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1

Immunofluorescence and morphology of Giardia lamblia cysts exposed to chlorine.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia cyst-like objects detected by immunofluorescence in chlorinated water samples often cannot be positively identified by their morphological appearance. To determine the effect of chlorine on cyst immunofluorescence and morphology, Giardia lamblia cysts were exposed to chlorine for 48 h. The majority of cysts exposed to chlorine concentrations of 1 to 11 mg/liter at 5 and 15 degrees C lost their internal morphological characteristics necessary for identification, but most of them were s...

Sauch, J. F.; Berman, D.

1991-01-01

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Effect of Chlorine on Giardia lamblia Cyst Viability  

OpenAIRE

The effect of chlorine concentration on Giardia lamblia cyst viability was tested under a variety of conditions. The ability of Giardia cysts to undergo excystation was used as the criterion of viability. The experimental variables employed included temperature (25, 15, and 5°C), pH (6, 7, and 8), chlorine-cyst contact time (10, 30, and 60 min), and chlorine concentration (1 to 8 mg/liter). In the pH range studied, cyst survival generally was observed to increase as buffer pH increased. Wate...

Jarroll, Edward L.; Bingham, Alan K.; Meyer, Ernest A.

1981-01-01

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A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metab...

Widmer Giovanni; Faghiri Zahra

2011-01-01

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EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF MONGREL DOGS WITH 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' CYSTS AND CULTURED TROPHOZOITES  

Science.gov (United States)

In light of recent epidemiologic data implicating wild and domestic animals in the transmission of giardiasis, a study was undertaken to determine whether mongrel dogs could be infected with Giardia lamblia. After careful screening by stool examination (a minimum of six stools ex...

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Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid and sensitive detection of waterborne pathogens in drinkable and recreational water sources is crucial for treating and preventing the spread of water related diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we present a field-portable and cost-effective platform for detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts, one of the most common waterborne parasites, which has a thick cell wall that makes it resistant to most water disinfection techniques including chlorination. The platform consists of a smartphone coupled with an opto-mechanical attachment weighing ~205 g, which utilizes a hand-held fluorescence microscope design aligned with the camera unit of the smartphone to image custom-designed disposable water sample cassettes. Each sample cassette is composed of absorbent pads and mechanical filter membranes; a membrane with 8 ?m pore size is used as a porous spacing layer to prevent the backflow of particles to the upper membrane, while the top membrane with 5 ?m pore size is used to capture the individual Giardia cysts that are fluorescently labeled. A fluorescence image of the filter surface (field-of-view: ~0.8 cm(2)) is captured and wirelessly transmitted via the mobile-phone to our servers for rapid processing using a machine learning algorithm that is trained on statistical features of Giardia cysts to automatically detect and count the cysts captured on the membrane. The results are then transmitted back to the mobile-phone in less than 2 minutes and are displayed through a smart application running on the phone. This mobile platform, along with our custom-developed sample preparation protocol, enables analysis of large volumes of water (e.g., 10-20 mL) for automated detection and enumeration of Giardia cysts in ~1 hour, including all the steps of sample preparation and analysis. We evaluated the performance of this approach using flow-cytometer-enumerated Giardia-contaminated water samples, demonstrating an average cyst capture efficiency of ~79% on our filter membrane along with a machine learning based cyst counting sensitivity of ~84%, yielding a limit-of-detection of ~12 cysts per 10 mL. Providing rapid detection and quantification of microorganisms, this field-portable imaging and sensing platform running on a mobile-phone could be useful for water quality monitoring in field and resource-limited settings. PMID:25537426

Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Gorocs, Zoltan; Tseng, Derek; Cortazar, Bingen; Feng, Steve; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Burbano, Jordi; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

2015-02-16

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Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that mineral domain of soil has an important role in such retention. PMID:23722173

Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

2013-10-15

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Evaluation of a tangential-flow multiple-filter technique for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water.  

OpenAIRE

A system of tangential-flow filtration was evaluated for use in the detection of Giardia cysts in drinking water. This method was more sensitive in recovering cysts than a frequently used wound-orlon system of through-filtration.

Isaac-renton, J. L.; Fung, C. P.; Lochan, A.

1986-01-01

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Pyrimidine salvage in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

We have found that the anaerobic protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia is incapable of de novo pyrimidine metabolism, as shown by its inability to incorporate orotate, bicarbonate, and aspartate into the pyrimidine nucleotide pool. Results from high performance liquid chromatography of pyrimidine and pyrimidine nucleoside pulse-labeled nucleotide pools and enzyme assays suggest that the parasite satisfies its pyrimidine nucleotide needs predominantly through salvage of uracil by a cytoplasmic ur...

1985-01-01

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DETECTION OF GIARDIA MURIS AND GIARDIA LAMBLIA CYSTS BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN ANIMAL TISSUES AND FECAL SAMPLES SUBJECTED TO CYCLES OF FREEZING AND THAWING  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of freezing and thawing on the detection of selected Giardia spp. cysts were investigated using immunofluorescence, bright field microscopy, and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM). iardia muris cysts were obtained from either animal carcasses, fecal pellet...

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The Comparison of the Efficacy of Various Fixatives on Diverse Staining Methods of Giardia lamblia Cyst  

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Full Text Available The definite and exact diagnosis of protozoa is possible using high magnification objective lenses, provided that suitable stained smears are prepared. Therefore, the appropriateness of both fixative and staining methods to the species of parasite, which is the main objective of this study, is important. In this study, five various fixatives including (Merthiolate iodine formalin MIF, (Sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin SAF, (Polyvinyl alcohol PVA, formalin and schaudinn and four types of stains including Hematoxylin I, Hematoxylin II, Trichrome and Carbol-fuchsin were prepared using standard procedures. After the smears of stool samples containing Giadria lamblia cyst were prepared and kept for 24 h in various fixatives, the study was carried out using the four above-mentioned stains by changing the ingredients and time as well as by repeating the experiments. After fixing and staining all the smears in identical conditions along with the implementing interferences in the staining process, the following results were eventually obtained considering the morphologic indexes and negative and positive scores (from 1 to 20: formalin with 17 scores in hematoxylin I staining, formalin and SAF with 15 and 14 scores, respectively in Hematoxylin II staining, MIF with 13 scores in Trichrome staining and SAF, PVA, MIF with 11.5, 11.5 and 11 scores, respectively in carbol-fuchsin staining were found to be the best fixatives. Hematoxylin I staining using formalin fixative with 17 scores showed the best result while the maximum score for Carbol-fuchsin staining was 11.5 showing a necessity for more expenditure, time and expert cooperation to reach ideal results.

E. Badparva

2009-01-01

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INACTIVATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS BY CHLORINE  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts shed from an asymptomatic carrier and to correlate the chlorine resistance of these cysts with those from a symptomatic carrier and another Giardia species, G. muris, which is infective for mice....

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Putative SF2 helicases of the early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia are involved in antigenic variation and parasite differentiation into cysts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of surface antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is controlled post-transcriptionally by an RNA-interference (RNAi pathway that includes a Dicer-like bidentate RNase III (gDicer. This enzyme, however, lacks the RNA helicase domain present in Dicer enzymes from higher eukaryotes. The participation of several RNA helicases in practically all organisms in which RNAi was studied suggests that RNA helicases are potentially involved in antigenic variation, as well as during Giardia differentiation into cysts. Results An extensive in silico analysis of the Giardia genome identified 32 putative Super Family 2 RNA helicases that contain almost all the conserved RNA helicase motifs. Phylogenetic studies and sequence analysis separated them into 22 DEAD-box, 6 DEAH-box and 4 Ski2p-box RNA helicases, some of which are homologs of well-characterized helicases from higher organisms. No Giardia putative helicase was found to have significant homology to the RNA helicase domain of Dicer enzymes. Additionally a series of up- and down-regulated putative RNA helicases were found during encystation and antigenic variation by qPCR experiments. Finally, we were able to recognize 14 additional putative helicases from three different families (RecQ family, Swi2/Snf2 and Rad3 family that could be considered DNA helicases. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive analysis of the Super Family 2 helicases from the human intestinal parasite G. lamblia. The relative and variable expression of particular RNA helicases during both antigenic variation and encystation agrees with the proposed participation of these enzymes during both adaptive processes. The putatives RNA and DNA helicases identified in this early-branching eukaryote provide initial information regarding the biological role of these enzymes in cell adaptation and differentiation.

Gargantini Pablo R

2012-11-01

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Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces / Comparação entre a imuno-separação magnética, acoplada à imunofluorescência, e as técnicas de Faust et al. e de Lutz para o diagnóstico de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, o desempenho da técnica de Imunoseparação Magnética, acoplada à Imunofluorescência (IMS-IFA), foi comparado com aqueles das técnicas parasitológicas de FAUST et al. e de Lutz na detecção de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas. Foram processadas 127 amostras de fezes pela [...] s três técnicas paralelamente e a detecção de cistos foi de 27,5% para IMS-IFA e de 15,7% para as técnicas de FAUST et al. e de Lutz concomitantemente. A análise dos resultados mostrou maior sensibilidade da IMS-IFA na detecção de cistos de G. lamblia quando comparada aos métodos de FAUST et al. e Lutz. A utilização desta metodologia como procedimento de rotina proporciona o processamento de várias amostras simultaneamente, além de aumentar a recuperação de cistos de G. lamblia e reduzir o tempo de estocagem das amostras. Abstract in english In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA), was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluat [...] ed by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

Doris Sobral Marques, Souza; Juliana Teixeira, Barreiros; Karina Maria, Papp; Mário, Steindel; Cláudia Maria Oliveira, Simões; Célia Regina Monte, Barardi.

2003-12-01

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Effect of resin disinfectants-I3 and -I5 on Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia.  

OpenAIRE

The resin-I5 column developed in our laboratories rendered aqueous suspensions containing up to 5 X 10(4) cysts of Giardia muris or Giardia lamblia per ml incapable of excystation. The inhibition of excystation was effective at both 4 and 25 degrees C. The addition of Na2S2O3 to column eluates containing cysts appeared to partially reverse the disinfectant action, and the reversal was more pronounced at 4 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. In contrast, the rapid removal of cysts from the column ...

Marchin, G. L.; Fina, L. R.; Lambert, J. L.; Fina, G. T.

1983-01-01

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Purine salvage networks in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Purine metabolism in Giardia lamblia was investigated by monitoring incorporation of radiolabeled precursors into purine nucleotides in the log-phase trophozoites cultivated in vitro in axenic media and incubated in buffered saline glucose. The lack of incorporation of formate, glycine, hypoxanthine, inosine, and xanthine into the nucleotide pool suggests the absence of de novo purine nucleotide synthesis and the inability to form IMP as the precursor of AMP and GMP in G. lamblia. Only adenin...

1983-01-01

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Giardia lamblia and Helicobater pylori Coinfection  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two flagellate microorganisms that grow in duodenum and stom­ach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of them in patients with dyspepsia and other GI disorders. "nMethods: In this cross-sectional study, co-infection of above-mentioned agents was investigated in a group of 130 patients [me­dian age of 40 yr (range=11-79 including 76 males (58.8%] with dyspepsia using three methods of duodenal aspiration sam­ple, duodenal biopsy samples and evaluation of stool samples."nResults: : From 105 patients (59 males, 46 females, median age 40 years, range 11-79 entering this study from 3 hospitals, 4 patients (3.8% had G. lamblia and 61 patients (58% had H. pylori. All 4 patients infected by Giardia had also H. pylori infec­tion. Tenesmus (3 out of 4 patients was the most common symptom in patients with H. pylori infection (48 out of 61 pa­tients was reflux. Other symptoms in patients infected with both organisms (4 patients included diarrhea (2 cases, weight loss (2 cases, and loss of appetite (1 case but no report of vomiting."nConclusion: In patients co-infected with Giardia, H.pylori differentiation by physical examination is not possible. So in those patients with positive Rapid Urease Test (RUT, stool examination for Giardia detection is recommended. In addition, met­ronidazole (broad spectrum, anti-protozoal drug can be useful in H. pylori infection.

R Shafie

2009-03-01

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A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and tre...

Dilek Karaku?; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

2009-01-01

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BILIARY LIPIDS SUPPORT SERUM-FREE GROWTH OF 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia has only been grown in vitro in media containing serum or serum fractions. How this pathogen can grow in the human small intestinal lumen without serum is not known. The authors found that samples of human hepatic or gall bladder bile maintained G. lamblia surviva...

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Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of /sup 3/H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei.

Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

1987-05-01

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Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of 3H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei

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Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

Guimarães Semíramis

2002-01-01

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Transient transfection and expression of firefly luciferase in Giardia lamblia.  

OpenAIRE

We have developed a gene transfer system for the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This organism is responsible for many cases of diarrhea worldwide and is considered to be one of the most primitive eukaryotes. Expression of a heterologous gene was detected in this parasite after electroporation with appropriate DNA constructs. We constructed a series of transfection plasmids using flanking sequences of the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene to drive expression of the firefly lucife...

Yee, J.; Nash, T. E.

1995-01-01

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Pacientes con Giardia lamblia diagnosticada por frotis duodenal / Patients with Giardia lamblia diagnosed through duodenal smear  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 105 pacientes mayores de 15 años con infección por Giardia lamblia, diagnosticada por frotis duodenal mediante endoscopia en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Policlínico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturn [...] ino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2012, con vistas a caracterizarles. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, síntomas digestivos referidos, positividad del frotis e imagen endoscópica. Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen. Predominaron el sexo femenino (58,0 %), el grupo etario de 29-39 años (38,0 %), la epigastralgia como síntoma principal (66,6 %) y las imágenes endoscópicas grados I y II como las más frecuentes (68,4 y 41,3 %, respectivamente). El índice de positividad a la giardiasis fue relevante Abstract in english A descriptive and cross sectional study of 105 patients older than 15 years with infection by Giardia lamblia, diagnosed through duodenal smear by means of endoscopy was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Teaching Provincial Clinica [...] l Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2012, with the objective of characterizing them. Among the analyzed variables there were: age, sex, referred digestive symptoms, positivity of the smear and endoscopic image. The percentage was used as summary measure. Female sex (58.0%), the age group 29-39 years (38.0%), the epigastralgia as main symptom (66.6%) and the endoscopic images grades I and II prevailed as the most frequent (68.4 and 41.3%, respectively). The positivity index for giardiasis was relevant

Hidelisa, Herrero Aguirre; Jesús, Fernández Duharte; Suleidy, Vega Sam; José Antonio, Candel Herrero.

1636-16-01

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The Study of the Multilayer Filtration Process Efficiency on Giardia lamblia Elimination in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Giardia lamblia is a waterborne highly infectious protozoan parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. The multilayer filtration is used in many applications such as turbidity removes from surface waters and Bacteria, Viruses and protozoan removes. This study was investigated in full-scale the efficiency of filtration process during water treatment that remove Giardia cyst in water at Isfahan province. Materials and methods: We used Information Collection Rule meth...

Zahra Mosaviyan; Ali-Asghar Rastegari; Saeed Abedi

2014-01-01

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Efficacies of Zinc-Finger-Active Drugs against Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) Zn-finger-active compounds at 300 ?M or less inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. The most active compound, disulfiram (Antabuse), was cidal at 1.23 ± 0.32 ?M. In the adult mouse model, significant in vivo activity was demonstrated by increased cure rates and decreased parasite burdens.

Nash, Theodore; Rice, William G.

1998-01-01

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Azasterols impair Giardia lamblia proliferation and induces encystation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth and fine structure of Giardia lamblia P1 strain cultures were analyzed. Azasterols demonstrated high efficacy in killing cells. The IC50 values for 22,26-azasterol and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol were 7 ?M and 170 nM, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that azasterols induced changes in G. lamblia ultrastructure. The most significant alterations were: (a) considerable increase of the size of the peripheral vesicles, which are part of the parasite endosomal-lysosomal system; (b) appearance of autophagosomal structures; and (c) induction of differentiation, followed by an abnormal enlargement of encystation secretory vesicles. We propose that azasterols are effective chemotherapeutic drugs against Giardia lamblia in vitro and may have another target in cells besides sterol biosynthesis

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Comparison of Metronidazole and Furazolidone Against Giardia lamblia in Children  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted on children infected by Giardia lamblia to evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of Metronidazole and Furazolidone drugs in Kashan. One hundred twenty two individuals infected with Giardia lamblia were assigned in 2 groups. They were 5-12 years old. Patients were surveyed four weeks following the therapy with Metronidazole and Furazolidone. Results were compared using chi-square method. Of 122 infected patients, 68.8% were urban residents, 43.4% were females and 56.6% were males. Abdominal pain was the most common clinical symptoms (84.2%. Four weeks after the therapy, the efficacy of metronidazole and furazolidone were 87 and 81.6%, respectively. Malaise (12.9% and dark urine (25% was the most frequents side effects of metronidazole and furazolidone, respectively. With respect to the efficacy of antiparasite drugs in the treatment of giardiasis, further studies in different parts of the country are highly recommended.

S.A. Talari

2006-01-01

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Imunodeficiência comum variável : manifestações gastrintestinais a Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

A imunodeficiência comum variável (IDCV) é segunda imunodeficiência primária mais frequente a seguir à deficiência selectiva de IgA. As manifestações gastrintestinais na IDCV apresentam uma prevalência de 20% a 60% e a infecção por Giardia lamblia é a causa infecciosa mais frequentemente identificada de diarreia e mal-absorção, em cerca de 30% dos doentes. Escassos estudos documentam a maior predisposição para esta infecção em indivíduos hipogamaglobulinémi...

Carvalho, Maria Dinah Jacob Da Silva

2011-01-01

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Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

Hanevik Kurt

2009-04-01

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Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing  

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Full Text Available Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine. Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites. This effect was inhibited (>90% by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml. Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP and sodium nitroprusside (SNP in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively. A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1, did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM. The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM. These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

P.D. Fernandes

1997-01-01

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Avaliação de diferentes métodos no diagnóstico laboratorial de Giardia lamblia  

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Giardia lamblia é um enteroparasita de prevalência significativa no mundo inteiro. Estudou-se a reprodutibilidade diagnóstica laboratorial por meio dos métodos Coprotest®, Direto modificado, Faust e Hematoxilina Férrica, para o protozoário G. lamblia, segundo a associação com algumas características da população de estudo tais como grupo etário, gênero e distribuição dos casos segundo a variação sazonal nos meses em que se desenvolveu a pesquisa. Fezes de 200 crianças da região de Araraquara-SP, foram examinadas pelos quatro métodos, e os resultados comparados. Verificou-se que 8% delas, encontravam-se parasitadas por G. lamblia. Não houve associação com o gênero; quanto à idade ocorreram mais casos no grupo de três a cinco anos e a maior freqüência de casos foi no mês de janeiro. Em relação ao diagnóstico laboratorial concluiu-se que os resultados mais confiáveis podem ser obtidos quando se utiliza duas metodologias associadas de ótima reprodutibilidade que neste estudo foram Coprotest - Faust; Direto-Faust e Coprotest-Direto (k > 0,81. Palavras-chave: G. lamblia; métodos diagnósticos; Coprotest®; Direto modificado; Faust; Hematoxilina Férrica.

M. J.S. Simões

2009-01-01

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Freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães atendidos em clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil Frequency of Giardia lamblia in dogs attended by veterinary clinics in Porto Alegre city, RS, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A pesquisa de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes de cães oriundos de clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, foi realizada pelo método de FAUST et al. (1939. Das 526 amostras analisadas, 38% (198 foram positivas para cistos de G. lamblia, sendo 22% (116 constituídos por animais menores de 11 meses de idade e 16% (82 constituídos por animais com 12 meses ou mais de idade. Houve diferença significativa (pThe method of Faust et al. (1939 was utilized for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in feces from dogs in Porto Alegre city, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil. From the 526 analyzed samples 38% (198 showed positive results for the presence of G. lamblia cyst, so 22% (116 belonged to group one, formed by animals that were less than eleven months old; and 16% (82 belonged to group two, formed by animals that were twelve months or older. There was a significant difference (p<0,05 among the two groups checked by the c² test. From the animals researched, 54% (285 were male dogs and from these 20% (104 presented cysts in their feces. From the other 46% (241, which were female dogs, 18% (95 presented positive results for the cysts of G. lamblia in their sample. The c² test applied to these data showed that there was not any significant difference between the results found in female or male dogs of all ages. Based on these results, we can come to the conclusion that 38% of the analyzed dogs showed positive results for the infection of G. lamblia and that the younger animals those aged less than eleven months presented a rate of risk to get infected which is two times bigger than the ones for the animals with 12 months or older, as well as, the fact that the sex of the animals did not present any association to the positive results of infection.

Adriane Bartmann

2004-08-01

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Mechanism of killing of Giardia lamblia trophozoites by complement.  

OpenAIRE

Only antibodies of the IgM class support the lytic effect of complement on Giardia lamblia (GL). We sensitized GL trophozoites (SGL) at 4 degrees C with serum containing anti-GL antibodies or IgM purified from this serum, and either normal human serum (NHS), complement 2-deficient human serum (C2d-HS), or C4-deficient guinea pig serum was used as source of complement. SGL were killed by NHS (86%) and by the deficient sera (50 and 40%, respectively), suggesting activation of the alternative pa...

Deguchi, M.; Gillin, F. D.; Gigli, I.

1987-01-01

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Freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães atendidos em clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil / Frequency of Giardia lamblia in dogs attended by veterinary clinics in Porto Alegre city, RS, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes de cães oriundos de clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, foi realizada pelo método de FAUST et al. (1939). Das 526 amostras analisadas, 38% (198) foram positivas para cistos de G. lamblia, sendo 22% (116) constituídos por animais menores [...] de 11 meses de idade e 16% (82) constituídos por animais com 12 meses ou mais de idade. Houve diferença significativa (p Abstract in english The method of Faust et al. (1939) was utilized for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in feces from dogs in Porto Alegre city, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil. From the 526 analyzed samples 38% (198) showed positive results for the presence of G. lamblia cyst, so 22% (116) belonged to group one, formed [...] by animals that were less than eleven months old; and 16% (82) belonged to group two, formed by animals that were twelve months or older. There was a significant difference (p

Adriane, Bartmann; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de, Araújo.

1093-10-01

35

Therapeutic enhancement of newly derived bacteriocins against Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trials for identifying efficient anti-giardial agents are still ongoing. Nowadays, bacteriocins have attracted the attention as potential antimicrobial compounds. For the first time, the current study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriocins derived from newly isolated Egyptian strains of probiotics Lactobacilli; L.?acidophilus (P106) and L.?plantarum (P164) against Giardia lamblia. Bacteriocins' efficacy was evaluated both in vitro; by growth inhibition and adherence assays, and in vivo; through estimation of parasite density, intestinal histopathological examination and ultrastructural analysis of Giardia trophozoites. In vivo bacteriocins' clinical safety was assessed. In vitro results proved that 50 µg of L. acidophilus bacteriocin induced reduction of the mean Giardia lamblia trophozoites by 58.3 ± 4.04%, while at lower concentrations of 10 and 20 µg of both L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, non significant reduction of the mean parasite density was achieved. In vitro trophozoites adherence was susceptible to the tested bacteriocins at all studied concentrations with variable degrees, while the highest adherence reduction was demonstrated using 50 µg of L acidophilus bacteriocin. In vivo, oral inoculation of 50 µg/mouse L.?acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days resulted in a noteworthy decline of the intestinal parasite density, along with amelioration of intestinal pathology of infected mice. Ultrastructural examination proved thatfive doses of L.?acidophilus bacteriocin showed marked changes in cellular architecture of the trophozoites with evident disorganization of the cell membrane, adhesive disc and cytoplasmic components. This is the first reported study of the safe anti-giardial efficacy of L.?acidophilus (P106) derived bacteriocin, hence highlighting its great promise as a potential therapeutic safe alternative to existing commercial drugs. PMID:25300763

Amer, Eglal I; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda

2014-11-01

36

Cross-species transmission of Giardia spp.: inoculation of beavers and muskrats with cysts of human, beaver, mouse, and muskrat origin.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia cysts isolated from humans, beavers, mice, and muskrats were tested in cross-species transmission experiments for their ability to infect either beavers or muskrats. Giardia cysts, derived from multiple symptomatic human donors and used for inoculation of beavers or muskrats, were shown to be viable by incorporation of fluorogenic dyes, excystation, and their ability to produce infections in the Mongolian gerbil model. Inoculation of beavers with 5 x 10(5) Giardia lamblia cysts result...

Erlandsen, S. L.; Sherlock, L. A.; Januschka, M.; Schupp, D. G.; Schaefer, F. W.; Jakubowski, W.; Bemrick, W. J.

1988-01-01

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FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES. VOLUME 3. RAPID RATE FILTRATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficiency of rapid rate filtration for removal of Giardia lamblia cysts, standard plate count bacteria, total coliform bacteria, and turbidity was determined experimentally under a wide range of operating conditions. Percent removal was evaluated by means of a lab-scale pilo...

38

Detection of Giardia lamblia Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens by a Solid-Phase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay?  

OpenAIRE

The SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay (Medical Chemical Corporation) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects Giardia lamblia in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens. Testing 106 Giardia-positive and 104 Giardia-negative stool specimens yielded a sensitivity of 97.2% and a specificity of 100% for the SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay.

Garcia, Lynne S.; Garcia, John Paul

2006-01-01

39

In vivo determination of the gap2 gene promoter activity in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

A shuttle vector for Escherichia coli and Giardia lamblia was modified to produce a reporter plasmid, which monitors the expression of prescribed gene in G. lamblia by measuring its luciferase activity. Promoter regions of the gap2 gene, one of the genes induced during encystation, were cloned into this plasmid, and the resultant constructs were then transfected into trophozoites of G. lamblia. Transgenic trophozoites containing one of the 3 gap2-luc reporters were induced to encystation, and...

Yang, Hye-won; Kim, Juri; Yong, Tai-soon; Park, Soon-jung

2006-01-01

40

/ Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis emergent opportunists / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis, oportunistas emergentes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es un hecho conocido que las infecciones oportunistas por protozoos y hongos han aumentado en los últimos años, debido especialmente al aumento de las infecciones por VIH. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis son protozoos y hongo, respectivamente, mundialmente recono [...] cidos como agentes oportunistas emergentes, responsables de brotes epidémicos provocados por la ingestión de agua potable contaminada, incluso después de una correcta desinfección. La ingestión de estos protozoos puede provocar diferentes grados de enfermedad, entre aguda o leve (población sana) hasta situaciones más graves y agresivas, hasta a veces mortales (pacientes inmunocomprometidos y/o inmunodeprimidos). A pesar de ser responsables de muchos brotes epidémicos, su diagnóstico de laboratorio permanece arduo y trabajoso, incluso utilizando las nuevas técnicas desarrolladas en los últimos años. En esta revisión se resumen las consideraciones generales de estos oportunistas emergentes, así como los métodos de diagnóstico más usuales, incluso los más recientes y específicos. Abstract in english Epidemiological data, regarding parasitic and fungi opportunist infections, have changed in the last years, especially due to HIV infection. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are protozoan and fungi, respectively, worldwide known as opportunistic emergent agents, [...] being responsible by epidemic outbreaks after ingestion of contaminated water, even following a correct disinfection treatment. Its ingestion can cause different effects on individuals’ health, from light or acute among the healthy population, to serious, aggressive or even deadly among the immunodepressed or immunocompromised patients. Contaminated water ingestion can result in outbreaks but protozoa laboratory diagnosis still remains very laborious, even after the development of more sensitive and specific techniques in the last years. In this paper, a revision of these emergent opportunists, their main characteristics and diagnostic tools are described, including the most recent and specific techniques.

Joana, Barbosa; Maria José, Espinar; Acácio, Gonçalves Rodrigues; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

2013-12-01

41

The minimal kinome of Giardia lamblia illuminates early kinase evolution and unique parasite biology  

OpenAIRE

Background: The major human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a very early branching eukaryote with a minimal genome of broad evolutionary and biological interest. Results: To explore early kinase evolution and regulation of Giardia biology, we cataloged the kinomes of three sequenced strains. Comparison with published kinomes and those of the excavates Trichomonas vaginalis and Leishmania major shows that Giardia's 80 core kinases constitute the smallest known core kinome of any eukaryo...

Manning, Gerard; Reiner, David S.; Lauwaet, Tineke; Dacre, Michael; Smith, Alias; Zhai, Yufeng; Svärd, Staffan; Gillin, Frances D.

2011-01-01

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Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients exclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin concentration, a...

Jairo Ivo dos Santos; Cidônia de Lourdes Vituri

1996-01-01

43

Evaluation of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Giardia lamblia antigen in stool.  

OpenAIRE

The lack of a quick, simple, and inexpensive diagnostic test has limited the ability of public health officials to rapidly assess and control outbreaks of Giardia lamblia in child day-care centers. We evaluated the performance of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of a G. lamblia-associated antigen in stool. Stool specimens were collected from the diapers of 426 children attending 20 day-care centers, fixed in 10% Formalin and polyvinyl alcoho...

Addiss, D. G.; Mathews, H. M.; Stewart, J. M.; Wahlquist, S. P.; Williams, R. M.; Finton, R. J.; Spencer, H. C.; Juranek, D. D.

1991-01-01

44

Chromosome-size variation in Giardia lamblia: the role of rDNA repeats.  

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Giardia lamblia trophozoites contain at least five sets of chromosomes that have been categorized by chromosome-specific probes. Pulsed field separations of G. lamblia chromosomes also demonstrated minor bands in some isolates which stained less intensely with ethidium than the major chromosomal bands. Two of the minor bands of the E11 clone of the ISR isolate, MBa and MBb, were similar to each other and to chromosomal band I by hybridization to total chromosomal DNA and by hybridization of s...

Adam, R. D.

1992-01-01

45

Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES  

OpenAIRE

Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua destilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial)....

Molina, Nora B.; DANIELA POLVERINO; Minvielle, Marta C.; MARÍA APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO AGUILAR; Basualdo, Juan A.

2006-01-01

46

In Vitro Effects of Metronidazole and Albendazole on Giardia lamblia Isolated from Iranian Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and albendazole against clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia in vitro. Methods: From all human samples of containing cysts, 10 isolates were successfully excysted in vitro. Trophozites viability was assessed by eosine 0.1% and cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 modified medium supplemented with heat inactivated bovine serum 10%. All cultures were incubated in 37°C for 24-48 h. After this time trophozoites were exposed to different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 2, 10, 50 µg/ml of drugs at 37º for 4 h.  The IC50 estimated between 0.1 and 10µg/ml for metronidazole and 0.062 and 0.1 µg/ml for albendazole. Results: Eight isolates were found susceptible to the metronidazole while all isolates were found susceptible to the albendazole. Statistical results indicated that there was significant difference (P<0.05 in the sensitivity to metronidazole and albendazole in all isolates.

A Dalimi

2008-04-01

47

Lysosomal protein trafficking in Giardia lamblia: common and distinct features  

OpenAIRE

Giardia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that has to face different microenvironments during its life cycle in order to survive. All cells exchange materials with the extracellular medium through the reciprocal processes of endocytosis and secretion. Unlike more evolved cells, Giardia lacks a defined endosomal/lysosomal system, but instead possesses peripheral vacuoles that play roles in endocytosis, degradation, recycling, and secretion of proteins during growth and differentiation of the...

Touz, Maria C.; Rivero, Maria R.; Miras, Silvana L.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

2012-01-01

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Comparação de quatro métodos laboratoriais para diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em fezes de crianças residentes em Belém, Pará Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito.We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination with lugol showed lower positivity, while the method of Faust et al. Continues to be a good option for G. lamblia diagnosis and Immunoenzymatic assay increases the detection of this parasite.

Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado

2001-02-01

49

Nitroimidazole drugs vary in their mode of action in the human parasite Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia (syn. duodenalis, intestinalis) is a globally occurring micro-aerophilic human parasite that causes gastrointestinal disease. Standard treatment of G. lamblia infections is based on the 5-nitroimidazole drugs metronidazole and tinidazole. In two other micro-aerophilic parasites, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis, 5-nitroimidazole drugs bind to proteins involved in the thioredoxin-mediated redox network and disrupt the redox equilibrium by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase and depleting intracellular thiol pools. The major aim of this study was to assess whether nitroimidazoles exert a similar toxic effect on G. lamblia physiology. The 5-nitroimidazoles metronidazole and tinidazole were found to bind to the same subset of proteins including thioredoxin reductase. However, in contrast to E. histolytica and T. vaginalis, none of the other proteins bound are candidates for being involved in the thioredoxin-mediated redox network. Translation elongation factor EF-1?, an essential factor in protein synthesis, was widely degraded upon treatment with 5-nitroimidazoles. 2-Nitroimidazole (azomycin) and the 5-nitroimidazole ronidazole did not bind to any G. lamblia proteins, which is in contrast to previous findings in E. histolytica and T. vaginalis. All nitroimidazoles tested reduced intracellular thiol pools in G. lamblia, but metronidazole, also in contrast to the situation in the other two parasites, had the slightest effect. Taken together, our results suggest that nitroimidazole drugs affect G. lamblia in a fundamentally different way than E. histolytica and T. vaginalis. PMID:24533278

Leitsch, David; Schlosser, Sarah; Burgess, Anita; Duchêne, Michael

2012-12-01

50

Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro  

OpenAIRE

Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos...

Aimée Echevarría; Dinorah Torres Idavoy

2001-01-01

51

Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

OpenAIRE

Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal) en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje bilia...

Nazarina Ivonne Méndez Pérez; Calunga Ferna?ndez, Jose? L.; Silvia Menéndez Cepero

2003-01-01

52

Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua destilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente. La combinación de buffer de lisis E y Chelex fue un método simple y económico, que produjo alto rendimiento de ADN con baja pureza. Ella técnica comercial fue un método simple, más costoso que produjo bajas cantidades de ADN con un nivel de pureza apropiado para estudios molecularesThe efficiency of lysis procedures and DNA purification treatments of Giardia lamblia trophozoites were evaluated regarding the breaking-up efficiency, quantity and pureness of DNA, processing time and costs. Five lysis methods (distilled water and heating; distilled water, heating and proteinase K; buffer D Lysis; buffer E lysis, and commercial kit, and three DNA purification methods (phenol:chloroform:isoamilic, Chelex 100 and commercial kit were tested. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. The buffer E lysis and Chelex combination was simple and economic method which produced high DNA performance with low pureness. Commercial kit was simple and expensive method which generated low yields of DNA with appropriate purity level for molecular analysis

NORA B MOLINA

2006-12-01

53

Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley The effect of malnourishment on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados.Objective. To assess the effect of malnutrition on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, using different inoculum sizes of Giardia lamblia cysts. Material and Methods. An experimental study was conducted between 1995 and 1999 at Centro de Investigación, Alimentación y Desarrollo (Center for Research, Food, and Development, in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The study population consisted of two groups of six to eight experimental units that were fed two different diets and inoculated five different concentrations of Giardia lamblia cysts. Data were collected on excretion of cysts, weight gain, food intake, bowel contents, and macro and microscopic lesions in the intestinal mucosa. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance and residuals. Results. Animals fed with a diet meeting nutritional requirements required an infecting inoculum of 60 cysts, while malnourished rats required only six cysts to develop mucosal lesions. Conclusions. Weight gain monitored during ten days was not a good indicator of Giardia lamblia infection. Infection depended on cyst inoculum size as well as on the nutritional status of the tested animals.

