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IDENTIFICATION OF A FLAVOBACTERIUM STRAIN VIRULENT AGAINT GIARDIA LAMBLIA CYSTS  

Science.gov (United States)

We have isolated a bacterial strain capable of killing the cyst form of Giardia lamblia, from a Kentucky stream. This bacterium, designated Sun4, is a Gram negative, aerobic rod which produces a yellow pigment, but not of the flexirubin-type. Although true gliding motility has no...

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[Antigens from Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts. Detection and immunoallergic evaluation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A suitable technique for the preparation of antigen extracts from Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts is described. The immunoallergic characteristics of the antibodies obtained with these extracts were studied using in vivo and in vitro tests in experimental animals and 50 healthy individuals. It was proved that the human is able to produce antibodies to Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts and also that these antibodies are directed to several antigenic determinants.

Alvarez Gómez L

1977-05-01

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Determination of 'Giardia lamblia' Cyst Infective Dose for the Mongolian Gerbil ('Meriones unguiculatus').  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine the I.D.(50) for Giardia lamblia (CDC:0284:1) cysts in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and compare it to human infectivity data. Cysts were purified from Mongolian gerbil feces and diluted to produce ino...

F. W. Schaefer C. H. Johnson C. H. Hsu E. W. Rice

1991-01-01

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Determination of Giardia lamblia cyst infective dose for the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).  

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The purpose of this study was to determine the 50% infective dose for Giardia lamblia (CDC:0284:1) cysts in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). The log10 50% infective dose results calculated by probit analysis and the Spearman-Karber method were 2.45 and 2.50, respectively.

Schaefer, F W; Johnson, C H; Hsu, C H; Rice, E W

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Variable infectivity of human-derived Giardia lamblia cysts for Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).  

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To determine whether gerbils can be used as a suitable animal model for giardiasis, we attempted to infect Mongolian gerbils with cysts of Giardia lamblia isolated from the stools of 10 humans with symptomatic and asymptomatic giardiasis. We obtained 100% infection with one isolate (CDC:0284:1), as ...

Visvesvara, G S; Dickerson, J W; Healy, G R

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Antibodies to cysts of Giardia lamblia in primary giardiasis and in the absence of giardiasis.  

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The significance of serum antibodies binding to cysts of Giardia lamblia was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence. Titers of 10 or higher were found in 85.6% of adults, who had probably never had giardiasis. Titers in 118 adults (geometric mean, 29.9) were higher than in 35 children (16.4), and ...

Jokipii, L; Miettinen, A; Jokipii, A M

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Simultaneous detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts in soil using immunomagnetic separation and direct fluorescent antibody staining.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An improved approach for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia (oo)cysts in soil is described. Recoveries>70% were obtained for concentrations>55 and 21 (oo)cysts g(-1) for C. parvum and G. lamblia, respectively. The limits of detection were determined to be<5 (oo)cysts g(-1) soil.

Orlofsky E; Gillor O; Melli A; Miller W; Wuertz S; Bernstein N; Shapiro K

2013-09-01

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Simultaneous detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts in soil using immunomagnetic separation and direct fluorescent antibody staining.  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved approach for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia (oo)cysts in soil is described. Recoveries>70% were obtained for concentrations>55 and 21 (oo)cysts g(-1) for C. parvum and G. lamblia, respectively. The limits of detection were determined to be<5 (oo)cysts g(-1) soil. PMID:23911570

Orlofsky, Ezra; Gillor, Osnat; Melli, Ann; Miller, Woutrina; Wuertz, Stefan; Bernstein, Nirit; Shapiro, Karen

2013-07-31

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[Impact of diet on the induction of infection with Giardia lamblia cysts in Sprague-Dawley rats].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of malnutrition on the development of giardiasis in Sprague-Dawley rats, using different inoculum sizes of Giardia lamblia cysts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An experimental study was conducted between 1995 and 1999 at Centro de Investigación, Alimentación y Desarrollo (Center for Research, Food, and Development), in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The study population consisted of two groups of six to eight experimental units that were fed two different diets and inoculated five different concentrations of Giardia lamblia cysts. Data were collected on excretion of cysts, weight gain, food intake, bowel contents, and macro and microscopic lesions in the intestinal mucosa. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance and residuals. RESULTS: Animals fed with a diet meeting nutritional requirements required an infecting inoculum of 60 cysts, while malnourished rats required only six cysts to develop mucosal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain monitored during ten days was not a good indicator of Giardia lamblia infection. Infection depended on cyst inoculum size as well as on the nutritional status of the tested animals. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

Díaz-Cinco ME; Ballesteros-Vázquez MN; Pérez-Morales R; Mata-Haro V

2002-07-01

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DNA topoisomerase II is involved in regulation of cyst wall protein genes and differentiation in Giardia lamblia.  

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The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome condensation. A putative topoisomerase II (topo II) gene has been identified in the G. lamblia genome. We asked whether Topo II could regulate Giardia encystation. We found that Topo II was present in cell nuclei and its gene was up-regulated during encystation. Topo II has typical ATPase and DNA cleavage activity of type II topoisomerases. Mutation analysis revealed that the catalytic important Tyr residue and cleavage domain are important for Topo II function. We used etoposide-mediated topoisomerase immunoprecipitation assays to confirm the binding of Topo II to the cwp promoters in vivo. Interestingly, Topo II overexpression increased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of cwp and specific vsp genes by Topo II. We also found that the type II topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide has growth inhibition effect on Giardia. Addition of etoposide significantly decreased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that Topo II has been functionally conserved during evolution and that Topo II plays important roles in induction of the cwp genes, which is key to Giardia differentiation into cysts. PMID:23696909

Lin, Bo-Chi; Su, Li-Hsin; Weng, Shih-Che; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Chan, Nei-Li; Li, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Hsin-Chih; Sun, Chin-Hung

2013-05-16

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Changes in the N-Glycome, Glycoproteins with Asn-Linked Glycans, of Giardia lamblia with Differentiation from Trophozoites to Cysts ? †  

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Giardia lamblia is present in the intestinal lumen as a binucleate, flagellated trophozoite or a quadranucleate, immotile cyst. Here we used the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), which binds to the disaccharide di-N-acetyl-chitobiose (GlcNAc2), which is the truncated Asn-linked glycan (N-gly...

Ratner, Daniel M.; Cui, Jike; Steffen, Martin; Moore, Landon L.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

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Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that mineral domain of soil has an important role in such retention. PMID:23722173

Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

2013-05-27

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Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that mineral domain of soil has an important role in such retention.

Landa-Cansigno O; Durán-Álvarez JC; Jiménez-Cisneros B

2013-05-01

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Treatment of Intestinal 'Entamoeba histolytica' and 'Giardia lamblia' with Metronidazole, Tinidazole and Ornidazole: A Comparative Study,  

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Metronidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole were compared in patients treated for Entamoeba histolytica or Giardia lamblia intestinal infections. Only patients with three positive stool specimens for trophozoites and/or cysts of El histolytica or G. lamblia ...

S. Bassily Z. Farid N. A. El-Masry E. M. Mikhail

1987-01-01

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The Comparison of the Efficacy of Various Fixatives on Diverse Staining Methods of Giardia lamblia Cyst  

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Full Text Available The definite and exact diagnosis of protozoa is possible using high magnification objective lenses, provided that suitable stained smears are prepared. Therefore, the appropriateness of both fixative and staining methods to the species of parasite, which is the main objective of this study, is important. In this study, five various fixatives including (Merthiolate iodine formalin) MIF, (Sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin) SAF, (Polyvinyl alcohol) PVA, formalin and schaudinn and four types of stains including Hematoxylin I, Hematoxylin II, Trichrome and Carbol-fuchsin were prepared using standard procedures. After the smears of stool samples containing Giadria lamblia cyst were prepared and kept for 24 h in various fixatives, the study was carried out using the four above-mentioned stains by changing the ingredients and time as well as by repeating the experiments. After fixing and staining all the smears in identical conditions along with the implementing interferences in the staining process, the following results were eventually obtained considering the morphologic indexes and negative and positive scores (from 1 to 20): formalin with 17 scores in hematoxylin I staining, formalin and SAF with 15 and 14 scores, respectively in Hematoxylin II staining, MIF with 13 scores in Trichrome staining and SAF, PVA, MIF with 11.5, 11.5 and 11 scores, respectively in carbol-fuchsin staining were found to be the best fixatives. Hematoxylin I staining using formalin fixative with 17 scores showed the best result while the maximum score for Carbol-fuchsin staining was 11.5 showing a necessity for more expenditure, time and expert cooperation to reach ideal results.

E. Badparva; Sh. Fallahi; A. Sepahvand; Y. Pournia; Sh. Mollaei Rashnoo

2009-01-01

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The activity of a developmentally regulated cysteine proteinase is required for cyst wall formation in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.  

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Giardia is an intestinal parasite that belongs to the earliest diverging branch of the eukaryotic lineage of descent. Giardia undergoes adaptation for survival outside the host's intestine by differentiating into infective cysts. Encystation involves the synthesis and transport of cyst wall constituents to the plasma membrane for release and extracellular organization. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular events related to cyst wall biogenesis in Giardia. Among the components of the cyst wall there are two proteins that we have previously identified and characterized: CWP1 (26 kDa) and CWP2 (39 kDa). Expression of these proteins is coordinately induced, and both concentrated within encystation-specific secretory vesicles before their extracellular polymerization. Although highly similar to each other at the amino terminus, CWP2 includes a COOH-terminal 121-amino acid extension. Here, we show that this extension, rich in basic residues, is cleaved from CWP2 before cyst wall formation by an intracellular cysteine proteinase activity, which is induced during encystation like CWPs. Specific inhibitors prevent release of cyst wall materials, abolishing cyst wall formation. We also report the purification, cloning, and characterization of the encystation-specific cysteine proteinase responsible for the proteolytic processing of CWP2, which is homologue to lysosomal cathepsin C. Encystation-specific cysteine proteinase ESCP possesses unique characteristics compared with cathepsins from higher eukaryotes, such as a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. These features make this enzyme the most divergent cathepsin C identified to date and provide new insights regarding cyst wall formation in Giardia. PMID:11773053

Touz, María C; Nores, María J; Slavin, Ileana; Carmona, Carlos; Conrad, John T; Mowatt, Michael R; Nash, Theodore E; Coronel, Carlos E; Luján, Hugo D

2001-12-28

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The activity of a developmentally regulated cysteine proteinase is required for cyst wall formation in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia is an intestinal parasite that belongs to the earliest diverging branch of the eukaryotic lineage of descent. Giardia undergoes adaptation for survival outside the host's intestine by differentiating into infective cysts. Encystation involves the synthesis and transport of cyst wall constituents to the plasma membrane for release and extracellular organization. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular events related to cyst wall biogenesis in Giardia. Among the components of the cyst wall there are two proteins that we have previously identified and characterized: CWP1 (26 kDa) and CWP2 (39 kDa). Expression of these proteins is coordinately induced, and both concentrated within encystation-specific secretory vesicles before their extracellular polymerization. Although highly similar to each other at the amino terminus, CWP2 includes a COOH-terminal 121-amino acid extension. Here, we show that this extension, rich in basic residues, is cleaved from CWP2 before cyst wall formation by an intracellular cysteine proteinase activity, which is induced during encystation like CWPs. Specific inhibitors prevent release of cyst wall materials, abolishing cyst wall formation. We also report the purification, cloning, and characterization of the encystation-specific cysteine proteinase responsible for the proteolytic processing of CWP2, which is homologue to lysosomal cathepsin C. Encystation-specific cysteine proteinase ESCP possesses unique characteristics compared with cathepsins from higher eukaryotes, such as a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. These features make this enzyme the most divergent cathepsin C identified to date and provide new insights regarding cyst wall formation in Giardia.

Touz MC; Nores MJ; Slavin I; Carmona C; Conrad JT; Mowatt MR; Nash TE; Coronel CE; Luján HD

2002-03-01

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INDUCTION OF ALBENDAZOLE RESISTANCE IN GIARDIA LAMBLIA  

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Previous studies have shown that Giardia lamblia resistance to metronidazole can be induced in the laboratory, and treatment failures with this drug have also been documented. As replacement theraples, anthelmintic benzimidazoles have antigiardial activity with few clinical side ...

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Putative SF2 helicases of the early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia are involved in antigenic variation and parasite differentiation into cysts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of surface antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is controlled post-transcriptionally by an RNA-interference (RNAi) pathway that includes a Dicer-like bidentate RNase III (gDicer). This enzyme, however, lacks the RNA helicase domain present in Dicer enzymes from higher eukaryotes. The participation of several RNA helicases in practically all organisms in which RNAi was studied suggests that RNA helicases are potentially involved in antigenic variation, as well as during Giardia differentiation into cysts. Results An extensive in silico analysis of the Giardia genome identified 32 putative Super Family 2 RNA helicases that contain almost all the conserved RNA helicase motifs. Phylogenetic studies and sequence analysis separated them into 22 DEAD-box, 6 DEAH-box and 4 Ski2p-box RNA helicases, some of which are homologs of well-characterized helicases from higher organisms. No Giardia putative helicase was found to have significant homology to the RNA helicase domain of Dicer enzymes. Additionally a series of up- and down-regulated putative RNA helicases were found during encystation and antigenic variation by qPCR experiments. Finally, we were able to recognize 14 additional putative helicases from three different families (RecQ family, Swi2/Snf2 and Rad3 family) that could be considered DNA helicases. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive analysis of the Super Family 2 helicases from the human intestinal parasite G. lamblia. The relative and variable expression of particular RNA helicases during both antigenic variation and encystation agrees with the proposed participation of these enzymes during both adaptive processes. The putatives RNA and DNA helicases identified in this early-branching eukaryote provide initial information regarding the biological role of these enzymes in cell adaptation and differentiation.

Gargantini Pablo R; Serradell Marianela C; Torri Alessandro; Lujan Hugo D

2012-01-01

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PURE CULTURE METHOD: GIARDIA LAMBLIA FROM DIFFERENT STOOL SAMPLES  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool samples by use of floating of a four - layer of sucrose method. The cysts were transfered to an inducing solution. Subsequently, they were cultured in a modified culture medium (TYIS-33). Following excystation of trophozoite and its multiplication, the parasite was caltured and purified.Findings. Excitation of trophozoite was observed in 40 samples (80 percent) from which 22 samples (55 percent) yielded pure culture. The doubling time was approximately 13hr and the peak of parasite was observed between third and fourth days.Conclusion. The proliferation and growth rate of Giardia lamblia have enabled us to use this method widely. Cystein and ascorbic acid which are present in the induction solution, have a key role in excystation of trophozoite. Purification and passage of samples has facilitated the culture of this parasite in vitro. Therefore this method has yielded better results in comparison with other studies. This is probably due to a decrease in the amount of bovine bile or using different strains of Giardia lamblia in the present study.

H.A YOUSEFI

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Axenic cultivation and characterization of Giardia lamblia isolated from humans in Korea  

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Inoculating of human fecal cysts to suckling Mongolian gerbils, two Giardia lamblia isolates, K1 and K2, were established as axenic cultures. Using this in vitro culture, both isolates were characterized as a "medium-rate grower" upon its growth pattern. These two Giardia isolates were grouped by us...

Park, Soon-Jung; Yong, Tai-Soon; Yang, Hye-Won; Lee, Du-Ho; Lee, Kyungwon

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Rotifers ingest Giardia cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven species of rotifers representing 6 genera, Epiphanes, Plationus, Asplanchna, Philodina species A, Philodina species B. Platyias, and Brachionus, were exposed to Giardia cysts isolated from the feces of experimentally infected holstein calves. Giardia cysts were prestained with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody and mixed with viable rotifers on 3-well Teflon-coated microscope slides. Organisms were observed with phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. Five rotifer species, Epiphanes brachionus, Plationus patulus, Philodina (both A and B), and Platyias quadricornis, ingested varying numbers of cysts, which were retained within the rotifers' bodies throughout the observation period. Rotifer ingestion of Giardia cysts may represent a means of reducing water contamination. PMID:12435156

Trout, J M; Walsh, E J; Fayer, R

2002-10-01

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Rotifers ingest Giardia cysts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seven species of rotifers representing 6 genera, Epiphanes, Plationus, Asplanchna, Philodina species A, Philodina species B. Platyias, and Brachionus, were exposed to Giardia cysts isolated from the feces of experimentally infected holstein calves. Giardia cysts were prestained with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody and mixed with viable rotifers on 3-well Teflon-coated microscope slides. Organisms were observed with phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. Five rotifer species, Epiphanes brachionus, Plationus patulus, Philodina (both A and B), and Platyias quadricornis, ingested varying numbers of cysts, which were retained within the rotifers' bodies throughout the observation period. Rotifer ingestion of Giardia cysts may represent a means of reducing water contamination.

Trout JM; Walsh EJ; Fayer R

2002-10-01

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Giardia lamblia: a new target for miltefosine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia, the causative agent of giardiasis, is an intestinal infection with worldwide distribution and high rates of prevalence. Increased resistance of the parasite and the side effects of the reference drugs employed in the treatment of giardiasis make it necessary to seek new therapeutic agents. Therefore,the aim of this study was to examine the activity of hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine), a membrane active alkylphospholipid, that is licensed as an antileishmanial agent against giardiasis. The efficacy of miltefosine was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo in Swiss albino mice. Results of the in vitro testing revealed susceptibility of G. lamblia trophozoites to miltefosine with the following effective concentrations:EC50s of between 20 and 40 lM, and EC90s of between 20 and 80 lM. Immediate total lysis of the organisms was achieved by 100 lM. In vivo testing showed that oral administration of miltefosine,in a daily dose regimen course of 20 mg/kg for three successive days, to infected mice resulted in total elimination of the parasite from the intestine and amelioration of intestinal pathology. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that miltefosine induced severe morphological alterations to G. lamblia trophozoites, mainly at the level of cell membrane and adhesive disc. In conclusion,we believe that this is the first study highlighting G. lamblia as a possible new target for miltefosine.

Eissa MM; Amer EI

2012-05-01

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Giardia lamblia and Helicobater pylori Coinfection  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two flagellate microorganisms that grow in duodenum and stom­ach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of them in patients with dyspepsia and other GI disorders. "nMethods: In this cross-sectional study, co-infection of above-mentioned agents was investigated in a group of 130 patients [me­dian age of 40 yr (range=11-79) including 76 males (58.8%)] with dyspepsia using three methods of duodenal aspiration sam­ple, duodenal biopsy samples and evaluation of stool samples."nResults: : From 105 patients (59 males, 46 females, median age 40 years, range 11-79) entering this study from 3 hospitals, 4 patients (3.8%) had G. lamblia and 61 patients (58%) had H. pylori. All 4 patients infected by Giardia had also H. pylori infec­tion. Tenesmus (3 out of 4 patients) was the most common symptom in patients with H. pylori infection (48 out of 61 pa­tients) was reflux. Other symptoms in patients infected with both organisms (4 patients) included diarrhea (2 cases), weight loss (2 cases), and loss of appetite (1 case) but no report of vomiting."nConclusion: In patients co-infected with Giardia, H.pylori differentiation by physical examination is not possible. So in those patients with positive Rapid Urease Test (RUT), stool examination for Giardia detection is recommended. In addition, met­ronidazole (broad spectrum, anti-protozoal drug) can be useful in H. pylori infection.

R Shafie; MR Jahani; M Rezaeian; M Amini; AR Metvayi; N Ebrahimi Daryani; MR Keramati

2009-01-01

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Identification of Giardia lamblia-specific antigens in infected human and gerbil feces by western immunoblotting.  

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Western immunoblot analysis of aqueous extracts of feces obtained from five giardiasis patients and from experimentally infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with rabbit antiserum to Giardia lamblia cysts has revealed antigens of three molecular weight groups. A stepladderlike, evenly-spaced set ...

Stibbs, H H; Samadpour, M; Ongerth, J E

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In Vitro Effects of Metronidazole and Albendazole on Giardia lamblia Isolated from Iranian Patients  

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Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and albendazole against clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia in vitro. Methods: From all human samples of containing cysts, 10 isolates were successfully excysted in vitro. Trophozites viability was assessed by eos...

F Mohamadnezhad; F Ghaffarifar; A Dalimi

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A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia  

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Full Text Available Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and treatment.

Dilek Karaku?; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

2009-01-01

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BILIARY LIPIDS SUPPORT SERUM-FREE GROWTH OF 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA'  

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Giardia lamblia has only been grown in vitro in media containing serum or serum fractions. How this pathogen can grow in the human small intestinal lumen without serum is not known. The authors found that samples of human hepatic or gall bladder bile maintained G. lamblia surviva...

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Unusually Low Levels of Genetic Variation among Giardia lamblia Isolates? ‡  

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Giardia lamblia, an intestinal pathogen of mammals, including humans, is a significant cause of diarrheal disease around the world. Additionally, the parasite is found on a lineage which separated early from the main branch in eukaryotic evolution. The extent of genetic diversity among G. lamblia is...

Teodorovic, Smilja; Braverman, John M.; Elmendorf, Heidi G.

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Still around and still dangerous: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.  

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The discovery of new infectious agents often overshadows the continuing impact and importance of well-established organisms. In the case of diarrheal disease, Entamoeba histolytica and its complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although it is also present in developing countries, Giardia lamblia is a primary cause of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea in developed countries. Persons at risk of developing giardiasis in these countries include backpackers and campers who drink untreated stream water or persons who drink improperly treated municipal water containing infective cysts. Investigators have recently identified the mechanisms used by these organisms to colonize the intestinal tract and to cause disease. New methods of identification using immunologic principles have been added to the traditional microscopic methods of identification. PMID:10177206

Smith, L A

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Still around and still dangerous: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discovery of new infectious agents often overshadows the continuing impact and importance of well-established organisms. In the case of diarrheal disease, Entamoeba histolytica and its complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although it is also present in developing countries, Giardia lamblia is a primary cause of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea in developed countries. Persons at risk of developing giardiasis in these countries include backpackers and campers who drink untreated stream water or persons who drink improperly treated municipal water containing infective cysts. Investigators have recently identified the mechanisms used by these organisms to colonize the intestinal tract and to cause disease. New methods of identification using immunologic principles have been added to the traditional microscopic methods of identification.

Smith LA

1997-09-01

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Axenic growth of Giardia lamblia in Diamond's TPS-1 medium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A strain of Giardia lamblia was gradually adapted to grow in Diamond's TPS-1 medium. The parasites grew luxuriantly and formed a monolayer on the surface of the culture vessels. When G. lamblia was inoculated into fresh medium, the population of the parasites grew from 22,000 cells/ml to peak numbers of 2.1 X 10(6)/ml in six days with a generation time of 12.2 hours at 37 degrees C. After a few days of incubation a sediment could be seen at the bottom of the tubes which contained a multitude of free-swimming Giardia as well as clumps of them. The sediment sometimes also contained many rings of Giardia. The rings were usually associated with dead Giardia cells containing a large bubble. Two, three and sometimes as many as six Giardia were seen surrounding the bubble. The bubble probably provides additional surface area to which the Giardia may attach.

Visvesvara GS

1980-01-01

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Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3%) showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3%) and 100 (68%) samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39%) than IIF (70%). IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

Guimarães Semíramis; Sogayar Maria Inês L

2002-01-01

35

Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers/ Detecção de anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia em crianças de creches  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Detectar anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia entre crianças atendidas em creches e estimar a freqüência de infecção por Giardia lamblia em área endêmica. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas três amostras de fezes de cada uma das 147 crianças de três creches da rede municipal de Botucatu, SP, com idade variando de 0 a 6 anos, e as amostras foram processadas pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea e flutuação pelo sulfato de zinco. Amostras de sangue (more) foram obtidas da polpa digital, coletadas em papel de filtro e testadas pelos métodos de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e de reação imunoenzimática (Elisa) para pesquisa de IgG anti-Giardia. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: De um total de 147 crianças, 93 (63,3%) apresentaram cistos de Giardia nas fezes. Dos 147 eluatos testados, 93 (63,3%) e 100 (68%) foram positivos para Giardia em IFI e em Elisa, respectivamente. A sensibilidade de IFI foi de 82% e de Elisa, 72%. Contudo, Elisa foi menos específica (39%) do que IFI (70%). A imunofluorescência indireta apresentou maior concordância com o exame de fezes do que Elisa. Abstract in english OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested (more) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3%) showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3%) and 100 (68%) samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39%) than IIF (70%). IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

Guimarães, Semíramis; Sogayar, Maria Inês L

2002-02-01

36

Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers Detecção de anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia em crianças de creches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3%) showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3%) and 100 (68%) samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39%) than IIF (70%). IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.OBJETIVOS: Detectar anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia entre crianças atendidas em creches e estimar a freqüência de infecção por Giardia lamblia em área endêmica. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas três amostras de fezes de cada uma das 147 crianças de três creches da rede municipal de Botucatu, SP, com idade variando de 0 a 6 anos, e as amostras foram processadas pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea e flutuação pelo sulfato de zinco. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas da polpa digital, coletadas em papel de filtro e testadas pelos métodos de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e de reação imunoenzimática (Elisa) para pesquisa de IgG anti-Giardia. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: De um total de 147 crianças, 93 (63,3%) apresentaram cistos de Giardia nas fezes. Dos 147 eluatos testados, 93 (63,3%) e 100 (68%) foram positivos para Giardia em IFI e em Elisa, respectivamente. A sensibilidade de IFI foi de 82% e de Elisa, 72%. Contudo, Elisa foi menos específica (39%) do que IFI (70%). A imunofluorescência indireta apresentou maior concordância com o exame de fezes do que Elisa.

Semíramis Guimarães; Maria Inês L Sogayar

2002-01-01

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Azasterols impair Giardia lamblia proliferation and induces encystation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth and fine structure of Giardia lamblia P1 strain cultures were analyzed. Azasterols demonstrated high efficacy in killing cells. The IC50 values for 22,26-azasterol and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol were 7 ?M and 170 nM, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that azasterols induced changes in G. lamblia ultrastructure. The most significant alterations were: (a) considerable increase of the size of the peripheral vesicles, which are part of the parasite endosomal-lysosomal system; (b) appearance of autophagosomal structures; and (c) induction of differentiation, followed by an abnormal enlargement of encystation secretory vesicles. We propose that azasterols are effective chemotherapeutic drugs against Giardia lamblia in vitro and may have another target in cells besides sterol biosynthesis.

2007-11-16

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Impact of Zooplankton Grazing on the Excystation, Viability, and Infectivity of the Protozoan Pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia?  

Science.gov (United States)

Very little is known about the ability of the zooplankton grazer Daphnia pulicaria to reduce populations of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface waters. The potential for D. pulicaria to act as a biological filter of C. parvum and G. lamblia was tested under three grazing pressures (one, two, or four D. pulicaria grazers per 66 ml). (Oo)cysts (1 × 104 per 66 ml) were added to each grazing bottle along with the algal food Selenastrum capricornutum (6.6 × 104 cells per 66 ml) to stimulate normal grazing. Bottles were rotated (2 rpm) to prevent settling of (oo)cysts and algae for 24 h (a light:dark cycle of 16 h:8 h) at 20°C. The impact of D. pulicaria grazing on (oo)cysts was assessed by (i) (oo)cyst clearance rates, (ii) (oo)cyst viability, (iii) (oo)cyst excystation, and (iv) oocyst infectivity in cell culture. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the total number of C. parvum oocysts by 52% and G. lamblia cysts by 44%. Furthermore, two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased C. parvum excystation and infectivity by 5% and 87%, respectively. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the viability of G. lamblia cysts by 52%, but analysis of G. lamblia excystation was confounded by observed mechanical disruption of the cysts after grazing. No mechanical disruption of the C. parvum oocysts was observed, presumably due to their smaller size. The data provide strong evidence that zooplankton grazers have the potential to substantially decrease the population of infectious C. parvum and G. lamblia in freshwater ecosystems.

Connelly, S. J.; Wolyniak, E. A.; Dieter, K. L.; Williamson, C. E.; Jellison, K. L.

2007-01-01

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Impact of zooplankton grazing on the excystation, viability, and infectivity of the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Very little is known about the ability of the zooplankton grazer Daphnia pulicaria to reduce populations of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface waters. The potential for D. pulicaria to act as a biological filter of C. parvum and G. lamblia was tested under three grazing pressures (one, two, or four D. pulicaria grazers per 66 ml). (Oo)cysts (1 x 10(4) per 66 ml) were added to each grazing bottle along with the algal food Selenastrum capricornutum (6.6 x 10(4) cells per 66 ml) to stimulate normal grazing. Bottles were rotated (2 rpm) to prevent settling of (oo)cysts and algae for 24 h (a light:dark cycle of 16 h:8 h) at 20 degrees C. The impact of D. pulicaria grazing on (oo)cysts was assessed by (i) (oo)cyst clearance rates, (ii) (oo)cyst viability, (iii) (oo)cyst excystation, and (iv) oocyst infectivity in cell culture. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the total number of C. parvum oocysts by 52% and G. lamblia cysts by 44%. Furthermore, two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased C. parvum excystation and infectivity by 5% and 87%, respectively. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the viability of G. lamblia cysts by 52%, but analysis of G. lamblia excystation was confounded by observed mechanical disruption of the cysts after grazing. No mechanical disruption of the C. parvum oocysts was observed, presumably due to their smaller size. The data provide strong evidence that zooplankton grazers have the potential to substantially decrease the population of infectious C. parvum and G. lamblia in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:17873076

Connelly, S J; Wolyniak, E A; Dieter, K L; Williamson, C E; Jellison, K L

2007-09-14

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Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5%) of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 17 (24.3%) patients had functional dyspepsia (FD) according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%), A-IBS (45.5%) and C-IBS (7.6%). Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7%) patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7%) patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS), and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

Hanevik Kurt; Dizdar Vernesa; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine). Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites). This effect was inhibited (>90%) by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM) and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml). Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively). A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml) was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM). The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM). These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

P.D. Fernandes; J. Assreuy

1997-01-01

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Rapid and sensitive detection of Giardia lamblia using a piezoelectric cantilever biosensor in finished and source waters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current method for detecting the waterborne parasite Giardia lamblia is tedious and requires a preconcentration step. We show for the first time a piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever (PEMC) biosensor immobilized with a monoclonal antibody against G. lamblia that exhibits selective and sensitive detection of G. lamblia cysts in several water matrixes (buffer, tap, and river water) at a detection limit of 1-10 cysts/mL without a preconcentration step. The PEMC sensor is a resonance-based device that functions at a high-order mode near 1 MHz. The antibody-immobilized sensor was exposed to 1-10,000 G. lamblia cysts/mL samples in a flow arrangement. When the cysts bind to the antibody on the sensor, the resonant frequency of the cantilever sensor decreases and is recorded continuously. Positive confirmation of sensor detection responses was obtained by environmental scanning electron microscope of sensor surface after detection experiments. Higher sample flow rates (0.5-5.0 mL/min) gave higher sensor detection response. Detecting as few as 10 cysts per mL was achieved in all three water matrixes tested, and significant sensor response was obtained in 15 min. We also show the feasibility of analyzing at a low concentration of 1 cyst/mL in a one liter sample at a high flow rate of 5 mL/min.

Xu S; Mutharasan R

2010-03-01

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Actividad lactásica en niños con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, de corte transversal y analítico, con el propósito de establecer posibles diferencias en el comportamiento de la actividad lactásica en niños menores de 2 años con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia tratados en el Servicio de Diarreas del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Dr. Ángel A. Aballí", en el período de diciembre de 1994 a noviembre de 1995. Se determinaron los niveles de la actividad enzimática según diferentes categ (more) orías de variables de caracterización del niño y su enfermedad. Los resultados permitieron afirmar su reducción en estos niños, y que tal actividad tiene un comportamiento diferencial asociado con la edad, estado nutricional y grado de atrofia de la mucosa. Abstract in english A prospective analytical cross-sectional study was made with the objective of setting likely differences in Beta-galactosidase performance in under 2 years-old children admitted with diarrheal disease due to Giardia lamblia to «Ángel A. Aballí» Teaching Pediatric Hospital?s Diarrhea Service Unit from December 1994 to November 1995. Levels of the enzime activity were determined according to the several characterization variable categories of the child and hi (more) s disease. The outcome showed the decline in diarrheal disease in thesechildren and the different performance patterns of this enzime depending on age, nutrition and mucosa atrophic level.

Izquierdo Estévez, Arnaldo; Hernández Fernández, Carlos M.; León García, Ramiro E.; Padrón Concepción, Tomás L.

1998-03-01

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Actividad lactásica en niños con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, de corte transversal y analítico, con el propósito de establecer posibles diferencias en el comportamiento de la actividad lactásica en niños menores de 2 años con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia tratados en el Servicio de Diarreas del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Dr. Ángel A. Aballí", en el período de diciembre de 1994 a noviembre de 1995. Se determinaron los niveles de la actividad enzimática según diferentes categorías de variables de caracterización del niño y su enfermedad. Los resultados permitieron afirmar su reducción en estos niños, y que tal actividad tiene un comportamiento diferencial asociado con la edad, estado nutricional y grado de atrofia de la mucosa.A prospective analytical cross-sectional study was made with the objective of setting likely differences in Beta-galactosidase performance in under 2 years-old children admitted with diarrheal disease due to Giardia lamblia to «Ángel A. Aballí» Teaching Pediatric Hospital’s Diarrhea Service Unit from December 1994 to November 1995. Levels of the enzime activity were determined according to the several characterization variable categories of the child and his disease. The outcome showed the decline in diarrheal disease in thesechildren and the different performance patterns of this enzime depending on age, nutrition and mucosa atrophic level.

Arnaldo Izquierdo Estévez; Carlos M. Hernández Fernández; Ramiro E. León García; Tomás L. Padrón Concepción

1998-01-01

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Citocinas séricas en niños infectados con Giardia Lamblia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introdución: La giardiasis intestinal es un problema de salud pública en los países en desarrollo. Aunque los mecanismos de inmunidad innata y adquirida son necesarios para el control de la infección, son escasos los estudios sobre la participación de las citocinas Th1 y Th2 en el control de la infección en humanos. Objetivo: Determinar en niños infectados con Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) las concentraciones séricas de las citocinas Th1 (IL-2 e IFNgamma) y Th2 (IL (more) -4 e IL-10). Métodos: Se seleccionaron 101 niños (3-6 años; F=52, M=49) nutricionalmente eutróficos; 62 niños no parasitados y 39 niños con trofozoitos y/o quistes de G. lamblia según estudio coproparasitológico. Las concentraciones séricas de IFN-gamma, IL-4 e IL-10 (pg/mL) fueron determinadas por el método ELISA y la IL-2 (U/mL) por el método EAISA. Para comparar las medias de los grupos se utilizó la prueba t de Student. Se consideró el 95% de confiabilidad estadística (p Abstract in english Introduction: Intestinal giardiasis is a public health problem in developing countries. Although the innate and adaptative immunity mechanisms are necessary for proper control of the infection, few studies have been published in humans on the role of cytokine Th1-Th2 in infection control. The aim of the present study was to analyze the serum concentration of Th1 cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) in euthrophic children infected or not with Giardia lamb (more) lia (G. lamblia). Methods:Were analyzed 101 children (3-6y; F=52, M=49) nutritionally eutrophic. Sixty two children free of G. lamblia and 39 infected. The serum concentration of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 (pg/mL) were determined by ELISA method and IL-2 (U/mL) by EAISA method. The Student?s t test was applied to compare the groups. We considered 95% statistical significance (p

Leal M, Jorymar; Ortega, Pablo; Romero A, Tania

2008-03-01

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Effects of albendazole on Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Albendazole, a benzimidazole carbamate commonly used for the treatment and control of intestinal helminthic infections, is also useful for the treatment of giardiasis. Therefore, it is of interest to determine whether the drug has activity against other intestinal protozoa, such as E. histolytica. The present results demonstrate that albendazole inhibits the growth of E. histolytica trophozoites in axenic cultures and induces fine structural changes such as polyribosome aggregation and loss of cytoplasmic vacuoles at concentrations up to 10 micrograms/ml. The viability of E. histolytica trophozoites was not affected by the drug. In contrast, lower concentrations of albendazole showed dramatic effects on G. lamblia trophozoites. These included loss of adhesiveness, striking modifications of the overall morphology of giardias, disassembly of the ventral disk, and loss of viability after prolonged treatment. The results provide further evidence on the potent antigiardial activity of albendazole and indicate that, at the concentrations used, the drug has no antiamebic activity.

Chávez B; Espinosa-Cantellano M; Cedillo Rivera R; Ramírez A; Martínez-Palomo A

1992-01-01

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Detection and Genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by Oligonucleotide Microarray  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection an...

Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J.; Stenger, David A.

48

Sensitive and rapid detection of Giardia lamblia infection in pet dogs using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia is recognized as one of the most prevalent parasites in dogs. The present study aimed to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and specific detection of G. lamblia from dogs. The fecal samples were collected and prepared for microscopic analysis, and then the genomic DNA was extracted directly from purified cysts. The concentration of DNA samples of G. lamblia were diluted by 10-fold serially ranging from 10(-1) to 10(-5) ng/µl for LAMP and PCR assays. The LAMP assay allows the amplification to be finished within 60 min under isothermal conditions of 63? by employing 6 oligonucleotide primers designed based on G. lamblia elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1?) gene sequence. Our tests showed that the specific amplification products were obtained only with G. lamblia, while no amplification products were detected with DNA of other related protozoans. Sensitivity evaluation indicated that the LAMP assay was sensitive 10 times more than PCR. It is concluded that LAMP is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific DNA amplification technique for detection of G. lamblia, which has implications for effective control and prevention of giardiasis.

Li J; Wang P; Zhang A; Zhang P; Alsarakibi M; Li G

2013-04-01

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Structure of a cyclin-dependent kinase from Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a water-borne infection that is prevalent throughout the world. The need for new therapeutics for the treatment of giardiasis is of paramount importance. Owing to the ubiquitous nature of kinases and their vital importance in organisms, they are potential drug targets. In this paper, the first structure of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) from G. lamblia (GlCDK; UniProt A8BZ95) is presented. CDKs are cell-cycle-associated kinases that are actively being pursued as targets for anticancer drugs as well as for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Generally, a CDK forms a complex with its associated cyclin. This CDK-cyclin complex is active and acts as a serine/threonine protein kinase. Typically, CDKs are responsible for the transition to the next phase of the cell cycle. Although the structure of GlCDK with its associated cyclin was not solved, the 1.85 Å resolution structure of apo GlCDK and a 2.0 Å resolution structure of GlCDK in complex with adenosine monophosphate are presented and the structural differences from the orthologous human CDK2 and CDK3 are discussed.

