, n=7, grupo de control sin tratar) o tratamiento (grupo S, n=10 corderos con tratamiento de dosis única de secnidazol de 10 mg/kg). Resultados. En los días 0 y 10, antes y después del tratamiento, respectivamente, se determinó una merma en la excreción de quistes. La consistencia de la materia fecal y el estado general de salud fue registrado en cada muestreo diario. Conclusiones. Durante el estudio hubo una alta reducción en la excreción de quistes (99.98%) en el grupo tratado con secnidazol comparado con el grupo control positivo en el día 10, resultando en una disminución significativa (p Abstract in english Objetive. The purposes of this study were to determine whether secnidazole administered at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, orally, lessens or eliminates Giardia cyst shedding, and to validate the benefit of secnidazole treatment on clinical signs and faecal consistency in lambs naturally infected with Gi [...] ardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 12 weeks of age lambs were selected and randomly assigned into two groups based on placebo (group C, n=7 untreated control group) or treatment (group S, n=10 lambs treated with a single dose of secnidazole at 10 mg/kg). Results. On days 0 and 10, before and after treatment, respectively, reduction in cyst excretion was determined. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded at each sampling day. Conclusions. During the study there was a high (99.98%) reduction in cyst excretion in the secnidazol treatment group compared to the positive control group on day 10, resulting in a significant (p

Kerem, Ural; Nuran, Aysul; Huseyin, Voyvoda; Bulent, Ulutas; Osman S., Aldemir; Hasan, Eren.

2014-01-01

222

[Measuring resistant forms of two pathogenic protozoa (Giardia spp and Cryptosporidium spp) in two aquatic biotopes in Yaoundé (Cameroon)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Organisms of the genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia are enteric parasites that are responsible for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis respectively. They are characterised by profuse diarrhoea, abdominal pain and cramping. The symptoms can be fatal for immunodepressed subjects and children because these are opportunistic pathogens. These pathogenic infections are rampant in developing countries due to the unhygienic and improper disposal of wastewater and the use of surface water as the major sources of potable water. Little information is available about the resistant forms of these microorganisms in the hydrosystems of Cameroon in particular and other sub-Saharan ecosystems in general. The aim of this research was to isolate, identify, and measure these forms of these emerging protozoa in the waste and surface waters of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Giardia spp cysts were identified by Lugol iodine staining, and the Cryptosporidium spp oocysts by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique. The cysts were oval in structure and varied in length from 7 um to 12.0 um. Axostyles were visible along the median line and nuclei were present. The oocysts were round in structure and varied in diameter from 4 um to 6 um. A double cell wall was seen in the apicomplexa. The highest concentrations of Giardia spp cysts were 560 cysts/L in the surface water and 650 cysts/L in the residual effluent, while the corresponding figures for Cryptosporidium spp were 1,110 oocysts/L in the stream and 1,500 oocysts/L in the effluent. The cyst and oocyst counts were higher in the direct effluent because they are released directly into the wastewater by feces, while they are diluted in the surface water, reducing their abundance. Turbidity has a significant effect (ppositive correlation observed between these parasites and ammonia may account for some of the die-off of these resistant forms, because ammonium ions in water are known to inactivate trophozoites and sporozoites present in cysts and oocysts. This may be due to the permeability of the protozoan membrane to the ammonium ion and other alkaline earth metals present in aqueous form in the biotope. These parasite forms in these media represent a considerable health risk to the inhabitants of the study zone who depend on this surface water for drinking. The small size of these parasitic forms, the nonfunctional water purification stations and ineffective water treatment systems expose the community to outbreaks of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis. PMID:18180218

Gideon, Aghaindum Ajeagah; Njiné, Thomas; Nola, Moïse; Menbohan, Samuel Foto; Ndayo, Marguerite Wouafo

2007-01-01

223

Molecular characterization of Giardia parasite isolated from stool samples collected from different hospitals in Taif City (Saudi Arabia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia parasite is prevalent endemically in Taif city. Infection is more prevalent in children under 5 years old and elderly people. The sickness is more intense in immunecompromised people. The disease is usually diagnosed by stool examination by the microscope, for the identification of the both trophozoite and cyst stages. Usually the disease is overlooked during stool analyses due to the minute size of the parasite and due to the scarcity of infection sometimes. Hence molecular characterization or diagnosis is used as an alternative method for the diagnosis of infection. Molecular characterization is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This technique is regarded as a highly sensitive and accurate method of diagnosis. The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was 15% in stool samples collected from different hospital in Taif. By means of RAPD technique, most G. duodenalis isolates were genetically similar, forming two main groups, with about 60% of similarity one another. PMID:22433876

Shalaby, I; Gherbawy, Y; Banaja, A

2011-12-01

224

Molecular Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in Mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) from Central California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are of public health importance, with recognized transmission through recreational waters. Therefore, both can contaminate marine waters and shellfish, with potential to infect marine mammals in nearshore ecosystems. A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in mussels located at two distinct coastal areas in California, namely, (i) land runoff plume sites and (ii) locations near sea lion haul-out sites, as well as in feces of California sea lions (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) by the use of direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection methods and PCR with sequence analysis. In this study, 961 individual mussel hemolymph samples, 54 aliquots of pooled mussel tissue, and 303 CSL fecal samples were screened. Giardia duodenalis assemblages B and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near two land runoff plume sites (Santa Rosa Creek and Carmel River), and assemblages C and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near a sea lion haul-out site (White Rock). These results suggest that mussels are being contaminated by protozoa carried in terrestrial runoff and/or shed in the feces of CSL. Furthermore, low numbers of oocysts and cysts morphologically similar to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, were detected in CSL fecal samples, suggesting that CSL could be a source and a host of protozoan parasites in coastal environments. The results of this study showed that Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. from the feces of terrestrial animals and CSL can contaminate mussels and coastal environments. PMID:25281384

Adell, A D; Smith, W A; Shapiro, K; Melli, A; Conrad, P A

2014-12-15

225

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in two areas of Galicia (NW Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the environmental dispersal of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in two distinct areas (coastal and inland) in Galicia (NW Spain). Faecal samples were collected from healthy asymptomatic domestic (cows and sheep) and wild animals (deer and wild boars) in the selected areas. In each of the selected areas, samples of untreated water (influent) and of treated water (final effluent) were collected from each of the 12 drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) and 12 wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) under study. Analysis of a single sample from each of the 635 (coastal) and 851 (inland) domestic and wild animals selected at random revealed that the prevalences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis in coastal area were 9.2% and 15.9% respectively, and in inland area, 13.7% and 26.7% respectively. In the coastal area, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in influent and effluent samples from 2/12 (16.6%) DWTPs and 8/12 (66.6%) WTPs, while G. duodenalis cysts were detected in influent and effluent samples from 3/12 (25.0%) DWTPs and 12/12 (100%) WTPs. The concentrations were notably higher in WTPs; the mean parasite concentrations in the final treated effluent were 10 oocysts per litre and 137.8 cysts per litre for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. The mean concentration of G. duodenalis cysts per litre was significantly higher (PCryptosporidium spp. oocysts per litre in both the influent and the effluent samples from all the treatment plants. In the coastal area, C. parvum, C. hominis and G. duodenalis assemblages A (I and II) and E were most repeatedly detected. In the inland area, C. parvum, C. andersoni and G. duodenalis assemblages A (I and II), B and E were most frequently identified. PMID:21489605

Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; Almeida, André; González-Warleta, Marta; Correia Da Costa, José Manuel; Mezo, Mercedes

2011-06-01

226

Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Romania.  

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The protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a mammalian-infecting parasite that produces diarrhoea and malabsorption in its hosts. A survey to investigate canine infections with G. duodenalis in Romania was undertaken between June 2008 and December 2009. The objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in different dog populations (kennels, shelters, shepherd, household) using microscopy and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit; (ii) to establish the level of agreement and characteristics of the tests; and (iii) to identify risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression models. Faecal samples were collected from 614 dogs aged from 1 month to 16 years (mean ± SD=2.88 ± 2.86 years). Each sample was tested for the presence of cysts using a flotation method with saturated sodium chloride solution and 416 out of 614 stool samples were further examined for the presence of G. duodenalis specific antigens using Giardia Microwell ELISA (SafePath™ Laboratories). Giardia cysts were identified in 8.5% of total dogs (52/614) and statistical significantly more frequently in dogs living in communities. The cysts prevalence according with dog populations was as follows: 7.2%(9/125) in kennel dogs; 16.5%(27/164 in shelter dogs; 4.3%(2/46) in shepherd dogs; 4.8%(4/84) in household dogs from urban areas; and 5.1%(10/195) in household dogs from rural areas. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection by ELISA was 34.6% (144/416). The prevalence was significantly higher in kennel dogs (50%; 13/26), shelter dogs (47.7%; 74/155) and shepherd dogs (40.5%; 17/42) than in household dogs from urban areas (34.1%; 15/44) and household dogs from rural areas (16.8%; 25/149). It was noticed poor agreement between microscopy and ELISA (k=0.19). The microscopy performed best, with an Youden Index of 0.74, a Se of 73.68% and a Sp of 100%. ELISA had 100% Sp, but only 19.44% Se. Young dogs (up to 12 months age) and living in communities were identified as risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression analysis. 71.2% (37/52) Giardia cysts positive dogs presented co-infections with other intestinal parasites: Toxocara canis (14/52; 26.9%), Isospora ohioensis (12/52; 23.1%), Ancylostoma caninum (9/52; 17.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (7/52; 13.5%), Trichocephalus vulpis (6/52; 11.5%), Hammondia heydorni/Neospora caninum (5/52; 9.6%), Sarcocystis spp. (5/52; 9.6%), Isospora canis (4/52; 7.7%), Capillaria aerophila (3/52; 5.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (2/52; 93.8%), Dipylidium caninum (1/52; 1.9%) and Toxascaris leonina (1/52; 1.9%). PMID:21899952

Mircean, Viorica; Györke, Adriana; Cozma, Vasile

2012-03-23

227

Infected giant liver cyst  

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Full Text Available Congenital liver cysts are not as rare as it was thought in the past. Thanks to new imaging diagnostic techniques, these cysts have been discovered with increasing frequency. Uncomplicated congenital liver cysts are usually asymptomatic or followed by mild symptoms. Various complications of these cysts were reported. Infection of the congenital liver cyst is, however, very rare complication. A 65-year old man with huge infected congenital central liver cyst containing 3400 ml of pus from which Escherichia coli was cultivated was presented. The patient had a number of other histologically confirmed congenital cysts of the liver and the cyst of the left kidney. The patient was cured by pus evacuation, partial excision of the cyst wall and drainage of the cavity and subphrenic space. The uninfected cysts were operated using deroofing technique. A year after surgery the patient remained symptom free.

?olovi? Radoje

2006-01-01

228

Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.  

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Hydatid cyst is formed from parasitic infestation by Echinococcus granulosus, and may involve several bodily organs, primarily the liver and lungs. In endemic regions, hydatid cyst should be borne in mind in cases of retroperitoneal cystic masses. Diagnosis of hydatid cyst is made from radiological findings and serological test positivity. Hydatid cyst diagnosis can be made from typical radiological imaging findings. This paper presents the imaging findings of a 56-year old male with retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. PMID:24424228

Çullu, N; Karaka?, Ö; Kiliçaslan, N; Konuko?lu, O; Karaka?, E

2013-01-01

229

Benthic macroinvertebrate communities as aquatic bioindicators of contamination by Giardia and Cryptosporidium.  

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Benthic macroinvertebrates (community composed mostly by aquatic forms of insects, such as stonefly nymphs, dragonfly nymphs, water bugs or beetle larvae) are often used in biological monitoring programmes to evaluate the ecological status of rivers and thus to indicate the repercussions of anthropogenic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of this indicator community to detect human enteroprotozoan parasites that are transmitted via water. In total, 32 samples of macroinvertebrates were collected, with the aid of surber nets of mesh size 500 ?m, from nine rivers in Galicia (NW Spain), on different occasions between 2005 and 2009. The samples were homogenised (0.04 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2), sieved (150 and 45 ?m mesh), and concentrated (by a diphasic method). Aliquots of the sediments were then analysed by a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies against Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia cysts were detected in one (3.1%) of the samples and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in four (12.5%) of the samples. This work is the first study carried out to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this benthic community. The results demonstrate that benthic invertebrates could be used as bioindicators of contamination by these waterborne protozoans. Moreover, as this aquatic organisms act as intermittent accumulators and its monitoring enables chronological analysis of perturbations, in both the short- and mid-term, this may represent a suitable alternative or complementary method to the usual techniques of detecting human and animal enteropathogens in water samples. PMID:24553978

Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Prado-Merini, Óscar; García-Bernadal, Teresa; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ares-Mazás, Elvira

2014-05-01

230

Detection and genotype analysis of Giardia duodenalis from asymptomatic Hungarian inhabitants and comparative findings in three distinct locations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission route of giardiasis not yet understood and why some infected individuals remain asymptomatic while others become quite ill. The drinking water quality is supposedly responsible for the prevalence of asymptomatic Giardia duodenalis infections in different areas, therefore asymptomatic giardiasis has been investigated in three water supply areas of Hungary: three hundred stool samples from inhabitants of Budapest, Füzér and Mátrafüred were examined by immunological and molecular methods for the presence of G. duodenalis infections. Individuals were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire at the time of stool collection and the interview covered demographic data, family life, education and travel history.In Budapest and in Mátrafüred in one stool sample G. duodenalis Assemblage A, whereas in Füzér once G. duodenalis Assemblage A, once Assemblage B and twice mixed infection were detected. We found higher prevalence rate of 4% of G. duodenalis infections of asymptomatic people in the village Füzér, where the removal of the Giardia cysts of the drinking water treatment plant was not effective. This study throws a light the need to look into the possibility of other risks of Giardia infections such as water transmission routes. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the prevalence of G. duodenalis infections in asymptomatic persons in Hungary. PMID:24631751

Plutzer, Judit; Törökné, Andrea; Szénási, Zsuzsanna; Kucsera, István; Farkas, Kata; Karanis, Panagiotis

2014-03-01

231

Posttraumatic spinal subarachnoid cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of posttraumatic compressive subarachnoid cyst of the thoracic spine studied by MR, myelography, and myelo-CT is reported. This cyst was surgically confirmed and treated by shunting. (orig.). With 4 figs

232

Posttraumatic spinal subarachnoid cyst  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A case of posttraumatic compressive subarachnoid cyst of the thoracic spine studied by MR, myelography, and myelo-CT is reported. This cyst was surgically confirmed and treated by shunting. (orig.). With 4 figs.

Coffin, C.M. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Weill, A. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Miaux, Y. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Srour, A. [Service de Neurochirurgie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Cognard, C. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Dubard, T. [Federation de Neurologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Savin, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Chiras, J. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France)

1996-08-01

233

A large survey of Croatian wild mammals for Giardia duodenalis reveals a low prevalence and limited zoonotic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild mammals are considered an important source of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis parasites, yet surprisingly little information is available on the actual prevalence and the genetic identity of the species they harbor. A large survey was conducted in Croatia by collecting 832 fecal samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 374), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 21), wild boars (Sus scrofa, n = 144), foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n = 66), bears (Ursus arctos, n = 19), wolves (Canis lupus, n = 127), jackals (Canis aureus, n = 8), and hares (Lepus europeus, n = 73). Fecal samples were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts using fluorescent microscopy. The observed prevalence ranged from low (1% in red deer, 1.7% in wild boars, and 4.5% in foxes) to moderate (10% in wolves and 12.5% in jackals) to high (24% in roe deer). No cysts were observed in bears and hares. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on microscopically positive samples to amplify fragments of the small subunit ribosomal gene, the ribosomal 5.8S gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences, and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Sequence analysis showed a predominance of G. duodenalis assemblage A in both ruminants (genotypes A1 and A3) and carnivores (genotype A1). G. duodenalis assemblages B, C, and D, as well as Giardia microti, were also detected in this study. This is the first molecular description of the parasite from the red deer, the wolf, and the jackal. The data point to a minor role of wild mammals as reservoirs of zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis, albeit cycling between sylvatic and domestic animals is possible. PMID:21142957

Beck, Relja; Sprong, Hein; Lucinger, Snjezana; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

2011-08-01

234

Beware the Tarlov cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions. PMID:19110185

Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

2009-01-01

235

Thyroglossal duct cyst  

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Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDCs are cervical cysts occurring in approximately 7% of the population, mainly during childhood. The cyst usually presents itself as a painless, asymptomatic midline swelling below the hyoid bone. Differential diagnosis involves branchial cleft cyst, lymphoepithelial cyst, thyroid gland lesions, ranula and lymphadenopathy (of various etiologies. Sonogram (ultrasound is the most frequent and appropriate imaging modality in suspected TDC. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration is an inexpensive and safe method that can be considered in selected adult patients, having prime importance to the exclusion of carcinoma. This article presents a TDC of the neck in a 5-year-old boy.