Martha Elvia Díaz-Cinco

2002-07-01

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Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients exclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV, hemoglobin concentration, and relative and absolute number of eosinophils and lymphocytes. No significant differences in the mean values of MCV, hemoglobin levels and absolute relative lymphocyte numbers between the two groups could be detected. When the giardiasis and control groups were separated by pediatric (0-18 years old and adult (older than 18 years classes, a very significant difference in both relative and absolute number of eosinophils in the adult class was observed. With respect of the pediatric class, no differences, either in relative and absolute number of eosinophils, could be observed. Our findings suggest that, during G. lamblia infection, some kind of parasite allergen(s could be secreted and be responsible for the increasing of eosinophil counts in peripheral blood of adults.Até este momento poucos relatos de alterações hematológicas causadas pela Giardia lamblia têm sido descritos. Procuramos então avaliar alguns parâmetros hematológicos em pacientes infectados exclusivamente com G. lamblia (n=55, provenientes do Hospital Universitário, comparando-os com pacientes, pareados por sexo e idade, sem nenhum parasitismo (n=55. Foram avaliados: volume corpuscular médio (VCM, níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de eosinófilos e linfócitos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os valores médios de VCM, níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de linfócitos para os dois grupos estudados. No caso dos eosinófilos, tanto as contagens relativas quanto as absolutas diferiram significativamente nas faixas etárias acima de 18 anos (percentagem média de eosinófilos de 8,1 para pacientes com giardíase, e de 3,1 para pacientes não-parasitados, com P=0,0042; e contagens absolutas com média de 609 para pacientes com giardíase, comparado com média de 257, para pacientes-controle, com P=0,0120. No caso de faixas etárias abaixo de 18 anos não foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre os dois grupos. Diante disto, nossos achados sugerem que a G. lamblia poderia secretar um ou mais alérgenos, que seriam responsáveis pelo aumento do número de eosinófilos no sangue periférico de pessoas adultas, e que tal fenômeno deva ser melhor avaliado em crianças

Jairo Ivo dos Santos

1996-04-01

55

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lam [...] blia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

Jael, Quintero; Diana Carolina, Figueroa; Rafael, Barcelo; Linda, Breci; Humberto, Astiazaran-Garcia; Lucila, Rascon; Ramon, Robles-Zepeda; Adriana, Garibay-Escobar; Enrique, Velazquez-Contreras; Gloria Leon, Avila; Jose Manuel, Hernandez-Hernandez; Carlos, Velazquez.

2013-08-01

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The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanol Extracts of Eucalyptus, Satureia Hortensis and Heracleum Glabrescens on Giardia Cysts  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Giardiasis is a parasitic infection of smallintestine, with a worldwide distribution and the prevalence of Giardia indifferent parts of the world varies between 1 to 25%. Plants have the vastrange of antimicrobial and antifungal activity that can be identified asalternative treatments for bacterial and parasitic pathogens, the same asGiardia. In this study, the methanol extracts of eucalyptus plants, Satureiahortensis and Heracleum glabrescens, on Giardia cysts were studied in vitro.Material and Methods: The cysts were isolated from the feces using amodified Bingham. After counting by Hemusytumetr, they were placed nearby 200 mg / ml, 100 mg / ml and 10 mg / ml of the extracts prepared byDMSO for 30 and 60 minutes. Then, the number of dead and live cysts wascounted under a microscope.Results: the fatality effect of the extracts in 60 minutes is higher than thoseof 30 minutes. The methanol extracts of Satureia hortensis, Eucalyptus andHeracleum glabrescens with the dilution of 200 mg/ml in 60 mins have thefatality effect of 84/3%, 63/3% and 44%, respectively. The highestfatality(84.3% on Giardia cysts is related to Satureia hortensis with thedilution of 200 mg/ml in 60 mins and the Lowest(27% is related toHeracleum glabrescens with the dilution of 10 mg/ml in 30-minute period.The significant relationship between the plant type and the fatality ofmethanol extracts is observed.Conclusion: the methanol extracts of Eucalyptus, Heracleum glabrescensand especially Satureia hortensis have anti-parasitic effects in the laboratoryconditions. Thus, they can be used in the future, instead of the chemicalantiparasitic drugs.Key words: Antibacterial Giardia lamblia cysts, Eucalyptus, Satureiahortensis, Heracleum glabrescens, Tonekabon

Safarnejad Tameshkel, F.

2012-01-01

57

A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin d [...] irectly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

Alberto J., Solari; Monica I., Rahn; Alicia, Saura; Hugo D., Lujan.

2003-12-01

58

A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope  

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Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

Alberto J. Solari

2003-12-01

59

Sensitive Detection of Giardia Cysts by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)  

OpenAIRE

Giardia is one of the most common human parasites and causes a lengthly course of nonbacterial diarrhea. Disease outbreaks due to Giardia infection are often attributed to contaminated water supplies. A major problem associated with detection for this organism is the lack of sensitive and reliable methods. PCR has the potential to address many of the limitations.We have performed a PCR-based method for sensitive detection of Giardia cysts. Because the sensitivity of PCR is a function of the e...

Nikaeen, M.; Ar, Mesdaghinia; Jeddi Tehrani, M.; Rezaian, M.; Vaezi, F.

2003-01-01

60

Rapid reinfection by Giardia lamblia after treatment in a hyperendemic area: the case against treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We selected 40S children aged 1-10 years with Giardia lamblia infection but without abdominal orgastrointestinal complaints for the previous month. For 5 days, 204 received metronidazole 15 mg/kg/day and 201 received B-complex syrup. Stool samples were examined 2-3 weeks and 3 months after treatment and results were tested with chi-squared. Weight and height 6 months after treatment were compared with primary weight and height by Z-score and Student t-test. Metronidazole efficacy at 2-3 weeks was 85.3%. Three months after treatment, 60 were reinfected (34.5%) and 71 had spontaneously cleared (35.3%). Because of high reinfection, spontaneous clearing and treatment failure rates, and the lack of effect on nutritional status or growth, we do not recommend treatment for children with asymptomatic giardia infection. PMID:16532674

Saffar, M J; Qaffari, J; Khalilian, A R; Kosarian, M

2005-01-01

61

Waterborne Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Yukon, Canada.  

OpenAIRE

Several outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis have occurred in southern Canada, but nothing has been reported from the Canadian North. The objective of this study was to collect information relevant to waterborne giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in the Yukon including epidemiological data and analyses of water, sewage, and animal fecal samples. Remote, pristine water samples were found to be contaminated with Giardia cysts (7 of 22 or 32%) but not with Cryptosporidium oocysts. Giardia cysts were...

Roach, P. D.; Olson, M. E.; Whitley, G.; Wallis, P. M.

1993-01-01

62

Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection / Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia co [...] mpleta del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra. Abstract in english Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means ne [...] w perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.

J. A., Gil Ruiz; P., Gil Simón; R., Aparicio Duque; J. L., Mayor Jerez.

2005-07-01

63

Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra.

J. A. Gil Ruiz

2005-07-01

64

Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

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Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %, de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología.The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %. Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %. It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

Nazarina Ivonne Méndez Pérez

2003-09-01

65

Comparação de quatro métodos laboratoriais para diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em fezes de crianças residentes em Belém, Pará / Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático [...] melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito. Abstract in english We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination with lugol showed lower positivity, while the method of Faust et al. Continues to be a good option for G. lamblia diagnosis and Immunoenzymatic assay i [...] ncreases the detection of this parasite.

Ricardo Luiz Dantas, Machado; Maria Cristina, Figueredo; Amanda Farage, Frade; Mônica Eriko, Kudó; Manoel Gomes, Silva Filho; Marinete Marins, Póvoa.

2001-02-01

66

Conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia / Knowledge, perceptions and practice of dermatologists with respect to Giardia lamblia infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: conocer sobre los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia. MÉTODOS: previo consentimiento informado de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana, a un número próximo al universo de estos (50 de 58), s [...] e le aplicó una encuesta sobre conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas en relación con esta parasitosis. La preparación de la encuesta pasó por 4 fases: entrevistas a médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis; preparación de un cuestionario preliminar sobre la base de los resultados de esas entrevistas; sometimiento del instrumento a criterio de expertos; y validación de este mediante su aplicación a un pequeño grupo de galenos. RESULTADOS: se evidenció que en relación con la giardiasis y, de manera particular, con las manifestaciones cutáneas asociadas a esta, los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana mostraban conocimientos insuficientes (de 19 interrogantes que evaluaban aspectos cognoscitivos, la media de respuestas correctas entre todos los participantes fue 10,18), percepciones inadecuadas y prácticas incorrectas. CONCLUSIONES: en la dirección de atenuar estas dificultades se hace necesario una intervención de tipo académica, que haga énfasis en los aspectos formativos relacionados con las enfermedades parasitarias, en general, y la giardiasis, en particular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the level of knowledge, the perceptions and practice of dermatologists in the City of Havana with respect to Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: with prior informed consent given by the dermatologists from the City of Havana, 50 dermatologists- a number very close to the univ [...] erse of these experts in the province- were administered a survey of their knowledge, perceptions and practice about this parasitosis. The survey was prepared in 4 phases; that is, interviews to physicians on diagnosis, treatment and control of giardiasis; drafting of a preliminary questionnaire based on the interview results; submission of this instruments to the experts, and finally its validation through its application to a small group of physicians. RESULTS: it was evinced that the dermatologists in the City of Havana had poor knowledge about giardiasis, particularly its cutaneous manifestations (out of 19 questions on cognitive aspects, the correct answer mean was 10,18), inadequate perceptions on this disease and practice was not good. CONCLUSIONS: with the aim of mitigating these difficulties, some academic intervention is needed to make emphasis on the formative aspects related to parasitic diseases in general and giardiasis in particular.

Tania, Iglesias Hernández; Saleh, Ali Almannoni; María Elena, Rodríguez; Lizet, Sánchez Valdés; Deisy, Martín Pupo; Julián, Manzur Katrib; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

2010-04-01

67

Sensitive Detection of Giardia Cysts by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR  

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Full Text Available Giardia is one of the most common human parasites and causes a lengthly course of nonbacterial diarrhea. Disease outbreaks due to Giardia infection are often attributed to contaminated water supplies. A major problem associated with detection for this organism is the lack of sensitive and reliable methods. PCR has the potential to address many of the limitations.We have performed a PCR-based method for sensitive detection of Giardia cysts. Because the sensitivity of PCR is a function of the efficiency of DNA extraction from cysts, we have also compared some different methods for DNA extraction from the cysts. Giardia cysts were collected from infected human, partially purified and serially diluted samples were prepared. DNA was extracted by 3 different methods and we found that simple repeated freezing and thawing was the best method for extraction of DNA from the cysts. A 163 bp conserved fragment related to the giardial heat shock protein (HSP70 gene was used as the target for PCR amplification. We were able to detect as few as 5 cysts in the samples. The results suggest the potential utilities of PCR for sensitive detection of Giardia in water sources.

M Nikaeen

2003-07-01

68

Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously. We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified the proportion of cases acquired in Germany in order to investigate risk factors for sporadic autochthonous Giardia infections. Methods We identified Giardia cases notified by 41 local health authorities between February 2007 and January 2008 and interviewed them on their clinical symptoms, underlying morbidities, travel abroad and potential risk factors for the disease. We conducted a case-control-study including laboratory-confirmed (microscopy or antigen-test autochthonous Giardia cases with clinical manifestations (diarrhoea, cramps, bloating and randomly selected controls from the local population registry matched by county of residence and age-group (0-5, 6-19, ?20 years. Secondary cases, controls with diarrhoea and persons who had travelled outside Germany in the three weeks prior to disease onset (exposure period were excluded. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI using conditional logistic regression. Results Of 273 interviewed cases, 131 (48% had not travelled abroad during the defined exposure period. Of these 131, 85 (65% were male, 68 (54% were living in communities with >100,000 inhabitants and 107 (83% were aged 20 years or older. We included 120 cases and 240 controls in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be male (aOR 2.5 CI 1.4-4.4, immunocompromised (aOR 15.3 CI 1.8-127 and daily consumers of green salad (aOR 2.9 CI 1.2-7.2. Contact with animals (pets/farm animals and exposure to surface water (swimming/water sports were not associated with symptomatic disease. Conclusions A substantial proportion of Giardia lamblia cases in Germany are indigenously acquired. Symptomatic cases are significantly more likely to be immunocompromised than control persons from the general population. Physicians should consider Giardia infections among patients with no recent history of travel abroad, particularly if they have immune deficiencies. Green salads may be an important vehicle of infection. Information campaigns highlighting this food-borne risk should emphasise the risk to persons with immune deficiencies.

Stark Klaus

2010-01-01

69

Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron [...] incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL), que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL. Abstract in english The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú) on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 [...] hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL). An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

Aimée, Echevarría; Dinorah, Torres Idavoy.

2001-09-01

70

Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal) en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronida [...] zol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %), de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología. Abstract in english The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy) on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated [...] with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %). Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %). It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

Nazarina Ivonne, Méndez Pérez; José L., Calunga Fernández; Silvia, Menéndez Cepero.

2003-09-01

71

Heterogeneity of quaternary structure of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oligoHis-tagged versions of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia (GlmNagB-HisN, GlmNagB-HisC) were constructed and purified to hear homogeneity, and their kinetic and structural properties were compared to those of the wild-type enzyme (GlmNagB). Introduction of the oligoHis tag at the GlmNagB C-terminus resulted in almost complete loss of the catalytic activity, while the catalytic properties of GlmNagB-HisN and GlmNagB were very similar. The recombinant and wild-type enzyme exhibits heterogeneity of the quaternary structure and in solution exists in three interconvertible forms, namely, monomeric, homodimeric, and homotetrameric. Although the monomeric form is prevalent, the monomer/dimer/tetramer ratios depended on protein concentration and fell within the range from 72:27:1 to 39:23:38. The enzyme is fully active in each of the oligomeric structures, efficiently catalyzes synthesis of D-glucosamine-6-phosphate from D-fructose-6-phosphate and ammonia, and its activity is not modified by GlcNAc6P, UDP-GlcNAc, or UDP-GalNAc. GlcN6P deaminase of G. lamblia represents a novel structural and functional type of enzyme of the NagB subfamily. PMID:25326378

Kwiatkowska-Semrau, Karolina; Czarnecka, Justyna; Wojciechowski, Marek; Milewski, S?awomir

2015-01-01

72

Structure-activity relationships of pentamidine analogs against Giardia lamblia and correlation of antigiardial activity with DNA-binding affinity.  

OpenAIRE

1,5-Di(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (pentamidine) and 38 analogs of pentamidine were screened for in vitro activity against the enteric protozoan Giardia lamblia WB (ATCC 30957). All compounds were active against G. lamblia as measured by a [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Antigiardial activity varied widely, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 0.51 +/- 0.13 microM (mean +/- standard deviation) for the most active compound to over 100.0 microM for the least active com...

Bell, C. A.; Cory, M.; Fairley, T. A.; Hall, J. E.; Tidwell, R. R.

1991-01-01

73

ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú.OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Giardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Claudia Rodríguez-Ulloa

2011-12-01

74

Oxidative stress-induced cell cycle blockage and a protease-independent programmed cell death in  microaerophilic Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Esha Ghosh1, Arjun Ghosh1, Amar Nath Ghosh2, Tomoyoshi Nozaki3, Sandipan Ganguly11Division of Parasitology; 2Division of Electron Microscopy, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Beliaghata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 3Division of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Giardia lamblia is a microaerophilic human gastrointestinal parasite and considered as an early-diverged eukaryote. In vitro oxidative stress generation plays a significant role in cell cycle progression and cell death of this parasite. In the present study hydrogen peroxide, metronidazole, and a modified growth medium without cysteine and ascorbic acid have been chosen as oxidative stress-inducing agents. Cell cycle progression has been found to be regulated by different types of oxidative stresses. Apoptosis is not an established pathway in Giardia, which is devoid of ideal mitochondria, but in the present investigation, apoptosis-like programmed cell death has been found by the experiments like AnnexinV-FITC assay, DNA fragmentation pattern, etc. On the contrary, Caspase-9 assay, which confirms the caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway, has been found to be negative in all the stress conditions. Protease inhibitor assay confirmed that, even in absence of any proteases, programmed cell death does occur in this primitive eukaryote. All these results signify a novel pathway of programmed suicidal death in Giardia lamblia under oxidative stress. This is the first demonstration of protease-independent programmed cell death regulation in Giardia exclusive for its own specialties.Keywords: Giardia lamblia, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, programmed cell death, apoptosis, early branching eukaryotes

Esha Ghosh

2009-03-01

75

Membrane trafficking and organelle biogenesis in Giardia lamblia: use it or lose it.  

Science.gov (United States)

The secretory transport capacity of Giardia trophozoites is perfectly adapted to the changing environment in the small intestine of the host and is able to deploy essential protective surface coats as well as molecules which act on epithelia. These lumen-dwelling parasites take up nutrients by bulk endocytosis through peripheral vesicles or by receptor-mediated transport. The environmentally-resistant cyst form is quiescent but poised for activation following stomach passage. Its versatility and fidelity notwithstanding, the giardial trafficking systems appear to be the product of a general secondary reduction process geared towards minimization of all components and machineries identified to date. Since membrane transport is directly linked to organelle biogenesis and maintenance, less complexity also means loss of organelle structures and functions. A case in point is the Golgi apparatus which is missing as a steady-state organelle system. Only a few basic Golgi functions have been experimentally demonstrated in trophozoites undergoing encystation. Similarly, mitochondrial remnants have reached a terminally minimized state and appear to be functionally restricted to essential iron-sulfur protein maturation processes. Giardia's minimized organization combined with its genetic tractability provides unique opportunities to study basic principles of secretory transport in an uncluttered cellular environment. Not surprisingly, Giardia is gaining increasing attention as a model for the investigation of gene regulation, organelle biogenesis, and export of simple but highly protective cell wall biopolymers, a hallmark of all perorally transmitted protozoan and metazoan parasites. PMID:21296082

Faso, Carmen; Hehl, Adrian B

2011-04-01

76

Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração...

Cristiane Beck; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de Araújo; Adriana Tarnowski Olicheski; Adriana Schneider Breyer

2005-01-01

77

ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú / ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia [...] 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Gi [...] ardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Claudia, Rodríguez-Ulloa; Marco, Rivera-Jacinto.

2011-12-01

78

ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú / ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia [...] 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Gi [...] ardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Claudia, Rodríguez-Ulloa; Marco, Rivera-Jacinto.

2011-12-01

79

The cysteine-rich protein gene family of Giardia lamblia: loss of the CRP170 gene in an antigenic variant.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia trophozoites demonstrate variable expression of a repertoire of cysteine-rich surface antigens in vitro and in vivo. The size of the repertoire has been estimated at 20 to 184, and specific variants can be detected after approximately 12 generations of in vitro growth for the WB isolate. In earlier studies, we cloned a portion of the gene for a 170-kDa surface antigen (CRP170) and demonstrated by DNA sequencing that it was cysteine rich (12%) and contained 2.6 copies of a tand...

Adam, R. D.; Yang, Y. M.; Nash, T. E.

1992-01-01

80

Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

2013-06-15

81

DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS USING IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE AND PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPY  

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Detection and identification of Giardia cysts in water samples has been improved by the development of an immunofluorescent method that specifically stains Giardia cysts bright green and allows their easy detection against a black background. The report discusses aspects of the m...

82

Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously appreciated. We suggest that the missing components of the exosome complex provide an explanation for the stable abundance of sterile RNA species in Giardia.

Williams Christopher W

2011-11-01

83

Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens Using the ColorPAC Combination Rapid Solid-Phase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay  

OpenAIRE

The ColorPAC Giardia/Cryptosporidium (Becton Dickinson) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects and distinguishes between Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human stool. Agreement between the Alexon-Trend ProSpecT Giardia Rapid EIA and the ColorPAC assay was 166 of 172 (96.5%). Agreement between the Alexon-Trend ProSpecT Cryptosporidium Rapid EIA and the ColorPAC assay was 169 of 171 (98.8%). No cross-reactions were seen with other parasites or human c...

Garcia, Lynne S.; Shimizu, Robyn Y.

2000-01-01

84

Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reductions in annual rainfall in some regions and increased human consumption have caused a shortage of water resources at the global level. The recycling of treated wastewaters has been suggested for certain domestic, industrial, and agricultural activities. The importance of microbiological and parasitological criteria for recycled water has been repeatedly emphasized. Among water-borne pathogens, protozoa of the genera Giardia and Cryptosporidium are known to be highly resistant to water treatment procedures and to cause outbreaks through contaminated raw or treated water. We conducted an investigation in four wastewater treatment plants in Italy by sampling wastewater at each stage of the treatment process over the course of 1 year. The presence of the parasites was assessed by immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. While Cryptosporidium oocysts were rarely observed, Giardia cysts were detected in all samples throughout the year, with peaks observed in autumn and winter. The overall removal efficiency of cysts in the treatment plants ranged from 87.0 to 98.4%. The removal efficiency in the number of cysts was significantly higher when the secondary treatment consisted of active oxidation with O(2) and sedimentation instead of activated sludge and sedimentation (94.5% versus 72.1 to 88.0%; P = 0.05, analysis of variance). To characterize the cysts at the molecular level, the beta-giardin gene was PCR amplified, and the products were sequenced or analyzed by restriction. Cysts were typed as assemblage A or B, both of which are human pathogens, stressing the potential risk associated with the reuse of wastewater. PMID:12788741

Cacciò, Simone M; De Giacomo, Marzia; Aulicino, Francesca A; Pozio, Edoardo

2003-06-01

85

COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES / COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS  

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Full Text Available The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniques have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD in the city of Manizales (Caldas were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan. RESUMEN: Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentración y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas. Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo.

Edwin Cardona

2014-03-01

86

USE OF IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE AND PHASE-CONTRAST MICROSCOPY FOR DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS IN WATER SAMPLES  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed in which indirect immunofluorescence and phase-contrast microscopy are used for rapid detection and identification of Giardia cysts in raw and finished water supplies. When anti-Giardia cyst antiserum and fluorescein conjugate were applied to known Giardia ...

87

The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanol Extracts of Eucalyptus, Satureia Hortensis and Heracleum Glabrescens on Giardia Cysts  

OpenAIRE

Background and objectives: Giardiasis is a parasitic infection of smallintestine, with a worldwide distribution and the prevalence of Giardia indifferent parts of the world varies between 1 to 25%. Plants have the vastrange of antimicrobial and antifungal activity that can be identified asalternative treatments for bacterial and parasitic pathogens, the same asGiardia. In this study, the methanol extracts of eucalyptus plants, Satureiahortensis and Heracleum glabrescens, on Giardia cysts were...

Safarnejad Tameshkel, F.; Khatami Nejad, MR.; Nasrollahi, A.; Rahdari, P.; Gholam Hossein Poor, F.; Kazemi Afarmejani, S.; Rahnavard A

2012-01-01

88

FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES. VOLUME 1. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth filtration of drinking water was studied under various operating conditions for removal of Giardia cysts, total coliform bacteria, standard plate count bacteria, turbidity, and particles. Seven grades of diatomaceous earth were used. Temper...

89

Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite.

Gautam Pennathur

2010-06-01

90

Evaluation of nine immunoassay kits (enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescence) for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens.  

OpenAIRE

It is well known that Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum can cause severe symptoms in humans, particularly those who are immunologically compromised. Immunoassay procedures offer both increased sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional staining methods. These reagents are also helpful when screening large numbers of patients, particularly in an outbreak situation or when screening patients with minimal symptoms. The data obtained by using 9 diagnostic kits were compared: di...

Garcia, L. S.; Shimizu, R. Y.

1997-01-01

91

Atrofia Villositaria Duodenal, un Hallazgo Inesperadamente Frecuente en Infestación por Giardia Lamblia / Duodenal villous atrophy, an unexpectedly common finding in giardia lamblia infestation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Estudiar la presencia y frecuencia de los cambios histopatológicos tales como atrofia villositaria, linfocitosis intraepitelial, hiperplasia linfoide nodular y presencia de eosinófilos en biopsis duodenales informadas como Giardiasis. METODOLOGÍA: Se recolectó todos los casos diagnosticado [...] s como giardiasis duodenal durante el período 2005 a 2009 en 5 diferentes servicios de anatomía patológica y fueron revisados por un grupo de patólogos. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 30 casos. Se observó atrofia de las vellosidades en el 61,2%, incremento de linfocitos intraepiteliales en 63,3%, presencia de folículos linfoides en el 43,3% el promedio de eosinófilos en lámina propia por campo de alto poder fue aprox. 7. DISCUSIÓN: Nuestro porcentaje de atrofia villositaria es mucho mayor que lo reportado por otros autores, los casos con atrofia presentaron mayor frecuencia de linfocitosis 83,3% que los casos sin atrofia. (30%). Este hallazgo coincide con la relación directa entre linfocitos intraepiteliales /atrofia de vellosidades descrita por varios autores. Ninguno de los casos con hiperplasia linfoide, presentó ausencia de células plasmáticas que nos hiciera sospechar histológicamente de algún tipo de inmunodepresión humoral. El número de eosinófilos encontrado fue levemente elevado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the histological changes observed in Giardia positive biopsies obtained from the duodenum.: The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), grade of villous atrophy, presence of lymph follicles and number of eosinophils in the lamina propria per HPF were assessed. METHODS: All g [...] iardia positive biopsies diagnosed during period 2005-2009 in 5 pathology units were reevaluated by a group of pathologists. RESULTS: Thirty cases were included. Atrophic villous architecture was seen in 61,2%, increase in number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in 63,3% The occurrence of lymphoid follicles in 43,3%. DISCUSSION: Villous atrophy was higher than reported by others authors, cases with atrophy showed greater frequency of increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes than cases without atrophy. No cases with lymph follicle showed lack of plasmatic cells, the number of eosinophils was subtly increased.

Fernando, Arévalo; Violeta, Aragón; Domingo, Morales L.; Domingo, Morales Caramutti; Jannitza, Arandia; Gabriel, Alcocer.

2010-09-01

92

The cysteine-rich protein gene family of Giardia lamblia: loss of the CRP170 gene in an antigenic variant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia trophozoites demonstrate variable expression of a repertoire of cysteine-rich surface antigens in vitro and in vivo. The size of the repertoire has been estimated at 20 to 184, and specific variants can be detected after approximately 12 generations of in vitro growth for the WB isolate. In earlier studies, we cloned a portion of the gene for a 170-kDa surface antigen (CRP170) and demonstrated by DNA sequencing that it was cysteine rich (12%) and contained 2.6 copies of a tandemly repeated 195-bp pair sequence. The clone hybridized to multiple bands on a Southern blot of G. lamblia DNA in a pattern that was variable among the cloned lines but did not correlate with expression of CRP170. We have now cloned a nearly full length cDNA as well as genomic clones for CRP170 from the WBA6 cloned isolate. In addition, we have isolated a cDNA clone from the WB1269 line (expressing CRP72), an antigenic variant which was derived from WBA6. Sequence analysis of the CRP170 and CRP72 genes revealed marked C-terminal amino acid homology, suggesting a conserved functional role such as membrane anchoring. The CRP170 repeat oligonucleotide hybridized to a stairstep of bands approximately 6 kb in size on HindIII-digested WBA6 DNA representing the expressed copy(ies) of CRP170. In contrast, there was no hybridization to a fragment of similar size in WB1269, suggesting that WB1269 trophozoites have lost the expressed copy of the CRP170 gene. Images PMID:1545800

Adam, R D; Yang, Y M; Nash, T E

1992-01-01

93

ISOLATION AND DETECTION OF GIARDIA CYSTS FROM WATER USING DIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.  

Science.gov (United States)

A water-sampling apparatus used for the isolation and detection of Giardia cysts in water has been designed and tested. The sampling apparatus uses one of a variety of pumps or waterline pressure to move water through a filter. Two of the optional pumps are lightweight enough to make the apparatus portable and thus suitable for sampling in remote areas. This technique of sample processing produces good cyst recovery in much less time than is required with previously established methods. Giardia cysts are identified using direct immunofluorescence.

Sorenson, Stephen K.; Riggs, John L.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Suk, Thomas J.

1986-01-01

94

Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira  

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Full Text Available The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and socioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ, height for age (HAZ, weight for height (WHZ and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307. Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282. Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242. Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003, WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018 and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011, controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI, altura-idade (AI, peso-altura (PA e perímetro braquial-idade (PBI. Os exames parasitológicos foram realizados através dos métodos de Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 e Safranina-Azul-de-Metileno (n = 307. A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações independentes entre Giardia lamblia e PI (beta = -0.195, p = 0.003, PA (beta = -0.161, p = 0.018 e PBI (beta = -0.197, p = 0.011, após controle para idade, sexo, renda familiar e infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. O modelo multivariado demonstrou ainda que a única variável associada aos níveis de hemoglobina foi a idade. O estudo concluiu que a giardíase está associada, nos sujeitos pesquisados, a menores médias para os parâmetros antropométricos estudados e que um controle efetivo das parasitoses intestinais poderia contribuir para o pleno desenvolvimento das crianças na área estudada.

Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

2007-06-01

95

Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon / Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além [...] de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z) para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI), altura-idade (AI), peso-altura (PA) e perímetro braquial-idade (PBI). Os exames parasitológicos foram realizados através dos métodos de Ritchie (n = 307), Kato-Katz (n = 278), Baermann-Moraes (n = 238) e Safranina-Azul-de-Metileno (n = 307). A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações independentes entre Giardia lamblia e PI (beta = -0.195, p = 0.003), PA (beta = -0.161, p = 0.018) e PBI (beta = -0.197, p = 0.011), após controle para idade, sexo, renda familiar e infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. O modelo multivariado demonstrou ainda que a única variável associada aos níveis de hemoglobina foi a idade. O estudo concluiu que a giardíase está associada, nos sujeitos pesquisados, a menores médias para os parâmetros antropométricos estudados e que um controle efetivo das parasitoses intestinais poderia contribuir para o pleno desenvolvimento das crianças na área estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and so [...] cioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ) parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307), Kato-Katz (n = 278), Baermann-Moraes (n = 238) and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307). Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282). Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242). Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003), WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018) and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011), controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.

Filipe Anibal, Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga, Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira, Lassance; Luanda Macedo da, Silva Neto; Carla Alexandra Almeida, Salmazo; Marcio Neves, Bóia.

2007-06-01

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Oral Immunization of BALB/c Mice with Giardia duodenalis Recombinant Cyst Wall Protein Inhibits Shedding of Cysts  

OpenAIRE

The process of encystation is a key step in the Giardia duodenalis life cycle that allows this intestinal protozoan to survive between hosts during person-to-person, animal-to-person, waterborne, or food-borne transmission. The release of cysts from infected persons and animals is the main contributing factor to contamination of the environment. Genes coding for cyst wall proteins (CWPs), which could be used for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine, have been cloned. Since the immunogen...

Larocque, R.; Nakagaki, K.; Lee, P.; Abdul-wahid, A.; Faubert, G. M.

2003-01-01

97

Rational Design Synthesis and Evaluation of First Generation Inhibitors of the Giardia Lamblia Fructose-1 6-biphosphate Aldolase  

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Inhibitors of the Giardia lamblia fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (GlFBPA), which transforms fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, were designed based on 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone and 1,2-dihydroxypyridine scaffolds that position two negatively charged tetrahedral groups for interaction with substrate phosphate binding residues, a hydrogen bond donor to the catalytic Asp83, and a Zn{sup 2+} binding group. The inhibition activities for the GlFBPA catalyzed reaction of FBP of the prepared alkyl phosphonate/phosphate substituted 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinones and a dihydroxypyridine were determined. The 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone inhibitor 8 was found to bind to GlFBPA with an affinity (K{sub i} = 14 {micro}M) that is comparable to that of FBP (K{sub m} = 2 {micro}M) or its inert analog TBP (K{sub i} = 1 {micro}M). The X-ray structure of the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex (2.3 {angstrom}) shows that 8 binds to the active site in the manner predicted by in silico docking with the exception of coordination with Zn{sup 2+}. The observed distances and orientation of the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH relative to Zn{sup 2+} are not consistent with a strong interaction. To determine if Zn{sup 2+} coordination occurs in the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex in solution, EXAFS spectra were measured. A four coordinate geometry comprised of the three enzyme histidine ligands and an oxygen atom from the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH was indicated. Analysis of the Zn{sup 2+} coordination geometries in recently reported structures of class II FBPAs suggests that strong Zn{sup 2+} coordination is reserved for the enediolate-like transition state, accounting for minimal contribution of Zn{sup 2+} coordination to binding of 8 to GlFBPA.

Z Li; Z Liu; D Cho; J Zou; M Gong; R Breece; A Galkin; L Li; H Zhao; et al.

2011-12-31

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HIGH RESOLUTION IMMUNOGOLD LOCALIZATION OF GIARDIA CYST WALL ANTIGENS USING FIELD EMISSION SEM WITH SECONDARY AND BACKSCATTER ELECTRON IMAGING  

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In this report we described the ultrastructural localization of Giardia cyst antigens in the filaments associated with the outer portion of intact cysts and on developing cyst wall filaments in encysting trophozoites. ostembedding immunogold labeling of thin sections of intact Gi...

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Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 em cães (Canis familiaris avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 in dogs (Canis familiaris available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107 entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162 totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004. O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level. For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107 when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162, the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples, 15.67% (23 of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004. The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

Cristiane Beck

2005-02-01

100

Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with Giardia duodenalis recombinant cyst wall protein inhibits shedding of cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of encystation is a key step in the Giardia duodenalis life cycle that allows this intestinal protozoan to survive between hosts during person-to-person, animal-to-person, waterborne, or food-borne transmission. The release of cysts from infected persons and animals is the main contributing factor to contamination of the environment. Genes coding for cyst wall proteins (CWPs), which could be used for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine, have been cloned. Since the immunogenicity of recombinant Giardia CWP is unknown, we have investigated the immunogenicity of recombinant CWP2 (rCWP2) and its efficacy in interfering with the phenomenon of encystation taking place in the small bowels of BALB/c mice vaccinated with the recombinant protein. Here we report that the immunization of BALB/c mice with rCWP2 stimulated the immune system in a manner comparable to that for a live infection with Giardia muris cysts. Fecal and serum anti-rCWP2 immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were detected in the immunized mice. In addition, anti-rCWP2 IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were detected in the serum. mRNAs coding for Th1 and Th2 types of cytokines were detected in spleen and Peyer's patch cells from immunized mice. When the vaccinated mice were challenged with live cysts, the animals shed fewer cysts. We conclude that rCWP2 is a possible candidate antigen for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. PMID:14500486

Larocque, R; Nakagaki, K; Lee, P; Abdul-Wahid, A; Faubert, G M

2003-10-01

101

Giardia Cysts in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Italy  

OpenAIRE

Reductions in annual rainfall in some regions and increased human consumption have caused a shortage of water resources at the global level. The recycling of treated wastewaters has been suggested for certain domestic, industrial, and agricultural activities. The importance of microbiological and parasitological criteria for recycled water has been repeatedly emphasized. Among water-borne pathogens, protozoa of the genera Giardia and Cryptosporidium are known to be highly resistant to water t...