Leibly DJ; Newling PA; Abendroth J; Guo W; Kelley A; Stewart LJ; Van Voorhis W

2011-09-01

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Proteomic analysis of the ventral disc of Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia is a multiflagellated protozoan that inhabits the small intestine of vertebrates, causing giardiasis. To colonize the small intestine, the trophozoites form of the parasite remains attached to intestinal epithelial cells by means of cytoskeletal elements that form a structure known as the ventral disc. Previous studies have shown that the ventral disc is made of tubulin and giardins. Results To obtain further information on the composition of the ventral disc, we developed a new protocol and evaluated the purity of the isolation by transmission electron microscopy. Using 1D- and 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry, we identified proteins with functions associated with the disc. In addition to finding tubulin and giardin, proteins known to be associated with the ventral disc, we also identified proteins annotated in the Giardia genome, but whose function was previously unknown. Conclusions The isolation of the ventral disc shown in this work, compared to previously published protocols, proved to be more efficient. Proteomic analysis showed the presence of several proteins whose further characterization may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the attachment of the protozoan to epithelial cells.

Lourenço Daniela; Andrade Iamara; Terra Letícia; Guimarães Patricia; Zingali Russolina; de Souza Wanderley

2012-01-01

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In vivo determination of the gap2 gene promoter activity in Giardia lamblia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A shuttle vector for Escherichia coli and Giardia lamblia was modified to produce a reporter plasmid, which monitors the expression of prescribed gene in G. lamblia by measuring its luciferase activity. Promoter regions of the gap2 gene, one of the genes induced during encystation, were cloned into ...

Yang, Hye-Won; Kim, Juri; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Soon-Jung

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CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CDNA ENCODING GIARDIA LAMBLIA d-GIARDIN  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA coding for d-giardin was cloned from Giardia lamblia trophozoites in order to localize the protein and study its function in mediating surface attachment. Recombinant d-giardin antigen was produced in Escherichia coli as a poly-histidine fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatogr...

53

Tetracyclines as antiparasitic agents: lipophilic derivatives are highly active against Giardia lamblia in vitro.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparisons of the inhibitory activities of different tetracyclines have been reported for Plasmodium falciparum but no other parasites. The in vitro response of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia to six tetracyclines in current use was determined. In addition, the experimental drug thiacycline...

Edlind, T D

54

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C (more) 9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

Quintero, Jael; Figueroa, Diana Carolina; Barcelo, Rafael; Breci, Linda; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto; Rascon, Lucila; Robles-Zepeda, Ramon; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique; Avila, Gloria Leon; Hernandez-Hernandez, Jose Manuel; Velazquez, Carlos

2013-08-01

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Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule. PMID:23903978

Quintero, Jael; Figueroa, Diana Carolina; Barcelo, Rafael; Breci, Linda; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto; Rascon, Lucila; Robles-Zepeda, Ramon; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique; Avila, Gloria Leon; Hernandez-Hernandez, Jose Manuel; Velazquez, Carlos

2013-08-01

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Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

Quintero J; Figueroa DC; Barcelo R; Breci L; Astiazaran-Garcia H; Rascon L; Robles-Zepeda R; Garibay-Escobar A; Velazquez-Contreras E; Avila GL; Hernandez-Hernandez JM; Velazquez C

2013-08-01

57

Prevalence of Giardia lamblia in Different Water Sources of District Nowshehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is a cosmopolitan parasite that occurs worldwide and generally effects gastrointestinal tract. Water played a media for transmission of Giardia to different hosts. A total of 300 water samples were examined from different water sources, i.e. tap, open well, bore well and drain waters and DNA was extracted by trizol method through prescribed protocol. DNA was amplified through PCR. The overall prevalence of G. lamblia was 27.66% (83/300). Among these 2.5% (1/40) in bore well water, 29% (29/100) open well, 18.83% (11/60) tap water and 42% (42/100) drain water. It is concluded from the study that Giardia is frequently found in all water sources and is the main cause of ill health.

khan, Shaukat Ali; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Khan, Imran

2012-12-01

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In Vitro Effects of Metronidazole and Albendazole on Giardia lamblia Isolated from Iranian Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and albendazole against clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia in vitro. Methods: From all human samples of containing cysts, 10 isolates were successfully excysted in vitro. Trophozites viability was assessed by eosine 0.1% and cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 modified medium supplemented with heat inactivated bovine serum 10%. All cultures were incubated in 37°C for 24-48 h. After this time trophozoites were exposed to different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 2, 10, 50 µg/ml) of drugs at 37º for 4 h.  The IC50 estimated between 0.1 and 10µg/ml for metronidazole and 0.062 and 0.1 µg/ml for albendazole. Results: Eight isolates were found susceptible to the metronidazole while all isolates were found susceptible to the albendazole. Statistical results indicated that there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the sensitivity to metronidazole and albendazole in all isolates.

F Mohamadnezhad; F Ghaffarifar; A Dalimi

2008-01-01

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In Vitro Effect of Folic Acid and Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) on Adhesion and Growth of Giardia lamblia  

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Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal protozoan parasites infecting human in the world. The goal of this study was searching for in-vitro effect of folic acid and cobalamin on adhesion and growth of G. lamblia as two important mechanisms in the pathogenesis in TYI-S-33 medium. G. lamb...

R Khademi; F Ghaffarifar; H Dalimi Asl

60

Structure-activity relationships of pentamidine analogs against Giardia lamblia and correlation of antigiardial activity with DNA-binding affinity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1,5-Di(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (pentamidine) and 38 analogs of pentamidine were screened for in vitro activity against the enteric protozoan Giardia lamblia WB (ATCC 30957). All compounds were active against G. lamblia as measured by a [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Antigiardial activity...

Bell, C A; Cory, M; Fairley, T A; Hall, J E; Tidwell, R R

 
 
 
 
61

Simultaneous Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Fecal Samples by Using Multiplex Real-Time PCR  

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Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium are three of the most important diarrhea-causing parasitic protozoa. For many years, microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the “gold standard” for diagnosis of E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum infection...

Verweij, Jaco J.; Blangé, Roy A.; Templeton, Kate; Schinkel, Janke; Brienen, Eric A. T.; van Rooyen, Marianne A. A.

62

[Comparison of 4 techniques for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in stool of children from Belem city, Para State, Brazil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination with lugol showed lower positivity, while the method of Faust et al. Continues to be a good option for G. lamblia diagnosis and Immunoenzymatic assay increases the detection of this parasite.

Machado RL; Figueredo MC; Frade AF; Kudó ME; Silva Filho MG; Póvoa MM

2001-01-01

63

Lectin Activation in Giardia lamblia by Host Protease: A Novel Host-Parasite Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

A lectin in Giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. Incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. Accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and Pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. When activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. The lectin was most specific to mannose-6-phosphate and apparently was bound to the plasma membrane. Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of hostparasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site.

Lev, Boaz; Ward, Honorine; Keusch, Gerald T.; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

1986-04-01

64

Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua destilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial). Los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente. La combinación de buffer de lisis E y Chelex fue un método simple y económico, que produjo alto rendimiento de ADN con baja pureza. Ella técnica comercial fue un método simple, más costoso que produjo bajas cantidades de ADN con un nivel de pureza apropiado para estudios molecularesThe efficiency of lysis procedures and DNA purification treatments of Giardia lamblia trophozoites were evaluated regarding the breaking-up efficiency, quantity and pureness of DNA, processing time and costs. Five lysis methods (distilled water and heating; distilled water, heating and proteinase K; buffer D Lysis; buffer E lysis, and commercial kit), and three DNA purification methods (phenol:chloroform:isoamilic, Chelex 100 and commercial kit) were tested. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. The buffer E lysis and Chelex combination was simple and economic method which produced high DNA performance with low pureness. Commercial kit was simple and expensive method which generated low yields of DNA with appropriate purity level for molecular analysis

NORA B MOLINA; DANIELA POLVERINO; MARTA C MINVIELLE; MARÍA APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO AGUILAR; JUAN A BASUALDO

2006-01-01

65

The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanol Extracts of Eucalyptus, Satureia Hortensis and Heracleum Glabrescens on Giardia Cysts  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Giardiasis is a parasitic infection of smallintestine, with a worldwide distribution and the prevalence of Giardia indifferent parts of the world varies between 1 to 25%. Plants have the vastrange of antimicrobial and antifungal activity that can be identified asalternative treatments for bacterial and parasitic pathogens, the same asGiardia. In this study, the methanol extracts of eucalyptus plants, Satureiahortensis and Heracleum glabrescens, on Giardia cysts were studied in vitro.Material and Methods: The cysts were isolated from the feces using amodified Bingham. After counting by Hemusytumetr, they were placed nearby 200 mg / ml, 100 mg / ml and 10 mg / ml of the extracts prepared byDMSO for 30 and 60 minutes. Then, the number of dead and live cysts wascounted under a microscope.Results: the fatality effect of the extracts in 60 minutes is higher than thoseof 30 minutes. The methanol extracts of Satureia hortensis, Eucalyptus andHeracleum glabrescens with the dilution of 200 mg/ml in 60 mins have thefatality effect of 84/3%, 63/3% and 44%, respectively. The highestfatality(84.3%) on Giardia cysts is related to Satureia hortensis with thedilution of 200 mg/ml in 60 mins and the Lowest(27%) is related toHeracleum glabrescens with the dilution of 10 mg/ml in 30-minute period.The significant relationship between the plant type and the fatality ofmethanol extracts is observed.Conclusion: the methanol extracts of Eucalyptus, Heracleum glabrescensand especially Satureia hortensis have anti-parasitic effects in the laboratoryconditions. Thus, they can be used in the future, instead of the chemicalantiparasitic drugs.Key words: Antibacterial Giardia lamblia cysts, Eucalyptus, Satureiahortensis, Heracleum glabrescens, Tonekabon

Safarnejad Tameshkel, F.; Khatami Nejad, MR.; Nasrollahi, A.; Rahdari, P; Gholam Hossein Poor, F; kazemi Afarmejani, S; Rahnavard A

2012-01-01

66

Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley The effect of malnourishment on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN) se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN) la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados.Objective. To assess the effect of malnutrition on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, using different inoculum sizes of Giardia lamblia cysts. Material and Methods. An experimental study was conducted between 1995 and 1999 at Centro de Investigación, Alimentación y Desarrollo (Center for Research, Food, and Development), in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The study population consisted of two groups of six to eight experimental units that were fed two different diets and inoculated five different concentrations of Giardia lamblia cysts. Data were collected on excretion of cysts, weight gain, food intake, bowel contents, and macro and microscopic lesions in the intestinal mucosa. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance and residuals. Results. Animals fed with a diet meeting nutritional requirements required an infecting inoculum of 60 cysts, while malnourished rats required only six cysts to develop mucosal lesions. Conclusions. Weight gain monitored during ten days was not a good indicator of Giardia lamblia infection. Infection depended on cyst inoculum size as well as on the nutritional status of the tested animals.

Martha Elvia Díaz-Cinco; Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vázquez; Rosalba Pérez-Morales; Verónica Mata-Haro

2002-01-01

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Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients exclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin concentration, and relative and absolute number of eosinophils and lymphocytes. No significant differences in the mean values of MCV, hemoglobin levels and absolute relative lymphocyte numbers between the two groups could be detected. When the giardiasis and control groups were separated by pediatric (0-18 years old) and adult (older than 18 years) classes, a very significant difference in both relative and absolute number of eosinophils in the adult class was observed. With respect of the pediatric class, no differences, either in relative and absolute number of eosinophils, could be observed. Our findings suggest that, during G. lamblia infection, some kind of parasite allergen(s) could be secreted and be responsible for the increasing of eosinophil counts in peripheral blood of adults.Até este momento poucos relatos de alterações hematológicas causadas pela Giardia lamblia têm sido descritos. Procuramos então avaliar alguns parâmetros hematológicos em pacientes infectados exclusivamente com G. lamblia (n=55), provenientes do Hospital Universitário, comparando-os com pacientes, pareados por sexo e idade, sem nenhum parasitismo (n=55). Foram avaliados: volume corpuscular médio (VCM), níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de eosinófilos e linfócitos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os valores médios de VCM, níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de linfócitos para os dois grupos estudados. No caso dos eosinófilos, tanto as contagens relativas quanto as absolutas diferiram significativamente nas faixas etárias acima de 18 anos (percentagem média de eosinófilos de 8,1 para pacientes com giardíase, e de 3,1 para pacientes não-parasitados, com P=0,0042; e contagens absolutas com média de 609 para pacientes com giardíase, comparado com média de 257, para pacientes-controle, com P=0,0120). No caso de faixas etárias abaixo de 18 anos não foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre os dois grupos. Diante disto, nossos achados sugerem que a G. lamblia poderia secretar um ou mais alérgenos, que seriam responsáveis pelo aumento do número de eosinófilos no sangue periférico de pessoas adultas, e que tal fenômeno deva ser melhor avaliado em crianças

Jairo Ivo dos Santos; Cidônia de Lourdes Vituri

1996-01-01

68

Video-microscopy observations of fast dynamic processes in the protozoon Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Video-microscopy in combination with digital image processing was used to analyze dynamic processes associated to the life cycle of Giardia lamblia trophozoites. These parasites swim and attach to the epithelial cells, producing the disease known as Giardiasis. Giardia is a multiflagellar cell, presenting 4 pairs of flagella. With the use of analogue and digital tools, we observed that in cells attached to glass slides only 2 of the 4 pairs present active beating (wave propagation). The frequency observed was 17-18 Hz to the anterior and 8-11 Hz to the ventral flagella. These data resulted from several hours of recording using both analogue video and high-speed digital camera. The caudal pair did not show active beating patterns and the same holds true for the posterior one. In this latter pair, oscillations were observed, but they were always associated to the transit of the wave produced by the ventral pair. The analysis performed with free moving cells showed that during its forward dislocation, Giardia lamblia presented either a lateral rocking or a complete rotational (tumbling) movement around its longitudinal axis. A dislocation of the caudal region of the cell both in the lateral and dorso-ventral direction was observed. This movement was completely independent from the flagellar beating and it is likely to be produced by a microtubular complex located in the caudal portion of the cell. The adhesion process of Giardia lamblia was also followed by video-microscopy and the data showed that the ventral disk had an active participation in this process.

Campanati L; Holloschi A; Troster H; Spring H; de Souza W; Monteiro-Leal LH

2002-04-01

69

A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constri (more) cting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

Solari, Alberto J.; Rahn, Monica I.; Saura, Alicia; Lujan, Hugo D.

2003-12-01

70

A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope  

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Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

Alberto J. Solari; Monica I. Rahn; Alicia Saura; Hugo D. Lujan

2003-01-01

71

Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%). A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052), number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015), number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059), food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024), day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034), living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03) and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012). Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA), 44 (9,9%) apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052), número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015), número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059), higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024), usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034), ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03) e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012). Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada.

Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira; Edward Robert Atwill; Alverne Passos Barbosa

2007-01-01

72

Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil/ Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e a (more) s variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA), 44 (9,9%) apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052), número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015), número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059), higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024), usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034), ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03) e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012). Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemograph (more) ic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%). A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052), number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015), number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059), food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024), day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034), living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03) and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012). Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.

Pereira, Maria das Graças Cabral; Atwill, Edward Robert; Barbosa, Alverne Passos

2007-06-01

73

A reprofiled drug, auranofin, is effective against metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. Treatment is primarily with 5-nitro antimicrobials, particularly metronidazole. Resistance to metronidazole has been described, and treatment failures can occur in up to 20% of cases, making development of alternative antigiardials an important goal. To this end, we have screened a chemical library of 746 approved human drugs and 164 additional bioactive compounds for activity against Giardia lamblia. We identified 56 compounds that caused significant inhibition of G. lamblia growth and attachment. Of these, 15 were previously reported to have antigiardial activity, 20 were bioactive but not approved for human use, and 21 were drugs approved for human use for other indications. One notable compound of the last group was the antirheumatic drug auranofin. Further testing revealed that auranofin was active in the low (4 to 6)-micromolar range against a range of divergent G. lamblia isolates representing both human-pathogenic assemblages A and B. Most importantly, auranofin was active against multiple metronidazole-resistant strains. Mechanistically, auranofin blocked the activity of giardial thioredoxin oxidoreductase, a critical enzyme involved in maintaining normal protein function and combating oxidative damage, suggesting that this inhibition contributes to the antigiardial activity. Furthermore, auranofin was efficacious in vivo, as it eradicated infection with different G. lamblia isolates in different rodent models. These results indicate that the approved human drug auranofin could be developed as a novel agent in the armamentarium of antigiardial drugs, particularly against metronidazole-resistant strains.

Tejman-Yarden N; Miyamoto Y; Leitsch D; Santini J; Debnath A; Gut J; McKerrow JH; Reed SL; Eckmann L

2013-05-01

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A reprofiled drug, auranofin, is effective against metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. Treatment is primarily with 5-nitro antimicrobials, particularly metronidazole. Resistance to metronidazole has been described, and treatment failures can occur in up to 20% of cases, making development of alternative antigiardials an important goal. To this end, we have screened a chemical library of 746 approved human drugs and 164 additional bioactive compounds for activity against Giardia lamblia. We identified 56 compounds that caused significant inhibition of G. lamblia growth and attachment. Of these, 15 were previously reported to have antigiardial activity, 20 were bioactive but not approved for human use, and 21 were drugs approved for human use for other indications. One notable compound of the last group was the antirheumatic drug auranofin. Further testing revealed that auranofin was active in the low (4 to 6)-micromolar range against a range of divergent G. lamblia isolates representing both human-pathogenic assemblages A and B. Most importantly, auranofin was active against multiple metronidazole-resistant strains. Mechanistically, auranofin blocked the activity of giardial thioredoxin oxidoreductase, a critical enzyme involved in maintaining normal protein function and combating oxidative damage, suggesting that this inhibition contributes to the antigiardial activity. Furthermore, auranofin was efficacious in vivo, as it eradicated infection with different G. lamblia isolates in different rodent models. These results indicate that the approved human drug auranofin could be developed as a novel agent in the armamentarium of antigiardial drugs, particularly against metronidazole-resistant strains. PMID:23403423

Tejman-Yarden, Noa; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Leitsch, David; Santini, Jennifer; Debnath, Anjan; Gut, Jiri; McKerrow, James H; Reed, Sharon L; Eckmann, Lars

2013-02-12

75

Trends of amino acid usage in the proteins from the unicellular parasite Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Correspondence analysis of amino acid frequencies was applied to 75 complete coding sequences from the unicellular parasite Giardia lamblia, and it was found that three major factors influence the variability of amino acidic composition of proteins. The first trend strongly correlated with (a) the cysteine content and (b) the mean weight of the amino acids used in each protein. The second trend correlated with the global levels of hydropathy and aromaticity of each protein. Both axes might be related with the defense of the parasite to oxygen free radicals. Finally, the third trend correlated with the expressivity of each gene, indicating that in G. lamblia highly expressed sequences display a tendency to preferentially use a subset of the total amino acids. PMID:11162464

Garat, B; Musto, H

2000-12-29

76

Trends of amino acid usage in the proteins from the unicellular parasite Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Correspondence analysis of amino acid frequencies was applied to 75 complete coding sequences from the unicellular parasite Giardia lamblia, and it was found that three major factors influence the variability of amino acidic composition of proteins. The first trend strongly correlated with (a) the cysteine content and (b) the mean weight of the amino acids used in each protein. The second trend correlated with the global levels of hydropathy and aromaticity of each protein. Both axes might be related with the defense of the parasite to oxygen free radicals. Finally, the third trend correlated with the expressivity of each gene, indicating that in G. lamblia highly expressed sequences display a tendency to preferentially use a subset of the total amino acids.

Garat B; Musto H

2000-12-01

77

Characterization of an immunodominant Giardia lamblia protein antigen related to alpha giardin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The trophozoites of Giardia lamblia possess several protein antigens, predominant among them a protein of approximately 32,000 Da. In the present study, we used monospecific antibodies that recognize this protein to demonstrate its presence on a variety of G. lamblia isolates from human and animal sources. Immune electron microscopy was used to localize 32-kDa antigen on the trophozoite membrane and disk. Immunofluorescent assays employing monospecific antibodies confirmed the presence of 32-kDa antigen on the membrane and disk and its absence on flagella or nuclei. The N-terminal 17 amino acids of the 32-kDa antigen are identical to alpha-1-giardin, a protein component of microribbons on the ventral disk. These results suggest that the 32-kDa immunodominant trophozoite antigen is alpha-1-giardin.

Wenman WM; Meuser RU; Nyugen Q; Kilani RT; el-Shewy K; Sherburne R

1993-01-01

78

Sensitive Detection of Giardia Cysts by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)  

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Full Text Available Giardia is one of the most common human parasites and causes a lengthly course of nonbacterial diarrhea. Disease outbreaks due to Giardia infection are often attributed to contaminated water supplies. A major problem associated with detection for this organism is the lack of sensitive and reliable methods. PCR has the potential to address many of the limitations.We have performed a PCR-based method for sensitive detection of Giardia cysts. Because the sensitivity of PCR is a function of the efficiency of DNA extraction from cysts, we have also compared some different methods for DNA extraction from the cysts. Giardia cysts were collected from infected human, partially purified and serially diluted samples were prepared. DNA was extracted by 3 different methods and we found that simple repeated freezing and thawing was the best method for extraction of DNA from the cysts. A 163 bp conserved fragment related to the giardial heat shock protein (HSP70) gene was used as the target for PCR amplification. We were able to detect as few as 5 cysts in the samples. The results suggest the potential utilities of PCR for sensitive detection of Giardia in water sources.

M Nikaeen; AR Mesdaghinia; M Jeddi Tehrani; M Rezaian; F Vaezi

2003-01-01

79

A contiguous compartment functions as endoplasmic reticulum and endosome/lysosome in Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed to have pluripotent functions. Using transfected reporter constructs, organelle-specific markers, and functional enzyme assays, we now show that in an early-diverging protozoan, Giardia lamblia, endocytosis and subsequent degradation of exogenous proteins occur in the ER or in an adjacent and communicating compartment. The Giardia endomembrane system is simple compared to those of typical eukaryotes. It lacks peroxisomes, a classical Golgi apparatus, and canonical lysosomes. Giardia orthologues of mammalian lysosomal proteases function within an ER-like tubulovesicular compartment, which itself can dynamically communicate with clathrin-containing vacuoles at the periphery of the cell to receive endocytosed proteins. These primitive characteristics support Giardia's proposed early branching and could serve as a model to study the compartmentalization of endocytic and lysosomal functions into organelles distinct from the ER. This system also may have functional similarity to the retrograde transport of toxins and major histocompatibility complex class I function in the ER of mammals.

Abodeely M; DuBois KN; Hehl A; Stefanic S; Sajid M; DeSouza W; Attias M; Engel JC; Hsieh I; Fetter RD; McKerrow JH

2009-11-01

80

A Contiguous Compartment Functions as Endoplasmic Reticulum and Endosome/Lysosome in Giardia lamblia? †  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed to have pluripotent functions. Using transfected reporter constructs, organelle-specific markers, and functional enzyme assays, we now show that in an early-diverging protozoan, Giardia lamblia, endocytosis and subsequent degradation of exogenous proteins occur in the ER or in an adjacent and communicating compartment. The Giardia endomembrane system is simple compared to those of typical eukaryotes. It lacks peroxisomes, a classical Golgi apparatus, and canonical lysosomes. Giardia orthologues of mammalian lysosomal proteases function within an ER-like tubulovesicular compartment, which itself can dynamically communicate with clathrin-containing vacuoles at the periphery of the cell to receive endocytosed proteins. These primitive characteristics support Giardia's proposed early branching and could serve as a model to study the compartmentalization of endocytic and lysosomal functions into organelles distinct from the ER. This system also may have functional similarity to the retrograde transport of toxins and major histocompatibility complex class I function in the ER of mammals.

Abodeely, Marla; DuBois, Kelly N.; Hehl, Adrian; Stefanic, Sasa; Sajid, Mohammed; deSouza, Wanderley; Attias, Marcia; Engel, Juan C.; Hsieh, Ivy; Fetter, Richard D.; McKerrow, James H.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A contiguous compartment functions as endoplasmic reticulum and endosome/lysosome in Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed to have pluripotent functions. Using transfected reporter constructs, organelle-specific markers, and functional enzyme assays, we now show that in an early-diverging protozoan, Giardia lamblia, endocytosis and subsequent degradation of exogenous proteins occur in the ER or in an adjacent and communicating compartment. The Giardia endomembrane system is simple compared to those of typical eukaryotes. It lacks peroxisomes, a classical Golgi apparatus, and canonical lysosomes. Giardia orthologues of mammalian lysosomal proteases function within an ER-like tubulovesicular compartment, which itself can dynamically communicate with clathrin-containing vacuoles at the periphery of the cell to receive endocytosed proteins. These primitive characteristics support Giardia's proposed early branching and could serve as a model to study the compartmentalization of endocytic and lysosomal functions into organelles distinct from the ER. This system also may have functional similarity to the retrograde transport of toxins and major histocompatibility complex class I function in the ER of mammals. PMID:19749174

Abodeely, Marla; DuBois, Kelly N; Hehl, Adrian; Stefanic, Sasa; Sajid, Mohammed; DeSouza, Wanderley; Attias, Marcia; Engel, Juan C; Hsieh, Ivy; Fetter, Richard D; McKerrow, James H

2009-09-11

82

Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality  

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Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

N. Abreu Acosta; Macrina Martín Delgado; Antonio Ortega Rivas; Antonio del Castillo Remiro; Escolástico Aguiar González; Basilio Valladares Hernández

2002-01-01

83

Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

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Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal) en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %), de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología.The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy) on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %). Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %). It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

Nazarina Ivonne Méndez Pérez; José L. Calunga Fernández; Silvia Menéndez Cepero

2003-01-01

84

Detection and genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by oligonucleotide microarray.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. In this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and discriminating between E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, G. lamblia assemblages A and B, and C. parvum types 1 and 2 in a single assay. Unique hybridization patterns for each selected protozoan were generated by amplifying six to eight diagnostic sequences/organism by multiplex PCR; fluorescent labeling of the amplicons via primer extension; and subsequent hybridization to a set of genus-, species-, and subtype-specific covalently immobilized oligonucleotide probes. The profile-based specificity of this methodology not only permitted for the unequivocal identification of the six targeted species and subtypes, but also demonstrated its potential in identifying related species such as Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Cryptosporidium muris. In addition, sensitivity assays demonstrated lower detection limits of five trophozoites of G. lamblia. Taken together, the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray-based approach suggest that this methodology may provide a promising tool to detect and genotype protozoa from clinical and environmental samples.

Wang Z; Vora GJ; Stenger DA

2004-07-01

85

Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between giardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by Giardia lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of Giardia lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with Giardia lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Souza VM; Sales IR; Peixoto DM; Costa VM; Rizzo JA; Silva AR; Camilo RF; Pierotti FF; Solé D; Sarinho ES

2012-05-01

86

Immunodominant proteins ?-1 giardin and ?-giardin are expressed in both assemblages A and B of Giardia lamblia  

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BACKGROUND: To date, eight assemblages of Giardia lamblia have been described, but only assemblages A and B are known to infect humans. Despite the fact that the genomic, biological, and clinical differences found between these two assemblages has raised the possibility that they may be considered d...

Feliziani, Constanza; Merino, María C; Rivero, María R; Hellman, Ulf; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Rópolo, Andrea S

87

Conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia/ Knowledge, perceptions and practice of dermatologists with respect to Giardia lamblia infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: conocer sobre los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia. MÉTODOS: previo consentimiento informado de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana, a un número próximo al universo de estos (50 de 58), se le aplicó una encuesta sobre conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas en relación con esta parasitosis. La preparación de la encuesta pasó por 4 fases: entrevista (more) s a médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis; preparación de un cuestionario preliminar sobre la base de los resultados de esas entrevistas; sometimiento del instrumento a criterio de expertos; y validación de este mediante su aplicación a un pequeño grupo de galenos. RESULTADOS: se evidenció que en relación con la giardiasis y, de manera particular, con las manifestaciones cutáneas asociadas a esta, los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana mostraban conocimientos insuficientes (de 19 interrogantes que evaluaban aspectos cognoscitivos, la media de respuestas correctas entre todos los participantes fue 10,18), percepciones inadecuadas y prácticas incorrectas. CONCLUSIONES: en la dirección de atenuar estas dificultades se hace necesario una intervención de tipo académica, que haga énfasis en los aspectos formativos relacionados con las enfermedades parasitarias, en general, y la giardiasis, en particular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the level of knowledge, the perceptions and practice of dermatologists in the City of Havana with respect to Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: with prior informed consent given by the dermatologists from the City of Havana, 50 dermatologists- a number very close to the universe of these experts in the province- were administered a survey of their knowledge, perceptions and practice about this parasitosis. The survey was prepared in 4 phases; that (more) is, interviews to physicians on diagnosis, treatment and control of giardiasis; drafting of a preliminary questionnaire based on the interview results; submission of this instruments to the experts, and finally its validation through its application to a small group of physicians. RESULTS: it was evinced that the dermatologists in the City of Havana had poor knowledge about giardiasis, particularly its cutaneous manifestations (out of 19 questions on cognitive aspects, the correct answer mean was 10,18), inadequate perceptions on this disease and practice was not good. CONCLUSIONS: with the aim of mitigating these difficulties, some academic intervention is needed to make emphasis on the formative aspects related to parasitic diseases in general and giardiasis in particular.

Iglesias Hernández, Tania; Ali Almannoni, Saleh; Rodríguez, María Elena; Sánchez Valdés, Lizet; Martín Pupo, Deisy; Manzur Katrib, Julián; Fonte Galindo, Luis

2010-04-01

88

Does breast-feeding protect the child from Giardia lamblia infection?  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent protozoa infections of the human small intestine. Although anyone can be infected by Giardia, women and children are more susceptible. Giardia infection can cause malnutrition, diarrhea and indigestion of fat. In this study, the effect of breast-feeding on the prevalence of Giardia among children is investigated. "nMethods: A total of 482 children, aged 6 to 24 months, from the urban areas of Semnan, Damghan and Garmsar in Iran, were enrolled in this survey. Each mother underwent an interview and filled out a questionnaire that included mother's age, family size, birth order of the child, age and sex of the child and type of milk consumed, among other variables. Then, each mother was given a sample container with 30cc of phenol alcohol formaldehyde (PAF) and an applicator for sampling her child's stool. Each mother was trained to consecutively sample her child's stool for three days, to put the stool into the provided container using the applicator and to shake it until the sample and liquid appeared homogenous. The sample was examined using the direct method, using formalin-ether and thionine. Data was analyzed using the c2 test and logistic regression using SPSS version 11.5."n"nResults: The mean age of the children was 13.6(±5.6) months. Of these children, 45.6% were girls. The prevalence of G. lamblia infection was 8.5%. There was a significant relationship between Giardia and the age of the child, education level of the mother and type of milk the child consumed (p<0.05), such that children who had not consumed their mothers' milk were more likely to be infected compared to those who had been breast fed (OR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.13-5.03, P=0.023)."n"nConclusions: Results show that breast-feeding is a safer method of feeding with regard to Giardia infection. Therefore, mothers should be educated to breast-feed their children and not use other types of milk or milk substitutes. This important issue must be considered by policy makers for education and subsidy programs. "n"n Keywords: Giardia lamblia, breast-feeding, formula milk, cow's milk.

Ghorbani R; Sadat-Hashemi SM; Pazooki R

2008-01-01

89

Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts in the river water of two recreational areas in Selangor, Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is the first report on the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts in recreational rivers water from Malaysia. It was carried out in water samples at two rivers, 'Sungai Congkak' and 'Sungai Batu', located in Selangor State. The occurrence of both Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts was higher in Sungai Congkak (50% or 15/30 and 10% or 3/30 respectively) than Sungai Batu (16% or 5/30 and 3.3% or 1/30 respectively). The mean density of cysts/L was 0.72 in Sungai Congkak and 0.023 in Sungai Batu, and that of oocysts/L was 0.023 in Sungai Congkak and 0.0033 in Sungai Batu, showing that the occurrence of Giardia was higher and more frequent than Cryptosporidium in both rivers. Sungai Congkak also showed higher faecal coliforms count (ranging from 0.48x10³ to 73x10³ CFU/100 mL) than Sungai Batu (0.41x10³ to 16x10³ CFU/100 mL). On the other hand, the Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts and faecal coliforms were more concentrated at the downstream station, followed by midstream and upstream stations which might be due to human factors where settlements and recreation areas were located around and between midstream and downstream stations. The (oo)cysts and faecal coliforms also increased during public holidays due to the significantly higher number of visitors (bathers) compared with the week days. All the parameters (physical, faecal coliforms and rainfall) did not show consistent significant correlation (based on r values of Pearson correlation analysis) with both protozoa, therefore these parameters are not suitable as indicator for the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts in both rivers. PMID:20237443

Azman, J; Init, I; Wan Yusoff, W S

2009-12-01

90

Experimental Verification of the Identity of Variant-Specific Surface Proteins in Giardia lamblia Trophozoites  

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ABSTRACT The cell membrane of a Giardia lamblia trophozoite is covered with a single species of variant-specific surface protein (VSP) that is replaced by another VSP every 6 to 13 generations of cell growth, possibly for an evasion of host immunity. Experimentally, only six VSP species have been verified to localize to the cell membrane thus far. By assuming that VSP contains multiple CXXC motifs, 219 vsp genes were annotated in GiardiaDB of the WB isolate. By further assuming that VSP possesses both CXXC motifs and a CRGKA tail at the C terminus, Adam et al. (BMC Genomics 11:424, 2010) identified a total of 303 potential vsp genes in Giardia WB. The discrepancies between these two assumed VSP identities have caused some confusion. Here, we used experimental approaches to further verify what is required of the structures of a VSP to localize to the surface of cell membrane. The data led to the following conclusions. (i) The C-terminal CRGKA sequence is not essential for localizing VSPs to the cell membrane. (ii) A “motif 1” of 45 residues, consisting of two CXXCs separated by 12 to 15 amino acid residues, located close to the C terminus and a hydrophobic “motif 2” of 38 residues at the C terminus are both essential and sufficient for localizing the protein to the cell membrane. (ii) An N-terminal sequence upstream from motif 1 is not required for targeting VSPs to the cell membrane. By these criteria, we are able to identify 73 open reading frames as the putative vsp genes in Giardia.

Li, Wei; Saraiya, Ashesh A.; Wang, Ching C.

2013-01-01

91

Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously. We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified the proportion of cases acquired in Germany in order to investigate risk factors for sporadic autochthonous Giardia infections. Methods We identified Giardia cases notified by 41 local health authorities between February 2007 and January 2008 and interviewed them on their clinical symptoms, underlying morbidities, travel abroad and potential risk factors for the disease. We conducted a case-control-study including laboratory-confirmed (microscopy or antigen-test) autochthonous Giardia cases with clinical manifestations (diarrhoea, cramps, bloating) and randomly selected controls from the local population registry matched by county of residence and age-group (0-5, 6-19, ?20 years). Secondary cases, controls with diarrhoea and persons who had travelled outside Germany in the three weeks prior to disease onset (exposure period) were excluded. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using conditional logistic regression. Results Of 273 interviewed cases, 131 (48%) had not travelled abroad during the defined exposure period. Of these 131, 85 (65%) were male, 68 (54%) were living in communities with >100,000 inhabitants and 107 (83%) were aged 20 years or older. We included 120 cases and 240 controls in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be male (aOR 2.5 CI 1.4-4.4), immunocompromised (aOR 15.3 CI 1.8-127) and daily consumers of green salad (aOR 2.9 CI 1.2-7.2). Contact with animals (pets/farm animals) and exposure to surface water (swimming/water sports) were not associated with symptomatic disease. Conclusions A substantial proportion of Giardia lamblia cases in Germany are indigenously acquired. Symptomatic cases are significantly more likely to be immunocompromised than control persons from the general population. Physicians should consider Giardia infections among patients with no recent history of travel abroad, particularly if they have immune deficiencies. Green salads may be an important vehicle of infection. Information campaigns highlighting this food-borne risk should emphasise the risk to persons with immune deficiencies.

Espelage Werner; an der Heiden Matthias; Stark Klaus; Alpers Katharina

2010-01-01

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In-vitro susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to albendazole, mebendazole and other chemotherapeutic agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The susceptibility of a strain of Giardia lamblia to benzimidazole carbamates, 5-nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans and other drugs was studied in vitro. Albendazole was the most active compound, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.01 mg/L and a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of less than 0.04 mg/L; the IC50 of mebendazole was 0.06 mg/L and the MLC less than 0.5 mg/L. Among the 5-nitroimidazoles tested, ornidazole was the most effective (IC50 0.12 mg/L); tinidazole, metronidazole, secnidazole and hemezole were less active. Nifuroxazide, etofamide and nalidixic acid exhibited modest anti-giardial activity; quinfamide did not inhibit the growth of the parasite at a concentration of 200 mg/L. Albendazole and mebendazole are promising candidates for clinical use and should be further evaluated.

Cedillo-Rivera R; Muñoz O

1992-09-01

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In-vitro susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to albendazole, mebendazole and other chemotherapeutic agents.  

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The susceptibility of a strain of Giardia lamblia to benzimidazole carbamates, 5-nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans and other drugs was studied in vitro. Albendazole was the most active compound, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.01 mg/L and a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of less than 0.04 mg/L; the IC50 of mebendazole was 0.06 mg/L and the MLC less than 0.5 mg/L. Among the 5-nitroimidazoles tested, ornidazole was the most effective (IC50 0.12 mg/L); tinidazole, metronidazole, secnidazole and hemezole were less active. Nifuroxazide, etofamide and nalidixic acid exhibited modest anti-giardial activity; quinfamide did not inhibit the growth of the parasite at a concentration of 200 mg/L. Albendazole and mebendazole are promising candidates for clinical use and should be further evaluated. PMID:1518040

Cedillo-Rivera, R; Muñoz, O

1992-09-01

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Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal) en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicame (more) nte por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %), de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología. Abstract in english The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy) on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were cl (more) inically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %). Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %). It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

Méndez Pérez, Nazarina Ivonne; Calunga Fernández, José L.; Menéndez Cepero, Silvia

2003-09-01

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High-throughput screening in suboptimal growth conditions identifies agonists of Giardia lamblia proliferation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent parasites of mankind and is estimated to cause over 200 million infections per year. To screen chemical libraries for compounds that perturb trophozoite proliferation we adapted a conventional culture method to 384-well plates and identified numerous inhibitors. Here we used a modified assay to screen for compounds that promote trophozoite multiplication. Trophozoite growth was reduced by dilution of the culture medium and the growth period was extended to screen 2 compound libraries comprising 1500 compounds. A total of 4 agonists of trophozoite multiplication were identified. In the presence of one of these compounds, strychnine, enhanced growth was accompanied by unusual trophozoite morphology characterized by dividing trophozoites displaying more than the 2 nuclei per cell which are normally observed. The other agonists, although belonging to 2 distinct chemical groups, are known to affect isoprenylation, indicating a link between protein or lipid isoprenylation and growth in culture. Although inhibitors of isoprenylation are known to antagonize proliferation of mammalian cells, an agonistic effect of isoprenylation modulators has to our knowledge not been described previously. These observations illustrate the power of chemical genetics for identifying pathways controlling specific traits in G. lamblia.