Allan ABUABARA

2010-06-01

236

[Recurrent Baker's cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 50-year old female patient with unilateral knee pain demonstrated a recurrent ultrasound-proven popliteal cyst (Baker's cyst). Even though a proper differential diagnosis was done, the MRT of the knee showed in a secondary step a tibial fissure as the cause of the treatment-refractory knee pain and Baker's cyst. A fracture of the tibia is a rare cause for a symptomatic Baker's cysts. Mechanical, degenerative or inflamed diseases of the joint are more frequent associated with a Baker's cyst. PMID:21792809

Stöckli, C; Hunziker, R; Tamborrini, G

2011-07-27

237

Follicular jaw cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence, localization, size, ways of diagnosing and treatment of a foIlicular jaw cyst. Assessment of the patients' motives and their earlier health status was recorded, as well as their postoperative clinical course. Most of the patients were admitted because of pain, swelling, trismus, or other difficulties associated with cyst formation. Follicular cysts with persisting primary predecessor had an asymptomatic development, and were discovered after orthodontic examination or by chance. In most cases pathohistological finding and description of the formation have coincided with each other (p < 0.05). Cysts of different sizes were treated by different surgical approaches, most commonly alveolotomy and cystectomy in small cysts, while alveolotomy and cystectomy with suction or iodine tampon in large cysts. Cooperation of a dentist, an oral surgeon, a pathologist, and other specialists can lead to early diagnose and prevention of further growth of a follicular jaw cyst, thus preventing substantial bone damage. PMID:20402321

Sarac, Zdenko; Peri?, Berislav; Filipovi?-Zore, Irina; Cabov, Tomislav; Bioci?, Josip

2010-03-01

238

Thoracic arachnoid cyst resection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arachnoid cysts in the spinal cord may be asymptomatic. In some cases arachnoid cysts may exert mass effect on the thoracic spinal cord and lead to pain and myelopathy symptoms. Arachnoid cysts may be difficult to visualize on an MRI scan because the thin walled arachnoid may not be visible. Focal displacement of the thoracic spinal cord and effacement of the spinal cord with apparent widening of the cerebrospinal fluid space is seen. This video demonstrates surgical techniques to remove a dorsal arachnoid cyst causing spinal cord compression. The surgery involves a thoracic laminectomy. The dura is opened sharply with care taken not to open the arachnoid so that the cyst can be well visualized. The thickened arachnoid walls of the cyst are removed to alleviate the compression caused by the arachnoid cyst. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/pgUrl9xvsD0. PMID:25175582

Deutsch, Harel

2014-09-01

239

Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

Naess Halvor

2012-02-01

240

Periorbital dermoid cyst  

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Full Text Available Dermoid cysts are a developmental benign choristomas, which are congenital lesions representing normal tissue/s in an abnormal location. These consist of ectodermal and mesodermal elements, lined with epithelium and contain hair with other skin structures. Periorbital dermoid cyst is commonly located at lateral one third of the eyebrow. It is asymptomatic however school going child suffers from social stigma. So its surgical excision for cosmetic purpose becomes necessary. Excision also prevents bony remoulding and recurrent inflammatory responses due to leakage of cyst contents. In this article we are presenting a six years old male child having periorbital dermoid in lateral right eyebrow. The intact dermoid cyst was excised surgically and sent for histopathological examination, which confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst. We highlight the merits of early surgical intervention, even in an asymptomatic periorbital dermoid cyst.

Nigwekar Shubhangi P, Gupte Chaitanya P, Chaudhari Sagar V, Kharche Prajakta S

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Do arachnoid cysts grow?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The volumes of intracranial arachnoit cysts were measured in 136 CT scans of 86 patients. Absolute and relative cyst size was calculated. Left hemisphere and middle cranial fossa location prevailed. A slight negative correlation of relative cyst size with age (r=-0.21, NS) disappeared when analysis was restricted to the adult age group (?20 years). After the sample was divided into two groups according to relative cyst size (cysts less than mean volume vs cysts greater than mean volume), small AC showed no correlation with age, while large AC correlated positively with age (r=0.79, P<0.05). A subgroup of large AC appears to expand with time, while the majority of small AC remain unchanged. (orig.)

242

Symptomatic nonparasitic liver cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on our experience with four cases of liver cysts and review of the literature, the following conclusions are reached: (1) Diagnosis can be established with routine and special radiologic studies. (2) Laparotomy is indicated for patients with symptoms or uncertain diagnosis. (3) Surgical management should be guided by cyst size, location, and content. (4) Definitive surgical treatment is indicated only for cysts larger than 10 cm

243

Prevalencia de Giardia intestinalis y predominio de genotipos zoonóticos en ovinos y bovinos de traspatio de cinco estados de la República Mexicana / Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and zoonotic genotype predominance in small scale sheep and cattle farms in five states of the Mexican Republic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el fin de determinar la frecuencia y genotipos de Giardia intestinalis en ovinos y bovinos de traspatio de algunos estados de la República Mexicana, en este trabajo se colectaron heces de 265 ovinos y 174 bovinos, para la búsqueda de Giardia mediante coproparasitoscópicos (CPS) de concentración [...] flotación. De las muestras fecales que resultaron positivas se obtuvieron los quistes por el método de Sheather. Los quistes se desenquistaron in vitro y los trofozoítos se mantuvieron en cultivo TYI-S-33 axénico. El ADN de los trofozoítos se obtuvo mediante extracciones fenólicas y se amplificó un segmento de ? 430 pb del gen de la enzima glutamato deshidrogenasa (gdh) por medio de la reacción en cadena de la ADN polimerasa (PCR), el producto se restringió con las enzimas Nla IV y Rsa I y se obtuvieron los polimorfismos de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP). En los CPS se encontró a Giardia en nueve bovinos (5.1%) y 30 ovinos (11.3%). Se establecieron 10 cultivos axénicos (5 de bovinos y 5 de ovinos). En un bovino se encontró el genotipo (AI), dos tuvieron mezcla de los genotipos (AI + BIII) y los otros dos fueron (E + BIII). Un ovino fue genotipo (AI) y tres tuvieron mezcla de los genotipos (AI + BIII). Éste es el primer informe que presenta predominio de genotipos zoonóticos (AI y BIII) en ovinos y bovinos de México. Es necesario investigar los genotipos de Giardia y patrones de transmisión entre animales y humanos en México. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to discover the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia intestinalis, harbored in sheep and cows on familiar farms from five states of the Mexican Republic. Stool samples from 265 sheep and 174 cows were analyzed by centrifugation and flotation in zinc sulfate to search for c [...] ysts and ova. The samples with Giardia cysts were processed in a Sheather solution in order to isolate them. Afterwards, cultures were established in TYI-S-33, each one of which was the Giardia DNA source. The DNA was obtained and used as a template to amplify a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) enzyme. The 430 bp amplicons were restricted with Nla IV and Rsa I in order to identify the restriction fragments length polymorphisms (RFLP's) patterns. From the cyst analysis, Giardia cysts in nine cows (5.1%) and 30 sheep (11.3%) were found. Then 10 axenic cultures (5 from sheep and 5 from cows) were set up. From the RFLP's pattern it was found that one cow had assemblage (AI), another two had a mixture of assemblages (AI + BIII) and the other two had (E + BIII). In sheep, it was found that two sheep had assemblage (AI) and the other three had a mixture of assemblages (AI + BIII). This is the first report in which zoonotic assemblages (A-I and BIII) predominance in ruminants from five states of Mexico have been demonstrated. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out further studies aimed at discovering other Giardia genotypes and transmission patterns between animals and humans in Mexico.

Juana Jimena, Otero-Negrete; Froylán, Ibarra-Velarde; Mario Noé, Martínez-Gordillo; Martha, Ponce-Macotela.

2011-09-01

244

Prevalencia de Giardia intestinalis y predominio de genotipos zoonóticos en ovinos y bovinos de traspatio de cinco estados de la República Mexicana / Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and zoonotic genotype predominance in small scale sheep and cattle farms in five states of the Mexican Republic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el fin de determinar la frecuencia y genotipos de Giardia intestinalis en ovinos y bovinos de traspatio de algunos estados de la República Mexicana, en este trabajo se colectaron heces de 265 ovinos y 174 bovinos, para la búsqueda de Giardia mediante coproparasitoscópicos (CPS) de concentración [...] flotación. De las muestras fecales que resultaron positivas se obtuvieron los quistes por el método de Sheather. Los quistes se desenquistaron in vitro y los trofozoítos se mantuvieron en cultivo TYI-S-33 axénico. El ADN de los trofozoítos se obtuvo mediante extracciones fenólicas y se amplificó un segmento de ? 430 pb del gen de la enzima glutamato deshidrogenasa (gdh) por medio de la reacción en cadena de la ADN polimerasa (PCR), el producto se restringió con las enzimas Nla IV y Rsa I y se obtuvieron los polimorfismos de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP). En los CPS se encontró a Giardia en nueve bovinos (5.1%) y 30 ovinos (11.3%). Se establecieron 10 cultivos axénicos (5 de bovinos y 5 de ovinos). En un bovino se encontró el genotipo (AI), dos tuvieron mezcla de los genotipos (AI + BIII) y los otros dos fueron (E + BIII). Un ovino fue genotipo (AI) y tres tuvieron mezcla de los genotipos (AI + BIII). Éste es el primer informe que presenta predominio de genotipos zoonóticos (AI y BIII) en ovinos y bovinos de México. Es necesario investigar los genotipos de Giardia y patrones de transmisión entre animales y humanos en México. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to discover the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia intestinalis, harbored in sheep and cows on familiar farms from five states of the Mexican Republic. Stool samples from 265 sheep and 174 cows were analyzed by centrifugation and flotation in zinc sulfate to search for c [...] ysts and ova. The samples with Giardia cysts were processed in a Sheather solution in order to isolate them. Afterwards, cultures were established in TYI-S-33, each one of which was the Giardia DNA source. The DNA was obtained and used as a template to amplify a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) enzyme. The 430 bp amplicons were restricted with Nla IV and Rsa I in order to identify the restriction fragments length polymorphisms (RFLP's) patterns. From the cyst analysis, Giardia cysts in nine cows (5.1%) and 30 sheep (11.3%) were found. Then 10 axenic cultures (5 from sheep and 5 from cows) were set up. From the RFLP's pattern it was found that one cow had assemblage (AI), another two had a mixture of assemblages (AI + BIII) and the other two had (E + BIII). In sheep, it was found that two sheep had assemblage (AI) and the other three had a mixture of assemblages (AI + BIII). This is the first report in which zoonotic assemblages (A-I and BIII) predominance in ruminants from five states of Mexico have been demonstrated. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out further studies aimed at discovering other Giardia genotypes and transmission patterns between animals and humans in Mexico.

Juana Jimena, Otero-Negrete; Froylán, Ibarra-Velarde; Mario Noé, Martínez-Gordillo; Martha, Ponce-Macotela.

245

Parameatal urethral cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyst formation in the parameatal area of the urethra is an uncommon entity. It was first reported in two male cases as recently as 1956 by Thompson and Lantin. Further reports have been rare. Herein, we report a case of a 21 year-old male having a spherical, cystic swelling 1 cm in size at the external urethral meatus. The diagnosis of parameatal urethral cyst was made and the cyst was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a monolocular cyst lined with transitional cells. The postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:18814338

Aggarwal, Kamal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Goel, Ashish

2008-01-01

246

Parameatal urethral cyst  

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Full Text Available Cyst formation in the parameatal area of the urethra is an uncommon entity. It was first reported in two male cases as recently as 1956 by Thompson and Lantin. Further reports have been rare. Herein, we report a case of a 21 year-old male having a spherical, cystic swelling 1 cm in size at the external urethral meatus. The diagnosis of parameatal urethral cyst was made and the cyst was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a monolocular cyst lined with transitional cells. The postoperative period was uneventful.

Aggarwal Kamal

2008-01-01

247

Hemorrhagic adrenal cyst  

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Full Text Available The authors present a case of a hemorrhagic adrenal cyst, one of thetumors known in literature as incidentalomas, emphasizing the clinicalcharacteristics, since adrenal cysts or pseudocysts are generally rareand observed by chance during imaging procedures. Traditionally theyare classified as pseudocysts, endothelial, epithelial or parasitic cysts. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has been considered the treatment ofchoice for benign, functioning or non-functioning adrenal lesions. Small cystic adrenal tumors can be managed conservatively by laparoscopic decortication or marsupialization, but larger cysts should be treated by total or partial adrenalectomy.

Elsa Cristina Fontes Pires da Silva

2012-03-01

248

Giant mesenteric cyst  

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Full Text Available Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18- year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy.

Hamdi H. Almaramhy

2011-09-01

249

Pineal cysts in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of pineal cysts found on MRI in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective monocentric study of all brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed under the same technical conditions for checking the idiopathic nature of short stature (ISS group, n?=?116) and for the investigation of central precocious puberty (CPP) over a 3-year period (n?=?56). Dimensions, wall and septal thickness, number of locules, signal intensity, and the presence of a solid component were analysed. Ten of 19 cysts were re-evaluated (follow-up interval 4-28 months). The prevalence of the pineal cysts was compared between the two groups using ?2 and Fisher's exact tests, and a significance threshold of p?cysts was comparable in the two groups, CPP (10.7%) and ISS (11.2%). Cyst characteristics were similar in the two groups and 74% had thin septations. None of the cysts changed on follow-up. None of the children with pineal cysts exhibited neurological signs. CONCLUSION: Benign pineal cysts are a common finding in young children. High-resolution MRI demonstrates that these cysts are often septated. This pattern is a normal variant and does not require follow-up MR imaging or IV contrast media. PMID:22347985

Lacroix-Boudhrioua, V; Linglart, A; Ancel, P Y; Falip, C; Bougnères, P F; Adamsbaum, C

2011-12-01

250

Aneurysmal bone cysts  

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Full Text Available Back ground: Aneurysmal bone cysts have raised intra-cystic pressures which are dynamic and diagnostic in nature. Aneurysmal bone cysts could be diagnosed from other benign cystic lesions of bone by recording their intra-cystic pressures with a spinal manometer. Raised intra-cystic pressures in aneurysmal bone cysts are maintained as long as the periosteum over the cyst is intact even in those with pathological fractures. Even though its pathology is definite its aetio-pathology is not clear Method: Fourteen out of 16 radiologically benign cystic lesions of bone were subjected to intra-cystic pressure recordings with spinal manometer. Other two cysts had displaced unimpacted pathological fractures and so their intra-cystic pressures could not be recorded. All 16 cysts were subjected to histo-pathological examination to confirm their diagnosis and to find out for any pre-existing benign pathology. All the cysts were surgically treated. Results: Fourteen benign cystic lesions of bone were diagnosed as aneurysmal bone cysts preoperatively by recording raised intra-cystic pressures and confirmed by histo-pathology. In addition, histo-pathology revealed pre-existing benign pathology. All cysts were successfully treated surgically. Conclusions: Since, there is appreciable rise in intra-cystic dynamic pressures, the aneurysmal bone cyst is considered to be due to either sudden venous obstruction or arterio-venous shunt. Pre-operative intra-cystic pressure recordings help not only to diagnose aneurysmal bone cysts but also to assess the quantum of blood loss and its replacement during surgery.

Rangachari P

2005-01-01

251

Anaerobic bacterial metabolism in the ancient eukaryote Giardia duodenalis.  