Caccio?, Simone M.; Giacomo, Marzia; Aulicino, Francesca A.; Pozio, Edoardo

2003-01-01

102

CROSS-SPECIES TRANSMISSION OF GIARDIA: INOCULATION OF BEAVERS AND MUSKRATS WITH CYSTS OF HUMAN, BEAVER, MOUSE, AND MUSKRAT ORIGIN  

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Giardia cysts isolated from humans, beavers, mice and muskrats were tested in cross-species transmission experiments for their ability to infect either beavers or muskrats. iardia cysts, derived from multiple symptomatic human donors and used for inoculation of beavers ormuskrats...

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Static tank depuration and chronic short-term experimental contamination of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) with Giardia duodenalis cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia have been detected in many bivalve shellfish species worldwide. The detection of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B is of public health concern, yet there is limited data available demonstrating the bioaccumulation and elimination of Giardia cysts in bivalve shellfish. This study quantified G. duodenalis cysts that were filtered and retained by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) over a one week chronic exposure period, or 24hour exposure followed by a 6day depuration period, using static tank systems containing 10L of 29ppt water inoculated with 1000 or 10,000 cysts. Under chronic exposure, each oyster retained a mean of 13.4 and 87.4 cysts during the first 24h of exposure at low and high doses, respectively, and the cysts bioaccumulated at a rate of 1.2 and 6.8cysts/oyster/day, respectively, for the remaining duration of the trials. In acute exposure trials, oysters retained 13.8 cysts or 78.9 cysts at low and high doses, respectively, during the initial 24hour exposure and naturally depurated cysts at a rate of -0.92cysts/oyster/day and -2.2cysts/oyster/day, respectively, after transfer. Although most G. duodenalis cysts were eliminated within the first 24h via pseudofeces and feces, detection of some cysts in the fecal material on day 7 of acute exposure trials was indicative of cysts which passed through the digestive tract and released in feces. Only 48-53% of the initial tank inocula were recovered and may indicate that some cysts were selectively filtered by oysters but degraded through digestion. PMID:25305439

Willis, Jessica E; McClure, J T; McClure, Carol; Spears, Jonathan; Davidson, Jeff; Greenwood, Spencer J

2015-01-01

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Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination) via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California) is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can de...

Brett Swierczewski; Elizabeth Odundo; Janet Ndonye; Ronald Kirera; Cliff Odhiambo; Edwin Oaks

2012-01-01

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THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT  

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Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of 89.95±4.25 . Discussion. The comparison of the efficiency obtained with those obtained across the world from the application of other techniques associated with this method indicated that this filter was advantages to similar filters, keeping in mind also that this filter can be used in field situations. It is essential to modify in each region the method of cyst removal from sediments using Sucrose gradient according to the particular morphological characteristics and density of cystes. The optimization of Sucrose gradient and the centrifugation duration and speed seems equally important.

M.R SHAH MANSOURI

2001-09-01

106

Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis cysts in the Oreto River (Sicily, Southern Italy  

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Background: The presence of Giardia was investigated along the Oreto river between January 2008 and May 2009 with the aim of understanding the source of contamination by molecular typing of cysts.

Methods: A total of 38 water samples (10 collected from the river mouth, 24 from the whole Oreto basin and 4 sewage samples from the Monreale treatment plant were processed. In addition, 22 faecal samples of livestock living close to the Oreto area, were analyzed. The presence of Giardia was determined by immunofluorescence assay and their genetic characterization was achieved by a nested PCR assay targeting the triosephosphate isomerase gene.

Results: All water samples from the river mouth were positive for Giardia, even if the concentration of cysts fluctuated considerably among sampling occasions. Our investigation showed that the Vadduneddu and Altofonte torrents, two influents of the river, were the principal sources of contamination. Moreover, the genotypes of Vadduneddu torrent were the same as those detected in human wastewater taken from the activated sludge plant of Monreale city. Assemblages A and B were found in water samples with a predominance of Assemblage A, subtype AII. Assemblage E was only found in a single calf isolate.

Conclusions: The data show that the high cyst counts regularly detected in the Oreto river are due to contamination with wastewater of human origin. This finding is relevant for public health, particularly because river water is used for agricultural purposes.

Maria Antonella Di Benedetto

2010-03-01

107

Evaluation of Five Membrane Filtration Methods for Recovery of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Water Samples  

OpenAIRE

We evaluated the efficiency of five membrane filters for recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. These filters included the Pall Life Sciences Envirochek (EC) standard filtration and Envirochek high-volume (EC-HV) membrane filters, the Millipore flatbed membrane filter, the Sartorius flatbed membrane filter (SMF), and the Filta-Max (FM) depth filter. Distilled and surface water samples were spiked with 10 oocysts and 10 cysts/liter. We also evaluated the recovery...

Wohlsen, T.; Bates, J.; Gray, B.; Katouli, M.

2004-01-01

108

New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens

2012-01-01

109

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN DRINKING WATER - PALL CORPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Verification testing of the Pall Corporation WPM-1 Microfiltration Pilot System was conducted from February 3 to March 5, 1999. The treatment system underwent microbial challenge testing on February 5, 1999, and demonstrated a 5.8 log10 removal of Giardia cysts and a 6.8 lo...

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Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracteri...

Luja?n, Hugo D.

2006-01-01

111

ETV STATEMENT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN DRINKING WATER - ZENON ZEEWEED ZW500 ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT PITTSBURGH, PA  

Science.gov (United States)

Verification testing of the ZENON Environmental Inc. ZeeWeed ZW500 UF Drinking Water System was conducted from 2/6-3/7/99. The treatment system underwent Giardia and Cryptosporidium removal challenge testing on 3/2/99 and demonstrated a 5.3 log10 removal of Giardia cysts and a 6...

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Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O-. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, can be facilitated by sonication. Methods: We studied the effects of ultrasound with different sonication power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection of parasites for further study. The specific operational conditions may be tailored to control survival rates and collection efficiency.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2011-01-01

113

PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN  

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Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

Pourbabak

1996-06-01

114

Distribution of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water above and below the normal limit of detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of water samples for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts is a specialised and demanding pursuit. Understanding and evaluating data resulting from such analyses is equally specialised and complicated by the most common result--not finding any of the target organisms. Coming to an accurate conclusion regarding such monitoring results has been hampered by a lack of pertinent information presented in the context of current monitoring requirements. The work reported here presents laboratory data demonstrating an appropriate skewed distribution model statistical framework. It is shown that the Poisson model provides for understanding how Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts are distributed in water at typical ambient concentrations that are near or most commonly below the limit of detection of the most widely used analytical procedure, USEPA Method 1623. From three to six replicate 50-L volumes of particle-free water were seeded with Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts each at concentrations of ca. 0.2/L, 1-2/L, and 6-8/L. The seeded 50-L volumes were analysed in five 10-L aliquots to determine the number of oocysts and cysts in each. The data conformed to the Poisson distribution. This supports the interpretation that analysis of 10-L surface water samples resulting in not finding any target organisms is the result of their presence below the limit of detection. This interpretation strongly suggests that analysing fewer larger volume samples would provide more useful information. PMID:23052785

Ongerth, Jerry E; Saaed, Frhat M A

2013-02-01

115

Evaluation of a new monoclonal antibody combination reagent for direct fluorescence detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in human fecal specimens.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum can cause severe symptoms in humans, particularly in the immunologically compromised. Monoclonal antibody reagents offer increased sensitivity and an excellent alternative to conventional staining methods. These reagents are helpful when screening large numbers of patients or those with minimal symptoms. Problems of false-positive and false-negative results with routine staining methods for stool parasites can be eliminated with monoclonal antibody r...

Garcia, L. S.; Shum, A. C.; Bruckner, D. A.

1992-01-01

116

The abundance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in treated effluents produced by four wastewater treatment plants in the Gauteng Province of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of 4 wastewater treatment plants of the Gauteng Province, namely Zeekoegat, Baviaanspoort, Rayton and Refilwe Water Care Works (WCW), in the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Wastewater influent and treated effluent samples were taken w [...] eekly between January and April 2008. Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts were detected by immunofluorescence and immunomagnetic separation, according to a modified US EPA 1623 method. Effluent samples were subjected to a molecular study for the identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype I and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A. The 18S rRNA gene for restriction digests was therefore used to characterise these (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were repeatedly detected in effluent samples collected from all wastewater treatments at lower concentration (range

M, Dungeni; MNB, Momba.

2010-07-01

117

Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil  

OpenAIRE

Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i) concentr...

Luciana Urbano Santos; Taís Rondello Bonatti; Romeu Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno Franco

2004-01-01

118

PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA IN BEAVER AND MUSKRAT POPULATIONS IN NEW ENGLAND STATES AND MINNESOTA: DETECTION OF INTESTINAL TROPHOZOITES AT NECROPSY PROVIDES GREATER SENSITIVITY THAN DETECTION OF CYSTS IN FECAL SAMPLES  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys on the prevalence of Giardia in animal populations have relied on the detection of cysts in fecal samples. e have determined the prevalence of Giardia in beaver and muskrat in four New England states plus Minnesota using both the detection of trophozoites in mucosal scrap...

119

Prevalence of Giardia spp. in beaver and muskrat populations in northeastern states and Minnesota: detection of intestinal trophozoites at necropsy provides greater sensitivity than detection of cysts in fecal samples.  

OpenAIRE

Surveys of the prevalence of the intestinal protozoan Giardia spp. in animal populations have relied almost exclusively on the detection of cysts in fecal samples. We have determined the prevalence of Giardia spp. in beaver and muskrat populations in four northeastern states and Minnesota by using both the detection of trophozoites in mucosal scrapings from live-trapped animals at necropsy and the detection of cysts in fecal samples collected from kill-trapped animals. In muskrats the prevale...

Erlandsen, S. L.; Sherlock, L. A.; Bemrick, W. J.; Ghobrial, H.; Jakubowski, W.

1990-01-01

120

CROSS TRANSMISSION OF 'GIARDIA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia cysts isolated from fecal samples obtained from humans (Homo sapiens), beaver (Castor canadensis), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus), bighorn X mouflon sheep (Ovis canadensis X O. musimon), guinea pig (Cavis porcellus), muskrat (Ondatra ziethica) and mule d...

121

A single-step immunochromatographic lateral-flow assay for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

RIDA Quick immunochromatographic lateral-flow assay was evaluated for diagnosis of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis as compared to the "gold standard" stool examination. Of the 300 specimens were examined by microscopy of direct wet films, concentrated sediments, modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained slides, 35 samples of Giardia, ten Cryptosporidium, 35 of other parasites, and 20 negative controls were selected for RIDA Quick test examination. All the samples that gave discrepancy results were retested by the centrifugation prior to preparation for the permanent stained smear. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of RIDA quick test for Giardia were 91.6%, 98.4%, 97% & 95.4% respectively, while that of the microscopic stool examination were 94.5%, 100%, 100% & 96.9%. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of RIDA quick test for Cryptosporidium was 91.6%, 100%, 100% & 98.8% respectively, while that of the microscopic stool examination were 83.3%, 100%, 100% & 97.7%. PMID:19209762

Abdel Hameed, Dina M; Elwakil, Hala S; Ahmed, Mona A

2008-12-01

122

Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos / Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambai [...] a, Campinas, em São Paulo). As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL), 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL) e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV). Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise. Abstract in english In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo). The samples we [...] re collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL), 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL), and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV). Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

Luciana Urbano dos, Santos; Romeu, Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno, Franco; José Roberto, Guimarães.

2011-06-01

123

Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambaia, Campinas, em São Paulo. As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL, 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV. Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise.In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo. The samples were collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL, 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL, and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

Luciana Urbano dos Santos

2011-06-01

124

Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphages as indicators of the efficiency of drinking water treatment for viruses and protozoan cysts.  

OpenAIRE

To find the most suitable indicator of viral and parasitic contamination of drinking water, large-volume samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of pathogens (cultivable human enteric viruses, Giardia lamblia cysts, and Cryptosporidium oocysts) and potential indicators (somatic and male-specific coliphages, Clostridium perfringens). The samples were obtained from three water treatment plants by using conventional or better treatments (ozonation, biological filtration). All sample...

Payment, P.; Franco, E.

1993-01-01

125

Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP and to ii purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8 when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7. As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively. Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2 were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1 was positive (12.5%. The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.Giardia e Cryptosporidium causaram vários surtos epidêmicos de gastroenterite, associados à água potável. Efluentes de esgoto contaminados foram incriminados como uma fonte potencial de cistos e oocistos. Uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado de uma Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto. Para isto as amostras foram submetidas: i a concentração pelo processo de clarificação com éter (ECP e ii método de purificação por flutuação em sacarose (SFM e, as alíquotas dos sedimentos foram examinadas por imunofluorescência. Cistos de Giardia estiveram presentes em todas as amostras avaliadas (100,0%; n = 8 quando utilizado ECP e kit 1, enquanto o kit 2 resultou em 6 amostras positivas (85,7%; n = 7. Para SFM, cistos de Giardia foram detectados em 75,0% e 100,0% destas amostras (para kit 1 e 2 respectivamente. Considerando os oocistos de Cryptosporidium, duas amostras (25,0%; kit 1 e 28,5% kit 2 foram positivas usando-se ECP enquanto para SFM, apenas uma amostra (examinada pelo kit 1 foi positiva (12,5%. Os resultados do experimento-controle revelaram que as taxas de recuperação para Giardia e Cryptosporidium, quando utilizado ECP foi de 54,5% e 9,6% e para SFM, foi de 10,5% e 3,2%, respectivamente. Considerando a detecção de alta concentração desses protozoários, é recomendada a avaliação prévia do lodo ativado antes de sua aplicação na agricultura e, com alguma melhora, ECP pode ser uma técnica apropriada e simples para a detecção de protozoários em amostras de esgoto.

Luciana Urbano Santos

2004-04-01

126

Diarrea crónica refractaria y malabsorción secundaria a hipogammaglobulinemia común variable, infestación crónica por giardia lamblia y gastrectomía total por adenocarcinoma gástrico: un manejo nutricional complejo / Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adenocarcinoma gástrico es una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo, siendo la cirugía el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, aunque los efectos adversos digestivos y nutricionales son frecuentes y abundantes. La hipogammaglobulinemia variable común es causa de frecuentes [...] manifestaciones digestivas, derivándose las más importantes en diarrea crónica causada por giardiasis, hiperplasia nodular linfoide o atrofia vellosa, siendo frecuente la malabsorción y la desnutrición. Los déficits nutricionales secundarios a la malabsorción (postgastrectomía y asociada a la atrofia vellosa y la giardiasis por hipogammaglobulinemia variable común) son asimismo frecuentes. Presentamos el caso de un paciente gastrectomizado por adenocarcinoma gástrico y con hipogammaglobulinemia variable común e infestación crónica por giardiasis que presenta una importante diarrea crónica refractaria a tratamiento y malabsorción. Abstract in english Gastric cancer is a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Surgery is the only potentially curative therapy, although the adverse effects of surgery are common and considerable. Common variable immunodeficiency is in many cases cause of gastrointestinal system problems such as chro [...] nic diarrhea caused by infestation with giardia lamblia, nodular lymphoid hiperplasia ad loss of villi leading frequently to malapsortion and malnutrition. Nutritional deficiencies due to malapsorption (postgastrectomy and secondary to loss of villi, giardiasis and common variable inmunodeficiency) are common. We present the case of a patient with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy with common variable hipogammaglobulinemia and chronic infestation by giardia lamblia, with serious diarrhea resistant to treatment and malabsorption.

M. E., Domínguez-López; I., González-Molero; C. P., Ramírez-Plaza; F., Soriguer; G., Olveira.

2011-08-01

127

ETV REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN DRINKING WATER AQUASOURCE NORTH AMERICA ULTRAFILTRATION SYSTEM A35 AT PITTSBURGH, PA. - NSF00/07/EPADW395  

Science.gov (United States)

Verification testing of the Aquasource Ultrafiltration Treatment System Model A35 was conducted from 12/1 - 12/31/98. The treatment system underwent microbial challenge testing on 1/22/99 and demonstrated a 5.5 log10 removal of Giardia cysts and a 6.5 log10 removal of Cryptospori...

128

Isolation of Giardia from a llama and from sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia cysts were detected in feces of a domestic llama (Lama glama) and in feces of lambs (Ovis aries) from Wisconsin, U.S.A. All of the animals examined were immature, and they had recent histories of poor condition and passing unformed or semiformed, pale stools. Giardia cysts from both host species were excysted in vitro, and the trophozoites were cultivated axenically. Furthermore, Giardia cysts from both sources were shown to produce infection in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unquiculatus). The finding of Giardia in the llama represents a new host recorded for this parasite. Also, this is the first report of Giardia-infected sheep from the Western Hemisphere. PMID:3607656

Kiorpes, A L; Kirkpatrick, C E; Bowman, D D

1987-04-01

129

MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

130

Zoonotic potential of Giardia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. PMID:23856595

Ryan, Una; Cacciò, Simone M

2013-11-01

131

Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods. Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively.Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani

132

Strategies To Discover the Structural Components of Cyst and Oocyst Walls  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysts of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum are the infectious and sometimes diagnostic forms of these parasites. To discover the structural components of cyst and oocyst walls, we have developed strategies based upon a few simple assumptions. Briefly, the most abundant wall proteins are identified by monoclonal antibodies or mass spectrometry. Structural components include a sugar polysaccharide (chitin for Entamoeba, ?-1,3-linked glucose for Toxoplasma, and ?-1,3-linked GalNAc for Giardia) and/or acid-fast lipids (Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium). Because Entamoeba cysts and Toxoplasma oocysts are difficult to obtain, studies of walls of nonhuman pathogens (E. invadens and Eimeria, respectively) accelerate discovery. Biochemical methods to dissect fungal walls work well for cyst and oocyst walls, although the results are often unexpected. For example, echinocandins, which inhibit glucan synthases and kill fungi, arrest the development of oocyst walls and block their release into the intestinal lumen. Candida walls are coated with mannans, while Entamoeba cysts are coated in a dextran-like glucose polymer. Models for cyst and oocyst walls derive from their structural components and organization within the wall. Cyst walls are composed of chitin fibrils and lectins that bind chitin (Entamoeba) or fibrils of the ?-1,3-GalNAc polymer and lectins that bind the polymer (Giardia). Oocyst walls of Toxoplasma have two distinct layers that resemble those of fungi (?-1,3-glucan in the inner layer) or mycobacteria (acid-fast lipids in the outer layer). Oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium have a rigid bilayer of acid-fast lipids and inner layer of oocyst wall proteins. PMID:24096907

Bushkin, G. Guy; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Robbins, Phillips W.

2013-01-01

133

Cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

... such as trichinosis , dog tapeworm ( Toxocara canis ), and echinococcus , can form cysts within the muscles, liver, brain, lungs, and eyes. Cysts are common on the skin. They can develop from a clogged sebaceous glands ( ...

134

First record of Giardia in cattle in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in cattle and to be transmitted to other animal species and humans, finding the parasite in cattle may be of major epidemiological significance. Future work should focus on elucidating the pathogenicity, transmission patterns and the genetic structure of Giardia populations in cattle in Denmark.

Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.

1996-01-01

135

Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods  

OpenAIRE

Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambaia, Campinas, em São Paulo). As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL), 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (E...

Luciana Urbano dos Santos; Romeu Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno Franco; José Roberto Guimarães

2011-01-01

136

Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil / Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old) from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2 [...] 000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic) was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9%) of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19). In 82% (9/11) calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75%) positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30) sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm). They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

A.M., Guimarães; E., Guedes; R.A., Carvalho.

2001-12-01

137

Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water supplies.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by using a combined immunofluorescence test for filtered drinking water samples collected from 66 surface water treatment plants in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. Giardia cysts were detected in 17% of the 83 filtered water effluents. Cryptosporidium oocysts, were observed in 27% of the drinking water samples. Overall, cysts or oocysts were found in 39% of the treated effluent samples. Despite the frequent detection of parasites in drinkin...

Lechevallier, M. W.; Norton, W. D.; Lee, R. G.

1991-01-01

138

Development of Sensitive Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Surface Water in Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia are known to occur widely in both raw and drinking waters. They are two of the causative agents of waterborne out-breaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. In the present study, a PCR assay and FA were developed for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst in environmental samples. Methods: We have detected Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in seeded and un-seeded environmental water samples b...

Taghipour Lailabadi, N.; Kazemi, B.; Ashrafi, K.; Abedinzadeh, H.; Tahvildar-bideruni, F.; Haghighi, A.; Bandehpour, M.; MR Mahmoudi

2011-01-01

139

Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas Enzymes Activate Metronidazole (Nitroreductases) and Inactivate Metronidazole (Nitroimidazole Reductases) ? †  

OpenAIRE

Infections with Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis, which cause diarrhea, dysentery, and vaginitis, respectively, are each treated with metronidazole. Here we show that Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas have oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (ntr) genes which are homologous to those genes that have nonsense mutations in metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates. Entamoeba and Trichomonas also have nim genes which are homologous to those genes expres...

Pal, Dibyarupa; Banerjee, Sulagna; Cui, Jike; Schwartz, Aaron; Ghosh, Sudip K.; Samuelson, John

2009-01-01

140

ANALYSIS OF INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA BY CHLORINE  

Science.gov (United States)

Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-93-523) highlight the continuing problem of waterborne disease by mandating the EPA to promulgate: (1) Criteria by which filtration will be required for surface water supplies; and (2) disinfection requirements for all water supplies ...

141

GAC adsorption filters as barriers for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) adsorption filtration is commonly used in drinking water treatment to remove NOM and micro-pollutants and on base of the process conditions a certain capacity to eliminate pathogenic micro-organisms was expected. The experiences with the mandatory quantitative microbial risk assessment of Dutch drinking water revealed a lack of knowledge on the elimination capacity of this process for pathogens. The objective of the current study was to determine the capacity of GAC filtration to remove MS2, Escherichia coli and spores of Clostridium bifermentans as process indicators for pathogens and more directly of (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Challenge tests with fresh and loaded GAC were performed in pilot plant GAC filters supplied with pre-treated surface water at a contact time which was half of the contact time of the full-scale GAC filters. MS2 phages were not removed and the removal of E. coli and the anaerobic spores was limited ranging from < or =0.1-1.1 log. The (oo)cysts of C. parvum and G. lamblia, however, were removed significantly (1.3-2.7 log). On base of the results of the experiments and the filtration conditions the removal of the indicator bacteria and (oo)cysts was largely attributed to attachment. The model of the Colloid Filtration Theory was used to describe the removal of the dosed biocolloids in the GAC filters, but the results demonstrated that there is a lack of quantitative knowledge about the influence of collector characteristics on the two major CFT parameters, the single collector and the sticking efficiency. PMID:19892384

Hijnen, W A M; Suylen, G M H; Bahlman, J A; Brouwer-Hanzens, A; Medema, G J

2010-02-01

142

Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus / Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus). As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia [...] sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso. Abstract in english This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus) faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosp [...] oridium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

João Fabio, Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da, Silva; Camila Belmonte, Oliveira; Marcos Kipper da, Silva; Gleide, Mariscano; Edson Luis, Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez, Monteiro.

2008-04-01

143

Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

João Fabio Soares

2008-04-01

144

'GIARDIA MURIS': SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF IN VITRO EXCYSTATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently developed in vitro excystation procedure results in almost total excystation of Giardia muris, an intestinal parasite of mice. The present experiment examines the G. muris cyst morphology by scanning electron microscopy and evaluates the efficacy of the excystation pro...

145

Presence of Giardia spp. and absence of Salmonella spp. in New Jersey muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus).  

OpenAIRE

Of 220 muskrat fecal specimens collected from 12 sites in southwestern New Jersey, 154 (70%) were found to contain cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. Cysts from selected muskrat fecal specimens infected Mongolian gerbils, but attempts to cultivate trophozoites removed from these gerbils were unsuccessful. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the muskrat fecal specimens.

Kirkpatrick, C. E.; Benson, C. E.

1987-01-01

146

Giardia intestinalis: DNA extraction approaches to improve PCR results.  

Science.gov (United States)

Difficulty in disrupting cysts of Giardia intestinalis, a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite, decreases the yield of DNA extracted and reduces the effectiveness of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To improve the detection of the Giardia Glutamate Dehydrogenase (gdh) gene, we re-evaluated the effects of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction methods. Purified and concentrated cysts from 33 fecal samples were disrupted using conventional methods, and DNA extraction was conducted using two protocols: the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit and phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (PCI). PCR amplification was successful for 12 extracted DNA samples (36%) using PCI following a glass bead and freeze/thaw pretreatment and for all 33 samples (100%) using the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit following the aforementioned pretreatment. Consequently, the pretreatment of cysts with glass beads and freeze/thaw cycles followed by extraction of DNA with the QIAamp Stool Mini kit was the more effective protocol. PMID:21315715

Babaei, Zahra; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Rezaie, Sasan; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Razmjou, Elham

2011-06-01

147

Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos / Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado ( [...] RALF), na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5,5%), Trichuris sp (4,5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%), H. nana (1%) e Taenia sp (0,4%), Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal. Abstract in english This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5.5%), Trichuris sp (4.5%), Hymenolepis [...] diminuta (3.7%), H. nana (1%) and Taenia sp (0.4%), protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

Rosangela C., Paulino; Edilene A., Castro; Vanete, Thomaz-Soccol.

2001-10-01

148

Comparative study between immunohistochemical grading and giardia genotyping among symptomatic and asymptomatic humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last years, multiple studies indicated the potential effectiveness of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Giardia in pathological specimens. By using the difference at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene locus, we investigated the genotype groups of Giardia lamblia isolated directly from fecal specimens collected from humans living in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Immunohistochemical staining for detection of Giardia local antigenic and cellular immune-determinants focusing on CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes was also applied. The sensitivity of the ABC (avidine-biotin-peroxidase complex) immunoperoxidase technique for detection of the antigen was 97.3% and the specificity was 100%. Our study clearly demonstrated a highly significant difference between patients and controls as regards the grade of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte infiltration (p < 0.001 for each correlation) but no significant difference was found between Giardia symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Using the PCR technique, 89.3% sensitivity, 100% specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 92% were reached. Nevertheless, there was statistically insignificant difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups regarding the prevalence of different Giardia genotypes and the prevalence of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte infiltration grading in different Giardia genotypes. PMID:20306658

Handousa, Aya E; Azab, Manar S; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; El-Nahas, Hala A; Abd El-Hamid, Mahmoud A

2007-01-01

149

Molecular Diagnosis and Characterization of Two Intestinal Protozoa : Entamoeba histolytica & Giardia intestinalis  

OpenAIRE

Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis are two of the most important and most widespread diarrhea-related parasitic protozoa in the world. Approximately 1200 1500 cases of Giardia and 200 400 cases of Entamoeba are reported each year in Sweden, whereas the corresponding numbers are much higher in developing countries like Nicaragua. Traditionally, diagnosis of these parasites depends on microscopic detection of cysts or trophozoites, even though such methodology is ...

Lebbad, Marianne

2010-01-01

150

Evaluation of an Inhouse Rapid ELISA Test for Detection of Giardia in Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries)  

OpenAIRE

Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent sheddin...

Wilson, Jolaine M.; Hankenson, F. Claire

2010-01-01

151

First investigations into the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in Hungarian drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe drinking water is a top priority in preventing disease outbreaks and is of general concern to everyone. This study examines the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Hungarian drinking water supplies for the first time. A total of 76 raw and drinking water samples were examined using the U.S. EPA Method 1623. From these 15 of 34 (48.4%) raw water samples tested positive for Giardia and 7 (26.6%) for Cryptosporidium. Twelve of 45 (26.7%) drinking water samples were positive for Giardia and 6 (13.3%) for Cryptosporidium. Overall, Giardia cysts and/or Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 48% of the raw water samples and 35% of the drinking water samples. The highest levels in drinking water were found to be 3 oocysts/100 litres of Cryptosporidium and 63.6 cysts/100 litres for Giardia, enough to cause giardiasis. The highest levels in raw water were 1,030 cysts/100 litres for Giardia and 50 oocysts/100 litres for Cryptosporidium and higher oocyst densities were associated with source water receiving effluents from sewage treatment plants or originating from a forest environment. In addition to this monitoring, riverbank filtrated water and raw water from the River Danube in Budapest were monitored in order to ascertain protozoan removal efficiency of riverbank filtration (RBF). A total of 157 samples, including 87 samples from the River Danube and 70 samples post RBF, were examined. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected regularly in the river water but never in riverbank filtered water suggesting the effectiveness of RBF as a purification method. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in the investigated water supplies may require the water utilities and water authorities in Hungary to apply additional monitoring and treatment and/or watershed controls. PMID:17878568

Plutzer, J; Takó, M H; Márialigeti, K; Törökné, A; Karanis, P

2007-12-01

152

ULTRASTRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIA, VIRAL-LIKE PARTICLES, AND MYCOPLASMA-LIKE ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH 'GIARDIA' SPP. (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia trophozoites and cysts, isolated from mammalian and avian hosts, were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by fluorescent light microscopy for the presence of microbial symbionts. Mycroplasma-like organisms were obser...

153

Prevalencia de Giardia sp. en Canis familiaris de los distritos de la Provincia Constitucional del Callao  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de Giardia sp. en la población canina doméstica de los 6 distritos que conforman la Provincia Constitucional del Callao. Se colectaron 385 muestras fecales de perros, aparentemente normales, de ambos sexos, de diferentes edades y de acuerdo a [...] la zona en donde habitaban sus propietarios. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante la técnica de sedimentación espontánea encontrándose una prevalencia de 9.4 ± 2% de Giardia sp. Se cuantificó la asociación entre la presencia del parásito y las características físicas de las heces, estrato distrital de procedencia, sexo y edad del canino mediante la prueba de regresión logística, determinándose una relación estadísticamente significativa entre el hallazgo de quistes de Giardia sp. y las características físicas de las muestras. Los resultados denotan una parasitosis moderada de Giardia sp. en los caninos, evidenciando un riesgo zoonótico, por lo que se hace necesario el establecimiento de programas educativos para prevenir la posibilidad de contagio, especialmente en la población infantil. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the Giardia sp. prevalence in household dog populations on the six districts of the Provincia Constitucional del Callao. Fecal samples were collected from 385 apparently healthy dogs of various ages and processed by the spontaneous sedimentation technique. The [...] results indicated the 9.4 ± 2% (36/385) of the canine population were positive to Giardia sp. cysts. Relationships between cysts detection and fecal samples characteristics, and origin, sex and age of dogs were analyzed by logistic regression. A significant statistical relationship was found between Giardia sp. detection and physical characteristics of fecal samples. Results show a moderate Giardia sp. infection in dogs which evidences a zoonotic risk that highlight the necessity of setting up educational programmes in order to prevent Giardia sp. Transmission, especially to infant population.

William, Araujo T.; Amanda, Chávez V.; Eva, Casas A.; Néstor, Falcón P..

2004-07-01

154

Development of Sensitive Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Surface Water in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia are known to occur widely in both raw and drinking waters. They are two of the causative agents of waterborne out-breaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. In the present study, a PCR assay and FA were developed for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst in environmental samples. Methods: We have detected Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in seeded and un-seeded environmental water samples by PCR method. Water samples were spiked with oocysts (50, 100,300,500 and filtrated with a 1.2-µm pore size cellulose nitrate and follow by DNA extrac¬tion and purification by QIAamp DNA mini kit. Nested-PCR assay amplified an 850 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene specific for Cryptosporidium and 435 bp fragment of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH target gene for Giardia. Also many river water from north of Iran, be checked by these methods. Results: Cryptosporidium and Giardia DNAs were detected in seeded water sample and Giardia was detected in all 5 water samples from river in north of Iran by nested- PCR and FA. Also in one river water sample, Cryptosporidium was detected.Conclusion: This protocol is effective for detection of these waterborne parasites in treated and untreated water samples. This study can also serve as a platform for further investigations and research water source in Iran.

N Taghipour Lailabadi

2011-09-01

155

Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchments in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human wastewater and livestock can contribute to contamination of surface water with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. In countries where a substantial proportion of drinking water is produced from surface water, e.g., Belgium, this poses a constant threat on drinking water safety. Our objective was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchment sites in Belgium and to discriminate between (oo)cysts from human or animal origin using genotyping. Monthly samples were collected from raw water and purified drinking water at four catchment sites. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected using USEPA method 1623 and positive samples were genotyped. No contamination was found in purified water at any site. In three catchments, only low numbers of (oo)cysts were recovered from raw water samples (Genotyping of Giardia in 38 water samples identified the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage AI, AII, BIV, BIV-like, and E. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium horse genotype, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis were detected. The genotyping results suggest that agriculture may be a more important source of surface water contamination than human waste in this catchment. In catchment sites with contaminated surface water, such as the Blankaart, continuous monitoring of treated water for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia would be justified and (point) sources of surface water contamination should be identified. PMID:25616782

Ehsan, Amimul; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Paulussen, Jef; De Coster, Lut; Schoemaker, Toon; Chalmers, Rachel; Grit, Grietje; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

2015-02-01

156

Tarlov Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

NINDS Tarlov Cysts Information Page Synonym(s): Perineural Cysts, Sacral Nerve Root Cysts Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What are Tarlov Cysts? Tarlov cysts are sacs filled with cerebrospinal fluid ...

157

Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Human and Animal Reservoirs by PCR-RFLP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia duodenalis from human and animal feces and their epidemiological in Iran. Molecular characterization of cysts of human and animal origin represents an objective means to approve or reject this hypothesis. In this study, cysts of Giardia duodenalis were collected from feces of naturally infected cats (n = 2, human (n = 34, dog (n = 2 and cattle (n = 3. PCR-RFLP analysis of the 34 specimens recovered from humans revealed 6 G. duodenalis assemblage AII, 8 G. duodenalis assemblage BIII and 4 G. duodenalis assemblage BIV. Among samples from cats, 1 was classified into assemblage AI. Genetic subgenotypes identified from human reveals that genetic diversity of this protozoan in East Azerbaijan, Iran, is similar to that of Giardia from other parts of the world. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. duodenalis genotypes in Iran.

Esmaeel Fallah

2008-01-01

158

Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq  

OpenAIRE

The current study revealed the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in fecal samples which collected from stray dogs and cats in Mosul city. The total percentage of infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. in dogs were 42%, 26%, while the percentages in cats were 52%, 16% respectively and the single infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats and dogs formed highest rate was 75%, 50% respectively. The infection rate with Cryptosporidium...

Hadi, E. D.; Suleiman, E. G.; Al-obadi, Q. T.; Arslan, S. H.