Faghiri Z; Santiago RB; Wu Z; Widmer G

2011-02-01

96

First genotyping of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces in Argentina, South America  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces and their epidemiological and clinical characteristics in Argentina, South America. Seventy isolates, 60 from humans (adults and children), eight from dogs and two from cows were processed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Data corresponding to demographic, socio-cultural and environmental variables and presence/absence of signs/symptoms were collected. The triosephosphate isomerase gene was amplified from 43 (71.66%) of the 60 human fecal samples. Among these, 3/43 (6.98%) were genotype AII and 40/43 (93.02%) were genotype B. Assemblage AII was detected in three children who lived together in a shantytown and they were oligosymptomatic and none had diarrhea. This genotype was not found in animals. Genotype B showed a high prevalence in both adults and children. It was also found in polysymptomatic people, many of whom presented diarrhea. It was also found only in one dog. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. lamblia genotypes in Argentina.

Marta C Minvielle; Nora B Molina; Daniela Polverino; Juan A Basualdo

2008-01-01

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COMPARISON OF 'GIARDIA MICROTI' AND 'SPIRONUCLEUS MURIS' CYSTS IN THE VOLE: AN IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL, LIGHT, AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY (JOURNAL VERSION)  

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Cysts of the genus Spironucleus share many common morphological features with Giardia cysts including: 2-4 nuclei, flagellar axonemes, a distinct cyst wall, and they even display the same immunostaining as Giardia cysts when labeled with antibodies specific for Giardia cyst wall....

98

Modeling and analysis of propulsion in the multiflagellated micoorganism Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goal of this work was to analyze the propulsion of multiflagellated microorganisms, and to draw insight to the underlying physics and biology of the movement. Giardia lamblia was chosen as the model organism due to its unique ability to mechanically attach to various surfaces, its rapid movement, and its fine control over steering and navigation. In this work, a mechanics model was utilized to study the mechanics and propulsive contribution of the ventral and anterior flagella in Giardia. It was discovered that energy is supplied mainly at the proximal portion of these flagella, supporting the hypothesis that a decreasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) gradient along the length of the flagella would not affect the motion observed. Similarly, the elasticity of the flagella allows the energy input at the proximal portion to be transferred to the distal portion, where the majority of thrust is generated. Specifically, we found that the ventral flagella are the driving force for planar propulsion and turning, while the anterior flagella are used for steering and control.

Lenaghan SC; Chen J; Zhang M

2013-07-01

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A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF DETECTION METHODS FOR GIARDIA CYSTS AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER  

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In the mid-20th century Giardia was classified as a non-pathogenic commensal organism and Cryptosporidium was not recognized yet. However as early as 1946 a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis was suspected. From 1965 to 1979 it became clear that Giardia lamblia was indeed a human ...

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Evaluation of the antiprotozoal activity of neo-clerodane type diterpenes from Salvia polystachya against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.  

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Chia (Salvia polystachya Ort., Lamiaceae) is frequently used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat dysentery. In this study the main neo-clerodane diterpenes (polystachynes A, B and D, as well as linearolactone) were isolated from the aerial parts of chia, and their antiprotozoal activities toward Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites were evaluated in vitro. Linearolactone was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC(50) values of 22.9 microM for E. histolytica and 28.2 microM for G. lamblia. Polystachynes A, B and D, showed moderate antiprotozoal activity against both protozoans with IC(50) values ranging from 117.0 to 160.6 microM for E. histolytica and from 107.5 to 134.7 microM for G. lamblia. These data suggest that linearolactone may play an important role in the antidiarrhoeal activity of S. polystachya.

Calzada F; Yepez-Mulia L; Tapia-Contreras A; Bautista E; Maldonado E; Ortega A

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

In vitro effects of berberine sulphate on the growth and structure of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The plant alkaloid, berberine sulphate, inhibited the growth of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis in BI-S-33 medium, and induced morphological changes in the parasites. Exposure of E. histolytica to berberine caused a clumping of chromatin in the nucleus, and the formation of autophagic vacuoles and aggregates of small vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In berberine-treated G. lamblia, an irregularly-shaped vacuole appeared in the cytoplasm and gradually enlarged during culture. The trophozoites became swollen and deposits of glycogen were seen in the cytoplasm. Trichomonas vaginalis was also affected by the berberine; autophagic vacuoles increased in number soon after exposure, and one large vacuole, which was characteristic of treated cells, appeared. These observations demonstrate that, in vitro, this drug was effective against E. histolytica, G. lamblia and T. vaginalis. Another alkaloid, coptisine, was inactive against the three parasites.

Kaneda Y; Torii M; Tanaka T; Aikawa M

1991-08-01

102

Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN) se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN) la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados.

Díaz-Cinco Martha Elvia; Ballesteros-Vázquez Martha Nydia; Pérez-Morales Rosalba; Mata-Haro Verónica

2002-01-01

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ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú/ ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo (more) y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Giardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good ag (more) reement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Rodríguez-Ulloa, Claudia; Rivera-Jacinto, Marco

2011-12-01

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ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú.OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Giardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Claudia Rodríguez-Ulloa; Marco Rivera-Jacinto

2011-01-01

105

An ancient spliceosomal intron in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a) of Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad). This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a non-canonical 5' intron boundary sequence, CT, instead of GT. Results We have identified a second spliceosomal-type intron in G. lamblia, in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a), that possesses a canonical GT 5' intron boundary sequence. A comparison of the two known Giardia intron sequences revealed extensive nucleotide identity at both the 5' and 3' intron boundaries, similar to the conserved sequence motifs recently identified at the boundaries of spliceosomal-type introns in Trichomonas vaginalis (a parabasalid). Based on these observations, we searched the partial G. lamblia genome sequence for these conserved features and identified a third spliceosomal intron, in an unassigned open reading frame. Our comprehensive analysis of the Rpl7a intron in other eukaryotic taxa demonstrates that it is evolutionarily conserved and is an ancient eukaryotic intron. Conclusion An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and properties of the Rpl7a intron suggests its utility as a phylogenetic marker to evaluate particular eukaryotic groupings. Additionally, analysis of the G. lamblia introns has provided further insight into some of the conserved and unique features possessed by the recently identified spliceosomal introns in related organisms such as T. vaginalis and Carpediemonas membranifera.

Russell Anthony G; Shutt Timothy E; Watkins Russell F; Gray Michael W

2005-01-01

106

Oxidative stress-induced cell cycle blockage and a protease-independent programmed cell death in  microaerophilic Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Esha Ghosh1, Arjun Ghosh1, Amar Nath Ghosh2, Tomoyoshi Nozaki3, Sandipan Ganguly11Division of Parasitology; 2Division of Electron Microscopy, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Beliaghata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 3Division of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Giardia lamblia is a microaerophilic human gastrointestinal parasite and considered as an early-diverged eukaryote. In vitro oxidative stress generation plays a significant role in cell cycle progression and cell death of this parasite. In the present study hydrogen peroxide, metronidazole, and a modified growth medium without cysteine and ascorbic acid have been chosen as oxidative stress-inducing agents. Cell cycle progression has been found to be regulated by different types of oxidative stresses. Apoptosis is not an established pathway in Giardia, which is devoid of ideal mitochondria, but in the present investigation, apoptosis-like programmed cell death has been found by the experiments like AnnexinV-FITC assay, DNA fragmentation pattern, etc. On the contrary, Caspase-9 assay, which confirms the caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway, has been found to be negative in all the stress conditions. Protease inhibitor assay confirmed that, even in absence of any proteases, programmed cell death does occur in this primitive eukaryote. All these results signify a novel pathway of programmed suicidal death in Giardia lamblia under oxidative stress. This is the first demonstration of protease-independent programmed cell death regulation in Giardia exclusive for its own specialties.Keywords: Giardia lamblia, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, programmed cell death, apoptosis, early branching eukaryotes

Esha Ghosh; Arjun Ghosh; Amar Nath Ghosh; Tomoyoshi Nozaki; Sandipan Ganguly

2009-01-01

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Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. RESULTS: The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years) with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%). Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p < 0.001). Five (4.3%) of the 118 positive stool samples had mixed parasites infection. Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. CONCLUSION: Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples of children within the Ashanti Akim North Municipality and its prevalence significantly increases with age. Measures must be put in place to educate the community on proper personal hygiene to reduce giardiasis.

Nkrumah B; Nguah SB

2011-01-01

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Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110). A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075), elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701), IgE específica (p = 0,250) ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças.OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between giardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Valdênia M. O. Souza; Iana R. F. Sales; Décio M. Peixoto; Vláudia M. Assis Costa; José A. Rizzo; Almerinda R. Silva; Roberta Faria Camilo; Felipe Faria Pierotti; Dirceu Solé; Emanuel S. C. Sarinho

2012-01-01

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Evaluation Of Cytokines Changes In Patients Infected With Giardia lamblia In Comparison With Healthy Subjects  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Human Giardisis infection is caused by the flagellate protozoa. Giardia lamblia, which lives in the small intestine, causing damage and may also cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This parasitic disease has a worldwide distribution and prevalence varies from 5% to 30%. The role of both humeral and cellular immune response in the host defense against parasites has proven. Since an immune response is directly affected by cytokine, study of cytokines changes in patients with giardiosis is of particular importance. Materials and Methods: In this study the serum levels of IL-2 - 4 - 6 to 17 and 23 in patients and healthy subjects were measured and compared. Fasting blood samples were taken from the volunteers, ELISA was performed to measure cytokines. Results: In this study, the amount of IL-2 and IL-6 in infected patients was significantly more than the controls, but IL-4 levels were significantly lower in infected individuals (P=0.0001). Also for the first time in people with giardiasis IL-17 and IL-23 was measured and there was a significant aifference in these cytokines between the infected patients healthy controls(respectively P=0.044 and P=0.03) Conclusion: Host defense response against parasitic infections, is directly and affected by cytokines. Increased interleukin 2, 6, 17 and 23 in patients with Giardiosis was probably caused by immune response and local intestinal inflammation.

Mitra Zarebavani; Nasrin Dashti; Nahid Einollahi; Arezoo Jamali

2012-01-01

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Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose/ Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças (more) de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110). A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075), elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701), IgE específica (p = 0,250) ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between giardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lambl (more) ia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Souza, Valdênia M. O.; Sales, Iana R. F.; Peixoto, Décio M.; Costa, Vláudia M. Assis; Rizzo, José A.; Silva, Almerinda R.; Camilo, Roberta Faria; Pierotti, Felipe Faria; Solé, Dirceu; Sarinho, Emanuel S. C.

2012-06-01

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Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras  

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Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L) than Giardia cysts (6/100 L), suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

Solo-Gabriele Helena María; Ager Jr.,Arba LeRoy; Lindo John Fitzgerald; Dubón José María; Neumeister Shondra Michelle; Baum Marianna Karas; Palmer Carol Jean

1998-01-01

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[Purification and breaking techniques for cysts of Giardia spp  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to optimize and evaluate the purification techniques, isolation and breaking of cysts of Giardia spp from fecal samples to isolate DNA. Filtrated fecal samples were tested in 3 purification techniques: Telleman solution, sucrose and Telleman plus sucrose. The sucrose solution let us to isolate the cysts with less detritus. The cleaned cysts were splited in 3 techniques to test the breaking: osmotic shock and heat, chemistry degradation and thermic shock, enzymatic action and mechanic effect. Only the last method was successful and showed bands in agarose gel. The result of this study shows a routine and common method which could be used in the previous steps to the PCR technique for the genotypification of these parasites.

Polverino D; Molina NB; Minvielle MC; Lozano ME; Basualdo JA

2004-07-01

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Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two "gate-keeper" residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y --> R) and 100 (V --> D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V --> R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins. PMID:23709284

Buchko, Garry W; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N; Edwards, Thomas E; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Myler, Peter J

2013-05-25

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Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia  

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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

2013-06-15

115

Effect of vinegar on the viability of Giardia duodenalis cysts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inactivation of Giardia duodenalis cysts by vinegar was investigated. Experiments were carried out in 100 ml volume of vinegar (acetic acid 4%), undiluted or diluted in distilled water in ratios of 1:1, 1:15.6, and 1:62.5 (vol/vol), which were inoculated with 5x10(5) cysts obtained from human feces. Experiments were performed at room temperature (21+/-1 degrees C) and at 4 degrees C. After contact times of 1.5 min, 10, 30, and 60 min, the cysts were recovered from the treatment fluid and subjected to an in vitro excystation assay to determine their viability. The relative viability, which was calculated in relation to controls (maximum excystation percentage), was significantly affected (p<0.1) by the vinegar concentration, contact time, and temperature. At 21+/-1 degrees C, no cysts remained viable after being treated with undiluted vinegar for 60 min, while the treatment with 1:1, 1:15.6, and 1:62.5 vinegar-water mixtures decreased the relative viability to 1.8%, 19.4%, and 56.4%, respectively. The relative viability after corresponding treatments at 4 degrees C also decreased, but 23.6% to 48.8% remained viable after 60 min, and thus complete inactivation was not obtained with any treatment at that temperature.

Costa AO; Thomaz-Soccol V; Paulino RC; Alcântara de Castro E

2009-01-01

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Simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in fecal samples by using multiplex real-time PCR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium are three of the most important diarrhea-causing parasitic protozoa. For many years, microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosis of E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum infections. Recently, more specific and sensitive alternative methods (PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and direct fluorescent-antibody assay) have been introduced for all three of these parasitic infections. However, the incorporation in a routine diagnostic laboratory of these parasite-specific methods for diagnosis of each of the respective infections is time-consuming and increases the costs of a stool examination. Therefore, a multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum in stool samples. The multiplex PCR also included an internal control to determine efficiency of the PCR and detect inhibition in the sample. The assay was performed on species-specific DNA controls and a range of well-defined stool samples, and it achieved 100 percent specificity and sensitivity. The use of this assay in a diagnostic laboratory would provide sensitive and specific diagnosis of the main parasitic diarrheal infections and could improve patient management and infection control.

Verweij JJ; Blangé RA; Templeton K; Schinkel J; Brienen EA; van Rooyen MA; van Lieshout L; Polderman AM

2004-03-01

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The principal conductance in Giardia lamblia trophozoites possesses functional properties similar to the mammalian ClC-2 current.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a flagellated unicellular protozoan with pronounced medical and biological relevance. However, the basic physiology of Giardia trophozoites has been sparsely studied, especially the electrical and ionic properties of their cellular membrane which are virtually unknown. In this study, we were able to record and characterize the macroscopic ionic currents of Giardia trophozoite membrane by electrophysiological methods of the patch clamp technique. Giardia trophozoites showed a high current density (?600 pA/pF at -140 mV) that was activated upon hyperpolarization. This current was carried by a chloride-selective channel (I Cl-G) and it was the most important determinant of the membrane potential in Giardia trophozoites. Moreover, this conductance was able to carry other halide anions and the sequence of permeability was Br(-)?>?Cl(-)???I(-)???F(-). Besides the voltage-dependent inward-rectifying nature of I Cl-G, its activation and deactivation kinetics were comparable to those observed in ClC-2 channels. Extracellular pH modified the voltage-dependent properties of I Cl-G, shifting the activation curve from a V 1/2?=?-79?±?1 mV (pH 7.4) to -93?±?2 mV (pH 8.4) and -112?±?2 mV (pH 5.4). Furthermore, the maximal amplitude of I Cl-G measured at -100 mV showed dependence to external pH in a bell-shaped fashion reported only for ClC-2 channels. Therefore, our results suggest that I Cl-G possesses several functional properties similar to the mammalian ClC-2 channels.

Moreno-Galindo EG; Rodríguez-Elías JC; Ramírez-Herrera MA; Sánchez-Chapula JA; Navarro-Polanco RA

2013-09-01

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High Resolution Immunogold Localization of 'Giardia' Cyst Wall Antigens Using Field Emission SEM with Secondary and Backscatter Electron Imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the ultrastructural localization of Giardia cyst antigens in the filaments associated with the outer portion of intact cysts and on developing cyst wall filaments in encysting trophozoites. Postembedding immunogold labeling of thin se...

S. L. Erlandsen W. J. Bemrick D. E. Schupp J. M. Shields E. J. Jarroll

1990-01-01

119

Metabolism of nitro drugs metronidazole and nitazoxanide in Giardia lamblia: characterization of a novel nitroreductase (GlNR2).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia causes giardiasis, a persistent diarrhoea. Nitro drugs such as the nitroimidazole metronidazole and the nitrothiazolide nitazoxanide are used for the treatment of giardiasis. Nitroreductases may play a role in activating these drugs. G. lamblia contains two nitroreductases, GlNR1 and GlNR2. The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of GlNR2. METHODS: Expression of GlNR2 was analysed by reverse transcription PCR. Recombinant GlNR2 was overexpressed in G. lamblia and drug susceptibility was analysed. Recombinant GlNR2 was subjected to functional assays. Escherichia coli expressing full-length or truncated GlNR1 and GlNR2 were grown in the presence of nitro compounds. Using E. coli reporter strains for nitric oxide and DNA damage responses, we analysed whether GlNR1 and GlNR2 elicited the respective responses in the presence, or absence, of the drugs. RESULTS: G. lamblia trophozoites overexpressing GlNR2 were less susceptible to both nitro drugs as compared with control trophozoites. GlNR2 was a functional nitroreductase when expressed in E. coli. E. coli expressing GlNR1 was more susceptible to metronidazole under aerobic and semi-aerobic and to nitazoxanide under semi-aerobic growth conditions. E. coli expressing GlNR2 was not susceptible to either drug. In reporter strains, GlNR1, but not GlNR2, elicited nitric oxide and DNA repair responses, even in the absence of nitro drugs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that GlNR2 is an active nitroreductase with a mode of action different from that of GlNR1. Thus, susceptibility to nitro drugs may depend not only on activation, but also on inactivation of the drugs by specific nitroreductases.

Müller J; Schildknecht P; Müller N

2013-08-01

120

SUMOylation in Giardia lamblia: A Conserved Post-Translational Modification in One of the Earliest Divergent Eukaryotes  

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Full Text Available Post-translational modifications are able to regulate protein function and cellular processes in a rapid and reversible way. SUMOylation, the post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of SUMO, is a highly conserved process that seems to be present in modern cells. However, the mechanism of protein SUMOylation in earlier divergent eukaryotes, such as Giardia lamblia, is only starting to become apparent. In this work, we report the presence of a single SUMO gene encoding to SUMO protein in Giardia. Monoclonal antibodies against recombinant Giardia SUMO protein revealed the cytoplasmic localization of native SUMO in wild-type trophozoites. Moreover, the over-expression of SUMO protein showed a mainly cytoplasmic localization, though also neighboring the plasma membrane, flagella, and around and even inside the nuclei. Western blot assays revealed a number of SUMOylated proteins in a range between 20 and 120 kDa. The genes corresponding to putative enzymes involved in the SUMOylation pathway were also explored. Our results as a whole suggest that SUMOylation is a process conserved in the eukaryotic lineage, and that its study is significant for understanding the biology of this interesting parasite and the role of post-translational modification in its evolution.

Cecilia V. Vranych; María C. Merino; Nahuel Zamponi; María C. Touz; Andrea S. Rópolo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FRESHWATER BACTERIA ANTAGONISTIC TO GIARDIA INTESTINALIS CYSTS  

Science.gov (United States)

We have isolated three freshwater bacterial strains that demonstrate the ability to degrade Giardia intestinalis cysts. These strains have been identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as belonging to the Flavobacterium columnare clade of the ...

122

Method to enumerate oocysts of cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been recognized as etiological agents of gastrointestinal illness in humans with severe consequences on children and immunocompromised individuals. Water seems to be vehicle of infection. In last years many efforts have been done to evaluate a method to enumerate oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in waters. Throughout filtration and concentration steps, the two procedures proposed allow to enumerate oocysts and cysts belonging to the two genera of protozoa

2000-01-01

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Identification of the Major Cysteine Protease of Giardia and Its Role in Encystation*S?  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite and the earliest branching clade of eukaryota. The Giardia life cycle alternates between an asexually replicating vegetative form and an infectious cyst form. Encystation and excystation are crucial processes for the survival and transmission of Giardia. Cysteine proteases in Giardia have been implicated in proteolytic processing events that enable the continuance of the life cycle throughout encystation and excystation. Using quantitative real-time PCR, the expression of twenty-seven clan CA cysteine protease genes in the Giardia genome was measured during both vegetative growth and encystation. Giardia cysteine protease 2 was the most highly expressed cysteine protease during both life cycle stages measured, with a dramatic expression increase during encystation. The mRNA transcript for Giardia cysteine protease 2 was 7-fold up-regulated during encystation and was greater than 3-fold higher than any other Giardia protease gene product. Recombinant Giardia cysteine protease 2 was expressed, purified, and biochemically characterized. The activity of the recombinant cysteine protease 2 protein was confirmed to be identical to the dominant cysteine protease activity found in G. lamblia lysates. Giardia cysteine protease 2 was co-localized with cyst wall protein in encystation-specific vesicles during encystation and processed cyst wall protein 2 to the size found in Giardia cyst walls. These data suggest that Giardia cysteine protease 2 is not only the major cysteine endoprotease expressed in Giardia, but is also central to the encystation process.

DuBois, Kelly N.; Abodeely, Marla; Sakanari, Judy; Craik, Charles S.; Lee, Malinda; McKerrow, James H.; Sajid, Mohammed

2008-01-01

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Hydrologic and vegetative removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate microspheres in coastal wetlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type ("pure" versus "environmental") on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality.

Hogan JN; Daniels ME; Watson FG; Oates SC; Miller MA; Conrad PA; Shapiro K; Hardin D; Dominik C; Melli A; Jessup DA; Miller WA

2013-03-01

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Evaluation of rapid commercial enzyme immunoassay for detection of Giardia lamblia in formalin-preserved stool specimens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two hundred twenty-three formalin-preserved stool specimens were evaluated by using ProSpecT Giardia Rapid Assay (membrane bound) (Alexon, Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif.). Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) results were compared with those by conventional microscopic examination. Two hundred four specimens were negative by both methods, and 13 (6.3%) were positive. Five specimens were negative by initial microscopic exam and positive by EIA; three of these specimens were found to be positive upon extensive microscopic reexamination. The remaining two specimens were from patients who previously tested positive and who had recurrent symptoms of or responded to therapy for giardia. Therefore, we consider both cases to be true positives. One specimen exhibited a single cyst by microscopic exam and was negative by EIA Resolved results yielded a relative sensitivity of 95%, a relative specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 99.6%, and a negative predictive value of 100%, compared with a sensitivity of 74% for conventional microscopy.

Scheffler EH; Van Etta LL

1994-07-01

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Aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in peninsular Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water corresponding to five villages situated in three states in peninsular Malaysia was determined. There were 51.3 % (20/39) and 23.1 % (9/39) samples positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts, respectively. Overall mean concentration between villages for Giardia cysts ranged from 0.10 to 25.80 cysts/l whilst Cryptosporidium oocysts ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 oocysts/l. Detailed results of the river samples from five villages indicated that Kuala Pangsun 100 % (9/9), Kemensah 77.8 % (7/9), Pos Piah 33.3 % (3/9) and Paya Lebar 33.3 % (1/3) were contaminated with Giardia cysts whilst Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts were only detected in Kemensah (100 %; 9/9) and Kuala Pangsun (66.6 %; 6/9). However, the water samples from Bentong were all negative for these waterborne parasites. Samples were collected from lower point, midpoint and upper point. Midpoint refers to the section of the river where the studied communities are highly populated. Meanwhile, the position of the lower point is at least 2 km southward of the midpoint and upper point is at least 2 km northward of the midpoint. The highest mean concentration for (oo)cysts was found at the lower points [3.15?±?6.09 (oo)cysts/l], followed by midpoints [0.66?±?1.10 (oo)cysts/l] and upper points [0.66?±?0.92 (oo)cysts/l]. The mean concentration of Giardia cysts was highest at Kuala Pangsun (i.e. 5.97?±?7.0 cysts/l), followed by Kemensah (0.83?±?0.81 cysts/l), Pos Piah (0.20?±?0.35 cysts/l) and Paya Lebar (0.10?±?0.19 cysts/l). On the other hand, the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts was higher at Kemensah (0.31?±?0.19 cysts/l) compared to Kuala Pangsun (0.03?±?0.03cysts/l). All the physical and chemical parameters did not show significant correlation with both protozoa. In future, viability status and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium should be applied to identify species and genotypes/subgenotypes for better understanding of the epidemiology of these waterborne parasites.

Lee SC; Ngui R; Tan TK; Roslan MA; Ithoi I; Lim YA

2013-06-01

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Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA), low-zinc (ZnL), high-zinc (ZnH) and supplemented-zinc (ZnS) diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days). Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host's humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS) than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

Iñigo-Figueroa G; Méndez-Estrada RO; Quihui-Cota L; Velásquez-Contreras CA; Garibay-Escobar A; Canett-Romero R; Astiazarán-García H

2013-01-01

128

Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba  

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Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

Fidel Ángel Núñez; Jorge Luis López; Ana Margarita de la Cruz; Carlos M. Finlay

2003-01-01

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Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba/ Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No (more) se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos. Abstract in english We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences bet (more) ween the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

Núñez, Fidel Ángel; López, Jorge Luis; de la Cruz, Ana Margarita; Finlay, Carlos M.

2003-04-01

130

Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate  

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Full Text Available The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryptosporidium and 17.14% for Giardia, the low rates were in Mosul city 10% for both protozoa. The highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium was in March 38.46% and the lowest was in November and July 0%. The highest prevalence rate of Giardia was in October 23.53% and the lowest rate in July 0%. This first study shows the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water (Ground water) in Nineveh governorate.

R. G. Mohammad

2011-01-01

131

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras  

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Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L) than Giardia cysts (6/100 L), suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.Para estimar las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium y quistes de Giardia en los abastecimientos de agua de la ciudad de San Pedro Sula, se examinaron muestras del agua en junio de 1996. Cada muestra se concentró y se marcó con un anticuerpo inmunofluorescente indirecto y los parásitos se contaron mediante análisis microscópico. En tres abatecimientos de agua, las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium alcanzaron un recorrido de 58 a 260 oocistos por 100 L, mientras que los quistes de Giardia se encontraron en concentraciones de 380 a 2100 quistes por 100 L. Al contrario de las muestras de agua superficial, el agua subterránea tuvo mayor concentración de oocistos de Cryptosporidium (26/100 L) que de quistes de Giardia (6/100 L), lo que sugiere que el acuífero subterráneo protege mejor al abastecimiento de agua contra los quistes de Giardia, que son más grandes. Las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium estuvieron dentro del recorrido típico de los abastecimientos de agua en Norteamérica, pero los de Giardia fueron más elevados. Deben tomarse medidas para proteger el agua sin depurar de las fuentes de contaminación.

Helena María Solo-Gabriele; Arba LeRoy Ager, Jr.; John Fitzgerald Lindo; José María Dubón; Shondra Michelle Neumeister; Marianna Karas Baum; Carol Jean Palmer

1998-01-01

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Determination of the recovery efficiency of cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts from seeded bivalve mollusks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia are transmitted by water and food and cause human gastroenteritis. Filter-feeding bivalve mollusks, such as oysters and mussels, filter large volumes of water and thus concentrate such pathogens, which makes these bivalves potential vectors of disease. To assess the risk of infection from consumption of contaminated bivalves, parasite numbers and parasite recovery data are required. A modified immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedure was used to determine Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst numbers in individually homogenized oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis). About 12% of the commercial bivalves were positive, with low (oo)cyst numbers per specimen. The recovery efficiency of the IMS procedure was systematically evaluated. Experiments included seeding of homogenized bivalves and whole animals with 100 to 1,000 (oo)cysts. Both seeding procedures yielded highly variable recovery rates. Median Cryptosporidium recoveries were 7.9 to 21% in oysters and 62% in mussels. Median Giardia recoveries were 10 to 25% in oysters and 110% in mussels. Giardia recovery was significantly higher than Cryptosporidium recovery. (Oo)cysts were less efficiently recovered from seeded whole animals than from seeded homogenates, with median Cryptosporidium recoveries of 5.3% in oysters and 45% in mussels and median Giardia recoveries of 4.0% in oysters and 82% in mussels. Both bivalve homogenate seeding and whole animal seeding yielded higher (oo)cyst recovery in mussels than in oysters, likely because of the presence of less shellfish tissue in IMS when analyzing the smaller mussels compared with the larger oysters, resulting in more efficient (oo)cyst extraction. The data generated in this study may be used in the quantitative assessment of the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium or Giardia associated with the consumption of raw bivalve mollusks. This information may be used for making risk management decisions.

Schets FM; van den Berg HH; de Roda Husman AM

2013-01-01

133

Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba  

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Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

Núñez Fidel Ángel; López Jorge Luis; de la Cruz Ana Margarita; Finlay Carlos M.

2003-01-01

134

Giardia y giardiasis/ Giardia and giardiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, (more) los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the parasite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host?s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rig (more) id extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host?s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

Luján, Hugo D.

2006-02-01

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Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi-like organelle to peripheral vacuoles in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia is an early branching protist that possesses peripheral vacuoles (PVs) with characteristics of lysosome-like organelles, located underneath the plasma membrane. In more evolved cells, lysosomal protein trafficking is achieved by cargo recognition involving adaptor protein (AP) complexes that recognize specific amino acid sequences (tyrosine and/or dileucine motifs) within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins. Previously, we reported that Giardia has a tyrosine-based sorting system, which mediates the targeting of a membrane-associated cysteine protease (encystation-specific cysteine protease, ESCP) to the PVs. Here, we show that Giardia AP1 mediates the transport of ESCP and the soluble acid phosphatase (AcPh) to the PVs. By using the yeast two-hybrid assay we found that the ESCP tyrosine-based motif interacts specifically with the medium subunit of AP1 (Gimicroa). Hemagglutinin-tagged Gimicroa colocalizes with ESCP and AcPh and coimmunoprecipitates with clathrin, suggesting that protein trafficking toward the PVs is clathrin-adaptin dependent. Targeted disruption of Gimicroa results in mislocalization of ESCP and AcPh but not of variant-specific surface proteins. Our results suggest that, unlike mammalian cells, only AP1 is involved in anterograde protein trafficking to the PVs in Giardia. Moreover, even though Giardia trophozoites lack a morphologically discernible Golgi apparatus, the presence of a clathrin-adaptor system suggests that this parasite possess a primitive secretory organelle capable of sorting proteins similar to that of more evolved cells.

Touz MC; Kulakova L; Nash TE

2004-07-01

136

Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi-like organelle to peripheral vacuoles in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is an early branching protist that possesses peripheral vacuoles (PVs) with characteristics of lysosome-like organelles, located underneath the plasma membrane. In more evolved cells, lysosomal protein trafficking is achieved by cargo recognition involving adaptor protein (AP) complexes that recognize specific amino acid sequences (tyrosine and/or dileucine motifs) within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins. Previously, we reported that Giardia has a tyrosine-based sorting system, which mediates the targeting of a membrane-associated cysteine protease (encystation-specific cysteine protease, ESCP) to the PVs. Here, we show that Giardia AP1 mediates the transport of ESCP and the soluble acid phosphatase (AcPh) to the PVs. By using the yeast two-hybrid assay we found that the ESCP tyrosine-based motif interacts specifically with the medium subunit of AP1 (Gimicroa). Hemagglutinin-tagged Gimicroa colocalizes with ESCP and AcPh and coimmunoprecipitates with clathrin, suggesting that protein trafficking toward the PVs is clathrin-adaptin dependent. Targeted disruption of Gimicroa results in mislocalization of ESCP and AcPh but not of variant-specific surface proteins. Our results suggest that, unlike mammalian cells, only AP1 is involved in anterograde protein trafficking to the PVs in Giardia. Moreover, even though Giardia trophozoites lack a morphologically discernible Golgi apparatus, the presence of a clathrin-adaptor system suggests that this parasite possess a primitive secretory organelle capable of sorting proteins similar to that of more evolved cells. PMID:15107467

Touz, María C; Kulakova, Liudmila; Nash, Theodore E

2004-04-23

137

Structural and Functional Perturbation of Giardia lamblia Triosephosphate Isomerase by Modification of a Non-Catalytic, Non-Conserved Region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We have previously proposed triosephosphate isomerase of Giardia lamblia (GlTIM) as a target for rational drug design against giardiasis, one of the most common parasitic infections in humans. Since the enzyme exists in the parasite and the host, selective inhibition is a major challenge because essential regions that could be considered molecular targets are highly conserved. Previous biochemical evidence showed that chemical modification of the non-conserved non-catalytic cysteine 222 (C222) inactivates specifically GlTIM. The inactivation correlates with the physicochemical properties of the modifying agent: addition of a non-polar, small chemical group at C222 reduces the enzyme activity by one half, whereas negatively charged, large chemical groups cause full inactivation. RESULTS: In this work we used mutagenesis to extend our understanding of the functional and structural effects triggered by modification of C222. To this end, six GlTIM C222 mutants with side chains having diverse physicochemical characteristics were characterized. We found that the polarity, charge and volume of the side chain in the mutant amino acid differentially alter the activity, the affinity, the stability and the structure of the enzyme. The data show that mutagenesis of C222 mimics the effects of chemical modification. The crystallographic structure of C222D GlTIM shows the disruptive effects of introducing a negative charge at position 222: the mutation perturbs loop 7, a region of the enzyme whose interactions with the catalytic loop 6 are essential for TIM stability, ligand binding and catalysis. The amino acid sequence of TIM in phylogenetic diverse groups indicates that C222 and its surrounding residues are poorly conserved, supporting the proposal that this region is a good target for specific drug design. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that it is possible to inhibit species-specifically a ubiquitous, structurally highly conserved enzyme by modification of a non-conserved, non-catalytic residue through long-range perturbation of essential regions.

Hernández-Alcántara G; Torres-Larios A; Enríquez-Flores S; García-Torres I; Castillo-Villanueva A; Méndez ST; de la Mora-de la Mora I; Gómez-Manzo S; Torres-Arroyo A; López-Velázquez G; Reyes-Vivas H; Oria-Hernández J

2013-01-01

138

Structural and Functional Perturbation of Giardia lamblia Triosephosphate Isomerase by Modification of a Non-Catalytic, Non-Conserved Region  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We have previously proposed triosephosphate isomerase of Giardia lamblia (GlTIM) as a target for rational drug design against giardiasis, one of the most common parasitic infections in humans. Since the enzyme exists in the parasite and the host, selective inhibition is a major challenge because essential regions that could be considered molecular targets are highly conserved. Previous biochemical evidence showed that chemical modification of the non-conserved non-catalytic cysteine 222 (C222) inactivates specifically GlTIM. The inactivation correlates with the physicochemical properties of the modifying agent: addition of a non-polar, small chemical group at C222 reduces the enzyme activity by one half, whereas negatively charged, large chemical groups cause full inactivation. Results In this work we used mutagenesis to extend our understanding of the functional and structural effects triggered by modification of C222. To this end, six GlTIM C222 mutants with side chains having diverse physicochemical characteristics were characterized. We found that the polarity, charge and volume of the side chain in the mutant amino acid differentially alter the activity, the affinity, the stability and the structure of the enzyme. The data show that mutagenesis of C222 mimics the effects of chemical modification. The crystallographic structure of C222D GlTIM shows the disruptive effects of introducing a negative charge at position 222: the mutation perturbs loop 7, a region of the enzyme whose interactions with the catalytic loop 6 are essential for TIM stability, ligand binding and catalysis. The amino acid sequence of TIM in phylogenetic diverse groups indicates that C222 and its surrounding residues are poorly conserved, supporting the proposal that this region is a good target for specific drug design. Conclusions The results demonstrate that it is possible to inhibit species-specifically a ubiquitous, structurally highly conserved enzyme by modification of a non-conserved, non-catalytic residue through long-range perturbation of essential regions.

Hernandez-Alcantara, Gloria; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Enriquez-Flores, Sergio; Garcia-Torres, Itzhel; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Mendez, Sara T.; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Gomez-Manzo, Saul; Torres-Arroyo, Angelica; Lopez-Velazquez, Gabriel; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Oria-Hernandez, Jesus

2013-01-01

139

HIGH RESOLUTION IMMUNOGOLD LOCALIZATION OF GIARDIA CYST WALL ANTIGENS USING FIELD EMISSION SEM WITH SECONDARY AND BACKSCATTER ELECTRON IMAGING  

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In this report we described the ultrastructural localization of Giardia cyst antigens in the filaments associated with the outer portion of intact cysts and on developing cyst wall filaments in encysting trophozoites. ostembedding immunogold labeling of thin sections of intact Gi...

140

Sorting of encystation-specific cysteine protease to lysosome-like peripheral vacuoles in Giardia lamblia requires a conserved tyrosine-based motif.  

Science.gov (United States)

Encystation-specific cysteine protease (ESCP) was the first membrane-associated protein described to be part of the lysosome-like peripheral vacuoles in the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. ESCP is homologous to cathepsin C enzymes of higher eukaryotes, but is distinguished from other lysosomal cysteine proteases because it possesses a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. Tyrosine-based motifs within tails of membrane proteins are known to participate in endosomal/lysosomal protein sorting in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we show that a YRPI motif within the ESCP cytoplasmic tail is necessary and sufficient to mediate ESCP sorting to peripheral vacuoles in Giardia. Deletion and point mutation analysis demonstrated that the tyrosine residue is critical for ESCP sorting, whereas amino acids located at the Y+1 (Arg), Y+2 (Pro), and Y+3 (Ile) positions show minimal effect. Loss of the motif resulted in surface localization, whereas addition of the motif to a variant-specific surface protein resulted in lysosomal localization. Although Giardia trophozoites lack a morphologically discernible Golgi apparatus, our findings indicate that this parasite directs proteins to the lysosomes using a conserved sorting signal similar to that used by yeast and mammalian cells. Because Giardia is one of the earliest branching protist, these results demonstrate that sorting motifs for specific protein traffic developed very early during eukaryotic evolution. PMID:12466276

Touz, Maria C; Lujan, Hugo D; Hayes, Stanley F; Nash, Theodore E

2002-12-03

 
 
 
 
141

Sorting of encystation-specific cysteine protease to lysosome-like peripheral vacuoles in Giardia lamblia requires a conserved tyrosine-based motif.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Encystation-specific cysteine protease (ESCP) was the first membrane-associated protein described to be part of the lysosome-like peripheral vacuoles in the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. ESCP is homologous to cathepsin C enzymes of higher eukaryotes, but is distinguished from other lysosomal cysteine proteases because it possesses a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. Tyrosine-based motifs within tails of membrane proteins are known to participate in endosomal/lysosomal protein sorting in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we show that a YRPI motif within the ESCP cytoplasmic tail is necessary and sufficient to mediate ESCP sorting to peripheral vacuoles in Giardia. Deletion and point mutation analysis demonstrated that the tyrosine residue is critical for ESCP sorting, whereas amino acids located at the Y+1 (Arg), Y+2 (Pro), and Y+3 (Ile) positions show minimal effect. Loss of the motif resulted in surface localization, whereas addition of the motif to a variant-specific surface protein resulted in lysosomal localization. Although Giardia trophozoites lack a morphologically discernible Golgi apparatus, our findings indicate that this parasite directs proteins to the lysosomes using a conserved sorting signal similar to that used by yeast and mammalian cells. Because Giardia is one of the earliest branching protist, these results demonstrate that sorting motifs for specific protein traffic developed very early during eukaryotic evolution.