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The protozoan parasite, Giardia duodenalis, shares many metabolic and genetic attributes of the bacteria, including fermentative energy metabolism which relies heavily on pyrophosphate rather than adenosine triphosphate and as a result contains two typically bacterial glycolytic enzymes which are pyrophosphate dependent. Pyruvate decarboxylation and subsequent electron transport to as yet unidentified anaerobic electron acceptors relies on a eubacterial-like pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and an archaebacterial/eubacterial-like ferredoxin. The presence of another 2-ketoacid oxidoreductase (with a preference for alpha-ketobutyrate) and multiple ferredoxins in Giardia is also a trait shared with the anaerobic bacteria. Giardia pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase is distinct from the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex invariably found in mitochondria. This is consistent with a lack of mitochondria, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and glutathione in Giardia. Giardia duodenalis actively consumes oxygen and yet lacks the conventional mechanisms of oxidative stress management, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione cycling, which are present in most eukaryotes. In their place Giardia contains a prokaryotic H2O-producing NADH oxidase, a membrane-associated NADH peroxidase, a broad-range prokaryotic thioredoxin reductase-like disulphide reductase and the low molecular weight thiols, cysteine, thioglycolate, sulphite and coenzyme A. NADH oxidase is a major component of the electron transport pathway of Giardia which, in conjunction with disulphide reductase, protects oxygen-labile proteins such as ferredoxin and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase against oxidative stress by maintaining a reduced intracellular environment. As the terminal oxidase, NADH oxidase provides a means of removing excess H+, thereby enabling continued pyruvate decarboxylation and the resultant production of acetate and adenosine triphosphate. A further example of the bacterial-like metabolism of Giardia is the utilisation of the amino acid arginine as an energy source. Giardia contain the arginine dihydrolase pathway, which occurs in a number of anaerobic prokaryotes, but not in other eukaryotes apart from trichomonads and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The pathway includes substrate level phosphorylation and is sufficiently active to make a major contribution to adenosine triphosphate production. Two enzymes of the pathway, arginine deiminase and carbamate kinase, are rare in eukaryotes and do not occur in higher animals. Arginine is transported into the trophozoite via a bacterial-like arginine:ornithine antiport. Together these metabolic pathways in Giardia provide a wide range of potential drug targets for future consideration. PMID:9504342

Brown, D M; Upcroft, J A; Edwards, M R; Upcroft, P

1998-01-01

252

Interaction network of the 14-3-3 protein in the ancient protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis.  

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14-3-3s are phosphoserine/phosphotreonine binding proteins that play pivotal roles as regulators of multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. The flagellated protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, the causing agent of giardiasis, is a valuable simplified eukaryotic model. A single 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3) is expressed in Giardia, and it is directly involved in the differentiation of the parasite into cyst. To define the overall functions of g14-3-3, the protein interactome has been investigated. A transgenic G. duodenalis strain was engineered to express a FLAG-tagged g14-3-3 under its own promoter. Affinity chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis have been used to purify and identify FLAG-g14-3-3-associated proteins from trophozoites and encysting parasites. A total of 314 putative g14-3-3 interaction partners were identified, including proteins involved in several pathways. Some interactions seemed to be peculiar of one specific stage, while others were shared among the different stages. Furthermore, the interaction of g14-3-3 with the giardial homologue of the CDC7 protein kinase (gCDC7) was characterized, leading to the identification of a multiprotein complex containing not only g14-3-3 and gCDC7 but also a newly identified and highly divergent homologue of DBF4, the putative regulatory subunit of gCDC7. The relevance of g14-3-3 interactions in G. duodenalis biology was discussed. PMID:22452640

Lalle, Marco; Camerini, Serena; Cecchetti, Serena; Sayadi, Ahmed; Crescenzi, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

2012-05-01

253

Ensaio terapêutico na infecção por Giardia muris em camundongo com metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole e furazolidone  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi testado in vivo a sensibilidade de Giardia muris a quatro drogas comumente usadas no tratamento da giardíase humana. Foram utilizados 7 grupos de animais, com 12 camundongos cada, sendo que o grupo controle recebeu apenas solução salina 0,15M (0,5ml/animal). Os demais grupos receberam em dose ún [...] ica: metronidazole e furazolidone (500mg/kg), tinidazole e secnidazole (200mg/kg). A eficácia das drogas foi avaliada através da contagem de cistos nas fezes e pela ausência de trofozoítos no intestino. O metronidazole foi a droga mais eficaz. Os cortes histológicos mostraram diferenças entre o padrão da mucosa intestinal de animais normais e parasitados. No entanto, não se observou diferença entre o padrão de mucosa de animais infectados tratados e não tratados, o que sugere que estas alterações podem ser causadas pelo parasito e não pelas drogas. Abstract in english A comparative study about the effectiveness of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and furazolidone was performed on Giardia muris from mice naturally infected. Groups of 12 animals each was constituted: the control treated with saline; one treated with metronidazole; one treated with furazolidon [...] e; one treated with tinidazole; one treated with secnidazole; histological normal control; histological infected. Samples of three stools were examined before and after treatment with quantification of cysts. Animals were cured when the trophozoites was not seen in the small bowel. The curative activity of drugs was 58.3% for metronidazole, 50% for furazolidone, 40% for secnidazole and 16% for tinidazole. It was also showed that there was a different pattern of the intestinal mucosa from the control and infected groups, treated or not, suggesting that the alterations encountered in the mucosa of infected animals were due to the parasitism either the action of the drugs.

Claudia Cristina Pedigone, Cruz; Lilian, Ferrari; Roberto, Sogayar.

254

Ensaio terapêutico na infecção por Giardia muris em camundongo com metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole e furazolidone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi testado in vivo a sensibilidade de Giardia muris a quatro drogas comumente usadas no tratamento da giardíase humana. Foram utilizados 7 grupos de animais, com 12 camundongos cada, sendo que o grupo controle recebeu apenas solução salina 0,15M (0,5ml/animal). Os demais grupos receberam em dose ún [...] ica: metronidazole e furazolidone (500mg/kg), tinidazole e secnidazole (200mg/kg). A eficácia das drogas foi avaliada através da contagem de cistos nas fezes e pela ausência de trofozoítos no intestino. O metronidazole foi a droga mais eficaz. Os cortes histológicos mostraram diferenças entre o padrão da mucosa intestinal de animais normais e parasitados. No entanto, não se observou diferença entre o padrão de mucosa de animais infectados tratados e não tratados, o que sugere que estas alterações podem ser causadas pelo parasito e não pelas drogas. Abstract in english A comparative study about the effectiveness of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and furazolidone was performed on Giardia muris from mice naturally infected. Groups of 12 animals each was constituted: the control treated with saline; one treated with metronidazole; one treated with furazolidon [...] e; one treated with tinidazole; one treated with secnidazole; histological normal control; histological infected. Samples of three stools were examined before and after treatment with quantification of cysts. Animals were cured when the trophozoites was not seen in the small bowel. The curative activity of drugs was 58.3% for metronidazole, 50% for furazolidone, 40% for secnidazole and 16% for tinidazole. It was also showed that there was a different pattern of the intestinal mucosa from the control and infected groups, treated or not, suggesting that the alterations encountered in the mucosa of infected animals were due to the parasitism either the action of the drugs.

Claudia Cristina Pedigone, Cruz; Lilian, Ferrari; Roberto, Sogayar.

1997-06-01

255

Hydatid cyst in breast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An interesting case of a 35 years old woman is reported who presented painless mobile, spherical and fluctuant mass in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Her ultrasound revealed a cystic mass with multiple membranes in the cystic cavity. This cyst was enucleated and the specimen on histopathology was confirmed as hydatid cyst in the breast. Recovery was uneventful. (author)

256

Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention. (orig.)

257

Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

1984-12-01

258

Congenital parameatal urethral cyst  

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Full Text Available A parameatal urethral cyst, which is a very rare congenital anomaly, was first reported in two male cases in 1956 by Thompson and Lantin. We report the case of a 20-year-old male having a spherical, cystic swelling, 7 mm in size at the external urethral meatus. The diagnosis was made by physical examination and ultrasonography. The cyst was completely excised under general anesthesia. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined by a columnar pseudo-stratified and squamous epithelium. Good cosmetic results without recurrence were achieved during the 6-month postoperative period. A parameatal cyst should be treated with complete surgical excision. Puncture of the cyst with a needle or surgical incision may result in recurrence.

U?ur Öztürk

2012-03-01

259

Arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital cerebrospinal fluid collections, usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally in children or adolescents. They may become symptomatic after enlargement or complications, frequently presenting with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. We report an unusual case of progressive refractory headache in an adult patient due to an arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture. Although clinical improvement occurred with conservative treatment, the subdural hygroma progressively enlarged and surgical treatment was ultimately needed. Spontaneous rupture is a very rare complication of arachnoid cysts. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space causes sustained intracranial hypertension that may be life-threatening and frequently requires surgical treatment. Patients with arachnoid cysts must be informed on their small vulnerability to cyst rupture and be aware that a sudden and severe headache, especially if starting after minor trauma or a Valsalva manoeuvre, always requires medical evaluation. PMID:24581205

Marques, Inês Brás; Vieira Barbosa, José

2014-01-01

260

[Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst].  

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Hydatid cysts cause diseases most frequently by localizing in the liver and the lungs. Hydatid cysts with retroperitoneal localization are very rare. A 45-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with complaints of back pain, weight loss, and fatigue. The computerized tomography (CT) revealed that the patient had a septated cystic lesion of about 8x7x6 cm localized in the posterior of the left kidney, in the paravertebral site causing destruction of the neighboring costa. During laparotomy, the wall of the cyst with retroperitoneal localization was partially excised and the remaining cavity was drained. The drain was removed on post-op day 5. The histopathological diagnosis was reported to be a hydatid cyst. No problems were seen during the follow-ups of the patient who was administered post-op albendazole. Hydatid cysts are an endemic disease in our country and it should be kept in mind that they also have atypical localizations. PMID:24659707

Günde?, Ebubekir; Küçükkartallar, Tevfik; Çak?r, Murat

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Intracranial arachnoid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-two (twenty male and two female) patients with intracranial arachnoid cyst were studied. Their ages ranged from 20 days to 55 years, averaging 17.7 years. The cyst was found in the middle fossa in 16 of the 22 patients (72.7 %), and on the left side of the middle fossa in 14 of the 16 patients. Symptoms and signs included headache, vomiting, mental change, large head, local skull bulging and convulsive seizure. CT scan was performed before and after membranectomy and opening of the adjacent subarachnoid space to investigate the size of the low density area indicating the cyst cavity. The major and minor axis of the slice where the low density area was largest were measured. The product obtained by multiplying the major axis by the minor axis was used to indicate the size of cyst cavity. The reduction rate was obtained by dividing the postoperative size of cyst cavity by the preoperative size of the cyst cavity. The twenty-two patients were classified into three groups: (1) 6 patients in whom the reduction rate became 40 % or lower 2 to 3 months after operation and further continued to become lower thereafter, (2) 7 patients in whom the reduction rate was only 40 % to 60 %, 2 to 3 months after operation, but became lower about 1 year after operation, and (3) 9 patients in whom the size of cyst cavity remained unchanged. Symptoms and signs were alleviated in all groups. The reduction rate was proved to be primarily to preoperative CTC or RIC, and secondarily to the pressure of cyst fluid and midline shift on CT. This study showed that the postoperative course of cyst cavity could be evaluated 2 to 3 months after operation. Surgical procedures applicable to arachnoid cyst were also discussed. (author)

262

ALBENDAZOLE AND ITS ANALOGUES  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of albendazole gainst Echinococcus granulosus cysts is proved, but limited by its poor bioavailability. Some prodrugs of albendazole have been described but no bioavailability study has shown their interest to present. Other authors have synthesized analogues of albendazole that have a better activity against some parasites namely; Toxocara cani, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Taenia crassiceps.

J. El harti

2014-03-01

263

Apyretic gastrointestinal disorders due to giardiasis contracted in Morocco  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the case of a 32-year-old French man who presented with morning nausea, bloating, frequent flatulence, burping, occasional pyrosis, and alternating diarrhea and constipation two weeks after a trip to Morocco. The diagnosis was established by a parasitological stool exam that revealed cysts of Giardia lamblia. He was successfully treated with tinidazole. PMID:24765301

Meunier, Yann A.; Hole, Michael K.

2011-01-01

264

Apyretic gastrointestinal disorders due to giardiasis contracted in Morocco  

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We present the case of a 32-year-old French man who presented with morning nausea, bloating, frequent flatulence, burping, occasional pyrosis, and alternating diarrhea and constipation two weeks after a trip to Morocco. The diagnosis was established by a parasitological stool exam that revealed cysts of Giardia lamblia. He was successfully treated with tinidazole.

Meunier, Yann A.; Hole, Michael K.

2011-01-01

265

Apyretic gastrointestinal disorders due to giardiasis contracted in Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present the case of a 32-year-old French man who presented with morning nausea, bloating, frequent flatulence, burping, occasional pyrosis, and alternating diarrhea and constipation two weeks after a trip to Morocco. The diagnosis was established by a parasitological stool exam that revealed cysts of Giardia lamblia. He was successfully treated with tinidazole.

Yann A. Meunier

2011-05-01

266

Secretory antibodies against Giardia intestinalis in lactating Nicaraguan women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies are important in the host defence against the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. However, few antigens have been identified. In this study 100 milk and saliva samples from lactating women, living in an endemic region (León, Nicaragua), were screened for the presence of antibodies against G. intestinalis. Most milk and saliva samples contained anti-Giardia antibodies (59% and 52%, respectively), with a mean sIgA content 50 times higher in milk than in saliva. The positive samples reacted with trophozoite membrane, flagella and cytoplasmic antigens. Western blot analysis showed that milk and saliva anti-Giardia sIgA recognized up to 16 different Giardia proteins in the molecular weight region 20-165 kDa. Two-dimensional Western blotting showed that the major immunoreactive proteins were the same as the immunoreactive proteins identified by serum from acute giardiasis patients in a non-endemic country. The major difference was a stronger reactivity against the variant surface proteins (VSPs) in the milk samples. Milk sIgAs also recognized recombinant Giardia proteins such as alpha-1 giardin, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, VSP-4EX, arginine deaminase and alpha-enolase. These antigens will be important targets in the development of new immunodiagnostic tools and vaccines. PMID:15987339

Téllez, A; Palm, D; Weiland, M; Alemán, J; Winiecka-Krusnell, J; Linder, E; Svärd, S

2005-05-01

267

Rare case report: mesocolonic dermoid cyst.  

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Mesenteric cysts are one of the most rare intra-abdominal tumours [1], classified as chylolymphatic, mesothelial (simple), enterogenous, urogenital remnant, dermoid cyst (teratomatous), gas, mycotic, parasitic, tubercular cysts and cysts following malignant degeneration [2]. Dermoid cysts are uncommon mesenteric cysts [3]. Cysts of the mesocolon are rare and usually differentiated from a mesenteric cyst only at the operation [4]. We here report a rare case of a dermoid cyst that was present in the mesentery of the transverse colon. PMID:24426534

Gujar, Ajay; Rodrigues, Dale; Tambe, Uday; Patil, Kundan

2013-06-01

268

[Intraventricular arachnoid cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

INTRODUCTION. Intracranial arachnoids cysts are considered benign developmental anomalies that occur within the arachnoid membrane and generally contain clear and colourless fluid resembling cerebrospinal fluid. The prevalence of these cysts is higher in the first two decades of life, and the incidence is widely quoted as approximately 1% of all space-occupying intracranial lesions. Arachnoids cysts in the elderly person are a rare occurrence. We report the unusual presentation of a woman with an intraventricular arachnoid cyst treated with endoscopic technique. CASE REPORT. A 75-year-old woman presented with progressive hemiparesis of two years duration. Cranial MR imaging showed a right parieto-occipital intraventricular cyst with local mass effect and moderate dilatation of lateral ventricles. A right-sided burr hole was made and the arachnoids cyst was reached and cysto-ventricle shunting was realized. This was followed by a septum pellucidum fenestration. There were no complications during the surgery and the patient presented no symptoms at time of discharge. CONCLUSIONS. The neuroendoscopic approach to intraventricular arachnoid cysts was effective with few complications. PMID:23799598

Rico-Cotelo, María; Diaz-Cabanas, Lucía; Allut, Alfredo G; Gelabert-Gonzalez, Miguel

2013-07-01

269

Congenital intrascleral cyst  

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Full Text Available Müslime Akbaba1, Gülhan?m Hac?yakupo?lu2, Aysun U?uz3, Safak Karsl?o?lu1, Zeynel Karc?o?lu41?stanbul Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery and Ocular Oncology Center, Šišli/?stanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Ophthalmology of Faculty Medicine, Çukurova University, Balcali/Adana, Turkey; 3Department of Pathology of Faculty Medicine, Çukurova University, Balcali/Adana, Turkey; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlotte, NC, USAAbstract: Congenital intrascleral cysts are rare. They are mostly located at the limbus with corneal involvement. We report a case of a 30-month-old boy with a bulber conjunctival cyst noticed at birth. The lesion enlarged over the following months but did not involve the cornea. During surgery the cyst proved to be intrascleral and a complete excision was carried out. The remaining defect was repaired with banked fascia lata. The histopathology revealed a scleral cyst wall lined by nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium with no goblet cells. We conclude that congenital intrascleral epithelial cysts are rare but should be considered in differential diagnosis of external eye cystic lesions. In our case, early excision and repair with fascia lata led to an uncomplicated postoperative course of 6 years.Keywords: intrascleral cyst, epthelial cyst, banked fascia lata

Akbaba M

2011-05-01

270

Juxtaepiphyseal aneurysmal bone cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine cases of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in juxtaepiphyseal locations with gross invasion of the adjacent growth plate are reported. In five of these patients in abnormality of growth, due to premature fusion of the affected growth plate, ultimately developed. Treatment of these lesions should attempt to avoid this complication, which appears to be more common than has been appreciated in the past. These nine cases represent 23% of 39 cases of aneurysmal bone cyst occurring in a long bone adjacent to an open epiphyseal plate. This series was extrapolated from a total of 198 cases of aneurysmal bone cyst in the files of the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy. (orig.)