2014-01-01

159

Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Turkish Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Giardiasis is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. intestinalis), which is one of the most frequent parasites that infect Turkish children. However, molecular characterization of G. duodenalis in Turkey is relatively scarce. The present work aimed at genotyping G. duodenalis isolates from Turkey using molecular techniques. Material and Methods In the present study, 145 fecal samples from children were collected to search for the presence of Giardia by microscopy and PCR screening. PCR generated a 384 bp fragment for ?-giardin. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by using PHYLIP. Results Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the sequences, assemblage A, B, and mixed subtypes were determined. Of 22 isolates, 11 were identified as assemblage A (50%), 7 were assemblage B (31.8%), and 4 were assemblage AB (18.2%). Association between G. duodenalis assemblages and the epidemiological data was analyzed. No correlation was found between symptoms and infection with specific assemblages (P>0.05), but we found statistically significant association between age and the assemblage AB (P=0.001). Conclusions The association between G. duodenalis and the epidemiologic data were analyzed. Since assemblage A is the more prevalent subgroup compared with assemblage B, this subgroup might be responsible for common Giardia infections in Turkey. This is the first study that included a detailed phylogenetic analysis of Giardia strains from Turkey. PMID:25689970

Tamer, Gulden Sonmez; Kasap, Murat; Er, Doganhan Kadir

2015-01-01

160

Ovarian Cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

MENU Return to Web version Ovarian Cyst Overview What is an ovarian cyst? An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac in or on the ovary. There are several types of ovarian cysts. Many ovarian cysts are noncancerous cysts that occur ...

161

Dual probe DNA capture for sensitive real-time PCR detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia  

OpenAIRE

Nucleic acid amplification for the enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia is complicated by low target template concentrations and PCR inhibitors. In this work we designed dual capture oligonucleotides for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia 18S rRNA targets which when utilized during DNA extraction from stool improved the limit of detection of our multiplex PCR assay by 1-2 logs, to as little as 10 cysts. When applied to clinical specimens, the method improved the real-time PCR CT by an av...

Stroup, Suzanne; Tongjai, Siripong; Swai, Ndealilia; Maro, Athanasia; Kibiki, Gibson; Houpt, Eric R.

2012-01-01

162

Towards a risk assessment for Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Portuguese fluvial beaches: a seasonal sampling over two years  

OpenAIRE

Abstract background: Waterborne outbreaks of diarrhoeal illness reported worldwide are mostly associated with Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Lake and river waters contaminated with (oo)cysts are major routes of human exposure making essential the development of preventive strategies for water safety. Since monitoring of water contamination with (oo)cysts is not routinely performed in Portugal, this study aims to unveil the possible associations between Portuguese fluvial beach characteri...

Ju?lio, C.; Ferreira, I.; Martins, S.; Sa?, C.; A?ngelo, H.; Guerreiro, J.; Tenreiro, R.

2010-01-01

163

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Ovarian Cysts Introduction Ovarian cysts are a very common female condition. An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac on an ovary in the female reproductive system. Most women have ovarian cysts sometime during their lives. Fortunately, most ovarian cysts ...

164

Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study revealed the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in fecal samples which collected from stray dogs and cats in Mosul city. The total percentage of infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. in dogs were 42%, 26%, while the percentages in cats were 52%, 16% respectively and the single infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats and dogs formed highest rate was 75%, 50% respectively. The infection rate with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. appeared higher in animals aged less than one year. High percentage of infection with Giardia spp. appeared in the females of cats and dogs were 28.12%, 17.5%, while the high infection rate with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. appeared in males of dogs and cats were 50%, 60% respectively

E.D. Hadi

2014-06-01

165

Ovarian Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... new cysts. A health problem that may involve ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS ... male hormones, irregular or no periods and small ovarian cysts. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on ...

166

Ganglion Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Surgery for Ganglion Cysts Introduction Ganglion cysts are common. They may cause pain and discomfort in the ... motion. The cyst may also recur. After the Surgery Your hand will be bandaged. Your doctor will ...

167

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cysts • Endometriomas • Cystadenomas • Polycystic ovaries Dermoid cysts. The cells in the ovary are able to make hair, ... and during menstruation. Cystadenomas. These cysts develop from cells on the outer surface of the ovary. They ...

168

A Preliminary Assessment of the Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the School Swimming Pool Water in Dubai, United Arab Emirates  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water of school swimming pools located in Dubai, UAE. The swimming pool water samples from five schools were tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using direct immunofluorescence assay. Samples were also examined for the total coliform, fecal coliform and heterotrophic bacteria using the membrane filtration technique. The majority of the tested swimming pool water samples were found contaminated with either Cryptosporidium oocysts or Giardia cysts or both. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found to be in the higher range (1-15 oocysts per liter than that of Giardia cysts (1-4 cysts per liter. All of the swimming pool water samples were found negative for the presence of traditional bacterial indicators. However, direct DAPI staining detected several types of viable but nonculturable (VBNC bacteria on the membrane filter. In conclusion, based on the preliminary data obtained, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found to be present in the tested schools’ swimming pool water. Future work on a long term monitoring of both parasites is highly recommended to enhance the swimming pool water quality and ensure the public health safety which will help in maintaining a hygienic and healthy recreational water environment.

Alia Ali Ahmad Aljanahi

2014-06-01

169

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Ovarian Cysts Introduction Ovarian cysts are a very common female condition. An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac on an ovary in the female reproductive system. Most women have ovarian cysts sometime during their lives. Fortunately, most ovarian ...

170

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.

Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.

2013-01-01

171

First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

Matheus Hillard Farret

2010-09-01

172

DIFFERENTIATION OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS FROM OTHER GIARDIA SPP. BASED ON THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND GENE PROBES  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia is a waterborne organism that is the most commonly identified pathogenic intestinal protozoan in the United States. urrent detection techniques for Giardia water include microscopy and immunofluorescence techniques. peciation of the genus Giardia has been based on taxonom...

173

Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis trophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability. PMID:25424449

Barbosa, Joana; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves; Pérez, Maria José; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

2014-12-01

174

Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis t [...] rophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

Joana, Barbosa; Acácio Gonçalves, Rodrigues; Maria José, Pérez; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

1078-10-01

175

Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá is a neo-tropical mammal with has a wide distribution in Brazil. In the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, RS, a fecal sample from a specimen captured for treatment was collected and analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate for research of parasites. A large number of cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. The results indicate that L. weeidi is a host of these protozoa.

Camila Belmonte Oliveira

2008-04-01

176

Ganglion Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cysts. They tend to be more common in women. These cysts could increase and decrease in size ... for the advice of a doctor or healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. ...

177

Ganglion Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cysts. They tend to be more common in women. These cysts could increase and decrease in size ... will take before you can go back to work. This depends on your age, type of work, ...

178

Ovarian Cysts  

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Full Text Available ... common female condition. An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac on an ovary in the female ... forms on the ovary. A cyst is a fluid-filled area. When the egg is released, it ...

179

Arachnoid Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... the prognosis? What research is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Arachnoid Cysts? Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid-filled sacs that are located between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane, one of the three ...

180

Mesenteric cyst  

OpenAIRE

Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal findings. Due to absent or unspecific clinical presentation, very low incidence, and lack of adequate classification these cysts may sometimes represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report a case of 37-year-old man with vague palpatory tenderness in left hypochondrium and paraumbilically and with palpable large intra-abdominal mass in whom mesenteric cyst was diagnosed using US and CT imaging. He was operated and cyst was extirpated in toto. H...

Miljkovi? Dragoslav; Gmijovi? Dragojlo; Radojkovi? Milan; Gligorijevi? Jasmina; Radovanovi? Zoran

2007-01-01

181

Detection and characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. on swine farms in Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the C-EnterNet surveillance program of the Public Health Agency of Canada, 122 pooled swine manure samples from 10 farms in Ontario, Canada were collected and tested for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected using immunofluorescence microscopy. Nested-polymerase chain reaction protocols were performed to amplify the small subunit rRNA gene and the ?-giardin gene for G. duodenalis, and the small subunit rRNA gene and the heat shock protein-70 gene for Cryptosporidium spp. The DNA amplicons were sequenced to determine genotypes and species. A mixed multivariable method was used to compare the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in different stages of production. Both Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were present on all tested farms, with 50.8% of the samples positive for G. duodenalis and 44.3% positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by microscopy, and 66.4% and 55.7%, respectively, positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No significant agreement was observed between microscopy and PCR method to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium (p0.05), however, it was less frequent (odds ratio, OR=0.21 [0.07, 0.63]) among sows. Cryptosporidium was more likely (OR=3.6 [1.3, 9.9]) to be detected in manure pits and weaners (OR=3.3 [1.1, 10.0]) compared to finisher pigs, and it was less frequent (OR=0.06 [0.007, 0.55]) in sows than in finishers (p<0.05). DNA sequencing demonstrated that 92.1% of the Giardia isolates were Assemblage B and 7.9% were Assemblage E. The most prevalent Cryptosporidium were Cryptosporidium parvum (55.4%), and Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II (37.5%). These findings indicate that the occurrence of zoonotic isolates of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium is very high on swine farms in southern Ontario, and that there is a potential for transmission between swine and humans by means of cyst and oocyst contaminated water or foods. PMID:21675863

Farzan, Abdolvahab; Parrington, Lorna; Coklin, Tatjana; Cook, Angela; Pintar, Katarina; Pollari, Frank; Friendship, Robert; Farber, Jeffrey; Dixon, Brent

2011-11-01

182

[New methods for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The accurate identification of a parasite at the species and/or genotype level has major implications for various aspects of human and veterinary parasitology, including the diagnosis, the taxonomy, the treatment and the control. The advent of molecular techniques, in particular those based on the in vitro amplification of nucleic acids, has dramatically improved our ability to detect infections caused by parasites. To illustrate the progress in molecular diagnostics, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are used here as examples of parasites for which both the diagnosis and the taxonomy have traditionally been problematic. These protozoan parasites, while very different for many aspects of their biology, shares a complex series of transmission routes, including anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission, as well as waterborne and foodborne transmission. The resistant stages produced by Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oocysts and cysts, respectively) are remarkably stable, and can survive for weeks to months in the environment. Further, the infective dose is low, and infectious dose studies and models suggest that even a single oocyst or cyst carries some probability of causing an infection. Finally, most faeces that contain (oo)cysts end up in the environment and can be spread to foods by irrigation or by direct contact, and can persist in the water, as routine treatments eliminate only a fraction of these stages. This situation explains the growing interest towards the development of methods that allows such stages to be detected with the highest sensitivity and specificity. A variety of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays have been described for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The choice of a particular assay mainly depends on the amount of information carried by the genetic locus under analysis. Indeed, some assays can be used to identify the different species within a genus, while others allowed to distinguish between isolates of the same species (genotypes), and some can even be used for both purposes. Post-PCR analyses are usually based on the direct sequencing of the amplification products, or on the digestion with endonucleases followed by gel electrophoresis of the restriction fragments. In the last few years, the molecular characterization of a large number of isolates, collected from infected hosts and from the environment, has considerably changed our view of the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. Indeed, several species/genotypes have been established as human pathogens, and the nature of the parasites present in the water and in food have been investigated, allowing a better understanding of the complex circulation of the parasites in the environment, that may eventually led to implemented control measures. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of several nuclear genes is having a major impact in the revision of the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The main limitation of PCR is that it doesn't provide information on the viability and infectivity of the pathogen. To obtain additional information on these important aspects, indirect methods, such as inclusion/exclusion assays using vital dyes or the Reverse-Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can be used. Since RT-PCR relies on the integrity of mRNA, which usually has very short half-life (seconds), its use is thought to provide a more closely correlated indication of viability status compared to DNA-based methods. RT-PCR assays usually target the heat shock protein (hsp) 70 gene. The rationale behind this choice is that hsps are known to be synthesized with a high level of efficiency in stressed organisms; therefore, when (oo)cysts are exposed to a thermal shock, the induction of heat shock response provides both a level of amplification to increase detection sensitivity and an index of viability. Moreover, with the recent introduction of real-time PCR, that allows the continuous monitoring of amplicon formation throughout the reaction, quantitative aspect of the infection could be studied with exquisite sensitivity. This will, for example, allow (1) to detec

Cacciò, S M

2004-06-01

183

In vitro activity of the F-6 fraction of oregano against Giardia intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiosis is a neglected parasitic disease that produces diarrhoea and different degrees of malabsorption in humans and animals. Its treatment is based on derivatives of 5-nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, nitrofuranes, acridine and nitrotiazoles. These drugs produce undesirable secondary effects, ranging from a metallic taste in the mouth to genetic damage and the selection of resistant strains; therefore, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic alternatives. We demonstrated that a 2-h treatment with 2·87 ?g ml(-1) of fraction 6 of Lippia graveolens (F-6) was sufficient to kill half of an experimental Giardia intestinalis (Syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) population, based on the reduction of MTT-tetrazolium salt levels. F-6 breaks the nuclear envelope and injures the ventral suckling disc. The major compounds of F-6 were characterized as naringenin, thymol, pinocembrin and traces of compounds not yet identified. The results suggest that Lippia is a potential source to obtain compounds with anti-Giardia activity. This knowledge is an important starting point to develop new anti-giardial drugs. Future studies will be required to establish the efficacy of F-6 in vivo using an animal model. PMID:22309702

Rufino-González, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Jiménez-Estrada, Manuel; Sánchez-Contreras, Ángeles; Martínez-Gordillo, Mario N

2012-04-01

184

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Galicia (NW, Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

Faecal samples from 224 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 381 wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot during the 2008-2009 hunting season (August-January) in Galicia (NW Spain) were examined to determine the presence and intensity of infection by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Analysis of a single sample from each of the roe deer revealed that the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis was 1.3% and 5.3% respectively. The prevalence of Giardia infection was significantly higher in juvenile female roe deer than in adult females, but no other significant differences were found in relation to age and sex. In wild boars, the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis was 7.6% and 1.3% respectively. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was significantly higher in juvenile male wild boars than in adult males, but no other significant differences were found in relation to age or sex. In both groups of wild animals, the number of Cryptosporidium oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) ranged from 5 to 200 and the number of Giardia cysts per gram of faeces (CPG) was between 5 and 47; there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to number of infections. This is the first large study of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in roe deer and wild boars in hunting areas in Spain and the results demonstrate a low, but widespread prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in these animals. PMID:21429669

Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

2011-06-30

185

Mesenteric cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal findings. Due to absent or unspecific clinical presentation, very low incidence, and lack of adequate classification these cysts may sometimes represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report a case of 37-year-old man with vague palpatory tenderness in left hypochondrium and paraumbilically and with palpable large intra-abdominal mass in whom mesenteric cyst was diagnosed using US and CT imaging. He was operated and cyst was extirpated in toto. Histopathological examination revealed a thick fibrous cyst wall with the signs of chronic inflammation and without inner epithelial lining, which suggested its traumatic origin. Considering the possibility of malignancy mesenteric cysts should be radically resected (with resection of adjacent organs if necessary due to their strong relapsing potential and a tendency for sudden, progressive local enlargement if not removed in toto.

Miljkovi? Dragoslav

2007-01-01

186

Comparison of antibody and cytokine responses to primary Giardia muris infection in H-2 congenic strains of mice.  

OpenAIRE

The course of primary infections with Giardia muris differs between BALB and B10 H-2 congenic strains of mice. In the first 3 weeks of infection, there is a more rapid decline in intestinal trophozoite and fecal cyst counts in B10 strains than in BALB strains. To determine whether this difference could be explained by variation in specific antibody responses, both secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum antibody responses were compared between these strains. No significant differences in t...

Venkatesan, P.; Finch, R. G.; Wakelin, D.

1996-01-01

187

GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS / Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podría ser capaz de producir daños en órganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se [...] revisaron, previa búsqueda en Medline , todos los artículos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el período 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografías y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado también fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesión en “sal y pimienta” del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las más rigurosamente demostradas. En relación con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseños e instrumentación adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qué punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, además de la continuación de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploración de los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es así, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnóstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the [...] location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and reactive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

Saleh, Ali Almannoni; Deisy, Martín Pupo; Alexis, Monzote López; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

2008-06-01

188

Pseudomesenteric cyst  

OpenAIRE

Mesenteric cyst and cystic mesenteric tumour are very rare abdominal growth, which is generally encountered, in the second decade of life. Pseudomesenteric cyst is another variant with traumatic and infective etiology is rare in itself. Only 14 cases have been reported previously in the Japanese literature. Emergency operation was performed in only 3 patients. The etiology of the pseudocyst manifested by acute abdomen was unknown [1]. A case of pseudomesenteric cyst presented in the emergency...

Prakash, Ved; Anushtup, De; Roy, Prabal; Pandey, N. K.

2009-01-01

189

Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. The purposes of this study were to determine whether secnidazole administered at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, orally, lessens or eliminates Giardia cyst shedding, and to validate the benefit of secnidazole treatment on clinical signs and faecal consistency in lambs naturally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 12 weeks of age lambs were selected and randomly assigned into two groups based on placebo (group C, n=7 untreated control group or treatment (group S, n=10 lambs treated with a single dose of secnidazole at 10 mg/kg. Results. On days 0 and 10, before and after treatment, respectively, reduction in cyst excretion was determined. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded at each sampling day. Conclusions. During the study there was a high (99.98% reduction in cyst excretion in the secnidazol treatment group compared to the positive control group on day 10, resulting in a significant (p<0.001 reduction, making secnidazole highly effective treatment option.

Kerem Ural

2014-03-01

190

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ovarian cysts may increase the risk of ovarian cancer. Malignant tumors, or cancer of the ovaries, can start as a cyst ... found in the blood of patients with ovarian cancer. However, not all patients who have that substance ...

191

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

Science.gov (United States)

... sewage systems that are not working properly, polluted storm water runoff, and agricultural runoff. Wells may be more ... a point-of-use filter. Not all home water filters remove Giardia . Filters that are designed to remove ...

192

[Tailgut cysts].  

Science.gov (United States)

Retrorectal cystic hamartomas (tailgut cysts) are rare congenital lesions thought to arise from remnants of the embryonic postanal gut. They predominantly occur as asymptomatic retrorectal multicystic masses in women. The treatment of choice is by complete surgical excision. The most important complications of these cysts are infection with a secondary fistula and malignant degeneration. The differential diagnosis includes a wide variety of conditions that occur in the retrorectal space. In this article, 3 cases showing different surgical technical aspects of treatment are presented. In addition, the aetiopathogenic features and histopathological appearance, clinical presentation and complications, imaging features and differential diagnosis of tailgut cysts are described. PMID:18261408

Vega Menéndez, Daniel; Quintáns Rodríguez, Antonio; Hernández Granados, Pilar; Nevado Santos, Manuel; García Sabrido, José Luis; Rueda Orgaz, José Antonio; Ochando, Federico; Ojeda Pérez, Felipe; Loinaz, Carmelo

2008-02-01

193

Kidney Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

194

Ovarian Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... to remove the ovary. This surgery is called cystectomy . In other cases, one or both of the ... increase in the presence of some cancerous tumors. Cystectomy: Surgical removal of a cyst. Laparoscopy: A surgical ...

195

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... sac on an ovary in the female reproductive system. Most women have ovarian cysts sometime during their lives. Fortunately, most ... are located in the pelvis, between the urinary bladder and the rectum. The ovaries have 2 ...

196

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Malignant tumors, or cancer of the ovaries, can start as a cyst on the ovaries. Symptoms This ... put on birth control pills. Birth control pills stop the ovaries from functioning and, therefore, prevent further ...

197

Ovarian Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... can become large and cause pain. Polycystic (pol-ee-SISS-tik) ovaries. These cysts are caused when ... Problems passing urine completely Pain during sex Weight gain Pain during your period Abnormal bleeding Nausea or ...

198

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and how they may be diagnosed and treated. Anatomy Vagina Uterus Fallopian Tubes Ovaries The female reproductive ... its own. Women who tend to form frequent functional cysts may be put on birth control pills. ...

199

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... are located in the pelvis, between the urinary bladder and the rectum. The ovaries have 2 main ... because the cyst is putting pressure on the bladder or rectum. This pressure can also cause some ...

200

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and progesterone. • Ovulation, which is the release of eggs that are needed for reproduction. The hormones produced ... uterus to proceed with a pregnancy. Before the egg is released a small cyst forms on the ...

201

Ganglion Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is pulled down toward the forearm like a cable and the fingers bend. Lubricating Fluid Sheath Tendon ... motion. The cyst may also recur. After the Surgery Your hand will be bandaged. Your doctor will ...

202

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the risk of ovarian cancer. Malignant tumors, or cancer of the ovaries, can start as a cyst on ... for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it may become ...

203

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... period. • Pain during sexual intercourse is another symptom. • Pain upon going to the bathroom. This could happen because the cyst is putting pressure on the bladder or rectum. This pressure can also cause some women to ...

204

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lining of the uterus to proceed with a pregnancy. Before the egg is released a small cyst ... weight in the abdominal area. • Symptoms similar to pregnancy including nausea, vomiting, or fever may also be ...

205

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cyst could be cancerous. CA-125 is a chemical that is found in the blood of patients ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com og290105 Last ...

206

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hair may be a sign of polycystic ovaries. Diagnosis A detailed medical history and a thorough pelvic ... are available to you and your doctor to diagnose and treat ovarian cysts which do not disappear ...

207

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... doctor determine whether a cyst could be cancerous. CA-125 is a chemical that is found in the ... patients with ovarian cancer have high levels of CA-125. Other blood tests may be done to check ...

208

Biological and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Five Hydrographical Basins in Northern Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the situation of water contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the northern region of Portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. A total of 283 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623 EPA, USA. Genetic characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing of genes 18S rRNA of Cryptosporidium spp. and ?-giardin of Giardia spp. Infectious stages of the protozoa were detected in 72.8% (206 of 283) of the water samples, with 15.2% (43 of 283) positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, 9.5% (27 of 283) positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and 48.1% (136 of 283) samples positive for both parasites. The most common zoonotic species found were G. duodenalis assemblages A-I, A-II, B, and E genotypes, and Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cryptosporidium muris. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are important public health issues in northern Portugal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw water samples in the northern region of Portugal. PMID:20585525

Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, João; Magalhães, Elisabete Silva; Castro, António; Viana Da Costa, Alexandra; Correia da Costa, José Manuel

2010-01-01

209

Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs / Tratamiento con dosis única con secnidazol en corderos naturalmente infectados con Giardia duodenalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la administración oral de una dosis única de secnidazol de 10mh/kg reduce o elimina la presencia de quistes de Giardia y validar el beneficio del tratamiento con secnidazol en los signos clínicos y la consistencia fecal de corderos infectados n [...] aturalmente con Giardia duodenalis. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron corderos destetados de 12 semanas de edad que fueron asignados al azar a dos grupos con base a placebo (grupo C, n=7, grupo de control sin tratar) o tratamiento (grupo S, n=10 corderos con tratamiento de dosis única de secnidazol de 10 mg/kg). Resultados. En los días 0 y 10, antes y después del tratamiento, respectivamente, se determinó una merma en la excreción de quistes. La consistencia de la materia fecal y el estado general de salud fue registrado en cada muestreo diario. Conclusiones. Durante el estudio hubo una alta reducción en la excreción de quistes (99.98%) en el grupo tratado con secnidazol comparado con el grupo control positivo en el día 10, resultando en una disminución significativa (p Abstract in english Objetive. The purposes of this study were to determine whether secnidazole administered at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, orally, lessens or eliminates Giardia cyst shedding, and to validate the benefit of secnidazole treatment on clinical signs and faecal consistency in lambs naturally infected with Gi [...] ardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 12 weeks of age lambs were selected and randomly assigned into two groups based on placebo (group C, n=7 untreated control group) or treatment (group S, n=10 lambs treated with a single dose of secnidazole at 10 mg/kg). Results. On days 0 and 10, before and after treatment, respectively, reduction in cyst excretion was determined. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded at each sampling day. Conclusions. During the study there was a high (99.98%) reduction in cyst excretion in the secnidazol treatment group compared to the positive control group on day 10, resulting in a significant (p

Kerem, Ural; Nuran, Aysul; Huseyin, Voyvoda; Bulent, Ulutas; Osman S., Aldemir; Hasan, Eren.

2014-01-01

210

Ovarian Cysts  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... frequent functional cysts may be put on birth control pills. Birth control pills stop the ovaries from functioning and, therefore, ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com og290105 Last ...

211

Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre / Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá) é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquis [...] a de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários. Abstract in english Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá) is a neo-tropical mammal with has a wide distribution in Brazil. In the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, RS, a fecal sample from a specimen captured for treatment was collected and analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate for research of parasi [...] tes. A large number of cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. The results indicate that L. weeidi is a host of these protozoa.

Camila Belmonte, Oliveira; João Fábio, Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da, Silva; Marcos Kipper da, Silva; Edson Luis, Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez, Monteiro.

2008-04-01

212

A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and the procedures are expensive and time consuming. These facts have motivated us to develop a new robust system for higher recovery of protozoan cysts from any fluid matrix. The new system consists of a sample collection chamber in which the fluid passes through a specially coated metallic filter with a carefully chosen pore size. On the reverse side of the filter a transducer delivers ultrasound waves in order to release trapped cysts and particles from the filter and break up parasite clusters. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were injected into the concentration unit and exposed to varying levels of ultrasonication. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed using air and the change in viability of the parasites was assessed by flowcytometry. Without sonication, the recovery rate of Cryptosporidium was around 2%. After short term sonication for 5, 10 or 20 seconds, the recovery rates were stable and ranging from 75-83%. While sonication is usually used for cell lyses, it can be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced separation of retinates of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The collected parasites may be used for molecular typing and other diagnostic and research purposes. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a robust, cheap, and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2012-01-01

213

Cervical Thymic Cysts Masquerading as Thyroid Cysts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two interesting cases of cervical thymic cyst are reported highlighting the importance of this entity which can be missed preoperatively . Thymic cysts are of two types-unilocular and multilocular. They differ in both macroscopic as well as microscopic findings. Histopathology helps to identify these cysts.

Suma MN

2011-04-01

214

Cervical Thymic Cysts Masquerading as Thyroid Cysts  

OpenAIRE

Two interesting cases of cervical thymic cyst are reported highlighting the importance of this entity which can be missed preoperatively . Thymic cysts are of two types-unilocular and multilocular. They differ in both macroscopic as well as microscopic findings. Histopathology helps to identify these cysts.

Mn, Suma; Padmini Jeyachandran; Madhusmita Jena; Ps, Revadi

2011-01-01

215

Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp e Giardia sp em eqüinos estabulados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria - RS, Brasil / Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. infection in horses stabled in the Jockey Club of Santa Maria - RS, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Cryptosporidium spp. e a Giardia sp. são atualmente reconhecidos como os principais patógenos entéricos com potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo visou estabelecer a prevalência desses protozoários em eqüinos hospedados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, no período de 19 de maio a 30 de j [...] unho de 2007. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, diretamente da ampola retal, de 64 animais. As amostras de fezes foram processadas por meio do método de centrifugação-flutuação de Faust modificado. Posteriormente essas amostras foram visualizadas ao microscópio óptico para a pesquisa de cistos e oocistos. Os resultados encontrados revelaram a presença de Cryptosporidium spp. em 75% (48/64) das amostras. Cistos de Giardia sp. não foram encontrados nas amostras de fezes analisadas. A freqüência de Cryptosporidium spp. nas diferentes faixas etárias foi de 83,3% (15/18) nos potros até dois anos de idade, 71% (22/31) nos jovens entre dois e cinco anos e 80% (12/15) nos adultos. Os resultados demonstram que o Cryptosporidium spp. está amplamente disseminado na população de eqüinos do Jockey Club de Santa Maria e pode representar uma fonte de infecção significativa para a população da região. Abstract in english Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. are currently recognised as the main enteric pathogens with potential zoonotic transmission risk. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of these parasites in horses stabled in the Santa Maria Jockey Club between May 19 and June 30, 2007. Fecal sam [...] ples from 64 horses were collected directly from the animals’ rectal ampoule. The 64 fecal samples were processed using modified Faust’s method through the centrifugation-floatation technique, and were then later visualized under optical microscope for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in 75% (48/64) of the samples. Giardia sp. cysts were not found in the fecal samples analysed. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in foals below two years of age was 83.3% (15/18); 71% (22/31) in young foals aged between three and five years of age, and 80% (12/15) in adult horses. These results show that Cryptosporidium spp. is widely disseminated in this population, and it can represent an important source of infection for the population in the region.

Aline Diefenbach, Gomes; Clarissa, Barretta; Dhalile Plein, Ziegler; Lourenço, Sausen; Nathalia, Stoever; Luís Antônio, Sangioni; Fernanda Silveira Flores, Vogel; Silvia González, Monteiro; Andreia, Zanella.

2662-26-01

216

DNA Extraction from Protozoan Oocysts/Cysts in Feces for Diagnostic PCR  

OpenAIRE

PCR detection of intestinal protozoa is often restrained by a poor DNA recovery or by inhibitors present in feces. The need for an extraction protocol that can overcome these obstacles is therefore clear. QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) was evaluated for its ability to recover DNA from oocysts/cysts directly from feces. Twenty-five Giardia-positive, 15 Cryptosporidium-positive, 15 Entamoeba histolytica-positive, and 45 protozoa-free samples were processed as control by microscopy and imm...

Hawash, Yousry

2014-01-01

217

[Chylous mesenteric cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present a case report of a female patient with a recurrent mesenteric cyst. Chylous cyst is one of rare diagnoses of a cyst close to the pancreas in patients with no history of acute pancreatitis. Chylous cysts need to be managed radically; otherwise, given their nature, they are likely to recur. PMID:25301347

Skach, J; Gawlik, V

2014-09-01

218

The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

Yasemin Bayram

2013-03-01

219

Thyroglossal duct cyst  

OpenAIRE

Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDCs) are cervical cysts occurring in approximately 7% of the population, mainly during childhood. The cyst usually presents itself as a painless, asymptomatic midline swelling below the hyoid bone. Differential diagnosis involves branchial cleft cyst, lymphoepithelial cyst, thyroid gland lesions, ranula and lymphadenopathy (of various etiologies). Sonogram (ultrasound) is the most frequent and appropriate imaging modality in suspected TDC. Preoperative fine-needle as...

Abuabara, Allan; Baratto Filho, Flares; Fuzza, Rubia F.

2010-01-01

220

Primary mesenteric hydatid cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydatid disease mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a common parasitic infestation of the liver. Most common sites are liver (70%) and lungs (25%). Intraperitoneal hydatid cyst is found in 13% and it is usually secondary to rupture of primary hepatic cyst. Primary intraperitoeal hydatid cyst is rare (2%). Primary hydatid cyst in mesentery is very rare. In this article, the author presents a case of primary mesenteric hydatid cyst with chronic pain in lower abdomen. PMID:22778458

Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Gupta, Rajni; Mohanti, Satyabrot; Kumar, Surender

2012-01-01

221

Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba  

OpenAIRE

The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ?5?years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.41 [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.36–9.69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR?=?3.01; CI?=?1.23–7.35), belonging to a household that did not recei...

Bello, J.; Nu?n?ez, F. A.; Gonza?lez, O. M.; Ferna?ndez, R.; Almirall, P.; Escobedo, A. A.

2011-01-01

222

Simple Kidney Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... of Topics and Titles : Simple Kidney Cysts Simple Kidney Cysts On this page: What are simple kidney ...

223

Posttraumatic spinal subarachnoid cyst  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A case of posttraumatic compressive subarachnoid cyst of the thoracic spine studied by MR, myelography, and myelo-CT is reported. This cyst was surgically confirmed and treated by shunting. (orig.). With 4 figs.

Coffin, C.M. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Weill, A. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Miaux, Y. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Srour, A. [Service de Neurochirurgie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Cognard, C. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Dubard, T. [Federation de Neurologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Savin, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Chiras, J. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France)

1996-08-01

224

Posttraumatic spinal subarachnoid cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of posttraumatic compressive subarachnoid cyst of the thoracic spine studied by MR, myelography, and myelo-CT is reported. This cyst was surgically confirmed and treated by shunting. (orig.). With 4 figs

225

Esophageal duplication cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital mediastinal cyst. Most of these cysts become symptomatic in childhood and only rare cases remain asymptomatic until adolescence. They may produce symptoms due to esophageal and respiratory system compression, rupture, and infection. A 25-year-old man presented with pulmonary infection and bronchiectasis that did not improve with medical treatment. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made intraoperatively. PMID:24757179

Bagheri, Reza; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Afghani, Reza

2014-04-22

226

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

2006-01-01

227

Intracardiac bronchogenic cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bronchogenic cysts are congenital malformations that originate from the primitive foregut and are commonly located in the mediastinum or lung. The heart is one of the sites for atypical locations of such cysts. In this report, we describe an intracardiac bronchogenic cyst seen as an incidental finding during patch closure of a ventricular septal defect.? PMID:21443547

Vaideeswar, Pradeep; Agnihotri, Mona A; Patwardhan, Anil M

2011-05-01

228

Management of ovarian cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The treatment of an ovarian cyst relies on its nature, and accurate preoperative discrimination of benign and malignant cysts is therefore of crucial importance. This study was undertaken to review the literature concerning the preoperative diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cysts.

Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Tabor, Ann

2004-01-01

229

Beware the Tarlov cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions. PMID:19110185

Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

2009-01-01

230

Giardia duodenalis cathepsin B proteases degrade intestinal epithelial interleukin-8 and attenuate interleukin-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) infections are a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that can also result in the development of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders via mechanisms that remain unclear. Parasite numbers exceed 10(6) trophozoites per centimeter of gut at the height of an infection. Yet the intestinal mucosa of G. duodenalis-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt inflammation. G. duodenalis infections can also occur concurrently with infections with other proinflammatory gastrointestinal pathogens. Little is known of whether and how this parasite can attenuate host inflammatory responses induced by other proinflammatory stimuli, such as a gastrointestinal pathogen. Identifying hitherto-unrecognized parasitic immunomodulatory pathways, the present studies demonstrated that G. duodenalis trophozoites attenuate secretion of the potent neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 (CXCL8); these effects were observed in human small intestinal mucosal tissues and from intestinal epithelial monolayers, activated through administration of proinflammatory interleukin-1? or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This attenuation is caused by the secretion of G. duodenalis cathepsin B cysteine proteases that degrade CXCL8 posttranscriptionally. Furthermore, the degradation of CXCL8 via G. duodenalis cathepsin B cysteine proteases attenuates CXCL8-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that G. duodenalis trophozoite cathepsins are capable of attenuating a component of their host's proinflammatory response induced by a separate proinflammatory stimulus. PMID:24733096

Cotton, James A; Bhargava, Amol; Ferraz, Jose G; Yates, Robin M; Beck, Paul L; Buret, Andre G

2014-07-01

231

Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water: a review  

OpenAIRE

UV disinfection technology is of growing interest in the water industry since it was demonstrated that UV radiation is very effective against (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, two pathogenic micro-organisms of major importance for the safety of drinking water. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, the new concept for microbial safety of drinking water and wastewater, requires quantitative data of the inactivation or removal of pathogenic micro-organisms by water treatment processes....

Hijnen, W. A. M.; Beerendonk, E. F.; Medema, Gerriet Jan

2006-01-01

232

Thyroglossal duct cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDCs are cervical cysts occurring in approximately 7% of the population, mainly during childhood. The cyst usually presents itself as a painless, asymptomatic midline swelling below the hyoid bone. Differential diagnosis involves branchial cleft cyst, lymphoepithelial cyst, thyroid gland lesions, ranula and lymphadenopathy (of various etiologies. Sonogram (ultrasound is the most frequent and appropriate imaging modality in suspected TDC. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration is an inexpensive and safe method that can be considered in selected adult patients, having prime importance to the exclusion of carcinoma. This article presents a TDC of the neck in a 5-year-old boy.