Touz MC; Lujan HD; Hayes SF; Nash TE

2003-02-01

142

Disaccharidase activity in the small intestine of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during primary and challenge infections with Giardia lamblia.  

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The sequence of changes in the activity of six disaccharidases in the small intestine of gerbils during primary and secondary G lamblia infections was examined. The primary G lamblia infection induced a transient reduction in disaccharidase activity which was related to the highest trophozoite burde...

Belosevic, M; Faubert, G M; MacLean, J D

143

Técnicas de purificación y ruptura de quistes de Giardia spp Purification and breaking techniques of cysts of Giardia spp  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar y evaluar las técnicas de purificación, aislamiento y ruptura de quistes de Giardia spp a partir de heces formoladas para la obtención de ADN. La materia fecal filtrada fue sometida a 3 técnicas de purificación, utilizando soluciones de formol-éter, sacarosa y formol-éter más sacarosa. La solución de sacarosa permitió aislar los quistes con menos detritos. Los quistes purificados fueron tratados con 3 técnicas para la ruptura de los mismos: shock osmótico y calor, degradación química y shock térmico, acción enzimática y efecto mecánico. Solamente con la técnica de shock térmico, acción enzimática y efecto mecánico se observaron bandas fluorescentes en geles de agarosa. Los resultados de este trabajo permiten contar con una metodología de rutina, simple, que podría ser usada en los pasos previos a la técnica de PCR para la genotipificación de este parásito.The purpose of this study was to optimize and evaluate the purification techniques, isolation and breaking of cysts of Giardia spp from fecal samples to isolate DNA. Filtrated fecal samples were tested in 3 purification techniques: Telleman solution, sucrose and Telleman plus sucrose. The sucrose solution let us to isolate the cysts with less detritus. The cleaned cysts were splited in 3 techniques to test the breaking: osmotic shock and heat, chemistry degradation and thermic shock, enzymatic action and mechanic effect. Only the last method was successful and showed bands in agarose gel. The result of this study shows a routine and common method which could be used in the previous steps to the PCR technique for the genotypification of these parasites.

D. Polverino; N.B. Molina; M.C. Minvielle; M.E. Lozano; J.A. Basualdo

2004-01-01

144

Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya  

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Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination) via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity...

Swierczewski, Brett; Odundo, Elizabeth; Ndonye, Janet; Kirera, Ronald; Odhiambo, Cliff; Oaks, Edwin

145

Efficacy of iodine water purification tablets against Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to control water-borne diseases is critical for soldiers, hikers, and others who may need to drink directly from an outdoor source. Water-borne protozoan parasites that are specifically of concern are Giardia and Cryptosporidium because of their resistance to halogen disinfection. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of iodine tablets against Giardia and Cryptosporidium under general- and worst-case water conditions that might be found in the field. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were exposed to iodine according to manufacturer's instructions (two tablets/L = 13-18 mg/L for 20 minutes). This dose inactivated 3-log10 of Giardia in general-case water and pH 9. In worst-case water, however, only about 35% of cysts were inactivated at pH 5. Fifty minutes were required to achieve a 3-log10 reduction at pH 5. Cryptosporidium oocysts were more difficult to inactivate. Only 10% were inactivated after a 20-minute exposure to iodine according to manufacturer's instructions; even after 240 minutes of exposure to iodine only 66-81% oocysts were inactivated. These data strongly suggest that iodine disinfection is not effective in inactivating Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Because this organism is common in all surface waters, it is recommended that another method of treatment be used before ingestion.

Gerba CP; Johnson DC; Hasan MN

1997-05-01

146

Efficacy of iodine water purification tablets against Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to control water-borne diseases is critical for soldiers, hikers, and others who may need to drink directly from an outdoor source. Water-borne protozoan parasites that are specifically of concern are Giardia and Cryptosporidium because of their resistance to halogen disinfection. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of iodine tablets against Giardia and Cryptosporidium under general- and worst-case water conditions that might be found in the field. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were exposed to iodine according to manufacturer's instructions (two tablets/L = 13-18 mg/L for 20 minutes). This dose inactivated 3-log10 of Giardia in general-case water and pH 9. In worst-case water, however, only about 35% of cysts were inactivated at pH 5. Fifty minutes were required to achieve a 3-log10 reduction at pH 5. Cryptosporidium oocysts were more difficult to inactivate. Only 10% were inactivated after a 20-minute exposure to iodine according to manufacturer's instructions; even after 240 minutes of exposure to iodine only 66-81% oocysts were inactivated. These data strongly suggest that iodine disinfection is not effective in inactivating Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Because this organism is common in all surface waters, it is recommended that another method of treatment be used before ingestion. PMID:11990150

Gerba, C P; Johnson, D C; Hasan, M N

1997-05-01

147

Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis cysts in the Oreto River (Sicily, Southern Italy)  

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Full Text Available Background: The presence of Giardia was investigated along the Oreto river between January 2008 and May 2009 with the aim of understanding the source of contamination by molecular typing of cysts.Methods: A total of 38 water samples (10 collected from the river mouth, 24 from the whole Oreto basin and 4 sewage samples from the Monreale treatment plant) were processed. In addition, 22 faecal samples of livestock living close to the Oreto area, were analyzed. The presence of Giardia was determined by immunofluorescence assay and their genetic characterization was achieved by a nested PCR assay targeting the triosephosphate isomerase gene. Results: All water samples from the river mouth were positive for Giardia, even if the concentration of cysts fluctuated considerably among sampling occasions. Our investigation showed that the Vadduneddu and Altofonte torrents, two influents of the river, were the principal sources of contamination. Moreover, the genotypes of Vadduneddu torrent were the same as those detected in human wastewater taken from the activated sludge plant of Monreale city. Assemblages A and B were found in water samples with a predominance of Assemblage A, subtype AII. Assemblage E was only found in a single calf isolate. Conclusions: The data show that the high cyst counts regularly detected in the Oreto river are due to contamination with wastewater of human origin. This finding is relevant for public health, particularly because river water is used for agricultural purposes.

Maria Antonella Di Benedetto; Florinda Di Piazza; Carmelo Massimo Maida; Nino Romano

2010-01-01

148

Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107) entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162) totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004). O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level). For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107) when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162), the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples), 15.67% (23) of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004). The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

Cristiane Beck; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de Araújo; Adriana Tarnowski Olicheski; Adriana Schneider Breyer

2005-01-01

149

Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil/ Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da T? (more) ?cnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107) entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162) totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004). O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don?t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs (more) were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level). For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher?s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107) when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162), the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples), 15.67% (23) of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004). The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

Beck, Cristiane; Araújo, Flávio Antônio Pacheco de; Olicheski, Adriana Tarnowski; Breyer, Adriana Schneider

2005-02-01

150

[Effect of the absence of vitamins in the diet on the excretion of giardia cysts: experimental study  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have studied the effect of vitamin absence in the diet on the evolution of an experimental giardiasis in mice inoculated with Giardia muris cysts. Our study shows that although there is no decrease in the intestinal parasitation, the peak is delayed, and there is a significant decrease in the cysts elimination in stools. These features may have their clinical significance.

Gimeno C; Segarra C; García de Lomas J

1985-07-01

151

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wild ducks along the Rio Grande River valley in southern New Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal samples were taken from wild ducks on the lower Rio Grande River around Las Cruces, N. Mex., from September 2000 to January 2001. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were purified from 69 samples by sucrose enrichment followed by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient centrifugation and were viewed via fluorescent-antibody (FA) staining. For some samples, recovered cysts and oocysts were further screened via PCR to determine the presence of Giardia lamblia and Crytosporidium parvum. The results of this study indicate that 49% of the ducks were carriers of Cryptosporidium, and the Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 0 to 2,182 oocysts per g of feces (mean +/- standard deviation, 47.53 +/- 270.3 oocysts per g); also, 28% of the ducks were positive for Giardia, and the Giardia cyst concentrations ranged from 0 to 29,293 cysts per g of feces (mean +/- standard deviation, 436 +/- 3,525.4 cysts per g). Of the 69 samples, only 14 had (oo)cyst concentrations that were above the PCR detection limit. Samples did test positive for Cryptosporidium sp. However, C. parvum and G. lamblia were not detected in any of the 14 samples tested by PCR. Ducks on their southern migration through southern New Mexico were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia as determined by FA staining, but C. parvum and G. lamblia were not detected. PMID:11772622

Kuhn, Ryan C; Rock, Channah M; Oshima, Kevin H

2002-01-01

152

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wild ducks along the Rio Grande River valley in southern New Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fecal samples were taken from wild ducks on the lower Rio Grande River around Las Cruces, N. Mex., from September 2000 to January 2001. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were purified from 69 samples by sucrose enrichment followed by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient centrifugation and were viewed via fluorescent-antibody (FA) staining. For some samples, recovered cysts and oocysts were further screened via PCR to determine the presence of Giardia lamblia and Crytosporidium parvum. The results of this study indicate that 49% of the ducks were carriers of Cryptosporidium, and the Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 0 to 2,182 oocysts per g of feces (mean +/- standard deviation, 47.53 +/- 270.3 oocysts per g); also, 28% of the ducks were positive for Giardia, and the Giardia cyst concentrations ranged from 0 to 29,293 cysts per g of feces (mean +/- standard deviation, 436 +/- 3,525.4 cysts per g). Of the 69 samples, only 14 had (oo)cyst concentrations that were above the PCR detection limit. Samples did test positive for Cryptosporidium sp. However, C. parvum and G. lamblia were not detected in any of the 14 samples tested by PCR. Ducks on their southern migration through southern New Mexico were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia as determined by FA staining, but C. parvum and G. lamblia were not detected.

Kuhn RC; Rock CM; Oshima KH

2002-01-01

153

Determining the molecular mechanism of inactivation by chemical modification of triosephosphate isomerase from the human parasite Giardia lamblia: a study for antiparasitic drug design.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardiasis, the most prevalent intestinal parasitosis in humans, is caused by Giardia lamblia. Current drug therapies have adverse effects on the host, and resistant strains against these drugs have been reported, demonstrating an urgent need to design more specific antigiardiasic drugs. ATP production in G. lamblia depends mainly on glycolysis; therefore, all enzymes of this pathway have been proposed as potential drug targets. We previously demonstrated that the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase from G. lamblia (GlTIM), could be completely inactivated by low micromolar concentrations of thiol-reactive compounds, whereas, in the same conditions, the activity of human TIM (HuTIM) was almost unaltered. We found that the chemical modification (derivatization) of at least one Cys, of the five Cys residues per monomer in GlTIM, causes this inactivation. In this study, structural and functional studies were performed to describe the molecular mechanism of GlTIM inactivation by thiol-reactive compounds. We found that the Cys222 derivatization is responsible for GlTIM inactivation; this information is relevant because HuTIM has a Cys residue in an equivalent position (Cys217). GlTIM inactivation is associated with a decrease in ligand affinity, which affects the entropic component of ligand binding. In summary, this work describes a mechanism of inactivation that has not been previously reported for TIMs from other parasites and furthermore, we show that the difference in reactivity between the Cys222 in GlTIM and the Cys217 in HuTIM, indicates that the surrounding environment of each Cys residue has unique structural differences that can be exploited to design specific antigiardiasic drugs.

Enríquez-Flores S; Rodríguez-Romero A; Hernández-Alcántara G; Oria-Hernández J; Gutiérrez-Castrellón P; Pérez-Hernández G; de la Mora-de la Mora I; Castillo-Villanueva A; García-Torres I; Méndez ST; Gómez-Manzo S; Torres-Arroyo A; López-Velázquez G; Reyes-Vivas H

2011-09-01

154

THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT  

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Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge) used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001)had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of 89.95±4.25 . Discussion. The comparison of the efficiency obtained with those obtained across the world from the application of other techniques associated with this method indicated that this filter was advantages to similar filters, keeping in mind also that this filter can be used in field situations. It is essential to modify in each region the method of cyst removal from sediments using Sucrose gradient according to the particular morphological characteristics and density of cystes. The optimization of Sucrose gradient and the centrifugation duration and speed seems equally important.

M.R SHAH MANSOURI; HA YOUSEFI; H FARROKHZADEH H

2001-01-01

155

New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens

2012-01-01

156

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw water from the Atibaia river, Campinas, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are waterborne parasites that have caused several outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease associated with drinking water. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these protozoa in water in the Southeast of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to verify the presence of cysts and oocysts in superficial raw water of the Atibaia River. The water samples were submitted to membrane filtration (3.0 mum) and elution was processed by (1) scraping and rinsing of membrane (RM method) and (2) acetone-dissolution (ADM method). Microbiologic and chemical parameters were analyzed. Aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence (Merifluor, Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio). All water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in spite of the high turbidity. Higher recovery rates occurred in samples treated by the RM method than by the ADM technique. The goal for future work is the assessment of viability of cysts and oocysts to determine the public health significance of this finding.

FRANCO Regina Maura Bueno; ROCHA-EBERHARDT Rosângela; CANTUSIO NETO Romeu

2001-01-01

157

Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in Sagami river and its tributaries; Sagamigawa suikei ni okeru Cryptoporidium oyobi Giardia no osen level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the Sagami river system flowing in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan as an object, investigations were conducted on levels of pollution caused by two kinds of protozoans: Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. Water samples were taken at 12 locations for the first investigation, and six locations thereof for the second investigations. The water samples were taken on a 100-liter basis. The results of the investigations may be summarized as follows: Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected from all of the water samples taken at seven locations; in the remaining five locations, Giardia cysts or Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected; in two locations where especially high concentration was detected, one location was observed with a great amount of foams thought attributable to detergents, suggesting household waste water flowing in; the other location has a hog raising barn 50 meters upstream, from which wastewater was discharged into the river; these two locations tend to show relatively high index bacterial concentration when protozoan concentration is high; and this tendency suggests a possibility that pollution caused by excrements of human and animals is a cause of the protozoan pollution. 10 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

Hashimoto, A.; Hirata, T. [Azabu University, Kanagawa (Japan)

1998-02-10

158

Persistent G. lamblia impairs growth in a murine malnutrition model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia infections are nearly universal among children in low-income countries and are syndemic with the triumvirate of malnutrition, diarrhea, and developmental growth delays. Amidst the morass of early childhood enteropathogen exposures in these populations, G. lamblia–specific associations with persistent diarrhea, cognitive deficits, stunting, and nutrient deficiencies have demonstrated conflicting results, placing endemic pediatric giardiasis in a state of equipoise. Many infections in endemic settings appear to be asymptomatic/ subclinical, further contributing to uncertainty regarding a causal link between G. lamblia infection and developmental delay. We used G. lamblia H3 cyst infection in a weaned mouse model of malnutrition to demonstrate that persistent giardiasis leads to epithelial cell apoptosis and crypt hyperplasia. Infection was associated with a Th2-biased inflammatory response and impaired growth. Malnutrition accentuated the severity of these growth decrements. Faltering malnourished mice exhibited impaired compensatory responses following infection and demonstrated an absence of crypt hyperplasia and subsequently blunted villus architecture. Concomitantly, severe malnutrition prevented increases in B220+ cells in the lamina propria as well as mucosal Il4 and Il5 mRNA in response to infection. These findings add insight into the potential role of G. lamblia as a "stunting" pathogen and suggest that, similarly, malnourished children may be at increased risk of G. lamblia– potentiated growth decrements.

Bartelt LA; Roche J; Kolling G; Bolick D; Noronha F; Naylor C; Hoffman P; Warren C; Singer S; Guerrant R

2013-06-01

159

Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O-. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, can be facilitated by sonication. Methods: We studied the effects of ultrasound with different sonication power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection of parasites for further study. The specific operational conditions may be tailored to control survival rates and collection efficiency.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2011-01-01

160

ALTERNATIVE FILTRATION METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND CYST MODELS  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent occurrence of numerous outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis has renewed interest in water filtration for cyst removal. This paper presents an in-depth review of granular media and diatomaceous earth (D.E.) filtration research conducted in the 1930's and 1940's when Entamoeba...

 
 
 
 
161

Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination) via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California) is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can detect E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum simultaneously using fresh or frozen stool. The present study evaluated the Triage Micro Parasite Panel in detecting E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum compared to O&P examination in 266 stool samples collected at medical facilities in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity results for the Triage Micro Parasite Panel were: for E. histolytica/E. dispar: 100%, 100%, G. lamblia: 100%, 100% and C. parvum: 73%, 100%. There was no evidence of cross reactivity using the kit with other parasites identified in the stool specimens. These results indicate that the Triage Micro Parasite Panel is a highly sensitive kit that can be used for screening purposes in large scale studies or outbreak investigations or as a possible alternative to O&P examination.

Swierczewski B; Odundo E; Ndonye J; Kirera R; Odhiambo C; Oaks E

2012-01-01

162

'GIARDIA' DETECTION IN WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

A method has been developed combining immunofluorescence and phase-contrast to microscopically locate and identify Giardia cysts among particulates filtered from water samples. Selective staining of cysts with anti-Giardia antiserum and a fluorochrom enhances the contrast between...

163

Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in sewage and their reduction in treatment process; Gesuichu no Giardia shisuto oyobi Cryptosporidium oshisuto noudo to gesui syori ni okeru jyokyosei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, the water system infection owing to protozoan, virus and so on which is different from the conventional infection like represented by bacteria, is reported. There are few examples for the infection conditional study and epidemiological investigation of these protozoan and virus in Japan. Authors carried out a field survey at nine sewage treatment plants, in order to investigate the occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw sewage and the removal in sewage treatment processes. As a result, in all plants, Giardia cysts were detected in raw sewage and effluent of primary sedimentation. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected from only one raw sewage sample. Indicator bacteria counts tested, C.perfringens spores, coliforms and E.coli, were statistically correlated with Giardia cyst densities and the most significant relationship was observed between C.perfringens spore counts and Giardia cyst densities. It was found that turbidity was the most appropriate indicator for Giardia cyst removal in activated sludge treatment process. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Hashimoto, A.; Hirata, T. [Azabu University, Kanagawa (Japan); Magara, Y. [National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Ogaki, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

1997-06-10

164

Prevalence and distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wastewater and the surface, drinking and ground waters in the Lower Rhine, Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Samples from different water sources (n = 396) were collected during 2009 and 2011. Wastewater (2-5 l) was purified by aluminium sulphate flocculation. Surface, ground and drinking waters (400-6400 l) were collected by filtration. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were further concentrated by sucrose centrifugation. (Oo)cysts were identified by IFT (immunofluorescence test), DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining and DICM (difference interference contrast microscopy). Out of 206 wastewater samples, 134 (65·0%) were found to be positive for Giardia cysts and 64 (31·1%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Parasite numbers ranged from 0 to 2436 cysts/l and 0 to 1745 oocysts/l. Eight (4·2%) surface and drinking water samples (n = 190) were found to be positive for Giardia cysts (0-56000/100 l), and 18 (9·5%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts (2400/100 l). The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence and concentrations of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. by detecting (oo)cysts from water samples. This study provides substantial evidence that G. lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts are able to enter and circulate in the aquatic environment with negative implications for public health.

Gallas-Lindemann C; Sotiriadou I; Plutzer J; Karanis P

2013-01-01

165

Comparison of animal infectivity, excystation, and fluorogenic dye as measures of Giardia muris cyst inactivation by ozone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Giardia muris cyst viability after ozonation was compared by using fluorescein diacetate-ethidium bromide staining, the C3H/HeN mouse-G. muris model, and in vitro excystation. Bench-scale batch experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions (pH 6.7, 22C) in ozone-demand-free phosphate buffer. There was a significant difference between fluorogenic staining and infectivity with fluorogenic staining overestimating viability compared with infectivity estimates of viability. This suggests that viable cysts as indicated by fluorogenic dyes may not be able to complete the life cycle and produce an infection. No significant differences between infectivity and excystation and between fluorogenic staining and excystation were detected for inactivations up to 99.9%. Only animal infectivity had the sensitivity to detect inactivations greater than 99.9%. Therefore, the animal model is the best method currently available for detecting high levels of G. muris cyst inactivation.

Labatiuk, C.W.; Finch, G.R.; Belosevic, M. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)); Schaefer, F.W. III (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1991-11-01

166

A new duplex reverse transcription PCR for simultaneous detection of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To simultaneously detect viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts for the purpose of reducing time and cost spent. METHODS: A duplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was newly developed. RESULTS: Using duplex RT-PCR method for the hsp70 gene, viable (oo)cyst concentrations of 10(1) and 10(3) (oo)cysts/100 microL could be detected for C. parvum and G duodenalis, respectively. However, after heat-shock stimulation the expression of hsp70 mRNAs was detectable at 10(0) and 10(1) (oo)cysts/100 microL concentrations of C. parvum and G duodenalis, respectively. Thus, the detection sensitivity was significantly increased when the viable (oo)cysts were exposed to heat shock. CONCLUSION: This study describes a new duplex RT-PCR method for hsp70 gene to detect the viable (oo)cysts of the C. parvum and G duodenalis with less time consumed and at a lower cost. This newly developed duplex RT-PCR method may be used to detect these parasites not only in aquatic environments but also in clinical samples.

Nam S; Lee G

2010-04-01

167

Comparative Analysis of the 15.5kD Box C/D snoRNP Core Protein in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia Reveals Unique Structural and Functional Features  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) guide the 2'-O-methylation of targeted nucleotides in archaeal and eukaryotic rRNAs. The archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD box C/D RNP core protein homologues initiate RNP assembly by recognizing kink-turn (K-turn) motifs. The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 {angstrom}. The Giardia 15.5kD protein exhibits the typical {alpha}-{beta}-{alpha} sandwich fold exhibited by both archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD proteins. Characteristic of eukaryotic homologues, the Giardia 15.5kD protein binds the K-turn motif but not the variant K-loop motif. The highly conserved residues of loop 9, critical for RNA binding, also exhibit conformations similar to those of the human 15.5kD protein when bound to the K-turn motif. However, comparative sequence analysis indicated a distinct evolutionary position between Archaea and Eukarya. Indeed, assessment of the Giardia 15.5kD protein in denaturing experiments demonstrated an intermediate stability in protein structure when compared with that of the eukaryotic mouse 15.5kD and archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae proteins. Most notable was the ability of the Giardia 15.5kD protein to assemble in vitro a catalytically active chimeric box C/D RNP utilizing the archaeal M. jannaschii Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins. In contrast, a catalytically competent chimeric RNP could not be assembled using the mouse 15.5kD protein. Collectively, these analyses suggest that the G. lamblia 15.5kD protein occupies a unique position in the evolution of this box C/D RNP core protein retaining structural and functional features characteristic of both archaeal L7Ae and higher eukaryotic 15.5kD homologues.

Biswas, Shyamasri; Buhrman, Greg; Gagnon, Keith; Mattos, Carla; Brown, II, Bernard A.; Maxwell, E. Stuart (NCSU); (UTSMC)

2012-07-11

168

Development and evaluation of an off-the-slide genotyping technique for identifying Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts directly from US EPA Method 1623 slides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: This study developed and systematically evaluated performance and limit of detection of an off-the-slide genotyping procedure for both Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Slide standards containing flow-sorted (oo)cysts were used to evaluate the off-the-slide genotyping procedure by microscopy and PCR. Results show approximately 20% of cysts and oocysts are lost during staining. Although transfer efficiency from the slide to the PCR tube could not be determined by microscopy, it was observed that the transfer process aided in the physical lysis of the (oo)cysts likely releasing DNA. PCR detection rates for a single event on a slide were 44% for Giardia and 27% for Cryptosporidium, and a minimum of five cysts and 20 oocysts are required to achieve a 90% PCR detection rate. A Poisson distribution analysis estimated the relative PCR target densities and limits of detection, it showed that 18 Cryptosporidium and five Giardia replicates are required for a 95% probability of detecting a single (oo)cyst on a slide. CONCLUSIONS: This study successfully developed and evaluated recovery rates and limits of detection of an off-the-slide genotyping procedure for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts from the same slide. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This off-the-slide genotyping technique is a simple and low cost tool that expands the applications of US EPA Method 1623 results by identifying the genotypes and assemblages of the enumerated Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This additional information will be useful for microbial risk assessment models and watershed management decisions.

Ware MW; Keely SP; Villegas EN

2013-07-01

169

Genetic characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859) Kofoid & Christiansen, 1915 [syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia] has emerged as a widespread enteric pathogen in humans and domestic animals. In recent years, G. duodenalis has been found in cattle worldwide and longitudinal studies have reported cumulative prevalence of 100% in some herds. In the present study, we determined the prevalence and genetic characterisation of G. duodenalis in 200 dairy cattle from 10 dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil. All faecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy examination, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted from faecal samples and G. duodenalis were identified by amplification of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing analysis. Giardia was identified in eight farm locations (80% prevalence). Overall, 15/200 (7.5%) animals were positive for infection, only one of which was a cow. Giardia duodenalis genotype E was present in 14 of the animals tested. Zoonotic genotype AI was present in one positive sample. Genotype E and genotype A represented 93% and 7% of G. duodenalis infections, respectively. This study demonstrates that G. duodenalis infection was prevalent in dairy calves in São Paulo state and that the non-zoonotic genotype E predominates in cattle in this region. Nevertheless, calves naturally infected in Brazil can shed Giardia cysts that can potentially infect humans, and thus, they may represent a public health risk.

Paz e Silva FM; Lopes RS; Araújo JP Jr

2012-02-01

170

The abundance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in treated effluents produced by four wastewater treatment plants in the Gauteng Province of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of 4 wastewater treatment plants of the Gauteng Province, namely Zeekoegat, Baviaanspoort, Rayton and Refilwe Water Care Works (WCW), in the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Wastewater influent and treated effluent samples were taken weekly between January and April 2008. Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts were detected by immunofluorescence and immunomagnetic separation, according to a modified US EPA 16 (more) 23 method. Effluent samples were subjected to a molecular study for the identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype I and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A. The 18S rRNA gene for restriction digests was therefore used to characterise these (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were repeatedly detected in effluent samples collected from all wastewater treatments at lower concentration (range

Dungeni, M; Momba, MNB

2010-07-01

171

Method to enumerate oocysts of cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water; Metodi per il rilevamento dei cisti e oocisti di protozoi patogeni nelle acque  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been recognized as etiological agents of gastrointestinal illness in humans with severe consequences on children and immunocompromised individuals. Water seems to be vehicle of infection. In last years many efforts have been done to evaluate a method to enumerate oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in waters. Throughout filtration and concentration steps, the two procedures proposed allow to enumerate oocysts and cysts belonging to the two genera of protozoa. [Italian] Cryptosporidium e Giardia sono protozoi parassiti responsabili di gravi forme di gastroenterite nell'uomo e in particolare negli individui immunocompromessi e nei bambini. Perche' e' considerata il primo veicolo di infezione, il controllo della diffusione dei due parassiti nei corpi idrici, pone come prioritaria la necessita' di disporre di metodi di analisi facilmente applicabili ed efficienti. Attraverso fasi di filtrazione e di concentrazione, i metodi di seguito proposti consentono la determinazione quantitativa, a livello di genere, di oocisti di Cryptosporidium e di cisti di Giardia nelle acque.

Briancesco, R.; Bonadonna, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

2000-02-01

172

CROSS TRANSMISSION OF 'GIARDIA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia cysts isolated from fecal samples obtained from humans (Homo sapiens), beaver (Castor canadensis), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus), bighorn X mouflon sheep (Ovis canadensis X O. musimon), guinea pig (Cavis porcellus), muskrat (Ondatra ziethica) and mule d...

173

Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambaia, Campinas, em São Paulo). As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL), 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL) e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV). Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise.In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo). The samples were collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL), 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL), and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV). Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

Luciana Urbano dos Santos; Romeu Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno Franco; José Roberto Guimarães

2011-01-01

174

Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos/ Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambaia, Campinas, em São Paulo). As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL), 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção po (more) r luz ultravioleta (EFL) e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV). Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise. Abstract in english In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo). The samples were collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL), 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL), and 38 samples of treated eff (more) luent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV). Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

Santos, Luciana Urbano dos; Cantusio Neto, Romeu; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guimarães, José Roberto

2011-06-01

175

Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i) concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP) and to ii) purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM) and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8) when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7). As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively). Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2) were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1) was positive (12.5%). The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.Giardia e Cryptosporidium causaram vários surtos epidêmicos de gastroenterite, associados à água potável. Efluentes de esgoto contaminados foram incriminados como uma fonte potencial de cistos e oocistos. Uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado de uma Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto. Para isto as amostras foram submetidas: i) a concentração pelo processo de clarificação com éter (ECP) e ii) método de purificação por flutuação em sacarose (SFM) e, as alíquotas dos sedimentos foram examinadas por imunofluorescência. Cistos de Giardia estiveram presentes em todas as amostras avaliadas (100,0%; n = 8) quando utilizado ECP e kit 1, enquanto o kit 2 resultou em 6 amostras positivas (85,7%; n = 7). Para SFM, cistos de Giardia foram detectados em 75,0% e 100,0% destas amostras (para kit 1 e 2 respectivamente). Considerando os oocistos de Cryptosporidium, duas amostras (25,0%; kit 1 e 28,5% kit 2) foram positivas usando-se ECP enquanto para SFM, apenas uma amostra (examinada pelo kit 1) foi positiva (12,5%). Os resultados do experimento-controle revelaram que as taxas de recuperação para Giardia e Cryptosporidium, quando utilizado ECP foi de 54,5% e 9,6% e para SFM, foi de 10,5% e 3,2%, respectivamente. Considerando a detecção de alta concentração desses protozoários, é recomendada a avaliação prévia do lodo ativado antes de sua aplicação na agricultura e, com alguma melhora, ECP pode ser uma técnica apropriada e simples para a detecção de protozoários em amostras de esgoto.

Luciana Urbano Santos; Taís Rondello Bonatti; Romeu Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno Franco

2004-01-01

176

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw water from the Atibaia river, Campinas, Brazil Ocorrência de oocistos de Cryptosporidium e cistos de Giardia em águas do Rio Atibaia, Campinas, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are waterborne parasites that have caused several outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease associated with drinking water. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these protozoa in water in the Southeast of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to verify the presence of cysts and oocysts in superficial raw water of the Atibaia River. The water samples were submitted to membrane filtration (3.0 mum) and elution was processed by (1) scraping and rinsing of membrane (RM method) and (2) acetone-dissolution (ADM method). Microbiologic and chemical parameters were analyzed. Aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence (Merifluor, Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio). All water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in spite of the high turbidity. Higher recovery rates occurred in samples treated by the RM method than by the ADM technique. The goal for future work is the assessment of viability of cysts and oocysts to determine the public health significance of this finding.Cryptosporidium parvum e Giardia duodenalis são parasitos transmitidos pela água e têm causado muitos surtos de doenças gastrointestinais associados à ingestão de água. Devido à falta de estudo sobre a ocorrência destes protozoários na água, no Sudeste do Brasil, uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos e oocistos na água superficial do rio Atibaia. As amostras de água foram submetidas à filtração em membrana e a eluição foi processada por: (1) lavagem e raspagem da membrana (RM) e (2) dissolução em acetona (ADM). Parâmetros microbiológicos e químicos foram analisados. Alíquotas do sedimento foram examinadas por imunofluorescência. Todas as amostras de água foram positivas, a despeito da alta turbidez. Maior taxa de recuperação ocorreu em amostras tratadas pelo RM que por ADM. A meta em futuros trabalhos é determinar a viabilidade de cistos e oocistos para se obter o significado deste achado em Saúde Pública.

Regina Maura Bueno FRANCO; Rosângela ROCHA-EBERHARDT; Romeu CANTUSIO NETO

2001-01-01

177

Viability staining of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts combined with flow cytometry Levensvatbaarheidskleuring van Cryptosporidium oocysten en Giardia cysten gecombineerd met flow cytometrie  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flow cytometrie als extra zuiveringsstap heeft de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium oocysten en Giardia cysten in water verbeterd. Door middel van flow cytometrie kunnen (oo)cysten gescheiden worden van het meeste debris dat in waterconcentraten aanwezig is, waardoor de toepassing van fluorogene...

Schets FM; Medema GJ

178

Validity of silver, chitosan, and curcumin nanoparticles as anti-Giardia agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was carried out to evaluate the anti parasitic potential of silver, chitosan, and curcumin nanoparticles as anti-Giardia agents. Non-treated infected control rats were inoculated with Giardia lamblia cysts in a dose of 2?×?10(5) cysts/rat. Experimental group was infected then treated with curcumin, curcumin nanoparticles, chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles, and silver nanoparticles as single or combined therapy. The number of Giardia cysts in stools and trophozoites in intestinal sections were detected. Toxicity of nanoparticles was evaluated by comparing hematological and histopathological parameters of the normal control group and treated non-infected control group. The amount of silver was also measured in the liver, kidney, small intestine, lung, and brain of rats treated with silver nanoparticles. The number of the parasites in stool and small intestinal sections decreased in treated infected rats compared with infected non-treated ones. The effect in the single therapy was better with nanoparticles, and the best effect was detected in nano-silver. The combined therapy gave better results than single. Combination between nanoparticles was better than the combination of nano-forms and native chitosan and curcumin. The best effect was detected in combinations of nano-silver and nano-chitosan but with no full eradication. In conclusion, the highest effect and complete cure was gained by combining the three nano-forms. The parasite was successfully eradicated from stool and intestine. None of the treatments exhibited any toxicity. Accumulated silver in different organs was within the safe limits.

Said DE; Elsamad LM; Gohar YM

2012-08-01

179

Giardia duodenalis: kinetics of cyst elimination and the systemic humoral and intestinal secretory immune responses in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) experimentally infected.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to determine the pre-patent period and to evaluate the kinetics of cyst elimination and the systemic humoral (IgA, IgG(1), IgG(2a), IgM, IgE) and intestinal secretory (IgA) immune responses in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) experimentally innoculated with different doses of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites. Forty-eight animals aged 6-8 weeks were used, equally distributed among six groups, five groups innoculated with different doses of trophozoites (10(1), 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5)) and one control (non-infected) group. Coproparasitological examinations were carried out daily up to 91 days after inoculation (d.a.i.) to determine the pre-patent period and the kinetics of cyst elimination. Blood and stool samples were weekly collected for antibody assays. The pre-patent period was observed from the 9 d.a.i. onwards, with intermittent elimination of variable quantities of cysts up to 27 d.a.i.. All infected gerbils, irrespective of the dose received, were able to mount systemic humoral immune responses as evidenced by specific IgM titers from 7 to 28 d.a.i., corresponding to the peak of cyst elimination, followed by high and persistent IgG1 titers. Intestinal secretory responses were also seen with two peaks of fecal IgA titers, corresponding to IgM and IgG1 response peaks, respectively. In conclusion, systemic and intestinal humoral immune responses were related to the control of giardiasis in this experimental model.

Amorim RM; Silva DA; Taketomi EA; Morato MG; Mundim MJ; Ribeiro DP; Oliveira TC; Viana JC; Gomes MA; Cury MC

2010-07-01

180

Giardia duodenalis: kinetics of cyst elimination and the systemic humoral and intestinal secretory immune responses in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) experimentally infected.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to determine the pre-patent period and to evaluate the kinetics of cyst elimination and the systemic humoral (IgA, IgG(1), IgG(2a), IgM, IgE) and intestinal secretory (IgA) immune responses in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) experimentally innoculated with different doses of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites. Forty-eight animals aged 6-8 weeks were used, equally distributed among six groups, five groups innoculated with different doses of trophozoites (10(1), 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5)) and one control (non-infected) group. Coproparasitological examinations were carried out daily up to 91 days after inoculation (d.a.i.) to determine the pre-patent period and the kinetics of cyst elimination. Blood and stool samples were weekly collected for antibody assays. The pre-patent period was observed from the 9 d.a.i. onwards, with intermittent elimination of variable quantities of cysts up to 27 d.a.i.. All infected gerbils, irrespective of the dose received, were able to mount systemic humoral immune responses as evidenced by specific IgM titers from 7 to 28 d.a.i., corresponding to the peak of cyst elimination, followed by high and persistent IgG1 titers. Intestinal secretory responses were also seen with two peaks of fecal IgA titers, corresponding to IgM and IgG1 response peaks, respectively. In conclusion, systemic and intestinal humoral immune responses were related to the control of giardiasis in this experimental model. PMID:20159014

Amorim, R M R; Silva, D A O; Taketomi, E A; Morato, M G V A; Mundim, M J S; Ribeiro, D P; Oliveira, T C; Viana, J C; Gomes, M A; Cury, M C

2010-02-14

 
 
 
 
181

Zoonotic potential of Giardia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection.

Ryan U; Cacciò SM

2013-07-01

182

Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old) from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic) was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9%) of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19). In 82% (9/11) calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75%) positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30) sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm). They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

A.M. Guimarães; E. Guedes; R.A. Carvalho

2001-01-01

183

Strategies to discover the structural components of cyst and oocyst walls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cysts of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum are the infectious and sometimes diagnostic forms of these parasites. To discover the structural components of cyst and oocyst walls, we have developed strategies based upon a few simple assumptions. Briefly, the most abundant wall proteins are identified by monoclonal antibodies or mass spectrometry. Structural components include a sugar polysaccharide (chitin for Entamoeba, ?-1,3-linked glucose for Toxoplasma, and ?-1,3-linked GalNAc for Giardia) and/or acid-fast lipids (Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium). Because Entamoeba cysts and Toxoplasma oocysts are difficult to obtain, studies of walls of non-human pathogens (E. invadens and Eimeria, respectively) accelerate discovery. Biochemical methods to dissect fungal walls work well for cyst and oocyst walls, although the results are often unexpected. For example, echinocandins, which inhibit glucan synthases and kill fungi, arrest the development of oocyst walls and block their release into the intestinal lumen. Candida walls are coated with mannans, while Entamoeba cysts are coated in a dextran-like glucose polymer. Models for cyst and oocyst walls derive from their structural components and organization within the wall. Cyst walls are composed of chitin fibrils and lectins that bind chitin (Entamoeba) or fibrils of the ?-1,3-GalNAc polymer and lectins that bind the polymer (Giardia). Oocyst walls of Toxoplasma have two distinct layers that resemble fungi (?-1,3-glucan in the inner layer) or mycobacteria (acid-fast lipids in the outer layer). Oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium have a rigid bilayer of acid-fast lipids and inner layer of oocyst wall proteins.