271

[Cysts of the liver  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cysts of the liver are discovered in connection with a scope of diseases ranging from simple, infectious, or parasitic to neoplastic cysts. Symptoms, paraclinical, radiological and diagnostic characteristics are described with emphasis on ruling out malignancy. The treatment options from ultrasound guided drainage to resections and liver transplantation are discussed. It is concluded that up to 25% of cysts must be treated surgically, because recurrence after percutaneous or laparoscopic treatment is between 5% and 71%, and only resection or liver transplantation are curative Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/14

Hillingso, J.G.; Kirkegaard, P.

2008-01-01

272

Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR) like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene ...

Gautam Pennathur; Banerjee Santanu; Gupta Ravi; Lakshmanan Jagannathan; Padmaja Sushma S; Banerjee Sulagna

2010-01-01

273

A retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bronchogenic cysts are benign congenital malformations usually. A retroperitoneal location is extremely uncommon. We reported a case of bronchogenic cyst occurred in the retroperitoneum in a 60-year-old patient. An abdominal CT for a prostatic adenocarcinoma staging has reported this incidental lesion. Biological, radiological and histological assessment confirmed the bronchogenic cyst diagnosis. The treatment of choice for most authors is surgical excision. However, because of a low malignant transformation risk, we have chosen a follow-up with abdominal computerized tomography every 6 months. During 3 years, biological and radiological assessments have shown a stable lesion. Therefore, it seems reasonable to propose a simple radiological monitoring for bronchogenic cysts in selected patients. PMID:22694944

Brient, C; Muller, C; Cassagneau, P; Taieb, D; Sebag, F; Henry, J-F

2012-10-01

274

Nasopalatine duct cyst  

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Full Text Available Background. Nasopalatine duct cyst is a developmental, nonodontogenic cyst of jaw. Case report. We presented a 46-year-old male with nasopalatine duct cyst. The clinical examination revealed fluctuant swellings of the anterior palate, without pain, 4?5 cm in diametar. Both radiographs showed the presence of an ovoid radiolucency located in the midline of the maxilla between the roots of central maxillary incisor teeth with peripheral sclerosis, 25 × 35 cm in diametar. Surgical treatment was performed under local anaesthesia (ArticainchloridumTM 4% ? 3M ESPE using a palatine approach. Postoperatively, no paresthesia of the anterior palate in inervation area of nasopalatine nerve was registrated. Pathohistologic findings proved both clinical and radiological diagnosis. Conclusion. Nasopalatine duct cyst is a rare lesion which slowly develops. The diagnosis is mainly based on radiography, tooth vitality testing and histologic findings. After a correctly applied clinical diagnosis procedure and surgicel treatment, recurrence is rare.

Matijevi? Stevo

2007-01-01

275

Multiple lymphatic cervical cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors described a case of 60 year-old woman with multiple lateral neck cysts. 4 cysts were located in the supraclavicular region of lateral neck triangle. During histopathological studies of postoperative specimens a cystic hygroma diagnosis was established. The fact, that cystic lymphangioma occurred in an adult woman, was interesting. The authors stress the necessity of preoperative evaluation of tumor size in view of the possibility of its penetration into the thorax. The CT examination may be useful in these cases. (author)

276

Impact of environmental conditions on the survival of cryptosporidium and giardia on environmental surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The die-off coefficient rates (K) were calculated using first-order exponential formula. For both parasites, the fastest die-off was recorded on fabric, followed by ceramic, formica, skin, and steel. Die-off rates were directly correlated to the incubation temperatures and surface porosity. The presence of organic matter enhanced the survivability of the resting stages of test parasites. The decay rates calculated in this study can be used in models for public health decision-making process and highlights the mitigation role of hand hygiene agents in their prevention and control. PMID:25045350

Alum, Absar; Absar, Isra M; Asaad, Hamas; Rubino, Joseph R; Ijaz, M Khalid

2014-01-01

277

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., spatial clustering and patterns of shedding in dairy calves from Córdoba, Argentina / Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., distribuição espacial e padrões de eliminação em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., a presença de aglomerados, a distribuição espacial de acordo com o tipo de solo e padrões de eliminação de cistos e oocistos em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina. Amostras fecais f [...] oram colhidas de 620 bezerros com menos de sete semanas de idade, provenientes de 43 propriedades leiteiras e examinadas pelas técnicas de formol-éter e Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Foram realizadas uma análise univariada e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e, em seguida, uma análise multivariada com a intensidade de eliminação de cistos e oocistos, como um evento. A presença de aglomerados foi determinada com o método de varredura e a análise espacial foi realizada para explorar a sobreposição de rebanhos com alta prevalência e tipo de solo. A prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foi de 19,35% (IC 95%: 16,14; 22,54) e 34,50% (IC 95%: 30,69; 38,34), respectivamente. A probabilidade de infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. foi quase quatro vezes maior para bezerros com menos de 2 semanas em comparação com os bezerros mais velhos (RR: 3,78, IC 95% 2,27; 6,26). O mesmo padrão de infecção relacionada à idade foi observado para Giardia spp. (RR: 1,33, IC 95% 1,02; 1,75). Foi encontrado um aglomerado primário com alta prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp., e rebanhos com alta prevalência foram localizados em solos mal drenados. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to estimate calf and herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., the herd prevalence clustering, spatial distribution according to soil type and shedding patterns in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina. Six hundred twenty calves younger than 7 weeks o [...] f age from 43 dairy herds were sampled. Samples were processed with the formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Univariate analysis and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used. Factors associated were subjected to multivariate analysis with calf shedding intensity as the response variable. Clustering of herd prevalence was assessed by a scan method, and spatial analysis was applied to explore the overlapping of high prevalence herds and soil type. Overall calf prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were 19.35% (95% CI: 16.14; 22.54) and 34.50% (95% CI: 30.69; 38.34), respectively. Calves younger than two weeks of age were almost four times more likely to be infected with Cryptosporidium, in comparison to older ones (RR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.27; 6.26). Giardia spp. shedding showed a similar age pattern (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.75). A primary cluster of high Cryptosporidium prevalence was found, and high prevalence herds were located in areas with poor drained soil.

Karina, Tiranti; Alejandro, Larriestra; Claudina, Vissio; Natalia, Picco; Fabrisio, Alustiza; Americo, Degioanni; Adriana, Vivas.

2011-06-01

278

Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biri [...] tiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98). Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro). Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato) e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê). Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um), Akodon montensis (três) e Coendou villosus (dois), três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois) e Marmosops incanus (um) e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento. Abstract in english The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba), located in the municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and B [...] iritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98). Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus). The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis), 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita) and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans). Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.); 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus) and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita); 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

Maria Anete, Lallo; Adriano, Pereira; Ronalda, Araújo; Sandra Elisa, Favorito; Patrícia, Bertolla; Eduardo Fernandes, Bondan.

279

Ovarian chocolate cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

280

Benign ear cyst or tumor  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... gland. Benign bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are caused by excess growth of ...

 
 
 
 
281

[Parameatal cysts of the penis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Parameatal cysts of the penis are highly infrequent, benign cysts of varied sizes usually unilateral. Contribution of two cases of parameatal cysts of the penis, one and epidermoid inclusion, allegedly post hypospadias surgery, while the other one is similar to the middle raphe cysts and appears to derive from the endodermal debris following a defective closure of the urogenital folds. Treatment is by surgical excision; simple aspiration or marsupialization may result in relapse and unsatisfactory cosmetic results. PMID:9949581

Peyrí, E; Paga, J; Mira, X; Martínez, M; Sanmartí, B

1998-01-01

282

Intraventricular choroid plexus 'arachnoid' cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A young women presented with chronic headaches associated with a cyst of the right lateral ventricle. The diagnosis of intraventricular so-called 'arachnoid' cyst was supported by CT scan, MRI and stereotactic puncture. MRI was of great value for demonstrating that the cyst was located within the lateral ventricule, that it was delinated by a thin wall adherent to the choroid plexus and that the cyst content was CSF-like. (orig.)

283

Parathyroid cyst of the thymus.  

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A case is described of primary hyperparathyroidism in a patient with both a parathyroid cyst within the thymus gland and a concomitant parathyroid adenoma. The parathyroid adenoma contained microcystic areas of degeneration, and it is thought that the parathyroid cyst reflected degenerative change in a pre-existing adenoma. Parathyroid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions within the thymus. Fine needle aspiration and parathyroid hormone assay on cyst fluid...

Mccluggage, W. G.; Russell, C. F.; Toner, P. G.

1995-01-01

284

Bronchogenic cysts in retroperitoneal region.  

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Bronchogenic cyst is a relatively rare abnormality that develop from the accessory lung buds of the foregut. The cyst is regarded as a congenital developmental abnormality. Occurence in the retroperitoneal presentation is rare. Here, we present two patients who had an incidentally discovered retroperitoneal mass which were revealed to be bronchogenic cysts after surgical extirpation. PMID:22664911

Cai, Yunnan; Guo, Zonghua; Cai, Qiliang; Dai, Shipeng; Gao, Weimin; Niu, Yuanjie; Li, Gang; Zhang, Ye

2013-02-01

285

Chylous cysts of the mesentery  

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Full Text Available Mesenteric cysts are uncommon lesions with a variable clinical presentation. A provisional diagnosis is possible on clinical and radiological grounds, while confirmation is subject to histopathological examination. We present two cases of mesenteric cysts, both occurring in children. Following clinical examination and histopathological analysis, both were diagnosed as cases of chylous mesenteric cysts.

Ansari H

2007-01-01

286

Mesenteric cyst: Report of case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mesenteric cyst is considered one of the rarest type of abdominal tumor. We have experienced unusual case of large mesenteric cyst arising from jejunum in a 10 years old body. Computed tomography disclosed cystic intraabdominal mesenteric mass with attenuated coefficiency +3 - +11 Houndsfield units (HU). Pathologically it was confirmed to be benign mesenteric cyst.

287

Pilonidal cyst of the clitoris.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilonidal cyst is an epithelialized sinus tract or cyst containing hair follicles with a surrounding inflammatory reaction. It usually develops in the sacrococcygeal region with few reports of its development in the genitalia. We present a case of a periclitoral pilonidal cyst in a young woman and its management. PMID:25181383

Kanis, Margaux J; Momeni, Mazdak; Zakashansky, Konstantin

2014-01-01

288

Bilateral lambdoid dermoid cyst.  

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Generally, dermoid and epidermoid cysts arise as a result of incomplete separation of the neuroectoderm from the superficial ectoderm with displacement of ectodermal elements along their lines of fusion during development. Dermoid cysts of the posterior head are rare lesions composed of epidermal and mesodermal elements. Furthermore, dermoid cysts in the occipital area are extremely rare. The presence of synchronous, bilateral occipital dermoids is quite rare and has not been reported previously. A unique case of lambdoidal dermoids in a 75-year-old woman is presented. Large right lesion was excised concurrently through direct skin incision, and a very small left mass was observed. And the etiology, natural history, management, and prognosis of dermoids are reviewed. PMID:24978680

Choi, Hwan Jun

2014-07-01

289

Intradiaphragmatic bronchogenic cyst  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The bronchogenic cyst is a common congenital malformation, generally located in the mediastinum; however, it can develop in other areas, such as the diaphragm. A rare case of intradiaphragmatic bronchogenic cyst is described here, discovered in a 32 year-old patient, who experienced thoracic pain an [...] d dyspnea following thoracic trauma. The pre-operative exams were compatible with left diaphragmatic hernia. The patient was submitted to a left post-lateral thoracotomy with the operative discovery of a cystic lesion enveloped by the diaphragm with mucinous content, and a partial resection of the diaphragm was performed. The histological findings of the operated portion revealed ciliated cylindrical epithelium, compatible with bronchogenic cysts. The post-operative outcome was excellent.

Fernando Luiz, Westphal; Arteiro Queiroz, Menezes; Ricardo Alexandre Gonçalves, Guimarães.

2003-06-01

290

Giant Intraabdominal Endometrial Cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endometriosis is the condition where endometrium gets implanted and flourishes outside the uterine cavity, most commonly in ovary and on the peritoneum which lines the abdominal cavity and viscera. Endometrial cells in areas outside the uterus are influenced by hormonal changes and respond in a way similar to the endometrium inside the uterus. Symptoms often worsen with the menstrual cycle. We present a case of 50 years old female who presented with gross abdominal distension and abdominal pain over years. CT scan showed a huge intraabdominal cyst of unknown origin which was compressing adjacent structures. Patient underwent a high risk operation and whole cyst weighing 214 kg (471 lbs) was removed along with both ovaries and uterus. Histopathologically, it was reported as endometrial cyst. (author)

291

Giant intraabdominal endometrial cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endometriosis is the condition where endometrium gets implanted and flourishes outside the uterine cavity, most commonly in ovary and on the peritoneum which lines the abdominal cavity and viscera. Endometrial cells in areas outside the uterus are influenced by hormonal changes and respond in a way similar to the endometrium inside the uterus. Symptoms often worsen with the menstrual cycle. We present a case of 50 years old female who presented with gross abdominal distension and abdominal pain over years. CT scan showed a huge intraabdominal cyst of unknown origin which was compressing adjacent structures. Patient underwent a high risk operation and whole cyst weighing 214 kg (471 lbs) was removed along with both ovaries and uterus. Histopathologically, it was reported as endometrial cyst. PMID:24953922

Shah, Azhar Ali; Soomro, Niaz Ahmed; Talib, Rabender Kumar; Sadhayo, Asif Nabi; Soomro, Suhail Ahmed

2014-06-01

292

Intradiaphragmatic bronchogenic cyst  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The bronchogenic cyst is a common congenital malformation, generally located in the mediastinum; however, it can develop in other areas, such as the diaphragm. A rare case of intradiaphragmatic bronchogenic cyst is described here, discovered in a 32 year-old patient, who experienced thoracic pain an [...] d dyspnea following thoracic trauma. The pre-operative exams were compatible with left diaphragmatic hernia. The patient was submitted to a left post-lateral thoracotomy with the operative discovery of a cystic lesion enveloped by the diaphragm with mucinous content, and a partial resection of the diaphragm was performed. The histological findings of the operated portion revealed ciliated cylindrical epithelium, compatible with bronchogenic cysts. The post-operative outcome was excellent.

Fernando Luiz, Westphal; Arteiro Queiroz, Menezes; Ricardo Alexandre Gonçalves, Guimarães.

293

New observations on meniscal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meniscal cysts, assess the frequency of various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, and emphasize radiographic observations not commonly reported. A total of 2,095 consecutive knee MR imaging reports from a 22 month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of meniscal cysts. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the cases where cysts were reported. A meniscal cyst was considered present if abnormally increased signal was identified within an enlarged meniscus (i.e., intrameniscal cyst) or if a loculated fluid-intensity lesion with a clear connection to the adjacent meniscus was identified (i.e., parameniscal cyst). Presence or absence of a meniscal tear, intrameniscal and parameniscal signal intensity, patient age, sex, location of meniscal cyst, presence of discoid meniscus, and size of the parameniscal cyst component were recorded. All knee imaging examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR unit. Imaging findings were correlated with arthroscopic reports when available. A total of 167 cases (8.0%) of meniscal cysts were diagnosed in 161 patients. Of the 167 cysts, 69 (41.3%) were located in the lateral meniscus and 98 (58.7%) in the medial meniscus. In 6 patients (3.7%), meniscal cysts were present in both menisci of the same knee. Twelve (7.2%) meniscal cysts were associated with discoid menisci. Ninety-seven (57.8%) meniscal cysts were associated with meniscal tears. Of the totassociated with meniscal tears. Of the total number of meniscal cysts, 104 (62.3%) had a parameniscal cyst. An isolated intrameniscal cyst was present in 63 (37.7%) cases. One hundred (96%) of the parameniscal cyst components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. All cysts exhibited abnormal intrameniscal signal. Only 14 (8.4%) of the intrameniscal components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. The arthroscopic reports of 88 of the 161 (54.7%) patients were available for review and correlation. A tear extending to the articular surface of the meniscus was reported to be present in 74 of the 88 (84%) arthroscopic examinations. Knowledge of the spectrum of findings and the relative frequency of various MR imaging characteristics as well as common potential pitfalls is important to the accurate diagnosis and management of mensical cysts. In particular, controversy exists as to the incidence of articular surface tears in association with meniscal cysts, with some authors reporting greater than 98% correlation with tears. Only 58% of cysts were associated with an articular surface tear. Ninety six percent of the parameniscal signal was isointense to fluid, only 8% of the intramensical signal was isointense to fluid. (orig.)

294

New observations on meniscal cysts  

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The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meniscal cysts, assess the frequency of various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, and emphasize radiographic observations not commonly reported. A total of 2,095 consecutive knee MR imaging reports from a 22 month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of meniscal cysts. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the cases where cysts were reported. A meniscal cyst was considered present if abnormally increased signal was identified within an enlarged meniscus (i.e., intrameniscal cyst) or if a loculated fluid-intensity lesion with a clear connection to the adjacent meniscus was identified (i.e., parameniscal cyst). Presence or absence of a meniscal tear, intrameniscal and parameniscal signal intensity, patient age, sex, location of meniscal cyst, presence of discoid meniscus, and size of the parameniscal cyst component were recorded. All knee imaging examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR unit. Imaging findings were correlated with arthroscopic reports when available. A total of 167 cases (8.0%) of meniscal cysts were diagnosed in 161 patients. Of the 167 cysts, 69 (41.3%) were located in the lateral meniscus and 98 (58.7%) in the medial meniscus. In 6 patients (3.7%), meniscal cysts were present in both menisci of the same knee. Twelve (7.2%) meniscal cysts were associated with discoid menisci. Ninety-seven (57.8%) meniscal cysts were associated with meniscal tears. Of the total number of meniscal cysts, 104 (62.3%) had a parameniscal cyst. An isolated intrameniscal cyst was present in 63 (37.7%) cases. One hundred (96%) of the parameniscal cyst components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. All cysts exhibited abnormal intrameniscal signal. Only 14 (8.4%) of the intrameniscal components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. The arthroscopic reports of 88 of the 161 (54.7%) patients were available for review and correlation. A tear extending to the articular surface of the meniscus was reported to be present in 74 of the 88 (84%) arthroscopic examinations. Knowledge of the spectrum of findings and the relative frequency of various MR imaging characteristics as well as common potential pitfalls is important to the accurate diagnosis and management of mensical cysts. In particular, controversy exists as to the incidence of articular surface tears in association with meniscal cysts, with some authors reporting greater than 98% correlation with tears. Only 58% of cysts were associated with an articular surface tear. Ninety six percent of the parameniscal signal was isointense to fluid, only 8% of the intramensical signal was isointense to fluid. (orig.)

Anderson, Jada Jean; Connor, Gregory F.; Helms, Clyde A. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2010-12-15

295

Spontaneous thoracic duct cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous and asymptomatic supraclavicular thoracic duct cysts (lymphoceles ) are rare. Only five cases have been reported so far. They are more common after surgery or trauma and have been reported in the abdomen, mediastinum, pelvis and neck. They must be differentiated from other neck cysts as failure to recognise their attachment may result in the disastrous consequence of chylothorax. A high index of suspicion is necessary, and diagnosis usually can be established by fine-needle aspiration and suitable imaging. This case is reported along with a review of the literature and management options, including that of inadvertent damage to the thoracic duct. PMID:12750920

Ray, J; Braithwaite, D; Patel, P J

2003-05-01

296

Primary retroperitoneal echinococcal cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 74-year-old man was admitted with right flank pain and discomfort lasting for 2 months. CT scanning revealed a large retroperitoneal cystic mass. There were no cysts elsewhere. Serological testing revealed hydatid disease. Preoperatively he was treated by Albendazole 400 mg for 1 month and then underwent laparotomy. The entire mass was excised en bloc and intact and right hemicolectomy was simultaneously performed for excision of the adhered ascending colon. He recovered uneventfully and was discharged on the eighth day, Albendazole was given and follow-up visits were arranged for every 6 months. Total cystectomy in case of active echinococcal cysts remains the treatment of choice. PMID:23162021

Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Ananiadis, Ananias; Theodoulidis, Vasilios; Barbanis, Sotirios

2012-01-01

297

Abdominal neurenteric cyst  

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Full Text Available Neurenteric cysts are extremely rare congenital anomalies, often presenting in the first 5 years of life, and are caused by an incomplete separation of the notochord from the foregut during the third week of embryogenesis. They are frequently accompanied with spinal or gastrointestinal abnormalities, but the latter may be absent in adults. Although usually located in the thorax, neurenteric cysts may be found along the entire spine. We present a 24-year-old woman admitted for epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, low grade fever and leucocytosis. She underwent cystogastrostomy for a loculated cyst of the distal pancreas at the age of 4 years, which recurred when she was at the age of 11 years. Ultrasound and computer tomography (CT scan revealed a 16 cm × 15 cm cystic mass in the body and tail of pancreas, with a 6-7 mm thickened wall. Laboratory data and chest X-ray were normal and spinal radiographs did not show any structural abnormalities. The patient underwent a complete cyst excision, and after an uneventful recovery, remained symptom-free without recurrence during the 5-year follow-up. The cyst was found to contain 1200 mL of pale viscous fluid. It was covered by a primitive single-layered cuboidal epithelium, along with specialized antral glandular parenchyma and hypoplastic primitive gastric mucosa. Focal glandular groups resembling those of the body of the stomach were also seen. In addition, ciliary respiratory epithelium, foci of squamous metaplasia and mucinous glands were present. The wall of the cyst contained a muscular layer, neuroglial tissue with plexogenic nerve fascicles, Paccini corpuscle-like structures, hyperplastic neuro ganglionar elements and occasional psammomatous bodies, as well as fibroblast-like areas of surrounding stroma. Cartilagenous tissue was not found in any part of the cyst. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of neurogenic elements marked by S-100, GFAP, NF and NSE. The gastric epithelium showed mostly CK7 and EMA immunoexpression, and the respiratory epithelium revealed a CK8 and CK18 immunoprofile without CK 10/13 positive elements, though neither CEA or AFP positive cells were found. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an abdominally located neurenteric cyst with no associated spinal anomalies.

Radoje Colovi?, Marjan Micev, Miodrag Jovanovi?, Slavko Mati?, Nikica Grubor, Henry Dushan E Atkinson

2008-06-01

298

Diagnostic accuracy of cyst fluid amphiregulin in pancreatic cysts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate tests to diagnose adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia among mucinous pancreatic cysts are clinically needed. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of amphiregulin (AREG as a pancreatic cyst fluid biomarker to differentiate non-mucinous, benign mucinous, and malignant mucinous cysts. Methods A single-center retrospective study to evaluate AREG levels in pancreatic cyst fluid by ELISA from 33 patients with a histological gold standard was performed. Results Among the cyst fluid samples, the median (IQR AREG levels for non-mucinous (n = 6, benign mucinous (n = 15, and cancerous cysts (n = 15 were 85 pg/ml (47-168, 63 pg/ml (30-847, and 986 pg/ml (417-3160, respectively. A significant difference between benign mucinous and malignant mucinous cysts was observed (p = 0.025. AREG levels greater than 300 pg/ml possessed a diagnostic accuracy for cancer or high-grade dysplasia of 78% (sensitivity 83%, specificity 73%. Conclusion Cyst fluid AREG levels are significantly higher in cancerous and high-grade dysplastic cysts compared to benign mucinous cysts. Thus AREG exhibits potential clinical utility in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts.

Tun May T

2012-02-01

299

Imaging of nasopharyngeal cysts and bursae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysts and bursae of the nasopharynx are uncommon and seldom symptomatic when compared with malignant tumors of this region. However, it is noteworthy that in the presence of symptoms, a good knowledge of their radiological appearance is useful to establish the correct diagnosis. Cysts of Rathke's pouch, pharyngeal bursa of Luschka, Tornwaldt's cysts, retentional cysts of the seromucinous glands, oncocytic cysts, intra-adenoid cysts, branchial cysts, prevertebral or retropharyngeal abscess and pseudocysts of the nasopharynx will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

300

Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts. PMID:20102100

Sajko, Tomislav; Kova?, Damir; Kudeli?, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermoid cyst is generally regarded as congenital disease, and commonly related to other congenital spinal anomalies. However, it also develops iatrogenically. We report one rare case of epidermoid cyst that we experineced among intradural extramedullary tumors. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to low back pain with radiating pain into a right lower extremity that initiated about a month ago. She complained sensory lose and motor weakness (grade 4+) on her right extremity as well as urinary dysfunction and sphincter dysfunction. She had a lumbar puncture three times due to Pneumococcal meningitis when she was 13 years old. The well-circumscribed intradural extramedullary mass of 1.8×1.6×4 cm size was found on the L4-5 in a magnetic resonance image. Gross total tumor removal was garried out after the total laminectomy L5 and partial laminectomy L4. The tumor mass was gray-colored and so fragile that it was easy to be removed. The histological diagnosis confirmed epidermoid cyst without malignancy. After the operation, the patient progressively showed remarkable neurological recovery. In this case, the cause of epidermoid cyst is considered iatrogenic concerning history of several times of lumbar puncture as meningitis. PMID:25346768

Park, Min Ho; Cho, Tach Geun; Moon, Jae Gon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

2014-09-01

302

CHOLEDOCHAL CYST – CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available The choledochal cyst (CC is a rare condition involving the biliary tree, characterized by saccular dilation. The complications of the disease, mainlly the malignant change, justify the interest of the authors. We present the case of a male patient (GA, 58 years, that was admitted presenting right upper quadrant and epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting. The abdominal ultrasonography suspected the diagnosis of empyema of the gallbladder. The laparoscopic exploration showed great dilation of the main bile duct. A transcystic cholangiography was performed, and revealed a choledochal cyst Todani IV A (extra-hepatic and intra-hepatic cysts. Considering the risks of the intervention and the poor general status of the patient, we only performed the laparoscopic cholecystectomy; during the intervention, one aberrant bile duct was isolated and clipped. After the first operation, bile leakage was noted through the subhepatic drain, and therefore a exploratory laparotomy was performed. The source of the biliary fistula proved to be the aberrant bile duct, which was ligated. A complete resection of the extrahepatic bile duct was also performed, followed by a hepaticojejunostomy. In the presented case, the choledochal cyst remained undiagosed untill adulthood, with vague symptomes, and was revealed by the intraoperative laparoscopic cholangiography. The surgical cure was recomended, with complete resection of the extra-hepatic bile duct, followed by a standard end-to-side hepaticojejunostomy with a Roux-en-Y loop.

D. Moga

2007-10-01

303

Iatrogenic Intraspinal Epidermoid Cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermoid cyst is generally regarded as congenital disease, and commonly related to other congenital spinal anomalies. However, it also develops iatrogenically. We report one rare case of epidermoid cyst that we experineced among intradural extramedullary tumors. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to low back pain with radiating pain into a right lower extremity that initiated about a month ago. She complained sensory lose and motor weakness (grade 4+) on her right extremity as well as urinary dysfunction and sphincter dysfunction. She had a lumbar puncture three times due to Pneumococcal meningitis when she was 13 years old. The well-circumscribed intradural extramedullary mass of 1.8×1.6×4 cm size was found on the L4-5 in a magnetic resonance image. Gross total tumor removal was garried out after the total laminectomy L5 and partial laminectomy L4. The tumor mass was gray-colored and so fragile that it was easy to be removed. The histological diagnosis confirmed epidermoid cyst without malignancy. After the operation, the patient progressively showed remarkable neurological recovery. In this case, the cause of epidermoid cyst is considered iatrogenic concerning history of several times of lumbar puncture as meningitis.

Park, Min Ho; Moon, Jae Gon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

2014-01-01

304

Systemic and Mucosal Responses to Oral Administration of Excretory and Secretory Antigens from Giardia intestinalis  

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Giardia, a flagellated protozoan that infects the upper small intestine of its vertebrate host, is the most common parasitic protist responsible for diarrhea worldwide. Molecules released by the parasite, particularly excretory and secretory antigens, seemed to be associated with pathogenesis as well as with the expression of Giardia virulence. In the present work, we examined the effect of oral administration of Giardia intestinalis excretory and secretory antigens on systemic and local anti...

Jime?nez, Juan Carlos; Fontaine, Josette; Grzych, Jean-marie; Dei-cas, Eduardo; Capron, Monique

2004-01-01

305

Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, besides the daycare center workers, also had their feces submitted to parasitological analysis. Seven mothers and nine brothers also presented G. duodenalis cysts, while fathers, daycare workers and pets (dogs) did not presented the parasite. Besides the 15 cases with G. duodenalis, other 23 children presented other enteroparasites (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). Samples of G. duodenalis cysts from children and their relatives were submitted to molecular typing by RAPD after genomic DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rDNA region by PCR. After examining 31 isolates of G. duodenalis (children and their respective mothers and brothers), it was concluded that the parasite transmission occurred in children, probably during daily cohabitation at the daycare center, but not at home among their relatives or pets. PMID:19229386

Tashima, Nair Toshiko; Simões, Maria Jacira Silva; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Fluminhan, Antonio; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Malaspina, Ana Carolina

2009-01-01

306

Splintrons in Giardia intestinalis: Spliceosomal introns in a split form  

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The divergent eukaryotic unicellular organism Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite in humans and various animals. An analysis of a draft genome sequence suggested that G. intestinalis has a much simpler genome organization and gene repertoire than those of other model eukaryotic organisms (e.g., Arabidopsis and human). This general picture of the G. intestinalis genome seemingly agrees with the fact that only four spliceosomal (cis-spliced) introns have been identified in this organ...

Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Roger, Andrew J.; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

2011-01-01

307

Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, th [...] e variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

Sandra P, Melo; Vanessa, Gómez; Isabel C, Castellanos; Magda E, Alvarado; Paula C, Hernández; Amanda, Gallego; Moisés, Wasserman.

2008-06-01

308

Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, th [...] e variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

Sandra P, Melo; Vanessa, Gómez; Isabel C, Castellanos; Magda E, Alvarado; Paula C, Hernández; Amanda, Gallego; Moisés, Wasserman.

309

Giant epidermoid cyst over the male breast  

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Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst is commonly known as sebaceous cyst. It is the most commonly encountered cyst of the skin. Epidermoid cyst over the breast is uncommon. Punctum is the hallmark for clinical diagnosis. Local excision with primary closure is the treatment of choice. Biopsy is mandatory in giant cyst to exclude malignancy.

Vipul D. Yagnik

2011-03-01

310

Calretinin expression in odontogenic cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein with a possible role as a calcium buffer, calcium-sensor, or regulator of apoptosis. Calretinin is expressed in neural tissue, is a specific marker of mesothelial cells, and has been demonstrated in the odontogenic epithelium during odontogenesis in rat molar tooth germs. Moreover, it has been found to be expressed in a high proportion of solid, unicystic, and multicystic ameloblastomas, whereas, on the contrary, no positive staining has been found in odontogenic keratocysts, residual cysts, and dentigerous cysts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate calretinin expression in radicular cysts, follicular cysts, orthokeratinized keratocysts, and parakeratinized keratocysts. A total of 70 odontogenic cysts, 24 radicular cysts, 24 follicular cysts, and 22 odontogenic keratocysts (10 orthokeratinized keratocysts, 12 parakeratinized keratocysts) were evaluated. All the radicular cysts, follicular cysts, and orthokeratinized keratocysts were negative. However in 8 of 12 parakeratinized keratocysts, there was a positivity to calretinin in the parabasal-intermediate layers of the cyst epithelium. This positivity to calretinin in the parabasal layers in parakeratinized keratocysts, similar to that found for other markers like PCNA and p53, could point to an abnormal control of the cell cycle and could help to explain the differences in the clinical and pathologic behavior of odontogenic keratocysts, in particular the differences found between orthokeratinized keratocysts and parakeratinized keratocysts. PMID:12814222

Piattelli, Adriano; Fioroni, Massimiliano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Rubini, Corrado

2003-06-01

311

GIANT MESENTRIC CYST- MESENTRIC CYST LYMPHANGIOMA- A CASE REPORT  

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Mesenteric cyst are rare intra abdominal tumours. Intra abdominal and retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma are cystic benign tumours of congenital origin. A 7 month female was presented with complaints of abdominal distension. CT scan revealed congenital vascular malformations ?lymphangioma. The patient was operated and the cyst was excised. The histology confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric cyst lymphangiomas. We report this case because of its rare occurrence and varied presentation. [Natio...

Rakesh, Tandon K.; Darad Dimple; Bindra Ankur; Bhuva Vishal

2012-01-01

312

Malignant tumors in choledochal cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1960 and 1975, 17 patients with congenital cystic dilatation of the common bile duct (choledochal cyst) were treated and three were associated with malignant tumors in the cysts and one was with carcinoma of the gallbladder. Preoperative diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in the choledochal cyst was established in one patient by cytologic examination of the bile which was obtained during the procedure of endoscopic pancreaticocholangraphy (EPCG) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). Definitive treatment of the choledochal cysts associated with malignant tumors in the biliary tract was accomplished by excision of the cysts with tumor and choledochojejunostomy in two patients, by cystoduodenostomy following external drainage in one and by cholecystectomy with resection of invaded transverse colon in one with cancer of the gallbladder. Successful excision of choledochal cysts in 11 patients including three cases associated with malignant tumors in the biliary tract during the last 15 year period is the basis of this report. PMID:879871

Tsuchiya, R; Harada, N; Ito, T; Furukawa, M; Yoshihiro, I

1977-07-01

313

Giardia Duodenalis 14-3-3 Protein Is Polyglycylated by a Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase-like Member and Deglycylated by Two Metallocarboxypeptidases*  

Science.gov (United States)

The flagellated protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a parasite of the upper part of the small intestine of mammals, including humans, and an interesting biological model. Giardia harbors a single 14-3-3 isoform, a multifunctional protein family, that is modified at the C terminus by polyglycylation, an unusual post-translational modification consisting of the covalent addition of one or multiple glycines on the ?-carboxyl groups of specific glutamic acids. Polyglycylation affects the intracellular localization of g14-3-3, as the shortening of the polyglycine chain is correlated with a partial relocalization of 14-3-3 inside the nuclei during encystation. In this work we demonstrate that the gTTLL3, a member of the tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family, is the enzyme responsible for the 14-3-3 polyglycylation. We also identify two metallopeptidases of the M20 family, here termed gDIP1 (giardial dipeptidase 1) and gDIP2, as enzymes able to shorten the g14-3-3 polyglycine tail both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we show that the ectopic expression of gDIP2 alters the g14-3-3 localization and strongly hampers the cyst formation. In conclusion, we have identified a polyglycylase and two deglycylases that act in concert to modulate the stage-dependent glycylation status of the multifunctional regulatory g14-3-3 protein in G. duodenalis. PMID:21135098

Lalle, Marco; Camerini, Serena; Cecchetti, Serena; Fantauzzi, Claudia Blasetti; Crescenzi, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

2011-01-01

314

Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA  

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Full Text Available Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT, +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification was performed using primers that target the ?-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

Salih Kuk

2012-12-01

315

Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative r [...] esults. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT), +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using primers that target the ?-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

Salih, Kuk; Suleyman, Yazar; Ulfet, Cetinkaya.

2012-12-01

316

Pleuropericardial cyst torsion: case report  

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Full Text Available Pericardial cysts account for 12-18% of all mediastinal masses. They are usually asymptomatic and incidentally detected. However, when large, they can cause symptoms. Most pericardial cysts are located in the right cardiophrenic angle, but they can be anywhere in the mediastinum. We reported a pleuropericardial cyst torsion after physical stress, a very rare complication of this condition. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography and confirmed by video-assisted thoracoscopy.

Davi Wen Wei Kang

2010-06-01

317

Intracranial symptomatic giant arachnoid cyst  

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Full Text Available Intracranial arachnoid cysts are congenital compartments. They are frequently localized in the middle fossa and are intimately bordered by the arachnoid membrane. (1,2 Clinical symptoms appear commonly at an early age. Cases of symptomatic arachnoid cysts are rare in the elderly. (1,3,4In this case report, we describe clinical and radiological signs of a 66 year old patient presenting with a giant suprasellar arachnoid cyst. Treatment options are discussed.

Said Laribi

2012-04-01

318

Benign Multilocular Cyst  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Benign multilocular cyst is a rare benign multicystic renal tumor. It usually involves the kidneys unilaterally. There is no generally accepted theory concerning its pathogenesis. The usual clinical presentation is an asymptomatic abdominal mass in children and nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain, hematuria, and urinary tract infection in adults. This report presents a case of benign multilocular cyst in an 18-months-old boy admitted with abdominal distension and a palpable mass in his right loin. The patient underwent right total nephrectomy, and histological findings were compatible with benign multilocular cyst.

Afshin Safaei Asl

2009-03-01

319

Ovarian cysts in prepubertal girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visualization of follicles is perfectly physiological during childhood, their diameter generally does not exceed 10 mm. Ovarian cyst in childhood is well defined for a fluid image >20 mm. Generally mild and asymptomatic, ovarian cysts are fluid formations usually discovered incidentally by ultrasound. Some are hormonally active and cause the development of sexual characteristics. The natural history of functional cysts is eventual regression, and persistence is suggestive of organic tumor. The onset of pain is a sign of complication, and an abrupt sharp pain with vomiting is suggestive of ovarian torsion, in which case surgical intervention is urgent. In all cases, the diagnosis is based on pelvic ultrasound. MRI and tumor marker assays are required to determine the nature of an organic cyst before proceeding to surgery. These cysts may appear functional from the fetal period onward and will require management from the first days of life. Certain endocrine disorders such as precocious puberty, hypothyroidism, and aromatase deficiency cause functional cysts in girls. Recurrent bleeding is due to hormonally active cysts and suggests McCune-Albright syndrome. Although the persistence of a cyst suggests a neoplasm, a fluid character indicates benignity. Imagery is a useful aid in the diagnosis of epithelial tumors (cystadenomas) or teratoma (dermoid cyst). PMID:22846524

Pienkowski, C; Cartault, A; Carfagna, L; Ernoult, P; Vial, J; Lemasson, F; Le Mandat, A; Galinier, P; Tauber, M

2012-01-01

320

CT of postoperative maxillary cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the CT findings of postoperative maxillary cyst in 13 cases (14 sides) and discussed tsi diagnostic efficacy. CT showed the postoperative changes including bony defect in the anterior wall of maxillary sinus, counter opening and compartmentalization of sinus space. The characteristic CT appearance was a expansive cystic lesion with pressure erosion of bony septum and wall of the sinus. Fat layer arround the cyst was not obliterated. Comparing CT and conventional X-ray method, we conclude that CT is the procedure of choice to make differential diagnosis between the cyst and malignant lesion and defect the small cyst which is located in peripheral region. (author)

 
 
 
 
321

DNA extraction from protozoan oocysts/cysts in feces for diagnostic PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

PCR detection of intestinal protozoa is often restrained by a poor DNA recovery or by inhibitors present in feces. The need for an extraction protocol that can overcome these obstacles is therefore clear. QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) was evaluated for its ability to recover DNA from oocysts/cysts directly from feces. Twenty-five Giardia-positive, 15 Cryptosporidium-positive, 15 Entamoeba histolytica-positive, and 45 protozoa-free samples were processed as control by microscopy and immunoassay tests. DNA extracts were amplified using 3 sets of published primers. Following the manufacturer's protocol, the kit showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% towards Giardia and Entamoeba. However, for Cryptosporidium, the sensitivity and specificity were 60% (9/15) and 100%, respectively. A series of optimization experiments involving various steps of the kit's protocol were conducted using Cryptosporidium-positive samples. The best DNA recoveries were gained by raising the lysis temperature to the boiling point for 10 min and the incubation time of the InhibitEX tablet to 5 min. Also, using a pre-cooled ethanol for nucleic acid precipitation and small elution volume (50-100 µl) were valuable. The sensitivity of the amended protocol to Cryptosporidium was raised to 100%. Cryptosporidium DNA was successfully amplified by either the first or the second primer set. When applied on parasite-free feces spiked with variable oocysts/cysts counts, ? 2 oocysts/cysts were theoretically enough for detection by PCR. To conclude, the Qiagen kit with the amended protocol was proved to be suitable for protozoan DNA extraction directly from feces and support PCR diagnosis. PMID:25031466

Hawash, Yousry

2014-06-01

322

OCCURRENCE OF 'CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI' AND 'GIARDIA SPECIES' IN MUSKRAT (ONDATRA ZIBETHICA)  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 189 muskrat fecal samples were surveyed for Campylobacter and Giardia species. Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 47.5% of these samples, and Giardia species were detected in 82.5%. These findings indicate that muskrat may be of importance to the health both of hu...

323

Molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates from German travellers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis isolates from German travellers returning from tropical areas were characterised by PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the beta-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Assignment of isolates to specific G. duodenalis assemblages was found to differ according to the marker used. Indeed, at the bg locus, assemblages A and B were identified, with a higher prevalence of the former over the latter, whereas at the tpi and gdh loci, most samples were classified as assemblage B. In agreement with previous studies, sequence analysis showed that assemblage B isolates have a higher genetic polymorphism than assemblage A isolates, and novel variants were described. The degree of polymorphism was shown in a graphical representation of the polymorphic sites generating a novel sequence, the heterogeneous positions common to assemblages A and B (double peaks), that may represent mixed assemblage infection and the heterogeneous positions detected at random sites. Notably, assemblage D, which is considered to be adapted to dogs, was found at the gdh locus in two samples originating from southern Asia, as novel genotypes. By comparing the geographical origin of the infected cases and the number of German travellers visiting the areas considered, India and west Africa appeared to be the areas associated to the highest risk of acquiring Giardia infection. The analysis of the geographical distribution of the genotypes did not suggest any particular geographical clustering pattern, but it may be useful to evaluate these results with a higher number of isolates. Most of the samples typed at the three markers could not be assigned unequivocally to either assemblage A or B, and this was confirmed also by a real-time PCR assay, using a set of assemblage-specific primers. The results of this study reinforce the notion that genetic exchanges and allelic sequence heterogeneity represent major obstacles towards understanding the epidemiology of giardiasis and that exposure to Giardia parasites in endemic areas often results in mixed infections in returning travellers. PMID:23892479

Broglia, A; Weitzel, T; Harms, G; Cacció, S M; Nöckler, K

2013-10-01

324

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

2008-05-29

325

Arachnoid cyst: adversity ans plasticity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report four cases of surgically treated intracranial arachnoid cysts, one with cyst-peritoneal shunt and three with craniotomy and arachnoid membrane resection. Their classification and etiopathogeny are discussed, and especially the different methods of treatment comparing the drastic complications (adversities with the favorable solutions in severe clinical cases (plasticity treated at our institution.

BORGES GUILHERME

1999-01-01

326

[Radioinduced brain cyst: case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of intraparenchymal radioinduced cyst of the brain observed in our department. It is a rare and relatively benign pathology which is usually treated conservatively or by surgery. We emphasize long-term imaging follow up in patients treated by radiosurgery, which can lead to the demonstration of multiple adverse events such as tumefactive cyst formation. PMID:25011201

Dooms, G; Molitor, P; Boulanger, T; Hana, A; Standhardt, H; Hertel, F; Lovblad, K O

2014-01-01

327

Hydatid cyst of the pancreas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydatid cyst of the pancreas is rare. During the last 30 years, less than 40 cases have been reported in journals on Medline. This is a case report of a 35-year old woman with 2-year history of epigastric pain in whom an ultrasound and computed tomography showed the cyst of the body and tail of the pancreas 6x7 cm in diameters, which was supposed to be hydatid one. During surgery, an isolated hydatid cyst of the pancreas was found without communication with the pancreatic duct. The content of the cyst was removed, and pericyst was partially excised and drained. The recovery was uneventful and the patient has remained symptom free so far. Although rare, hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the cystic lesions of the pancreas, particularly in patients coming from endemic areas and without history of pancreatitis.

?olovi? Radoje B.

2004-01-01

328

Popliteal cysts: a current review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Baker's cyst, or popliteal cyst, is a fluid-filled mass that is a distention of a preexisting bursa in the popliteal fossa, most commonly the gastrocnemio-semimembranosus bursa. This bursa is unique in that it communicates with the knee joint, unlike other periarticular bursae, via an opening in the joint capsule posterior to the medial femoral condyle. Many have theorized that this opening creates a valve-like mechanism in the presence of effusion that contributes to the formation of these cysts in adults. Popliteal cysts rarely manifest alone and are most often found in conjunction with other intra-articular pathologies and inflammatory conditions, such as osteoarthritis, meniscus tears, and rheumatoid arthritis. In children, popliteal cysts are only occasionally associated with these conditions and are more often an incidental finding discovered during a routine physical examination. Popliteal cysts may present as either a chronically persistent or relapsing condition or as an acute and dramatic condition that can occur in the case of cyst rupture presenting as pseudothrombophlebitis. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proven to be consistent and accurate in the confirmation of popliteal cysts, with magnetic resonance imaging becoming the modern imaging modality of choice. This review discusses the anatomy and etiology of popliteal cysts, describes the common clinical presentations, reviews the differential diagnoses, and provides guidance for proper diagnostic imaging. It also provides a comparison of current conservative, minimally invasive, and invasive treatment options, along with a discussion of results. Postoperative rehabilitation depends largely on the condition associated with the popliteal cyst. PMID:25102502

Herman, Alyssa M; Marzo, John M

2014-08-01

329

Chronic pyelonephritis with hyperdense cysts on CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the causes for high density renal cysts on CT are reported to be bleeding within the cysts. We experienced a case of chronic pyelonephritis with high density renal cysts on Ct. In case of hyperdense renal cyst, chronic pyelonephritis should be added among the differential diagnoses. (author)

330

Cranial involvement in extradural hydatid cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a case of extradural hydatid cyst with cranial involvement. Extradural hydatid cysts are extremely rare, there being only twelve cases reported to date. We review the literature, the modes of clinical onset and the radiological differential diagnosis. CT typically depicts intracranial hydatid cysts as well-defined cysts lesions without contrast enhancement. (Author) 7 refs

331

New associated structures of the anterior flagella of Giardia duodenalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite that causes intestinal disorders. The trophozoites present four pairs of flagella. Here we further analyze the structural organization of the anterior flagella associated structures of G. duodenalis. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of detergent-extracted trophozoites revealed novel aspects of the interaction of the anterior flagella axonemes with the marginal plates. Images of the marginal plates showed that it was located in the anterior region of the parasite, above the crossing point of the anterior flagella axonemes toward the periphery of the cell. Two well distinguished structures were seen associated with the anterior flagella. The first one corresponds to the "dense rods", located just below the axoneme. The second one is a system of filaments located in the upper portion of the flagellum, facing the marginal plates and connecting these two structures. The thickness of the filaments is around 18 nm and they are spaced at intervals of 4-32 nm (average 18 nm). The length of the filaments may vary from 33 to 240 nm. We suggest that this filamentous structure of Giardia may help the dynamics and behavior of the anterior flagella of trophozoites during protozoan motility and adhesion, providing favorable conditions for the establishment of parasitism. PMID:24001879

Maia-Brigagão, Claudia; Gadelha, Ana Paula Rocha; de Souza, Wanderley

2013-10-01

332

Computed tomography of arachnoid cyst  

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The preoperative diagnosis of intracranial arachnoid cysts has been simplified, and made more rapid and accurate with computed tomography (CT). Using CT cisternography, detailed anatomic and physiologic information of arachnoid cysts could be obtained. CT features of pathologically proven 21 arachnoid cysts that were examined at Chonnam National University Hospital from June 1983 to May 1987 were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1.Prevalent age group was the 1st decade (8 cases) and male to female ratio was 17:4. 2.Clinical features were related to the location of arachnoid cyst, common symptoms were headache (53.3%), convulsion, mental change and walking disturbance. 3.Location of the arachnoid cyst were in supratentorial region (15 cases) most in middle cranial fossa (12 cases), and infratentorial region (6 cases), common at the retrocerebellar cisternal space (3 cases). 4.Shapes of arachnoid cyst were biconvex with straight inner margin (8 cases), spherical (7 cases), simple biconvex (3 cases) and others (3 cases). 5.Size of the arachnoid cyst, in the greatest dimension, was ranged from 2cm to 9cm and commonly distributed between 3cm to 5cm (14 cases). 6.Of all 14 cases, who did CT cisternography using metrizamide (11 cases) and iopamidol (3 cases), 2 cases had communication with the subarachnoid space.

Jung, Min Gi; Bae, Weon Tae; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyun De [College of Medicine, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

1988-02-15

333

Computed tomography of arachnoid cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preoperative diagnosis of intracranial arachnoid cysts has been simplified, and made more rapid and accurate with computed tomography (CT). Using CT cisternography, detailed anatomic and physiologic information of arachnoid cysts could be obtained. CT features of pathologically proven 21 arachnoid cysts that were examined at Chonnam National University Hospital from June 1983 to May 1987 were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1.Prevalent age group was the 1st decade (8 cases) and male to female ratio was 17:4. 2.Clinical features were related to the location of arachnoid cyst, common symptoms were headache (53.3%), convulsion, mental change and walking disturbance. 3.Location of the arachnoid cyst were in supratentorial region (15 cases) most in middle cranial fossa (12 cases), and infratentorial region (6 cases), common at the retrocerebellar cisternal space (3 cases). 4.Shapes of arachnoid cyst were biconvex with straight inner margin (8 cases), spherical (7 cases), simple biconvex (3 cases) and others (3 cases). 5.Size of the arachnoid cyst, in the greatest dimension, was ranged from 2cm to 9cm and commonly distributed between 3cm to 5cm (14 cases). 6.Of all 14 cases, who did CT cisternography using metrizamide (11 cases) and iopamidol (3 cases), 2 cases had communication with the subarachnoid space

334

Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

335

Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI  

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Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2012-08-15

336

Intracranial arachnoid cysts treated surgically  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Craniotomy and an examination of the maximal extent of extirpation of the cystic membrane were performed under an operative microscope in a series of 30 consecutive cases of intracranial arachnoid cysts. From these clinical features and a histological examination of the membrane, the etiologies of the arachnoid cysts may be divided into three fundamental categories: arachnoid cysts due to local brain atrophy or malformation (Category I), arachnoid cysts due to a malformation of the local arachnoid membrane itself (Category II), and arachnoid cysts due to acquired etiology (Category III). The postoperative reduction rates were investigated by means of a serial CT examination over a follow-up period of from 1 month to 6.5 years (average 2 years) in 27 cases. The postoperative reduction rates of 5 cases were less than 20% (Group A), 15 cases had rates from 30 to 80% (Group B), and 7 cases had rates of more than 90% (Group C). Cases of females, large cysts, round-shaped cysts, and cases with positive mass signs and poorly communicating cysts are revealed by metrizamide CT examination seemed to have a tendency for cystic cavity to be reduced well, judging from the postoperative analysis of the clinical findings. Furthermore, from the standpoint of our hypothesis concerning the etiology of the arachnoid cysts, Group A fit in almost all cases in Category I, though a few cases of Group A who had severe secondary local brain damage were in Category II. Group C fit in Category III in almost all cases, though a few cases of Group C who had minimal local brain damage were in Category II. Cases of Group B were considered to show some changes in the local cerebrum of various degrees in the cases of Categories II and III. (J.P.N.)

337

Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

Tarlov, I. M.

1970-01-01

338

MR imaging of pineal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors

339

MR imaging of pineal cysts  

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To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-09-01

340

[Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery. PMID:19143297

Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Eruption cysts: A series of two cases  

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Eruption cysts are benign cysts that appear on the mucosa of a tooth shortly before its eruption. They may disappear by themselves but if they hurt, bleed or are infected they may require surgical treatment to expose the tooth and drain the contents. Here we present 2 case reports of eruption cysts presenting with different chief complaint. The treatment included incising the eruption cyst and draining the contents of the cyst.

Dhawan, Preeti; Kochhar, Gulsheen Kaur; Chachra, Sanjay; Advani, Shweta

2012-01-01

342

Síntesis de las enzimas de piruvato, oxidorreductasa de ferredoxina y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion de Giardia intestinalis Synthesis of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase and alcohol dehydrogenase E enzymes during Giardia intestinalis excystation  

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Full Text Available Introducción. Giardia intestinalis es un parásito unicelular diseminado mundialmente. Causa una enfermedad intestinal conocida como giardiosis y, probablemente, es el microorganismo eucarionte más tempranamente divergente.
Objetivo. En el presente estudio se determinó la expresión de las enzimas de piruvato oxidorreductasa ferredoxina (PFOR y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol (ADHE en los estadios de quiste y trofozoíto, y durante el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion. Previamente se habían demostrado cambios en sus ARNm.
Materiales y métodos. Se generaron proteínas recombinantes de PFOR y ADHE que fueron usadas como antígenos para la producción de anticuerpos policlonales. Éstos se emplearon para la detección de las proteínas nativas por Western blot. Evaluamos la actividad enzimática de ADHE y de la glutamato deshidrogenasa (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH por ensayos espectrofotométricos.
Resultados. Las proteínas PFOR (139 kDa y ADHE (97 kDa se detectaron en trofozoítos, pero no en quistes. Durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion, la proteína ADHE se detectó sólo después de la primera fase de inducción y la proteína PFOR sólo después de la segunda fase. Esto indica que ambas proteínas son sintetizadas durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion, aunque en un momento diferente. La actividad enzimática de ADHE está presente sólo en los trofozoítos y no en los quistes, mientras que la actividad de la enzima GDH se detectó en trofozoítos y quistes.
Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados muestran de forma concluyente que las enzimas PFOR y ADHE son traducidas en el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion y esto demuestra que existe un proceso activo de síntesis de proteínas durante él.Introduction. Giardia intestinalis is a unicellular parasite of worldwide distribution. It causes an intestinal illness known as giardiasis, and it is probably the earliest diverging eukaryotic microorganism. Previously, changes have been reported in the expression of mRNAs at several stages of the life cycle; however specific enzymatic activity changes have not been explored.
Objective. The expression of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE enzymes was measured in cyst and trophozoite stages, and during the excystation process.
Materials and methods. Recombinant proteins were generated for PFOR and ADHE to be used as antigens in the production of polyclonal antibodies for the detection of native proteins by Western Blot. The enzymatic activity of ADHE and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH was evaluated by spectrophotometric assays.
Results. PFOR (139 kDa and ADHE (97 kDa proteins were detected in trophozoites, but not in cysts. During excystation, ADHE protein was detected after the first phase of induction, but the PFOR protein appeared only after the second phase. This indicated that both proteins were synthesized during excystation, although at different times. ADHE enzymatic activity was present only in trophozoites and not in cysts whereas GDH activity was detected in both stages.
Conclusion. These results conclusively showed that PFOR and ADHE enzymes were translated during the excystation process and is strong evidence that active protein synthesis was occurring during excystation.

Moisés Wasserman

2010-03-01

343

Synthesis of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase and alcohol dehydrogenase E enzymes during Giardia intestinalis excystation / Síntesis de las enzimas de piruvato, oxidorreductasa de ferredoxina y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion) de Giardia intestinalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción. Giardia intestinalis es un parásito unicelular diseminado mundialmente. Causa una enfermedad intestinal conocida como giardiosis y, probablemente, es el microorganismo eucarionte más tempranamente divergente. Objetivo. En el presente estudio se determinó la expresión de las enzimas de [...] piruvato oxidorreductasa ferredoxina (PFOR) y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol (ADHE) en los estadios de quiste y trofozoíto, y durante el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion). Previamente se habían demostrado cambios en sus ARNm. Materiales y métodos. Se generaron proteínas recombinantes de PFOR y ADHE que fueron usadas como antígenos para la producción de anticuerpos policlonales. Éstos se emplearon para la detección de las proteínas nativas por Western blot. Evaluamos la actividad enzimática de ADHE y de la glutamato deshidrogenasa (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH) por ensayos espectrofotométricos. Resultados. Las proteínas PFOR (139 kDa) y ADHE (97 kDa) se detectaron en trofozoítos, pero no en quistes. Durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion), la proteína ADHE se detectó sólo después de la primera fase de inducción y la proteína PFOR sólo después de la segunda fase. Esto indica que ambas proteínas son sintetizadas durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion), aunque en un momento diferente. La actividad enzimática de ADHE está presente sólo en los trofozoítos y no en los quistes, mientras que la actividad de la enzima GDH se detectó en trofozoítos y quistes. Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados muestran de forma concluyente que las enzimas PFOR y ADHE son traducidas en el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion) y esto demuestra que existe un proceso activo de síntesis de proteínas durante él. Abstract in english Introduction. Giardia intestinalis is a unicellular parasite of worldwide distribution. It causes an intestinal illness known as giardiasis, and it is probably the earliest diverging eukaryotic microorganism. Previously, changes have been reported in the expression of mRNAs at several stages of the [...] life cycle; however specific enzymatic activity changes have not been explored. Objective. The expression of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE) enzymes was measured in cyst and trophozoite stages, and during the excystation process. Materials and methods. Recombinant proteins were generated for PFOR and ADHE to be used as antigens in the production of polyclonal antibodies for the detection of native proteins by Western Blot. The enzymatic activity of ADHE and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Results. PFOR (139 kDa) and ADHE (97 kDa) proteins were detected in trophozoites, but not in cysts. During excystation, ADHE protein was detected after the first phase of induction, but the PFOR protein appeared only after the second phase. This indicated that both proteins were synthesized during excystation, although at different times. ADHE enzymatic activity was present only in trophozoites and not in cysts whereas GDH activity was detected in both stages. Conclusion. These results conclusively showed that PFOR and ADHE enzymes were translated during the excystation process and is strong evidence that active protein synthesis was occurring during excystation.

Carlos Alberto, Niño; Moisés, Wasserman.

344

Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were iso [...] lated (33/429) from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh ) genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples) or assemblage B (6 samples). RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

Julio César, Torres-Romero; Antonio de Jesus, Euan-Canto; Namibya, Benito-González; Nayely, Padilla-Montaño; Claribel, Huchin-Chan; Julio, Lara-Riegos; Roberto, Cedillo-Rivera.

2014-06-01

345

Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were iso [...] lated (33/429) from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh ) genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples) or assemblage B (6 samples). RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

Julio César, Torres-Romero; Antonio de Jesus, Euan-Canto; Namibya, Benito-González; Nayely, Padilla-Montaño; Claribel, Huchin-Chan; Julio, Lara-Riegos; Roberto, Cedillo-Rivera.

2014-02-01

346

Giardia duodenalis: genotypic comparison between a human and a canine isolates / Giardia duodenalis: comparação genotípica entre isolados humano e canino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências sugerem que a giardíase é uma doença zoonótica. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a identidade genética da Giardia duodenalis isolada de fezes humanas e de cães de Belo Horizonte. MÉTODOS: Amostras de fezes humanas e de cães foram cultivadas para isolamento de G. d [...] uodenalis. Para determinação do genótipo dos isolados, foram usados oligonuclotídeos que amplificam regiões específicas do gene para rRNA. RESULTADOS: Dois isolados de G. duodenalis foram obtidos, os quais apresentaram o genótipo do sub-grupo A. CONCLUSÕES: Estes dados sugerem que a transmissão da giardíase segue um padrão zoonótico. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that giardiasis is a zoonotic disease. The present work aimed to evaluate the genetic identity of Giardia duodenalis isolated from human and dog fecal samples from Belo Horizonte. METHODS: Human and dog fecal samples were cultured for isolation of G. duodenalis. To de [...] termine the genotype of the isolates, primers that amplify a specific region in rRNA of the protozoan were used. RESULTS: Two G. duodenalis isolates were obtained, which belong to the subgroup A genotype. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the transmission of giardiasis follows a zoonotic pattern.

Karina Braga, Gomes; Ana Paula, Fernandes; Aline, Menezes; Ronaldo, Amorim Júnior; Edward Félix, Silva; Miriam Oliveira, Rocha.

2011-08-01

347

Cisto de Baker / Baker's cyst  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os cistos de Baker localizam-se na região posteromedial do joelho, entre o ventre medial do músculo gastrocnêmio e o tendão semimembranoso. No adulto, esses cistos estão relacionados a lesões intra-articulares, quais sejam, lesões meniscais ou artrose. Nas crianças, geralmente são achados de exame f [...] ísico ou de exames de imagem, apresentando pouca relevância clínica. O exame de ultrassonografia é adequado para identificar e mensurar o cisto poplíteo. Para o tratamento, a abordagem principal deve ser relacionada ao tratamento da lesão articular. Na maioria dos casos não há necessidade de se abordar diretamente o cisto. Os cistos no joelho são, quase na sua totalidade, benignos (cistos de Baker e cistos parameniscais). Porém, a presença de alguns sinais demanda que o ortopedista suspeite da possibilidade de malignidade: sintomas desproporcionais ao tamanho do cisto, ausência de lesão articular (ex.: meniscal) que justifique a existência do cisto, topografia atípica, erosão óssea associada, tamanho superior a 5cm e invasão tecidual (cápsula articular). Abstract in english Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually f [...] ound on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts), presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears) that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule).

Marco Kawamura, Demange.

348

Lymphoepithelial Cyst of the Pancreas  

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Cystic lesions of the pancreas can be divided into true cysts, pseudocysts, and cystic neoplasms. Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are a type of true cyst that can mimic pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. LECs are rare lesions; fewer than 90 cases have been reported in the English language literature. The case of a 60-year-old man with an LEC of the pancreas is reported. He was admitted with upper abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography showed a 64 × 39 mm cystic mass in the retroperitoneum be...

Domen, Hiromitsu; Ohara, Masanori; Kimura, Noriko; Takahashi, Mizuna; Yamabuki, Takumi; Komuro, Kazuteru; Iwashiro, Nozomu; Ishizaka, Masanori

2012-01-01

349

Thoracal spinal extradural arachnoid cyst  

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Full Text Available Arachnoid cyst are fluid-filled that are located between the arachnoid and piamater or duplicationof arachnoid membrane. Extradural arachnoid cysts in the spine are rare and primary are congenital or acquired. These are occurring idiopathic, posttraumatic and post arachnoiditis. A 32 year-old male patient is became a clinic with urinary retention and gait disorders. Thoracic Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a spinal extradurally cystic mass isointense with that cerebro-spinal fluid at T7-8 level. Patient underwent an operation. The diagnosis of arachnoid cyst was made based on histopathology exam. The case was reported due to very rare occurrence of this entity.

Olcay Eser

2011-12-01

350

Calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with an orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Odontogenic tumors composed of two or more distinct types of lesions are unusual. In this paper, a case of an odontogenic lesion characterized by simultaneous occurrence of areas of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) and orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is described. The lesion was asymptomatic and presented at the radiographic examination as a unilocular well-delimited radiolucency extending from left incisor to right premolar area in the mandible. To date, this is the first report of COC associated with an OOC. PMID:20614303

de Fátima Bernardes, Vanessa; de Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; de Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

2008-12-01

351

Recurrent iris cyst discharge.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 23-year-old woman with the diagnosis of anterior uveitis in the left eye was referred to our clinic. Circumferential midzonal iris epithelial cysts were observed in the right eye and corneal endothelial pigment precipitates and diffuse pigment discharge in the anterior chamber of the left eye. Topical prednisolone acetate was prescribed. After 2 days, hyperemia and pain decreased in the left eye and started in the right eye. During the following 3 months, the patient experienced 3 similar episodes, which resulted in diffuse pigment deposition in the anterior chamber angles. Intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was observed after 1 week and 3 weeks in the left eye and right eye, respectively. Topical antiglaucomatous medication was prescribed. Nine months after the last episode, the uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 and the IOP was 15 mm Hg bilaterally. The iris showed diffuse transillumination, and the pupils were unresponsive to light. PMID:22078118

Altan-Yaycioglu, Rana; Canan, Handan; Akova, Yonca A

2012-01-01

352

Migratory intralaryngeal thyroglossal duct cyst  

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Full Text Available Intralaryngeal thyroglossal duct cysts are rare; a migrating one, rarer still. Such a case may be a cause for confusion and it is important to understand this entity and its typical findings.

Karlatti Pradeep

2010-01-01

353

Migrating lumbar facet joint cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The majority of lumbar facet joint cysts (LFJCs) are located in the spinal canal, on the medial aspect of the facet joint with characteristic diagnostic features. When they migrate away from the joint of origin, they cause diagnostic problems. In a 7-year period we examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging five unusual cases of facet joint cysts which migrated from the facet joint of origin. Three LFJCs were identified in the right S1 foramen, one in the right L5-S1 neural foramen and one in the left erector spinae and multifidus muscles between the levels of L2-L4 spinous process. Awareness that spinal lesions identified at MRI and CT could be due to migrating facet joint cyst requires a high level of suspicion. The identification of the appositional contact of the cyst and the facet joint needs to be actively sought in the presence of degenerative facet joints. (orig.)

Palmieri, Francesco; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N.; Lalam, Radhesh K.; Tins, Bernhard J.; Tyrrell, Prudencia N.M.; McCall, Iain W. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

2006-04-15

354

Migrating lumbar facet joint cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The majority of lumbar facet joint cysts (LFJCs) are located in the spinal canal, on the medial aspect of the facet joint with characteristic diagnostic features. When they migrate away from the joint of origin, they cause diagnostic problems. In a 7-year period we examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging five unusual cases of facet joint cysts which migrated from the facet joint of origin. Three LFJCs were identified in the right S1 foramen, one in the right L5-S1 neural foramen and one in the left erector spinae and multifidus muscles between the levels of L2-L4 spinous process. Awareness that spinal lesions identified at MRI and CT could be due to migrating facet joint cyst requires a high level of suspicion. The identification of the appositional contact of the cyst and the facet joint needs to be actively sought in the presence of degenerative facet joints. (orig.)

355

Arachnoid cyst at the clivus  

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Full Text Available Clivial localization is extremely rare for arachnoid cyst. A case with giant arachnoid cyst at the clivus is going to be presented. A 63 years old female patient admitted with complaints of parasthesias and cramps in upper extremities radiating to chest, headache at the occipital region, and paroxismal and progressive ataxia for 35 years. Neurological examination revealed neck stiffness and gait disturbance due to truncal ataxia. MRI demonstrated a cyst measuring 7x2 cm in diameter, extending from pons to the level of 2nd cervical vertebra. The brainstem was markedly displaced to the posterior. A posterior fossa craniotomy was applied and the cyst was anatomized to cisterna magna. After the operation, neurological signs and symptoms have greatly improved. The case is going to be discussed with clinical and radiological features, possible etiologic factors, treatment strategies, and review of the literature.

Koyuncuoglu HR

2003-09-01

356

Uncommon locations of hydatid cyst.  

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The diagnosis of hydatic cyst should be considered in patients with a cystic mass, who live or have lived in a geographic region that has a high risk for Echinococcus granulosus, or visited an endemic area.

Nebil Bal

2008-07-01

357

Hydatid cyst of the tibia.  

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Full Text Available A case of hydatid cyst of the tibia, which manifested as a pathologic fracture is being reported. Pain and swelling of left lower limb with inability to bear the weight were the main features. Tender swelling was also noted at the upper and middle third of tibia. Open biopsy revealed the hydatid cyst wall and scolices of Echinococcus granulosus. Albendazole treatment was followed by curettage and bone grafting.

Madiwale C

1992-10-01

358

Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: MRI findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe a case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in a 36-year-old female. She presented with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An MRI scan revealed an 8?cm cystic lesion in the left upper retroperitoneum, with intermediate signal on T2-weighted images, high signal on T1 weighted images, and lack of internal enhancement after gadolinium. After laparoscopic excision, the histology findings were compatible with a bronchogenic cyst, which is extremely uncommon in the retroperitoneum. PMID:24381777

Castro, R; Oliveira, M I; Fernandes, T; Madureira, A J

2013-01-01

359

Cisto de mesentério Mesenteric cyst  

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Full Text Available Mesenteric cyst is a rare abdominal disease, with a higher incidence among women and 1: 250.000 incidence among hospitalized adults and 1: 200.000 among hospitalized children. Thereby, we report a case of a 10 years old child, male, presenting a large mesenteric cyst, which occupied almost all the abdominal and pelvic cavities and treated by resection during laparotomy.

Edson Yuzur Yasojima

2002-06-01

360

Unusual presentation of echinococcal cysts.  

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We report a case of echinococcal disease affecting the brain and the kidney. The case is unusual because of multiplicity of the intracerebral lesion and sparing of the liver and lungs. The intracerebral lesion was presented with epileptic convulsions. This was successfully treated surgically. Subsequently renal echinococcal cysts were identified. These were treated by partial nephrectomy due to the location of the cysts. The patient is disease free at 8 years.

Farukh Qureshi

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Choroid plexus cysts and aneuploidy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association of choroid plexus cysts with fetal aneuploidy, particularly trisomy 18, was first noted in 1986. Through the years there have been numerous reports on this subject, but no consensus has been reached with regard to chromosomal risk. In this review, we attempt to summarise published reports on second trimester choroid plexus cysts, with an emphasis on the strengths and weaknesses of each report. Based on these reports, additional malformations are a significant risk factor for a...

Peleg, D.; Yankowitz, J.

1998-01-01

362

Post-translational glutamylation and tyrosination in tubulin of tritrichomonads and the diplomonad Giardia intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutamylated and tyrosinated tubulin were localized in Giardia intestinalis and selected trichomonads of the Tritrichomonadinae subfamily, using specific monoclonal antibodies directed at each of the post-translational modifications. Analysis was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Although trichomonad tubulins remained unlabeled by anti-tyrosine tubulin (TUB-1A2), the presence of the glutamylation motif (GT 335) was confirmed and found to differ in distribution among tritrichomonads. Tritrichomonas muris was most heavily labeled with GT 335, while T. foetus was the least so. Like trichomonads, Giardia was unreactive to anti-tyrosine tubulin; however, the GT 335 antibody produced marked fluorescence in Giardia trophozoites. This study is the first to report immunofluorescent localization of tubulin glutamylation in Giardia and confirms previously reported mass spectrometry data. PMID:11822738

Boggild, A K; Sundermann, C A; Estridge, B H

2002-01-01

363

The protein import channel in the outer mitosomal membrane of Giardia intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of mitosomes in Giardia generated significant debate on the evolutionary origin of these organelles, whether they were highly reduced mitochondria or the product of a unique endosymbiotic event in an amitochondrial organism. As the protein import pathway is a defining characteristic of mitochondria, we sought to discover a TOM (translocase in the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex in Giardia. A Hidden Markov model search of the Giardia genome identified a Tom40 homologous sequence (GiTom40), where Tom40 is the protein translocation channel of the TOM complex. The GiTom40 protein is located in the membrane of mitosomes in a approximately 200-kDa TOM complex. As Tom40 was derived in the development of mitochondria to serve as the protein import channel in the outer membrane, its presence in Giardia evidences the mitochondrial ancestry of mitosomes. PMID:19531743

Dagley, Michael J; Dolezal, Pavel; Likic, Vladimir A; Smid, Ondrej; Purcell, Anthony W; Buchanan, Susan K; Tachezy, Jan; Lithgow, Trevor

2009-09-01

364

Neonatal Ovarian Cyst: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Background: Ovarian cysts are the most frequent, prenatally diagnosed intra-abdominal cysts. Prenatal ultrasonography allows diagnosis of ovarian cysts and may suggest antenatal complications. The management of fetal ovarian cysts is still controversial despite the improvement in prenatal diagnosis with ultrasonography. Some studies suggest an aggressive management, while others plead for a conservative one.Case report:  We report on the first successfully treated large neonatal ovarian cyst from Iran. She was a normal-term infant with respiratory distress due to the large size of the ovarian cyst diagnosed prenatally. We didnt find any other related anomaly in the neonate.Conclusion: Neonatal simple ovarian cysts are rare, but may cause complications. Most small simple cysts regress spontaneously; surgical intervention is reserved for complicated or large size ovarian cysts.

Fateme Haji Ebrahim Tehrani

2007-09-01

365

Hydatid Cyst of Ovary: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is considered the major cause of humanhydatid cysts. Usually the duration of cyst formation is 10-20 years. This period shortens significantly upon rupture of aprimary cyst. The literature describes low incidence of primaryinvolvement of ovary as a site of hydatid cyst formation. Ourcase is the first report on ovarian hydatid cyst in Iran. A 60-year-old woman was presented with abdominal pain in the leftlower quadrant area. Paraclinical data were suggestive of neoplasiaand preoperative diagnosis was ovarian tumor. Duringlaparotomy, multiple cysts resembling hydatid cysts were observedin the left ovary. Pathological examination confirmed thediagnosis of hydatid cyst. Although there is a small possibilityof secondary ovarian echinococcal disease, it is more probablefor this case to be primary infection, as the patient had developedovarian hydatid cysts 15 years after hepatic involvementand recurrence after 30 months is very uncommon.

Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei

2009-03-01

366

Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Infected With Giardia Intestinalis  

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Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is the most common intestinal parasite in human worldwide. It can produce a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to assess the nutritional status of preschool children infected with Giardia intestinalis, a cross sectional study was made in Marvdasht city, Fars Province, Southern Iran. A total of 337 preschool boys and girls aged 3-6 years were randomly selected for stool examination of intestinal parasites as well as measurement of height, weight, head and arm circumferences. A total of 77 individuals were infected with G. intestinalis. Seventy-one individuals who had only G. intestinalis and 229 with no parasitic infections were selected as infected and control groups, respectively. Z-Score of -2SD was used as cut off point of malnutrition. A total of 9 (12.7% of infected children and 18 (7.9% of non infected individuals had a height for age Z-score (HAZ below -2SD. Eight (11.3% of former group had a weight for age Z-score (WAZ under-2SD. In control group 4.4% of preschool children had WAZ under-2SD. 4.2% of infected children had a weight for height Z-score (WHZ under-2SD but none of the controls had it. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in height, weight, head circumference, HAZ, and WAZ between infected and control children (P<0.05. Also, HAZ and WAZ, was significantly different between these two groups, but not for WHZ. A higher infection with G. intestinalis in the children with lower parents’ education was observed. However the distribution of malnutrition was not significantly different between boys and girls. In conclusion the present study indicated that giardiasis retarded growth of preschool children in this region.

SM Sadjjadi

2005-09-01

367

Giardia Patients in Bergen with Continued Complaints: Current Status on Gastrointestinal Complaints, anxiety, depression and neuroticism  

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The aim was to investigate 111 former Giardia patients in Bergen, in context of the subjective health complaints field. Gastrointestinal complaints and its relation to anxiety, depression and neuroticism were assessed with GSRS, ROME II, HADS, and EPQ-R(N). Gender differences on these variables were investigated. We found that gender differences are related to complaints prior to Giardia infection. Anxiety and depression levels are high and only related to complaints prior to G...

Nordeide, Julia Jin Ese; Honningsva?g, Cecilie Jeanette

2008-01-01

368

Giardiasis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Giardiasis is one of the most common pathogenic intestinal protozoal infections worldwide. Giardia lamblia is the most frequently identified etiologic agent in outbreaks associated with the ingestion of surface water, often due to ineffective filtration or pretreatment. In addition to humans, other sources of infection include beavers, perhaps muskrats, and possibly domestic animals. A low infecting dose (10 to 25 cysts) is reported to be sufficient to produce human infection. Clinical manife...

Wolfe, M. S.

1992-01-01

369

Diseminación de enteroparasitos por Calliphoridae (Insecta, Diptera Disemination of enteroparasites by Calliphoridae (Insecta, Diptera  

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Full Text Available It is establish the dissemination enteroparasite by Calliphoridae in a district situated around by Federal Capital of Argentina. The species implicated in this dispersal are: Phaenicia sericata (meigen, 1826; Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830; Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, 1818 and Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819. Fifty two flies was studies, thirty four (65% to belong at the family Calliphoridae. Of this thirteen (38% have eggs of taeniid and cysts of Entamoeba coli (Grassi, 1879 and Giardia lamblia Styles, 1915.

Juan C. Mariluis

1989-01-01

370

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

371

Temporal patterns of human and canine Giardia infection in the United States: 2003-2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia protozoa have been suspected to be of zoonotic transmission, including transmission from companion animals such as pet dogs to humans. Patterns of infection have been previously described for dogs and humans, but such investigations have used different time periods and locations for these two species. Our objective was to describe and compare the overall trend and seasonality of Giardia species infection among dogs and humans in the United States from 2003 through 2009 in an ecological study using public health surveillance data and medical records of pet dogs visiting a large nationwide private veterinary hospital. Canine data were obtained from all dogs visiting Banfield hospitals in the United States with fecal test results for Giardia species, from January 2003 through December 2009. Incidence data of human cases from the same time period were obtained from the CDC. Descriptive time plots, a seasonal trend decomposition (STL) procedure, and seasonal autoregressive moving-average (SARIMA) models were used to assess the temporal characteristics of Giardia infection in the two species. Canine incidence showed a gradual decline from 2003 to 2009 with no significant/distinct regular seasonal component. By contrast, human incidence showed a stable annual rate with a significant regular seasonal cycle, peaking in August and September. Different temporal patterns in human and canine Giardia cases observed in this study suggest that the epidemiological disease processes underlying both series might be different, and Giardia transmission between humans and their companion dogs seems uncommon. PMID:24309130

Mohamed, Ahmed S; Levine, Michael; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elisabeth; Yoder, Jonathan S; Glickman, Larry T; Moore, George E

2014-02-01

372

Percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy of oophoritic cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy in oophoritic cysts. Methods: Seventy six oophoritic cysts incluoling 48 simple and 28 chocolate cysts of 64 patients were treated with percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy under CT guidance. 4F multisideholes pigtail catheter was introduced into cyst using absolute alcohol as sclerosing agents. Results: The successful rate of percutaneous oophoritc cyst puncture was 100% in all 64 patients. Among them 58 were cured (90.6%), 6 improved significantly (9.4%). The total effective rate reached 100% with no serious complications. Conclusions: Catheterization sclerotherapy for oophoritic cyst is a simple, complete, safe and effective method. (authors)

373

Teflon sponge shunt for recurrent arachnoid cyst  

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Full Text Available A 50-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive ataxia. Investigations showed a large intradural arachnoid cyst located anterior to the brainstem. Following marsupialization of the cyst she improved remarkably in her symptoms. The symptoms recurred nine months later and investigations revealed recurrence of the cyst. The cyst was evacuated again and two Teflon sponge sheets were placed such that they traversed the length of the cyst cavity and extended into the cisterna magna. At follow-up after 25 months, there has been no recurrence of symptoms or the cyst. The role and advantages of Teflon sponge in such cases is evaluated.

Goel Atul

2007-01-01

374

Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bronchogenic cysts are among developmental disorders of the primitive foregut which are typically found above the diaphragm. Bronchial cysts discovered in the abdominal cavity or retroperitoneum are extremely rare. We present a rare case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst which was incidentally detected after a wrestling injury in a 23-year-old man who had a negative medical history. Although initial imaging studies suggested an adrenal tumor, histopathological analysis provided a definite diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst. Though rare, bronchogenic cysts must be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions. This is the first case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst reported in Iran. PMID:25405122

Mirsadeghi, Ali; Farrokhi, Farid; Fazli-Shahri, Azadeh; Gholipour, Bahareh

2014-01-01