Allan ABUABARA

2010-06-01

233

Parapelvic renal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parapelvic renal cysts are relatively common finding on sonography, CT, MRI. These cysts are more common in patients with Fabry diseases. Their size can be up to 50 mm. Parapelvic renal cysts may be asymptomatic and can cause back pain, obstruction, hypertension, pyelonephritis. The differentiation from other pathologic conditions is important - tumors, lipomatosis. Parapelvic cysts often have the picture of hydronephrosis. It is easy to distinguish cyst from varices, renal artery aneurysm, arteriovenous fistula by color and pulse Doppler ultrasonography. The diagnosis should not be based by ultrasonography only so that other pathology should not be missed. (authors)

234

The significance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia for drinking water production  

OpenAIRE

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are parasitic protozoa that can be transmitted to man by drinking and recreational water. Depending on the immune state of the infected host, they can cause a selflimiting to severe gastro-enteritis. This report gives a review on the potential for transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by drinking and recreational water, attending data on the occurrence of these parasites in humans and other reservoirs, their persence in sewage and surf...

Gj, Medema

2012-01-01

235

Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

Amber ?enel

2011-01-01

236

40 CFR 141.70 - General requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...99.9 percent (3-log) removal and/or inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts between a point...customer; and (2) At least 99.99 percent (4-log) removal and/or inactivation of viruses between a point where the raw...

2010-07-01

237

Antigenic detection of Giardia duodenalis in companion dogs of Ahvaz area, south-west of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite in several animal species and humans. The objective of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of G. duodenalis in the fecal samples of companion dogs in Ahvaz area, south-western Iran. Materials and methods: A total of 150 companion dogs of different ages were examined for antigenic detection of G. duodenalis in fecal samples by a commercial Giardia Antigen Test Kit. Fecal centrifugation-flotation technique was also used for identification of cyst by microscopic examination. The studied dogs were selected from those referring to Veterinary Hospital of Chamran University Ahvaz from June 2007 to January 2010. They were divided into two groups clinically (diarrheic and non-diarrheic and based on age into three groups (3 years. Results: Six out of 150 fecal samples (4% were positive for antigen of G. duodenalis by immunochromatography assay. Prevalence was significantly higher in young dogs less than 6 months (11.6% compared with adult dogs 6 months-3 years (1.6% (P=0.041. The infection was more common in diarrheic dogs (18.5% compared with non-diarrheic dogs (0.8% and the difference was significant (P=0.001. Microscopic examination on fecal samples showed that 2.7% (4 out of 150 of the studied dogs were positive.Conclusion: The infection rate of giardiasis in companion dogs' particularly in diarrheic dogs is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health. Our results indicate that this parasite is a zoonotic infection in Ahvaz district.

Ali Reza Alborzi

2010-10-01

238

Occurrence and molecular typing of Giardia isolates in pet rabbits, chinchillas, guinea pigs and ferrets collected in Europe during 2006-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 1180 faecal samples (528 from rabbits, 531 from chinchillas and 121 from guinea pigs) collected during 2006-2012 by veterinarians in Germany and in other European countries were submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for Giardia testing by means of coproantigen ELISA. Of these samples, 40 rabbits (7.6 per cent), 326 chinchillas (61.4 per cent) and five guinea pigs (4.1 per cent ) were found to be positive. To gain insights into the genetic identity of Giardia in small mammals, ELISA-positive samples from 23 chinchillas, five ferrets, a rabbit, and a Desmarest's hutia were investigated by PCR and sequencing of fragments of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssu), the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and the ?-giardin (bg) genes. At the ssu locus, assemblage B was identified in 28 of 30 isolates, whereas assemblage A and D were each detected in one sample. The majority of isolates from chinchillas and those from ferrets had Giardia duodenalis sequences identical to sub-assemblages AI or BIV, based on either a single locus (tpi or bg) or multiple loci (tpi and bg). As sub-assemblages AI or BIV are associated with human infection, these results indicate that small mammals can act as reservoirs of cysts potentially infectious to humans. PMID:24696441

Pantchev, N; Broglia, A; Paoletti, B; Globokar Vrhovec, M; Bertram, A; Nöckler, K; Cacciò, S M

2014-07-01

239

Rare Nonneoplastic Cysts of Pancreas  

Science.gov (United States)

Pancreatic cysts represent a small proportion of pancreatic diseases, but their incidence has been recently increasing. Most pancreatic cysts are identified incidentally, causing a dilemma for both clinicians and patients. In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma, neoplastic pancreatic cysts may be cured by resection. In general, pancreatic cysts are classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic cysts. The predominant types of neoplastic cysts include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. With the exception of serous type, neoplastic cysts, have malignant potential, and in most cases requires resection. Non-neoplastic cysts include pseudocyst, retention cyst, benign epithelial cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, squamous lined cysts (dermoid cyst and epidermal cyst in intrapancreatic accessory spleen), mucinous nonneoplastic cysts, and lymphangiomas. The incidence of nonneoplastic, noninflammatory cysts is about 6.3% of all pancreatic cysts. Despite the use of high-resolution imaging technologies and cytologic tissue acquisition with endosonography, distinguishing nonneoplastic from neoplastic cysts remains difficult with most differentiations made postoperatively. Nonetheless, the definitive distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts is crucial as unnecessary surgery could be avoided with proper diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of these rare disease entities should be entertained before deciding on surgery.

Cho, Jae Hee

2015-01-01

240

Thyroglossal duct cysts management  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Thyroglossal duct cysts are remnants of the embryonic thyroglossal duct that may occur from the base of the tongue to the thyroid gland. Possible sites of thyroglossal cysts: base of the tongue, intralingual, suprahyoid, infrahyoid, prethyroid and pretracheal. Treatment may include: antibiotic medication (to treat the infection), surgical removal of the cyst and the thyroglossal duct, called the Sistrunk procedure. Methods: Between 2000 and 2007, 78 patients with thyrogl...

Balica, N.; Marin, Ah; Lupescu, S.; Stefanescu, H.; Doros, C.; Cotulbea, S.

2009-01-01

241

THYROGLOSSAL DUCT CYST  

OpenAIRE

The thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) results from a failure in obliterating the embryogenic duct produced during thyroid migration and it represents the most common type of developmental cyst encountered in the neck region. Ectopic thyroid tissue neoplasias are rare, and even rarer when associated with the TDC. Methods: During the period 1998-2008, in the First Surgical Clinic, University Hospital “St. Spiridon” Iasi, 14 patients with thyroglossal duct cyst were diagnosed and treated. All rec...

Ta?rcoveanu, E.; Niculescu, D.; Elena Cotea; Vasilescu, A.; Felicia Crumpei; Ferariu, D.; M?dalina Palaghia; Doroba?t?, D.

2009-01-01

242

Hydatid cyst of mediastinum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of hydatid cyst of the mediastinum in a 32-year-old female patient who was admitted with chest pain. CT scan reported posterior mediastinal mass towards the right side. Surgical exploration revealed a loculated cyst in posterior mediastinum on the right side, adherent to the overlying lung and underlying bone. Posterolateral thoracotomy was performed for cyst aspiration and excision. The patient was discharged on albendazole.

Sehgal S

2008-01-01

243

Infected mesenteric cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenteric cyst is a rare condition. Presentation with non-typhoid spontaneous infection in an unusual area makes it even more a rare situation with mesenteric cyst. Its diagnosis is mainly based on the imaging modalities. However, there are difficulties in diagnosis when it is present in an uncommon area and rare known complications. Mesenteric cyst can present with few uncommon emergency conditions which pose difficulties in diagnosis as well as treatment options as mentioned in this case. PMID:23605820

Reddy, G Ramesh; Gunadal, Shankar; Banda, Vanaja Reddy; Banda, Naveen Reddy

2013-01-01

244

Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype. PMID:18808665

Kutz, Susan J; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Polley, Lydden; Kandola, Kami; Nagy, John; Wielinga, Caroline M; Elkin, Brett T

2008-01-01

245

Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic  

OpenAIRE

As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

Kutz, Susan J.; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Polley, Lydden; Kandola, Kami; Nagy, John; Wielinga, Caroline M.; Elkin, Brett T.

2008-01-01

246

Preliminary data on the efficacy of a Giardia vaccine in puppies.  

OpenAIRE

Twenty puppies were vaccinated with a trophozoite-derived Giardia vaccine on day 0 and boosted on day 21 (Group 1); 10 control puppies received only saline (Group 2). Both groups were experimentally infected on day 35 with 1 x 10(6) Giardia duodenalis trophozoites by intraduodenal injection. Immunization provided protection to experimental Giardia infection.

Olson, M. E.; Morck, D. W.; Ceri, H.

1997-01-01

247

Dermoid cyst: unusual localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermoid cysts are embryonic lesions usually observed in the lateral eyebrow region and the midline nose and neck areas. Communication of these lesions with the central nervous system is rare and occurs in the nasal region. There are few clinical reports of temporal dermoid cysts presenting with intracranial extension, and we present a 15-year-old girl with a fronto-orbital dermoid cyst with intracranial extension and bone erosion. Her presenting symptom was a lacrimation reduction of the left eye. Excision of the cyst was done using a coronal approach because of its extension and localization. PMID:22976680

Rinna, Claudio; Reale, Gabriele; Calafati, Vincenzo; Calvani, Francesco; Ungari, Claudio

2012-09-01

248

Parameatal urethral cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cyst formation in the parameatal area of the urethra is an uncommon entity. It was first reported in two male cases as recently as 1956 by Thompson and Lantin. Further reports have been rare. Herein, we report a case of a 21 year-old male having a spherical, cystic swelling 1 cm in size at the external urethral meatus. The diagnosis of parameatal urethral cyst was made and the cyst was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a monolocular cyst lined with transitional cells. The postoperative period was uneventful.

Aggarwal Kamal

2008-01-01

249

Intradural bronchogenic cysts.  

OpenAIRE

The pathological findings of an intradural and extramedullary cyst in the mid cervical spinal canal are described in a 55 year old woman who presented with a short history of pain and paraesthesia of the right arm. Intradural well defined solitary cystic lesions in the spinal canal are uncommon, their pathogenesis is poorly understood, and their nomenclature is confusing. In this case the cyst was a bronchogenic cyst; these are a rare form of such cysts and they are thought to be a malformati...

Wilkinson, N.; Reid, H.; Hughes, D.

1992-01-01

250

Nasolabial cyst: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nasolabial cyst is classified as a fissural cyst, found outside the bone, and on the region corresponding to the nasolabial furrow and alar nose. This cyst is frequently asymptomatic with the most usual sign being alar nose elevation. In spite of the low occurrence of nasolabial cysts, it is important to recognize the clinical characteristics of this lesion. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and discuss the histomorphology and etiology of this condition, showing treatment by surgical excision.

Pereira Filho Valfrido Antonio

2002-01-01

251

Giant mesenteric cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18- year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy.

Hamdi H. Almaramhy

2011-09-01

252

Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare disease and uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The etiology remains still unclear. We experienced 2 cases of SEACs and reviewed the cases and previous literatures. A 59-year-old man complained of both leg radiating pain and paresthesia for 4 years. His MRI showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L3 and we performed cyst fenestration and repaired the dural defect with tailored laminectomy. Another 51-year-old female patient visited our clinical with left buttock pain and paresthesia for 3 years. A large extradural cyst was found at T1-L2 level on MRI and a communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was illustrated by CT-myelography. We performed cyst fenestration with primary repair of dural defect. Both patients' symptoms gradually subsided and follow up images taken 1-2 months postoperatively showed nearly disappeared cysts. There has been no documented recurrence in these two cases so far. Tailored laminotomy with cyst fenestration can be a safe and effective alternative choice in treating SEACs compared to traditional complete resection of cyst wall with multi-level laminectomy. PMID:24294463

Choi, Seung Won; Seong, Han Yu

2013-01-01

253

Epidermoid cyst post dermofasciectomy.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We report the finding of an unusual presentation of an epidermoid cyst 3 years following dermofasciectomy for Dupuytren\\'s disease. Epidermoid cysts remain a rare entity in the palmoplanter distribution but also a very unusual finding within the confines of a full thickness skin graft.

Henry, Francis P

2010-01-01

254

Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

1984-12-01

255

Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention. (orig.)

256

Spontaneously Regressing Thymic Cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thymic cysts are uncommon lesions, constituting 1- 3% of all mediastinal masses. Most of these cysts are asymptomatic and found incidentally through routine chest roentgenograms. Our patient was asymptomatic, and a routine chest x-ray revealed mediastinal widening. A mediastinal mass, 6x4 cm in dimension, was detected by computed tomography. The lesion was hypodense, well defined, and cystic in nature. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax revealed a typical cyst expanding from the rudimentary thymus tissue. Although total excision of the cyst is the preferred treatment modality in these patients, close radiological follow-up of our patient revealed total remission. In conclusion, asymptomatic thymic cysts can be radiologically monitored and spontaneous remission can be observed.

Dildar Duman

2013-01-01

257

Structural insights into the substrate binding and stereoselectivity of giardia fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) is a member of the class II zinc-dependent aldolase family that catalyzes the cleavage of d-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). In addition to the active site zinc, the catalytic apparatus of FBPA employs an aspartic acid, Asp83 in the G. lamblia enzyme, which when replaced with an alanine residue renders the enzyme inactive. A comparison of the crystal structures of D83A FBPA in complex with FBP and of wild-type FBPA in the unbound state revealed a substrate-induced conformational transition of loops in the vicinity of the active site and a shift in the location of Zn(2+). When FBP binds, the Zn(2+) shifts up to 4.6 A toward the catalytic Asp83, which brings the metal within coordination distance of the Asp83 carboxylate group. In addition, the structure of wild-type FBPA was determined in complex with the competitive inhibitor d-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate (TBP), a FBP stereoisomer. In this structure, the zinc binds in a site close to that previously seen in the structure of FBPA in complex with phosphoglycolohydroxamate, an analogue of the postulated DHAP ene-diolate intermediate. Together, the ensemble of structures suggests that the zinc mobility is necessary to orient the Asp83 side chain and to polarize the substrate for proton transfer from the FBP C(4) hydroxyl group to the Asp83 carboxyl group. In the absence of FBP, the alternative zinc position is too remote for coordinating the Asp83. We propose a modification of the catalytic mechanism that incorporates the novel features observed in the FBPA-FBP structure. The mechanism invokes coordination and coplanarity of the Zn(2+) with the FBP's O-C(3)-C(4)-O group concomitant with coordination of the Asp83 carboxylic group. Catalysis is accompanied by movement of Zn(2+) to a site coplanar with the O-C(2)-C(3)-O group of the DHAP. glFBPA exhibits strict substrate specificity toward FBP and does not cleave TBP. The active sites of FBPAs contain an aspartate residue equivalent to Asp255 of glFBPA, whereas tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase contains an alanine in this position. We and others hypothesized that this aspartic acid is a likely determinant of FBP versus TBP specificity. Replacement of Asp255 with an alanine resulted in an enzyme that possesses double specificity, now cleaving TBP (albeit with low efficacy; k(cat)/K(m) = 80 M(-1) s(-1)) while maintaining activity toward FBP at a 50-fold lower catalytic efficacy compared with that of wild-type FBPA. The collection of structures and sequence analyses highlighted additional residues that may be involved in substrate discrimination. PMID:19236002

Galkin, Andrey; Li, Zhimin; Li, Ling; Kulakova, Liudmila; Pal, Lipika R; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

2009-04-14

258

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., spatial clustering and patterns of shedding in dairy calves from Córdoba, Argentina / Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., distribuição espacial e padrões de eliminação em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., a presença de aglomerados, a distribuição espacial de acordo com o tipo de solo e padrões de eliminação de cistos e oocistos em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina. Amostras fecais f [...] oram colhidas de 620 bezerros com menos de sete semanas de idade, provenientes de 43 propriedades leiteiras e examinadas pelas técnicas de formol-éter e Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Foram realizadas uma análise univariada e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e, em seguida, uma análise multivariada com a intensidade de eliminação de cistos e oocistos, como um evento. A presença de aglomerados foi determinada com o método de varredura e a análise espacial foi realizada para explorar a sobreposição de rebanhos com alta prevalência e tipo de solo. A prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foi de 19,35% (IC 95%: 16,14; 22,54) e 34,50% (IC 95%: 30,69; 38,34), respectivamente. A probabilidade de infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. foi quase quatro vezes maior para bezerros com menos de 2 semanas em comparação com os bezerros mais velhos (RR: 3,78, IC 95% 2,27; 6,26). O mesmo padrão de infecção relacionada à idade foi observado para Giardia spp. (RR: 1,33, IC 95% 1,02; 1,75). Foi encontrado um aglomerado primário com alta prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp., e rebanhos com alta prevalência foram localizados em solos mal drenados. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to estimate calf and herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., the herd prevalence clustering, spatial distribution according to soil type and shedding patterns in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina. Six hundred twenty calves younger than 7 weeks o [...] f age from 43 dairy herds were sampled. Samples were processed with the formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Univariate analysis and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used. Factors associated were subjected to multivariate analysis with calf shedding intensity as the response variable. Clustering of herd prevalence was assessed by a scan method, and spatial analysis was applied to explore the overlapping of high prevalence herds and soil type. Overall calf prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were 19.35% (95% CI: 16.14; 22.54) and 34.50% (95% CI: 30.69; 38.34), respectively. Calves younger than two weeks of age were almost four times more likely to be infected with Cryptosporidium, in comparison to older ones (RR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.27; 6.26). Giardia spp. shedding showed a similar age pattern (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.75). A primary cluster of high Cryptosporidium prevalence was found, and high prevalence herds were located in areas with poor drained soil.

Karina, Tiranti; Alejandro, Larriestra; Claudina, Vissio; Natalia, Picco; Fabrisio, Alustiza; Americo, Degioanni; Adriana, Vivas.

2011-06-01

259

Rare case report: mesocolonic dermoid cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenteric cysts are one of the most rare intra-abdominal tumours [1], classified as chylolymphatic, mesothelial (simple), enterogenous, urogenital remnant, dermoid cyst (teratomatous), gas, mycotic, parasitic, tubercular cysts and cysts following malignant degeneration [2]. Dermoid cysts are uncommon mesenteric cysts [3]. Cysts of the mesocolon are rare and usually differentiated from a mesenteric cyst only at the operation [4]. We here report a rare case of a dermoid cyst that was present in the mesentery of the transverse colon. PMID:24426534

Gujar, Ajay; Rodrigues, Dale; Tambe, Uday; Patil, Kundan

2013-06-01

260

Esophageal duplication cyst. Case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A patient with an esophageal cyst is reported. Esophageal duplication cysts account for a very small percentage of benign esophageal tumors and are infrequently symptomatic. Patients with esophageal cysts seek treatment when a complication such as bleeding or infection causes these cysts to enlarge. The diagnosis may be made with barium swallow and esophagoscopy although the exact histopathology is not defined until surgery. Surgical excision is recommended at the time of cyst discovery whether symptoms are present or not. PMID:7416128

Whitaker, J A; Deffenbaugh, L D; Cooke, A R

1980-04-01

261

Adult choledochal cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Choledochal cysts are an uncommon anomaly of the biliary system, and they are probably congenital. This entity is diagnosed during childhood in 50 percent of cases. Because most choledochal cysts in adults do not occur with signs and symptoms noted in children the correct preoperative diagnosis depends on a high level of clinical suspicion and early radiologic evaluation. We present two cases of choledochal cysts describing the ultrasound, cholangiography and CT findings. Review of the literature is made with special attention to the diagnostic methods performed. (Author) 14 refs

262

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in cetaceans on the European Atlantic coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in cetacean specimens stranded on the northwestern coast of Spain (European Atlantic coast) by analysis of 65 samples of large intestine from eight species. The parasites were identified by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR amplification of the ?-giardin gene, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the SSU-rDNA gene of Giardia and the SSU-rDNA gene of Cryptosporidium. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 7 (10.8 %) and 9 samples (13.8 %), respectively. In two samples, co-infection with both parasites was observed. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, C, D and F, and Cryptosporidium parvum were identified. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Kogia breviceps and Stenella coeruleoalba and also the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. in B. acutorostrata and of C. parvum in S. coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus. These results extend the known host range of these waterborne enteroparasites. PMID:25418072

Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Martínez-Cedeira, José A; Romero-Suances, Rafael; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

2015-02-01

263

Intrapleural bronchogenic cyst  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the first case of a 14-year-old male presenting with intrapleural bronchogenic cyst investigation by CT and MRI. Our findings emphasize the value of the combination of CT and MRI for differential diagnosis of intrapleural tumors.

Sugita, Reiji E-mail: reiji.s@hqtc.tohoku.ntt.co.jp; Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Yuda, Fumiaki

1999-12-01

264

Intrapleural bronchogenic cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the first case of a 14-year-old male presenting with intrapleural bronchogenic cyst investigation by CT and MRI. Our findings emphasize the value of the combination of CT and MRI for differential diagnosis of intrapleural tumors

265

Spinal arachnoid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical and radiological findings in six extradural and nine intradural arachnoid cysts are discussed in relation to previous reports. Only two cysts failed to opacify during positive contrast myelography; in both cases Myodil was used and in one of them contrast medium had entered the cyst on delayed films taken at 24 h. Pain was always improved and generally cured by operation, only two patients having some residual backache. There was permanent improvement of neurological function in only eight cases. The factors associated with poor permanent recovery after surgical treatment were: 1) very marked thinning of the spinal cord by the cyst, and 2) relatively longer duration of paresis - only one case had paresis for under 2 years (mean 4.8 years) compared with only two cases for over 1 year (mean 2 years) in those with good recovery. (orig.)

266

Multiple Intratesticular Cysts  

OpenAIRE

Intratesticular cysts, once thought to be a rarity, are now being reported with an increasing prevalence as a result of the wider use of scrotal ultrasound scanning. Despite greater understanding of intratesticular cysts, their management remains unclear. Treatment has included enucleation and even radical orchiectomy over fear of the possibility of an associated malignancy. A more conservative approach with serial ultrasound scanning has been advocated if a clear distinction can be made betw...

Kang, Sung Min; Hwang, Dae Sung; Lee, Jung Woo; Chon, Won Hee; Park, Nam Cheol; Park, Hyun Jun

2013-01-01

267

Iatrogenic Intraspinal Epidermoid Cyst  

OpenAIRE

Epidermoid cyst is generally regarded as congenital disease, and commonly related to other congenital spinal anomalies. However, it also develops iatrogenically. We report one rare case of epidermoid cyst that we experineced among intradural extramedullary tumors. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to low back pain with radiating pain into a right lower extremity that initiated about a month ago. She complained sensory lose and motor weakness (grade 4+) on her right...

Park, Min Ho; Cho, Tach Geun; Moon, Jae Gon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

2014-01-01

268

Branchial cleft cyst  

OpenAIRE

Branchial cleft cysts are benign lesions caused by anomalous development of the brachial cleft. This report describes a 20-year-old girl with swelling on the right lateral aspect of the neck, which expanded slowly but progressively. The clinical suspicion was that of a branchial cleft cyst. Sonography revealed a homogeneously hypo- to anechoic mass with well-defined margins and no intralesional septa. Color Doppler reviewed no internal vascularization. The ultrasound examination confirmed the...

Valentino, M.; Quiligotti, C.; Carone, L.

2013-01-01

269

Recent advances in choledochal cysts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Choledochal cysts are a congenital anomaly, and they show dilatation of the intra- or extrahepatic biliary tree. These cysts are uncommon in Western countries, but are not rare in Asian countries. Choledochal cysts are classified into five groups based on location or shape of the cysts. Types I and IV-A cysts are the most common types, which are associated with anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ, but other cysts are not associated with APBJ. Types I and IV-A cysts appear to belong to a different category from other cysts embryologically. Type I and IV-A cysts accompany anomalies of the pancreas. Type I and IV-A cysts might occur when left ventral anlage persists, and with disturbed recanalization of the common bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is the gold standard for detecting APBJ, but it is an invasive procedure. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP is a non-invasive imaging tool for detecting pancreatic and biliary trees. MRCP is the first-choice modality for diagnosing choledochal cysts and APBJ in pediatric patients. Cystoenterostomy is been performed because of high complication and mortality rates. Complete excision of the cysts with Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy is a standard procedure for choledochal cysts to prevent postoperative complications, including development of cancer. In this study, we review classification, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of types I and IV-A choledochal cysts.

Hiroyuki Tadokoro

2012-11-01

270

Spinal dermoid cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 25-year-old male complained of intermittent, sharp pains about the left eye and in the left side of the chest. Neurological examination revealed paresthesia and impaired perception of touch and pin-pricks in the dermatomes of Th8 and Th9 on the left side. In all four extremities, the muscle stretch reflexes were equal and slightly hyperactive, without weakness or sensory deficits. Metrizamide myelography showed defective filling at the level between the upper 8th and 9th thoracic vertebrae. The lesion was also demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) scan performed 1 hour later, appearing as an oval, radiolucent mass in the left dorsal spinal canal, which compressed the spinal cord forward and toward the right. Serial sections of the spinal canal revealed the lesion to be partly filled with contrast medium. Repeat CT scan 24 hours after metrizamide myelography showed more contrast medium in the periphery of the lesion, giving it a doughnut-shaped appearance. At surgery a smooth-surfaced cyst containing sebum and white hair was totally removed from the intradural extramedullary space. The histological diagnosis was dermoid cyst. There have been a few reported cases of intracranial epidermoid cyst in which filling of the cyst was suggested on metrizamide CT myelography. These findings may complicate the differential diagnosis of arachnoid cyst and dermoid or epidermoid cyst when only CT is used. (author)

271

Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq  

OpenAIRE

A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot) and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107), while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was...

Butty, E. T.

2011-01-01

272

Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

Nagy John

2008-09-01

273

THYROGLOSSAL DUCT CYST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC results from a failure in obliterating the embryogenic duct produced during thyroid migration and it represents the most common type of developmental cyst encountered in the neck region. Ectopic thyroid tissue neoplasias are rare, and even rarer when associated with the TDC. Methods: During the period 1998-2008, in the First Surgical Clinic, University Hospital “St. Spiridon” Iasi, 14 patients with thyroglossal duct cyst were diagnosed and treated. All records were reviewed for age and sex, diagnostic methods, sizes, surgical management and recurrences. Results: All patients with thyroglossal duct cysts are described as midline cysts of the neck. The ratio females/males was 6/1 with mean age 37.6 years (13-60 years. One case was with an external fistula. The treatment performed was a variant of Sistrunk’s procedure in which the thyroglossal tract was excised to a variable extent, but in all cases with central hyoidectomy. The size of the cyst ranged from 1.2 to 4 cm (mean 2.6 cm. Postoperative course was unventful in all cases. No recurrence was recorded in this series. We describe a case, a 19 years old female with thyroid papillary carcinoma evolving from a TDC. The literature is reviewed. Conclusion: The standard surgical approach to TDC is Sistrunk's operation with low recurrence rates. Malignancy within a thyroglossal duct cyst is very rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass. In such cases total thyroidectomy with removal of the tumour of thyroglossal duct and the body of the hyoid bone are recommended – because the carcinoma may be multifocal and because a lymphatic invasion of the thyroid may take place – in order to ensure a correct follow-up.

E. Târcoveanu

2009-02-01

274

Ovarian chocolate cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the ssing the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

275

Parathyroid cyst of the thymus.  

OpenAIRE

A case is described of primary hyperparathyroidism in a patient with both a parathyroid cyst within the thymus gland and a concomitant parathyroid adenoma. The parathyroid adenoma contained microcystic areas of degeneration, and it is thought that the parathyroid cyst reflected degenerative change in a pre-existing adenoma. Parathyroid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions within the thymus. Fine needle aspiration and parathyroid hormone assay on cyst fluid...

Mccluggage, W. G.; Russell, C. F.; Toner, P. G.

1995-01-01

276

Tailgut cyst. A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tailgut cysts, also called retro-rectal cystic hamartomas or mucin-secreting cysts, are uncommon vestigial masses. They can become complicated with infection or neoplastic degeneration. Surgery is the only treatment. We report here a case of a tailgut cyst in a 60-year-old female, that was discovered 10 years ago but not investigated. PMID:21780528

Deltour, D; Veys, E

2011-01-01

277

Chylous cysts of the mesentery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mesenteric cysts are uncommon lesions with a variable clinical presentation. A provisional diagnosis is possible on clinical and radiological grounds, while confirmation is subject to histopathological examination. We present two cases of mesenteric cysts, both occurring in children. Following clinical examination and histopathological analysis, both were diagnosed as cases of chylous mesenteric cysts.

Ansari H

2007-01-01

278

Mesenteric cyst: Report of case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mesenteric cyst is considered one of the rarest type of abdominal tumor. We have experienced unusual case of large mesenteric cyst arising from jejunum in a 10 years old body. Computed tomography disclosed cystic intraabdominal mesenteric mass with attenuated coefficiency +3 - +11 Houndsfield units (HU). Pathologically it was confirmed to be benign mesenteric cyst.

279

Mesenteric cyst: Report of case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mesenteric cyst is considered one of the rarest type of abdominal tumor. We have experienced unusual case of large mesenteric cyst arising from jejunum in a 10 years old body. Computed tomography disclosed cystic intraabdominal mesenteric mass with attenuated coefficiency +3 - +11 Houndsfield units (HU). Pathologically it was confirmed to be benign mesenteric cyst.

Choi, Kyung Hee; Lee, Young Sik; Suh, Jeong Soo; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seup [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1984-09-15

280

Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (mycotic cyst).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phaeohyphomycosis designates fungal infections caused by pheoid or melanized fungi and characterized histopathologically by the presence of septate hyphae, pseudohyphae, and yeasts. Etiologic agents include Exophiala, Phoma, Bipolaris, Phialophora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Alternaria, Exserohilum, and Phialemonium sp. The most common are Exophiala jeanselmei and Wangiella dermatitidis. The clinical presentation depends on the immune status of the host: superficial (tinea nigra and black piedra); cutaneous (scytalidiosis) and corneal; subcutaneous (mycotic cyst); and systemic phaeohyphomycosis in the immunocompromised host. The mycotic cyst is a localized form, characterized by subcutaneous asymptomatic nodular lesions that develop after traumatic implantation of fungi, especially on the extremities. The average size of the cysts is 2.5 cm. KOH examination reveals pigmented yeasts, pseudohyphae, and hyphae. A cutaneous biopsy specimen usually shows an abscess or a suppurative granuloma with pigmented yeasts and pseudohyphae. The treatment of choice is surgical excision, but additional anti-fungal therapy is recommended for recurrent cases and immunocompromised patients. PMID:22682192

Isa-Isa, Rafael; García, Carlos; Isa, Mariel; Arenas, Roberto

2012-01-01

281

Juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign primary or secondary lesions that commonly arise in long bones and often before skeletal maturity. Little has been written about aneurysmal bone cysts that abut the physeal plate. The records of 15 patients with juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts were reviewed. Fourteen of the patients were referred with abnormal radiographs after evaluation for pain in the affected limb. One patient presented with abnormal radiographs after fracture about the aneurysmal bone cyst. None of the patients had evidence of growth plate disruption. The children's ages ranged from 2 to 14 years, with a mean of 9.8 years. There were 10 boys and five girls. Lesion locations included: six in the proximal tibia, three in the distal fibula, two in the distal tibia, two in the proximal femur, one in the distal femur, and one in the distal radius. All of the lesions abutted the physeal plate and fell into one of the types in Campanacci's classification of juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts. Three lesions were classified as Type 1, eight were Type 2, and four were Type 3. This study included no cases of Type 4 or 5 lesions. Treatment of all lesions consisted of excision, curettage, and bone grafting with care taken to preserve the growth plate. Adjunctive cauterization was performed in two cases. There were no incidences of postoperative physeal plate arrest. Overgrowth of the fibula occurred in one patient. Three patients experienced recurrent lesions. One of the children underwent repeat curettage and bone grafting with no additional recurrence. In the other two children with recurrence, the lesion had grown away from the physeal plate while remaining static in size and asymptomatic. Based on this study, juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts may be treated satisfactorily with intralesional surgery and bone grafting with expectation of normal physeal growth. PMID:10416410

Rizzo, M; Dellaero, D T; Harrelson, J M; Scully, S P

1999-07-01

282

Giant spinal extradural cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of giant extradural cyst in a 13-year-old girl is described. The cyst was formed by the arachnoid membrane which extruded through a wide lumbar dural defect. It extended from the midthoracic region down to the sacral canal. At operation a large portion of the cystic wall was removed, but the dural defect was not repaired. Two spino-peritoneal shunts were left in place to drain both the intradural and the extradural spaces. The treatment has proved successful during the 20 months that the patient has been observed. PMID:918833

Papo, I; Longhi, G; Caruselli, G

1977-11-01

283

Giant synovial cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Giant synovial cysts (GSC) are large, well-defined cavities, containing synovial fluid and lined by a synovium-like membrane, which extend for a variable distance outside the joint cavity. We are reporting 15 cases of GSC of various joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common disease process reported in association with GSC. We suggest that trauma may be a more important cause of GSC than has previously been described. Arthrography and ultrasonography are both helpful in diagnosing these large cysts, especially in the knee to aid in differentiating GSC from thrombophlebitis.

Fedullo, L.M.; Bonakdarpour, A.; Moyer, R.A.; Tourtellotte, C.D.

1984-07-01

284

Atypically located hydatid cyst cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six hydatid cysts cases without a primary source anywherewere presented. Hydatid cyst is a parasitic diseasewell known for years are commonly located in liver andlungs. Those intradiaphragmatic and intramyocardiacwere diagnosed preoperatively but those lying subcutaneouslyon sternum and the right first rib were recognizedafter operation. They were also confirmed with pathologicstudy. Patients were also detected for hydatid cysts elsewhere.As an endemic disease in our country, atypicallocations should be kept in mind. This disease is to beremembered in considering soft tissue tumors. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 352-355Key words: Atypically cyst, intradiaphragmatic cyst, intramyocardialcyst

Fatih Metero?lu

2013-09-01

285

Management of extensive dentigerous cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dentigerous cysts are usually easy to treat when small. However, extensive cysts are more difficult to manage requiring cyst enucleation and extraction of associated teeth. We advocate the use of assessment criteria to dictate the treatment modality indicated in each individual case such as cyst size and site, patient age, the dentition involved, and the involvement of vital structures. Cyst enucleation without extraction of the impaction, and decompression are two treatment modalities indicated in growing children and adolescents to salvage the involved dentition. PMID:15731795

Motamedi, M H K; Talesh, K T

2005-02-26

286

Bacteriological study of epidermal cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial infection plays a significant role in the inflammatory process of epidermal cysts. Samples from 152 patients (115 cases of inflamed and 37 of uninflamed epidermal cysts) were subjected to aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture and the isolates were investigated. The rate of bacterial growth and the recovered anaerobes were significantly greater in the inflamed than the uninflamed epidermal cysts. However, it is difficult to determine whether recovered isolates from epidermal cysts represent "infection" or "colonization". In conclusion, this study revealed the predominance of anaerobes in inflamed cysts, strongly suggesting that anaerobes play a role in the inflammatory process. PMID:18176745

Kuniyuki, Shuichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Maekawa, Naoki; Yamanaka, Kazuhoshi

2008-01-01

287

MRI appearance of meniscal cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to review the MRI criteria for the distinction of meniscal cysts from other cystic lesions in the knee so that appropriate treatment may be planned. A retrospective review of 62 knee MRI scans possibly showing meniscal cysts was performed. The type of meniscal tear, the appearance of the connection between the cyst and the meniscal tear, and the location, size, morphology, and signal characteristics of the meniscal cysts were recorded. Other types of fluid collections that had been mistaken for meniscal cysts were described. MRI can be used to distinguish meniscal cysts from other fluid collections that may mimic meniscal cysts. Pitfalls can be avoided by familiarity with the normal bursal and capsular anatomy, and by the application of the specific diagnostic criteria. (orig.)

Tyson, L.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Daughters, T.C. Jr. [Dept. of Radiology, Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital, CA (United States); Ryu, R.K.N. [Arthroscopic and Reconstructive Knee and Surgery, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Crues, J.V. III [Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cedar-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

288

Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts. PMID:20102100

Sajko, Tomislav; Kova?, Damir; Kudeli?, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

2009-12-01

289

Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst  

OpenAIRE

Rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare event with considerable associated morbidity and potential mortality. We present a case of intracranial rupture of a dermoid cystic tumor with consequent dissemination of subarachnoid fat droplets resulting in acute aseptic chemical meningitis. Radiographic findings, operative treatment, and pathologic features are described.

Han, Tong; Li, Hui

2009-01-01

290

Intrathoracic duplication cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Retrospective review of thoracic enteric cysts diagnosed in a Regional Children's Hospital over a 28-year period are presented. Fifteen of the 17 children presented in the first year of life. There were eight associated anomalies of the gastrointestinal and nervous system. The radiological findings are discussed in detail. 16 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

291

Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermoid cyst is generally regarded as congenital disease, and commonly related to other congenital spinal anomalies. However, it also develops iatrogenically. We report one rare case of epidermoid cyst that we experineced among intradural extramedullary tumors. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to low back pain with radiating pain into a right lower extremity that initiated about a month ago. She complained sensory lose and motor weakness (grade 4+) on her right extremity as well as urinary dysfunction and sphincter dysfunction. She had a lumbar puncture three times due to Pneumococcal meningitis when she was 13 years old. The well-circumscribed intradural extramedullary mass of 1.8×1.6×4 cm size was found on the L4-5 in a magnetic resonance image. Gross total tumor removal was garried out after the total laminectomy L5 and partial laminectomy L4. The tumor mass was gray-colored and so fragile that it was easy to be removed. The histological diagnosis confirmed epidermoid cyst without malignancy. After the operation, the patient progressively showed remarkable neurological recovery. In this case, the cause of epidermoid cyst is considered iatrogenic concerning history of several times of lumbar puncture as meningitis. PMID:25346768

Park, Min Ho; Cho, Tach Geun; Moon, Jae Gon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

2014-09-01

292

Hydatid cyst of orbit.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 40-year-old woman presented with protrusion and diminution of vision of left eye for 3 months. CT scan of orbit revealed an intra-orbital cystic space occupying lesion. Exenteration of the left orbit was done and histopathological examination of the cystic mass proved it to be a case of hydatid cyst. PMID:22480108

Bhaduri, Gautam; Chatterjee, Soumya Swarup; Gayen, Sharmistha; Goswami, Soumik

2011-09-01

293

Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Giardia species in muskrat (Ondatra zibethica).  

OpenAIRE

A total of 189 muskrat fecal samples were surveyed for Campylobacter and Giardia species. Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 47.5% of these samples, and Giardia species were detected in 82.5%. These findings indicate that muskrat may be of importance to the health both of humans and of domestic animals.

Pacha, R. E.; Clark, G. W.; Williams, E. A.

1985-01-01

294

OCCURRENCE OF 'CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI' AND 'GIARDIA SPECIES' IN MUSKRAT (ONDATRA ZIBETHICA)  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 189 muskrat fecal samples were surveyed for Campylobacter and Giardia species. Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 47.5% of these samples, and Giardia species were detected in 82.5%. These findings indicate that muskrat may be of importance to the health both of hu...

295

Association between Giardia duodenalis and coinfection with other diarrhea-causing pathogens in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis, is often seen as an opportunistic pathogen and one of the major food and waterborne parasites. Some insights of Giardia infestation in a diarrhoea-prone population were investigated in the present study. Our primary goal was to understand the interaction of this parasite with other pathogens during infection and to determine some important factors regulating the diarrhoeal disease spectrum of a population. Giardia showed a steady rate of occurrence throughout the entire study period with a nonsignificant association with rainfall (P > 0.05). Interestingly coinfecting pathogens like Vibrio cholerae and rotavirus played a significant (P ? 0.001) role in the occurrence of this parasite. Moreover, the age distribution of the diarrhoeal cases was very much dependent on the coinfection rate of Giardia infection. As per our findings, Giardia infection rate seems to play a vital role in regulation of the whole diarrhoeal disease spectrum in this endemic region. PMID:25009820

Mukherjee, Avik K; Chowdhury, Punam; Rajendran, Krishnan; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Ganguly, Sandipan

2014-01-01

296

DNA extraction from protozoan oocysts/cysts in feces for diagnostic PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

PCR detection of intestinal protozoa is often restrained by a poor DNA recovery or by inhibitors present in feces. The need for an extraction protocol that can overcome these obstacles is therefore clear. QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) was evaluated for its ability to recover DNA from oocysts/cysts directly from feces. Twenty-five Giardia-positive, 15 Cryptosporidium-positive, 15 Entamoeba histolytica-positive, and 45 protozoa-free samples were processed as control by microscopy and immunoassay tests. DNA extracts were amplified using 3 sets of published primers. Following the manufacturer's protocol, the kit showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% towards Giardia and Entamoeba. However, for Cryptosporidium, the sensitivity and specificity were 60% (9/15) and 100%, respectively. A series of optimization experiments involving various steps of the kit's protocol were conducted using Cryptosporidium-positive samples. The best DNA recoveries were gained by raising the lysis temperature to the boiling point for 10 min and the incubation time of the InhibitEX tablet to 5 min. Also, using a pre-cooled ethanol for nucleic acid precipitation and small elution volume (50-100 µl) were valuable. The sensitivity of the amended protocol to Cryptosporidium was raised to 100%. Cryptosporidium DNA was successfully amplified by either the first or the second primer set. When applied on parasite-free feces spiked with variable oocysts/cysts counts, ? 2 oocysts/cysts were theoretically enough for detection by PCR. To conclude, the Qiagen kit with the amended protocol was proved to be suitable for protozoan DNA extraction directly from feces and support PCR diagnosis. PMID:25031466

Hawash, Yousry

2014-06-01

297

Molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates from German travellers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis isolates from German travellers returning from tropical areas were characterised by PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the beta-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Assignment of isolates to specific G. duodenalis assemblages was found to differ according to the marker used. Indeed, at the bg locus, assemblages A and B were identified, with a higher prevalence of the former over the latter, whereas at the tpi and gdh loci, most samples were classified as assemblage B. In agreement with previous studies, sequence analysis showed that assemblage B isolates have a higher genetic polymorphism than assemblage A isolates, and novel variants were described. The degree of polymorphism was shown in a graphical representation of the polymorphic sites generating a novel sequence, the heterogeneous positions common to assemblages A and B (double peaks), that may represent mixed assemblage infection and the heterogeneous positions detected at random sites. Notably, assemblage D, which is considered to be adapted to dogs, was found at the gdh locus in two samples originating from southern Asia, as novel genotypes. By comparing the geographical origin of the infected cases and the number of German travellers visiting the areas considered, India and west Africa appeared to be the areas associated to the highest risk of acquiring Giardia infection. The analysis of the geographical distribution of the genotypes did not suggest any particular geographical clustering pattern, but it may be useful to evaluate these results with a higher number of isolates. Most of the samples typed at the three markers could not be assigned unequivocally to either assemblage A or B, and this was confirmed also by a real-time PCR assay, using a set of assemblage-specific primers. The results of this study reinforce the notion that genetic exchanges and allelic sequence heterogeneity represent major obstacles towards understanding the epidemiology of giardiasis and that exposure to Giardia parasites in endemic areas often results in mixed infections in returning travellers. PMID:23892479

Broglia, A; Weitzel, T; Harms, G; Cacció, S M; Nöckler, K

2013-10-01

298

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

2008-05-29

299

Giant supratentorial neurenteric cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracranial neurenteric cysts are rare congenital lesions that may be mistaken for other cystic neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. A 35 years old right handed man presented with a one year history of progressive left hemiparesis, headache, personality changes and seizures. Clinical examination revealed a confused patient with left hemiparesis (power 4/5 in both left upper and lower limbs), upper motor neuron type signs in left half of the body (up going plantar reflex and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes at 3+), left facial weakness of upper motor neuron type. CT scan head with contrast revealed a non-enhancing spherical cystic lesion in the frontotemporoparietal region with minimal to moderate mass effect. The cyst was removed using a combination of hydrodissection and excision. Recovery was complete with no evidence of recurrence or residual disease at 3 months. PMID:25518778

Junaid, Muhammad; Kalsoom, Anisa; Khalid, Muhammad; Bukhari, Syed Sarmad

2014-11-01

300

[Coccygodynia disclosing Tarlov's cysts].  

Science.gov (United States)

In a 63-year old male patient coccygodynia, initially isolated then complicated by incomplete cauda equina syndrome, could be attributed to large perineurel meningeal cysts on the sacral nerve roots. The diagnosis was suspected at computerized tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance and confirmed by sacculoradiculography. Intradural injections of corticosteroids provided lasting pain relief. Arachnoid cysts are often asymptomatic, by they may be responsible for coccygodynia and/or incomplete cauda equina syndrome. Their presence is suggested by the characteristics of the symptoms which are paroxysmal, exacerbated in standing position, relieved in dorsal position and revived by percussing the sacrum. Treatment is medical in most cases. The decision to operate depends on the persistence and intensity of pain and on whether signs of neurological defecit are present. PMID:2096431

Dehaine, V; Wechsler, B; Ziza, J M; de Gennes, C; Robain, G; Fohanno, D; Metzger, J; Godeau, P

1990-01-01

301

Neonatal ovarian cysts: therapeutic dilemma.  

OpenAIRE

Seven cases of neonatal ovarian cysts that presented over the past seven years were studied. Complications included torsion and rupture and usually occurred in cysts more than 5 cm in diameter. Surgical removal, either oophorectomy or cystectomy, was the treatment of choice. Because even cystectomy results in loss of normal ovarian tissue, and because spontaneous regression of cysts less than 5 cm in diameter can occur, a more conservative approach is now proposed. Regular ultrasonography alo...

Widdowson, D. J.; Pilling, D. W.; Cook, R. C.

1988-01-01

302

Pleuropericardial cyst torsion: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pericardial cysts account for 12-18% of all mediastinal masses. They are usually asymptomatic and incidentally detected. However, when large, they can cause symptoms. Most pericardial cysts are located in the right cardiophrenic angle, but they can be anywhere in the mediastinum. We reported a pleuropericardial cyst torsion after physical stress, a very rare complication of this condition. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography and confirmed by video-assisted thoracoscopy.

Davi Wen Wei Kang

2010-06-01

303

Cisto de Baker Baker's cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os cistos de Baker localizam-se na região posteromedial do joelho, entre o ventre medial do músculo gastrocnêmio e o tendão semimembranoso. No adulto, esses cistos estão relacionados a lesões intra-articulares, quais sejam, lesões meniscais ou artrose. Nas crianças, geralmente são achados de exame físico ou de exames de imagem, apresentando pouca relevância clínica. O exame de ultrassonografia é adequado para identificar e mensurar o cisto poplíteo. Para o tratamento, a abordagem principal deve ser relacionada ao tratamento da lesão articular. Na maioria dos casos não há necessidade de se abordar diretamente o cisto. Os cistos no joelho são, quase na sua totalidade, benignos (cistos de Baker e cistos parameniscais. Porém, a presença de alguns sinais demanda que o ortopedista suspeite da possibilidade de malignidade: sintomas desproporcionais ao tamanho do cisto, ausência de lesão articular (ex.: meniscal que justifique a existência do cisto, topografia atípica, erosão óssea associada, tamanho superior a 5cm e invasão tecidual (cápsula articular.Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually found on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts, presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule.

Marco Kawamura Demange

2011-01-01

304

THYROGLOSSAL CYST OUR EXPERIENCE  

OpenAIRE

This study shares our experiences in managing patients with thyroglossal cysts. These are common midline tumors of neck. Characteristically these masses move on protrusion of tongue due to their intimate relationship with hyoid bone. Adults commonly presented with this lesion eventhough literature review suggests it to be common in children. All these patients underwent surgery because of the presence of mass rather than any symptoms. All 30 patients taken up in this study had a normal functi...

Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Venkatesan Ulaganathan; Geetha Ramamoorthy

2013-01-01

305

Maxillary Air Cyst  

OpenAIRE

Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and v...

Doucette-preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

2013-01-01

306

[Infected urachal cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a wide variety of pathologies associated with the presence of urachal remnants. We describe a case of infected urachal cyst in a young adult male, with classical symptoms of dysuria, lower abdominal pain, and fever. Ultrasound, cystography and CT are described, ultrasound being often the modality of choice. Differential diagnosis of acute abdominal and pelvic pain or a midline lower abdominal mass at this age should include infection of an urachal remnant. PMID:8320187

Mailleux, P; Tancredi, M H; Neza, S; Lefebvre, Y; Coppens, J P; Coulier, B; Joris, J P

1993-02-01

307

Giant mesenteric cyst  

OpenAIRE

Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18- year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a...

Almaramhy, Hamdi H.; Shaista Salman; Salman Yousuf Guraya

2011-01-01

308

Tailgut cysts: MRI findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 11 surgically resected pelvic tailgut cysts were analyzed with reference to histopathologic and clinical data. Homogeneity, size, location, signal intensity, appearance and presence of septa and/or nodules and/or peripheral rim and involvement of surrounding structures were studied. Histological examination demonstrated 11 tailgut cysts (TGC), including one infected TGC and one TGC with a component of adenocarcinoma. Lesions (3-8 cm in diameter) were exclusively or partly retrorectal in all cases but one, with an extension down the anal canal in five cases. Lesions were multicystic in all patients but one. On T1-weighted MR images, all cystic lesions contained at least one hyperintense cyst. The peripheral rim of the cystic lesion was regular and non or moderately enhancing in all cases but the two complicated TGC. Nodular peripheral rim and irregular septa were seen in the degenerated TGC. Marked enhancement of the peripheral structures was noted in the two complicated TGC. Pelvic MRI is a valuable tool in the preoperative evaluation of TGC. PMID:18566821

Aflalo-Hazan, V; Rousset, P; Mourra, N; Lewin, M; Azizi, L; Hoeffel, C

2008-11-01

309

Tailgut cysts: MRI findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 11 surgically resected pelvic tailgut cysts were analyzed with reference to histopathologic and clinical data. Homogeneity, size, location, signal intensity, appearance and presence of septa and/or nodules and/or peripheral rim and involvement of surrounding structures were studied. Histological examination demonstrated 11 tailgut cysts (TGC), including one infected TGC and one TGC with a component of adenocarcinoma. Lesions (3-8 cm in diameter) were exclusively or partly retrorectal in all cases but one, with an extension down the anal canal in five cases. Lesions were multicystic in all patients but one. On T1-weighted MR images, all cystic lesions contained at least one hyperintense cyst. The peripheral rim of the cystic lesion was regular and non or moderately enhancing in all cases but the two complicated TGC. Nodular peripheral rim and irregular septa were seen in the degenerated TGC. Marked enhancement of the peripheral structures was noted in the two complicated TGC. Pelvic MRI is a valuable tool in the preoperative evaluation of TGC. (orig.)

Aflalo-Hazan, V.; Rousset, P.; Lewin, M.; Azizi, L. [Hopital Saint Antoine, Department of Radiology, PARIS Cedex 12 (France); Mourra, N. [Hopital Saint Antoine, Department of Pathology, PARIS Cedex 12 (France); Hoeffel, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Radiology, Reims Cedex (France)

2008-11-15

310

Tailgut cysts: MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 11 surgically resected pelvic tailgut cysts were analyzed with reference to histopathologic and clinical data. Homogeneity, size, location, signal intensity, appearance and presence of septa and/or nodules and/or peripheral rim and involvement of surrounding structures were studied. Histological examination demonstrated 11 tailgut cysts (TGC), including one infected TGC and one TGC with a component of adenocarcinoma. Lesions (3-8 cm in diameter) were exclusively or partly retrorectal in all cases but one, with an extension down the anal canal in five cases. Lesions were multicystic in all patients but one. On T1-weighted MR images, all cystic lesions contained at least one hyperintense cyst. The peripheral rim of the cystic lesion was regular and non or moderately enhancing in all cases but the two complicated TGC. Nodular peripheral rim and irregular septa were seen in the degenerated TGC. Marked enhancement of the peripheral structures was noted in the two complicated TGC. Pelvic MRI is a valuable tool in the preoperative evaluation of TGC. (orig.)

311

Epidermal Cyst with Ossification: A Patient Report  

OpenAIRE

Epidermal cysts are common skin tumors that are composed of a cyst wall of epidermal cells and central keratin material. They rarely show ossification. A 68-year-old man was referred to our clinic for evaluation of multiple cysts on his left forehead, left cheek and right shoulder. Histopathological examination revealed that all of the cysts were epidermal cysts, and focal ossification was observed outside the cyst on the forehead. We speculated that chronic inflammation caused...

Goto, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Koji; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Osamu

2014-01-01

312

Sinking characteristics of dinoflagellate cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reports the first direct measurements of the density and sinking rates of marine dinoflagellate cysts. Gyrodinium uncatenum, Gonyaulax tamarensis, and Scrippsiella trochoidea cysts had densities of 1.14, 1.24, and 1.32 g cm/sup -3/. No significant difference between cultured and natural cyst density was observed. Measured settling velocities ranged from 0.008 to 0.013 cm s/sup -1/ (6-11 m d/sup -1/). Settling rates calculated using the measured densities and reasonable assumptions about shape and orientation during descent were within 10-20% of measured sinking rates, confirming that cyst sinking can be described by a modification of Stokes' law for nonspherical particles in a viscous medium. The three types of cysts examined are more dense and fall faster than most vegetative phytoplankton cells. Removal of an outer layer of short calcite spines from S. trochoidea cysts reduced both cell density and radius by 7% and the sinking rate by 37%. The faster settling velocity of the spiny cyst is not considered a general effect common to all ornamented cysts but presumably applies only to those with numerous short spines or processes. Morphological features can thus markedly affect the rate of cyst deposition, but the adaptive significance of surface ornamentation remains unknown.

Anderson, D.M.; Lively, J.J.; Reardon, E.M.; Price, C.A.

1985-09-01

313

Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

Ramadan, Qasem, E-mail: qasem.alramadan@epfl.ch [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; ShuJun, Li; Hua, Feng Han [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

2010-07-12

314

Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matricefluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

315

Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

Andersson Jan O

2010-10-01

316

Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107, while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was 19.63% (21 out of 107. This study represents the first trial to explore cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis in equines as in Nineveh there is no survey of these intestinal protozoa.

E. T. Butty

2011-01-01

317

Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were iso [...] lated (33/429) from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh ) genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples) or assemblage B (6 samples). RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

Julio César, Torres-Romero; Antonio de Jesus, Euan-Canto; Namibya, Benito-González; Nayely, Padilla-Montaño; Claribel, Huchin-Chan; Julio, Lara-Riegos; Roberto, Cedillo-Rivera.

2014-06-01

318

Síntesis de las enzimas de piruvato, oxidorreductasa de ferredoxina y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion de Giardia intestinalis Synthesis of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase and alcohol dehydrogenase E enzymes during Giardia intestinalis excystation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción. Giardia intestinalis es un parásito unicelular diseminado mundialmente. Causa una enfermedad intestinal conocida como giardiosis y, probablemente, es el microorganismo eucarionte más tempranamente divergente.
Objetivo. En el presente estudio se determinó la expresión de las enzimas de piruvato oxidorreductasa ferredoxina (PFOR y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol (ADHE en los estadios de quiste y trofozoíto, y durante el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion. Previamente se habían demostrado cambios en sus ARNm.
Materiales y métodos. Se generaron proteínas recombinantes de PFOR y ADHE que fueron usadas como antígenos para la producción de anticuerpos policlonales. Éstos se emplearon para la detección de las proteínas nativas por Western blot. Evaluamos la actividad enzimática de ADHE y de la glutamato deshidrogenasa (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH por ensayos espectrofotométricos.
Resultados. Las proteínas PFOR (139 kDa y ADHE (97 kDa se detectaron en trofozoítos, pero no en quistes. Durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion, la proteína ADHE se detectó sólo después de la primera fase de inducción y la proteína PFOR sólo después de la segunda fase. Esto indica que ambas proteínas son sintetizadas durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion, aunque en un momento diferente. La actividad enzimática de ADHE está presente sólo en los trofozoítos y no en los quistes, mientras que la actividad de la enzima GDH se detectó en trofozoítos y quistes.
Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados muestran de forma concluyente que las enzimas PFOR y ADHE son traducidas en el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion y esto demuestra que existe un proceso activo de síntesis de proteínas durante él.Introduction. Giardia intestinalis is a unicellular parasite of worldwide distribution. It causes an intestinal illness known as giardiasis, and it is probably the earliest diverging eukaryotic microorganism. Previously, changes have been reported in the expression of mRNAs at several stages of the life cycle; however specific enzymatic activity changes have not been explored.
Objective. The expression of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE enzymes was measured in cyst and trophozoite stages, and during the excystation process.
Materials and methods. Recombinant proteins were generated for PFOR and ADHE to be used as antigens in the production of polyclonal antibodies for the detection of native proteins by Western Blot. The enzymatic activity of ADHE and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH was evaluated by spectrophotometric assays.
Results. PFOR (139 kDa and ADHE (97 kDa proteins were detected in trophozoites, but not in cysts. During excystation, ADHE protein was detected after the first phase of induction, but the PFOR protein appeared only after the second phase. This indicated that both proteins were synthesized during excystation, although at different times. ADHE enzymatic activity was present only in trophozoites and not in cysts whereas GDH activity was detected in both stages.
Conclusion. These results conclusively showed that PFOR and ADHE enzymes were translated during the excystation process and is strong evidence that active protein synthesis was occurring during excystation.

Moisés Wasserman

2010-03-01

319

Synthesis of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase and alcohol dehydrogenase E enzymes during Giardia intestinalis excystation / Síntesis de las enzimas de piruvato, oxidorreductasa de ferredoxina y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion) de Giardia intestinalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción. Giardia intestinalis es un parásito unicelular diseminado mundialmente. Causa una enfermedad intestinal conocida como giardiosis y, probablemente, es el microorganismo eucarionte más tempranamente divergente. Objetivo. En el presente estudio se determinó la expresión de las enzimas de [...] piruvato oxidorreductasa ferredoxina (PFOR) y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol (ADHE) en los estadios de quiste y trofozoíto, y durante el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion). Previamente se habían demostrado cambios en sus ARNm. Materiales y métodos. Se generaron proteínas recombinantes de PFOR y ADHE que fueron usadas como antígenos para la producción de anticuerpos policlonales. Éstos se emplearon para la detección de las proteínas nativas por Western blot. Evaluamos la actividad enzimática de ADHE y de la glutamato deshidrogenasa (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH) por ensayos espectrofotométricos. Resultados. Las proteínas PFOR (139 kDa) y ADHE (97 kDa) se detectaron en trofozoítos, pero no en quistes. Durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion), la proteína ADHE se detectó sólo después de la primera fase de inducción y la proteína PFOR sólo después de la segunda fase. Esto indica que ambas proteínas son sintetizadas durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion), aunque en un momento diferente. La actividad enzimática de ADHE está presente sólo en los trofozoítos y no en los quistes, mientras que la actividad de la enzima GDH se detectó en trofozoítos y quistes. Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados muestran de forma concluyente que las enzimas PFOR y ADHE son traducidas en el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion) y esto demuestra que existe un proceso activo de síntesis de proteínas durante él. Abstract in english Introduction. Giardia intestinalis is a unicellular parasite of worldwide distribution. It causes an intestinal illness known as giardiasis, and it is probably the earliest diverging eukaryotic microorganism. Previously, changes have been reported in the expression of mRNAs at several stages of the [...] life cycle; however specific enzymatic activity changes have not been explored. Objective. The expression of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE) enzymes was measured in cyst and trophozoite stages, and during the excystation process. Materials and methods. Recombinant proteins were generated for PFOR and ADHE to be used as antigens in the production of polyclonal antibodies for the detection of native proteins by Western Blot. The enzymatic activity of ADHE and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Results. PFOR (139 kDa) and ADHE (97 kDa) proteins were detected in trophozoites, but not in cysts. During excystation, ADHE protein was detected after the first phase of induction, but the PFOR protein appeared only after the second phase. This indicated that both proteins were synthesized during excystation, although at different times. ADHE enzymatic activity was present only in trophozoites and not in cysts whereas GDH activity was detected in both stages. Conclusion. These results conclusively showed that PFOR and ADHE enzymes were translated during the excystation process and is strong evidence that active protein synthesis was occurring during excystation.

Carlos Alberto, Niño; Moisés, Wasserman.

2010-01-01

320

Cerebral hydatid cysts in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

A parasitic tapeworm, called Taneia Echinococcus, causes hydatid disease. Hydatid disease is endemic in sheep and cattle-raising areas of the world. Hydatid disease of the central nervous system constitutes 2%-3% of all reported cases of hydatid cysts. In our institution, 23 children underwent surgery for intracranial hydatid cysts between 1979 and 1995. There were 14 boys and 9 girls, aged between 3 to 16 years (mean 8.8 years). Signs and symptoms were related to the site and size of the cyst. Headache and vomiting due to increased intracranial pressure were the most common presenting symptoms. A round cystic lesion without perifocal edema and rim enhancement is the characteristic appearance on a computed tomography (CT) scan. A magnetic resonance image visualizes cyst location better than CT. Associated systemic hydatidosis in four of our patients involved kidney, liver, lung, and liver and lung, respectively. Intact cyst removal was achieved in 14 patients. In three patients with infected or inflamed hydatid disease, the ruptured cyst capsule was totally resected. Aspiration and extirpation were performed in only one patient. Eleven patients were treated with chemotherapeutic agents such as albendazole or mebendazole due to cyst rupture during surgery or associated systemic hydatid disease. Hydatid disease can also be seen in Western countries because of travel and migration. Cerebral hydatid cyst should be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions. PMID:10633303

Kocaman, S; Ersahin, Y; Mutluer, S

1999-10-01

321

Intracranial and orbital hydatid cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Parasitic diseases involving brain and orbit are relatively rare in Tunisia; the most frequently encountered is the hydatid cyst, 55 examples of which were seen since CT scanning was introduced into Tunisia 2 years ago. Various aspects of the intracerebral and orbital hydatid cysts are reported and a tentative classification is made based on characteristics revealed by CT.

Hamza, R.; Touibi, S.; Jamoussi, M.; Bardi-Bellagha, I.; Chtioui, R.

1982-01-01

322

Intracranial and orbital hydatid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parasitic diseases involving brain and orbit are relatively rare in Tunisia; the most frequently encountered is the hydatid cyst, 55 examples of which were seen since CT scanning was introduced into Tunisia 2 years ago. Various aspects of the intracerebral and orbital hydatid cysts are reported and a tentative classification is made based on characteristics revealed by CT. (orig.)

323

Congenital intranasal cyst in dacryocystocele.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present a case of a newborn with bilateral dacryocystocele in whom repeated probing was unsuccessful. An associated intranasal cyst was diagnosed. Using fiberoptic nasal endoscopy, treatment consisted of probing, irrigation and marsupialization of the cyst. This rarely reported anomaly is a more common finding in dacryocystocele than previously recognized. Careful nasal examination in all infants with congenital dacryocystocele is recommended. PMID:8696524

De Backer, E; Ingels, K; Van Cauwenberghe, P; Meire, F

1995-01-01

324

Perirenal tailgut cyst (cystic hamartoma).  

Science.gov (United States)

Tailgut cysts are rare congenital multicystic lesions preferentially occurring in the retrorectal space. They are assumed to arise from the remnant of embryonic tailgut and occasionally exhibit malignant transformation. The authors herein describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of an unusual perirenal tailgut cyst with an emphasis on its histogenesis and distinction from other intraabdominal cystic lesions. PMID:14523832

Sung, Ming-Tse; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Niu, Chen-Kuang; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Huang, Hsuan-Ying

2003-09-01

325

Tailgut cyst in a child  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tailgut cyst, or retrorectal cystic hamartoma, is a rare congenital lesion found in the presacral space. The lesion has been infrequently reported in the literature. We report the MRI findings of a tailgut cyst in a 2-year-old girl who presented with a sacral dimple and skin discoloration. (orig.)

Podberesky, Daniel J.; Emery, Kathleen H.; Care, Marguerite M.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Falcone, Richard A.; Ryckman, Frederick C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Miles, Lili [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

2005-02-01

326

Tailgut cyst in a child.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tailgut cyst, or retrorectal cystic hamartoma, is a rare congenital lesion found in the presacral space. The lesion has been infrequently reported in the literature. We report the MRI findings of a tailgut cyst in a 2-year-old girl who presented with a sacral dimple and skin discoloration. PMID:15351921

Podberesky, Daniel J; Falcone, Richard A; Emery, Kathleen H; Care, Marguerite M; Anton, Christopher G; Miles, Lili; Ryckman, Frederick C

2005-02-01

327

Tailgut cyst in a neonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tailgut cyst is a rare lesion of developmental origin located in the retrorectal space, which usually presents as a multilocular cystic mass. It is usually found in adults, and neonatal cases are extremely rare. The authors report a tailgut cyst in a neonate that was found by prenatal ultrasonogram, which was like a teratoma in gross appearance. PMID:11101749

Oh, J T; Son, S W; Kim, M J; Kim, L; Kim, H; Hwang, E H

2000-12-01

328

Tailgut cyst in a child  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tailgut cyst, or retrorectal cystic hamartoma, is a rare congenital lesion found in the presacral space. The lesion has been infrequently reported in the literature. We report the MRI findings of a tailgut cyst in a 2-year-old girl who presented with a sacral dimple and skin discoloration. (orig.)

329

Cisto de mesentério Mesenteric cyst  

OpenAIRE

Mesenteric cyst is a rare abdominal disease, with a higher incidence among women and 1: 250.000 incidence among hospitalized adults and 1: 200.000 among hospitalized children. Thereby, we report a case of a 10 years old child, male, presenting a large mesenteric cyst, which occupied almost all the abdominal and pelvic cavities and treated by resection during laparotomy.

Edson Yuzur Yasojima; Meliza Maria Moutinho Cruz; Tárik Olívar de Nunes Valente

2002-01-01

330

Class B Alkaline Stabilization to Achieve Pathogen Inactivation  

OpenAIRE

Liming is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the persistence of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. The survival of fecal coliforms, Salmonella, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, bacteriophage MS-2, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, and Ascaris lumbricoides ova was evaluated under lime stabilization conditions in a water matr...

Giovanni Widmer; Glenda Batzer; Helene Balkin; Margolin, Aaron B.; Hansen, Jacqueline J.; Bean, Christine L.

2007-01-01

331

Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report an unusual patient with multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts. A 20-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache and progressive left-sided hempiparesis. A cerebral CT scan showed a large and heterogeneous parieto-occipital lesion. During surgery an infected hydatid cyst was discovered with multiple daughter vesicles. Post-operatively the patient was treated with albendazol, cefotaxime and metronidazole. The clinical course was good with total recovery of the hemiparesis. A follow-up CT scan showed persistence of some small deep-seated cysts. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cyst is uncommon and can be confused with other cystic brain lesions. The aim of surgery is to remove the cyst unruptured and this should be followed by antihelminthic and antibiotic treatment in order to avoid recurrences. PMID:18342511

Gana, R; Skhissi, M; Maaqili, R; Bellakhdar, F

2008-05-01

332

THYROGLOSSAL CYST OUR EXPERIENCE  

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Full Text Available This study shares our experiences in managing patients with thyroglossal cysts. These are common midline tumors of neck. Characteristically these masses move on protrusion of tongue due to their intimate relationship with hyoid bone. Adults commonly presented with this lesion even though literature review suggests it to be common in children. All these patients underwent surgerybecause of the presence of mass rather than any symptoms. All 30 patients taken up in this study had a normal functioning thyroid in the normal position in addition to the cystic lesion.

Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

2013-01-01

333

Popliteal cysts: a current review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Baker's cyst, or popliteal cyst, is a fluid-filled mass that is a distention of a preexisting bursa in the popliteal fossa, most commonly the gastrocnemio-semimembranosus bursa. This bursa is unique in that it communicates with the knee joint, unlike other periarticular bursae, via an opening in the joint capsule posterior to the medial femoral condyle. Many have theorized that this opening creates a valve-like mechanism in the presence of effusion that contributes to the formation of these cysts in adults. Popliteal cysts rarely manifest alone and are most often found in conjunction with other intra-articular pathologies and inflammatory conditions, such as osteoarthritis, meniscus tears, and rheumatoid arthritis. In children, popliteal cysts are only occasionally associated with these conditions and are more often an incidental finding discovered during a routine physical examination. Popliteal cysts may present as either a chronically persistent or relapsing condition or as an acute and dramatic condition that can occur in the case of cyst rupture presenting as pseudothrombophlebitis. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proven to be consistent and accurate in the confirmation of popliteal cysts, with magnetic resonance imaging becoming the modern imaging modality of choice. This review discusses the anatomy and etiology of popliteal cysts, describes the common clinical presentations, reviews the differential diagnoses, and provides guidance for proper diagnostic imaging. It also provides a comparison of current conservative, minimally invasive, and invasive treatment options, along with a discussion of results. Postoperative rehabilitation depends largely on the condition associated with the popliteal cyst. PMID:25102502

Herman, Alyssa M; Marzo, John M

2014-08-01

334

Chronic pyelonephritis with hyperdense cysts on CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the causes for high density renal cysts on CT are reported to be bleeding within the cysts. We experienced a case of chronic pyelonephritis with high density renal cysts on Ct. In case of hyperdense renal cyst, chronic pyelonephritis should be added among the differential diagnoses. (author)

335

Cranial involvement in extradural hydatid cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a case of extradural hydatid cyst with cranial involvement. Extradural hydatid cysts are extremely rare, there being only twelve cases reported to date. We review the literature, the modes of clinical onset and the radiological differential diagnosis. CT typically depicts intracranial hydatid cysts as well-defined cysts lesions without contrast enhancement. (Author) 7 refs

336

Efficacy of New 5-Nitroimidazoles against Metronidazole-Susceptible and -Resistant Giardia, Trichomonas, and Entamoeba spp.  

OpenAIRE

The efficacies of 12 5-nitroimidazole compounds and 1 previously described lactam-substituted nitroimidazole with antiparasitic activity, synthesized via SRN1 and subsequent reactions, were assayed against the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. Two metronidazole-sensitive lines and two metronidazole-resistant lines of Giardia and one line each of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant Trichomonas were tested. All except one of the compoun...

Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Campbell, Raymond W.; Benakli, Kamel; Upcroft, Peter; Vanelle, Patrice

1999-01-01

337

MR imaging in postoperative maxillary cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the MR characteristics of postoperative maxillary cysts (POMCs). MR findings in 11 patients with surgically proved POMCs (28 cysts) were retrospectively reviewed. The location and the extent of all 28 cysts as determined with MR imaging were consistent with intraoperative findings. All 28 cysts (100%) had clear margin, 18 (64.3%) were ovoid, and 10 (35.7%) were convex. Most of the cysts (23 cysts, 82.1%) showed higher signal intensity than that of subcutaneous fat on T2-weighted images. On T1-weighted images, 28 cysts (100%) had signal intensity ranging from that of muscle to that of subcutaneous fat

338

Primary Cervical Paraspinal Hydatid Cyst: A Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection that usually involves liver and lungs. Hydatid cysts of the head and neck are rare, even in countries where echinococcal infestation is endemic. This report presents one patient with hydatid cyst, diagnosed using computed tomography, in whom the cysts were located between cervical paravertebral muscles. The purulent cyst content was aspirated and the thick cyst wall was totally excised. We did not experience any recurrences in our case which we had performed cyst aspiration with removal of the cyst capsule.

Ahmet DAGTEKIN

2011-03-01

339

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

340

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB David

2011-01-01

341

First studies on Giardia duodenalis in the water buffalo  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of Giardia duodenalis infection in the water buffalo was carried out in Central Italy. The survey was conducted on a sample of 90 farms, selected using a grid approach within a Geographical Information System, followed by proportional allocation. On each farm, faecal samples were collected from three to five asymptomatic buffalo calves, aged from 1 to 9 weeks (total number = 347. Each faecal sample was tested for the presence of copro-antigens of G. duodenalis using a commercially available ELISA. Out of the 90 farms, 27 (30.0% resulted positive. With respect to animals, out of the 347 faecal samples, 63 (18.1% were found to have antigens of G. duodenalis. The results of the logistic regression model showed a positive association between the positivity to G. duodenalis and the presence of sheep on farm.

G. Cringoli

2010-02-01

342

Giardia Patients in Bergen with Continued Complaints:Current Status on Gastrointestinal Complaints, anxiety, depression and neuroticism  

OpenAIRE

The aim was to investigate 111 former Giardia patients in Bergen, in context of the subjective health complaints field. Gastrointestinal complaints and its relation to anxiety, depression and neuroticism were assessed with GSRS, ROME II, HADS, and EPQ-R(N). Gender differences on these variables were investigated. We found that gender differences are related to complaints prior to Giardia infection. Anxiety and depression levels are high and only related to complaints prior to Giardia infectio...

Nordeide, Julia Jin Ese; Honningsva?g, Cecilie Jeanette

2008-01-01

343

Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis in fecal samples from dogs and cats in Ontario  

OpenAIRE

This study determined the distribution and zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis assemblage types among canine and feline fecal samples from Ontario. The effectiveness of Giardia assemblage typing methods by sequencing the genes of small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu-rRNA), ?-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) was evaluated simultaneously. From 2008 to 2010, 118 canine and 15 feline Giardia positive fecal samples were tested. The ssu-rRNA sequen...

Mcdowall, Rebeccah M.; Peregrine, Andrew S.; Leonard, Erin K.; Lacombe, Christopher; Lake, Mary; Rebelo, Ana R.; Cai, Hugh Y.

2011-01-01

344

[Large simple liver cyst treated laparoscopically].  

Science.gov (United States)

Simple liver cysts of various sizes are present in 1% of the population. Most are found incidentally and require no treatment. However, in a few the cyst is symptomatic and requires surgery: celiotomy and unroofing of the cyst. A 64-year-old woman with a symptomatic, simple cyst of the liver underwent laparoscopic surgery. After an uneventful course she was discharged on the 3rd postoperative day. Simple liver cysts can be safely treated by laparoscopic surgery. PMID:8138207

Lazauskas, T; Greif, F; Michowitz, M; Lelcuk, S

1994-01-01

345

Neonatal Ovarian Cyst: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Background: Ovarian cysts are the most frequent, prenatally diagnosed intra-abdominal cysts. Prenatal ultrasonography allows diagnosis of ovarian cysts and may suggest antenatal complications. The management of fetal ovarian cysts is still controversial despite the improvement in prenatal diagnosis with ultrasonography. Some studies suggest an aggressive management, while others plead for a conservative one.Case report:  We report on the first successfully treated large neonatal ovarian cyst...

Fateme Haji Ebrahim Tehrani; Zohreh Kavehmanesh; Mahbod Kaveh; Fateme Davari Tanha

2007-01-01

346

Surgical treatment of neonatal ovarian cysts  

OpenAIRE

Medical experts are still at issue over the most suitable management of simple neonatal ovarian cysts exceeding 40mm and complex cysts of any size. The authors present surgical treatment of these cysts by classical laparotomy and laparoscopy. The study included 13 newborn babies surgically treated for 6 simple and 7 complex ovarian cysts. The diameter of the cysts ranged from 29 to 102mm. The age of children was from 2 days to 10 months. The open classical laparotomic approach was perfo...

Marinkovi? Smiljana; Joki? Radoica; Bukarica Svetlana; Novakov-Miki? Aleksandra; Vu?kovi? Nada; Anti? Jelena

2011-01-01

347

Hydatid Cyst of Ovary: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Echinococcus granulosus is considered the major cause of humanhydatid cysts. Usually the duration of cyst formation is 10-20 years. This period shortens significantly upon rupture of aprimary cyst. The literature describes low incidence of primaryinvolvement of ovary as a site of hydatid cyst formation. Ourcase is the first report on ovarian hydatid cyst in Iran. A 60-year-old woman was presented with abdominal pain in the leftlower quadrant area. Paraclinical data were suggestive of neoplasi...

Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei; Armin Attar; Amita Goran; Seddigheh Amuee; Arman Dehghan; AhmadMonabati

2009-01-01

348

[Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery. PMID:19143297

Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

2008-01-01

349

GIANT INFECTED CHYLOLYMPHATIC CYST – A CASE REPORT  

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Mesenteric cysts are rare lesions that are not often described in the literature. A 48 year old male who presented with pain abdomen and upper abdominal distension is reported. After investigations, infected chylolymphatic cyst was diagnosed. At surgery a giant infected chylolymphatic cyst was seen. Drainage and scooping of the cyst wall was done. We report a rare case of infected chylo lymphatic cyst.

Gururaj R Padasalagi

2012-09-01

350

MR imaging of pineal cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-09-01

351

Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2012-08-15

352

Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

Tarlov, I. M.

1970-01-01

353

Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

354

Lymphoepithelial Cyst of the Pancreas  

OpenAIRE

Cystic lesions of the pancreas can be divided into true cysts, pseudocysts, and cystic neoplasms. Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are a type of true cyst that can mimic pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. LECs are rare lesions; fewer than 90 cases have been reported in the English language literature. The case of a 60-year-old man with an LEC of the pancreas is reported. He was admitted with upper abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography showed a 64 × 39 mm cystic mass in the retroperitoneum be...

?olovi? Radoje; Grubor Nikica; Radak Vladimir; Micev Marijan; ?olovi? Nataša

2012-01-01

355

Pericardial cyst simulating intracardiac mass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although pericardial celomic or mesothelial cysts are infrequent mediastinal lesions, they represent the most common benign mass lesion of the pericardium. Most often they are located at the right cardiophrenic junction. As a rule, they are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally on routine chest radiography. A symptomatic pericardial cyst is described in a patient with congestive cardiomyopathy, causing progressive atypical chest pain, dyspnea, and palpitation. On computer tomography (CT) and other imaging methods, the lesion simulated a cardiac mass. Thoracotomy revealed a large hemorrhagic pericardial celomic cyst compressing and displacing the heart and midmediastinal vasculature

356

Thoracal spinal extradural arachnoid cyst  

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Full Text Available Arachnoid cyst are fluid-filled that are located between the arachnoid and piamater or duplicationof arachnoid membrane. Extradural arachnoid cysts in the spine are rare and primary are congenital or acquired. These are occurring idiopathic, posttraumatic and post arachnoiditis. A 32 year-old male patient is became a clinic with urinary retention and gait disorders. Thoracic Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a spinal extradurally cystic mass isointense with that cerebro-spinal fluid at T7-8 level. Patient underwent an operation. The diagnosis of arachnoid cyst was made based on histopathology exam. The case was reported due to very rare occurrence of this entity.

Olcay Eser

2011-12-01

357

Cisto de Baker / Baker's cyst  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os cistos de Baker localizam-se na região posteromedial do joelho, entre o ventre medial do músculo gastrocnêmio e o tendão semimembranoso. No adulto, esses cistos estão relacionados a lesões intra-articulares, quais sejam, lesões meniscais ou artrose. Nas crianças, geralmente são achados de exame f [...] ísico ou de exames de imagem, apresentando pouca relevância clínica. O exame de ultrassonografia é adequado para identificar e mensurar o cisto poplíteo. Para o tratamento, a abordagem principal deve ser relacionada ao tratamento da lesão articular. Na maioria dos casos não há necessidade de se abordar diretamente o cisto. Os cistos no joelho são, quase na sua totalidade, benignos (cistos de Baker e cistos parameniscais). Porém, a presença de alguns sinais demanda que o ortopedista suspeite da possibilidade de malignidade: sintomas desproporcionais ao tamanho do cisto, ausência de lesão articular (ex.: meniscal) que justifique a existência do cisto, topografia atípica, erosão óssea associada, tamanho superior a 5cm e invasão tecidual (cápsula articular). Abstract in english Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually f [...] ound on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts), presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears) that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule).

Marco Kawamura, Demange.

358

[Thyroglossal cyst of double cyst: one case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 5 years old boy was referred to our department with complaints of a painless midline neck swelling. Clinical feature: there was a painless swelling above the middle of thyroid cartilage, it was about 2.0 cm x 0.5 cm, and it was soft. And its boundary was clear. The skin temperature is normal. B-mode ultrasound features: there is a cystic mass in the front of the neck, it is about 2.3 cm x 1.0 cm, and be apart from the skin is 0.3 cm. It is showed that another cystic mass behind this one, is about 1.9 cm x 0.7 cm. The borders are clear, and no blood flow signal is detected. The thyroid was not abnormal. Pathology results showed the wall of cyst and there were pectin in the cyst. Diagnosis: thyroglossal cyst of double cyst. PMID:25185296

Fu, Yangyang; She, Cuiping; Zhang, Qingfeng

2014-03-01

359

A large cerebral hydatid cyst associated with liver cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydatid disease in childhood is a serious health problem in Turkey and other places where the parasite is endemic. An 8-year-old girl from a rural area was admitted with headache, recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal distension and hypo-aesthesia and paresis of the right arm. Computerised tomography (CT) scans demonstrated a large intracranial hydatid cyst. A hydatid cyst was detected in the liver also. Her mother had been treated previously for disseminated hydatid disease. The cerebral cyst was removed but only subtotal excision of the hepatic cyst was possible. She was treated with albendazole, has fully recovered and, after 12 months of follow-up, there is no sign of recurrence. PMID:14738581

Bakaris, Sevgi; Sahin, Salih; Yuksel, Murvet; Karabiber, Hamza

2003-12-01

360

[Aneurysmal bone cyst and solitary cyst of bone].  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of treatment of 7 cases of aneurysmal bone cysts and 12 cases of solitary bone cysts in 19 patients treated in our Department between 1991 and 1996 are presented. Changes were found in the humerus, femur, tibia and fibula. Curettage or excision was the mode of treatment. Recurrence of the condition has been noted in 4 cases. Excision of the change and filling of the defect with autologous or homologous bone graft is more efficient than curettage alone. PMID:10765484

Zietek, P; Królewski, J; Bohatyrewicz, A

1999-01-01

361

Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.

Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.

2011-01-01

362

Pancreatic cysts in the mediastinum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author gives a clinical and X-ray picture of rare cystic formations in the medjastinum - dystopic cysts of cauda pancreatis in 3 operated patients. The main X-ray signs that can be used for diagnosis are described. The resolution power of the most informative methods, such as tomography and diagnostic pneumoperitoneum has been analysed. It is assumed that dystopic pancreatic cysts in the mediastinum are a particular variant of diaphragmatic hernia

363

Cisto de mesentério Mesenteric cyst  

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Full Text Available Mesenteric cyst is a rare abdominal disease, with a higher incidence among women and 1: 250.000 incidence among hospitalized adults and 1: 200.000 among hospitalized children. Thereby, we report a case of a 10 years old child, male, presenting a large mesenteric cyst, which occupied almost all the abdominal and pelvic cavities and treated by resection during laparotomy.

Edson Yuzur Yasojima

2002-06-01

364

Cisto de mesentério / Mesenteric cyst  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Mesenteric cyst is a rare abdominal disease, with a higher incidence among women and 1: 250.000 incidence among hospitalized adults and 1: 200.000 among hospitalized children. Thereby, we report a case of a 10 years old child, male, presenting a large mesenteric cyst, which occupied almost all the a [...] bdominal and pelvic cavities and treated by resection during laparotomy.

Edson Yuzur, Yasojima; Meliza Maria Moutinho, Cruz; Tárik Olívar de Nunes, Valente.

2002-06-01

365

Thoracal spinal extradural arachnoid cyst  

OpenAIRE

Arachnoid cyst are fluid-filled that are located between the arachnoid and piamater or duplicationof arachnoid membrane. Extradural arachnoid cysts in the spine are rare and primary are congenital or acquired. These are occurring idiopathic, posttraumatic and post arachnoiditis. A 32 year-old male patient is became a clinic with urinary retention and gait disorders. Thoracic Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a spinal extradurally cystic mass isointense with that cerebro-spinal fluid at T7-8 l...

Olcay Eser; Serhat Y?ld?zhan

2011-01-01

366

Surgical treatment of neonatal ovarian cysts  

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Full Text Available Medical experts are still at issue over the most suitable management of simple neonatal ovarian cysts exceeding 40mm and complex cysts of any size. The authors present surgical treatment of these cysts by classical laparotomy and laparoscopy. The study included 13 newborn babies surgically treated for 6 simple and 7 complex ovarian cysts. The diameter of the cysts ranged from 29 to 102mm. The age of children was from 2 days to 10 months. The open classical laparotomic approach was performed in 8 babies. In the laparotomy group, cystectomy was done in 3 infants with simple cysts. The other 5, presented with ovarian torsion, required salpingo-oophorectomy. Video - assisted cystectomy was the procedure for 3 simplex and one complex cyst with torsion. Laparoscopic adnexectomy was applied in one case with autoamputated cyst. Our small study demonstrates that laparoscopy is as safe and effective as classical laparotomy in managing neonatal ovarian cysts, but with better cosmetic results.

Marinkovi? Smiljana

2011-01-01

367

Hydatid Cyst of Ovary: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is considered the major cause of humanhydatid cysts. Usually the duration of cyst formation is 10-20 years. This period shortens significantly upon rupture of aprimary cyst. The literature describes low incidence of primaryinvolvement of ovary as a site of hydatid cyst formation. Ourcase is the first report on ovarian hydatid cyst in Iran. A 60-year-old woman was presented with abdominal pain in the leftlower quadrant area. Paraclinical data were suggestive of neoplasiaand preoperative diagnosis was ovarian tumor. Duringlaparotomy, multiple cysts resembling hydatid cysts were observedin the left ovary. Pathological examination confirmed thediagnosis of hydatid cyst. Although there is a small possibilityof secondary ovarian echinococcal disease, it is more probablefor this case to be primary infection, as the patient had developedovarian hydatid cysts 15 years after hepatic involvementand recurrence after 30 months is very uncommon.

Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei

2009-03-01

368

Management of problematic intracranial hydatid cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report four patients with intracranial hydatic cysts. One patient had a pontine lesion which was punctured and aspirated and the cyst wall removed with a satisfactory outcome. The second patient had multiple cysts which was comparable to meningeomatosis. She had a rapidly deteriorating neurologic condition which proved to be fatal in spite of two consecutive surgical interventions. The third patient had nine lesions although only six were evident on the MRI. All of the cysts were removed, while two cysts ruptured. Multiple paracardial cysts of this patient were surgically removed shortly after the craniotomy. The last patient, again with multiple intracranial hydatid cysts had safe, total removal of all cysts. The first postoperative control CT raised the possibility of recurrence since the CT was highly suggestive of a hydatid cyst. However, this was not confirmed in the follow-up CT examination. Problems and the solutions of management are discussed. PMID:8557386

Altinörs, N; Senveli, E; Dönmez, T; Bavbek, M; Kars, Z; Sanli, M

1995-01-01

369

Neonatal Ovarian Cyst: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Background: Ovarian cysts are the most frequent, prenatally diagnosed intra-abdominal cysts. Prenatal ultrasonography allows diagnosis of ovarian cysts and may suggest antenatal complications. The management of fetal ovarian cysts is still controversial despite the improvement in prenatal diagnosis with ultrasonography. Some studies suggest an aggressive management, while others plead for a conservative one.Case report:  We report on the first successfully treated large neonatal ovarian cyst from Iran. She was a normal-term infant with respiratory distress due to the large size of the ovarian cyst diagnosed prenatally. We didnt find any other related anomaly in the neonate.Conclusion: Neonatal simple ovarian cysts are rare, but may cause complications. Most small simple cysts regress spontaneously; surgical intervention is reserved for complicated or large size ovarian cysts.

Fateme Haji Ebrahim Tehrani

2007-09-01

370

Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst: role of ercp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of hepatic hydatid cyst presenting with obstructive jaundice following cholecystectomy. ERCP showed intrabiliary cyst rupture with biliary obstruction due to cyst remnants. Endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed and cyst debris removed with complete resolution of symptoms. (author)

371

Calcified intracranial hydatid cyst: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a 26-year-old patient who did farming related work had an asymptomatic intracranial hydatid cyst. A calcified intracranial cystic mass was found on radiological investigations and the patient underwent surgery. The mass was totally excised. The histopathology result reported a hydatid cyst. There were no postoperative complications. Calcification is quite rare in cerebral hydatid cyst. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide information that is especially useful for preoperative diagnosis. Observing membrane detachment and daughter cysts during these investigations is pathognomonic. The presence of calcification in the cyst wall and intracystic membranes indicated hydatid cyst. PMID:22198924

Köktekir, Ender; Erdem, Yavuz; Gökçek, Cevdet; Karatay, Mete; Y?lmaz, Ali; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Sümer, Sua

2011-01-01

372

Percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy of oophoritic cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy in oophoritic cysts. Methods: Seventy six oophoritic cysts incluoling 48 simple and 28 chocolate cysts of 64 patients were treated with percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy under CT guidance. 4F multisideholes pigtail catheter was introduced into cyst using absolute alcohol as sclerosing agents. Results: The successful rate of percutaneous oophoritc cyst puncture was 100% in all 64 patients. Among them 58 were cured (90.6%), 6 improved significantly (9.4%). The total effective rate reached 100% with no serious complications. Conclusions: Catheterization sclerotherapy for oophoritic cyst is a simple, complete, safe and effective method. (authors)

373

MANAGEMENT OF OVARIAN CYST BY AYURVEDIC TREATMENT: A CASE REPORT  

OpenAIRE

Ovarian cysts are fluid filled sacs inside the ovary that are common among women during their reproductive years. Most cysts are harmless and go away without any treatment, but some may cause problems such as rupturing, bleeding, or pain; and surgery may be required to remove the cyst(s). When the follicles (sacs) in the ovaries do not rupture, they form small cysts called 'simple cysts'. These form whenever ovary produces too much of estrogen hormone. 'Dermoid cysts' & 'chocolate cysts' are ...

Sehgal Himanshu; Rao M.M.; Sharma Gagandeep

2011-01-01

374

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. PMID:25270421

Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

2015-01-01

375

Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in children from the Cufada Lagoon Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in African countries is relatively scarce. The global understanding of Giardia epidemiology is reinforced when more data are available from highly endemic countries. In the present study, 50 fecal samples collected from children from Guinea-Bissau were screened for Giardia infection. Amplification of the Giardia ssu-rRNA fragment was achieved for 28 samples (28/50, 56.0 %) of which 23 (23/50, 46.0 %) positive samples for Giardia were detected through microscopy. Eighteen samples previous amplified for the ssu-rRNA locus were amplified for the bg gene fragment. Sequence analysis was performed in 26 and 17 samples for the ssu-rRNA and bg gene fragment, respectively. Our results revealed a predominance of assemblage B (22/26, 84.6 %), sequences with high genetic polymorphism among isolates belonging to this assemblage, making impossible the subassemblage determination. Assemblage A was identified in three isolates (3/26, 11.5 %), and our results strongly suggest that two isolates belong to subassemblage A2. This study provides information about G. duodenalis genotypes in a rural area of Guinea-Bissau and may contribute for a better understanding of giardiasis epidemiology in this country. PMID:22915269

Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Centeno-Lima, S; Gomes, J; Rosa, F; Rosado, V; Parreira, R; Cravo, L; Atouguia, J; Távora Tavira, L

2012-11-01

376

Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cystic lesions of the pancreas can be divided into true cysts, pseudocysts, and cystic neoplasms. Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are a type of true cyst that can mimic pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. LECs are rare lesions; fewer than 90 cases have been reported in the English language literature. The case of a 60-year-old man with an LEC of the pancreas is reported. He was admitted with upper abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography showed a 64 × 39 mm cystic mass in the retroperitoneum behind the duodenum and inferior caval vein. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right-sided mass on T1-weighted imaging, with a clear boundary between the mass and its surroundings, except for the pancreas. The mass had an inhomogeneous intensity on T2-weighted imaging. Within the mass, small floating nodules with low intensity were seen. Endoscopic ultrasound showed many high-echoic nodules and smaller grains scattered everywhere in the mass. Fine needle aspiration and cytologic examination were performed. Characteristic chylaceous fluid was obtained in which anucleate squamous cells were found. There were also a few atypical large cells with irregularly shaped marked nucleoli and degenerative cytoplasm. Cytologic diagnosis was suspicious for malignancy. The lesion was diagnosed as a retroperitoneal cyst, probably of pancreatic origin. Since a neoplastic lesion could not be ruled out, surgery was performed. The lesion was palpable on the dorsal side of the second portion of the duodenum. The mass was completely resected. Macroscopically, the lesion was a multilocular cyst with a thin septal wall. The cyst was filled with cottage cheese-like substance. Microscopically, the cyst wall was composed of stratified squamous epithelium and dense subepithelial lymphatic tissue with developed lymph follicles. The epithelial cells had no atypia. The histopathologic diagnosis was LEC of the pancreas. The patient's postoperative course was good. PMID:23139650

Domen, Hiromitsu; Ohara, Masanori; Kimura, Noriko; Takahashi, Mizuna; Yamabuki, Takumi; Komuro, Kazuteru; Iwashiro, Nozomu; Ishizaka, Masanori

2012-09-01

377

Giant intracranial hydatid cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the infestation of the larvae of Taenia echinococcus. The definite hosts of echinococcus are various carnivores, the common being the dog. All mammals (more often being sheep and cattle are hosts. Humans are infected through the feco-oral route by the ingestion of food or milk contaminated by dog feces that contain the ova of the parasite or by direct contact with dogs. The eggs lose their enveloping layer in the stomach, releasing the embryos. The embryos pass through the wall of the gut into the portal system and are carried to the liver where most of the larvae are entrapped and encysted. Some may reach the lungs, and occasionally, some may pass through the capillary filter of the liver and lungs and enter into the systemic circulation. We report a case of giant intracranial left temporoparietooccipital extra-axial hydatid cyst with a size of 12.5 x 8.5 cm in a 5-year-old male presented with holocranial headache with the diminution of vision and papilledema with right hemiperesis successfully managed in our department surgically.

Trivedi A

2007-01-01

378

Ovarian Cysts - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

Science.gov (United States)

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Ovarian Cysts - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Ovarian Cysts English (Arabic) ??????? ???????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education ... on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

379

Multiple intracranial hydatid cysts: MR findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiple intracranial hydatid cysts are uncommon and usually localized in the supratentorial compartment. We report a case studied by CT and MR of multiple intracranial hydatid cysts scattered in various anatomic sites: supratentorial, infratentorial and also intraventricular. (orig.)

380

Neuroenteric cyst of the craniocervical junction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neuroenteric cyst is a rare cause of an intradural, extramedullary mass. We report the MRI findings in a case of a neuroenteric cyst of the craniovertebral junction without associated abnormalities. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

381

A huge presacral Tarlov cyst. Case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perineural cysts have become a common incidental finding during lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Only some of the symptomatic cysts warrant treatment. The authors describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with, to the best of their knowledge, the largest perineural cyst reported to date. A 29-year-old woman had been suffering from long-standing constipation and low-back pain. During an obstetric investigation for infertility, the clinician discovered a huge presacral cystic mass. Computed tomography myelography showed the lesion to be a huge Tarlov cyst arising from the left S-3 nerve root and compressing the ipsilateral S-2 nerve. The cyst was successfully treated by ligation of the cyst neck together with sectioning of the S-3 nerve root. Postoperative improvement in her symptoms and MR imaging findings were noted. Identification of the nerve root involved by the cyst wall, operative indication, operative procedure, and treatment of multiple cysts are important preoperative considerations. PMID:17688070

Ishii, Kazuhiko; Yuzurihara, Masahito; Asamoto, Shunji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Motoo

2007-08-01

382

Ganglion Cyst of the Wrist and Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

... among gymnasts, who repeatedly apply stress to the wrist. Ganglion cysts that develop at the end joint of a ? nger — also known as mucous cysts — are typically associated with arthritis in the ? nger joint, and are more ...

383

Mesenteric and omental cyst: CT findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mesenteric and omental cysts are uncommon lesions found all age groups. They elicit interest because of their unclear pathogenesis and confusing terminology. CT findings of 12 case with mesenteric and omental cysts were described and compared with surgical and pathologic findings. In mesenteric and omental cyst, the histologic diagnoses were lymphangioma(7 cases), nonpancreatic pseudocyst(3 cases), mesothelial cyst(2 cases). Lymphangiomas were usually multiloculated cyst with enhancing wall, located in the small bowel mesentery. And these cystic lesions were frequently attached to bowel and required resection of a bowel segment. In three cases of pseudocyst, thick and enhancing wall was shown in unilocular cyst. Two cases of mesothlial cyst were located in greater omentum, showed very thin wall in unilocuation. The CT features of the mesenteric and omental cysts are fairly characteristic. Identification of lymphangioma, which shows a multilocuation and enhancing wall, is important due to frequent bowel resection in operative field.

Kim, Myung Gyu; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Yun Hwan; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Seoul, Hae Young [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1994-02-15

384

Mesenteric and omental cyst: CT findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mesenteric and omental cysts are uncommon lesions found all age groups. They elicit interest because of their unclear pathogenesis and confusing terminology. CT findings of 12 case with mesenteric and omental cysts were described and compared with surgical and pathologic findings. In mesenteric and omental cyst, the histologic diagnoses were lymphangioma(7 cases), nonpancreatic pseudocyst(3 cases), mesothelial cyst(2 cases). Lymphangiomas were usually multiloculated cyst with enhancing wall, located in the small bowel mesentery. And these cystic lesions were frequently attached to bowel and required resection of a bowel segment. In three cases of pseudocyst, thick and enhancing wall was shown in unilocular cyst. Two cases of mesothlial cyst were located in greater omentum, showed very thin wall in unilocuation. The CT features of the mesenteric and omental cysts are fairly characteristic. Identification of lymphangioma, which shows a multilocuation and enhancing wall, is important due to frequent bowel resection in operative field

385

Dermoid cyst of the ovary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unsuspectable chronic rupture was discovered during surgical remotion of a very large ovarian dermoid cyst. Abdomen X-ray, US and CT examinations were presurgically performed. Standing X-ray projection of the abdomen allowed the appearing of a new radiographic finding of dermoid cyst, the ''fat floating'' as the equivalent of the ''gravity dependent layering'' in US and CT features. Thisding of dermoid cyst, the ''fat floating'' as the equivalent of the ''gravity dependent layering'' in US and CT features. This radiographic sign appears as an horizontal line between two soft tissues of different opacity; it is caused by oleous and sebaceous fluid floating over serous fluid and over serous fluid and over intracystic debris. Literature was reviewed and radiographic findings in dermoid cyst were reconsidered; the sign of ''fat floating'' could enhance the diagnostic accuracy of abdomen X-ray. So when a pelvic or an abdominal-pelvic mass is discovered in a young woman, standing projection is required for abdomen X-ray. Rupture of a dermoid cyst may happen without notice and chronically; CT has been more accurate than US in evaluating rupture, in particular the peritoneal spread of oleous pseudocyst

386

[Solitary cyst of the liver].  

Science.gov (United States)

The rareness of the illness and the infrequency of infectious complications have led the authors to report a case which has come to their attention. After a brief exam of the etiopathogenesis and pathologic anatomy of these hepatic forms of cyst and the following considerations on their clinical aspects, which range from complete lack of symptoms to the compression of nearby organs (gall ducts, stomach, kidney) due to an increase in their volume, to occurrence of complications (rupture, haemorrhage, suppuration), the authors evaluate the therapeutic problem. Emptying and internal drainage being nowadays discarded and everyone agree on the necessity of excising the whole cystic wall with the minimum loss of hepatic parenchyma, the most indicated operation is total cystectomy. As such an operation is not always feasible because of the adherences of the cyst to the hepatic parenchyma; partial cystectomy can be practiced, leaving in situ part of the cystic wall. If the cyst is complicated by rupture, haemorrhage or suppuration, typical or atypical hepatic resection is recommended. The reported case concerns a patient in good general conditions, bearer of a large left hepatic lobe cyst, complicated by suppuration, with normal liver function, who has been submitted to ablation of the third hepatic segment according to the Ton That Tung transparenchymal technique. Finally the authors point out the possibility of a new conservative therapeutic approach, practiced in a few centres, consisting in echo or CT guided percutaneous needle suction and sclerosis of the cyst with 95% pure alcohol. PMID:9411298

Galbiati, E; Massaia, G; Roveda, G; Rossi, N; Lo Schiavo, R

1997-01-01

387

Cervical thoracic duct cyst: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thoracic duct cysts are uncommon lesions that most commonly occur in the abdominal and thoracic portion of the thoracic duct: the cervical portion is the rarest location. The main causes of thoracic duct cyst are surgical injuries such as neck dissection and blunt trauma. We report here on a rare case of spontaneous cervical thoracic duct cyst that was noted on ultrasonography and CT. The thoracic duct cyst was confirmed by fine needle aspiration and it was treated by sclerotherapy.

Park, Sang Hyun; Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Chi Kyu; Jo, Sung Sik; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Yung [Chunan Hospital Soonchunhyang University, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

2007-06-15

388

Cervical thoracic duct cyst: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thoracic duct cysts are uncommon lesions that most commonly occur in the abdominal and thoracic portion of the thoracic duct: the cervical portion is the rarest location. The main causes of thoracic duct cyst are surgical injuries such as neck dissection and blunt trauma. We report here on a rare case of spontaneous cervical thoracic duct cyst that was noted on ultrasonography and CT. The thoracic duct cyst was confirmed by fine needle aspiration and it was treated by sclerotherapy

389

Magnetic resonance tomography of the perineural cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It may be difficult to differentiate between symptomatic perineural cysts, arachnoidal cysts, meningoceles, neurinomas and other cystic masses within the spinal canal and spinal foramina. Therefore the impact of MRI on the differential diagnosis of these lesions is discussed on the basis of 15 cases with perineural cysts, 1 case of an arachnoid cyst, 2 cases of meningoceles and 2 cases of neurinomas. The problem of fluid characterisation by the use of special MR measurements is emphasised. (orig.)

390

Magnetic resonance tomography of the perineural cyst  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It may be difficult to differentiate between symptomatic perineural cysts, arachnoidal cysts, meningoceles, neurinomas and other cystic masses within the spinal canal and spinal foramina. Therefore the impact of MRI on the differential diagnosis of these lesions is discussed on the basis of 15 cases with perineural cysts, 1 case of an arachnoid cyst, 2 cases of meningoceles and 2 cases of neurinomas. The problem of fluid characterisation by the use of special MR measurements is emphasised.

Vahldiek, G.; Terwey, B.

1988-11-01

391

Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst  

OpenAIRE

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal...

Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

2012-01-01

392

Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

OpenAIRE

Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-tae; Hong, Seung-koan

2011-01-01

393

Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

2011-08-01

394

Parapharyngeal second branchial cyst: A case report  

OpenAIRE

Branchial cleft cysts extending to the lateral wall of the pharynx are rare. An eight year old female child presented with a cystic swelling in the left parotid region. A bluish cyst was seen anterior to the anterior pillar of left tonsil. CT scan showed the cyst extending into left parapharyngeal space. External part of the cyst was excised via a transcervical approach and the internal part was marsupalised per orally

Ghosh, Swapan Kr; Kr, Tarun; Datta, Saumyajit; Banka, Alok

2006-01-01

395

Diagnosis and management of bilateral nasolabial cysts  

OpenAIRE

Nasolabial cysts are painless, submucosal, non-odontogenic jaw cysts presenting as soft tissue swellings in the maxillary anterior mucolabial fold lateral to midline, leading to elevation of nasal ala. Present case documents bilateral nasolabial cysts in a 69-year-old Asian female patient. In the present case, extraoral swelling of maxillary lip and elevation of nasal ala was observed on right side of the face. Intraorally, soft and fluctuant bilateral cysts were observed. Straw-colored fluid...

Parwani, Rajkumar; Parwani, Simran; Wanjari, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

396

Ruptured Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst Diagnosed by Bronchoscopy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complicated pulmonary hydatid cyst disease can mimic tuberculosis, lung cancer, empyema and abscess. The diagnosis of complicated pulmonary hydatid cysts may not be easy. Bronchoscopy is not a routine procedure in hydatid cyst disease. However, it is inevitable when clinical and radiological appearance is atypical. A pulmonary hydatid cyst disease case with atypical clinical and radiological findings diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy was presented in this case report.

Eylem Sercan Özgür

2013-01-01

397

Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1?:?100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFc?-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFc?-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the diminished number of IgA-positive cells registered in the Giardia group at 7 days post-infection was restored by kefir feeding, although the increase in IgA-positive cells was no longer observed in the kefir group at that time. No significant differences in CXCL10 expression were registered between groups, in concordance with the absence of inflammation in small-intestinal tissue. Interestingly, a slight reduction in CCL20 expression was observed in the Giardia group, suggesting that G. intestinalis might downregulate its expression as a way of evading the inflammatory immune response. On the other hand, a trend towards an increase in TNF-? expression was observed in the kefir group, while the Giardia-kefir group showed a significant increase in TNF-? expression. Moreover, kefir-receiving mice (kefir and Giardia-kefir groups) showed an increase in the expression of IFN-?, the most relevant Th1 cytokine, at 2 days post-infection. Our results demonstrate that feeding mice with kefir reduces G. intestinalis infection and promotes the activation of different mechanisms of humoral and cellular immunity that are downregulated by parasitic infection, thus contributing to protection. PMID:24072759

Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

2013-12-01

398

Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

Hidetoshi Nojiri

2009-10-01

399

MR findings in thyroglossal duct cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two patients with thyroglossal duct cysts have been studied with CT and MR. The typical CT feature of these cystic upper-neck lesions are depicted in literature, conversely MR findings are not well known. The homogeneous high intensity on T1-weighted images, higher than simple cyst or fluid, is the most typical feature of the thyroglossal cyst. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

400

Laparoscopic excision of hepatoduodenal ligament cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatoduodenal ligament cysts are rare. These may be confused with hepatic cysts even on advanced investigative modalities like Computerized tomography scanning or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Diagnosis is often an intraoperative surprise. Laparoscopic treatment of such hepatoduodenal cysts is not described in available medical literature. We report one such case treated laparoscopically. PMID:22837598

Deshpande, Aparna; Dalvi, Abhay N; Thanky, Harsh B; Khobragade, Krunal

2012-07-01

401

Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine  

OpenAIRE

We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

Hidetoshi Nojiri; Yoshio Sakuma; Soichi Uta

2009-01-01

402

Seven years experience of bronchogenic cysts.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To reveal the clinical, radiological, and surgical results of bronchogenic cysts. METHODS Patients that underwent surgical procedure between January 2000 and June 2007, at Izmir Dr. Suat Seren Chest Disease and Thoracic Surgery Training Hospital, Izmir, Turkey with a radiological diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst were assessed retrospectively. Patients with confirmed histopathologically bronchogenic cyst (n=28) were evaluated fo...

Soner Gursoy; Ahmet Ucvet; Ozturk, Ali A.; Erbaycu, Ahmet E.; Oktay Basok; Nur Yucel

2009-01-01

403

ODONTOGENIC CYST - CASE REPORT AND REVIEW  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Odontogenic cysts are defined as epithelial cell lined cysts. Maxillary sinus is closely related to the upper premolar and molar teeth. Any infection / pathology involving the root of these teeth will also have its effect on the maxillary sinus. Case report: To present a case of Odontogenic cyst in the left ma...

Sankaranarayanan Gopalakrishnan; Km, Elango; Thamizharasan P

2014-01-01

404

Core histone genes of Giardia intestinalis: genomic organization, promoter structure, and expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protist found in freshwaters worldwide, and is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea in humans. The phylogenetic position of this parasite is still much debated. Histones are small, highly conserved proteins that associate tightly with DNA to form chromatin within the nucleus. There are two classes of core histone genes in higher eukaryotes: DNA replication-independent histones and DNA replication-dependent ones. Results We identified two copies each of the core histone H2a, H2b and H3 genes, and three copies of the H4 gene, at separate locations on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 within the genome of Giardia intestinalis, but no gene encoding a H1 linker histone could be recognized. The copies of each gene share extensive DNA sequence identities throughout their coding and 5' noncoding regions, which suggests these copies have arisen from relatively recent gene duplications or gene conversions. The transcription start sites are at triplet A sequences 1–27 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon for each gene. We determined that a 50 bp region upstream from the start of the histone H4 coding region is the minimal promoter, and a highly conserved 15 bp sequence called the histone motif (him is essential for its activity. The Giardia core histone genes are constitutively expressed at approximately equivalent levels and their mRNAs are polyadenylated. Competition gel-shift experiments suggest that a factor within the protein complex that binds him may also be a part of the protein complexes that bind other promoter elements described previously in Giardia. Conclusion In contrast to other eukaryotes, the Giardia genome has only a single class of core histone genes that encode replication-independent histones. Our inability to locate a gene encoding the linker histone H1 leads us to speculate that the H1 protein may not be required for the compaction of Giardia's small and gene-rich genome.

Adam Rodney D

2007-04-01

405

Giardia duodenalis: effects of an ozonized sunflower oil product (Oleozon) on in vitro trophozoites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ozonized sunflower oil product (Oleozon) was investigated to explore its cytotoxic activity on Giardia duodenalis in vitro cultivated trophozites. Oleozon produced inactivation of Giardia trophozoites in a dose- and cell density-dependent manner. Thirty microliter of Oleozon with peroxide index value of 500 equivalent-mmol of activated oxygen per kilogram were used to achieve a 100% inhibition (Oleozon is one of the causes of the parasitocidal effect of this product. We suggest that the dose and cell density-dependent effect must be taken into account when prescription of this product for giardiasis treatment in humans. PMID:19010325

Hernández, Frank; Hernández, Damian; Zamora, Zullyt; Díaz, Maritza; Ancheta, Odelsa; Rodriguez, Sandra; Torres, Dinorah

2009-03-01

406

Relationship of Simple Renal Cyst to Hypertension  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Simple renal cyst is the most common cystic deformation found in adults. However, there were a few systematic Korean reports for the clinical symptoms and complications of simple renal cysts. The author's purpose was to determine the relationship between simple renal cysts diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and hypertension. Methods Among 13,482 persons who took a routine physical examination at Ulsan University Hospital in 2002, 5,127 persons who took medical examinations again in 2010 were selected. We excluded persons who had renal cyst, hypertension, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, kidney disease, thyroid disease, and cancer in 2002. Analysis was conducted for 505 subjects with newly diagnosed simple renal cyst and 2,744 subjects without renal cyst in 2010. The simple renal cyst group was compared to a control group without renal cyst. Results Among 3,249 subjects, simple renal cyst and hypertension were newly diagnosed in 505 subjects and 503 subjects. The subjects who had simple renal cysts had significantly higher hypertension incidence (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.94). Significant hypertension incidence was observed especially when the subjects had cysts located on both kidneys (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.12 to 5.71), two (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.84 to 5.15) or more cysts (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.38 to 7.04), and larger cysts more than 1 cm in diameter (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.07). Conclusion The presence of simple renal cysts was significantly positively related to the incidence of hypertension. Bilateral distribution, two or more number, and larger size than 1 cm diameter were the characteristics of simple renal cyst related to hypertension. PMID:25309704

Kim, Su-Mi; Oh, Myoung-Soon; Kwon, Sung-Gul; Bae, Sung-Jin

2014-01-01

407

Computed tomography of intraspinal ganglion cysts and synovial cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT findings of intraspinal ganglion and synovial cysts of the facet joint include ; 1) a cystic hypodense mass adjacent to the facet joint, 2) frequent calcification in its margin, 3) poor delineation of the ligamentum flavum at the capsular portion. The last finding is the most pathognomonic of the diseases. (author)

408

Pigmented eyelid cysts revisited: apocrine retention cyst chromhidrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A minority of eyelid hidrocystomas are pigmented containing brown-black contents. Chromhidrosis describes the excretion of colored secretions composed of lipofuscin pigments in apocrine gland-rich anatomic locations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of pigmented eyelid cysts. A case-control study was conducted, examining consecutive pigmented and nonpigmented eyelid hidrocystoma excision specimens. Over a 4-year period, 9 pigmented eyelid hidrocystomas were identified, representing 13% (9/70) of all hidrocystoma excisions. Compared to controls (n = 14), no difference existed for age [mean age 59 (44-78 years) vs. 60 (42-82 years)] or size [mean diameter 2.3 (1-4 mm) vs. 2.7 (1-5 mm)] (pigmented vs. nonpigmented, respectively), but a trend for female, left side, and lower lid predominance for pigmented hidrocystomas existed: 8:1 versus 7:7 F:M; 7:2 versus 7:7 left:right; 8:1 versus 9:5 lower:upper eyelid (pigmented vs. nonpigmented, respectively). Clinically, the pigmented cysts' color varied from dark blue, brown, and to black, and on gross examination, they expressed dark brown to black granular liquid contents. Applying histologic criteria of Jakobiec and Zakka, 8 of 9 and 14 of 14 pigmented and nonpigmented hidrocystomas were of apocrine type. Seven of 9 (78%) pigmented cysts and 6 of 14 (43%) nonpigmented hidrocystomas contained granular eosinophilic cyst contents and/or intracellular cytoplasmic granular pigmented deposits by light microscopy. (The pigmented cyst contents did not survive processing in 2 cases.) By histochemistry (periodic acid Schiff with diastase, Sudan Black, and Fite acid-fast positive staining) and ultraviolet fluorescence, these sediments were determined to be lipofuscin pigments. No hidrocystomas had melanin deposits, and one case had hemosiderin deposits in a scarred cyst wall in addition to cyst lipofuscin pigments. In studies of chromhidrosis, both normal and chromhidrotic apocrine glands contain lipofuscin pigments; the sole difference lies in the amount of lipofuscin granules. Similarly, for eyelid apocrine hidrocystomas, lipofuscin pigments exist in both groups. Presumptively, the amount of lipofuscin and degree of its oxidation distinguish pigmented from nonpigmented apocrine hidrocystomas. PMID:24247572

Al-Rohil, Rami N; Meyer, Dale; Slodkowska, Elzbieta A; Carlson, J A

2014-04-01

409

Pericyst: the outermost layer of hydatid cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydatid disease, caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus, mostly affects the liver and the lungs with hydatid cysts which consist of three layers: (1) the outer pericyst; (2) the middle laminated membrane; and (3) the inner germinal layer. Pericyst, as the outermost layer of the hydatid cyst, is made by host cells encasing the hydatid cyst. An extremely close interaction exists between this host tissue and the parasite, and any degenerative changes of the pericyst would result in hydatid cyst degeneration or rupture. The pericyst plays an undeniably important role in the development and survival of the hydatid cyst. PMID:24574815

Golzari, Samad E J; Sokouti, Mohsen

2014-02-01

410

Biliary atresia associated with choledochal cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Choledochal cyst and biliary atresia are rare but important causes of neonatal jaundice. Both present with jaundice and acholic stool in neonatal period. Treatment and prognosis of both entities are very different. We are presenting a case in which choledochal cyst co-existed with biliary atresia; the antenatal diagnosis was that of choledochal cyst. Patient had cyst excision with hepatojejnostomy, but ultimately required portoenterostomy because of associated biliary atresia. We conclude that choledochal cyst and biliary atresia are two entities with similar antenatal and postnatal presentation; they should be differentiated as management and prognosis are different.

Obaidah Abu

2009-01-01

411

[Echinococcal cysts in the liver and lungs].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present the case of a patient with relapsing parasitic cyst of the liver and a parasitic cyst of the lungs. The patient was treated by surgery. The cystectomy of the echinococcus cyst in the liver was made in the first stage and subsequently a resection of the lung tissue containing another echinococcus cyst was made. Pharmacological therapy by the anti-helmintic drug albendazol was a part of the treatment. There were no complications during both surgical interventions and the subsequent treatment. In the scolocidal liquid of the liver cyst, echinococcus organisms were diagnosed by microscopy and documented by photography. PMID:14502882

Páral, J; Plodr, M; Ferko, A; Zvák, I

2003-07-01

412

Laparoscopic excision of an esophageal duplication cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Esophageal duplication cysts are uncommon embryologic entities that are often discovered incidentally. When identified, complete excision is the recommended treatment regardless of symptoms. We report the case of a 2-year-old boy with a distal esophageal duplication cyst discovered incidentally during laparoscopy for fundoplication. The esophageal duplication cyst was completely resected and a 360-degree fundoplication was then constructed, incorporating the cyst resection site. This is only the second report describing complete laparoscopic excision of an incidentally discovered esophageal duplication cyst in a child. This method is a safe and effective way of managing these lesions. PMID:22002296

Aldrink, Jennifer Hall; Kenney, Brian D

2011-10-01

413

Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

2012-07-01

414

Large posterior vaginal cyst in pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-year-old primigravida presented in labour with a mass protruding from her vagina during uterine contractions. The mass was a large tense cyst measuring 8×8?cm arising from the posterior vaginal wall. The cyst was present since puberty but increased in size during pregnancy. It collapsed following aspiration and uneventful vaginal delivery was conducted. Following delivery, the cyst was excised and vaginal wall repaired. On histopathology the cyst was identified as a Müllerian cyst. The patient recovered and remained asymptomatic on follow-up. PMID:25604504

Lallar, Meenakshi; Nandal, Rajesh; Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta

2015-01-01

415

Gross Pathology and Endocrinology of Ovarian Cysts in Bitches  

OpenAIRE

A total of 73 bitches with ovarian cysts were ovariohysterectomized. Cysts were characterized by gross pathology and endocrine parameters. Therefore, oestradiol-17ß and progesterone concentrations were assessed in cyst-fluid and corresponding blood plasma in each bitch. Our data demonstrated that multiple cysts were often present in a single individual (82%) and that cysts were commonly found on both ovaries (77%). The number of cysts per individual varied from 1 to 35. Most cysts were small...

Knauf, Y.; Bostedt, H.; Failing, K.; Knauf, S.; Wehrend, A.

2014-01-01

416

Comparative biochemistry of Giardia, Hexamita and Spironucleus: Enigmatic diplomonads.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diplomonad genera are here represented by three highly diverse species, both free-living (Hexamita inflata), and parasitic (Spironucleus vortens and Giardia intestinalis). All three are moderately aerotolerant flagellates, inhabiting environments where O2 tensions are low and fluctuating. Many diplomonads are opportunistic pathogens of avian, terrestrial and aquatic animals. Hexamitids inhabit deep waters and sediments of lakes and marine basins, S. vortens commonly infects the intestinal tract of ornamental fish, particularly of cichlids and cyprinids, and G. intestinalis, the upper intestinal tracts of humans as well as domestic and farm animals. Despite these very different habitats, their known physiological and biochemical characteristics are similar, but they do differ in significant respects as their lifestyles and life cycles demand. They have efficient O2 scavenging systems, and are highly effective at countering rapid O2 fluctuations, or clustering away from its source (except for G. intestinalis when attached to the jejunal villi). Their core metabolic pathways (glycolysis using pyrophosphate), incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle (lacking ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase), and amino acid metabolism (with an alternative energy-generating arginine dihydrolase pathway as a possibility in some cases), largely conform to those of other protists inhabiting low-O2 environments. Mitochondrial evolutionary reduction to give hydrogenosomes as seen in Spironucleus spp. has proceeded further to its minimal state in the mitosomes of G. intestinalis. Understanding of essential redox reactions and the maintentence of redox state, especially in the infective encysted stage of G. intestinalis provide increasing possibilities for parasite control. To this aim a plethora of new synthetic chemicals and natural products (especially those from garlic, Allium sativum) show promise as replacements for the highly effective (but potentially toxic to higher organisms) 5-nitroimidazoles (e.g., metronidazole) in the treatment and/or prevention of dimplomonad infection in humans and animals. PMID:25448769

Lloyd, David; Williams, Catrin F

2014-10-01

417

Trichuris vulpis infection in an Indian tribal population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stools from 28 of the 82 inhabitants on remote Little Andaman Island in India were examined for parasite eggs and cysts. Trichuris trichiura eggs were found in 27, Trichuris vulpis eggs in 5, Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in 3, hookworm eggs in 15, Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba coli cysts each in 9, Giardia lamblia in 6, Retortamonas sp. in 3, Iodoamoeba sp. in 2, and Chilomastix sp. in 2 stools. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were not seen. The occurrence of T. vulpis eggs in 5 stools and the absence of A. lumbricoides eggs were considered unusual findings. PMID:8501609

Singh, S; Samantaray, J C; Singh, N; Das, G B; Verma, I C

1993-06-01

418

Freqüência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de cães Frequency of Giardia spp. for two diagnosis methods in feces of dogs  

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Full Text Available One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC. The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%. No difference between male and female frequency of giardiasis (31.4% and 46.1%, respectively was observed. MIFC detected 38% of positive samples and zinc sulfate flotation technique 29%. Giardia spp. is present in dogs of Uberlândia's kennels in a high frequency.

M.J.S. Mundim

2003-12-01

419

Freqüência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de cães / Frequency of Giardia spp. for two diagnosis methods in feces of dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiol [...] ate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC). The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%). No difference between male and female frequency of giardiasis (31.4% and 46.1%, respectively) was observed. MIFC detected 38% of positive samples and zinc sulfate flotation technique 29%. Giardia spp. is present in dogs of Uberlândia's kennels in a high frequency.

M.J.S., Mundim; S.Z., Souza; S.M., Hortêncio; M.C., Cury.

2003-12-01

420

Arachnoid cyst of the middle cranial fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The middle cranial fossa is the most common site for intracranial arachnoid cysts. Galassi and his associates have provided a useful classification of middle fossa arachnoid cysts based on their computed tomographic appearances. The Type I cyst is a small lenticular lesion. The Type II cyst is quadrangular in shape, reflecting a completely open insula. The Type III cyst appears as a large area of smoothly rounded lucency, with a significant compression of the brain. We report a 2-year-old boy with a middle fossa arachnoid cyst. This cyst differed from the type of Galassi's classification in its extension. Computerized tomograms showed low-density lesions of the bilateral middle cranial fossa and suprasellar area, which was not enhanced with contrast medium. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed a CSF-like pattern (Kjos) and revealed delicate anatomical structures in the surrounding brain. Arachnoid cysts are usually single lesions. However, not infrequently these cystic cavities may be divided by membranous septa into two or more compartments. Bilateral, more or less symmetrical arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa as seen in this patient, however, seem to be very rare. Only a few such cases have been reported previously. MRI was superior to X-ray CT in characterizing intracranial cystic lesions because of its ability to categorize cysts into Kjos's three groups on the basis of the intensity pattern of the cyst contents, thereby improving diagnostic specificits, thereby improving diagnostic specificity and patient management. (author)

421

Symptomatic Tarlov cyst: report and review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand. PMID:16881441

Chaiyabud, Pradit; Suwanpratheep, Kitti

2006-07-01

422

Unusual case of posterior vaginal wall cyst  

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Full Text Available Cystic lesions of vagina are rare and are discovered incidentally during a gynecological examination. A 40 year multiparous woman presented with mass PV since 10 years.  It was insidious in onset, gradually increased to present size of 5.5 x 3.5 x 2.5cms.  Mass was cystic in nature.  Surgical excision of the cyst done under spinal anaesthesia  by sharp and blunt dissection. The cyst was filled with mucoid material and histopathology confirmed a mullerian cyst.  Mullerian cysts are congenital cysts of vagina, reported in reproductive women.  Usually the cysts arise at the level of cervix and extend anteriorly, but unusually they may also extend posteriorly.  This case report illustrates an unusual case of posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin. 

Prathashwini Shetty

2013-03-01

423

Chylous mesenteric cyst: A diagnostic dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mesenteric cyst is defined as a cyst that is located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. A case report of a patient with mesenteric cyst is presented. In addition, a systematic review was performed of English language literature on chylous mesenteric cysts in adult humans. Of the 18 articles included in the review, there were 19 cases of chylous mesenteric cysts reported. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1 with a median age of 46 years. A preoperative diagnosis of mesenteric cyst was made in four patients based on computed tomography. All patients underwent surgery and there were no reports of recurrence on follow up. Chylous mesenteric cyst is a rare entity that needs to be recognized whenever a preliminary diagnosis of intra-abdominal cystic mass is made. PMID:23769746

Lee, Doreen L P; Madhuvrata, Priya; Reed, Malcolm W; Balasubramanian, Saba P

2013-06-13

424

The Crystal Structure of Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 in the Apo Form: When Protein Post-Translational Modifications Make the Difference  

Science.gov (United States)

The 14-3-3s are a family of dimeric evolutionary conserved pSer/pThr binding proteins that play a key role in multiple biological processes by interacting with a plethora of client proteins. Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects millions of people worldwide causing an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. The single giardial 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3), unique in the 14-3-3 family, needs the constitutive phosphorylation of Thr214 and the polyglycylation of its C-terminus to be fully functional in vivo. Alteration of the phosphorylation and polyglycylation status affects the parasite differentiation into the cyst stage. To further investigate the role of these post-translational modifications, the crystal structure of the g14-3-3 was solved in the unmodified apo form. Oligomers of g14-3-3 were observed due to domain swapping events at the protein C-terminus. The formation of filaments was supported by TEM. Mutational analysis, in combination with native PAGE and chemical cross-linking, proved that polyglycylation prevents oligomerization. In silico phosphorylation and molecular dynamics simulations supported a structural role for the phosphorylation of Thr214 in promoting target binding. Our findings highlight unique structural features of g14-3-3 opening novel perspectives on the evolutionary history of this protein family and envisaging the possibility to develop anti-giardial drugs targeting g14-3-3. PMID:24658679

Fiorillo, Annarita; di Marino, Daniele; Bertuccini, Lucia; Via, Allegra; Pozio, Edoardo; Camerini, Serena; Ilari, Andrea; Lalle, Marco

2014-01-01

425

Investigation of effects of Giardia duodenalis on transcellular and paracellular transport in enterocytes using in vitro Ussing chamber experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY The mechanisms by which different genotypes of Giardia duodenalis result in different symptoms remain unresolved. In particular, we lack detailed knowledge on which transport mechanisms (transcellular or paracellular) are affected by different Giardia isolates. Using horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and creatinine as transcellular and paracellular probes, respectively, we developed a robust assay that can be used with an Ussing chamber to investigate epithelial transport, as well as short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport. We investigated 2 Giardia isolates, both Assemblage A, one a lab-adapted strain and the other a field isolate. Results indicate that products from sonicated Giardia trophozoites increase both transcellular and paracellular transport. A non-significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and short-circuit current were also noted. The paracellular transport was increased significantly more in the field isolate than in the lab-adapted strain. Our results indicate that while both transcellular and paracellular transport mechanisms may be increased following exposure of cells to Giardia trophozoite sonicate, perhaps by inducing non-specific increases in cellular traffic, it is important that in vitro studies of Giardia pathophysiology are conducted with different Giardia isolates, not just lab-attenuated strains. PMID:25395017

Tysnes, Kristoffer R; Robertson, Lucy J

2014-11-14

426

Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/ Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate. Efficacy of 97,05% for metronidazole, 98,30% for fenbendazole and 100% for secnidazole were observed in the study. According to the results it was concluded that the tested drugs were effective for the treatment of mice parasitized by Giardia muris.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol contra Giardia muris em camundongos naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 40 camundongos da espécie Mus musculus divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, sendo grupo A, grupo controle, não tratados, e grupos B, C e D tratados com 4mg/ml de metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol, respectivamente. Para avaliar a eficácia dos medicamentos foram realizadas duas coletas de fezes uma no dia zero e outra 10 dias após tratamento. As amostras foram processadas e analisadas a partir do método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. No estudo observou-se eficácia de 97,05% para metronidazol, 98,30% para fenbendazole e 100% para secnidazol no tratamento de giardiase murina. Com base nos resultados concluí-se que as drogas testadas apresentaram eficácia no tratamento de camundongos parasitados por Giardia muris.

Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

2008-08-01

427

New insights about suprapatellar cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available bursa is located between the quadriceps tendon and femur, and it develops before the birth as a separate synovial compartment proximal to the knee joint. By the fifth month of fetal life there is a suprapatellar septum between the knee joint cavity and suprapatellar bursa which later perforates and involutes in a way that a normal communication between the cavity of bursa and knee is established. A small portion of the embrionic septum can later lag as more or less expressed suprapatellar plica. In case when suprapatellar plica has a small communication with valve mechanism or in case of complete septum, bursa becomes a separate compartment and potential location for the suprapatellar cyst development. Magnetic resonance imaging is recognised as the gold standard in diagnosis of knee cysts because of its ability to show cystic nature of the lesion, its relationship with other anatomic structures, as well as to establish whether other knee pathologies are present. Considering treatment possibilities, majority of cysts around the knee resolve spontaneously and should be treated by aspiration and application of corticosteroids. Suprapatellar cyst is a very rare knee pathology and it can in some occasions be treated using open or arthroscopic surgery.

Ferdinand Slisuric

2012-01-01

428

Giant hydronephrosis mimicking echinococcal cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than one to two liters of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis of > 17.5 Kg mimicking a huge echinococcal cyst. PMID:16453224

El Fortia, M; Bendaoud, M; Badi, H; Abufalgha, F; Elgsier, N; Hajaji, E; Abubaker, G

2005-12-01

429

New insights about suprapatellar cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suprapatellar bursa is located between the quadriceps tendon and femur, and it develops before the birth as a separate synovial compartment proximal to the knee joint. By the fifth month of fetal life there is a suprapatellar septum between the knee joint cavity and suprapatellar bursa which later perforates and involutes in a way that a normal communication between the cavity of bursa and knee is established. A small portion of the embrionic septum can later lag as more or less expressed suprapatellar plica. In case when suprapatellar plica has a small communication with valve mechanism or in case of complete septum, bursa becomes a separate compartment and potential location for the suprapatellar cyst development. Magnetic resonance imaging is recognised as the gold standard in diagnosis of knee cysts because of its ability to show cystic nature of the lesion, its relationship with other anatomic structures, as well as to establish whether other knee pathologies are present. Considering treatment possibilities, majority of cysts around the knee resolve spontaneously and should be treated by aspiration and application of corticosteroids. Suprapatellar cyst is a very rare knee pathology and it can in some occasions be treated using open or arthroscopic surgery. PMID:22577510

Crnkovi?, Tomislav; Gašpar, Drago; Ethurovi?, Dražen; Podsednik, Dinko; Slišuri?, Ferdinand

2012-01-01

430

Prenatal and postnatal sonographic findings of uncomplicated ovarian cysts: 'Daughter cyst' sign  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To compare pre- and postnatal sonographic findings of ovarian cysts in neonates and to present a 'daughter cyst' sign for uncomplicated ovarian cysts. The study group consisted of six cases of neonatal ovarian cysts which were evaluated by both prenata (mean, IUP 36 weeks+3 days) and postnatal(mean, 2 days after birth) ultrasound studies. Two ovarian cysts were confirmed by surgery and the remaining four were clinically diagnosed. Postnatal sonography was prospectively evaluated and prenatal ultrasound scans were retrospectively evaluated. The size, contents, and wall thickness of the cyst were evaluated. We also analyzed presence or absence of a 'daughter cyst' , defined as a small cyst surrounded by a complete wall, protruding into the cyst lumen or along the cyst wall. Pathologic correlation of the daughter cyst was performed in two cases. The mean sizes of the ovarian cysts were 59.6 X 46.1 mm on prenatal and 73.0 X 49.2 mm on postnatal studies. Five were anechoic and thin walled cysts on both pre- and postnatal studies. One case revealed debris in the cyst lumen on prenatal study but was completely involuted on postnatal study. All six were unilocular in shape. The 'daughter cyst' sign was seen in two on prenatal and in four (80%) on postnatal studies. The 'daughter cyst' on sonography was corresponded to a follicle on pathology. The 'daughter cyst' sign appeared to be helpful for the diagnosis of neonatal ovarian cyst on both pre- and postnatal ultrasound studies.

Rhee, Chang Soo; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Hun; Lee, Hee Jung; Shon, Chul Ho; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seung Koo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

1999-03-15

431

Prenatal and postnatal sonographic findings of uncomplicated ovarian cysts: 'Daughter cyst' sign  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To compare pre- and postnatal sonographic findings of ovarian cysts in neonates and to present a 'daughter cyst' sign for uncomplicated ovarian cysts. The study group consisted of six cases of neonatal ovarian cysts which were evaluated by both prenata (mean, IUP 36 weeks+3 days) and postnatal(mean, 2 days after birth) ultrasound studies. Two ovarian cysts were confirmed by surgery and the remaining four were clinically diagnosed. Postnatal sonography was prospectively evaluated and prenatal ultrasound scans were retrospectively evaluated. The size, contents, and wall thickness of the cyst were evaluated. We also analyzed presence or absence of a 'daughter cyst' , defined as a small cyst surrounded by a complete wall, protruding into the cyst lumen or along the cyst wall. Pathologic correlation of the daughter cyst was performed in two cases. The mean sizes of the ovarian cysts were 59.6 X 46.1 mm on prenatal and 73.0 X 49.2 mm on postnatal studies. Five were anechoic and thin walled cysts on both pre- and postnatal studies. One case revealed debris in the cyst lumen on prenatal study but was completely involuted on postnatal study. All six were unilocular in shape. The 'daughter cyst' sign was seen in two on prenatal and in four (80%) on postnatal studies. The 'daughter cyst' on sonography was corresponded to a follicle on pathology. The 'daughter cyst' sign appeared to be helpful for the diagnosis of neonatal ovarian cyst on both pre- and postnatal ultrasound studie both pre- and postnatal ultrasound studies.

432

Symptomatic sacral extradural arachnoid cyst associated with lumbar intradural arachnoid cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of sacral extradural arachnoid cyst associated with lumbar intradural arachnoid cyst in a 35-year-old male is reported. The patient presented with a history of severe sacrococcygeal pain, constipation, and dysuria for several months. Computed tomographic (CT) myelograms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed a huge sacral cyst without neural components. A favorable outcome could be achieved by decompression of the cyst, obliteration of the fistulous channel between the cyst and the thecal sac, and fenestration of the arachnoid cyst into the subarachnoid space. The relevant literatures are also reviewed. PMID:10467916

Kim, C H; Bak, K H; Kim, J M; Kim, N K

1999-06-01

433

Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in lambs from Spain reveals a high hetrogeneity  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal specimens from 120 lambs in Valencia (Spain) were analyzed for Giardia duodenalis by IFA and nested-PCR using the beta giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssurRNA) genes. The highest prevalence was obtained using the ssurRN...

434

A case of thalamic hydatid cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral hydatidosis account for approximately 1-2% of patients with hydatid disease. Fifty percent to 75% of intracranial hydatid cysts are seen in children. The cerebral hydatid cysts are usually single and located in the watershed of the middle cerebral artery. To our knowledge, no case of hydatid cyst in the thalamic location has been reported. A 4-year-old boy presented with the left sided weakness. A right thalamic hydatid cyst without rim enhancement and perifocal oedema was detected on the computed tomographic (CT) scan. He was put on albendazole, but headache, nausea and vomiting developed and hemiparesis got worse in the following two weeks. The non-contrast repeat CT showed the pericystic oedema. The rim enhancement and pericystic oedema were also present on magnetic resonance imaging scans. The right thalamic hydatid cyst was removed via the transcallosal approach. The cyst aspiration and intracystic injection of hypertonic saline were performed before the cyst removal. Leakage of the cyst fluid was conceivably the cause of the development of rim enhancement and pericystic oedema. Patients receiving albendazole for the treatment of cerebral hydatid cysts should be closely followed. The surgery is still the choice of treatment in cerebral hybrid cysts, in our opinion. PMID:8599900

Er?ahin, Y; Mutluer, S; Dermirta?, E; Yurtseven, T

1995-11-01

435

Cytologic findings of urogenital mesenteric cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenteric cysts are heterogeneous groups of lesions. Most of them are developmental cysts of lymphatic and enteric origin or cystic neoplasm such as mesothelioma or cystic teratoma. Urogenital cysts are a subcategory of developmental cysts of the mesentery. They are thought to arise from vestigial remnants of urogenital apparatus. These cysts may show evidence of mesonephric or metanephric differentiation. An 11 -year -old boy was presented with undescended testis. During preoperative work- up, an incidental cystic lesion was discovered which was attached to the ileum. Aspiration cytology of the cyst content revealed cuboidal to columnar cells; some of them were ciliated. Histologic examination showed a cyst with fibromuscular wall, lined by Mullerian type ciliated epithelium; so the diagnosis of urogenital mesenteric cyst of Mullerian type was made. Urogenital cysts are rare lesions, but they should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cystic lesion of the mesentery. Cytology could be a useful method for evaluation and revealing the nature of these cysts. PMID:23808784

Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

2013-07-01

436

Two rare presentations of epidermal cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermal cysts are very rare. It is more common in males than in females and the most common site of presentation are the hairy sites. We came across two rare cases of epidermal cysts. In one case, a parous lady presented with an adnexal mass and D/D of broad ligament fibroid or ovarian mass was considered which turned out to be a cyst containing cheesy pultaceous material. In the other case, a parous lady presented with a mass arising from the posterior fourchette that contained cheesy pultaceous material on excision. In both cases histopathology confirmed it to be epidermal cysts. Epidermal cysts known for its rare incidence by itself is now found to be presenting at rare sites which emphasizes on the need for further research into the etiopathogenesis of these cysts and its development at the various sites of the body. PMID:25478413

Rao, Arun; Rao, Bharathi; Kurian, Maria Joseph; Pai, Radha R

2014-10-01

437

Giant radicular cyst of the maxilla.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radicular cysts are inflammatory odontogenic cysts of tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Most of these lesions involve the apex of offending tooth and appear as well-defined radiolucencies. Owing to its clinical characteristics similar to other more commonly occurring lesions in the oral cavity, differential diagnosis should include dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, periapical cementoma and Pindborg tumour. The present case report documents a massive radicular cyst crossing the midline of the palate. Based on clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings, the present case was diagnosed as an infected radicular cyst. The clinical characteristics of this cyst could be considered as an interesting and unusual due to its giant nature. The lesion was surgically enucleated along with the extraction of the associated tooth; preservation of all other teeth and vital structures, without any postoperative complications and satisfactory healing, was achieved. PMID:24792022

Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Shrivastava, Ratika; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2014-01-01

438

[Two cases of rare cerebral hydatid cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydatid cyst disease (Echinococcosis) is a parasitic illness that is rarely located in the brain. Primary cerebral hydatid cyst disease is rarely seen. We report here rare two cases presenting with sixth cranial nerve palsy with increased intracranial pressure syndrome due to primary cerebral hydatid cyst. A 5-year-old female and a 13-year-old boy complained of headache, strabismus, nausea, and vomiting. Neurological examination revealed sixth nerve palsy and papilloedema. The diagnosis was cerebral hydatid cyst disease and was confirmed with radiological and pathological investigations. Both cases were operated on. The cysts were removed without rupture, and therapy was completed with albendazole for a period of six months. They were symptom-free during the follow-up period. In conclusion, cerebral hydatid cyst disease should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of increased intracranial pressure syndrome. PMID:22450921

I??kay, Sedat; Y?lmaz, Kutluhan; Ölmez, Akgün

2012-01-01

439

Intracranial dermoid cysts on computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because intracranial dermoid cysts are thought to be rare, there have been few reports summarizing their characteristics on CT. We have experienced three cases of dermoid cyst since the introduction of CT in our hospital. The findings on the CT in seventeen reported cases of dermoid cyst, including our 3 cases, are here presented. The CT findings include an extremely low-density lesion without enhancement and, in half of the cases, peritumoral calcification, of which two cases are associated with intratumoral calcification. In three cases, lipid substances can be detected in the ventricles and/or subarachnoid spaces. Dermoid cysts may be divided into two types according to their CT appearances, the homogeneous type and the mosaic type. It is necessary to distinguish the homogeneous type from epidermoid cyst, arachnoid cyst, lipoma and craniopharyngioma. The mosaic type similarly requires differential diagnosis from teratoma.

Aoki, N.; Kubota, M.; Mizutani, H. (Toritsu Fuchu General Hospital, Tokyo (Japan))

1981-08-01

440

Intracranial dermoid cysts on computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because intracranial dermoid cysts are thought to be rare, there have been few reports summarizing their characteristics on CT. We have experienced three cases of dermoid cyst since the introduction of CT in our hospital. The findings on the CT in seventeen reported cases of dermoid cyst, including our 3 cases, are here presented. The CT findings include an extremely low-density lesion without enhancement and, in half of the cases, peritumoral calcification, of which two cases are associated with intratumoral calcification. In three cases, lipid substances can be detected in the ventricles and/or subarachnoid spaces. Dermoid cysts may be divided into two types according to their CT appearances, the homogeneous type and the mosaic type. It is necessary to distinguish the homogeneous type from epidermoid cyst, arachnoid cyst, lipoma and craniopharyngioma. The mosaic type similarly requires differential diagnosis from teratoma. (author)

441