Samuelson J; Bushkin GG; Chatterjee A; Robbins PW

2013-10-01

184

Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran  

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Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods). Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively).Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

Farhad Askari; Fatemeh Ghaffarifari; Hosein Dalimi Asl; Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani; Mehdi Delavari

2007-01-01

185

Giardia: both a harmless commensal and a devastating pathogen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The highly prevalent protozoan Giardia lamblia is an enteropathogen that can be asymptomatic in some individuals, while leading to persistent diarrhea and substantial morbidity in others. In this issue of the JCI, Bartelt et al. describe a mouse model of the disease and investigate the contribution of coincident malnutrition with the development of symptomatic infection. This work in part explains how Giardia infection can lead to growth retardation, and may offer insights that guide future therapeutic strategies.

DuPont HL

2013-06-01

186

Giardia infection causes vitamin B12 deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A patient presented with hematological evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency. The Schilling test performed suggested intestinal malabsorption and further investigation revealed heavy infestation with Giardia lamblia. Specific treatment of the giardiasis with tinidazole resulted in correction of the abnormalities in vitamin B12 absorption. These findings, together with the absence of other causes of vitamin B12 deficiency, suggest that giardiasis should be considered as a cause of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Cordingley FT; Crawford GP

1986-02-01

187

Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water samples with a Becton Dickinson FACSort flow cytometer Detectie van Cryptosporidium oocysten en Giardia cysten in water met een Becton Dickinson FACSort flow cytometer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

De huidige methode die in de Verenigde Staten, Groot- Brittannie en Nederland wordt gebruikt voor de detectie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia in water bestaat uit een combinatie van filtratie, concentratie door centrifugeren en flotatie en immuunfluorescentie microscopie. De methode is zeer arbeidsi...

Schets FM; Medema GJ; Boschman GD

188

The Two Nuclei of Giardia Each Have Complete Copies of the Genome and Are Partitioned Equationally at Cytokinesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Giardia lamblia is medically important as a cause of diarrhea and malabsorption throughout the world and is thought to be one of the earliest-branching eukaryotes on a phylogenetic tree. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of inheritance are largely unknown. The trophozoites of Giardia and other diplomonad...

Yu, Li Zhi; Birky, C. William; Adam, Rodney D.

189

Ocular changes associated with Giardia lamblia infection in children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND—The protozoan disease giardiasis can cause ocular complications, including "salt and pepper" retinal changes.?METHODS—Ophthalmic examinations were performed in 141 children (mean age 4.7 (SD 2.0) years) with active or past giardiasis diagnosed on the basis of microscopic examination of st...

Corsi, A; Nucci, C; Knafelz, D; Bulgarini, D; Di, I; Polito, A; De Risi, F; Morini, F; Paone, F

190

ANALYSIS OF INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA BY CHLORINE  

Science.gov (United States)

Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-93-523) highlight the continuing problem of waterborne disease by mandating the EPA to promulgate: (1) Criteria by which filtration will be required for surface water supplies; and (2) disinfection requirements for all water supplies ...

191

Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Genetic heterogeneity has become a major inconvenience in the genotyping and molecular epidemiology of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, in particular for the major human infecting genotype, assemblage B. Sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia from patient fecal samples, where one or several of the commonly used genotyping loci (beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are implemented, is often hampered due to the presence of sequence heterogeneity in the sequencing chromatograms. This can be due to allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH) and /or co-infections with parasites of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. Thus, two important questions have arisen; i) does ASH occur at the single cell level, and/or ii) do multiple sub-genotype infections commonly occur in patients infected with assemblage B, G. intestinalis isolates? RESULTS: We used micromanipulation in order to isolate single Giardia intestinalis, assemblage B trophozoites (GS isolate) and cysts from human patients. Molecular analysis at the tpi loci of trophozoites from the GS lineage indicated that ASH is present at the single cell level. Analyses of assemblage B Giardia cysts from clinical samples at the bg and tpi loci also indicated ASH at the single cell level. Additionally, alignment of sequence data from several different cysts that originated from the same patient yielded different sequence patterns, thus suggesting the presence of multiple sub-assemblage infections in congruence with ASH within the same patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our results conclusively show that ASH does occur at the single cell level in assemblage B Giardia. Furthermore, sequence heterogeneity generated during sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B isolates may possess the complexity of single cell ASH in concurrence with co-infections of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. These findings explain the high abundance of sequence heterogeneity commonly found when performing sequence based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia, and illuminates the necessity of developing new G. intestinalis genotyping tools.

Ankarklev J; Svärd SG; Lebbad M

2012-01-01

192

Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic heterogeneity has become a major inconvenience in the genotyping and molecular epidemiology of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, in particular for the major human infecting genotype, assemblage B. Sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia from patient fecal samples, where one or several of the commonly used genotyping loci (beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are implemented, is often hampered due to the presence of sequence heterogeneity in the sequencing chromatograms. This can be due to allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH) and /or co-infections with parasites of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. Thus, two important questions have arisen; i) does ASH occur at the single cell level, and/or ii) do multiple sub-genotype infections commonly occur in patients infected with assemblage B, G. intestinalis isolates? Results We used micromanipulation in order to isolate single Giardia intestinalis, assemblage B trophozoites (GS isolate) and cysts from human patients. Molecular analysis at the tpi loci of trophozoites from the GS lineage indicated that ASH is present at the single cell level. Analyses of assemblage B Giardia cysts from clinical samples at the bg and tpi loci also indicated ASH at the single cell level. Additionally, alignment of sequence data from several different cysts that originated from the same patient yielded different sequence patterns, thus suggesting the presence of multiple sub-assemblage infections in congruence with ASH within the same patient. Conclusions Our results conclusively show that ASH does occur at the single cell level in assemblage B Giardia. Furthermore, sequence heterogeneity generated during sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B isolates may possess the complexity of single cell ASH in concurrence with co-infections of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. These findings explain the high abundance of sequence heterogeneity commonly found when performing sequence based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia, and illuminates the necessity of developing new G. intestinalis genotyping tools.

Ankarklev Johan; Svärd Staffan G; Lebbad Marianne

2012-01-01

193

Distribution of Giardia duodenalis Genotypes and Subgenotypes in Raw Urban Wastewater in Milwaukee, Wisconsin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Giardia cysts in 131 raw wastewater samples from Milwaukee, Wis., were genotyped by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase gene which showed the presence of two distinct genotypes (assemblages A and B) of Giardia duodenalis. Of the 131 samples, 111 belonged to assemblage A, and the remai...

Sulaiman, Irshad M.; Jiang, Jianlin; Singh, Ajaib; Xiao, Lihua

194

Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus). As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus) faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

João Fabio Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Camila Belmonte Oliveira; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Gleide Mariscano; Edson Luis Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

2008-01-01

195

Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate). One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%); specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%); positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%); and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%). This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

Sofía Duque-Beltrán; Rubén Santiago Nicholls-Orejuela; Adriana Arévalo-Jamaica; Rafael Guerrero-Lozano; Sonia Montenegro; Mark A James

2002-01-01

196

Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG (more) anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate). One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%); specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%); positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%); and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%). This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

Duque-Beltrán, Sofía; Nicholls-Orejuela, Rubén Santiago; Arévalo-Jamaica, Adriana; Guerrero-Lozano, Rafael; Montenegro, Sonia; James, Mark A

2002-12-01

197

Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate). One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 g/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%); specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%); positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%); and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%). This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

Duque-Beltrán S; Nicholls-Orejuela RS; Arévalo-Jamaica A; Guerrero-Lozano R; Montenegro S; James MA

2002-12-01

198

Ubiquitination dynamics in the early-branching eukaryote Giardia intestinalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ubiquitination is a highly dynamic and versatile posttranslational modification that regulates protein function, stability, and interactions. To investigate the roles of ubiquitination in a primitive eukaryotic lineage, we utilized the early-branching eukaryote Giardia intestinalis. Using a combination of biochemical, immunofluorescence-based, and proteomics approaches, we assessed the ubiquitination status during the process of differentiation in Giardia. We observed that different types of ubiquitin modifications present specific cellular and temporal distribution throughout the Giardia life cycle from trophozoites to cyst maturation. Ubiquitin signal was detected in the wall of mature cysts, and enzymes implicated in cyst wall biogenesis were identified as substrates for ubiquitination. Interestingly, inhibition of proteasome activity did not affect trophozoite replication and differentiation, while it caused a decrease in cyst viability, arguing for proteasome involvement in cyst wall maturation. Using a proteomics approach, we identified around 200 high-confidence ubiquitinated candidates that vary their ubiquitination status during differentiation. Our results indicate that ubiquitination is critical for several cellular processes in this primitive eukaryote.

Niño CA; Chaparro J; Soffientini P; Polo S; Wasserman M

2013-06-01

199

Giardia intestinalis: DNA extraction approaches to improve PCR results.  

Science.gov (United States)

Difficulty in disrupting cysts of Giardia intestinalis, a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite, decreases the yield of DNA extracted and reduces the effectiveness of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To improve the detection of the Giardia Glutamate Dehydrogenase (gdh) gene, we re-evaluated the effects of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction methods. Purified and concentrated cysts from 33 fecal samples were disrupted using conventional methods, and DNA extraction was conducted using two protocols: the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit and phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (PCI). PCR amplification was successful for 12 extracted DNA samples (36%) using PCI following a glass bead and freeze/thaw pretreatment and for all 33 samples (100%) using the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit following the aforementioned pretreatment. Consequently, the pretreatment of cysts with glass beads and freeze/thaw cycles followed by extraction of DNA with the QIAamp Stool Mini kit was the more effective protocol. PMID:21315715

Babaei, Zahra; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Rezaie, Sasan; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Razmjou, Elham

2011-02-17

200

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

Science.gov (United States)

... remove Giardia from my drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE- ... website. Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites can be released in ...

 
 
 
 
201

Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado (RALF), na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5,5%), Trichuris sp (4,5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%), H. nana (1%) e Taenia sp (0,4%), Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal.This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5.5%), Trichuris sp (4.5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (3.7%), H. nana (1%) and Taenia sp (0.4%), protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

Rosangela C. Paulino; Edilene A. Castro; Vanete Thomaz-Soccol

2001-01-01

202

Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos/ Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado (RALF), na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5,5%), Trichuris sp (4, (more) 5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%), H. nana (1%) e Taenia sp (0,4%), Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal. Abstract in english This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5.5%), Trichuris sp (4.5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (3.7%), H. nana (1%) and Taenia sp (0.4%), protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment bas (more) ed on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

Paulino, Rosangela C.; Castro, Edilene A.; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

2001-10-01

203

Development of Sensitive Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Surface Water in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia are known to occur widely in both raw and drinking waters. They are two of the causative agents of waterborne out-breaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. In the present study, a PCR assay and FA were developed for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst in environmental samples. Methods: We have detected Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in seeded and un-seeded environmental water samples by PCR method. Water samples were spiked with oocysts (50, 100,300,500) and filtrated with a 1.2-µm pore size cellulose nitrate and follow by DNA extrac¬tion and purification by QIAamp DNA mini kit. Nested-PCR assay amplified an 850 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene specific for Cryptosporidium and 435 bp fragment of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) target gene for Giardia. Also many river water from north of Iran, be checked by these methods. Results: Cryptosporidium and Giardia DNAs were detected in seeded water sample and Giardia was detected in all 5 water samples from river in north of Iran by nested- PCR and FA. Also in one river water sample, Cryptosporidium was detected.Conclusion: This protocol is effective for detection of these waterborne parasites in treated and untreated water samples. This study can also serve as a platform for further investigations and research water source in Iran.

MR Mahmoudi; K Ashrafi; H Abedinzadeh; F Tahvildar-Bideruni; A Haghighi; M Bandehpour; N Taghipour Lailabadi; B Kazemi

2011-01-01

204

Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points in at least one of the three applied diagnostic techniques within 33-61 days after treatment. Furthermore, all dogs had episodes of diarrhea (for 1-4 days) within 14-31 days after treatment and unformed feces during the whole experiment. The positive effect of ronidazole against Giardia infections in dogs could be confirmed in this study. In particular, the combination of ronidazole treatment combined with the disinfection of the environment and shampooing of the dogs was highly effective in reducing Giardia cyst excretion and may therefore constitute an alternative control strategy for canine giardiosis.

Fiechter R; Deplazes P; Schnyder M

2012-06-01

205

Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points in at least one of the three applied diagnostic techniques within 33-61 days after treatment. Furthermore, all dogs had episodes of diarrhea (for 1-4 days) within 14-31 days after treatment and unformed feces during the whole experiment. The positive effect of ronidazole against Giardia infections in dogs could be confirmed in this study. In particular, the combination of ronidazole treatment combined with the disinfection of the environment and shampooing of the dogs was highly effective in reducing Giardia cyst excretion and may therefore constitute an alternative control strategy for canine giardiosis. PMID:22240238

Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

2011-12-23

206

Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolates from red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Poland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 181 faecal samples were collected from wild cervids in two regions of Poland. Giardia cysts were detected in one faecal specimen from red deer and in two samples from roe deer. Fragments of the beta-giardin (bg) triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes were successfully amplified from the Giardia isolate obtained from red deer, whereas only amplicons of bg and gdh were obtained from Giardia isolates derived from two roe deer. The result of genotyping and phylogenetic analysis showed that the G. duodenalis isolate from red deer belonged to sub-assemblage AIII, which has never been identified in humans, whereas isolates from roe deer clustered within zoonotic sub-assemblage AI. Further studies are necessary to explain which Giardia assemblages and/or sub-assemblages occur in wild cervids in various regions of the world. Moreover, the impact of Giardia infection on the health of wild cervids should also be elucidated.

Solarczyk P; Majewska AC; Moskwa B; Cabaj W; Dabert M; Nowosad P

2012-09-01

207

Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity but only 71% sensitivity. The Giardia ELISA correlated well with IF (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%) and was capable of detecting animal specific Giardia duodenalis genotypes. Visual interpretation appeared appropriate for assessment of ELISA results. The proportion of positive samples and possible zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs

Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.

2007-01-01

208

Giardia in beaver (Castor canadensis) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) from east Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the prevalence of Giardia sp. infection in nuisance beaver (Castor canadensis) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) in east Texas. From October 1992 through September 1993, 100 beaver and 30 nutria were collected in routine wildlife management activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Texas Animal Damage Control Service. Fecal and duodenal mucoid samples were preserved from each animal. Fecal samples were examined for the occurrence of Giardia sp. cysts using the Merifluor immunoassay detection kit: 30 beaver (30.0%) and 20 nutria (66.7%) were positive for Giardia sp. Duodenal mucoid samples were examined for Giardia sp. trophozoites using trichrome staining. with 26 beaver (26.0%) and 20 nutria (73.3%) testing positive. Combining both techniques resulted in 33 beaver (33.0%) and 22 nutria (73.3%) testing positive for Giardia sp. We found no relationship between Giardia sp. and host age, sex, river system, habitat, county, or season in beaver. However, a relationship was found when season and habitat were considered together. No relationship was found between Giardia sp. and age, river system, habitat, county, or season in nutria: however, more males (87.5%) were infected than females (46.4%). PMID:12537124

Dunlap, Brett G; Thies, Monte L

2002-12-01

209

Giardia in beaver (Castor canadensis) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) from east Texas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the prevalence of Giardia sp. infection in nuisance beaver (Castor canadensis) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) in east Texas. From October 1992 through September 1993, 100 beaver and 30 nutria were collected in routine wildlife management activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Texas Animal Damage Control Service. Fecal and duodenal mucoid samples were preserved from each animal. Fecal samples were examined for the occurrence of Giardia sp. cysts using the Merifluor immunoassay detection kit: 30 beaver (30.0%) and 20 nutria (66.7%) were positive for Giardia sp. Duodenal mucoid samples were examined for Giardia sp. trophozoites using trichrome staining. with 26 beaver (26.0%) and 20 nutria (73.3%) testing positive. Combining both techniques resulted in 33 beaver (33.0%) and 22 nutria (73.3%) testing positive for Giardia sp. We found no relationship between Giardia sp. and host age, sex, river system, habitat, county, or season in beaver. However, a relationship was found when season and habitat were considered together. No relationship was found between Giardia sp. and age, river system, habitat, county, or season in nutria: however, more males (87.5%) were infected than females (46.4%).

Dunlap BG; Thies ML

2002-12-01

210

Morphological changes in the jejunum of calves naturally infected with Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis are frequently diagnosed in calves at the large animal clinic of the veterinary school. Few studies have been reported in the literature regarding pathogenesis of these two intestinal protozoa. The aims of this study were to follow the histological changes in the villi and crypts and the changes in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in the jejunum of naturally infected calves during the acute phase of infection. For this purpose, 29 calves aged between 7 and 10 days were bought at a local auction. The animals were housed in individual pens to avoid cross-contamination. Fecal samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, three times per week for a period of 45 days. Six calves did not pass any cysts or oocysts and were used as controls. Fifteen calves passed Giardia cysts only, five passed both cysts and oocysts, and three passed oocysts only. The villus to crypt ratio index was 1.76 in the control group and 1.08 in the Giardia-infected group. In the Cryptosporidium-infected calves, the ratio was 1.18 and calves infected with both parasites had an index of 1.37. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes per millimeter of jejunum tissue was 21 in the control group. This number was doubled in the calves infected with Giardia, but was slightly lower in the other infected groups. All of the infected calves had intermittent diarrhea and mucus was seen in many fecal samples. PMID:9195727

Ruest, N; Couture, Y; Faubert, G M; Girard, C

1997-05-01

211

Comportamiento de la infección experimental por aislamientos colombianos de Giardia duodenalis en el modelo animal del gerbo ( Meriones unguiculatus)/ Experimental infection of the gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus) by Colombian isolates of Giardia duodenalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción. Se han informado infecciones naturales y experimentales con Giardia sp. En bovinos, equinos, caprinos, caninos, felinos y roedores como ratones, ratas y gerbos; estos últimos son el modelo más adecuado para estudios de la infección por Giardia duodenalis y Giardia muris. Objetivo. Establecer el comportamiento de la infección con aislamientos colombianos de Giardia duodenalis en el modelo animal del gerbo. Materiales y métodos. Se purificaron mediante g (more) radientes de sacarosa y percoll quistes del parásito obtenidos a partir de heces de pacientes sintomáticos infectados. La inoculación a los animales se realizó mediante sonda gástrica con 5x103 quistes. El curso de la infección se estableció mediante recuento diario de quistes y semanal de trofozoítos durante treinta días. Resultados. La eliminación de quistes presentó un patrón intermitente de excreción, con ausencia en la primera y cuarta semanas de infección, y presencia constante durante la segunda y tercera semanas, en número variable con promedio mínimo de 79 y máximo de 17.943 quistes liberados en heces recolectadas en un período de dos horas. Se observó colonización de los trofozoítos en el intestino delgado, en número que osciló entre 15.000 y 6'577.778 trofozoítos por ml. Conclusiones. En gerbos infectados con aislamientos de Giardia duodenalis circulantes en otras regiones geográficas, la resolución natural de la infección oscila entre 86 y 114 días mientras que los gerbos infectados con aislamientos colombianos del parásito la resuelven al día 30. El gerbo constituye un modelo animal adecuado para la infección con aislamientos colombianos de G. duodenalis. La infección experimental por Giardia en gerbo permite obtener quistes y trofozoítos del parásito en cantidades suficientes con la finalidad de ser utilizados como antígenos para la inmunización de animales y para la obtención de anticuerpos que puedan utilizarse para la detección de antígeno de Giardia en materia fecal. Abstract in english Introduction. Natural and experimental Giardia infections have been reported from bovines, equines, goats, canines, felines and rodents such as mice, rats and gerbils. The latter have provided successful animal models for Giardia duodenalis and Giardia muris experimental infections. Objective. The gerbil model was used to establish the pattern of infection of Colombian Giardia human isolates. Materials and methods. Giardia cysts were obtained from stool specimens of sympt (more) omatic giardiasis patients by means of sucrose-percoll gradients. Animal inoculation was performed by gastric intubation and injection with 5x103 Giardia cysts. The course of infection was established by counting cysts every day and trophozoites weekly throughout a period of 30 days. Results. The pattern of cyst excretion was found to be intermittent. Cysts were released during the second and third weeks of infection but not during the first or fourth weeks. The mean minimal number of cysts released per 2-hr collection period was 79 and the mean maximum number was 17,943. Colonization of the small intestine by trophozoites was observed with a mean number ranging from 15,000 to 6,577,778 trophozoites/ml. Discussion and conclusions. Gerbils inoculated with G. duodenalis isolates obtained from geographical areas outside Colombia resolved the infection between 86 and 114 days after infection, whereas gerbils infected with Colombian G. duodenalis isolates resolved the infection at 30 days. The gerbil proved to be a good animal model for experimental infection with Colombian isolates of G. duodenalis. Experimental Giardia infection of gerbils permit a sufficient yield of cysts and trophozoites to be used as antigens for the immunization of other animals and to obtain Giardia antibodies that could be used for Giardia antigen detection assays in stool specimens.

Arévalo, Adriana; Duque, Sofía; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

2005-09-01

212

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in source waters of Sao Paulo State, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are two protozoan intestinal parasites responsible for many drinking-water-related disease outbreaks in recent years. They are very resistant to conventional water treatment processes, can persist for long times in the environment and are, therefore, of great concern for public health. This work aimed to evaluate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water sources from São Paulo State, Brazil, as part of the "Evaluation of Inland Waters from São Paulo State" project from CETESB. Over a period of 19 months, 278 water samples from 28 sites located in 10 watersheds were analysed. The immunofluorescence assay was used after concentration of the samples by the calcium carbonate flocculation technique. Thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms, faecal streptococci and Clostridium perfringens were also determined in order to verify the existence of correlation between these bacterial indicators and the protozoa. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 27% and 2.5% of the samples, respectively, a lower figure compared with the results reported by other authors, especially for Cryptosporidium. A Spearman rank correlation test demonstrated a significant correlation between Giardia and faecal indicator concentrations. According to the American Regulation of Monitoring (ICR), treated water from 16 of these 28 collection sites should also be analysed to evaluate whether the treatment process could remove the parasites. Some technical deficiencies of these methods still limit the utilisation of the monitoring results for public health decisions, but the data here reported will help to improve the quality of drinking water in São Paulo State.

Hachich EM; Sato MI; Galvani AT; Menegon JR; Mucci JL

2004-01-01

213

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in source waters of São Paulo State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are two protozoan intestinal parasites responsible for many drinking-water-related disease outbreaks in recent years. They are very resistant to conventional water treatment processes, can persist for long times in the environment and are, therefore, of great concern for public health. This work aimed to evaluate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water sources from São Paulo State, Brazil, as part of the "Evaluation of Inland Waters from São Paulo State" project from CETESB. Over a period of 19 months, 278 water samples from 28 sites located in 10 watersheds were analysed. The immunofluorescence assay was used after concentration of the samples by the calcium carbonate flocculation technique. Thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms, faecal streptococci and Clostridium perfringens were also determined in order to verify the existence of correlation between these bacterial indicators and the protozoa. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 27% and 2.5% of the samples, respectively, a lower figure compared with the results reported by other authors, especially for Cryptosporidium. A Spearman rank correlation test demonstrated a significant correlation between Giardia and faecal indicator concentrations. According to the American Regulation of Monitoring (ICR), treated water from 16 of these 28 collection sites should also be analysed to evaluate whether the treatment process could remove the parasites. Some technical deficiencies of these methods still limit the utilisation of the monitoring results for public health decisions, but the data here reported will help to improve the quality of drinking water in São Paulo State. PMID:15318516

Hachich, E M; Sato, M I Z; Galvani, A T; Menegon, J R N; Mucci, J L N

2004-01-01

214

Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in clinical laboratories in Europe-a comparative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the routine diagnostic methods used and compare the performance in detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium species and cysts of Giardia intestinalis in faecal samples by European specialist parasitology laboratories and European clinical laboratories. Two sets of seven formalin-preserved faecal samples, one containing cysts of Giardia intestinalis and the other, containing oocysts of Cryptosporidium, were sent to 18 laboratories. Participants were asked to examine the specimens using their routine protocol for detecting these parasites and state the method(s) used. Eighteen laboratories answered the questionnaire. For detection of Giardia, 16 of them used sedimentation/concentration followed by light microscopy. Using this technique the lower limit of detection of Giardia was 17.2 cysts/mL of faeces in the best performing laboratories. Only three of 16 laboratories used fluorescent-conjugated antibody-based microscopy. For detection of Cryptosporidium acid-fast staining was used by 14 of the 17 laboratories that examined the samples. With this technique the lower limit of detection was 976 oocysts/mL of faeces. Fluorescent-conjugated antibody-based microscopy was used by only five of the 17 laboratories. There was variation in the lower limit of detection of cysts of Giardia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium between laboratories using the same basic microscopic methods. Fluorescent-conjugated antibody-based microscopy was not superior to light microscopy under the conditions of this study. There is a need for a larger-scale multi-site comparison of the methods used for the diagnosis of these parasites and the development of a Europe-wide laboratory protocol based upon its findings.

Manser M; Granlund M; Edwards H; Saez A; Petersen E; Evengard B; Chiodini P

2013-06-01

215

A Contiguous Compartment Functions as Endoplasmic Reticulum and Endosome/Lysosome in Giardia lamblia? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed ...

Abodeely, Marla; DuBois, Kelly N.; Hehl, Adrian; Stefanic, Sasa; Sajid, Mohammed; deSouza, Wanderley; Attias, Marcia

216

A contiguous compartment functions as endoplasmic reticulum and endosome/lysosome in Giardia lamblia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed ...

Abodeely, M; DuBois, K N; Hehl, A B; Stefanic, S; Sajid, M; DeSouza, W; Attias, M; Engel, J C; Hsieh, I; Fetter, R D; McKerrow, J H

217

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available X-Plain Ovarian Cysts Reference Summary Introduction Ovarian cysts are a very common female condition. An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac on an ... and do not need any special treatment. This reference summary will help you understand ovarian cysts and ...

218

Persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus and Adenovirus in Treated Sewage in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus and Adenovirus in samples of raw and treated sewage collected monthly in 2010 at the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, was analyzed. The USEPA Method 1623 was used to detect and quantify Giardia and Cryptosporidium. An enzyme immunoassay was carried out to test Rotavirus and Adenovirus antigen optical density (Rotascreen® and Adenoscreen®). The results show a significant decrease in the concentrations of Giardia, Rotavirus and Adenovirus (p < 0.05) and a trend of decreasing Cryptosporidium densities, without statistical significance. Giardia concentrations ranged from 120 to 2,200 cysts/L in raw sewage and from 0.45 to 3.5 cysts/L in treated sewage. Cryptosporidium concentration ranged from undetectable to 28.9 oocysts/L in raw sewage and undetectable to 1.05 oocysts/L in treated sewage. Rotavirus presented absorbance values that ranged from 1.17 ± 0.81 in raw sewage to 0.46 ± 0.32 in treated sewage. Adenovirus, in turn, presented absorbance values of 0.64 ± 0.20 in raw sewage and of 0.45 ± 0.04 in treated sewage. There was no significant seasonal tendency observed in the distribution of protozoa (oo)cysts and in the viral antigen density in the monthly sewage samples during 2010 (p > 0.05). Even though these pathogenic agents decreased after treatment, the remaining loads observed in treated sewage can reach the watercourses receiving it. Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus and Adenovirus are pathogens with very low infectious doses, representing a public health risk especially for vulnerable groups, such as children living near these watercourses and homeless people using this water for various purposes. Studies addressing the environmental persistence of opportunistic pathogens in watercourses are hugely important in the public health sphere, especially in developing countries, where economic, social, cultural and environmental factors still persist that are favorable to population's exposure to diarrhea-causing agents.

Tonani KA; Padula J; Julião FC; Fregonesi BM; Alves RI; Sampaio CF; Beda CF; Hachich E; Segura-Muñoz S

2013-05-01

219

Albendazole and its derivative JVG9 induce encystation on Giardia intestinalis trophozoites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, we evaluated the effect of an albendazole (ABZ) derivative JVG9 on cultured Giardia intestinalis. To assess the JVG9 effects, we evaluated the tubulin cytoskeleton by confocal microscopy, and we found that the characteristic staining was modified. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed extremely damaged trophozoites and cyst-like cells. The confocal images revealed that this drug triggered the expression of cyst wall protein 1 and encystation. We also found that at low doses, AL triggered the encystation process too.

Pérez-Rangel A; Hernández JM; Castillo-Romero A; Yépez-Mulia L; Castillo R; Hernández-Luis F; Nogueda-Torres B; Luna-Arias JP; Radilla G; León-Avila G

2013-09-01

220

Albendazole and its derivative JVG9 induce encystation on Giardia intestinalis trophozoites.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we evaluated the effect of an albendazole (ABZ) derivative JVG9 on cultured Giardia intestinalis. To assess the JVG9 effects, we evaluated the tubulin cytoskeleton by confocal microscopy, and we found that the characteristic staining was modified. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed extremely damaged trophozoites and cyst-like cells. The confocal images revealed that this drug triggered the expression of cyst wall protein 1 and encystation. We also found that at low doses, AL triggered the encystation process too. PMID:23857298

Pérez-Rangel, Armando; Hernández, José Manuel; Castillo-Romero, Araceli; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián; Castillo, Rafael; Hernández-Luis, Francisco; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; Radilla, Gerardo; León-Avila, Gloria

2013-07-16

 
 
 
 
221

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cysts in young patients who have not reached menopause yet may not need treatment. The gynecologist will ... have serious symptoms, or cysts in older post-menopause patients may need to be taken out to ...

222

MESENTERIC CYSTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mesenteric cysts are rare intraabdominal tumors usually briefly reported in textbooks. Their low incidence is the main reason for the lack of simple and clinically relevant classification of these masses. The aim of the study was to identify and characterize different groups of mesenteric cysts and to state their most distinguished features concerning clinical presentation, histopathological structure, diagnosis and treatment by a literature review and present the most appropriate classification available in literature. Classification based essentially on histopathological features seems to be most comprehensive and includes the six following groups of mesenteric cysts: 1) cysts of lymphatic origin, 2) cysts of mesothelial origin, 3) cysts of enteric origin, 4) cysts of urogenital origin, 5) mature cystic teratoma and 6) pseudocysts. Surgical extirpation of mesenteric cyst with resection of adjacent organs if necessary is mandatory in order to exclude malignant alteration and prevent complications such as inflammation, hemorrhage, torsion or rupture. The preferred mode of treatment is enucleation.

Dragojlo Gmijovic; Miroslav Jeremic; Miroslav Stojanovic; Milan Radojkovic

2007-01-01

223

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... common female condition. An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac on an ovary in the female ... forms on the ovary. A cyst is a fluid-filled area. When the egg is released, it ...

224

Release of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from dairy cattle manure: physical factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various physical factors affecting the release rate of naturally occurring Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts from dairy manure disks to sprinkled water were studied. The investigated factors included temperature (5 or 23 degrees C), manure type (calf manure, a 50% calf and 50% cow manure mixture, and a 10% calf and 90% cow manure mixture), and water application method (mist or drip) and flow rate. Effluent concentrations of manure and (oo)cysts were always several orders of magnitude below their initial concentration in the manure, decreased gradually, and exhibited persistent concentration tailing. Release of manure and (oo)cysts were found to be related by a constant factor, the so-called release efficiency of (oo)cysts. A previously developed (oo)cyst release model that included these release efficiencies provided a satisfactory simulation of the observed release. An effect of temperature on the release of manure and (oo)cysts was not apparent. The manure and (oo)cyst release rates from cow manure decreased faster than those from calf manure, and (oo)cyst release efficiencies from cow manure were higher than those from calf manure. In comparison with mist application, dripping water resulted in higher release rates of manure and (oo)cysts and in higher (oo)cyst release efficiencies due to the increased mechanical forces associated with droplet impact. Mist application at a higher flow rate resulted in faster release, but did not affect the (oo)cyst release efficiencies. The data and modeling approach described herein provide insight and an enhanced ability to describe the influence of physical factors on (oo)cyst release.

Schijven JF; Bradford SA; Yang S

2004-07-01

225

Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oo)cistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE) e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oo)cistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oo)cistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente). Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.). O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4)/l), mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oo)cistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oo)cistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.). A significativa ocorrência de (oo)cistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano.The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oo)cysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB), at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, a sewage treatment plant (STP) and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3.92 and 3.62 (oo)cysts/l for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively). Positive cattle farms were detected during all the period, and the correspondent mean prevalences were: 36.4% for Giardia spp. and 18.0% for Cryptosporidium spp. STP effluent presented high concentration of Giardia spp. (geometric average of cysts in the order of 10(4)/l). However, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were not detected. The results showed that (oo)cysts concentration were influenced by climate factors. Precipitation and (oo)cysts concentration data were well correlated (R²=98.3%; P=0.0087 for Giardia spp. and R²=91.8%; P=0.0421 for Cryptosporidium spp.). Cysts and oocysts levels were remarkably high in the raw water source, pointing out the role of land use in an unprotected watershed as a source of protozoa. The results demonstrate the importance of preventive measures rather than relying on, sometimes unreliable, corrective measures such as water treatment, in order to minimize human health risks.

G.M.F. Dias; P.D. Bevilacqua; R.K.X. Bastos; A.A. Oliveira; G.M.M. Campos

2008-01-01

226

Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal/ Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oo)cistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE) e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oo)cistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oo) (more) cistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente). Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.). O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4)/l), mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oo)cistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oo)cistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.). A significativa ocorrência de (oo)cistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano. Abstract in english The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oo)cysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB), at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, a sewage treatment plant (STP) and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3.92 and 3.62 (oo)cysts/l fo (more) r Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively). Positive cattle farms were detected during all the period, and the correspondent mean prevalences were: 36.4% for Giardia spp. and 18.0% for Cryptosporidium spp. STP effluent presented high concentration of Giardia spp. (geometric average of cysts in the order of 10(4)/l). However, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were not detected. The results showed that (oo)cysts concentration were influenced by climate factors. Precipitation and (oo)cysts concentration data were well correlated (R²=98.3%; P=0.0087 for Giardia spp. and R²=91.8%; P=0.0421 for Cryptosporidium spp.). Cysts and oocysts levels were remarkably high in the raw water source, pointing out the role of land use in an unprotected watershed as a source of protozoa. The results demonstrate the importance of preventive measures rather than relying on, sometimes unreliable, corrective measures such as water treatment, in order to minimize human health risks.

Dias, G.M.F.; Bevilacqua, P.D.; Bastos, R.K.X.; Oliveira, A.A.; Campos, G.M.M.

2008-12-01

227

Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá) é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá) is a neo-tropical mammal with has a wide distribution in Brazil. In the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, RS, a fecal sample from a specimen captured for treatment was collected and analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate for research of parasites. A large number of cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. The results indicate that L. weeidi is a host of these protozoa.

Camila Belmonte Oliveira; João Fábio Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Edson Luis Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

2008-01-01

228

Cryptosporidium cuniculus and Giardia duodenalis in rabbits: genetic diversity and possible zoonotic transmission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the two important zoonotic pathogens causing diarrhea of humans and animals worldwide. Considering the human cryptosporidiosis outbreak and sporadic cases caused by C. cuniculus, the important public health significance of G. duodenalis and little obtained information regarding rabbit infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in China, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and molecularly characterize Cryptosporidium and Giardia in rabbits in Heilongjiang Province, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 378 fecal samples were obtained from rabbits in Heilongjiang Province. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected using Sheather's sugar flotation technique and Lugol's iodine stain method, respectively. The infection rates of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 2.38% (9/378) and 7.41% (28/378), respectively. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. was done by DNA sequencing of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene and all the nine isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. The nine isolates were further subtyped using the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene and two subtypes were detected, including VbA32 (n?=?3) and a new subtype VbA21 (n?=?6). G. duodenalis genotypes and subtypes were identified by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene. The assemblage B (belonging to eight different subtypes B-I to B-VIII) was found in 28 G. duodenalis-positive samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rabbits have been infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Heilongjiang Province. The results show that the rabbits pose a threat to human health in the studied areas. Genotypes and subgenotypes of C. cuniculus and G. duodenalis in this study might present the endemic genetic characterization of population structure of the two parasites.

Zhang W; Shen Y; Wang R; Liu A; Ling H; Li Y; Cao J; Zhang X; Shu J; Zhang L

2012-01-01

229

Determination of discriminatory power of genetic markers used for genotyping Giardia duodenalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-rDNA), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), and elongation factor 1-alpha (ef1-alpha) genes are useful genetic markers for genotypic analysis of the intestinal protozoan, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis), the cause of enteric disease in humans. To quantitatively compare the discriminatory power of these loci, 43 fecal samples were collected from central, northern and eastern Thailand and G. duodenalis specimens were analyzed using PCR-based genotyping and subcloning methods. Approximately equal prevalence of assemblage A (21) and B (22) were present among these populations. Analysis of Simpson's index and Wallace coefficient values from assemblage B isolates together with the data obtained from GenBank showed that the combination of two loci provides a higher discrimination power for subgenotyping G. duodenalis than using any single locus.

Siripattanapipong S; Leelayoova S; Mungthin M; Thompson RC; Boontanom P; Saksirisamphant W; Tan-Ariya P

2011-07-01

230

Mesenteric cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal findings. Due to absent or unspecific clinical presentation, very low incidence, and lack of adequate classification these cysts may sometimes represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report a case of 37-year-old man with vague palpatory tenderness in left hypochondrium and paraumbilically and with palpable large intra-abdominal mass in whom mesenteric cyst was diagnosed using US and CT imaging. He was operated and cyst was extirpated in toto. Histopathological examination revealed a thick fibrous cyst wall with the signs of chronic inflammation and without inner epithelial lining, which suggested its traumatic origin. Considering the possibility of malignancy mesenteric cysts should be radically resected (with resection of adjacent organs if necessary) due to their strong relapsing potential and a tendency for sudden, progressive local enlargement if not removed in toto.

Miljkovi? Dragoslav; Gmijovi? Dragojlo; Radojkovi? Milan; Gligorijevi? Jasmina; Radovanovi? Zoran

2007-01-01

231

Effectiveness of water treatment for the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are intestinal parasites of humans and of many other species of animals. Water constitutes an important route of transmission for human infections in both developed and developing countries. In Poland, contamination of water sources with oocysts/cysts is not routinely monitored and scientific research in this field is scarce. Our aim was to compare the contamination of surface and treated water and thus the success of water treatment processes. Water samples (n=94) of between 30 l (surface water) to over 1000 l for tap water, were taken in the period of 2008-2009 using specially constructed equipment with cartridge filtration (Filta-Max; IDEXX, USA). Immunofluorescent assay, and nested polymerase chain reaction were used for the detection of parasites. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 85% of surface water and in 59% of raw (intake) water samples. Oocysts were also detected in treated water (16%) but were absent in samples of swimming pool water. The highest mean number of Cryptosporidium oocysts [geometric mean (GM)=61/10 l] was found in samples of rinsing water. Giardia cysts were observed in 61% of surface water samples, in 6% of raw water and in 19% of treated water, with the highest number of cysts noted in rinsing water samples (GM=70 cysts/10 l). Our study highlights the frequent occurrence of parasites in surface waters in Poland and the effectiveness of water treatment for the removal of parasites from drinking water.

Bajer A; Toczylowska B; Bednarska M; Sinski E

2012-11-01

232

Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the biggest lake in the world and a major water source in China. There is no information about occurrence and impact of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on the aquatic ecosystem. 61 surface water samples from 23 monitoring sites and 5 treated effluent samples were collected and analyzed. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found, respectively, in 86.4% and 65.2% of a total of 66 water samples, with high concentrations in treated effluent. The mean percent recovery was 29.14% for oocysts and 34.86% for cysts. A seasonal pattern was observed, with positive samples for Cryptosporidium more frequent in flood period and positive samples for Giardia more frequent in impounding period. Counts of enterococci, fecal coliforms and total coliforms, and turbidity were significantly associated with Cryptosporidium concentration in backwater (water in a main river which is backed up by the Three Gorges Dam) areas of tributaries but not Giardia. High associations were also found between oocyst and cyst in backwater areas of tributaries and cities. The risks of infection and illness due to water consumption in four different exposure routes were estimated. The results showed that swimming in the TGR has the highest infection risk with 1.39 × 10(-3) per time (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-600.3 × 10(-5)) for Cryptosporidium and 2.08 × 10(-4) per time (95% CI: 0.05-878.87 × 10(-6)) for Giardia, while directly drinking unboiled tap water treated with the conventional process has the highest morbidity with 524.98 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 10.35-2040.26) for Cryptosporidium and 5.89 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 0.08-22.67) for Giardia. This study provides new useful information for drinking water plants, health care workers and managers to improve the safety of tap water and deduce the risk of surface water contamination in China.

Xiao G; Qiu Z; Qi J; Chen JA; Liu F; Liu W; Luo J; Shu W

2013-05-01

233

In vitro activity of the F-6 fraction of oregano against Giardia intestinalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardiosis is a neglected parasitic disease that produces diarrhoea and different degrees of malabsorption in humans and animals. Its treatment is based on derivatives of 5-nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, nitrofuranes, acridine and nitrotiazoles. These drugs produce undesirable secondary effects, ranging from a metallic taste in the mouth to genetic damage and the selection of resistant strains; therefore, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic alternatives. We demonstrated that a 2-h treatment with 2·87 ?g ml(-1) of fraction 6 of Lippia graveolens (F-6) was sufficient to kill half of an experimental Giardia intestinalis (Syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) population, based on the reduction of MTT-tetrazolium salt levels. F-6 breaks the nuclear envelope and injures the ventral suckling disc. The major compounds of F-6 were characterized as naringenin, thymol, pinocembrin and traces of compounds not yet identified. The results suggest that Lippia is a potential source to obtain compounds with anti-Giardia activity. This knowledge is an important starting point to develop new anti-giardial drugs. Future studies will be required to establish the efficacy of F-6 in vivo using an animal model.

Rufino-González Y; Ponce-Macotela M; González-Maciel A; Reynoso-Robles R; Jiménez-Estrada M; Sánchez-Contreras Á; Martínez-Gordillo MN

2012-04-01

234

In vitro activity of the F-6 fraction of oregano against Giardia intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiosis is a neglected parasitic disease that produces diarrhoea and different degrees of malabsorption in humans and animals. Its treatment is based on derivatives of 5-nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, nitrofuranes, acridine and nitrotiazoles. These drugs produce undesirable secondary effects, ranging from a metallic taste in the mouth to genetic damage and the selection of resistant strains; therefore, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic alternatives. We demonstrated that a 2-h treatment with 2·87 ?g ml(-1) of fraction 6 of Lippia graveolens (F-6) was sufficient to kill half of an experimental Giardia intestinalis (Syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) population, based on the reduction of MTT-tetrazolium salt levels. F-6 breaks the nuclear envelope and injures the ventral suckling disc. The major compounds of F-6 were characterized as naringenin, thymol, pinocembrin and traces of compounds not yet identified. The results suggest that Lippia is a potential source to obtain compounds with anti-Giardia activity. This knowledge is an important starting point to develop new anti-giardial drugs. Future studies will be required to establish the efficacy of F-6 in vivo using an animal model. PMID:22309702

Rufino-González, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Jiménez-Estrada, Manuel; Sánchez-Contreras, Ángeles; Martínez-Gordillo, Mario N

2012-02-06

235

Atypic pharyngeal cysts: Thornwaldt's cysts?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The pathology of the retropharyngeal bursa appears to involve obstruction of the drainage of this space into the cavum. The sign is cyst formation or nonspecific inflammatory pathology. When it presents in the form of cysts located at the typical site, the diagnosis offers no challenge. In cases of complicated cysts of solid appearance, the radiological diagnosis may be uncertain because of the non specificity of the radiological sings. In this article, we present 3 cases of symptomatic pharyngeal cysts of atypical onset. One was associated with a solid intra cavum mass with a small cystic area; the other two cases presented as solid masses of nonspecific heterogeneous aspect. Retrospectively, all 3 cases were pathologically compatible with Thornwaldt's cysts. (Author)

1994-01-01

236

Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages among dairy herds in the New York City Watershed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A longitudinal herd-level study was carried out to determine the cumulative incidence of Giardia duodenalis infections in dairy cattle in the New York City Watershed. We also sought to assess the changes in infection pattern of animals diagnosed as shedding Giardia over time, determine risk factors that may be associated with G. duodenalis infections, and identify potentially zoonotic infections. A total of 2109 fecal samples were randomly collected from dairy cattle at 34 farms in the New York City Watershed on a seasonal basis. A total of 504 Giardia-positive samples were identified by zinc sulfate flotation. The overall cumulative incidence of G. duodenalis based on flotation results was 23.9% with 73.8% of all infections occurring in animals under 180 days of age (372/504). The intensity of infection ranged from 2 to 563,200 cysts/gram of feces. Cattle shedding Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were twice as likely to shed G. duodenalis cysts in comparison to the animals that did not shed oocysts (1.81 95% CI 1.26-2.60 p=0.0012). In the multivariate analysis, only the age of the animal and the presence of dogs on the farm were significantly associated with the likelihood of shedding G. duodenalis. DNA was extracted from positive samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the beta-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes of Giardia spp. 304 samples were analyzed by PCR of which 131 were sequenced. 22.1% of sequenced samples were identified as assemblage A and 77.9% were identified as assemblage E. Interestingly, 100% of specimens identified as assemblage A were from calves under 84 days of age indicating that younger cattle are important reservoirs for potentially zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis.

Mark-Carew MP; Wade SE; Chang YF; Schaaf S; Mohammed HO

2012-04-01

237

GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS/ Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podría ser capaz de producir daños en órganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se revisaron, previa búsqueda en Medline , todos los artículos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el p (more) eríodo 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografías y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado también fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesión en “sal y pimienta” del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las más rigurosamente demostradas. En relación con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseños e instrumentación adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qué punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, además de la continuación de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploración de los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es así, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnóstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and react (more) ive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

Ali Almannoni, Saleh; Martín Pupo, Deisy; Monzote López, Alexis; Fonte Galindo, Luis

2008-06-01

238

Ovarian Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... Your ovaries normally grow cyst-like structures called follicles each month. Follicles produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone and release ... egg when you ovulate. Sometimes a normal monthly follicle just keeps growing. When that happens, it becomes ...

239

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 2 Polycystic ovaries. The eggs mature within the follicles, or sacs, but the sac doesn't break open to release the egg. The cycle repeats, follicles continue to grow inside the ovary, and cysts ...

240

Ovarian Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... to remove the ovary. This surgery is called cystectomy . In other cases, one or both of the ... increase in the presence of some cancerous tumors. Cystectomy: Surgical removal of a cyst. Laparoscopy: A surgical ...

 
 
 
 
241

Ganglion Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the cyst. The operation can be done under local, regional, or general anesthesia. This document is for ... can be done using different types of anesthesia, local, regional or general. Your surgeon will tell you ...

242

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cells in the ovary are able to make hair, teeth, and other growing tissues that become part ... and cysts form. In this case increased body hair may be noticed by the patient. Some benign ...

243

CHOLEDOCHAL CYST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O BJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical presentation, morphology, associated hepatobiliary problems and results ofsurgical excision of choledochal cyst. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients underwent surgery for choledochalcysts between Nov 2000 to Nov 2001 in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Hospital, Shahbag, DhakaBangladesh. The diagnosis of choledochal cyst was based on clinical presentation, USG, radiological and operativefindings. RESULTS: Total of 8 patients with choledochal cyst were identified. 7 patients were female and 1 was male.Age range was between 12 to 55 years. Presenting symptoms were episodic abdominal pain in 8 (100%), intermittentjaundice in 4 (50%), jaundice and fever in 3 (37.5%) and abdominal lump in 2 (37.5%) patients. LFT and USG werethe initial diagnostic procedures in all patients, followed by ERCP in 4 (50%) and CT in 5 (62%) cases, MRCP in 1(12.5%) case. Based on USG and Radiological imaging, cysts were classified according to Rodani’s classification. Outof eight, 7 (87.5%) were type I and 1 (12.5%) was type IVA. 5 (62.5%) patient had surgical excision and Roux-en-yhepatico-jejunostomy, 1 (12.5%) had cysto-duodenostomy, 1 (12.5%) per-cutaneous drainage of cyst and one patient(12.5%) with type IVA under went excision of extra hepatic cyst and hepaticojejunostomy and one patient died beforedefinitive operation due to liver failure. CONCLUSIONS: Choledochal cyst is uncommon cause of bile duct obstruction.Type I is the commonest presentation and recognized treatment is the total excision of cysts with Roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy.

ZULFIQAR RAHMAN KHAN

2002-01-01

244

Giardia duodenalis in feedlot cattle from the central and western United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that has emerged as a significant opportunistic human pathogen. G. duodenalis may have a deleterious effect on animal growth and performance, therefore its potential as a production limiting organism should not be discounted. We therefore undertook this study to determine management and environmental factors in feedlots that influence the prevalence and environmental load of G. duodenalis cysts in fecal material deposited by feedlot cattle in the central and western United States. Results Twenty two feedlots from 7 states were included in the study, and up to 240 fecal samples were collected from pen floors of up to 6 pens per feedlot. Giardia duodenalis cysts were identified and counted using direct immunofluorescent microscopy. The estimated overall point prevalence of G. duodenalis was 19.1%, representing feedlots from a wide range of climates and management systems. Pen-level prevalence varied from 0 to 63.3%, with pen-level shedding estimates ranging from 0 to 261,000 cysts/g feces. Higher environmental temperatures, increased animal density, and increased time in the feedlot were associated with a lower prevalence of G. duodenalis. Removing manure before placing a new group of cattle in a pen was associated with a decreased prevalence of G. duodenalis in fecal pats. Using coccidiostats as a feed additive was associated with a higher prevalence of Giardia. Conclusion Management practices could be employed that would limit the probability that feedlot cattle shed G. duodenalis in their feces and therefore potentially limit contamination of their environment.

Hoar Bruce R; Paul Robert R; Siembieda Jennifer; Pereira Maria; Atwill Edward R

2009-01-01

245

Persistent Giardia spp. and Trichuris spp. infection in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) at a zoo in Greece.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mara (Dolichotis patagonum) is a species classified as "Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In the wild, it inhabits only Argentina, but it is also kept in zoos around the world. In order to investigate the endoparasites of the maras kept in the Attica Zoological Park, Greece, four fecal examinations were performed in a period of 4 yr (2008-2011) by standard parasitologic methods. Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. and eggs of the nematode Trichuris spp. were found in all four examinations. The possible routes of infection of the maras and the importance of these parasites to other animals and to humans are discussed.

Tahas SA; Diakou A

2013-06-01

246

Prevalence of Giardia spp. in ducks and geese in Nenevah governorate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study include the examination of 235 fecal samples 125 from domesticated ducks and 110 from domesticated geese from different localities in Nenevah governorate through the period from September 2009 to March, 2010 the Samples were stained by iodine stain and Giemsa stain and flotation method. The total percent of infection with Giardia cyst was 34.4%, 36.4% in duck and geese respectively. The study revealed presence of Giardia in diarrhetic and non diarrhetic fecal sample of ducks and geese. Higher rate was in diarrhetic ducks and geese of age less than 5 months 41.8%, 44.4% and this rate decreased with aging. The results showed the higher infection rate in rural area which was 38.5% in duck and 40.7% in geese compared to urban area 30%, 31.4% in ducks and geese respectively. Higher rate was recorded in December in ducks were 53.5% while the higher infection in March in geese were 44.4% and lowest rate of infection in September for both ducks and geese, this is the first study of Giardia spp, in ducks and geese in Nineveh governorate.

N. H. Mohammad

2012-01-01

247

Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. A large proportion of the (oo)cyst containing samples were selected for molecular characterization. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA locus and/or the HSP70 gene of 183 pig and 154 cattle isolates of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of C. suis, pig genotype II, C. parvum (cattle genotype), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and a novel C. suis-like genotype. For both cattle and pigs, a host age-related change in distribution of species/genotypes was observed. The zoonotic C. parvum (cattle genotype) was most prevalent in young calves. For Giardia, 82 and 145 isolates from pigs and cattle, respectively, were analysed at the 18S rDNA locus and/or the gdh gene. Giardia isolates belonging to the zoonotic Assemblage A was found in both young and older calves, as well as in weaners and piglets, whereas cows seemed to be infected purely by isolates of the livestock group, Assemblage E.

Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan

2007-01-01

248

Hepatic cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The case of a 38 year-old woman is mentioned, to who was diagnosed hepatic cysts; it consulted for a clinical square of constant abdominal pain in the right hypochondrium, of several months of evolution, not associated with the ingestion of foods. They are practiced among other exams the TAC and echography and it is practiced surgical resection

2001-01-01

249

Diversidad genética de poblaciones de Giardia intestinalis en Colombia Genetic diversity of Giardia intestinalis populations in Colombia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introducción. Giardia intestinalis es un parásito protozoario que causa la infección gastrointestinal conocida como giardiosis, la cual se transmite principalmente a través de la contaminación fecal-oral. Estudios genéticos de aislamientos de Giardia cultiva...

Zaava Ravid; Sofía Duque; Adriana Arévalo; Rubén Santiago Nicholls; Moisés Wasserman

250

Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. infections in mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For conservation purposes and because of growing ecotourism, some mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) populations have been habituated to humans. Fecal specimens (n = 100) of nonhabituated and human-habituated gorillas (5 populations; 6 age classes) were tested for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts by conventional staining and immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). Cryptosporidium sp. infections (prevalence 11%) were not restricted to very young gorillas but were observed in 3-yr-old to >12-yr-old gorillas; most of the infections (73%) occurred in human-habituated gorillas. The prevalence of Giardia sp. infections was 2%; 1 nonhabituated gorilla was concomitantly infected. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. in the gorilla stools were morphologically, morphometrically, and immunologically undistinguishable from a bovine isolate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Mean concentration of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts in gorilla stools was 9.39x10(4)/g, and 2.49x10(4)/g, respectively. There was no apparent relationship between oocyst concentration and gorilla age, sex, or habituation status. Most Cryptosporidium sp. infections found in gorillas with closest proximity to people may be a result of the habituation process and ecotourism. This study constitutes the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. infections in the family Pongidae, in the free-ranging great apes, and in the species of gorilla.

Nizeyi JB; Mwebe R; Nanteza A; Cranfield MR; Kalema GR; Graczyk TK

1999-12-01

251

OVARIAN CYST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the results of operative laparoscopy in the management of ovarian cysts.DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of women who had undergone laparoscopic management ofcystic ovarian masses. SUBJECT: Forty five women with clinically and sonographically benigncystic ovarian masses. INTERVENTION: Operative laparoscopy under general anaesthesia.RESULTS: No major intra-operative complication occurred in this series. Minor complications includedinjury of inferior epigastric artery, nausea, shoulder pain and urinary retention. Adnexal cystic mass variedform 4 to 12 cms with a mean size 6.5 cms. Histopathological examination showed malignancy in 2% ofcases. CONCLUSION: Operative laparoscopy appears to be safe and effective method for treating clinicallyand ultrasonographically benign ovarian cysts. Day surgery is possible in majority of cases.

Ejaz Ahmed

2001-01-01

252

Rathke's cleft cyst  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 29 year old female with a chiasmal syndrome secondary to a Rathke's cleft cyst is described. The histology and pathogenesis of these rare cysts are discussed, contrasting them with other hypophysial cysts.

Ringel, Steven P.; Bailey, Orville T.

253

Nasopalatine duct cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nasopalatine duct cyst is an intraossseous developmental cyst of the midline of the anterior palate. Management of a case of nasopalatine duct cyst in a 10 yr old male child is reported.

Hegde Rahul; Shetty R

2006-01-01

254

Molecular characterization of Giardia parasite isolated from stool samples collected from different hospitals in Taif City (Saudi Arabia).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia parasite is prevalent endemically in Taif city. Infection is more prevalent in children under 5 years old and elderly people. The sickness is more intense in immunecompromised people. The disease is usually diagnosed by stool examination by the microscope, for the identification of the both trophozoite and cyst stages. Usually the disease is overlooked during stool analyses due to the minute size of the parasite and due to the scarcity of infection sometimes. Hence molecular characterization or diagnosis is used as an alternative method for the diagnosis of infection. Molecular characterization is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This technique is regarded as a highly sensitive and accurate method of diagnosis. The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was 15% in stool samples collected from different hospital in Taif. By means of RAPD technique, most G. duodenalis isolates were genetically similar, forming two main groups, with about 60% of similarity one another.

Shalaby I; Gherbawy Y; Banaja A

2011-12-01

255

Abdominal Cysts in Children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The abdominal cyst are frequent in children, its differential diagnosis depends of age of the patient, cyst location and radiologic features of the cyst. Objective: Of this paper is to review some differential diagnosis of abdominal cyst in children separated by affected organ. Method: We review de different etiologies of abdominal cyst in children, and we follow the evolution to the final diagnosis. Conclusion: Patient's age, cyst location and radiologic features are helpful tools to Suggest the differential diagnosis.

2009-01-01

256

[Partially pigmented vitreous cyst].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Free-floating iris pigment epithelial cysts in the vitreous are very rare. We report the case of a partially pigmented cyst found on routine examination in the vitreous of a 51-year-old asymptomatic patient. Usually, non-pigmented cysts are derived from the hyaloid system. Pigmented cysts, however, are derived from the iris pigment epithelium. When they are not dislodged, these cysts can be confused with iris melanoma or primary stromal cysts. Treatment is usually unnecessary, unless they become symptomatic.

Léonard A; De Potter P

2013-06-01

257

Adrenal cyst presenting as hepatic hydatid cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction. Although adrenal cysts are uncommon, the incidence rate is increasing with the advances in radiological technologies. The incidental detection of adrenal cysts nowadays has become more frequent as a result of the increase usage of high quality imaging modalities. Adrenal cysts originate from the adrenal gland and can be classified into either true or pseudocyst. Presentation of Case. In this report, we described an adrenal cyst of endothelial type, in a 30-year-old lady who was mistakenly diagnosed to have a hydatid cyst both clinically and by imaging. Discussion. Although adrenal cysts are uncommon, the incidence rate is increasing with the frequent use of various high quality radiological technologies. Adrenal cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis when dealing with upper abdominal cysts. The size of the adrenal cyst can vary from a few millimeters up to 50?cm in diameter. Most of the adrenal cysts are unilateral, while 8%-15% of those cysts do present bilaterally. The majority of cases are diagnosed between the 3rd and 5th decades. Conclusion. Although most of the adrenal cysts are benign in nature, surgical excision is advisable especially when the cysts are greater than 5?cm in diameter and in the case of suspecting malignancy.

Darwish A; Nagaraj V; Mustafa MB; Al Ansari A

2013-01-01

258

Identification of genotypes of Giardia duodenalis human isolates in Isfahan, Iran, using polymerase chain reaction - Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites of human. It also infects a wide range of mammals. Two genotype of G.duodenalis (A and B) were commonly reported among humans with different frequency of distribution in different geographical locations. This work was conducted to discriminate genotypes of Giardia duodenalis human isolates in Isfahan city using PCR- RFLP. This is the first molecular study on human isolates of G.duodenalis in the area. Methods: Samples were collected from different health centers of Isfahan city during June 2011 and February 2012. From 175 Giardia positive stool samples 67 specimens were selected randomly. Cysts of Giardia positive samples were concentrated by flotation sucrose. Extraction of genomic DNA from trophozoite and cysts was performed using QIAamp Stool Mini kit with a modified protocol. PCR- RFLP method was used to amplify a fragment of 458bp at the glutamate dehydrogenase locus, and restriction enzymes BspLI and RsaI differentiated human genotypes A and B and their subgroups. Results: PCR – RFLP assay of 67 isolates showed 40(59.7%) isolates as Genotype A group II, 23(34.32%) samples as Genotype B Group III and two (2.98%) sample as Genotype B group IV. Mixed genotype of (AII and B) was detected only in two isolates (2.98%). Conclusions: PCR – RFLP assay targeting gdh locus is a sensitive tool and discriminates genotypes, sub genotypes and mixed type of G.duodenalis. Results of our study suggest both anthroponotic and zoonotic origins for the infections respectively.

Pestehchian, Nader; Rasekh, Hamidullah; Babaei, Zahra; Yousefi, Hosein Ali; Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Kazemi, Mohammad; Akbari, Mojtaba

2012-01-01

259

A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and the procedures are expensive and time consuming. These facts have motivated us to develop a new robust system for higher recovery of protozoan cysts from any fluid matrix. The new system consists of a sample collection chamber in which the fluid passes through a specially coated metallic filter with a carefully chosen pore size. On the reverse side of the filter a transducer delivers ultrasound waves in order to release trapped cysts and particles from the filter and break up parasite clusters. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were injected into the concentration unit and exposed to varying levels of ultrasonication. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed using air and the change in viability of the parasites was assessed by flowcytometry. Without sonication, the recovery rate of Cryptosporidium was around 2%. After short term sonication for 5, 10 or 20 seconds, the recovery rates were stable and ranging from 75-83%. While sonication is usually used for cell lyses, it can be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced separation of retinates of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The collected parasites may be used for molecular typing and other diagnostic and research purposes. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a robust, cheap, and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2012-01-01

260

Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Romania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a mammalian-infecting parasite that produces diarrhoea and malabsorption in its hosts. A survey to investigate canine infections with G. duodenalis in Romania was undertaken between June 2008 and December 2009. The objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in different dog populations (kennels, shelters, shepherd, household) using microscopy and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit; (ii) to establish the level of agreement and characteristics of the tests; and (iii) to identify risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression models. Faecal samples were collected from 614 dogs aged from 1 month to 16 years (mean ± SD=2.88 ± 2.86 years). Each sample was tested for the presence of cysts using a flotation method with saturated sodium chloride solution and 416 out of 614 stool samples were further examined for the presence of G. duodenalis specific antigens using Giardia Microwell ELISA (SafePath™ Laboratories). Giardia cysts were identified in 8.5% of total dogs (52/614) and statistical significantly more frequently in dogs living in communities. The cysts prevalence according with dog populations was as follows: 7.2%(9/125) in kennel dogs; 16.5%(27/164 in shelter dogs; 4.3%(2/46) in shepherd dogs; 4.8%(4/84) in household dogs from urban areas; and 5.1%(10/195) in household dogs from rural areas. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection by ELISA was 34.6% (144/416). The prevalence was significantly higher in kennel dogs (50%; 13/26), shelter dogs (47.7%; 74/155) and shepherd dogs (40.5%; 17/42) than in household dogs from urban areas (34.1%; 15/44) and household dogs from rural areas (16.8%; 25/149). It was noticed poor agreement between microscopy and ELISA (k=0.19). The microscopy performed best, with an Youden Index of 0.74, a Se of 73.68% and a Sp of 100%. ELISA had 100% Sp, but only 19.44% Se. Young dogs (up to 12 months age) and living in communities were identified as risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression analysis. 71.2% (37/52) Giardia cysts positive dogs presented co-infections with other intestinal parasites: Toxocara canis (14/52; 26.9%), Isospora ohioensis (12/52; 23.1%), Ancylostoma caninum (9/52; 17.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (7/52; 13.5%), Trichocephalus vulpis (6/52; 11.5%), Hammondia heydorni/Neospora caninum (5/52; 9.6%), Sarcocystis spp. (5/52; 9.6%), Isospora canis (4/52; 7.7%), Capillaria aerophila (3/52; 5.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (2/52; 93.8%), Dipylidium caninum (1/52; 1.9%) and Toxascaris leonina (1/52; 1.9%).

Mircean V; Györke A; Cozma V

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Detection of enteric viruses, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in two different types of drinking water treatment facilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, two types of drinking water treatment facilities (two conventional drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) and two compact units (Cus)) were compared referring to their production capacity. Water samples were collected from three main points: (a) different water treatment steps (b) washings of sand filters and (c) distribution system at different distances from the water treatment plants. Both viruses and protozoa were concentrated from each water sample by adsorption and accumulation on the same nitrocellulose membrane filters (0.45 microm pore size). Enteroviruses were detected by plaque infectivity assay in BGM cells and HAV, HEV and Norovirus were detected by RT-PCR. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected by conventional staining methods and PCR. The results revealed that enterovirus load at the intake ranged between 10-15 PFU/L for the two compact units and between 4.5 and 75 PFU/L for the two conventional DWTPs. The virus load in distribution system of the first type DWTPs at 1 km from the plant was the same as that of the intake. Viruses in the other type of treatment plants CUs at 1, 5 and 7 km, were much reduced. Investigation of raw water sediments of the two DWTPs showed enterovirus counts between 12 and 17.5 PFU/L. Virus count was reduced in sand of filters after washing. Giardia cysts were equally detected by microscopy and PCR in only intake samples of EL-Hawamdia CU (33.3%) and Meet Fares DWTP (50%). Cryptosporidium oocysts were equally detected by microscopy and PCR in intake samples of Abo EL-Nomros CU (100%), EL-Hawamdia CU (66.7%) and Fowa DWTP (50%). At Meet Fares DWTP three positive intake samples for Cryptosporidium were detected by PCR, compared with only two positive samples by microscopy. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in raw water sediment and sand of filters before washing. Only one sample from Meet Fares DWTP sand of filters after washing was positive for both Giardia and Cryptosporidium. It can be concluded that the poor microbial quality of the water may be due to improper operational skills and management of the various water treatment plants (especially at the two high capacity treatment plants).

Ali MA; Al-Herrawy AZ; El-Hawaary SE

2004-11-01

262

Infected giant liver cyst  

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Full Text Available Congenital liver cysts are not as rare as it was thought in the past. Thanks to new imaging diagnostic techniques, these cysts have been discovered with increasing frequency. Uncomplicated congenital liver cysts are usually asymptomatic or followed by mild symptoms. Various complications of these cysts were reported. Infection of the congenital liver cyst is, however, very rare complication. A 65-year old man with huge infected congenital central liver cyst containing 3400 ml of pus from which Escherichia coli was cultivated was presented. The patient had a number of other histologically confirmed congenital cysts of the liver and the cyst of the left kidney. The patient was cured by pus evacuation, partial excision of the cyst wall and drainage of the cavity and subphrenic space. The uninfected cysts were operated using deroofing technique. A year after surgery the patient remained symptom free.

?olovi? Radoje; Grubor Nikica; Radak Vladimir; Micev Marijan; ?olovi? Nataša

2006-01-01

263

Assessing the infection risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public drinking water delivered by surface water systems in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was conducted in surface water used as drinking water sources by public water systems in four densely urbanized regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, based on protozoa concentrations, was performed to estimate the probability of protozoa infection associated with drinking water ingestion. A total of 206 source water samples were analyzed over a 24 month period using the USEPA Method 1623. The risk of infection was estimated using an exponential dose response model, children and adults exposure and a gamma distribution for (oo)cyst concentrations with three scenarios for treating censored data. Giardia was detected in 102 of the samples, and 19 of them were also positive for Cryptosporidium, with maximum concentrations of 97.0 cysts/L and 6.0 oocysts/L, respectively. Risk distributions were similar for the three scenarios. In the four regions, the estimated risk of Giardia infection per year, for adults and children, ranged from 0.29% to 2.47% and from 0.08% to 0.70%, respectively. Cryptosporidium risk infection varied from 0.15% to 0.29% for adults and from 0.04% to 0.08% for children. In both cases, the calculated risk surpassed the risk of infection of 10(-4) (1:10,000) defined as tolerable by USEPA for a yearly exposure. The probability of Giardia infection was very close to the rates of acute diarrheic disease for adults (1% to 3%) but lower for children (2% to 7%). The daily consumption of drinking water was an important contributing factor for these differences. The Microbiological Risk Assessment carried out in this study provides an indication of infection risks by Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the population served by these source waters. Strategies for source water protection and performance targets for the water treatment should be established to achieve the required level of public health risk. PMID:23178841

Sato, Maria Ines Z; Galvani, Ana Tereza; Padula, Jose Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Lauretto, Marcelo de Souza; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Hachich, Elayse Maria

2012-11-22

264

Assessing the infection risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public drinking water delivered by surface water systems in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was conducted in surface water used as drinking water sources by public water systems in four densely urbanized regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, based on protozoa concentrations, was performed to estimate the probability of protozoa infection associated with drinking water ingestion. A total of 206 source water samples were analyzed over a 24 month period using the USEPA Method 1623. The risk of infection was estimated using an exponential dose response model, children and adults exposure and a gamma distribution for (oo)cyst concentrations with three scenarios for treating censored data. Giardia was detected in 102 of the samples, and 19 of them were also positive for Cryptosporidium, with maximum concentrations of 97.0 cysts/L and 6.0 oocysts/L, respectively. Risk distributions were similar for the three scenarios. In the four regions, the estimated risk of Giardia infection per year, for adults and children, ranged from 0.29% to 2.47% and from 0.08% to 0.70%, respectively. Cryptosporidium risk infection varied from 0.15% to 0.29% for adults and from 0.04% to 0.08% for children. In both cases, the calculated risk surpassed the risk of infection of 10(-4) (1:10,000) defined as tolerable by USEPA for a yearly exposure. The probability of Giardia infection was very close to the rates of acute diarrheic disease for adults (1% to 3%) but lower for children (2% to 7%). The daily consumption of drinking water was an important contributing factor for these differences. The Microbiological Risk Assessment carried out in this study provides an indication of infection risks by Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the population served by these source waters. Strategies for source water protection and performance targets for the water treatment should be established to achieve the required level of public health risk.

Sato MI; Galvani AT; Padula JA; Nardocci AC; Lauretto Mde S; Razzolini MT; Hachich EM

2013-01-01

265

Giant earlobe epidermoid cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation.

Pérez-Guisado J; Scilletta A; Cabrera-Sánchez E; Rioja LF; Perrotta R

2012-01-01

266

Cryptosporidium and Giardia as determinants for selection of an appropriate source of drinking-water in southern Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four different water sources (irrigation canals, small reservoirs, shallow wells, and tubewells), used for domestic purposes, in an irrigated area in southern Sri Lanka, were tested for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Identification of these parasites in water sources is important as these are increasingly recognized as causative agents of waterborne diarrhoeal disease. All the four sources of water were contaminated with cysts and oocysts. The sources of surface-water contained a greater number of protozoa compared to tubewells and shallow wells (p < 0.05). The results indicate a reduction of high parasite loads by natural filtration as the water moves from canals to shallow wells through the soil profile. This could present an opportunity to reduce the burden of diarrhoeal disease due to protozoa by selecting an appropriate source of drinking-water and identifying those water sources that require treatment solutions.

Shortt RL; Boelee E; Matsuno Y; Madramootoo C; van der Hoek W; Faubert G

2006-03-01

267

NITAZOXANIDE FOR THE TREATMENT OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS INFECTION: A COMPARATIVE TRIAL WITH SECNIDAZOLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Nitazoxanide is a 5-nitrothiazolyl derivative with broad-spectrum activity against numerous intestinal protozoa, helminths and anaerobic bacteria licensed in the United States for the treatment of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide (NTZ) versus secnidazole (SNZ) in the treatment of giardiasis. Method: A randomized controlled open-label trial was carried out at the Cuban Institute of Gastroenterology in adults with confirmed Giardia duodenalis mono-infection. 125 patients were randomly assigned to receive either NTZ [500 mg two times daily for three days (n= 62)] or SNZ [2 g single dose (n= 63)]. The evaluation of the efficacy was based on parasitological response. All patients were asked to provide three faecal samples on days 3, 5, and 10 after treatment completion. Patients were considered to be cured, if no Giardia trophozoites or cysts were found in any of the three post-treatment faecal specimens evaluated by direct wet mounts and/or after Ritchie concentration techniques. Results: The frequency of cure was a little higher for NTZ [95.2%- (59/62)] than for SNZ [93.7%- (59/63)] but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Bitter taste was only reported in SNZ treated group were as yellowish coloration of the urine and rash were only reported in NTZ treated group. Nausea and headache were more common in patients treated with SNZ (P<0.05). Conclusion: NTZ, for three days, is as efficacious as a single dose SNZ in the treatment of giardiasis in adults.

María Elena GONZÁLEZ; Roberto Cañete VILLAFRANCA; Giselle ÁLVAREZ; Katia BR?TO

2010-01-01

268

Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp e Giardia sp em eqüinos estabulados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria - RS, Brasil Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. infection in horses stabled in the Jockey Club of Santa Maria - RS, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O Cryptosporidium spp. e a Giardia sp. são atualmente reconhecidos como os principais patógenos entéricos com potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo visou estabelecer a prevalência desses protozoários em eqüinos hospedados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, no período de 19 de maio a 30 de junho de 2007. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, diretamente da ampola retal, de 64 animais. As amostras de fezes foram processadas por meio do método de centrifugação-flutuação de Faust modificado. Posteriormente essas amostras foram visualizadas ao microscópio óptico para a pesquisa de cistos e oocistos. Os resultados encontrados revelaram a presença de Cryptosporidium spp. em 75% (48/64) das amostras. Cistos de Giardia sp. não foram encontrados nas amostras de fezes analisadas. A freqüência de Cryptosporidium spp. nas diferentes faixas etárias foi de 83,3% (15/18) nos potros até dois anos de idade, 71% (22/31) nos jovens entre dois e cinco anos e 80% (12/15) nos adultos. Os resultados demonstram que o Cryptosporidium spp. está amplamente disseminado na população de eqüinos do Jockey Club de Santa Maria e pode representar uma fonte de infecção significativa para a população da região.Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. are currently recognised as the main enteric pathogens with potential zoonotic transmission risk. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of these parasites in horses stabled in the Santa Maria Jockey Club between May 19 and June 30, 2007. Fecal samples from 64 horses were collected directly from the animals’ rectal ampoule. The 64 fecal samples were processed using modified Faust’s method through the centrifugation-floatation technique, and were then later visualized under optical microscope for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in 75% (48/64) of the samples. Giardia sp. cysts were not found in the fecal samples analysed. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in foals below two years of age was 83.3% (15/18); 71% (22/31) in young foals aged between three and five years of age, and 80% (12/15) in adult horses. These results show that Cryptosporidium spp. is widely disseminated in this population, and it can represent an important source of infection for the population in the region.

Aline Diefenbach Gomes; Clarissa Barretta; Dhalile Plein Ziegler; Lourenço Sausen; Nathalia Stoever; Luís Antônio Sangioni; Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel; Silvia González Monteiro; Andreia Zanella

2008-01-01

269

Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp e Giardia sp em eqüinos estabulados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria - RS, Brasil/ Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. infection in horses stabled in the Jockey Club of Santa Maria - RS, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O Cryptosporidium spp. e a Giardia sp. são atualmente reconhecidos como os principais patógenos entéricos com potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo visou estabelecer a prevalência desses protozoários em eqüinos hospedados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, no período de 19 de maio a 30 de junho de 2007. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, diretamente da ampola retal, de 64 animais. As amostras de fezes foram processadas por meio do método de centrifugaç? (more) ?o-flutuação de Faust modificado. Posteriormente essas amostras foram visualizadas ao microscópio óptico para a pesquisa de cistos e oocistos. Os resultados encontrados revelaram a presença de Cryptosporidium spp. em 75% (48/64) das amostras. Cistos de Giardia sp. não foram encontrados nas amostras de fezes analisadas. A freqüência de Cryptosporidium spp. nas diferentes faixas etárias foi de 83,3% (15/18) nos potros até dois anos de idade, 71% (22/31) nos jovens entre dois e cinco anos e 80% (12/15) nos adultos. Os resultados demonstram que o Cryptosporidium spp. está amplamente disseminado na população de eqüinos do Jockey Club de Santa Maria e pode representar uma fonte de infecção significativa para a população da região. Abstract in english Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. are currently recognised as the main enteric pathogens with potential zoonotic transmission risk. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of these parasites in horses stabled in the Santa Maria Jockey Club between May 19 and June 30, 2007. Fecal samples from 64 horses were collected directly from the animals? rectal ampoule. The 64 fecal samples were processed using modified Faust?s method through the centrifugation-flo (more) atation technique, and were then later visualized under optical microscope for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in 75% (48/64) of the samples. Giardia sp. cysts were not found in the fecal samples analysed. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in foals below two years of age was 83.3% (15/18); 71% (22/31) in young foals aged between three and five years of age, and 80% (12/15) in adult horses. These results show that Cryptosporidium spp. is widely disseminated in this population, and it can represent an important source of infection for the population in the region.

Gomes, Aline Diefenbach; Barretta, Clarissa; Ziegler, Dhalile Plein; Sausen, Lourenço; Stoever, Nathalia; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Monteiro, Silvia González; Zanella, Andreia

2008-12-01

270

Seasonal Dynamics of Pathogenic Microorganisms (Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Fecal Bacteria) in an Artificial Lake Ecosystem (Sangsa Lake, Korea)  

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Full Text Available This study was performed for the purpose of monitoring monthly levels of two pathogenicmicroorganisms, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, from November 2005 to August 2007 in Sangsa Lake. Watertemperatures, pH and DO fluctuated seasonally at the study site. Annual mean values of BOD, COD and SSwere 0.8 mg L-1, 2.3 mg L-1 and 1.9 mg L-1, respectively. Although there was distinct seasonal variation in waterchemistry and chlorophyll a concentration, the lake generally contains low concentrations of nutrients andchlorophyll a. The relative abundance of coliform bacteria was always greater than that of fecal coliform. Thefecal coliform bacteria comprised 8.5?22.1% of total coliform bacteria. Seasonal analysis of Cryptosporidium andGiardia levels in the study site showed that in winter (November through February), Cryptosporidium oocysts andGiardia cysts were most abundant (1.1?1.8 × 10 cells L-1 and 3.8?5.1 × 10 cells L-1, respectively), while insummer (July through September) the abundance was lowest (0.0?0.3 × 10 cells L-1 and 0.9?2.9 × 10 cellsL-1, respectively). Molecular identification revealed two subtypes of Cyrptosporidium parvum in Sangsa Lake.

Kim, Sung-Hyun; Hyun-Woo Kim; Hak-Young Lee; Hyung-Yeel Kahng

2008-01-01

271

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., spatial clustering and patterns of shedding in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to estimate calf and herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., the herd prevalence clustering, spatial distribution according to soil type and shedding patterns in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina. Six hundred twenty calves younger than 7 weeks of age from 43 dairy herds were sampled. Samples were processed with the formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Univariate analysis and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used. Factors associated were subjected to multivariate analysis with calf shedding intensity as the response variable. Clustering of herd prevalence was assessed by a scan method, and spatial analysis was applied to explore the overlapping of high prevalence herds and soil type. Overall calf prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were 19.35% (95% CI: 16.14; 22.54) and 34.50% (95% CI: 30.69; 38.34), respectively. Calves younger than two weeks of age were almost four times more likely to be infected with Cryptosporidium, in comparison to older ones (RR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.27; 6.26). Giardia spp. shedding showed a similar age pattern (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.75). A primary cluster of high Cryptosporidium prevalence was found, and high prevalence herds were located in areas with poor drained soil.

Tiranti K; Larriestra A; Vissio C; Picco N; Alustiza F; Degioanni A; Vivas A

2011-04-01

272

[Urachal cysts during childhood].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess diagnosis and treatment of uracal cysts. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and radiological studies of four patients who were treated for a urachal anomaly: two urachal cysts and two urachal abscesses. Diagnostic evaluation included, ultrasound, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance. RESULTS: Treatment of urachal abscesses involved drainage and secondary excision. The urachal cyst does not require surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound is an excellent diagnostic tool for patients with urachal cysts. Infected cysts may present with pain, tenderness and erythema in the infraumbilical region. Extraperitoneal excision is the treatment of choice, although large infected cysts may require an initial drainage procedure.

Gómez Díaz ME; Tornero Ruiz JI; Caffaratti Sfulcini J; Garat Barredo JM

2003-04-01

273

The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01).Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

Yasemin Bayram; Mehmet Parlak; Aytekin Ç?kman

2013-01-01

274

Prevalence, environmental loading, and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia isolates from domestic and wild animals along the Central California Coast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The risk of disease transmission from waterborne protozoa is often dependent on the origin (e.g., domestic animals versus wildlife), overall parasite load in contaminated waterways, and parasite genotype, with infections being linked to runoff or direct deposition of domestic animal and wildlife feces. Fecal samples collected from domestic animals and wildlife along the central California coast were screened to (i) compare the prevalence and associated risk factors for fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species parasites, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of animal host groups that contribute to pathogen loading in coastal ecosystems, and (iii) characterize zoonotic and host-specific genotypes. Overall, 6% of fecal samples tested during 2007 to 2010 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and 15% were positive for Giardia cysts. Animal host group and age class were significantly associated with detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in animal feces. Fecal loading analysis revealed that infected beef cattle potentially contribute the greatest parasite load relative to other host groups, followed by wild canids. Beef cattle, however, shed host-specific, minimally zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis genotypes, whereas wild canids shed potentially zoonotic genotypes, including G. duodenalis assemblages A and B. Given that the parasite genotypes detected in cattle were not zoonotic, the public health risk posed by protozoan parasite shedding in cattle feces may be lower than that posed by other animals, such as wild canids, that routinely shed zoonotic genotypes.

Oates SC; Miller MA; Hardin D; Conrad PA; Melli A; Jessup DA; Dominik C; Roug A; Tinker MT; Miller WA

2012-12-01

275

Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 Antagonizes Giardia intestinalis In Vivo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study describes the in vivo activity of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (NCC533) in Giardia intestinalis-infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Daily administration of lactobacilli in the drinking water from 7 days before inoculation with Giardia trophozoites efficiently prevented G. intestinali...

Humen, Martín A.; De Antoni, Graciela L.; Benyacoub, Jalil; Costas, María E.; Cardozo, Marta I.; Kozubsky, Leonora

276

GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. PCR methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR amplified fragments of the Giardia and Cryptosporidium SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence ana...

277

Automated three-dimensional detection and classification of living organisms using digital holographic microscopy with partial spatial coherent source: application to the monitoring of drinking water resources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we investigate the use of a digital holographic microscope working with partially coherent spatial illumination for an automated detection and classification of living organisms. A robust automatic method based on the computation of propagating matrices is proposed to detect the 3D position of organisms. We apply this procedure to the evaluation of drinking water resources by developing a classification process to identify parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia cysts among two other similar organisms. By selecting textural features from the quantitative optical phase instead of morphological ones, a robust classifier is built to propose a new method for the unambiguous detection of Giardia lamblia cyst that present a critical contamination risk.

El Mallahi A; Minetti C; Dubois F

2013-01-01

278

Posttraumatic spinal subarachnoid cyst  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A case of posttraumatic compressive subarachnoid cyst of the thoracic spine studied by MR, myelography, and myelo-CT is reported. This cyst was surgically confirmed and treated by shunting. (orig.). With 4 figs.

Coffin, C.M. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Weill, A. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Miaux, Y. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Srour, A. [Service de Neurochirurgie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Cognard, C. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Dubard, T. [Federation de Neurologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Savin, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Chiras, J. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France)

1996-08-01

279

Posttraumatic spinal subarachnoid cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of posttraumatic compressive subarachnoid cyst of the thoracic spine studied by MR, myelography, and myelo-CT is reported. This cyst was surgically confirmed and treated by shunting. (orig.). With 4 figs.

1996-01-01

280

Transport of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Source-specific Indicator Organisms, and Standard Water Quality Constituents During Storm Events  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial and water-quality measurements are collected during storm events under a variety of meteorological and land-use conditions in order to 1) identify risk of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts and other constituents, including microbial indicator organisms, entering surface waters from various land uses during periods of surface runoff; 2) optimize storm sampling procedures for these parameters; and 3) optimize strategies for accurate determination of constituent loads. The investigation is focused on four isolated land uses: forested with free ranging wildlife, beaver influenced forested with free ranging wildlife, residential/commercial, and dairy farm grazing/pastureland using an upstream and downstream sampling strategy. Traditional water-quality analyses include pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl-nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Total coliforms and fecal coliforms are measured as industry standard microbial analyses. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, Rhodococcus coprophilus, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Somatic and F-specific coliphages are measured at select sites as potential alternative source-specific indicator organisms. Upon completion of the project, the final database will consist of wet weather transport data for a set of parameters during twenty-four distinct storm-events in addition to monthly baseline data. A subset of the results to date will be presented, with focus placed on demonstrating the impact of beaver on constituent loadings over a variety of hydrologic and meteorological conditions.

Sturdevant-Rees, P. L.; Bourdeau, D.; Baker, R.; Long, S. C.; Barten, P. K.

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves on cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6-18 months of age) from 49 operations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize recovery of cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each of the 819 specimens. The presence of G. duodenalis was determined by nested PCR of a fragment of the SSU rRNA gene. All positive PCR products were subjected to sequence analysis. The overall sample level prevalence of Giardia was 33.5% with prevalence ranging from 0 to 100% among operations. The highest within herd prevalence of infected beef calves was found in one cow-calf operation from the South region (100%), followed by a cow-calf operation from the West region (90%), and three cow-calf operations from the Midwest region (87.5, 85, and 85%). Giardia was not detected in samples from 7 operations including 5 cow-calf operations from the South region, and 1 cow-calf operation each from the Midwest and West regions. Molecular analysis of the Giardia-positive samples identified assemblage E (or E-like) in 31.7% of all samples (260/819) and assemblage A in 1.2% (10/819). A mixed infection with assemblages A and E was observed in four calves from an operation in Midwest region. The potentially zoonotic assemblage A was detected in specimens from four operations in Midwest region. These findings indicate that most G. duodenalis found in weaned beef calves was assemblage E which represents no known zoonotic threat. However, the presence of assemblage A in a small number of animals poses a potential risk of infection to humans.

Santin M; Dargatz D; Fayer R

2012-02-01

282

A large survey of Croatian wild mammals for Giardia duodenalis reveals a low prevalence and limited zoonotic potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wild mammals are considered an important source of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis parasites, yet surprisingly little information is available on the actual prevalence and the genetic identity of the species they harbor. A large survey was conducted in Croatia by collecting 832 fecal samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 374), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 21), wild boars (Sus scrofa, n = 144), foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n = 66), bears (Ursus arctos, n = 19), wolves (Canis lupus, n = 127), jackals (Canis aureus, n = 8), and hares (Lepus europeus, n = 73). Fecal samples were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts using fluorescent microscopy. The observed prevalence ranged from low (1% in red deer, 1.7% in wild boars, and 4.5% in foxes) to moderate (10% in wolves and 12.5% in jackals) to high (24% in roe deer). No cysts were observed in bears and hares. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on microscopically positive samples to amplify fragments of the small subunit ribosomal gene, the ribosomal 5.8S gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences, and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Sequence analysis showed a predominance of G. duodenalis assemblage A in both ruminants (genotypes A1 and A3) and carnivores (genotype A1). G. duodenalis assemblages B, C, and D, as well as Giardia microti, were also detected in this study. This is the first molecular description of the parasite from the red deer, the wolf, and the jackal. The data point to a minor role of wild mammals as reservoirs of zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis, albeit cycling between sylvatic and domestic animals is possible.

Beck R; Sprong H; Lucinger S; Pozio E; Cacciò SM

2011-08-01

283

Scapular bronchogenic cyst  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report a rare case of a 3-year-old male child with scapular bronchogenic cyst. The cyst was excised because of associated pain and discharge from the swelling. Till date, 64 cases of cutaneous bronchogenic cyst have been reported in the literature. Only 12 of these patients had lesion located in ...

Kundal Anjani; Zargar Noor; Krishna Anurag

284

Prevalencia de Giardia intestinalis y predominio de genotipos zoonóticos en ovinos y bovinos de traspatio de cinco estados de la República Mexicana/ Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and zoonotic genotype predominance in small scale sheep and cattle farms in five states of the Mexican Republic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Con el fin de determinar la frecuencia y genotipos de Giardia intestinalis en ovinos y bovinos de traspatio de algunos estados de la República Mexicana, en este trabajo se colectaron heces de 265 ovinos y 174 bovinos, para la búsqueda de Giardia mediante coproparasitoscópicos (CPS) de concentración flotación. De las muestras fecales que resultaron positivas se obtuvieron los quistes por el método de Sheather. Los quistes se desenquistaron in vitro y los trofozoítos (more) se mantuvieron en cultivo TYI-S-33 axénico. El ADN de los trofozoítos se obtuvo mediante extracciones fenólicas y se amplificó un segmento de ? 430 pb del gen de la enzima glutamato deshidrogenasa (gdh) por medio de la reacción en cadena de la ADN polimerasa (PCR), el producto se restringió con las enzimas Nla IV y Rsa I y se obtuvieron los polimorfismos de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP). En los CPS se encontró a Giardia en nueve bovinos (5.1%) y 30 ovinos (11.3%). Se establecieron 10 cultivos axénicos (5 de bovinos y 5 de ovinos). En un bovino se encontró el genotipo (AI), dos tuvieron mezcla de los genotipos (AI + BIII) y los otros dos fueron (E + BIII). Un ovino fue genotipo (AI) y tres tuvieron mezcla de los genotipos (AI + BIII). Éste es el primer informe que presenta predominio de genotipos zoonóticos (AI y BIII) en ovinos y bovinos de México. Es necesario investigar los genotipos de Giardia y patrones de transmisión entre animales y humanos en México. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to discover the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia intestinalis, harbored in sheep and cows on familiar farms from five states of the Mexican Republic. Stool samples from 265 sheep and 174 cows were analyzed by centrifugation and flotation in zinc sulfate to search for cysts and ova. The samples with Giardia cysts were processed in a Sheather solution in order to isolate them. Afterwards, cultures were established in TYI-S-33, each one of whic (more) h was the Giardia DNA source. The DNA was obtained and used as a template to amplify a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) enzyme. The 430 bp amplicons were restricted with Nla IV and Rsa I in order to identify the restriction fragments length polymorphisms (RFLP's) patterns. From the cyst analysis, Giardia cysts in nine cows (5.1%) and 30 sheep (11.3%) were found. Then 10 axenic cultures (5 from sheep and 5 from cows) were set up. From the RFLP's pattern it was found that one cow had assemblage (AI), another two had a mixture of assemblages (AI + BIII) and the other two had (E + BIII). In sheep, it was found that two sheep had assemblage (AI) and the other three had a mixture of assemblages (AI + BIII). This is the first report in which zoonotic assemblages (A-I and BIII) predominance in ruminants from five states of Mexico have been demonstrated. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out further studies aimed at discovering other Giardia genotypes and transmission patterns between animals and humans in Mexico.

Otero-Negrete, Juana Jimena; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Martínez-Gordillo, Mario Noé; Ponce-Macotela, Martha

2011-09-01

285

Parapelvic renal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Parapelvic renal cysts are relatively common finding on sonography, CT, MRI. These cysts are more common in patients with Fabry diseases. Their size can be up to 50 mm. Parapelvic renal cysts may be asymptomatic and can cause back pain, obstruction, hypertension, pyelonephritis. The differentiation from other pathologic conditions is important - tumors, lipomatosis. Parapelvic cysts often have the picture of hydronephrosis. It is easy to distinguish cyst from varices, renal artery aneurysm, arteriovenous fistula by color and pulse Doppler ultrasonography. The diagnosis should not be based by ultrasonography only so that other pathology should not be missed. (authors)

2011-01-01

286

Thyroglossal duct cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDCs) are cervical cysts occurring in approximately 7% of the population, mainly during childhood. The cyst usually presents itself as a painless, asymptomatic midline swelling below the hyoid bone. Differential diagnosis involves branchial cleft cyst, lymphoepithelial cyst, thyroid gland lesions, ranula and lymphadenopathy (of various etiologies). Sonogram (ultrasound) is the most frequent and appropriate imaging modality in suspected TDC. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration is an inexpensive and safe method that can be considered in selected adult patients, having prime importance to the exclusion of carcinoma. This article presents a TDC of the neck in a 5-year-old boy.

Allan ABUABARA; Flares BARATTO FILHO; Rubia F. FUZZA

2010-01-01

287

Cerebral hydatid cysts: CT findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CT features of cerebral hydatid cysts are divided into two groups. In the unilocular cases, the cyst is large, spherical in shape with sharply defined borders. One side of the cyst wall is very close to the calvarium. The cyst may calcify and may have septae inside. There is no enhancement with contrast media and also no edema surrounding the cyst. In the second group there are multiple and small multiocular cysts. These cysts are in ovoid or polygonal forms like a bunch of grapes, with perifocal edema. After contrast media administration, there is enhancement in the cyst wall. In one case there were numerious cysts in both hemispheres. (orig.).

1991-01-01

288

Cerebral hydatid cysts: CT findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CT features of cerebral hydatid cysts are divided into two groups. In the unilocular cases, the cyst is large, spherical in shape with sharply defined borders. One side of the cyst wall is very close to the calvarium. The cyst may calcify and may have septae inside. There is no enhancement with contrast media and also no edema surrounding the cyst. In the second group there are multiple and small multiocular cysts. These cysts are in ovoid or polygonal forms like a bunch of grapes, with perifocal edema. After contrast media administration, there is enhancement in the cyst wall. In one case there were numerious cysts in both hemispheres. (orig.).

Demir, K.; Karsli, A.F.; Kaya, T.; Devrimci, E. (Haydarpasa Military Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology); Alkan, K. (Haydarpasa Military Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

1991-02-01

289

[Measuring resistant forms of two pathogenic protozoa (Giardia spp and Cryptosporidium spp) in two aquatic biotopes in Yaounde (Cameroon)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organisms of the genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia are enteric parasites that are responsible for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis respectively. They are characterised by profuse diarrhoea, abdominal pain and cramping. The symptoms can be fatal for immunodepressed subjects and children because these are opportunistic pathogens. These pathogenic infections are rampant in developing countries due to the unhygienic and improper disposal of wastewater and the use of surface water as the major sources of potable water. Little information is available about the resistant forms of these microorganisms in the hydrosystems of Cameroon in particular and other sub-Saharan ecosystems in general. The aim of this research was to isolate, identify, and measure these forms of these emerging protozoa in the waste and surface waters of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Giardia spp cysts were identified by Lugol iodine staining, and the Cryptosporidium spp oocysts by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique. The cysts were oval in structure and varied in length from 7 um to 12.0 um. Axostyles were visible along the median line and nuclei were present. The oocysts were round in structure and varied in diameter from 4 um to 6 um. A double cell wall was seen in the apicomplexa. The highest concentrations of Giardia spp cysts were 560 cysts/L in the surface water and 650 cysts/L in the residual effluent, while the corresponding figures for Cryptosporidium spp were 1,110 oocysts/L in the stream and 1,500 oocysts/L in the effluent. The cyst and oocyst counts were higher in the direct effluent because they are released directly into the wastewater by feces, while they are diluted in the surface water, reducing their abundance. Turbidity has a significant effect (p<0.05) on the population dynamics of these microorganisms, thereby indicating the importance of suspended or colloidal particles in the dissemination of these pathogens in aquatic media. The suspended particles in the wastewater adsorb the oocysts and cysts, probably because of the interactions between the electric charges carried by suspended particles and those present at the surface of the parasites. The positive correlation observed between these parasites and ammonia may account for some of the die-off of these resistant forms, because ammonium ions in water are known to inactivate trophozoites and sporozoites present in cysts and oocysts. This may be due to the permeability of the protozoan membrane to the ammonium ion and other alkaline earth metals present in aqueous form in the biotope. These parasite forms in these media represent a considerable health risk to the inhabitants of the study zone who depend on this surface water for drinking. The small size of these parasitic forms, the nonfunctional water purification stations and ineffective water treatment systems expose the community to outbreaks of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis.

Gideon AA; Njiné T; Nola M; Menbohan SF; Ndayo MW

2007-07-01

290

First molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis from goats in Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, 310 faecal samples from goats from eight different farms in Malaysia were tested for the presence of Giardia using a PCR-coupled approach. The nested PCR for SSU amplified products of the expected size (?200 bp) from 21 of 310 (6.8%) samples. Sixteen of these 21 products could be sequenced successfully and represented six distinct sequence types. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU sequence data using Bayesian Inference (BI) identified Giardia assemblages A, B and E. The identification of the 'zoonotic' assemblages A and B suggests that Giardia-infected goats represent a possible reservoir for human giardiasis in Malaysia.

Lim YA; Mahdy MA; Tan TK; Goh XT; Jex AR; Nolan MJ; Sharma RS; Gasser RB

2013-02-01

291

Glycogen storage and degradation during in vitro growth and differentiation of Giardia intestinalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia intestinalis is the causative agent of human giardiasis, a common diarrheal illness worldwide. Despite its global distribution and prevalence, many questions regarding its basic biology and metabolism remain unanswered. In this study, we examine the accumulation and degradation of glycogen, an important source of stored carbon and energy, during the in vitro growth and differentiation of G. intestinalis . We report that, as G. intestinalis progresses through its growth cycle, cultures of trophozoites accumulate glycogen during the lag and early logarithmic phases of growth and then utilize this compound during their remaining logarithmic growth. As cultures enter the stationary phase of growth, they re-accumulate glycogen stores. The activity of glycogen phosphorylase, an enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism, also varied throughout in vitro trophozoite growth. During the in vitro induction of trophozoite differentiation into water-resistant cyst forms, the cultures initially accumulated stores of glycogen which diminished throughout transition to the cyst form. This observation is suggestive of a role for glycogen in the differentiation process. These studies represent the first thorough analysis of changes in glycogen content and glycogen phosphorylase activity during G. intestinalis growth and differentiation.

Pradhan P; Lundgren SW; Wilson WA; Brittingham A

2012-04-01

292

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

2006-01-01

293

Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60%) out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years) 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue) and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

Naess Halvor; Nyland Morten; Hausken Trygve; Follestad Inghild; Nyland Harald I

2012-01-01

294

Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) after the infection. METHODS: Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. RESULTS: A total of 58 (60%) out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years) 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue) and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. CONCLUSION: After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

Naess H; Nyland M; Hausken T; Follestad I; Nyland HI

2012-01-01

295

[Knee joint cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety cases of knee joint cysts were treated surgically. This included 50 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 22 patients with degenerative-deforming changes, ten children with true cysts, and eight ones with post-traumatic cysts. Double-contrast X-ray examination with Lipiodol Ultra-fluid and air is of the best diagnostic value. All cases of knee joint cysts were treated surgically with a careful plastic closure of cyst gate. For this purpose the authors used the arcus tendon of the semi-membranous muscle. In cases of rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative changes cyst removal was preceded by synovectomy of the knee joint. Early and remote were good, no recurrence was observed. PMID:1299044

Noczy?ski, L; Benarz, W; Wojczys, R

1992-11-01

296

[Knee joint cyst  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ninety cases of knee joint cysts were treated surgically. This included 50 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 22 patients with degenerative-deforming changes, ten children with true cysts, and eight ones with post-traumatic cysts. Double-contrast X-ray examination with Lipiodol Ultra-fluid and air is of the best diagnostic value. All cases of knee joint cysts were treated surgically with a careful plastic closure of cyst gate. For this purpose the authors used the arcus tendon of the semi-membranous muscle. In cases of rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative changes cyst removal was preceded by synovectomy of the knee joint. Early and remote were good, no recurrence was observed.

Noczy?ski L; Benarz W; Wojczys R

1992-11-01

297

[Intracranial arachnoid cysts  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Arachnoid cysts are intra-arachnoid collections of cerebrospinal fluid; congenital in origin, they account for about 1% of all atraumatic intracranial mass lesions. They cause neurological deficit through expansion that can compress normal neural tissue and obstruct cerebrospinal fluid flow. DEVELOPMENT: We review the pertinent literature of the formation and evolution of congenital arachnoid cyst and the epidemiological, clinical, neuroradiological aspects and treatment of intracranial arachnoid cyst. CONCLUSIONS: Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital collections of cerebrospinal fluid. They usually arise in areas that are rich in arachnoid, and 50% are located in the sylvian fissure. Symptoms depend on size and location. Seizures and headache are said to be the most common symptoms of middle cranial fossa cysts. The definitive treatment for arachnoid cysts is surgery and the indications for surgery most likely are the presence of progressive hydrocephalus or intracranial hypertension.

Gelabert-González M

2004-12-01

298

Infected mesenteric cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mesenteric cyst is a rare condition. Presentation with non-typhoid spontaneous infection in an unusual area makes it even more a rare situation with mesenteric cyst. Its diagnosis is mainly based on the imaging modalities. However, there are difficulties in diagnosis when it is present in an uncommon area and rare known complications. Mesenteric cyst can present with few uncommon emergency conditions which pose difficulties in diagnosis as well as treatment options as mentioned in this case.

Reddy GR; Gunadal S; Banda VR; Banda NR

2013-01-01

299

Scapular bronchogenic cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a rare case of a 3-year-old male child with scapular bronchogenic cyst. The cyst was excised because of associated pain and discharge from the swelling. Till date, 64 cases of cutaneous bronchogenic cyst have been reported in the literature. Only 12 of these patients had lesion located in periscapular area. The treatment is surgical as it can undergo malignant transformation.

Kundal Anjani; Zargar Noor; Krishna Anurag

2008-01-01

300

Endoscopic Renal Cyst Ablation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the result of simple renal cyst ablation by endoscope and compare the results with other techniques of renal cyst treatment.Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed at Shaheed Faghihi hospital from January 2001 to January 2003. Ten patients with symptomatic simple renal cyst were selected for this study. The exclusion criteria were history of previous renal surgery, parapelvic cyst, and cyst size less than 50 mm. Urinalysis, urine culture, serum electrolytes, ultrasonography, and CT scan were done before operation. The patients underwent endoscopic renal cyst ablation and cytology of cyst fluid and histopathological examination of cysts’ walls were done in all patients. The patients were followed with ultrasonography after two weeks and 2, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Disappearance of the cyst or decreasing its size to less than 50% of its primary size was considered as improvement. Results: All the patients were female with a mean age of 55 (range 22 to 75) years. The operation was successful in 9 patients with no major complications. Perinephric hematoma and excessive leakage were seen in two patients. The operative time was 38±10.8 minutes and hospital stay was 3±1.3 days. Mean size of cyst before operation was 75±19.7 mm and changed to 12.7±15.3 mm after operation (pConclusions: Cyst ablation can be used for the treatment of simple renal cysts not responding to aspiration and sclerosing therapy, and if there is no laparoscopic facility. More studies are needed to confirm these results.

Alireza Tadayon; M A’yanifard; Daryoosh Mansoori

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Clonal diversity of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene in Giardia duodenalis from Thai isolates: evidence of genetic exchange or mixed infections?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdh) is one of the most popular and useful genetic markers for the genotypic analysis of Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis), the protozoan that widely causes enteric disease in humans. To determine the distribution of genotypes of G. duodenalis in Thai populations and to investigate the extent of sequence variation at this locus, 42 fecal samples were collected from 3 regions of Thailand i.e., Central, Northern, and Eastern regions. All specimens were analyzed using PCR-based genotyping and recombinant subcloning methods. RESULTS: The results showed that the prevalence of assemblages A and B among these populations was approximately equal, 20 (47.6%) and 22 (52.4%), respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the nucleotide diversity of assemblage B was significantly greater than that in assemblage A. Among all assemblage B positive specimens, the allelic sequence divergence within isolates was detected. Nine isolates showed mixed alleles, ranged from three to nine distinct alleles per isolate. Statistical analysis demonstrated the occurrence of genetic recombination within subassemblages BIII and BIV was likely. CONCLUSION: This study supports increasing evidence that G. duodenalis has the potential for genetic exchange.

Siripattanapipong S; Leelayoova S; Mungthin M; Thompson RC; Boontanom P; Saksirisampant W; Tan-Ariya P

2011-01-01

302

[Congenital pulmonary cysts  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The clinical and surgical experience on congenital pulmonary cysts at the Hospital Infantil of México was reviewed. No preponderance in sex or family inheritance was found. The clinical diagnosis was made in over one half of the patients and was confirmed in the 18 patients who were operated. Treatment should be surgical with resection of the affected pulmonary lobe. In some cases it was possible to excise only the pumonary cyst, without total removal of the lobe. Mortality resulted in three of the surgical patients. The most frequent pulmonary cysts in this series were the bronchogenic and patients with parasitic cysts, lobe emphysema and pulmonary sequestrum were excluded.

Belío Castillo C; Fajardo Ramírez C

1978-11-01

303

[Percutaneous renal cyst puncture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ultrasound-guided renal cyst puncture was performed on 31 cysts which were then 95% ethanol instilled to prevent recurrence of cystic fluid. Ethanol was allowed to remain in place for 20 minutes and removed through the catheter. Morphological improvement was observed on IVP and Tc-99m-DMSA renal scintigram, and DMSA renal uptake rate increased slightly. The cystic wall became thicker, and cystic fluid did not remain any more. The renal tissue near the cyst was intact. One third of the patients had hotflush and/or somewhat drunken sense but these symptoms were only temporary. This method of therapy is a safe and effective way of treating renal cysts.

Higashi Y; Kawamura J; Yoshida O

1985-07-01

304

Nasolabial cyst: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nasolabial cyst is classified as a fissural cyst, found outside the bone, and on the region corresponding to the nasolabial furrow and alar nose. This cyst is frequently asymptomatic with the most usual sign being alar nose elevation. In spite of the low occurrence of nasolabial cysts, it is important to recognize the clinical characteristics of this lesion. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and discuss the histomorphology and etiology of this condition, showing treatment by surgical excision.

Pereira Filho Valfrido Antonio; Silva Alessandro Costa da; Moraes Márcio de; Moreira Roger William F.; Villalba Halbert

2002-01-01

305

DERMOID CYST OF OVARY  

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Full Text Available The patient was a 23 years unbooked primigravida who presented through emergency with the history of gestational amenorrhea of 12 weeks and acute pain in the left iliac fossa for the last 3 hours. Urgent ultrasound revealed viable pregnancy of 12 weeks along with a large left ovarian cyst of heterogenous echogenicity. A diagnosis of torsion of right ovarian cyst was made and immediate laparotomy was done after counseling of the family and preparing the patient. Per-operatively, it was found that left ovarian cyst had undergone torsion. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst.

FARHAT RASHID

2009-01-01

306

Infected hepatic cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe an unusual case involving an infected hepatic cyst. An 88-year-old woman presented with acute onset of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, mild left lower abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fever. On admission, computed tomography revealed multiple hepatic cysts including an 8-cm cyst located in the left medial segment of the liver, which demonstrated a thickened wall enhanced with contrast media. Ultrasonography showed an 8-cm hypoechoic lesion which differed in appearance from the other, anechoic hepatic cysts. The serum concentration of C-reactive protein was 29.8 mg/dL; white blood cell count, 12,800/microL; CA19-9, 96 U/mL; and CEA, 2.2 ng/mL. Diagnosis of infected hepatic cyst was made by percutaneous transhepatic drainage of the cyst. Milky fluid was obtained and the patient's right upper quadrant abdominal pain resolved after drainage. The cyst fluid CA19-9 concentration was 18,000 U/mL. Cytology of the cyst fluid was negative. Serum CA19-9 (41 U/mL) and CEA (1.8 ng/mL) concentrations were improved 1 week after drainage. Escherichia coli was cultured from the drainage fluid. The patient was discharged 27 days after admission. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage is effective in the treatment of infected hepatic cysts. PMID:12749258

Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onda, Masahiko; Tajiri, Takashi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Mineta, Sho; Hirakata, Atsushi; Futami, Ryohei; Arima, Yasuo; Inoue, Matsuoh; Hatta, Shigeo; Kishimoto, Akio

307

Calcified adrenal cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcified hemorrhagic adrenal cysts are rather rare and unusual pathologic entity. Especially, the peripheral curvilinear calcification on roentgenogram is fairly characteristic picture of the cysts. Recently, we have experienced in Severance Hospital one of the classical cases of the benign calcified adrenal cyst in 35 year old white mail patient who has had vague abdominal pain and palpable mass in right abdomen. It has been reviewed several reports for adrenal cysts and hoped that this report may call additional attention of radiological diagnosis on this unusual disease.

1970-01-01

308

Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common intestinal parasite in humans worldwide. In Malaysia, many studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of giardiasis. However, there is a scarcity of information on the genetic diversity and the dynamics of transmission of G. duodenalis. The present study was conducted to identify G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages based on multilocus analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin (bg) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Faecal specimens were collected from 484 Orang Asli children with a mean age of 7 years and examined using light microscopy. Specimens positive for Giardia were subjected to PCR analysis of the three genes and subsequent sequencing in both directions. Sequences were edited and analysed by phylogenetic analysis. G. duodenalis was detected in 17% (84 of 484) of the examined specimens. Among them, 71 were successfully sequenced using at least one locus. Genotyping results showed that 30 (42%) of the isolates belonged to assemblage A, 32 (45%) belonged to assemblage B, while discordant genotype results were observed in 9 specimens. Mixed infections were detected in 43 specimens using a tpi-based assemblage specific protocol. At the sub-assemblages level, isolates belonged to assemblage A were AII. High nucleotide variation found in isolates of assemblage B made subtyping difficult to achieve. The finding of assemblage B and the anthroponotic genotype AII implicates human-to-human transmission as the most possible mode of transmission among Malaysian aborigines. The high polymorphism found in isolates of assemblage B warrants a more defining tool to discriminate assemblage B at the sub-assemblage level.

Huey CS; Mahdy MA; Al-Mekhlafi HM; Nasr NA; Lim YA; Mahmud R; Surin J

2013-07-01

309

Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common intestinal parasite in humans worldwide. In Malaysia, many studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of giardiasis. However, there is a scarcity of information on the genetic diversity and the dynamics of transmission of G. duodenalis. The present study was conducted to identify G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages based on multilocus analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin (bg) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Faecal specimens were collected from 484 Orang Asli children with a mean age of 7 years and examined using light microscopy. Specimens positive for Giardia were subjected to PCR analysis of the three genes and subsequent sequencing in both directions. Sequences were edited and analysed by phylogenetic analysis. G. duodenalis was detected in 17% (84 of 484) of the examined specimens. Among them, 71 were successfully sequenced using at least one locus. Genotyping results showed that 30 (42%) of the isolates belonged to assemblage A, 32 (45%) belonged to assemblage B, while discordant genotype results were observed in 9 specimens. Mixed infections were detected in 43 specimens using a tpi-based assemblage specific protocol. At the sub-assemblages level, isolates belonged to assemblage A were AII. High nucleotide variation found in isolates of assemblage B made subtyping difficult to achieve. The finding of assemblage B and the anthroponotic genotype AII implicates human-to-human transmission as the most possible mode of transmission among Malaysian aborigines. The high polymorphism found in isolates of assemblage B warrants a more defining tool to discriminate assemblage B at the sub-assemblage level. PMID:23624189

Huey, Choy Seow; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Nasr, Nabil A; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari

2013-04-25

310

Extreme intraneural ganglion cysts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECT: The mechanism responsible for exceptional examples of intraneural ganglia with extensive longitudinal involvement has not been understood. Such cases of intraneural cysts, seemingly remote from a joint, have been thought not to have articular connections. Decompression and attempted resection of the cyst has led to intraneural recurrence and poor neurological recovery. The purpose of this report is not only to clarify the pathogenesis of these cysts, but also to discuss their treatment based on modern concepts of intraneural ganglia. METHODS: Two examples of extreme longitudinal propagation of intraneural ganglia are presented. RESULTS: A patient with a moderate tibial neuropathy was found to have a tibial intraneural ganglion. Prospective interpretation of the MR imaging study demonstrated the cyst's origin from the posterior portion of the superior tibiofibular joint (STFJ), with proximal extension within the sciatic nerve to the lower buttock region. Communication between the STFJ and the cyst was confirmed with direct knee MR arthrography. The tibial intraneural cyst was treated successfully by a relatively limited exposure in the distal popliteal fossa: the cyst was decompressed, the articular branch disconnected, and the STFJ resected. Postoperatively, the patient improved neurologically and there was no evidence of recurrent cyst on postoperative MR imaging. A second patient, previously reported by another group, was reexamined 22 years after surgery. This patient had an extensive peroneal intraneural ganglion that extended into the sciatic nerve from the knee to the buttock; no joint connection or recurrent cyst had initially been described. In this patient, the authors hypothesized and established with MR imaging the presence of both: a joint connection to the anterior portion of the STFJ from the peroneal articular branch as well as recurrent cyst within the peroneal and tibial nerves. CONCLUSIONS: This paper demonstrates that extreme intraneural cysts are not clinical outliers but represent extreme examples of other more typical intraneural cysts. They logically obey the same principles, previously described in the unified articular (synovial) theory. The degree of longitudinal extension is probably due to high intraarticular pressures within the degenerative joint of origin. The generalizability of the mechanistic principles is highlighted by the fact that these 2 cases, involving the tibial and the peroneal nerve respectively, both extended well distant (that is, to the buttock) from the STFJ via their respective articular branch of origin. These extensive intraneural cysts can be treated successfully by disconnecting the affected articular branch and by resection of the joint of origin, rather than by a more aggressive operation resecting the cyst and cyst wall.

Spinner RJ; Hébert-Blouin MN; Rock MG; Amrami KK

2011-01-01

311

Aneurysmal bone cysts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Back ground: Aneurysmal bone cysts have raised intra-cystic pressures which are dynamic and diagnostic in nature. Aneurysmal bone cysts could be diagnosed from other benign cystic lesions of bone by recording their intra-cystic pressures with a spinal manometer. Raised intra-cystic pressures in aneurysmal bone cysts are maintained as long as the periosteum over the cyst is intact even in those with pathological fractures. Even though its pathology is definite its aetio-pathology is not clear Method: Fourteen out of 16 radiologically benign cystic lesions of bone were subjected to intra-cystic pressure recordings with spinal manometer. Other two cysts had displaced unimpacted pathological fractures and so their intra-cystic pressures could not be recorded. All 16 cysts were subjected to histo-pathological examination to confirm their diagnosis and to find out for any pre-existing benign pathology. All the cysts were surgically treated. Results: Fourteen benign cystic lesions of bone were diagnosed as aneurysmal bone cysts preoperatively by recording raised intra-cystic pressures and confirmed by histo-pathology. In addition, histo-pathology revealed pre-existing benign pathology. All cysts were successfully treated surgically. Conclusions: Since, there is appreciable rise in intra-cystic dynamic pressures, the aneurysmal bone cyst is considered to be due to either sudden venous obstruction or arterio-venous shunt. Pre-operative intra-cystic pressure recordings help not only to diagnose aneurysmal bone cysts but also to assess the quantum of blood loss and its replacement during surgery.

Rangachari P

2005-01-01

312

Primary Mediastinal Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze our experience with mediastinal cysts, emphasizing the clinical presentations and results of surgery. Thirty-two patients with mediastinal cysts underwent surgery from January 2000 through June 2005. The records of these patients were reviewed for age at presentation, sex, signs and symptoms at presentation, results of the imaging techniques, types of mediastinal cysts, location and size of cysts, types of surgical procedure, length of hospital stay, early postoperative complications, death, and other follow-up information. The 32 mediastinal cysts comprised 12 bronchogenic, 9 pericardial, 7 thymic, and 2 enteric cysts, together with 2 cystic teratomas. Overall, 14 of the 32 patients with mediastinal cysts were asymptomatic. The surgical approach was thoracotomy in 30 patients and median sternotomy in 2 patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 7.7 ± 2.6 days. All patients were free from recurrence during the mean follow-up period of 4.4 ± 3.3 years. Surgery for mediastinal cysts is associated with low morbidity and mortality rates and a very low recurrence rate. It offers a definitive diagnosis and cure, avoiding the higher morbidity and mortality risks associated with conservative observation.

Esme, Hidir; Eren, Sevval; Sezer, Murat; Solak, Okan

2011-01-01

313

[Choledochal cyst (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports six pediatric patients with congenital choledochal cyst. From the long-term follow-up results of the six patients authors conclude that primary excision of the choledochal cyst and Roux hepatic jejunostomy are the first choice treatment for this lesion. However, it may not be possible in all cases, and choledochocystoenterostomy would then be useful as a second choice.

Domínguez Vallejo J; Cuadros J; Lassaletta L; Monereo J

1978-11-01

314

[Congenital pancreatic cyst  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of a congenital cyst of the pancreas occurring in an adult woman and successfully treated by resection, is reported. The presence of cylindrical epithelium in the cystic cavity, the high amylase contents of the cyst and the ERCP examination made the diagnosis.

Lada P; Dutari C; Garibotti F; Brandán Recalde E; Gramática L

1990-11-01

315

Right Ventricular Bronchogenic Cyst  

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We report an exceedingly rare case of primary bronchogenic cyst in the outflow tract of the right ventricle in a 48-year-old woman. In our review of the world literature, we found only 1 other report of an intracardiac bronchogenic cyst. Our patient's only symptom was mild dyspnea not associated wit...

Prates, Paulo R.; Lovato, Lucas; Homsi-Neto, Abud; Barra, Marinez; Sant'Anna, Joã R.M.; Kalil, Renato A.K.; Nesralla, Ivo A.

316

Splenic epithelial cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysts of spleen are rare entities. Congenital splenic cysts are even more uncommon comprising of only 10% of benign non-parasitic cysts. We report a case of 22 years old female who presented with history of 2 years abdominal pain and gradual distension. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) both were suggestive of splenic cyst. Laboratory tests show thrombocytopenia with platelets count of 97000 per cubic millimeter and anemia with hemoglobin 8.7 gram per deciliter. Serological tests were negative for parasitic infection. Splenectomy was done and the weight of the spleen was found to be 1.5 kilogram. Histopathological findings are consistent with splenic epithelial cyst. The aetiology, diagnostic modalities and treatment options are discussed in the case report. (author)

2011-01-01

317

Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts  

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A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

1984-12-01

318

Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention. (orig.)

1984-01-01

319

Dermoid cyst: A rare intramedullary inclusion cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intramedullary dermoid cysts are rare tumors, especially those not associated with spinal dysraphism. Only six cases have been reported in the literature. Of these, only two cases have had magnetic resonance imaging studies. We report a case of an 18-year-old female patient, who presented with progressive weakness of both the lower limbs and wasting of both the upper limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intramedullary lesion extending from C3 to D2 with peripheral enhancement on contrast. Decompression of the cystic contents with partial removal of cyst wall was done. Hair with oily cholesterol and keratin debris was encountered. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst. This case adds to the previous reported cases of the rare and uncommon intramedullary space occupying lesions of the spinal cord. PMID:22870157

Patankar, A P; Sheth, J H

2012-04-01

320

Dermoid cyst: A rare intramedullary inclusion cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intramedullary dermoid cysts are rare tumors, especially those not associated with spinal dysraphism. Only six cases have been reported in the literature. Of these, only two cases have had magnetic resonance imaging studies. We report a case of an 18-year-old female patient, who presented with progressive weakness of both the lower limbs and wasting of both the upper limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intramedullary lesion extending from C3 to D2 with peripheral enhancement on contrast. Decompression of the cystic contents with partial removal of cyst wall was done. Hair with oily cholesterol and keratin debris was encountered. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst. This case adds to the previous reported cases of the rare and uncommon intramedullary space occupying lesions of the spinal cord.

Patankar AP; Sheth JH

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Detection of Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in ready-to-eat packaged leafy greens in Ontario, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous foodborne outbreaks of diarrheal illness associated with the consumption of produce contaminated with protozoan parasites have been reported in North America in recent years. The present study reports on the presence of Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in precut salads and leafy greens purchased at retail in Ontario, Canada. A total of 544 retail samples were collected between April 2009 and March 2010 and included a variety of salad blends and individual leafy greens. Most of these products were grown in the United States, with some from Canada and Mexico. Parasites were eluted and concentrated before detection by PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy. DNA sequences were aligned with reference sequences in GenBank. Cyclospora spp. were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in nine (1.7 % ) samples and by DNA sequence analysis. Cryptosporidium spp. were identified in 32 (5.9%) samples; 29 were sequenced and aligned with the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis was identified in 10 (1.8%) samples, and of the 9 samples successfully sequenced, 7 aligned with G. duodenalis assemblage B and 2 with assemblage A, both of which are also zoonotic. The presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was confirmed in some of the PCR-positive samples using microscopy, while Cyclospora -like oocysts were observed in most of the Cyclospora PCR-positive samples. The relatively high prevalence of these parasites in packaged salads and leafy greens establishes a baseline for further studies and suggests a need for additional research with respect to the possible sources of contamination of these foods, the determination of parasite viability and virulence, and means to reduce foodborne transmission to humans.

Dixon B; Parrington L; Cook A; Pollari F; Farber J

2013-02-01

322

Detection of Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in ready-to-eat packaged leafy greens in Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous foodborne outbreaks of diarrheal illness associated with the consumption of produce contaminated with protozoan parasites have been reported in North America in recent years. The present study reports on the presence of Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in precut salads and leafy greens purchased at retail in Ontario, Canada. A total of 544 retail samples were collected between April 2009 and March 2010 and included a variety of salad blends and individual leafy greens. Most of these products were grown in the United States, with some from Canada and Mexico. Parasites were eluted and concentrated before detection by PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy. DNA sequences were aligned with reference sequences in GenBank. Cyclospora spp. were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in nine (1.7 % ) samples and by DNA sequence analysis. Cryptosporidium spp. were identified in 32 (5.9%) samples; 29 were sequenced and aligned with the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis was identified in 10 (1.8%) samples, and of the 9 samples successfully sequenced, 7 aligned with G. duodenalis assemblage B and 2 with assemblage A, both of which are also zoonotic. The presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was confirmed in some of the PCR-positive samples using microscopy, while Cyclospora -like oocysts were observed in most of the Cyclospora PCR-positive samples. The relatively high prevalence of these parasites in packaged salads and leafy greens establishes a baseline for further studies and suggests a need for additional research with respect to the possible sources of contamination of these foods, the determination of parasite viability and virulence, and means to reduce foodborne transmission to humans. PMID:23433379

Dixon, Brent; Parrington, Lorna; Cook, Angela; Pollari, Frank; Farber, Jeffrey

2013-02-01

323

Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature. Here we report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with an infra-umbilical mass that turned out to be tuberculosis of the urachal cyst.

Jindal T; Kamal MR; Jha JK

2013-01-01

324

Congenital intrascleral cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Müslime Akbaba1, Gülhan?m Hac?yakupo?lu2, Aysun U?uz3, Safak Karsl?o?lu1, Zeynel Karc?o?lu41?stanbul Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery and Ocular Oncology Center, Šišli/?stanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Ophthalmology of Faculty Medicine, Çukurova University, Balcali/Adana, Turkey; 3Department of Pathology of Faculty Medicine, Çukurova University, Balcali/Adana, Turkey; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlotte, NC, USAAbstract: Congenital intrascleral cysts are rare. They are mostly located at the limbus with corneal involvement. We report a case of a 30-month-old boy with a bulber conjunctival cyst noticed at birth. The lesion enlarged over the following months but did not involve the cornea. During surgery the cyst proved to be intrascleral and a complete excision was carried out. The remaining defect was repaired with banked fascia lata. The histopathology revealed a scleral cyst wall lined by nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium with no goblet cells. We conclude that congenital intrascleral epithelial cysts are rare but should be considered in differential diagnosis of external eye cystic lesions. In our case, early excision and repair with fascia lata led to an uncomplicated postoperative course of 6 years.Keywords: intrascleral cyst, epthelial cyst, banked fascia lata

Akbaba M; Hac?yakupo?lu G; U?uz A; Karsl?o?lu ?; Karc?o?lu ZA

2011-01-01

325

Evaluation of a Screening Test for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Parasites ?  

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The Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek test (TechLab, Inc.), a screening test for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was evaluated with 136 fecal samples. Using the results of the Giardia II test and Cryptosporidium II test as gold standards, it was 98.4% sensitive and 100% specific and had positive and negativ...

Youn, Sojin; Kabir, Mamun; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

326

Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ?5?years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children.

Bello J; Núñez FA; González OM; Fernández R; Almirall P; Escobedo AA

2011-01-01

327

Primary mastoid cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual case of a primary mastoid cyst (congenital or developmental) in a patient without otological symptoms. METHOD: Case report and review of the English language literature. RESULTS: Primary mastoid cyst is a newly reported and very rare pathological entity. Mastoid cysts usually occur secondary to chronic infection, inflammation or trauma. Review of the medical literature highlights the rarity of this condition. CONCLUSION: This report describes the experience gained by the diagnosis and management of this patient. It emphasises the importance of clinical vigilance so that proper treatment may be instituted in a timely manner.

Tan CY; Chong S; Shaw CK

2013-07-01

328

[Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bronchogenic cysts are benign lesions, which are usually described at the chest level. We present here a case report of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst. A 77-year-old man presented with a left retroperitoneal tumor discovered by scanner. There was no endocrine disruption. Excision of the lesion was performed and final diagnosis was a bronchogenic cyst. Current widespread use of modern radiology enables increased discovery of such "incidentalomes". In the future, pathologists will be routinely faced with this type of diagnosis, which up to now has been described as exceptional.

Piton N; Gobet F; Werquin C; Landréat A; Lefebvre H; Pfister C; Sabourin JC

2012-08-01

329

Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, the variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast (more) doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

Melo, Sandra P; Gómez, Vanessa; Castellanos, Isabel C; Alvarado, Magda E; Hernández, Paula C; Gallego, Amanda; Wasserman, Moisés

2008-06-01

330

Branchial cleft cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

Cleft sinus ... Branchial cleft cysts form during development of the embryo . They occur when tissues in the neck and collarbone area (branchial cleft) fail to develop normally. The birth defect may ...

331

Nasopalatine duct cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Nasopalatine duct cyst is a developmental, nonodontogenic cyst of jaw. Case report. We presented a 46-year-old male with nasopalatine duct cyst. The clinical examination revealed fluctuant swellings of the anterior palate, without pain, 4?5 cm in diametar. Both radiographs showed the presence of an ovoid radiolucency located in the midline of the maxilla between the roots of central maxillary incisor teeth with peripheral sclerosis, 25 × 35 cm in diametar. Surgical treatment was performed under local anaesthesia (ArticainchloridumTM 4% ? 3M ESPE) using a palatine approach. Postoperatively, no paresthesia of the anterior palate in inervation area of nasopalatine nerve was registrated. Pathohistologic findings proved both clinical and radiological diagnosis. Conclusion. Nasopalatine duct cyst is a rare lesion which slowly develops. The diagnosis is mainly based on radiography, tooth vitality testing and histologic findings. After a correctly applied clinical diagnosis procedure and surgicel treatment, recurrence is rare.

Matijevi? Stevo; Gazivoda Dragan; Marjanovi? Marjan; Udovi?i? Božidar

2007-01-01

332

[Adamantinoma from odontogenic cysts  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The observation of an adamantinoma's case propped up an odontogenic cyst to check the complicated histogenic problem connected to this eventuality. After considering several theories they suppose a probable derivation from the odontogenic epithelium that has undoubted potentiality.

Burruano F; Tortorici S; Giuliana G; Rodolico V; Agate V

1991-04-01

333

[Nonparasitic splenic cyst  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nonparasitic splenic cysts are a disease of very low incidence, although the availability of ecography and the indication of the preservative treatment of the splenic traumas are becoming it less infrequent. We report our experience with 6 patients, 4 girls and 2 boys, between 9- and 14-years-old. The reason was attended: 4 had abdominal pain, one of them underwent a traumatism and the other one was an accidental finding. The ultrasound gave us the diagnosis in all patients. The CT (computer tomography) and MR (magnetic resonance) added a few interesting details. All of them were operated, 4 with laparotomy and 2 with laparoscopy that we turned to laparotomy, one of them by suspicion of large hidatidic cyst and the other one by external aspect of solid tumour. The histological results were 4 epidermoid cysts, a simple cyst and a lymphangioma. After our experience we considered that ecography is a sufficient diagnosis method, like surgical treatment, the access and the technique vary according to the location of the cyst, the amount of splenic parenchyma around it and their macroscopic characteristics. The more superficial cysts, less wall thickness and location polar have the indication of laparoscopic partial decapsulation.

Blesa Sánchez E; Ayuso Velasco R; Enríquez Zarabozo EM

2009-01-01

334

Large median palatine cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Median palatine cyst is a rare fissural cyst of nonodontogenic origin located in the midline of the hard palate, posterior to the palatine papilla. Only 21 cases have been reported in the literature, and documented here is a median palatine cyst of the largest dimension thus far.A 14-year-old male patient presented with a 5 × 5-cm(3) mass distal to the palatine papilla of 5 years' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 5.3 × 4.6 × 4.2-cm(3) cystic mass involving the midline of the hard palate. Complete enucleation of the cyst was performed with no recurrence, but an oronasal fistula developed 13 months postoperatively. A 1 × 4-cm(2) posteriorly based oral mucoperiosteal rotational flap was designed, raised, and transposed to reconstruct the palate. The oral mucoperiosteal flap was viable, and no sign of fistula was found 3 years postoperatively.Treatment of medial palatine cysts through enucleation is known to be relatively simple and curative. However, large lesions may lead to large defects that require a method of reconstruction and may also elicit bony defects in the hard palate, leading to an increase in postoperative complications such as oronasal fistulas.We report our experience of a large median palatine cyst, the largest documented to date, with a brief review of the literature.

Kim SW; Seo BF; Baek SO; Jung SN

2012-07-01

335

Recent advances in choledochal cysts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Choledochal cysts are a congenital anomaly, and they show dilatation of the intra- or extrahepatic biliary tree. These cysts are uncommon in Western countries, but are not rare in Asian countries. Choledochal cysts are classified into five groups based on location or shape of the cysts. Types I and IV-A cysts are the most common types, which are associated with anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ), but other cysts are not associated with APBJ. Types I and IV-A cysts appear to belong to a different category from other cysts embryologically. Type I and IV-A cysts accompany anomalies of the pancreas. Type I and IV-A cysts might occur when left ventral anlage persists, and with disturbed recanalization of the common bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is the gold standard for detecting APBJ, but it is an invasive procedure. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging tool for detecting pancreatic and biliary trees. MRCP is the first-choice modality for diagnosing choledochal cysts and APBJ in pediatric patients. Cystoenterostomy is been performed because of high complication and mortality rates. Complete excision of the cysts with Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy is a standard procedure for choledochal cysts to prevent postoperative complications, including development of cancer. In this study, we review classification, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of types I and IV-A choledochal cysts.

Hiroyuki Tadokoro; Masaru Takase

2012-01-01

336

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., spatial clustering and patterns of shedding in dairy calves from Córdoba, Argentina/ Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., distribuição espacial e padrões de eliminação em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., a presença de aglomerados, a distribuição espacial de acordo com o tipo de solo e padrões de eliminação de cistos e oocistos em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina. Amostras fecais foram colhidas de 620 bezerros com menos de sete semanas de idade, provenientes de 43 propriedades leiteiras e examinadas pelas técnicas de formol-éter e Ziehl-Neelsen (more) modificada. Foram realizadas uma análise univariada e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e, em seguida, uma análise multivariada com a intensidade de eliminação de cistos e oocistos, como um evento. A presença de aglomerados foi determinada com o método de varredura e a análise espacial foi realizada para explorar a sobreposição de rebanhos com alta prevalência e tipo de solo. A prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foi de 19,35% (IC 95%: 16,14; 22,54) e 34,50% (IC 95%: 30,69; 38,34), respectivamente. A probabilidade de infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. foi quase quatro vezes maior para bezerros com menos de 2 semanas em comparação com os bezerros mais velhos (RR: 3,78, IC 95% 2,27; 6,26). O mesmo padrão de infecção relacionada à idade foi observado para Giardia spp. (RR: 1,33, IC 95% 1,02; 1,75). Foi encontrado um aglomerado primário com alta prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp., e rebanhos com alta prevalência foram localizados em solos mal drenados. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to estimate calf and herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., the herd prevalence clustering, spatial distribution according to soil type and shedding patterns in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina. Six hundred twenty calves younger than 7 weeks of age from 43 dairy herds were sampled. Samples were processed with the formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Univariate analysis and Kruskall-Wallis tests were u (more) sed. Factors associated were subjected to multivariate analysis with calf shedding intensity as the response variable. Clustering of herd prevalence was assessed by a scan method, and spatial analysis was applied to explore the overlapping of high prevalence herds and soil type. Overall calf prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were 19.35% (95% CI: 16.14; 22.54) and 34.50% (95% CI: 30.69; 38.34), respectively. Calves younger than two weeks of age were almost four times more likely to be infected with Cryptosporidium, in comparison to older ones (RR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.27; 6.26). Giardia spp. shedding showed a similar age pattern (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.75). A primary cluster of high Cryptosporidium prevalence was found, and high prevalence herds were located in areas with poor drained soil.

Tiranti, Karina; Larriestra, Alejandro; Vissio, Claudina; Picco, Natalia; Alustiza, Fabrisio; Degioanni, Americo; Vivas, Adriana

2011-06-01

337

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., spatial clustering and patterns of shedding in dairy calves from Córdoba, Argentina Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., distribuição espacial e padrões de eliminação em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate calf and herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., the herd prevalence clustering, spatial distribution according to soil type and shedding patterns in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina. Six hundred twenty calves younger than 7 weeks of age from 43 dairy herds were sampled. Samples were processed with the formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Univariate analysis and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used. Factors associated were subjected to multivariate analysis with calf shedding intensity as the response variable. Clustering of herd prevalence was assessed by a scan method, and spatial analysis was applied to explore the overlapping of high prevalence herds and soil type. Overall calf prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were 19.35% (95% CI: 16.14; 22.54) and 34.50% (95% CI: 30.69; 38.34), respectively. Calves younger than two weeks of age were almost four times more likely to be infected with Cryptosporidium, in comparison to older ones (RR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.27; 6.26). Giardia spp. shedding showed a similar age pattern (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.75). A primary cluster of high Cryptosporidium prevalence was found, and high prevalence herds were located in areas with poor drained soil.Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., a presença de aglomerados, a distribuição espacial de acordo com o tipo de solo e padrões de eliminação de cistos e oocistos em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina. Amostras fecais foram colhidas de 620 bezerros com menos de sete semanas de idade, provenientes de 43 propriedades leiteiras e examinadas pelas técnicas de formol-éter e Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Foram realizadas uma análise univariada e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e, em seguida, uma análise multivariada com a intensidade de eliminação de cistos e oocistos, como um evento. A presença de aglomerados foi determinada com o método de varredura e a análise espacial foi realizada para explorar a sobreposição de rebanhos com alta prevalência e tipo de solo. A prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foi de 19,35% (IC 95%: 16,14; 22,54) e 34,50% (IC 95%: 30,69; 38,34), respectivamente. A probabilidade de infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. foi quase quatro vezes maior para bezerros com menos de 2 semanas em comparação com os bezerros mais velhos (RR: 3,78, IC 95% 2,27; 6,26). O mesmo padrão de infecção relacionada à idade foi observado para Giardia spp. (RR: 1,33, IC 95% 1,02; 1,75). Foi encontrado um aglomerado primário com alta prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp., e rebanhos com alta prevalência foram localizados em solos mal drenados.

Karina Tiranti; Alejandro Larriestra; Claudina Vissio; Natalia Picco; Fabrisio Alustiza; Americo Degioanni; Adriana Vivas

2011-01-01

338

Evaluation of ColorPAC Giardia/Cryptosporidium Rapid Assay and ProSpecT Giardia/Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Fecal Specimens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in clinical stool specimens using the ColorPAC and ProSpecT enzyme immunoassays revealed 98.7% agreement for Giardia detection and 98.1% agreement for Cryptosporidium detection. Sensitivities were uniformly 100%. The specificities of the ColorPAC immunoassay ...

Katanik, M. T.; Schneider, S. K.; Rosenblatt, J. E.; Hall, G. S.; Procop, G. W.

339

The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O2#sm_bullet#-) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SORGi) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (Tfinal) with Fe3+ ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pKa = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SORGi reacts with O2#sm_bullet#- with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k1 = 1.0 x 109 M-1 s-1 and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T1; this in turn rapidly decays to the Tfinal state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SORGi is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

2011-10-15

340

Cyst and encystment in protozoan parasites: optimal targets for new life-cycle interrupting strategies?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Certain protozoan parasites use survival strategies to reside outside the host such as the formation of cysts. This dormant and resistant stage results from the complex process of encystment that involves diverse molecular and cellular modifications. The stimuli and changes associated with cyst biogenesis are a matter of ongoing studies in human and animal protozoan parasites such as amoeba and Giardia species because blocking every step in the encystment pathway should, in theory, interrupt their life cycles. The present review thoroughly examines this essential process in those protozoan parasites and discusses the possibility of using that information to develop new kinds of anti-parasite specific and life cycle-interrupting drugs, aimed at holding back the dissemination of these infections.

Aguilar-Díaz H; Carrero JC; Argüello-García R; Laclette JP; Morales-Montor J

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

[Epididymal cysts in childhood].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively review all cases of epididymal cysts registered over the last five years; 15 cases have been included. Simple epididymal cysts are a rare pathology in childhood, being most of them diagnosed in puberty. Currently, due to the scarce case series, there is not consensus about the most adequate therapy. METHODS/RESULTS: Mean age at presentation was 11.5 yr. (1-16). 50% were diagnosed incidentally and 29% presented increased scrotal size. 46% of the cases had associated left varicocele (n = 6) and 26% had history of orchiepididymitis. Diagnosis was based on physical examination and confirmed by ultrasound. 40% of the patients underwent surgery and the remainder received conservative treatment without evidence of complications on follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the benign character and good evolution of all cases of epididymal cysts treated conservatively and the absence of benefit after surgical treatment, we believe that management should be conservative with clinical and ultrasound controls, leaving surgery for cysts with complications. The frequent association between epididymal cysts and varicocele is related to coincidence of both pathologies in the prepuberal age.

Chillón Sempere FS; Domínguez Hinarejos C; Serrano Durbá A; Estornell Moragues F; Martínez-Verduch M; García Ibarra F

2005-05-01

342

Ovarian chocolate cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p

1988-01-01

343

Suprasellar xanthomatous Rathke's cleft cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of a symptomatic suprasellar Rathke's cleft cyst in a 35-year-old woman is presented. The cyst wall and contents showed large collections of xanthomatous cells. With the exception of a few pituitary hormone-positive cells, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of the lining epithelium in this case of Rathke's cleft cyst were indistinguishable from colloid cysts of the third ventricle with similar secondary changes.

Wolfsohn AL; Lach B; Benoit BG

1992-08-01

344

Monozoic cysts of Hepatozoon canis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Small monozoic cysts found in the spleen of dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis are described from naturally and experimentally infected dogs. These forms of H. canis resemble cysts formed by other Hepatozoon species that infect frogs, lizards, and grey squirrels as intermediate hosts. The H. canis cyst stage differs in size and morphology from the large cysts of H. americanum, the second Hepatozoon species known to infect dogs.

Baneth G; Shkap V

2003-04-01

345

Monozoic cysts of Hepatozoon canis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small monozoic cysts found in the spleen of dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis are described from naturally and experimentally infected dogs. These forms of H. canis resemble cysts formed by other Hepatozoon species that infect frogs, lizards, and grey squirrels as intermediate hosts. The H. canis cyst stage differs in size and morphology from the large cysts of H. americanum, the second Hepatozoon species known to infect dogs. PMID:12760658

Baneth, Gad; Shkap, Varda

2003-04-01

346

Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Papillary Carcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thyroglossal duct cysts are usually located in the midline of the neck. The coexistence of carcinomas in thyroglossal duct cysts is extremely rare, with most being papillary carcinomas. Usually, the diagnosis is only made postoperatively after excision of the cyst. Although the Sistrunk procedure is...

Balalaa, N.; Megahed, M.; Ashari, M. Al; Branicki, F.

347

Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal cysts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Historically meniscal cysts have been treated with either an open total menisectomy, isolated cyst excision, or a combination of the two procedures. The advent of arthroscopic techniques has led to innovative treatment options for meniscal cyst management. A review of meniscal cysts and the results of arthroscopic treatment form the basis of this study. From 1986 to 1991, 18 patients with meniscal cysts were treated by arthroscopic cyst decompression. Thirteen men and five women comprised the study group and had an average age of 28 years. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 60 months (average 26). Eight of the cysts were medial and 10 were lateral. A horizontal cleavage tear was noted in all cases, and 15 partial and three subtotal menisectomies were performed in conjunction with an intraarticular cyst decompression. There have been no recurrences to date, and all patients returned to their previous level of activity. Parameniscal cysts may result from synovial fluid tracking through a horizontal cleavage tear. Successful treatment of the meniscal cyst must include appropriate management of the torn meniscus, which can be entirely arthroscopic, consisting of a partial or subtotal meniscectomy, identification of the cyst opening, and cyst decompression.

Ryu RK; Ting AJ

1993-01-01

348

Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically meniscal cysts have been treated with either an open total menisectomy, isolated cyst excision, or a combination of the two procedures. The advent of arthroscopic techniques has led to innovative treatment options for meniscal cyst management. A review of meniscal cysts and the results of arthroscopic treatment form the basis of this study. From 1986 to 1991, 18 patients with meniscal cysts were treated by arthroscopic cyst decompression. Thirteen men and five women comprised the study group and had an average age of 28 years. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 60 months (average 26). Eight of the cysts were medial and 10 were lateral. A horizontal cleavage tear was noted in all cases, and 15 partial and three subtotal menisectomies were performed in conjunction with an intraarticular cyst decompression. There have been no recurrences to date, and all patients returned to their previous level of activity. Parameniscal cysts may result from synovial fluid tracking through a horizontal cleavage tear. Successful treatment of the meniscal cyst must include appropriate management of the torn meniscus, which can be entirely arthroscopic, consisting of a partial or subtotal meniscectomy, identification of the cyst opening, and cyst decompression. PMID:8280334

Ryu, R K; Ting, A J

1993-01-01

349

Mesenteric cyst: Report of case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mesenteric cyst is considered one of the rarest type of abdominal tumor. We have experienced unusual case of large mesenteric cyst arising from jejunum in a 10 years old body. Computed tomography disclosed cystic intraabdominal mesenteric mass with attenuated coefficiency +3 - +11 Houndsfield units (HU). Pathologically it was confirmed to be benign mesenteric cyst.

Choi, Kyung Hee; Lee, Young Sik; Suh, Jeong Soo; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seup [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1984-09-15

350

A traumatic corneoscleral epithelial cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a case of a patient with a corneoscleral epithelial cyst originating from a traumatic scleral rupture. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) were used to diagnose this rare condition. A lamellar corneoscleral graft was performed with histopathological examination of the excised cyst. The treatment of corneoscleral epithelial cysts is discussed.

Liang Q; Sun X; Jing X; Lü L; Labbé A; Pan Z

2013-10-01

351

Epiglottic cyst cutter  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a clipper for cyst of epiglottis, which comprises a forcipiform handle, a bushing, a silk cord and a shear blade. Wherein, the forcipiform handle is linked with the bushing the silk cord positioned inside the bushing is connected with upper end of the forcipiform handle, whose another end is connected ton the moveable shear blade through a moveable pivot a fixed shear blade is connected to the bushing and corresponds to the moveable shear blade. With the structure as above, the utility model, when the cyst of epiglottis is adhibited with secretion, can cut the cyst by utilizing the sharp shear blade at the knife edge, so as to avoid to tear off the die sticking and easily clean the glutinous secretion.

YUAN JUNCANG; LU HONGBO; CHU XIUYING

352

Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (mycotic cyst).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phaeohyphomycosis designates fungal infections caused by pheoid or melanized fungi and characterized histopathologically by the presence of septate hyphae, pseudohyphae, and yeasts. Etiologic agents include Exophiala, Phoma, Bipolaris, Phialophora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Alternaria, Exserohilum, and Phialemonium sp. The most common are Exophiala jeanselmei and Wangiella dermatitidis. The clinical presentation depends on the immune status of the host: superficial (tinea nigra and black piedra); cutaneous (scytalidiosis) and corneal; subcutaneous (mycotic cyst); and systemic phaeohyphomycosis in the immunocompromised host. The mycotic cyst is a localized form, characterized by subcutaneous asymptomatic nodular lesions that develop after traumatic implantation of fungi, especially on the extremities. The average size of the cysts is 2.5 cm. KOH examination reveals pigmented yeasts, pseudohyphae, and hyphae. A cutaneous biopsy specimen usually shows an abscess or a suppurative granuloma with pigmented yeasts and pseudohyphae. The treatment of choice is surgical excision, but additional anti-fungal therapy is recommended for recurrent cases and immunocompromised patients. PMID:22682192

Isa-Isa, Rafael; García, Carlos; Isa, Mariel; Arenas, Roberto

353

Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (mycotic cyst).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phaeohyphomycosis designates fungal infections caused by pheoid or melanized fungi and characterized histopathologically by the presence of septate hyphae, pseudohyphae, and yeasts. Etiologic agents include Exophiala, Phoma, Bipolaris, Phialophora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Alternaria, Exserohilum, and Phialemonium sp. The most common are Exophiala jeanselmei and Wangiella dermatitidis. The clinical presentation depends on the immune status of the host: superficial (tinea nigra and black piedra); cutaneous (scytalidiosis) and corneal; subcutaneous (mycotic cyst); and systemic phaeohyphomycosis in the immunocompromised host. The mycotic cyst is a localized form, characterized by subcutaneous asymptomatic nodular lesions that develop after traumatic implantation of fungi, especially on the extremities. The average size of the cysts is 2.5 cm. KOH examination reveals pigmented yeasts, pseudohyphae, and hyphae. A cutaneous biopsy specimen usually shows an abscess or a suppurative granuloma with pigmented yeasts and pseudohyphae. The treatment of choice is surgical excision, but additional anti-fungal therapy is recommended for recurrent cases and immunocompromised patients.

Isa-Isa R; García C; Isa M; Arenas R

2012-07-01

354

[Stromal iris cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 50-year-old female developed a cyst of the iris stroma in her right eye. Because of slight enlargement within 10 weeks sector iridectomy was performed. Histology showed that the cyst was lined by a cellular layer resembling conjunctival or corneal epithelium. The benign clinical course (normal function, normal intraocular pressure and no recurrence after 4 years) and the intrastromal rather than epistromal localization hold evidence for a spontaneous origin. Spontaneous cysts of the iris stroma especially in adults are rarely described in the literature. The question still to be answered is whether these lesions are really spontaneous in origin or whether they represent only an intraocular epithelial invasion due to an occult perforation of the eye. PMID:8231047

Rohrbach, J M; Steuhl, K P; Erb, C

1993-08-01

355

[Stromal iris cyst  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 50-year-old female developed a cyst of the iris stroma in her right eye. Because of slight enlargement within 10 weeks sector iridectomy was performed. Histology showed that the cyst was lined by a cellular layer resembling conjunctival or corneal epithelium. The benign clinical course (normal function, normal intraocular pressure and no recurrence after 4 years) and the intrastromal rather than epistromal localization hold evidence for a spontaneous origin. Spontaneous cysts of the iris stroma especially in adults are rarely described in the literature. The question still to be answered is whether these lesions are really spontaneous in origin or whether they represent only an intraocular epithelial invasion due to an occult perforation of the eye.

Rohrbach JM; Steuhl KP; Erb C

1993-08-01

356

[Ovarian cysts in childhood  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It's perform a descriptive study about a series of events with the purpose of discover the own characteristics of ovarian cysts and which characteristics determine its treatment. In the 41 patients (10 newborn, 14 prepubertal females and 17 post-menarchal females) we analyzed their symptoms, pathological findings, ecographics details, treatment, diagnostic and follow-up. The predominant symptom has been the abdominal pain (18 patients). In 8 newborn the cyst was find before born by prenatal sonography. The cyst was palped like abdominal mass in 22 patients and it was like a picture of acute abdomen in 11. It was found in the right ovary in 24 patients and bilaterally in 7. By pelvic ultrasonography was observed a superior size of 5 cm of diameter in 28 occasions, in 17 there were imagine of complex and in 3 there were hemorrhagic. In 16 patients the suspicion diagnostic was of torsion and in 5 of appendicitis. The torsion was confirmed in 11. In 16 patients it was a follicular cyst, in 9 was a dermoidal and in 9 hemorrhagic. Was realized a surgical treatment (cystectomy or ooforectomy in 36 girls, in 4 was realized a puncture and evacuation (bigger of 5 cm with clear liquid) and in 7 was hope the spontaneous evolution (clear liquid and infer size of 5 cm). There were not relapses. The clinic manifestations are presents with own characteristics depending of the cyst affected to newborn, premenarchal or menarchal females. The indications of surgery are: symptoms which are not resolved after a observation time (24-49 hours) and cysts of big volume associated a complications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Jiménez Alvarez C; Núñez Núñez R; Cabrera R; Ruiz Montes AM; Blesa Sánchez E

1995-07-01

357

Abdominal neurenteric cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neurenteric cysts are extremely rare congenital anomalies, often presenting in the first 5 years of life, and are caused by an incomplete separation of the notochord from the foregut during the third week of embryogenesis. They are frequently accompanied with spinal or gastrointestinal abnormalities, but the latter may be absent in adults. Although usually located in the thorax, neurenteric cysts may be found along the entire spine. We present a 24-year-old woman admitted for epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, low grade fever and leucocytosis. She underwent cystogastrostomy for a loculated cyst of the distal pancreas at the age of 4 years, which recurred when she was at the age of 11 years. Ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) scan revealed a 16 cm × 15 cm cystic mass in the body and tail of pancreas, with a 6-7 mm thickened wall. Laboratory data and chest X-ray were normal and spinal radiographs did not show any structural abnormalities. The patient underwent a complete cyst excision, and after an uneventful recovery, remained symptom-free without recurrence during the 5-year follow-up. The cyst was found to contain 1200 mL of pale viscous fluid. It was covered by a primitive single-layered cuboidal epithelium, along with specialized antral glandular parenchyma and hypoplastic primitive gastric mucosa. Focal glandular groups resembling those of the body of the stomach were also seen. In addition, ciliary respiratory epithelium, foci of squamous metaplasia and mucinous glands were present. The wall of the cyst contained a muscular layer, neuroglial tissue with plexogenic nerve fascicles, Paccini corpuscle-like structures, hyperplastic neuro ganglionar elements and occasional psammomatous bodies, as well as fibroblast-like areas of surrounding stroma. Cartilagenous tissue was not found in any part of the cyst. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of neurogenic elements marked by S-100, GFAP, NF and NSE. The gastric epithelium showed mostly CK7 and EMA immunoexpression, and the respiratory epithelium revealed a CK8 and CK18 immunoprofile without CK 10/13 positive elements, though neither CEA or AFP positive cells were found. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an abdominally located neurenteric cyst with no associated spinal anomalies.

Radoje Colovi?, Marjan Micev, Miodrag Jovanovi?, Slavko Mati?, Nikica Grubor, Henry Dushan E Atkinson

2008-01-01

358

[Multilocular thymic cyst  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a case of multilocular thymic cyst with severe acute inflammation. A 23-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a sudden onset of chest pain and high fever. A computed tomography scan showed multilocular cystic lesion at anterior mediastinum. We resected the tumor with the thymus by median sternotomy. Macroscopically, the mediastinal mass showed thick-walled multiloculated cavities filled with turbid yellow fluid. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was a multilocular thymic cyst which is reported by Suster.

Saito Y; Uragami T; Satake A; Yamakawa Y; Kasugai T

2009-03-01

359

[Multilocular thymic cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a case of multilocular thymic cyst with severe acute inflammation. A 23-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a sudden onset of chest pain and high fever. A computed tomography scan showed multilocular cystic lesion at anterior mediastinum. We resected the tumor with the thymus by median sternotomy. Macroscopically, the mediastinal mass showed thick-walled multiloculated cavities filled with turbid yellow fluid. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was a multilocular thymic cyst which is reported by Suster. PMID:19280956

Saito, Y; Uragami, T; Satake, A; Yamakawa, Y; Kasugai, T

2009-03-01

360

Intrarenal epidermoid cyst  

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Epidermoid cyst is a very unusual cause of renal mass. Only two cases have been reported in the English or French literature. We have encountered this entity in a 4-year-old Haitian boy investigated for urinary frequency. This diagnosis must be included in the differential of coarse calcified intrarenal masses. (orig.).

Duprat, G. Jr.; Filiatrault, D.; Michaud, J.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

CHOLEDOCHAL CYST – CASE REPORT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The choledochal cyst (CC) is a rare condition involving the biliary tree, characterized by saccular dilation. The complications of the disease, mainlly the malignant change, justify the interest of the authors. We present the case of a male patient (GA, 58 years), that was admitted presenting right upper quadrant and epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting. The abdominal ultrasonography suspected the diagnosis of empyema of the gallbladder. The laparoscopic exploration showed great dilation of the main bile duct. A transcystic cholangiography was performed, and revealed a choledochal cyst Todani IV A (extra-hepatic and intra-hepatic cysts). Considering the risks of the intervention and the poor general status of the patient, we only performed the laparoscopic cholecystectomy; during the intervention, one aberrant bile duct was isolated and clipped. After the first operation, bile leakage was noted through the subhepatic drain, and therefore a exploratory laparotomy was performed. The source of the biliary fistula proved to be the aberrant bile duct, which was ligated. A complete resection of the extrahepatic bile duct was also performed, followed by a hepaticojejunostomy. In the presented case, the choledochal cyst remained undiagosed untill adulthood, with vague symptomes, and was revealed by the intraoperative laparoscopic cholangiography. The surgical cure was recomended, with complete resection of the extra-hepatic bile duct, followed by a standard end-to-side hepaticojejunostomy with a Roux-en-Y loop.

D. Moga; V. Me?teru; A. Popen?iu; Dorelia Maican; H. Magdu

2007-01-01

362

Rathke's cleft cysts.  

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Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs) are benign, sellar and/or suprasellar lesions originating from the remnants of Rathke's pouch. Although a common finding in routine autopsies (12-33% of normal pituitary glands), symptomatic cases are rare and comprise 5-15% of all surgically resected sellar lesions. Smal...

Trifanescu, R; Ansorge, O; Wass, JA; Grossman, AB; Karavitaki, N

363

Treated unicameral bone cysts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course.

Weinman J; Servaes S; Anupindi SA

2013-06-01

364

Radiolucent intracranial dermoid cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An intracranial dermoid cyst presenting as a radiolucent mass on the plain radiographs of the skull is described. (orig.)[de] Es wird eine intrakraniale Dermoidzyste beschrieben, die als roentgentransparente Masse im flachen Roentgenbild des Schaedels zu erkennen ist. (orig.)

1979-01-01

365

Nasal dermoid sinus cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.

Cauchois R; Laccourreye O; Bremond D; Testud R; Küffer R; Monteil JP

1994-08-01

366

Odonto calcifying cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO) may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%). The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5%) was a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque