WorldWideScience
1

REMOVAL OF 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' CYSTS BY DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to evaluate the removal of Giardia lamblia cysts and cyst-sized particles by coagulation/sedimentation and filtration, or direct filtration using 2.3 L/min (0.6 gpm) pilot plants and by diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration using a 3.8 L/min DE pilot filter. Th...

2

A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metabolism as the parasite encysts in the host's intestine and excysts upon ingestion by a new host. Results To investigate the magnitude of the transcriptional changes occurring during the G. lamblia life cycle we compared the transcriptome of G. lamblia trophozoites and cysts using single-color oligonucleotide microarrays. Cysts were found to possess a much smaller transcriptome, both in terms of mRNA diversity and abundance. Genes encoding proteins related to ribosomal functions are highly over-represented. The comparison of the transcriptome of cysts generated in culture or extracted from feces revealed little overlap, raising the possibility of significant biological differences between the two types of cysts. Conclusions The comparison of the G. lamblia cyst and trophozoite transcriptome showed that transcripts of most genes are present at a lower level in cysts. This global view of the cyst and trophozoite transcriptome complements studies focused on the expression of selected genes during trophozoite multiplication, encystation and excystation.

Widmer Giovanni

2011-05-01

3

Degradation of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed human and swine wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the persistence of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed septic tank effluent and swine manure slurry and to correlate fluorescein diacetate-propidium iodide staining of G. lamblia cysts with their morphology under low-voltage scanning electron microscopy. Under field conditions, G. lamblia cysts were degraded more rapidly in the mixed waste than in the control Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For total and viable cysts, the mixed waste had D values (time for a 90% reduction in number of cysts) of 18.3 and 15.5 days, and the Dulbecco's PBS control had D values of 41.6 and 26.8 days. The rates of cyst degradation in septic tank effluent and in Dulbecco's PBS were similar. Increasing the proportion of swine manure slurry in the mixed waste favored degradation of the parasite. These results indicate that the mixed waste treatment was the predominant factor affecting the cyst persistence and that it was swine manure slurry that played the role of degrading the parasite. Visualization of viable and nonviable Giardia cysts with low-voltage scanning electron microscopy revealed an excellent correlation between the viability of the cysts determined by fluorescein diacetate-propidium iodide staining and their electron microscopic morphology. PMID:1381171

Deng, M Y; Cliver, D O

1992-08-01

4

Infectivity of Giardia lamblia cysts obtained from wastewater treated with ultraviolet light.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been linked to discharge of wastewater effluents into surface water. Little is known about the infectivity of Giardia lamblia cysts present in UV treated wastewater effluents. In this study, the infectivity of G. lamblia cysts, recovered from primary effluent and secondary effluent, both upstream and downstream of operating full-scale UV reactors at four wastewater treatment plants, was assessed using the Mongolian gerbil model. Infectivity of cysts obtained from the primary effluents was scored as either strong or moderate for induction of infection in gerbils at three out of four wastewater treatment plants. G. lamblia recovered from secondary effluent both upstream and downstream of the UV reactors caused weak infections in the gerbils. The probability of weak infections caused by inoculums of 50-1400 cysts per gerbil was, on the average, reduced by approximately 10% at the four wastewater UV installations with coliform reduction equivalent doses ranging from 6 to 18 mJ/cm2. The UV systems provided considerably less inactivation of the parasite than expected based on the UV dose response of Giardia reported in the literature. PMID:19467689

Li, Dong; Craik, Stephen A; Smith, Daniel W; Belosevic, Miodrag

2009-07-01

5

Biology of Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and other mammals throughout the world. It can be distinguished from other Giardia species by light or electron microscopy. The two major genotypes of G. lamblia that infect humans are so different genetically and biologically that they may warrant separate species or subspecies designations. Trophozoites have nuclei and a well-developed cytoskeleton but lack mitochondria, peroxisomes, and the components of oxidative phosphorylation. The...

Adam, Rodney D.

2001-01-01

6

DNA Topoisomerase II Is Involved in Regulation of Cyst Wall Protein Genes and Differentiation in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromoso...

Lin, Bo-chi; Su, Li-hsin; Weng, Shih-che; Pan, Yu-jiao; Chan, Nei-li; Li, Tsai-kun; Wang, Hsin-chih; Sun, Chin-hung

2013-01-01

7

Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid and sensitive detection of waterborne pathogens in drinkable and recreational water sources is crucial for treating and preventing the spread of water related diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we present a field-portable and cost-effective platform for detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts, one of the most common waterborne parasites, which has a thick cell wall that makes it resistant to most water disinfection techniques including chlorination. The platform consists of a smartphone coupled with an opto-mechanical attachment weighing ~205 g, which utilizes a hand-held fluorescence microscope design aligned with the camera unit of the smartphone to image custom-designed disposable water sample cassettes. Each sample cassette is composed of absorbent pads and mechanical filter membranes; a membrane with 8 ?m pore size is used as a porous spacing layer to prevent the backflow of particles to the upper membrane, while the top membrane with 5 ?m pore size is used to capture the individual Giardia cysts that are fluorescently labeled. A fluorescence image of the filter surface (field-of-view: ~0.8 cm(2)) is captured and wirelessly transmitted via the mobile-phone to our servers for rapid processing using a machine learning algorithm that is trained on statistical features of Giardia cysts to automatically detect and count the cysts captured on the membrane. The results are then transmitted back to the mobile-phone in less than 2 minutes and are displayed through a smart application running on the phone. This mobile platform, along with our custom-developed sample preparation protocol, enables analysis of large volumes of water (e.g., 10-20 mL) for automated detection and enumeration of Giardia cysts in ~1 hour, including all the steps of sample preparation and analysis. We evaluated the performance of this approach using flow-cytometer-enumerated Giardia-contaminated water samples, demonstrating an average cyst capture efficiency of ~79% on our filter membrane along with a machine learning based cyst counting sensitivity of ~84%, yielding a limit-of-detection of ~12 cysts per 10 mL. Providing rapid detection and quantification of microorganisms, this field-portable imaging and sensing platform running on a mobile-phone could be useful for water quality monitoring in field and resource-limited settings. PMID:25537426

Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Gorocs, Zoltan; Tseng, Derek; Cortazar, Bingen; Feng, Steve; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Burbano, Jordi; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

2015-03-01

8

Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

Souza Doris Sobral Marques

2003-01-01

9

The Comparison of the Efficacy of Various Fixatives on Diverse Staining Methods of Giardia lamblia Cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The definite and exact diagnosis of protozoa is possible using high magnification objective lenses, provided that suitable stained smears are prepared. Therefore, the appropriateness of both fixative and staining methods to the species of parasite, which is the main objective of this study, is important. In this study, five various fixatives including (Merthiolate iodine formalin MIF, (Sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin SAF, (Polyvinyl alcohol PVA, formalin and schaudinn and four types of stains including Hematoxylin I, Hematoxylin II, Trichrome and Carbol-fuchsin were prepared using standard procedures. After the smears of stool samples containing Giadria lamblia cyst were prepared and kept for 24 h in various fixatives, the study was carried out using the four above-mentioned stains by changing the ingredients and time as well as by repeating the experiments. After fixing and staining all the smears in identical conditions along with the implementing interferences in the staining process, the following results were eventually obtained considering the morphologic indexes and negative and positive scores (from 1 to 20: formalin with 17 scores in hematoxylin I staining, formalin and SAF with 15 and 14 scores, respectively in Hematoxylin II staining, MIF with 13 scores in Trichrome staining and SAF, PVA, MIF with 11.5, 11.5 and 11 scores, respectively in carbol-fuchsin staining were found to be the best fixatives. Hematoxylin I staining using formalin fixative with 17 scores showed the best result while the maximum score for Carbol-fuchsin staining was 11.5 showing a necessity for more expenditure, time and expert cooperation to reach ideal results.

E. Badparva

2009-01-01

10

[Malabsorption syndrome caused by Giardia lamblia in gastrectomized patients].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report three adult patients with gastrectomy who had malabsorption caused by Giardia lamblia. Type II gastrectomy had been carried out in the three patients several years before, and the clinical presentation was similar: chronic diarrhea with malabsorption. A remarkable fact was that the search for parasites in feces was repeatedly negative in two patients, the protozoon being identified in the intestinal biopsy samples. In the third case, the diagnosis was made by the visualization of Giardia cysts in the feces. PMID:2490653

Castro, M; Sánchez Porto, A; Guillén, P; Martín, E; Guerrero, P; Vargas, J

1989-02-01

11

INDUCTION OF ALBENDAZOLE RESISTANCE IN GIARDIA LAMBLIA  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that Giardia lamblia resistance to metronidazole can be induced in the laboratory, and treatment failures with this drug have also been documented. As replacement theraples, anthelmintic benzimidazoles have antigiardial activity with few clinical side ...

12

Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces / Comparação entre a imuno-separação magnética, acoplada à imunofluorescência, e as técnicas de Faust et al. e de Lutz para o diagnóstico de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, o desempenho da técnica de Imunoseparação Magnética, acoplada à Imunofluorescência (IMS-IFA), foi comparado com aqueles das técnicas parasitológicas de FAUST et al. e de Lutz na detecção de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas. Foram processadas 127 amostras de fezes pela [...] s três técnicas paralelamente e a detecção de cistos foi de 27,5% para IMS-IFA e de 15,7% para as técnicas de FAUST et al. e de Lutz concomitantemente. A análise dos resultados mostrou maior sensibilidade da IMS-IFA na detecção de cistos de G. lamblia quando comparada aos métodos de FAUST et al. e Lutz. A utilização desta metodologia como procedimento de rotina proporciona o processamento de várias amostras simultaneamente, além de aumentar a recuperação de cistos de G. lamblia e reduzir o tempo de estocagem das amostras. Abstract in english In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA), was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluat [...] ed by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

Doris Sobral Marques, Souza; Juliana Teixeira, Barreiros; Karina Maria, Papp; Mário, Steindel; Cláudia Maria Oliveira, Simões; Célia Regina Monte, Barardi.

2003-12-01

13

[Giardia lamblia gastritis. A case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 56 year-old male patient had a gastric resection (Billroth II) at age 33. In 1993 he had vague upper digestive complaints. During investigations for a moderate anaemia biopsies performed during an oesogastroduodenoscopy revealed a jejunitis with Giardia lamblia (G.l.) trophozoites which were also found on the gastric mucosa associated with Helicobacter pylori related chronic active gastritis. The few publications dealing with the presence of Giardia lamblia in the stomach either assert or cast some doubts on the pathogenicity of this protozoa for the gastric mucosa. Gastric involvement by G.l. is usually associated with duodeno-jejunal disease responsible for diarrhoea which may occur as epidemics of varying extension. Since Giardia lamblia infection is not submitted to reporting in Switzerland, the epidemiology in our country is scarcely known and investigated. In our opinion, however, health authorities in Switzerland should consider the need of reporting this infectious disease. PMID:11285698

Widgren, S; Pantet, B; Voirol, M

2001-02-01

14

Identification of Giardia lamblia in peritoneal fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia, originally considered a commensal enteric organism, is now universally noted for its pathogenic potential in man. The mechanism of pathogenesis of giardiasis, however, remains unclear. We report a case of giardiasis diagnosed by analysis of peritoneal fluid obtained from a trauma victim. G lamblia trophozoite forms were found on microscopic examination of the fluid, and chemical studies of the fluid revealed bile and elevated amylase activity. The trophozoites may have entered the peritoneum through bowel perforation. PMID:3764534

Drew, P A; Krauss, J S

1986-10-01

15

A spliceosomal intron in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Short introns occur in numerous protist lineages, but there are no reports of intervening sequences in the protists Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, which may represent the deepest known branches in the eukaryotic line of descent. We have discovered a 35-bp spliceosomal intron in a gene encoding a putative [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin of G. lamblia. The Giardia intron contains a canonical splice site at its 3? end (AG), a noncanonical splice site at its 5? end (CT), and a branch point se...

Nixon, Julie E. J.; Wang, Amy; Morrison, Hilary G.; Mcarthur, Andrew G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Loftus, Brendan J.; Samuelson, John

2002-01-01

16

Putative SF2 helicases of the early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia are involved in antigenic variation and parasite differentiation into cysts  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Regulation of surface antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is controlled post-transcriptionally by an RNA-interference (RNAi) pathway that includes a Dicer-like bidentate RNase III (gDicer). This enzyme, however, lacks the RNA helicase domain present in Dicer enzymes from higher eukaryotes. The participation of several RNA helicases in practically all organisms in which RNAi was studied suggests that RNA helicases are potentially involved in antigenic variation, as well ...

Gargantini Pablo R; Serradell Marianela C; Torri Alessandro; Lujan Hugo D

2012-01-01

17

Giardia lamblia and Helicobater pylori Coinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two flagellate microorganisms that grow in duodenum and stom­ach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of them in patients with dyspepsia and other GI disorders. "nMethods: In this cross-sectional study, co-infection of above-mentioned agents was investigated in a group of 130 patients [me­dian age of 40 yr (range=11-79 including 76 males (58.8%] with dyspepsia using three methods of duodenal aspiration sam­ple, duodenal biopsy samples and evaluation of stool samples."nResults: : From 105 patients (59 males, 46 females, median age 40 years, range 11-79 entering this study from 3 hospitals, 4 patients (3.8% had G. lamblia and 61 patients (58% had H. pylori. All 4 patients infected by Giardia had also H. pylori infec­tion. Tenesmus (3 out of 4 patients was the most common symptom in patients with H. pylori infection (48 out of 61 pa­tients was reflux. Other symptoms in patients infected with both organisms (4 patients included diarrhea (2 cases, weight loss (2 cases, and loss of appetite (1 case but no report of vomiting."nConclusion: In patients co-infected with Giardia, H.pylori differentiation by physical examination is not possible. So in those patients with positive Rapid Urease Test (RUT, stool examination for Giardia detection is recommended. In addition, met­ronidazole (broad spectrum, anti-protozoal drug can be useful in H. pylori infection.

R Shafie

2009-03-01

18

A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and treatment.

Dilek Karaku?

2009-03-01

19

A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and tre...

Dilek Karaku?; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

2009-01-01

20

Giardia lamblia: Molecular Studies of an Early Branching Eukaryote  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid advance in our understanding of the biology of Giardia lamblia over the last several years is due in part to the complete DNA sequencing of the 11.7 Mb genome of this diplomonad. Insight on the molecular nature of G. lamblia has been gained by searching the genome using query sequences fr...

21

Prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection in household dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 1035 household dogs were examined for the presence of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) in their feces. Fecal samples from 151 (14.6%) of the dogs were positive for Giardia. The protozoan was more often detected in soft feces (26.4%) than in normal (10.0%) or diarrheic feces (13.7%) (p pet shops or breeding kennels was extremely high (21.5%) compared to that of dogs from individual households (4.3%) (p Pet owners should be taught appropriate hygiene measures to prevent Giardia transmission from dogs to humans. PMID:11558129

Itoh, N; Muraoka, N; Aoki, M; Itagaki, T

2001-08-01

22

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES  

Science.gov (United States)

Pilot-plant tests resulted in virtually 100% removals of Giardia lamblia cysts for both coarse and fine grades of diatomaceous earth over a wide range of conditions. Removals of turbidity and total coliform bacteria were functionally dependent on the grade of diatomaceous earth. ...

23

Attachment of Giardia lamblia to rat intestinal epithelial cells.  

OpenAIRE

The human enteric protozoan, Giardia lamblia, has surface membrane lectin activity which mediates parasite adherence to erythrocytes. To determine whether an intestinal binding site exists for this lectin we have studied the interaction in vitro between axenically cultured Giardia trophozoites and isolated rat intestinal epithelial cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Giardia attached to the apical microvillus membrane and basolateral membrane of rat enterocytes. Any location on th...

Inge, P. M.; Edson, C. M.; Farthing, M. J.

1988-01-01

24

Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of 3H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei

25

Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

Guimarães Semíramis

2002-01-01

26

Description and characterization of a surface lectin from Giardia lamblia.  

OpenAIRE

The mechanisms by which the human enteric pathogen Giardia lamblia colonizes the proximal small intestine are poorly understood. Although the parasite possesses an attachment organelle on its ventral surface, the "sucking" disk, we considered that like many bacteria and some protozoa, G. lamblia might also have a surface membrane-associated modality for adherence to its host. Using an erythrocyte mixed-agglutination model, we demonstrated a parasite surface lectin with specificities for D-glu...

Farthing, M. J.; Pereira, M. E.; Keusch, G. T.

1986-01-01

27

Azasterols impair Giardia lamblia proliferation and induces encystation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth and fine structure of Giardia lamblia P1 strain cultures were analyzed. Azasterols demonstrated high efficacy in killing cells. The IC50 values for 22,26-azasterol and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol were 7 ?M and 170 nM, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that azasterols induced changes in G. lamblia ultrastructure. The most significant alterations were: (a) considerable increase of the size of the peripheral vesicles, which are part of the parasite endosomal-lysosomal system; (b) appearance of autophagosomal structures; and (c) induction of differentiation, followed by an abnormal enlargement of encystation secretory vesicles. We propose that azasterols are effective chemotherapeutic drugs against Giardia lamblia in vitro and may have another target in cells besides sterol biosynthesis

28

DETERMINATION OF THE USE OF SOLID PARTICLE SAMPLERS FOR 'GIARDIA' CYSTS IN NATURAL WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this study was to improve the current methodology for concentrating, recovering, and detecting cysts of Giardia lamblia in water supplies. Two sampling processes for the concentration of cysts were examined. One process was diatomaceous earth filtration w...

29

Giardia lamblia infection in a patient with myotonic dystrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myotonic dystrophy is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by muscle wasting and weakness and a number of other systemic abnormalities. Some patients have hypo-IgG that is asymptomatic in most of them. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with myotonic dystrophy and hypo-IgG who experienced asthenia and weight loss secondary to Giardia lamblia bowel infection. PMID:12610429

Mouthon, Luc; Godmer, Pascal; Piqueras, Bernard; Cohen, Pascal; Lortholary, Olivier; Hofmann-Radvanyi, Hélène; Guillevin, Loïc

2002-12-01

30

[Reactive arthritis caused by Giardia lamblia in a patient with secretory IgA deficiency].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a case of seronegative polyarthritis resistant to the anti-inflammatory therapy in a 16-year-old male with intermittent diarrhea. A stool examination showed the presence of cysts of Giardia lamblia and an immunological study detected a partial serum IgA deficiency, including its secretory fraction. Based on clinical, analytical and radiological findings and the clinical improvement after treatment with metronidazole, a diagnosis of reactive arthritis associated to chronic giardiasis was made. Authors make a brief review of the literature the regarding this case. PMID:8165930

Susano, R C; de Quirós, J F; Caminal, L; Ferro, J; Busono, C; Gómez, C

1993-12-01

31

[General malaise and diarrhea as the main manifestations of Giardia lamblia infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is a ubiquitous intestinal protozoan. Transmission, which is fecal-oral, occurs after cyst ingestion, excystation and enterocyte adhesion. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain and other less frequent manifestations such as nausea, anorexia and weight loss. Enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent-antibody assay for antigen detection in stool samples, and small intestine biopsy provide the best diagnostic sensitivity. When an infection is suspected, duodenal biopsy should be carried out, even though endoscopic appearance may be normal. The most effective drugs in the treatment of this infection are metronidazole and tinidazole. We report a case of G. lamblia infection. The patient reported a clinical history of 4 months' duration with general malaise and diarrhea for the previous month. This form of presentation is rarely found in adults with this parasitosis. The diagnosis was based on the results of duodenal biopsy. The patient showed satisfactory response to treatment with metronidazole. PMID:16277964

Nantes, O; Zozaya, J M; Prieto, C; Beloqui, R; Arín, A

2005-11-01

32

[A case of imported paratyphoid fever associated with Giardia lamblia and Isospora belli infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of imported paratyphoid fever associated with Giardia lamblia and Isospora belli infection. The patient was a 23-year-old Japanese female with complaints of high grade fever and diarrhea after 10 days traveling to Nepal. Salmonella Paratyphi A was isolated from the blood and fecal cultures on admission and Ciprofloxacin of 200 mg tid was administered for 14 days. Fecal examination revealed cysts of G. lamblia at the same time and metronidazole of 250 mg tid for 7 days was effective for their eradication. During the follow-up studies oocysts of I. belli were found and cotrimoxazole of 960 mg bid for 10 days was effective for their eradication. Fecal examinations on parasites which is rare in Japan such as I. belli are recommended to the cases returning from tropical areas. PMID:9916420

Sakamoto, M; Adachi, T; Sagara, H; Kawata, K; Itoh, A; Izeki, M

1998-12-01

33

Giardia lamblia Nek1 and Nek2 kinases affect mitosis and excystation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIMA-related serine/threonine kinases (Neks) function in the cell cycle and regulate ciliary and flagellar length. The Giardia lamblia genome encodes 198 Neks, of which 56 are predicted to be active. Here we believe that we report the first functional analysis of two G. lamblia Neks. The GlNek1 and GlNek2 kinase domains share 57% and 43% identity to the kinase domains of human Nek1 and Nek2, respectively. Both GlNeks are active in vitro, have dynamic relocalisation during the cell cycle, and are expressed throughout the life cycle, with GlNek1 being upregulated in cysts. Over-expression of inactive GlNek1 delays disassembly of the parental attachment disc and cytokinesis, whilst over-expression of either wild type GlNek1 or inactive mutant GlNek2 inhibits excystation. PMID:22429767

Smith, Alias J; Lauwaet, Tineke; Davids, Barbara J; Gillin, Frances D

2012-04-01

34

Estudio de factores asociados con la reinfección por Giardia lamblia en niños de círculos infantiles  

OpenAIRE

El protozoo Giardia lamblia, también conocido como Giardia duodenalis o Giardia intestinalis, es un parásito del intestino delgado que puede causar alta morbilidad tanto en países desarrollados como en los subdesarrollados. La infección por G. lamblia es más prevalente en niños de 1 a 5 años de edad, en especial aquellos que asisten a círculos infantiles. Teniendo en cuenta la alta frecuencia que puede alcanzar la infección por este protozoo en estas instituciones educacionales, y co...

Nu?n?ez Ferna?ndez, Fidel Angel

2005-01-01

35

[Marked hematic hypereosinophilia caused by Giardia Lamblia infestation in a subject with Churg-Strauss syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a Churg-Strauss syndrome case complicated by Giardia Lamblia infection which increased markedly the number of blood eosinophils with appearance of eosinophils able to form rosettes with unsensitized sheep red blood cells. Metronidazolo therapy reduces markedly the blood hypereosinophilia. The strong relationship between blood hypereosinophilia and Giardia Lamblia in this patient, suggests that there is an interaction between different eosinophilopoietic stimuli. PMID:1745382

Ferrante, E; Valente, S; Corbo, G M; Rumi, C; De Simone, C; Ciappi, G

1991-10-01

36

Inhibition of uridine phosphorylase from Giardia lamblia by pyrimidine analogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty-six pyrimidine analogs were tested as possible inhibitors of uridine phosphorylase from Giardia lamblia. Values of Ki were determined for eight of these which demonstrated an inhibition greater than 60% under the standard conditions of uridine at 1 mM (approximately 1.5 times the Km) and inhibitor at 1 mM. All were competitive with respect to uridine. The most effective inhibitors were uracil analogs substituted at the C-5 position with electron withdrawing groups (nitro groups or halogens). The inhibitory effect at the 5-position appeared to be further enhanced by substitution at the C-6 position with electron releasing groups. The order of effectiveness as inhibitors was 6-methyl-5-nitrouracil greater than 6-amino-5-nitrouracil greater than 5-benzylacyclouridine greater than 5-nitrouracil greater than 5-fluorouracil greater than 5-bromouracil greater than 6-benzyl-2-thiouracil greater than 1,3-dimethyluracil with Ki values of 10, 12, 44, 56, 119, 230, 190 and greater than 1000 microM, respectively. The compounds were also effective inhibitors of the thymidine phosphorylase activity of the enzyme. The effect of the more potent compounds on G. lamblia in in vitro culture are currently under investigation. PMID:2597172

Jiménez, B M; Kranz, P; Lee, C S; Gero, A M; O'Sullivan, W J

1989-11-01

37

Serum antibodies to Giardia lamblia by age in populations in Colorado and Thailand.  

OpenAIRE

We measured levels of antibodies to Giardia lamblia by age in serum specimens from persons in Denver, Colorado, and Soongnern, Thailand. Serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and IgA G lamblia-specific antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased substantially during childhood in both geographic areas, although children in Soongnern showed significantly higher mean levels of each antibody class (P less than .05). After adolescence, levels of G lamblia-specific IgM ...

Janoff, E. N.; Taylor, D. N.; Echeverria, P.; Glode, M. P.; Blaser, M. J.

1990-01-01

38

/ Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis emergent opportunists / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis, oportunistas emergentes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es un hecho conocido que las infecciones oportunistas por protozoos y hongos han aumentado en los últimos años, debido especialmente al aumento de las infecciones por VIH. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis son protozoos y hongo, respectivamente, mundialmente recono [...] cidos como agentes oportunistas emergentes, responsables de brotes epidémicos provocados por la ingestión de agua potable contaminada, incluso después de una correcta desinfección. La ingestión de estos protozoos puede provocar diferentes grados de enfermedad, entre aguda o leve (población sana) hasta situaciones más graves y agresivas, hasta a veces mortales (pacientes inmunocomprometidos y/o inmunodeprimidos). A pesar de ser responsables de muchos brotes epidémicos, su diagnóstico de laboratorio permanece arduo y trabajoso, incluso utilizando las nuevas técnicas desarrolladas en los últimos años. En esta revisión se resumen las consideraciones generales de estos oportunistas emergentes, así como los métodos de diagnóstico más usuales, incluso los más recientes y específicos. Abstract in english Epidemiological data, regarding parasitic and fungi opportunist infections, have changed in the last years, especially due to HIV infection. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are protozoan and fungi, respectively, worldwide known as opportunistic emergent agents, [...] being responsible by epidemic outbreaks after ingestion of contaminated water, even following a correct disinfection treatment. Its ingestion can cause different effects on individuals’ health, from light or acute among the healthy population, to serious, aggressive or even deadly among the immunodepressed or immunocompromised patients. Contaminated water ingestion can result in outbreaks but protozoa laboratory diagnosis still remains very laborious, even after the development of more sensitive and specific techniques in the last years. In this paper, a revision of these emergent opportunists, their main characteristics and diagnostic tools are described, including the most recent and specific techniques.

Joana, Barbosa; Maria José, Espinar; Acácio, Gonçalves Rodrigues; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

2013-12-01

39

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

OpenAIRE

The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes der...

Quintero, Jael; Figueroa, Diana Carolina; Barcelo, Rafael; Breci, Linda; Astiazaran-garcia, Humberto; Rascon, Lucila; Robles-zepeda, Ramon; Garibay-escobar, Adriana; Velazquez-contreras, Enrique; Avila, Gloria Leon; Hernandez-hernandez, Jose Manuel; Velazquez, Carlos

2013-01-01

40

Synergic effect of metronidazole and pyrantel pamoate on Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is a pathogenic protozoan presenting as the main characteristic, the trophozoite capacity to adhere in host intestinal epithelium, infecting mammals, including humans. The clinical treatment of this disease is based on metronidazole (Mz) that acts as an alternative electron acceptor, and its reduction promotes DNA impairment. In veterinary treatment, one of the best options is pyrantel pamoate (Pm), which the mode of action has not elucidated yet. Different strategies for Giardia treatment have been explored to avoid side effects to the host. In this context, the efficiency of treatment combining drugs raise as an interesting alternative for protozoan diseases. Here, we evaluated in vitro synergic effect of Mz and Pm on trophozoites and on its adherence to IEC-6 cells. The treatment with Mz or Pm was effective on trophozoites, with IC(50)/24h values of 5.3±0.9 ?M and 13.8±1.4 ?M, respectively. The treatment of trophozoites with different combinations of Mz and Pm were also evaluated, as showed by fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) under 0.5 in all conditions tested, corresponding to the synergic effect. This synergic activity was also observed when the combinations of 5.3 ?M Mz+0.4 ?M Pm and 13.8 ?M Pm+0.1 ?M Mz induced a remarkable reduction in % adhesion (85-90% and 52-59%, respectively) and in number of adhered parasites per 100 cells. The low cytotoxicity to the host cells of the combinations, associated to the strong synergic potential of the combination, encourage us to further investigate its effect in in vivo models. PMID:20946968

Hausen, Moema A; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Lira, Dalvaci C; de Carvalho, Laís; Barbosa, Helene S

2011-01-01

41

Impaired Parasite Attachment as Fitness Cost of Metronidazole Resistance in Giardia lamblia?  

OpenAIRE

Infections with the diarrheagenic protozoan pathogen Giardia lamblia are most commonly treated with metronidazole (Mz). Treatment failures with Mz occur in 10 to 20% of cases and Mz resistance develops in the laboratory, yet clinically, Mz-resistant (Mzr) G. lamblia has rarely been isolated from patients. To understand why clinical Mzr isolates are rare, we questioned whether Mz resistance entails fitness costs to the parasite. Our studies employed several newly generated and established isog...

Tejman-yarden, Noa; Millman, Maya; Lauwaet, Tineke; Davids, Barbara J.; Gillin, Frances D.; Dunn, Linda; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Eckmann, Lars

2011-01-01

42

?1-giardin based live heterologous vaccine protects against Giardia lamblia infection in a murine model  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, yet preventive medical strategies are not available. A crude veterinary vaccine has been licensed for cats and dogs, but no defined human vaccine is available. We tested the vaccine potential of three conserved antigens previously identified in human and murine giardiasis, ?1-giardin, ?-enolase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase, in a murine model of G. lamblia infection. Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella en...

Jenikova, Gabriela; Hruz, Petr; Andersson, Karl M.; Tejman-yarden, Noa; Ferreira, Patricia C. D.; Andersen, Yolanda S.; Davids, Barbara J.; Gillin, Frances D.; Sva?rd, Staffan G.; Curtiss, Roy; Eckmann, Lars

2011-01-01

43

Chromosome-size variation in Giardia lamblia: the role of rDNA repeats.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia trophozoites contain at least five sets of chromosomes that have been categorized by chromosome-specific probes. Pulsed field separations of G. lamblia chromosomes also demonstrated minor bands in some isolates which stained less intensely with ethidium than the major chromosomal bands. Two of the minor bands of the E11 clone of the ISR isolate, MBa and MBb, were similar to each other and to chromosomal band I by hybridization to total chromosomal DNA and by hybridization of s...

Adam, R. D.

1992-01-01

44

Genotype Analysis of Giardia lamblia Isolated From Children in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: Giardia lamblia is an enteric protozoan parasite, which infects human and a wide range of vertebrate hosts.Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate genotypes of G. lamblia from children fecal samples in Ahvaz, South West of Iran by PCR-RFLP method.Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from 58 children who were positive for G. lamblia. DNA extractions were performed by QIAamp Stool Mini Kit. DNA were evaluated by semi nested PCR-RFLP assay, targeting the g...

Mahdi Pourmahdi Borujeni; Ahmad Shamsizadeh; Ali Akbar Shayesteh; Ali Reza Samarbaf-Zadeh; Abdollah Rafiei; Elham Sadat Roointan

2013-01-01

45

Effect of Giardia lamblia Infection on the Cognitive Function of School children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The association between helminthic parasitic infection and cognitive function has long been recognized, however there are few reports about Giardia lamblia infection. This paper describes a study about the effect of G. lamblia infection on the cognitive function. Methods: One hundred thirty two children infected with G. lamblia from Robat Karim south of western Tehran, Iran were compared with 150 children without any parasitic infection. These two groups were identical in socioeconomic and nutritional status. Cognitive function was assessed using, three tests from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children and one subset of the Clinical Evolution of Language Function. Results: Comparison of two groups revealed that uninfected children improved significantly more than children who had G. lamblia infection in the tests of Fluency (P< 0.02 and Digit-span Forwards/ Backwards (P< 0.004. Conclusion: Regular stool examination is suggested in areas with low hygienic conditions, since G. lamblia infection might be present without any clinical manifestation.

F Partovi

2007-05-01

46

Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.  

OpenAIRE

The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa) or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal trac...

Agnieszka Kolasa; Ma?gorzata Mokrzycka; Anita Kosierkiewicz; Barbara Wiszniewska

2010-01-01

47

Disulfide bridges in the mesophilic triosephosphate isomerase from Giardia lamblia are related to oligomerization and activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triosephosphate isomerase from the mesophile Giardia lamblia (GlTIM) is the only known TIM with natural disulfide bridges. We previously found that oxidized and reduced thiol states of GlTIM are involved in the interconversion between native dimers and higher oligomeric species, and in the regulation of enzymatic activity. Here, we found that trophozoites and cysts have different oligomeric species of GlTIM and complexes of GlTIM with other proteins. Our data indicate that the internal milieu of G. lamblia is favorable for the formation of disulfide bonds. Enzyme mutants of the three most solvent exposed Cys of GlTIM (C202A, C222A, and C228A) were prepared to ascertain their contribution to oligomerization and activity. The data show that the establishment of a disulfide bridge between two C202 of two dimeric GlTIMs accounts for multimerization. In addition, we found that the establishment of an intramonomeric disulfide bond between C222 and C228 abolishes catalysis. Multimerization and inactivation are both reversed by reducing conditions. The 3D structure of the C202A GlTIM was solved at 2.1 A resolution, showing that the environment of the C202 is prone to hydrophobic interactions. Molecular dynamics of an in silico model of GlTIM when the intramonomeric disulfide bond is formed, showed that S216 is displaced 4.6 A from its original position, causing loss of hydrogen bonds with residues of the active-site loop. This suggests that this change perturb the conformational state that aligns the catalytic center with the substrate, inducing enzyme inactivation. PMID:17095008

Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Diaz, Adelaida; Peon, Jorge; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Hernandez-Alcantara, Gloria; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; Enriquez-Flores, Sergio; Dominguez-Ramirez, Lenin; Lopez-Velazquez, Gabriel

2007-01-19

48

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule. PMID:23903978

Quintero, Jael; Figueroa, Diana Carolina; Barcelo, Rafael; Breci, Linda; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto; Rascon, Lucila; Robles-Zepeda, Ramon; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique; Avila, Gloria Leon; Hernandez-Hernandez, Jose Manuel; Velazquez, Carlos

2013-01-01

49

Development of a combined in vitro cell culture--quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the disinfection performance of pulsed light for treating the waterborne enteroparasite Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is recognised as a frequent cause of water-borne disease in humans and animals. We report for the first time on the use of a combined in vitro HCT-8 cell culture-quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the efficacy of using pulsed UV light for treating G. lamblia parasites. Findings showed that current methods that are limited to using vital stains before and after cyst excystation are not appropriate for monitoring or evaluating cyst destruction post PUV-treatments. Use of the human ileocecal HCT-8 cell line was superior to that of the human colon Caco-2 cell line for in vitro culture and determining PUV sensitivity of treated cysts. G. lamblia cysts were also shown to be more resistant to PUV irradiation compared to treating similar numbers of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. These observations also show that the use of this HCT-8 cell culture assay may replace use of animal models for determining disinfection performances of PUV for treating both C. parvum and G. lamblia. PMID:24929148

Garvey, Mary; Stocca, Alessia; Rowan, Neil

2014-09-01

50

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lam [...] blia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

Jael, Quintero; Diana Carolina, Figueroa; Rafael, Barcelo; Linda, Breci; Humberto, Astiazaran-Garcia; Lucila, Rascon; Ramon, Robles-Zepeda; Adriana, Garibay-Escobar; Enrique, Velazquez-Contreras; Gloria Leon, Avila; Jose Manuel, Hernandez-Hernandez; Carlos, Velazquez.

2013-08-01

51

Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa) or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection. PMID:20675273

Mokrzycka, Ma?gorzata; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Kosierkiewicz, Anita; Wiszniewska, Barbara

2010-01-01

52

Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection.

Agnieszka Kolasa

2010-08-01

53

Comparação de quatro métodos laboratoriais para diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em fezes de crianças residentes em Belém, Pará Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito.We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination with lugol showed lower positivity, while the method of Faust et al. Continues to be a good option for G. lamblia diagnosis and Immunoenzymatic assay increases the detection of this parasite.

Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado

2001-02-01

54

Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase is Necessary for Elimination of Giardia lamblia Infections in Mice1  

OpenAIRE

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) is important for control of numerous infections. In vitro, NO inhibits replication and differentiation of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. However, the role of NO against this parasite has not been tested in vivo. IL-6 deficient mice fail to control Giardia infections and these mice have reduced levels of NOS2 mRNA in the small intestine following infection compared to wild-type mice. However, NOS2 gene-tar...

Li, Erqiu; Zhou, Ping; Singer, Steven M.

2006-01-01

55

Giardia lamblia infection diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protozoan Giardia lamblia is a major cause of gastrointestinal disease worldwide. We report the case of a 59-yr-old male who presented to his primary care physician with complaints of abdominal pain and weight loss. Imaging studies revealed a liver mass and a pancreatic head mass. Biopsy of the liver mass proved to be benign, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the mass in the head of the pancreas showed no evidence of malignancy; however, numerous pear-shaped, binucleated, flagellated organisms morphologically consistent with trophozoites of Giardia lamblia were identified in the specimen. With the increasing use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for sampling of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and pancreatic lesions, cytopathologists examining such specimens will need to be familiar with the diagnostic characteristics of this protozoal parasite. PMID:17497659

Carter, J Elliot; Nelson, John J; Eves, Matthew; Boudreaux, Carole

2007-06-01

56

Susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to aminoglycoside protein synthesis inhibitors: correlation with rRNA structure.  

OpenAIRE

The very limited development of antiparasitic agents targeting protein synthesis stems in part from the belief that parasite and host ribosomes are sufficiently similar to preclude selective toxicity. However, recent studies have revealed that Giardia lamblia rRNA has an unusual size and sequence; consequently, this organism and its homogeneous rRNA provide a useful model for the development of protein synthesis inhibitors with antiparasitic activity. In this study, I determined the sequence ...

Edlind, T. D.

1989-01-01

57

IDENTIFICATION OF GROWTH INHIBITING COMPOUNDS IN A GIARDIA LAMBLIA HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREEN  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia is one of the most common eukaryotic pathogens and is classified by the CDC as a category B agent of bioterrorism. In a departure from more traditional research focused on specific pathways or molecules, we have developed a high-throughput assay for screening libraries of small compounds for inhibitors and enhancers of trophozoite multiplication. Following a 24-h period of culture in 384-well plates in the presence of compounds, trophozoites were fixed, stained and enumerated....

Santiago, Ruben Bonilla; Wu, Zijin; Zhang, Linghui; Widmer, Giovanni

2008-01-01

58

From Leningrad to the day-care center. The ubiquitous Giardia lamblia.  

OpenAIRE

Giardiasis is recognized as a worldwide public health problem. Seroprevalence data from both the developing and developed world show high rates of carriage in populations at risk for fecal-oral transmission, such as children in day-care centers. Outbreak investigation has expanded our understanding of reservoirs for Giardia lamblia and of the routes of transmission. Various host factors have been associated with infection. The pathogenesis of giardial infections is being elucidated, in partic...

Shandera, W. X.

1990-01-01

59

Giardia lamblia infestation reveals underlying Whipple's disease in a patient with longstanding constipation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whipple's disease is an uncommon disorder, generally associated with gastrointestinal symptoms; of these, diarrhea is a common feature. We report a case of Whipple's disease associated with chronic constipation which was not diagnosed until after Giardia lamblia infestation had caused diarrhea. To the best of our knowledge this association has not previously been reported. The clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and manometric aspects are described and discussed. PMID:1705390

Bassotti, G; Pelli, M A; Ribacchi, R; Miglietti, M; Cavalletti, M L; Rossodivita, M E; Giovenali, P; Morelli, A

1991-03-01

60

Identification of a Giardia krr1 homolog gene and the secondarily anucleolate condition of Giaridia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giaridia lamblia was long considered to be one of the most primitive eukaryotes and to lie close to the transition between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but several supporting features, such as lack of mitochondrion and Golgi, have been challenged recently. It was also reported previously that G. lamblia lacked nucleolus, which is the site of pre-rRNA processing and ribosomal assembling in the other eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the identification of the yeast homolog gene, krr1, in the anucleolate eukaryote, G. lamblia. The krr1 gene, encoding one of the pre-rRNA processing proteins in yeast, is actively transcribed in G. lamblia. The deduced protein sequence of G. lamblia krr1 is highly similar to yeast KRR1p that contains a single-KH domain. Our database searches indicated that krr1 genes actually present in diverse eukaryotes and also seem to present in Archaea. However, only the eukaryotic homologs, including that of G. lamblia, have the single-KH domain, which contains the conserved motif KR(K)R. Fibrillarin, another important pre-rRNA processing protein has also been identified previously in G. lamblia. Moreover, our database search shows that nearly half of the other nucleolus-localized protein genes of eukaryotic cells also have their homologs in Giardia. Therefore, we suggest that a common mechanism of pre-RNA processing may operate in the anucleolate eukaryote G. lamblia and in the other eukaryotes and that like the case of "lack of mitochondrion," "lack of nucleolus" may not be a primitive feature, but a secondarily evolutionary condition of the parasite. PMID:15548749

Xin, De-Dong; Wen, Jian-Fan; He, De; Lu, Si-Qi

2005-03-01

61

[Fever and weight loss as leading symptoms of infection with giardia lamblia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections, malignancies and autoimmune diseases are the most important causes of fever of unknown origin.A case report of a 80-year old patient is described, who was admitted to our hospital because of fever lasting more than 2 weeks, weight loss and lack of appetite. Physical examination did not provide any relevant information, laboratory tests revealed an elevation of inflammation markers and anemia. Serological tests for infectious and autoimmune diseases and cultures of stool, blood and urine were all negative. Imaging did not show any pathological findings, colonoscopy and gastroscopy were macroscopically normal. Surprisingly, histology showed massive giardiasis of the duodenum. After initiation of therapy with metronidazol, fever and inflammation markers declined and the patient could be discharged from hospital without complaints on the 15(th) day after admission. Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal pathogens worldwide. Infection can cause acute diarrhea, but may also be responsible for chronic abdominal complaints or may stay asymptomatic. To our knowledge, giardiasis has not been described as differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin so far. In synopsis of clinical presentation and outcome after antibiotic therapy, we postulate that Giardia lamblia was the relevant cause of fever and weight loss in this case. In patients presenting with these symptoms, Giardia lamblia should be considered as differential diagnosis. PMID:11857101

Akkad, T; Kirchgatterer, A; Kranewitter, W; Aschl, G; Höbling, W; Knoflach, P

2002-02-01

62

Utilidad terapéutica del albendazol en el tratamiento de niños infectados con Giardia lamblia / Therapeutic usefulness of albendazole in the treatment of infected children with Giardia lamblia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con 22 escolares parasitados con Giardia lamblia para verificar la utilidad terapéutica del albendazol (400 mg en dosis única por 5 días). Después de tratar a los niños se realizaron controles posttratamiento a los 7, 15 y 21 días mediante examen clínico y métodos coproparasitó [...] logicos (examen directo, Kato y sedimentación espontánea). El porcentaje global de cura parasitológica fue de 44,4% (8/18) constituidos por 8 niños en quienes se erradicó el parásito posterior al tratamiento. De este análisis se excluyeron 4 niños de los 22 tratados debido a que no acudieron a uno o más controles post-tratamiento. De esos 18 niños, 72,2% tenían manifestaciones clínicas sugestivas de infección por G. lamblia antes de recibir el fármaco; después de concluido el tratamiento solo dos escolares (11,1%) presentaron manifestaciones clínicas. Sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (X2 = 0,5098 g. l. = 1). Dos niños (11,1%) que recibieron tratamiento con albendazol tuvieron efectos adversos (sabor amargo y dolor abdominal). En conclusión, en el grupo estudiado y debido a su bajo porcentaje de cura parasitológica, el albendazol no parece ser una droga de elección y su uso debería reservarse en casos comprobados de resistencia al metronidazol o cuando exista intolerancia a esta droga. Abstract in english A study was conducted with 22 parasitized school children with Giardia lamblia to verify the therapeutic usefulness of albendazole (400 mg single dose for 5 days). After treating the children post-treatment controls were made at 7, 15 and 21 days by clinical examination and parasitological methods ( [...] direct examination, Kato and spontaneous sedimentation). The overall rate of parasitological cure was 44.4% (8/18) consisting of 8 children in whom the parasite was eradicated after treatment. This analysis excluded 4 of the treated children because they had missed one or more post-treatment controls. Of these 18 children, 72.2% (13 children) had clinical manifestations suggestive of infection with G. lamblia before receiving the drug; after completion of treatment only two school children (11.1%) had clinical manifestations. However, the difference was not statistically significant (X2 = 0.5098 d.f. = 1). Two (11.1%) of the children who received albendazole had adverse effects (bitter taste and abdominal pain). In conclusion, the study group and due to its low parasitological cure rate, albendazole does not seem to be a drug of choice and use should be reserved in proven cases of resistance to metronidazole or when there is intolerance to this drug.

Mayra, Risco; Iván, Amaya; Ixora, Requena; Ytalia, Blanco; Rodolfo, Devera.

2013-03-01

63

CONTROL OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS BY FILTRATION: THE LABORATORY'S ROLE  

Science.gov (United States)

USEPA has sponsored research on the ability of slow sand, diatomaceous earth, and dual or multi-media filters to remove turbidity causing particles, coliforms, and Giardia cysts. The high volume Giardia sampler used during disease outbreaks was not appropriate for this research. ...

64

Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil / Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao r [...] esponsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA), 44 (9,9%) apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052), número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015), número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059), higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024), usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034), ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03) e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012). Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administe [...] red to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%). A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052), number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015), number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059), food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024), day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034), living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03) and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012). Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.

Maria das Graças Cabral, Pereira; Edward Robert, Atwill; Alverne Passos, Barbosa.

2007-06-01

65

Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA, 44 (9,9% apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052, número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015, número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059, higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024, usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034, ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03 e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012. Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada.

Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

2007-06-01

66

Waterborne Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Yukon, Canada.  

OpenAIRE

Several outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis have occurred in southern Canada, but nothing has been reported from the Canadian North. The objective of this study was to collect information relevant to waterborne giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in the Yukon including epidemiological data and analyses of water, sewage, and animal fecal samples. Remote, pristine water samples were found to be contaminated with Giardia cysts (7 of 22 or 32%) but not with Cryptosporidium oocysts. Giardia cysts were...

Roach, P. D.; Olson, M. E.; Whitley, G.; Wallis, P. M.

1993-01-01

67

[Long-term damage to duodenal mucosa in malabsorption syndrome as a sequela of Giardia lamblia infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 35-year-old German woman presented after a three month journey to Sudan with intermittent, persistent watery diarrhea. Stool examination identified Giardia lamblia. The patient was unsuccessfully orally treated with metronidazol 250 mg three times a day for seven days and tinidazol 2 g as single dose. During a two week hospitalization we observed a total villous atrophy in a duodenal biopsy specimen in absence of celiac sprue or a immunodeficiency syndrome. We treated with metronidazol 500 mg three times a day intravenously and discharged the patient in good condition. This case report shows the variability of clinical presentation of infection with Giardia lamblia. Moreover, we demonstrate rarely found histological changes as reason for clinical presentation, unsuccessful oral treatment and malabsorption. The intravenous therapy lead to a permanent eradication of Giardia lamblia. PMID:7754649

Orth, T; Protzer, U; Mayet, W J; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

1995-03-01

68

Avaliação de diferentes métodos no diagnóstico laboratorial de Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Giardia lamblia é um enteroparasita de prevalência significativa no mundo inteiro. Estudou-se a reprodutibilidade diagnóstica laboratorial por meio dos métodos Coprotest®, Direto modificado, Faust e Hematoxilina Férrica, para o protozoário G. lamblia, segundo a associação com algumas características da população de estudo tais como grupo etário, gênero e distribuição dos casos segundo a variação sazonal nos meses em que se desenvolveu a pesquisa. Fezes de 200 crianças da região de Araraquara-SP, foram examinadas pelos quatro métodos, e os resultados comparados. Verificou-se que 8% delas, encontravam-se parasitadas por G. lamblia. Não houve associação com o gênero; quanto à idade ocorreram mais casos no grupo de três a cinco anos e a maior freqüência de casos foi no mês de janeiro. Em relação ao diagnóstico laboratorial concluiu-se que os resultados mais confiáveis podem ser obtidos quando se utiliza duas metodologias associadas de ótima reprodutibilidade que neste estudo foram Coprotest - Faust; Direto-Faust e Coprotest-Direto (k > 0,81. Palavras-chave: G. lamblia; métodos diagnósticos; Coprotest®; Direto modificado; Faust; Hematoxilina Férrica.

J. G.D. GARCIA

2009-01-01

69

Physical and chemical characterization of a Giardia lamblia-specific antigen useful in the coprodiagnosis of giardiasis.  

OpenAIRE

We recently reported the isolation and identification of a Giardia lamblia-specific antigen (GSA 65) that is shed in the stool of giardiasis patients. In the present study, this antigen was affinity purified from sonic extracts of axenically cultured G. lamblia trophozoites and characterized to better understand its biological function and its potential usefulness in the design of coprodiagnostic assays for giardiasis. GSA 65 was resistant to proteolytic digestion with trypsin, chymotrypsin, ...

Rosoff, J. D.; Stibbs, H. H.

1986-01-01

70

In vitro susceptibilities of 25 Giardia lamblia isolates of human origin to six commonly used antiprotozoal agents.  

OpenAIRE

The role drug resistance plays in the occurrence of chronic and recurrent giardiasis has not been established. Extensive data on the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of living Giardia spp. trophozoites from human origin are lacking. We have determined with a macrodilution method in semisolid medium the in vitro susceptibility of 25 Giardia lamblia isolates, all obtained by routine cultivation of the duodenal fluid of children to six commonly used antiprotozoal drugs. The results showed ...

Gordts, B.; Hemelhof, W.; Asselman, C.; Butzler, J. P.

1985-01-01

71

Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra.

J. A. Gil Ruiz

2005-07-01

72

Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %, de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología.The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %. Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %. It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

Nazarina Ivonne Méndez Pérez

2003-09-01

73

Effects of essential oils on the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is one of the most important worldwide causes of intestinal infections produced by protozoa. Current therapy for giardiasis is unsatisfactory due to high incidence of undesirable side effects and significant failure in clearing parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. In the search for new therapeutic agents, we report on the effect of several essential oils on G. lamblia growth. Among eighteen tested essential oils, those with phenolic compositions were the most active, particularly if containing high contents of carvacrol, such as Thymbra capitata and Origanum virens (IC50 values of 71 and 85 microg x mL(-1), respectively). The oils from Syzygium aromaticum and Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris (IC50 values from 100 to 200 microg x mL(-1)), as well as, those from Mentha x piperita and Lippia graveolens (IC50 values over 200 microg x mL(-1)) were less active. Results support the concept that several essential oils or some of their constituents may be useful in the clinical management of Giardia infections. PMID:20184039

Machado, Marisa; Sousa, Maria do Céu; Salgueiro, Lígia; Cavaleiro, Carlos

2010-01-01

74

Current infection rate of Giardia lamblia in two provinces of Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to survey for the current rate of Giardia lamblia infection in three different districts in two provinces of Thailand, Surin and Samut Sakhon, in March 2002, October 2003, and March 2004. Two districts are rural areas and another is sub-urban. Volunteers of any age from Surin Province and children aged between 5 to 7 years old from three secondary schools in Samut Sakhon were enrolled for the stool examination. The method used was stool examination by both simple smear and normal saline concentration technique on fresh collected feces. All samples were tested in duplicate. Out of 3,358 healthy individuals from rural Surin Province, 75 cases (2.2%) were found positive for G. lamblia, 30 of which were below 10 years of age. By comparison, 656 individuals from sub-urban Samut Sakhon Province volunteered and 43 (6.5%) were positive for G. lamblia. Other intestinal parasites, both helminth and protozoa, were also identified from these two groups: hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, and Blastocystis hominis. From this study, the data showed that parasitic infection acquired via fecal-oral route is still a significant problem for these two provinces of Thailand. PMID:16438174

Wongjindanon, Nuttapong; Suksrichavalit, Thummaruk; Subsutti, Wanitcha; Sarachart, Titima; Worapisuttiwong, Utsanee; Norramatha, Pakawat

2005-01-01

75

Giardia lamblia RNA cap guanine-N2 methyltransferase (Tgs2).  

Science.gov (United States)

Tgs1 is the enzyme responsible for converting 7-methylguanosine RNA caps to the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap structures of small nuclear and small nucleolar RNAs. Whereas budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe encode a single Tgs1 protein, the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia encodes two paralogs, Tgs1 and Tgs2. Here we show that purified Tgs2 is a monomeric enzyme that catalyzes methyl transfer from AdoMet (K(m) of 6 microm) to m(7)GDP (K(m) of 65 microm; k(cat) of 14 min(-1)) to form m(2,7)GDP. Tgs2 also methylates m(7)GTP (K(m) of 30 microm; k(cat) of 13 min(-1)) and m(7)GpppA (K(m) of 7 microm; k(cat)) of 14 min(-1) but is unreactive with GDP, GTP, GpppA, ATP, CTP, or UTP. We find that the conserved residues Asp-68, Glu-91, and Trp-143 are essential for Tgs2 methyltransferase activity in vitro. The m(2,7)GDP product formed by Tgs2 can be converted to m(2,2,7)GDP by S. pombe Tgs1 in the presence of excess AdoMet. However, Giardia Tgs2 itself is apparently unable to add a second methyl group at guanine-N2. This result implies that 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine caps in Giardia are either synthesized by Tgs1 alone or by the sequential action of Tgs2 and Tgs1. The specificity of Tgs2 raises the prospect that some Giardia mRNAs might contain dimethylguanosine caps. PMID:16046409

Hausmann, Stéphane; Shuman, Stewart

2005-09-16

76

In-vitro susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to albendazole, mebendazole and other chemotherapeutic agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of a strain of Giardia lamblia to benzimidazole carbamates, 5-nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans and other drugs was studied in vitro. Albendazole was the most active compound, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.01 mg/L and a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of less than 0.04 mg/L; the IC50 of mebendazole was 0.06 mg/L and the MLC less than 0.5 mg/L. Among the 5-nitroimidazoles tested, ornidazole was the most effective (IC50 0.12 mg/L); tinidazole, metronidazole, secnidazole and hemezole were less active. Nifuroxazide, etofamide and nalidixic acid exhibited modest anti-giardial activity; quinfamide did not inhibit the growth of the parasite at a concentration of 200 mg/L. Albendazole and mebendazole are promising candidates for clinical use and should be further evaluated. PMID:1518040

Cedillo-Rivera, R; Muñoz, O

1992-09-01

77

Incomplete nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Messenger RNAs containing premature translation stop codons are degraded by a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) system. The NMD pathway is present in yeast, plants and mammals and is thought to protect cells from production of nonfunctional proteins by rapidly degrading mutant mRNAs. There is little understanding of the biology of the origins of eukaryotes, particularly of the NMD pathway. Searches using the BLAST program revealed that the protozoan Giardialamblia has only some of the components of the NMD pathway. We developed a luciferase reporter system with a nonsense mutation to monitor NMD in Giardia. The nonsense mutation triggered a decrease in luciferase mRNA levels and stability, suggesting that the NMD phenomenon could be present in Giardia. We also found a significant reduction of the mRNA levels of another system containing Giardia its own cyst wall protein 3 gene with a nonsense mutation. However, the reduction levels observed in these two systems are lower than that in late-branching eukaryotes, suggesting that the NMD system in Giardia may be less functional. Interestingly, the effect of G418 in promoting read-through of the nonsense mutation and inhibiting NMD in Giardia is similar to that in late-branching eukaryotes. We also characterised the giardial homologue of a conserved NMD factor, UPF1. Immunofluorescence assays revealed that giardial UPF1, like yeast UPF1, is expressed in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus. In addition, overexpression of UPF1 resulted in a reduction of the levels of nonsense-containing transcripts and enhanced translation termination at a nonsense codon. These results suggest that Giardia may have an incomplete NMD pathway and giardial UPF1 may be functionally conserved, involved in NMD and in preventing nonsense suppression. PMID:18430426

Chen, Yi-Hsiu; Su, Li-Hsin; Sun, Chin-Hung

2008-09-01

78

Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron [...] incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL), que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL. Abstract in english The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú) on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 [...] hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL). An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

Aimée, Echevarría; Dinorah, Torres Idavoy.

2001-09-01

79

Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL, que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL.The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL. An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

Aimée Echevarría

2001-09-01

80

Outbreak of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia infections in travellers returning from the tropics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of 160 travellers from various regions in Italy who had taken part in a five-day organized trip to Phuket, Thailand, and been accommodated in the same luxury hotel, 17 showed either amebic abscess or colitis. A pretested questionnaire that focused on the consumption of foods and beverages well known to be a source of intestinal infection in endemic areas was available from these 17 patients as well as from 41 out of 74 asymptomatic travellers. Stool samples for parasitological examination were also available. In patients affected with amebic abscess, antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica were also determined. Overall, parasitological examinations were negative in eight (13.8%) patients, and 50 out of 58 (86.2%) were found to be positive. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica infections was 67.2% and 72.4%, respectively, and 28 subjects (48.3%) were stool-positive for both of these protozoa. No other intestinal parasites were found. No particular food or beverage was consumed by all of the parasitized subjects and by none of the stool-negative individuals. However, the consumption of drinks with ice, ice cream and raw fruit in ice was significantly associated with E. histolytica and/or G. lamblia infections (Fisher's exact test, p ranging from 0.03 to 0.003). PMID:1582688

de Lalla, F; Rinaldi, E; Santoro, D; Nicolin, R; Tramarin, A

1992-01-01

81

First genotyping of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces in Argentina, South America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces and their epidemiological and clinical characteristics in Argentina, South America. Seventy isolates, 60 from humans (adults and children), eight from dogs and two from cows were processed by po [...] lymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Data corresponding to demographic, socio-cultural and environmental variables and presence/absence of signs/symptoms were collected. The triosephosphate isomerase gene was amplified from 43 (71.66%) of the 60 human fecal samples. Among these, 3/43 (6.98%) were genotype AII and 40/43 (93.02%) were genotype B. Assemblage AII was detected in three children who lived together in a shantytown and they were oligosymptomatic and none had diarrhea. This genotype was not found in animals. Genotype B showed a high prevalence in both adults and children. It was also found in polysymptomatic people, many of whom presented diarrhea. It was also found only in one dog. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. lamblia genotypes in Argentina.

Marta C, Minvielle; Nora B, Molina; Daniela, Polverino; Juan A, Basualdo.

2008-02-01

82

COMPARISON OF SOME FILTRATION PROCESSES APPROPRIATE FOR GIARDIA CYST REMOVAL  

Science.gov (United States)

Slow sand filtration, diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, and coagulation-filtration (including conventional treatment, direct filtration, and in-line filtration), have been evaluated for Giardia cyst removal at pilot plant and/or field scale. Properly designed and operated, the ...

83

Evidence for Lateral Transfer of Genes Encoding Ferredoxins, Nitroreductases, NADH Oxidase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 from Anaerobic Prokaryotes to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are amitochondriate, microaerophilic protists which use fermentation enzymes like those of bacteria to survive anaerobic conditions within the intestinal lumen. Genes encoding fermentation enzymes and related electron transport peptides (e.g., ferredoxins) in giardia organisms and amebae are hypothesized to be derived from either an ancient anaerobic eukaryote (amitochondriate fossil hypothesis), a mitochondrial endosymbiont (hydrogen hypothesis), or ...

Nixon, Julie E. J.; Wang, Amy; Field, Jessica; Morrison, Hilary G.; Mcarthur, Andrew G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Loftus, Brendan J.; Samuelson, John

2002-01-01

84

Hydrologic and Vegetative Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate Microspheres in Coastal Wetlands  

OpenAIRE

Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal par...

Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Miller, Woutrina A.

2013-01-01

85

Giardia Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... 683. Hill DR. Giardia lamblia . In: Gillespie SH, Pearson RD, eds. Principles and practice of clinical parasitology . ... Giardia General Information Giardiasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Giardia and Pets ...

86

An ancient spliceosomal intron in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a of Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad. This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a non-canonical 5' intron boundary sequence, CT, instead of GT. Results We have identified a second spliceosomal-type intron in G. lamblia, in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a, that possesses a canonical GT 5' intron boundary sequence. A comparison of the two known Giardia intron sequences revealed extensive nucleotide identity at both the 5' and 3' intron boundaries, similar to the conserved sequence motifs recently identified at the boundaries of spliceosomal-type introns in Trichomonas vaginalis (a parabasalid. Based on these observations, we searched the partial G. lamblia genome sequence for these conserved features and identified a third spliceosomal intron, in an unassigned open reading frame. Our comprehensive analysis of the Rpl7a intron in other eukaryotic taxa demonstrates that it is evolutionarily conserved and is an ancient eukaryotic intron. Conclusion An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and properties of the Rpl7a intron suggests its utility as a phylogenetic marker to evaluate particular eukaryotic groupings. Additionally, analysis of the G. lamblia introns has provided further insight into some of the conserved and unique features possessed by the recently identified spliceosomal introns in related organisms such as T. vaginalis and Carpediemonas membranifera.

Gray Michael W

2005-08-01

87

Oxidative stress-induced cell cycle blockage and a protease-independent programmed cell death in  microaerophilic Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esha Ghosh1, Arjun Ghosh1, Amar Nath Ghosh2, Tomoyoshi Nozaki3, Sandipan Ganguly11Division of Parasitology; 2Division of Electron Microscopy, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Beliaghata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 3Division of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Giardia lamblia is a microaerophilic human gastrointestinal parasite and considered as an early-diverged eukaryote. In vitro oxidative stress generation plays a significant role in cell cycle progression and cell death of this parasite. In the present study hydrogen peroxide, metronidazole, and a modified growth medium without cysteine and ascorbic acid have been chosen as oxidative stress-inducing agents. Cell cycle progression has been found to be regulated by different types of oxidative stresses. Apoptosis is not an established pathway in Giardia, which is devoid of ideal mitochondria, but in the present investigation, apoptosis-like programmed cell death has been found by the experiments like AnnexinV-FITC assay, DNA fragmentation pattern, etc. On the contrary, Caspase-9 assay, which confirms the caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway, has been found to be negative in all the stress conditions. Protease inhibitor assay confirmed that, even in absence of any proteases, programmed cell death does occur in this primitive eukaryote. All these results signify a novel pathway of programmed suicidal death in Giardia lamblia under oxidative stress. This is the first demonstration of protease-independent programmed cell death regulation in Giardia exclusive for its own specialties.Keywords: Giardia lamblia, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, programmed cell death, apoptosis, early branching eukaryotes

Esha Ghosh

2009-03-01

88

Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose / Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a [...] giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110). A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075), elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701), IgE específica (p = 0,250) ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between g [...] iardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Valdênia M. O., Souza; Iana R. F., Sales; Décio M., Peixoto; Vláudia M. Assis, Costa; José A., Rizzo; Almerinda R., Silva; Roberta Faria, Camilo; Felipe Faria, Pierotti; Dirceu, Solé; Emanuel S. C., Sarinho.

2012-06-01

89

Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110. A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075, elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701, IgE específica (p = 0,250 ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças.OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between giardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110. Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075, high total IgE levels (p = 0.701, positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250, or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Valdênia M. O. Souza

2012-06-01

90

A novel galacto-glycerolipid from Oxalis corniculata kills Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxalis corniculata is a naturally occurring weed that has been used in traditional medicine for the cure of dysentery and diarrhea in India. One of the common causes of dysentery is due to infection by the protist pathogen Entamoeba histolytica. Bioactivity profiling of extracts from O. corniculata identified several compounds that showed antiamoebic activity in axenic cultures of E. histolytica. These were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and mass spectrometry as (i) Oc-1, a mixture of saturated fatty acids C?? to C??; (ii) Oc-2, a mixture of long-chain alcohols C?? to C??; and (iii) Oc-3, a single compound that was a galacto-glycerolipid (GGL). Of the different compounds that were obtained, the strongest antiamoebic activity was found in GGL. The addition of GGL to E. histolytica xenic cultures containing other microbial flora from the large intestine did not affect its antiamoebic activity. Amoebicidal concentrations of GGL had no effect on intestinal microbial flora or on the mammalian cell line HEK-293. GGL was also found to be equally effective in killing another protist pathogen, Giardia lamblia, that causes diarrhea in humans. The importance of this study is based on the identification of novel natural products and the possibility of developing these compounds as active agents to treat at least two pathogenic parasitic intestinal infections endemic to tropical regions. PMID:20713666

Manna, Dipak; Dutta, Pradeep K; Achari, Basudeb; Lohia, Anuradha

2010-11-01

91

Unraveling the mechanisms of tryptophan fluorescence quenching in the triosephosphate isomerase from Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the native state several proteins exhibit a quenching of fluorescence of their tryptophans. We studied triosephosphate isomerase from Giardia lamblia (GlTIM) to dissect the mechanisms that account for the quenching of fluorescence of its Trp. GlTIM contains four Trp per monomer (Trp75, Trp162, Trp173, and Trp196) distributed throughout the 3D structure. The fluorescence of the denatured enzyme is 3-fold higher than that of native GlTIM. To ascertain the origin of this phenomenon, single and triple mutants of Trp per Phe were made. The intrinsic fluorescence was determined, and the data were interpreted on the basis of the crystal structure of the enzyme. Our data show that the fluorescence of all Trp residues is quenched through two different mechanisms. In one, fluorescence is quenched by aromatic-aromatic interactions due to the proximity and orientation of the indole groups of Trp196 and Trp162. The magnitude of the quenching of fluorescence in Trp162 is higher than in the other three Trp. Fluorescence quenching is also due to energy transfer to the charged residues that surround Trp 75, 173 and 196. Further analysis of the fluorescence of GlTIM showed that, among TIMs from other parasites, Trp at position 12 exhibits rather unique properties. PMID:18620084

Hernández-Alcántara, Gloria; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Peon, Jorge; Cabrera, Nallely; Ortiz, Carmen; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; López-Velázquez, Gabriel

2008-11-01

92

Characterization of SNAREs Determines the Absence of a Typical Golgi Apparatus in the Ancient Eukaryote Giardia lamblia*S?  

OpenAIRE

Giardia is a eukaryotic protozoal parasite with unusual characteristics, such as the absence of a morphologically evident Golgi apparatus. Although both constitutive and regulated pathways for protein secretion are evident in Giardia, little is known about the mechanisms involved in vesicular docking and fusion. In higher eukaryotes, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) of the vesicle-associated membrane protein and syntaxin ...

Elias, Eliana V.; Quiroga, Rodrigo; Gottig, Natalia; Nakanishi, Hideki; Nash, Theodore E.; Neiman, Aaron; Lujan, Hugo D.

2008-01-01

93

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L than Giardia cysts (6/100 L, suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

Solo-Gabriele Helena María

1998-01-01

94

In vitro phagocytosis of Giardia duodenalis cysts by hemocytes of the Asian freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemocytes of the Asian freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea, phagocytosed in vitro infectious Giardia duodenalis cysts. After 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min of incubation an average of 22%, 32%, 43%, 54%, and 72% of the cysts were phagocytosed by 22%, 55%, 63%, 81%, and 86% of the hemocytes, respectively. The number of hemocytes showing phagocytosis and the mean number of cysts ingested per hemocyte increased significantly over time (P waters and agricultural drainage with Giardia cysts. PMID:9342737

Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Conn, D B

1997-01-01

95

Photocatalytic water disinfection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia using a fibrous ceramic TiO(2) photocatalyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are two of the most chlorine resistant microorganisms with notable adverse effects on humans. Our study shows that waters containing these two protozoa at low concentrations can be efficiently disinfected in continuous flow by using a commercial fibrous ceramic TiO(2) photocatalyst. The efficiency of the photocatalytic disinfection is largely enhanced by adding a small concentration of chlorine. In this way, the residence time on the photoreactor can be considerably shortened. In contrast, under the same conditions and radiance power, UV light without any photocatalyst is significantly less efficient, particularly for G. lamblia. These results exemplify the advantages of the photocatalytic process for safe and complete water disinfection. PMID:19237757

Navalon, Sergio; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Escrig, Daniel; Costa, Víctor

2009-01-01

96

Size heterogeneity among antigenically related Giardia lamblia variant-specific surface proteins is due to differences in tandem repeat copy number.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia undergoes antigenic variation by modulating the expression of the different genes that comprise the trophozoite's variant-specific surface protein (VSP) repertoire. We studied an epitope that is conserved among VSPs expressed by cloned trophozoite lines derived from the independent G. lamblia isolates WB, G3M, Be-2, and CAT. The epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 6E7 lies entirely within the region of tandemly repeated 65-amino-acid units that is characteristic of these...

Mowatt, M. R.; Nguyen, B. Y.; Conrad, J. T.; Adam, R. D.; Nash, T. E.

1994-01-01

97

Evaluation of the recovery of waterborne Giardia cysts by freshwater clams and cyst detection in clam tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian freshwater clam, Corbicula fluminea, inhabits environments recognized to be contaminated with waterborne Giardia cysts. Sixty-four tissue samples of Giardia-free clams were spiked with various numbers of Giardia duodenalis cysts within the range of 50-700 cysts. Regression analysis showed that paired numbers of spiked (x) versus recovered (y) cysts regressed significantly (P clam, the coefficient of determination was 77%, and the overall sensitivity of cyst detection was 42.9%. All 20 values of cyst numbers in clam tissue samples that were processed blind were located within the 95% prediction limits of the linear regression equation. The cyst retention rate of 160 clams kept in an aquarium with 38 l of water spiked with 1.00 x 10(5) G. duodenalis cysts was approximately 1.3 x 10(3) cysts/clam. No waterborne cysts were detected by the membrane filtration method 90 min after spiking the aquarium water. G. duodenalis cysts were detected in clam tissue up to 3 weeks post-exposure. Filtration of water by clams substantially depleted the aquarium water of its particulate matter. The sampling program demonstrated that the population of 160 clams examined during the study could be accurately assessed for exposure to waterborne Giardia cysts by random sampling of 86 (54%) clams. The results indicate that C. fluminea clams can be used for biological monitoring of contamination with Giardia. PMID:9950225

Graczyk, T K; Fayer, R; Conn, D B; Lewis, E J

1999-01-01

98

Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

2013-06-15

99

Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously appreciated. We suggest that the missing components of the exosome complex provide an explanation for the stable abundance of sterile RNA species in Giardia.

Williams Christopher W

2011-11-01

100

Identification of Obscure yet Conserved Actin-Associated Proteins in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Consistent with its proposed status as an early branching eukaryote, Giardia has the most divergent actin of any eukaryote and lacks core actin regulators. Although conserved actin-binding proteins are missing from Giardia, its actin is utilized similarly to that of other eukaryotes and functions in core cellular processes such as cellular organization, endocytosis, and cytokinesis. We set out to identify actin-binding proteins in Giardia using affinity purification coupled with mass spectros...

Paredez, Alexander R.; Nayeri, Arash; Xu, Jennifer W.; Krtkova?, Jana; Cande, W. Zacheus

2014-01-01

101

COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES / COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniques have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD in the city of Manizales (Caldas were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan. RESUMEN: Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentración y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas. Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo.

Edwin Cardona

2014-03-01

102

FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES. VOLUME 1. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth filtration of drinking water was studied under various operating conditions for removal of Giardia cysts, total coliform bacteria, standard plate count bacteria, turbidity, and particles. Seven grades of diatomaceous earth were used. Temper...

103

Comparison of two methods for detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in water.  

OpenAIRE

The steps of two immunofluorescent-antibody-based detection methods were evaluated for their efficiencies in detecting Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The two methods evaluated were the American Society for Testing and Materials proposed test method for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in low-turbidity water and a procedure employing sampling by membrane filtration, Percoll-Percoll step gradient, and immunofluorescent staining. The membrane filter sampling method was chara...

Nieminski, E. C.; Schaefer, F. W.; Ongerth, J. E.

1995-01-01

104

Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite.

Gautam Pennathur

2010-06-01

105

Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA, low-zinc (ZnL, high-zinc (ZnH and supplemented-zinc (ZnS diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days. Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

Humberto Astiazarán-García

2013-09-01

106

Evaluation of nine immunoassay kits (enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescence) for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens.  

OpenAIRE

It is well known that Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum can cause severe symptoms in humans, particularly those who are immunologically compromised. Immunoassay procedures offer both increased sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional staining methods. These reagents are also helpful when screening large numbers of patients, particularly in an outbreak situation or when screening patients with minimal symptoms. The data obtained by using 9 diagnostic kits were compared: di...

Garcia, L. S.; Shimizu, R. Y.

1997-01-01

107

Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba / Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarr [...] eas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos. Abstract in english We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical sympt [...] oms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

Fidel Ángel, Núñez; Jorge Luis, López; Ana Margarita, de la Cruz; Carlos M., Finlay.

2003-04-01

108

Identification of obscure yet conserved actin-associated proteins in Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consistent with its proposed status as an early branching eukaryote, Giardia has the most divergent actin of any eukaryote and lacks core actin regulators. Although conserved actin-binding proteins are missing from Giardia, its actin is utilized similarly to that of other eukaryotes and functions in core cellular processes such as cellular organization, endocytosis, and cytokinesis. We set out to identify actin-binding proteins in Giardia using affinity purification coupled with mass spectroscopy (multidimensional protein identification technology [MudPIT]) and have identified >80 putative actin-binding proteins. Several of these have homology to conserved proteins known to complex with actin for functions in the nucleus and flagella. We validated localization and interaction for seven of these proteins, including 14-3-3, a known cytoskeletal regulator with a controversial relationship to actin. Our results indicate that although Giardia lacks canonical actin-binding proteins, there is a conserved set of actin-interacting proteins that are evolutionarily indispensable and perhaps represent some of the earliest functions of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:24728194

Paredez, Alexander R; Nayeri, Arash; Xu, Jennifer W; Krtková, Jana; Cande, W Zacheus

2014-06-01

109

Immunodominant proteins ?-1 giardin and ?-giardin are expressed in both assemblages A and B of Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, eight assemblages of Giardia lamblia have been described, but only assemblages A and B are known to infect humans. Despite the fact that the genomic, biological, and clinical differences found between these two assemblages has raised the possibility that they may be considered different species, there is relatively limited information on their phenotypic differences. In the present study, we developed monoclonal antibodies against alpha-1 and beta giardin, two immunodominant proteins produced during G. lamblia infection, and studied their expression and localization in WB (assemblage A and GS trophozoites (assemblage B. Results The polyclonal antibodies generated against WB trophozoites, particularly those recognizing intracellular proteins as well as the proteins present at the plasma membrane (variable-specific surface proteins, showed cross-reactivity with intracellular proteins in GS trophozoites. The use of monoclonal antibodies against beta giardin indicated ventral disc localization, particularly at the periphery in WB trophozoites. Interestingly, although beta giardin was also restricted to the ventral disc in GS trophozoites, the pattern of localization clearly differed in this assemblage. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies against alpha-1 giardin showed plasma membrane localization in both assemblages with the bare area of GS trophozoites also being distinguished. Moreover, the same localization at the plasma membrane was observed in Portland-1 (Assemblage A and in P15 (Assemblage E trophozoites. Conclusions We found differences in localization of the beta giardin protein between assemblages A and B, but the same pattern of localization of alpha-1 giardin in strains from Assemblages A, B and E. These findings reinforce the need for more studies based on phenotypic characteristics in order to disclose how far one assemblage is from the other.

Rópolo Andrea S

2011-10-01

110

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Para estimar las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium y quistes de Giardia en los abastecimientos de agua de la ciudad de San Pedro Sula, se examinaron muestras del agua en junio de 1996. Cada muestra se concentró y se marcó con un anticuerpo inmunofluorescente indirecto y los parásitos se [...] contaron mediante análisis microscópico. En tres abatecimientos de agua, las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium alcanzaron un recorrido de 58 a 260 oocistos por 100 L, mientras que los quistes de Giardia se encontraron en concentraciones de 380 a 2100 quistes por 100 L. Al contrario de las muestras de agua superficial, el agua subterránea tuvo mayor concentración de oocistos de Cryptosporidium (26/100 L) que de quistes de Giardia (6/100 L), lo que sugiere que el acuífero subterráneo protege mejor al abastecimiento de agua contra los quistes de Giardia, que son más grandes. Las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium estuvieron dentro del recorrido típico de los abastecimientos de agua en Norteamérica, pero los de Giardia fueron más elevados. Deben tomarse medidas para proteger el agua sin depurar de las fuentes de contaminación. Abstract in english During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscop [...] ic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L) than Giardia cysts (6/100 L), suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

Helena María, Solo-Gabriele; Arba LeRoy, Ager, Jr.; John Fitzgerald, Lindo; José María, Dubón; Shondra Michelle, Neumeister; Marianna Karas, Baum; Carol Jean, Palmer.

1998-12-01

111

DATA MINING APPLICATION IN PREDICTING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPP. OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA SPP. CYSTS CONCENTRATIONS IN RIVERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining is a set of computer-assisted techniques designed to automatically mine large volumes of integrated data for new, hidden or unexpected information, or patterns. Two artificial neural networks (ANN models were developed for prediction of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts respectively using multiple water quality parameters as input. These neural models were feed forward networks, trained by back propagation algorithm. Eight water quality parameters were used to predict Cryptosporidium peak concentration and seven parameters were used to model Giardia concentration in Kano River, Nigeria. The ANN models correctly predicted oocysts and cysts concentration with accuracy of 90% and 92% respectively. The neural network model gave excellent results.

TOOCHUKWU C. OGWUELEKA

2010-09-01

112

Giardia y giardiasis / Giardia and giardiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobre [...] vivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the par [...] asite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

Hugo D., Luján.

2006-02-01

113

Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the parasite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

Hugo D. Luján

2006-02-01

114

Voltage?dependent potassium currents expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes after injection of mRNA isolated from trophozoites of Giardia lamblia (strain Portland?1)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Despite its importance as a health problem issue, almost nothing is known about the membrane physiology of Giardia lamblia and practically there exist no information so far regarding the variety and properties of ion channels that this protozoan parasite possesses. To address this subject we resorted to an indirect method, consisting in the injection of mRNA and further characterization of ion currents in Xenopus oocytes. In this work, we show that oocytes injected with mRNA isolated from cultured trophozoites of G. lamblia, strain Portland?1 express novel potassium currents that appear over the second day after injection and show time? and voltage?dependent activation followed by a slow inactivation. They start activating at ?90 mV, with V1/2 of ?30 mV; its time constant of activation (at +60 mV) is 0.11 sec, whereas that of inactivation is 1.92 sec, V1/2 = ?44.6 mV. Such K currents were effectively blocked by K channel blockers TEA and 4AP, as well as Ba2+, quinine, quinidine, charybdotoxin, dendrotoxin?1, capsaicin, margatoxin, and diltiazem. These results suggest that such currents are the result of expression of Giardia?s voltage?gated K channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. PMID:24744864

Ponce, Arturo; Jimenez?Cardoso, Enedina; Eligio?Garcia, Leticia

2013-01-01

115

Giardia lamblia binding immunoglobulin protein triggers maturation of dendritic cells via activation of TLR4-MyD88-p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Much remains unknown about the mammalian immune response to Giardia lamblia, a protozoan pathogen that causes diarrhoeal outbreaks. We fractionated protein extracts of G. lamblia trophozoites by Viva-spin centrifugation, DEAE ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Resultant fractions were screened for antigenic molecules by western blots analysis using anti-G. lamblia antibodies (Abs), resulting in identification of G. lamblia binding immunoglobulin protein (GlBiP). Maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in response to recombinant GlBiP (rGlBiP) was detected by increased expression of surface molecules such as CD80, CD86 and MHC class II; these mature DCs, produced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-12 and IL-6). Especially, the truncated rGlBiP containing the heat-shock protein 70 domain-induced cytokine production from mouse DCs. rGlBiP-induced DC activation was initiated by TLR4 in a MyD88-dependent way and occurred through activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs as well as increased activity of NF-?B and AP-1. Moreover, CD4(+) T cells stimulated with rGlBiP-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-2 and IFN-?. Together, our results suggest that GlBiP contributes to maturation of DCs via activation of TLR4-MyD88-p38, ERK1/2 MAPK, NF-?B and AP-1. PMID:24871487

Lee, H-Y; Kim, J; Noh, H J; Kim, H-P; Park, S-J

2014-12-01

116

Longitudinal studies of Giardia contamination in two community drinking water supplies: cyst levels, parasite viability, and health impact.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia cyst concentrations were determined in an inventory of 153 raw and 91 chlorinated drinking water samples collected at 86 sites from throughout the western Canadian province of British Columbia. Sixty-four percent of raw water samples were cyst positive (69% of sites). Cyst concentrations were lower in chlorinated than in raw water. The viability of cysts in drinking water samples assessed by infectivity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was decreased in chlorinated water. T...

Isaac-renton, J.; Moorehead, W.; Ross, A.

1996-01-01

117

Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil / Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente e [...] studo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107) entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162) totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004). O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the [...] frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level). For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107) when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162), the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples), 15.67% (23) of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004). The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

Cristiane, Beck; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de, Araújo; Adriana Tarnowski, Olicheski; Adriana Schneider, Breyer.

2005-02-01

118

Assessment of Methods for Detection of Infectious Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Reclaimed Effluents  

OpenAIRE

This study evaluates the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in reclaimed effluents if method 1623 with the Envirochek capsule filters (standard and high-volume [HV] filters) and a modified version of the Information Collection Rule method (ICR) with the polypropylene yarn-wound cartridge filter are used. The recovery efficiency of the analytical methods was evaluated with samples of reagent, tap, and reclaimed water by using flow cytometer-sorted spike suspensions. (Oo)cy...

Quintero-betancourt, W.; Gennaccaro, A. L.; Scott, T. M.; Rose, J. B.

2003-01-01

119

Static tank depuration and chronic short-term experimental contamination of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) with Giardia duodenalis cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia have been detected in many bivalve shellfish species worldwide. The detection of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B is of public health concern, yet there is limited data available demonstrating the bioaccumulation and elimination of Giardia cysts in bivalve shellfish. This study quantified G. duodenalis cysts that were filtered and retained by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) over a one week chronic exposure period, or 24 hour exposure followed by a 6 day depuration period, using static tank systems containing 10 L of 29 ppt water inoculated with 1000 or 10,000 cysts. Under chronic exposure, each oyster retained a mean of 13.4 and 87.4 cysts during the first 24h of exposure at low and high doses, respectively, and the cysts bioaccumulated at a rate of 1.2 and 6.8 cysts/oyster/day, respectively, for the remaining duration of the trials. In acute exposure trials, oysters retained 13.8 cysts or 78.9 cysts at low and high doses, respectively, during the initial 24 hour exposure and naturally depurated cysts at a rate of -0.92 cysts/oyster/day and -2.2 cysts/oyster/day, respectively, after transfer. Although most G. duodenalis cysts were eliminated within the first 24h via pseudofeces and feces, detection of some cysts in the fecal material on day 7 of acute exposure trials was indicative of cysts which passed through the digestive tract and released in feces. Only 48-53% of the initial tank inocula were recovered and may indicate that some cysts were selectively filtered by oysters but degraded through digestion. PMID:25305439

Willis, Jessica E; McClure, J T; McClure, Carol; Spears, Jonathan; Davidson, Jeff; Greenwood, Spencer J

2015-01-01

120

[Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in swimming pools in the province of Palermo, Italy].  

Science.gov (United States)

21 samples of waters of 7 swimming pools in the province of Palermo were investigated for the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Some chemio-physical parameters (chlorine, temperature, turbidity and pH) were also evaluated as well as the presence of bacterial indicators of faecal (total coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci), mucocutaneous and environmental (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) contamination. All samples were negative for bacterial indicators of faecal contamination; 3 were positive for the presence of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 1 was positive for Alcaligenes spp. and 2 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 8 samples proved to be positive for Giardia and 6 also for Cryptosporidium. All but one of them were coming from waters of 2 swimming pools of the same recreational center. In all samples the concentration of Giardia was substantially higher than that of Cryptosporidium. This study shows that the disinfection and filtering plants are not always suitable to ensure a good level of the quality of the waters of swimming pools and suggests that should be necessary to check them also for the presence of protozoa like Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which may be responsible for gastroenteritis. PMID:17089952

Oliveri, R; Di Piazza, F; Marsala, B; Cerame, G; Firenze, A; Di Benedetto, M A

2006-01-01

121

Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis cysts in the Oreto River (Sicily, Southern Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: The presence of Giardia was investigated along the Oreto river between January 2008 and May 2009 with the aim of understanding the source of contamination by molecular typing of cysts.

Methods: A total of 38 water samples (10 collected from the river mouth, 24 from the whole Oreto basin and 4 sewage samples from the Monreale treatment plant were processed. In addition, 22 faecal samples of livestock living close to the Oreto area, were analyzed. The presence of Giardia was determined by immunofluorescence assay and their genetic characterization was achieved by a nested PCR assay targeting the triosephosphate isomerase gene.

Results: All water samples from the river mouth were positive for Giardia, even if the concentration of cysts fluctuated considerably among sampling occasions. Our investigation showed that the Vadduneddu and Altofonte torrents, two influents of the river, were the principal sources of contamination. Moreover, the genotypes of Vadduneddu torrent were the same as those detected in human wastewater taken from the activated sludge plant of Monreale city. Assemblages A and B were found in water samples with a predominance of Assemblage A, subtype AII. Assemblage E was only found in a single calf isolate.

Conclusions: The data show that the high cyst counts regularly detected in the Oreto river are due to contamination with wastewater of human origin. This finding is relevant for public health, particularly because river water is used for agricultural purposes.

Maria Antonella Di Benedetto

2010-03-01

122

New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens

2012-01-01

123

Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O-. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, can be facilitated by sonication. Methods: We studied the effects of ultrasound with different sonication power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection of parasites for further study. The specific operational conditions may be tailored to control survival rates and collection efficiency.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2011-01-01

124

ALTERNATIVE FILTRATION METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND CYST MODELS  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent occurrence of numerous outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis has renewed interest in water filtration for cyst removal. This paper presents an in-depth review of granular media and diatomaceous earth (D.E.) filtration research conducted in the 1930's and 1940's when Entamoeba...

125

Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 em cães (Canis familiaris avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107 entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162 totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004. O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada.

Beck Cristiane

2005-01-01

126

'GIARDIA' DETECTION IN WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

A method has been developed combining immunofluorescence and phase-contrast to microscopically locate and identify Giardia cysts among particulates filtered from water samples. Selective staining of cysts with anti-Giardia antiserum and a fluorochrom enhances the contrast between...

127

Serum cytokine changes in Turkish children infected with Giardia lamblia with and without allergy: Effect of metronidazole treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present report is a case control study aimed to determine the levels of cytokines and other parameters in the sera of allergy-complicated and uncomplicated giardiasic children before and after metronidazole treatment. The study included a total of 126 subjects; 52 giardiasic children, 34 allergy-complicated giardiasis (36.9%) and 34 healthy controls, as well as six cases of giardiasis simultaneously infected with other parasites or bacterial pathogens. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, nitric oxide (NO), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. TNF-alpha and sIL-2R levels significantly increased in giardiasic cases. IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, CRP, and NO levels increased only in the cases associated with allergy. All increased variables significantly decreased following metronidazole treatment and returned to normal levels. Metronidazole-treated patients became 100% parasite free. In conclusion, increased TNF-alpha and sIL-2R may be involved in pathogenesis of non-allergic giardiasis and probably Th1 type immune response seems to be predominant and this response may be protective rather than causative of the disease. Activation of the immune system takes place in giardiasis. It is broader and more intense in allergy-complicated giardiasis than that of uncomplicated cases, most probably due to non-invasive character of G. lamblia. Enhanced IgE production pointed to Th2-type immune response and confirms its association with allergy. PMID:15979046

Bayraktar, Mehmet Refik; Mehmet, Nihayet; Durmaz, Riza

2005-08-01

128

Comparative Analysis of the 15.5kD Box C/D snoRNP Core Protein in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia Reveals Unique Structural and Functional Features  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) guide the 2'-O-methylation of targeted nucleotides in archaeal and eukaryotic rRNAs. The archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD box C/D RNP core protein homologues initiate RNP assembly by recognizing kink-turn (K-turn) motifs. The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 {angstrom}. The Giardia 15.5kD protein exhibits the typical {alpha}-{beta}-{alpha} sandwich fold exhibited by both archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD proteins. Characteristic of eukaryotic homologues, the Giardia 15.5kD protein binds the K-turn motif but not the variant K-loop motif. The highly conserved residues of loop 9, critical for RNA binding, also exhibit conformations similar to those of the human 15.5kD protein when bound to the K-turn motif. However, comparative sequence analysis indicated a distinct evolutionary position between Archaea and Eukarya. Indeed, assessment of the Giardia 15.5kD protein in denaturing experiments demonstrated an intermediate stability in protein structure when compared with that of the eukaryotic mouse 15.5kD and archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae proteins. Most notable was the ability of the Giardia 15.5kD protein to assemble in vitro a catalytically active chimeric box C/D RNP utilizing the archaeal M. jannaschii Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins. In contrast, a catalytically competent chimeric RNP could not be assembled using the mouse 15.5kD protein. Collectively, these analyses suggest that the G. lamblia 15.5kD protein occupies a unique position in the evolution of this box C/D RNP core protein retaining structural and functional features characteristic of both archaeal L7Ae and higher eukaryotic 15.5kD homologues.

Biswas, Shyamasri; Buhrman, Greg; Gagnon, Keith; Mattos, Carla; Brown, II, Bernard A.; Maxwell, E. Stuart (NCSU); (UTSMC)

2012-07-11

129

Detection of Giardia cysts with a cDNA probe and applications to water samples.  

OpenAIRE

Giardiasis is the most common human parasite infection in the United States, causing a lengthy course of diarrhea. Transmission of Giardia species is by the fecal-oral route, and numerous waterborne outbreaks have been documented. The Environmental Protection Agency has regulated Giardia species in drinking water through the Surface Water Treatment Rule. Current methods for detection of Giardia species in water rely primarily on microscopic observation of water concentrates with immunofluores...

Abbaszadegan, M.; Gerba, C. P.; Rose, J. B.

1991-01-01

130

NL MIND-BEST: a web server for ligands and proteins discovery--theoretic-experimental study of proteins of Giardia lamblia and new compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many protein ligands and/or drugs described with very different affinity to a large number of target proteins or receptors. In this work, we selected Ligands or Drug-target pairs (DTPs/nDTPs) of drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different targets. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models become a very useful tool in this context to substantially reduce time and resources consuming experiments. Unfortunately most QSAR models predict activity against only one protein target and/or have not been implemented in the form of public web server freely accessible online to the scientific community. To solve this problem, we developed here a multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR) classifier using the MARCH-INSIDE technique to calculate structural parameters of drug and target plus one Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) to seek the model. The best ANN model found is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with profile MLP 20:20-15-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 611 out of 678 DTPs (sensitivity=90.12%) and 3083 out of 3408 nDTPs (specificity=90.46%), corresponding to training accuracy=90.41%. The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series. The model classifies correctly 310 out of 338 DTPs (sensitivity=91.72%) and 1527 out of 1674 nDTP (specificity=91.22%) in validation series, corresponding to total accuracy=91.30% for validation series (predictability). This model favorably compares with other ANN models developed in this work and Machine Learning classifiers published before to address the same problem in different aspects. We implemented the present model at web portal Bio-AIMS in the form of an online server called: Non-Linear MARCH-INSIDE Nested Drug-Bank Exploration & Screening Tool (NL MIND-BEST), which is located at URL: http://miaja.tic.udc.es/Bio-AIMS/NL-MIND-BEST.php. This online tool is based on PHP/HTML/Python and MARCH-INSIDE routines. Finally we illustrated two practical uses of this server with two different experiments. In experiment 1, we report by first time Quantum QSAR study, synthesis, characterization, and experimental assay of antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of oxoisoaporphine alkaloids derivatives as well as NL MIND-BEST prediction of potential target proteins. In experiment 2, we report sampling, parasite culture, sample preparation, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF, and -TOF/TOF MS, MASCOT search, MM/MD 3D structure modeling, and NL MIND-BEST prediction for different peptides a new protein of the found in the proteome of the human parasite Giardia lamblia, which is promising for anti-parasite drug-targets discovery. PMID:21277861

González-Díaz, Humberto; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Haddad, Mohamed; Maurel Chevalley, Séverine; Valentin, Alexis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Dea-Ayuela, María A; Teresa Gomez-Muños, María; Munteanu, Cristian R; José Torres-Labandeira, Juan; García-Mera, Xerardo; Tapia, Ricardo A; Ubeira, Florencio M

2011-05-01

131

Immunolocalization of Delta-Giardin within the Ventral Disc in of Trophozoites and in cysts of Giardia duodenalis using the Multiplex Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunolocalization of alpha2-, beta- and delta-giardin in Giardia showed that in the trophozoites and cysts delta-giardin it strictly associated with the ventral disc. Optical sectioning of the ventral discs, together with quantitative colocalization of the immunoreactivity for delta- and beta-giard...

132

The abundance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in treated effluents produced by four wastewater treatment plants in the Gauteng Province of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of 4 wastewater treatment plants of the Gauteng Province, namely Zeekoegat, Baviaanspoort, Rayton and Refilwe Water Care Works (WCW), in the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Wastewater influent and treated effluent samples were taken w [...] eekly between January and April 2008. Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts were detected by immunofluorescence and immunomagnetic separation, according to a modified US EPA 1623 method. Effluent samples were subjected to a molecular study for the identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype I and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A. The 18S rRNA gene for restriction digests was therefore used to characterise these (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were repeatedly detected in effluent samples collected from all wastewater treatments at lower concentration (range

M, Dungeni; MNB, Momba.

2010-07-01

133

The Comparison of the Efficacy of Various Fixatives on Diverse Staining Methods of Giardia lamblia Cyst  

OpenAIRE

The definite and exact diagnosis of protozoa is possible using high magnification objective lenses, provided that suitable stained smears are prepared. Therefore, the appropriateness of both fixative and staining methods to the species of parasite, which is the main objective of this study, is important. In this study, five various fixatives including (Merthiolate iodine formalin) MIF, (Sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin) SAF, (Polyvinyl alcohol) PVA, formalin and schaudinn and four types of...

Badparva, E.; Sh. Fallahi; Sepahvand, A.; Pournia, Y.; Sh. Mollaei Rashnoo

2009-01-01

134

PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA IN BEAVER AND MUSKRAT POPULATIONS IN NEW ENGLAND STATES AND MINNESOTA: DETECTION OF INTESTINAL TROPHOZOITES AT NECROPSY PROVIDES GREATER SENSITIVITY THAN DETECTION OF CYSTS IN FECAL SAMPLES  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys on the prevalence of Giardia in animal populations have relied on the detection of cysts in fecal samples. e have determined the prevalence of Giardia in beaver and muskrat in four New England states plus Minnesota using both the detection of trophozoites in mucosal scrap...

135

CROSS TRANSMISSION OF 'GIARDIA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia cysts isolated from fecal samples obtained from humans (Homo sapiens), beaver (Castor canadensis), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus), bighorn X mouflon sheep (Ovis canadensis X O. musimon), guinea pig (Cavis porcellus), muskrat (Ondatra ziethica) and mule d...

136

Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos / Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambai [...] a, Campinas, em São Paulo). As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL), 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL) e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV). Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise. Abstract in english In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo). The samples we [...] re collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL), 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL), and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV). Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

Luciana Urbano dos, Santos; Romeu, Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno, Franco; José Roberto, Guimarães.

2011-06-01

137

Giardia and Vilem Dusan Lambl.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 8, ?. 5 (2014), e2686. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : History of Science * Giardia lamblia * Infectious disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.489, year: 2013

Lipoldová, Marie

2014-01-01

138

Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Major waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water have been linked to evidence of suboptimal treatment. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are particularly more resistant than Giardia lamblia cysts to removal and inactivation by conventional water treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine disinfection); therefore, extensive research has been focused on the optimization of treatment processes and application of new technologies to reduce concentrations of viable/infectious oocysts to a level that prevents disease. The majority of the data on the performance of treatment processes to remove cysts and oocysts from drinking water have been obtained from pilot-tests, with a few studies performed in full-scale conventional water treatment plants. These studies have demonstrated that protozoan cyst removal throughout all stages of the conventional treatment is largely influenced by the effectiveness of coagulation pretreatment, which along with clarification constitutes the first treatment barrier against protozoan breakthrough. Physical removal of waterborne Crytosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts is ultimately achieved by properly functioning conventional filters, providing that effective pretreatment of the water is applied. Disinfection by chemical or physical methods is finally required to inactivate/remove the infectious life stages of these organisms. The effectiveness of conventional (chlorination) and alternative (chlorine dioxide, ozonation and ultra violet [UV] irradiation) disinfection procedures for inactivation of Cryptosporidium has been the focus of much research due to the recalcitrant nature of waterborne oocysts to disinfectants. This paper provides technical information on conventional and alternative drinking water treatment technologies for removal and inactivation of the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia. PMID:15567586

Betancourt, Walter Q; Rose, Joan B

2004-12-01

139

Diarrea crónica refractaria y malabsorción secundaria a hipogammaglobulinemia común variable, infestación crónica por giardia lamblia y gastrectomía total por adenocarcinoma gástrico: un manejo nutricional complejo / Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adenocarcinoma gástrico es una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo, siendo la cirugía el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, aunque los efectos adversos digestivos y nutricionales son frecuentes y abundantes. La hipogammaglobulinemia variable común es causa de frecuentes [...] manifestaciones digestivas, derivándose las más importantes en diarrea crónica causada por giardiasis, hiperplasia nodular linfoide o atrofia vellosa, siendo frecuente la malabsorción y la desnutrición. Los déficits nutricionales secundarios a la malabsorción (postgastrectomía y asociada a la atrofia vellosa y la giardiasis por hipogammaglobulinemia variable común) son asimismo frecuentes. Presentamos el caso de un paciente gastrectomizado por adenocarcinoma gástrico y con hipogammaglobulinemia variable común e infestación crónica por giardiasis que presenta una importante diarrea crónica refractaria a tratamiento y malabsorción. Abstract in english Gastric cancer is a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Surgery is the only potentially curative therapy, although the adverse effects of surgery are common and considerable. Common variable immunodeficiency is in many cases cause of gastrointestinal system problems such as chro [...] nic diarrhea caused by infestation with giardia lamblia, nodular lymphoid hiperplasia ad loss of villi leading frequently to malapsortion and malnutrition. Nutritional deficiencies due to malapsorption (postgastrectomy and secondary to loss of villi, giardiasis and common variable inmunodeficiency) are common. We present the case of a patient with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy with common variable hipogammaglobulinemia and chronic infestation by giardia lamblia, with serious diarrhea resistant to treatment and malabsorption.

M. E., Domínguez-López; I., González-Molero; C. P., Ramírez-Plaza; F., Soriguer; G., Olveira.

2011-08-01

140

Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis Cysts by New Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Mixed Infections in Human Samples?  

OpenAIRE

Of the seven genetic groups, or assemblages, currently recognized in the Giardia duodenalis species complex, only assemblages A and B are associated with human infection, but they also infect other mammals. Recent investigations have suggested the occurrence of genetic exchanges among isolates of G. duodenalis, and the application of assemblage-specific PCR has shown both assemblages A and B in a significant number of human infections. In this work, three real-time quantitative (qPCR) assays ...

Almeida, Andre?; Pozio, Edoardo; Caccio?, Simone M.

2010-01-01

141

MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

142

Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9% of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19. In 82% (9/11 calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75% positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30 sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm. They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

A.M. Guimarães

2001-12-01

143

Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods. Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively.Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani

144

Novel lineages of Giardia intestinalis identified by genetic analysis of organisms isolated from dogs in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection of suckling mice with Giardia trophozoites recovered from the intestines of 11 dogs autopsied in Central and Southern Australia in each case produced an established isolate. In contrast, only 1 isolate was obtained by inoculation of faecal cysts. The organisms grew poorly in comparison with isolates from humans or non-canine animal hosts. Light microscopy revealed that the trophozoites had median bodies with the 'claw hammer' appearance typical of G. intestinalis (syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) but that they differed in shape and nuclear morphology from axenic isolates of human or canine origin. Allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data representing 26 loci and phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained from DNA amplified from the glutamate dehydrogenase locus showed that the 11 isolates examined from Australian dogs were genetically distinct from all isolates of G. intestinalis that have been established previously from humans and animals, and also from G. muris. Both analytical methods placed 10 of the Australian canine isolates into a unique genetic lineage (designated Assemblage C) and the eleventh into a deep-rooted second branch (designated Assemblage D), each well separated from the 2 lineages (Assemblages A and B) of G. intestinalis that encompass all the genotypes known to infect humans. In contrast, 4 axenic isolates derived from dogs in Canada and Europe (the only other isolates to have been established from dogs) have genotypes characteristic of genetic Assemblages A or B. The findings indicate that the novel Giardia identified in these rural Australian dogs have a restricted host range, possibly confined to canine species. The poor success rate in establishing Giardia from dogs in vitro suggests, further, that similar genotypes may predominate as canine parasites world-wide. The absence of such organisms among isolates of Giardia that have been established from humans by propagation in suckling mice indicates that they are unlikely to infect humans. However, infection of humans by those dog-derived genotypes that grow in vitro cannot be excluded. PMID:9481769

Monis, P T; Andrews, R H; Mayrhofer, G; Mackrill, J; Kulda, J; Isaac-Renton, J L; Ey, P L

1998-01-01

145

Comparison of Routine Method with Antibody and Antigen Ones for Diagnosing Giardia-Entamoeba Histolytica in Stool and Blood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are the most prevalent human intestinal pathogenic protozoa, worldwide. The clinical features of Giardia infection are acute diarrhea, a chronic condition with continuous diarrhea and malabsorption. Entamoeba histolytica invade intestinal tract without any typical clinical indications, and it can involve liver and other organs too. Therefore, we aimed to study these protozoa by serological and parasitological methods. Material and Methods: In this comparative study, the stool and blood specimens were collected from 1025 patients selected via simple random sampling in three different laboratories located in Tehran and Karaj, Iran (2012. Formalin Detergent test was performed on all samples. Both serum and stool positive samples of this method were analyzed for antigen and antibodies related to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, respectively. Results: of 1025 stool specimens, 76 (4.7% were positive for Giardia lamblia and 19 (1.8% for Entamoeba histolytica using Formalin-detergent method. In ELISA, 81 (7.9% coproantibodies to Giardia lamblia and 24 (2.3% coproantibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, 78 (7.6% corproantigen for Giardia lamblia, and 5 (0.4% for Entamoeba histolytica were observed. circulatory antibodies to Entamoeba histlytica were detected in 22 cases (2.1% Conclusion: Sensitivity of microscopic method compared to serological methods is higher than 90%; therefore, Formalin-detergent method can be the best method for stool examination.

Gharavi, MJ. (PhD

2015-01-01

146

Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil / Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old) from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2 [...] 000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic) was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9%) of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19). In 82% (9/11) calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75%) positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30) sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm). They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

A.M., Guimarães; E., Guedes; R.A., Carvalho.

2001-12-01

147

The biology of Giardia spp.  

OpenAIRE

Gardia spp. are flagellated protozoans that parasitize the small intestines of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The infectious cysts begin excysting in the acidic environment of the stomach and become trophozoites (the vegetative form). The trophozoites attach to the intestinal mucosa through the suction generated by a ventral disk and cause diarrhea and malabsorption by mechanisms that are not well understood. Giardia spp. have a number of unique features, including a predominantly ...

Adam, R. D.

1991-01-01

148

Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water supplies.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by using a combined immunofluorescence test for filtered drinking water samples collected from 66 surface water treatment plants in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. Giardia cysts were detected in 17% of the 83 filtered water effluents. Cryptosporidium oocysts, were observed in 27% of the drinking water samples. Overall, cysts or oocysts were found in 39% of the treated effluent samples. Despite the frequent detection of parasites in drinkin...

Lechevallier, M. W.; Norton, W. D.; Lee, R. G.

1991-01-01

149

SUMOylation and deimination of proteins: two epigenetic modifications involved in Giardia encystation.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMOylation, a posttranslational modification of proteins, has been recently described as vital in eukaryotic cells. In a previous work, we analyzed the role of SUMO protein and the genes encoding the putative enzymes of the SUMOylation pathway in the parasite Giardia lamblia. Although we observed several SUMOylated proteins, only the enzyme Arginine Deiminase (ADI) was confirmed as a SUMOylated substrate. ADI is involved in the survival of the parasite and, besides its role in ATP production, it also catalyzes the modification of arginine residues to citrulline in the cytoplasmic tail of surface proteins. During encystation, however, ADI translocates to the nuclei and downregulates the expression of the Cyst Wall Protein 2 (CWP2). In this work, we made site-specific mutation of the ADI SUMOylation site (Lys101) and observed that transgenic trophozoites did not translocate to the nuclei at the first steps of encystation but shuttled in the nuclei late during this process through classic nuclear localization signals. Inside the nuclei, ADI acts as a peptidyl arginine deiminase, being probably involved in the downregulation of CWPs expression and cyst wall formation. Our results strongly indicate that ADI plays a regulatory role during encystation in which posttranslational modifications of proteins are key players. PMID:24751693

Vranych, Cecilia V; Rivero, María R; Merino, María C; Mayol, Gonzalo F; Zamponi, Nahuel; Maletto, Belkys A; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Touz, María C; Rópolo, Andrea S

2014-09-01

150

Reduction of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by sewage treatment processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important pathogenic parasites that have caused many waterborne outbreaks which affected hundreds of thousands of people. Contamination from effluent discharged by sewage treatment plants have been implicated in previous waterborne outbreaks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study evaluated the reduction of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in two sewage treatment plants (STPA and STPB) in Malaysia which employed different treatment processes for a period of a year. Raw sewage influents and treated sewage effluents were concentrated by repeated centrifugation, subjected to sucrose density flotation and concentrated to a minimal volume depending upon the levels of contaminating debris. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were enumerated using epifluorescence microscopy. The parasite concentrations in raw sewage were 18-8480 of Giardia cysts/litre and 1-80 of Cryptosporidium oocysts/litre. In treated sewage, the concentration of parasites ranged from 1-1462 cysts/litre and 20-80 oocysts/ litre for Giardia and Cryptosporidium respectively. Statistical analysis showed that sewage treatment process which employed extended aeration could reduce the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts significantly but treatment process which encompasses aerated lagoon could only reduce the concentration of Giardia cysts but not Cryptosporidium oocysts significantly. This phenomenon is of great concern in areas whereby effluent of sewage treatment plants is discharged into the upstream of rivers that are eventually used for abstraction of drinking water. Therefore, it is important that wastewater treatment authorities rethink the relevance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination levels in wastewater and watersheds and to develop countermeasures in wastewater treatment plants. Further epidemiological studies on the occurrence and removal of pathogenic organisms from excreta and sewage are also recommended, in order that the public health risks can be defined and the most cost effective sewage treatment options developed. PMID:17568382

Lim, Y A L; Wan Hafiz, W I; Nissapatorn, V

2007-06-01

151

Identification of algae which interfere with the detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts and a method for alleviating this interference.  

OpenAIRE

Fifty-four algal species were tested for cross-reaction in the American Society for Testing and Materials Giardia/Cryptosporidium indirect immunofluorescence assay, and 24 showed some degree of fluorescence. Two species, Navicula minima and Synechococcus elongatus, exhibited a bright apple green fluorescence. The addition of goat serum to the assay mixture blocked the fluorescence of most nontarget organisms tested and also decreased the background fluorescence. Goat serum did not interfere w...

Rodgers, M. R.; Flanigan, D. J.; Jakubowski, W.

1995-01-01

152

ANALYSIS OF INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA BY CHLORINE  

Science.gov (United States)

Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-93-523) highlight the continuing problem of waterborne disease by mandating the EPA to promulgate: (1) Criteria by which filtration will be required for surface water supplies; and (2) disinfection requirements for all water supplies ...

153

Prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver colony and the resulting environmental contamination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of Giardia sp. in a beaver (Castor canadensis) colony in Colorado was determined by the collection and analysis of fecal samples over a period of 14 mo. Environmental contamination was monitored through the use and analysis of water filter samples. Beaver shed cysts of Giardia sp. in their feces throughout the year with temporal variations in the prevalence, and became infected as kits and remained infected as juveniles and adults. Beaver served as amplification hosts for Giardia sp. and contaminated surface waters downstream from their dams in late spring and early fall. In slow moving waters the cysts of Giardia sp. settled rapidly. Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were the only other species of wildlife shedding cysts of Giardia sp. on the study area. PMID:3682082

Monzingo, D L; Hibler, C P

1987-10-01

154

Reservoirs of Giardia spp. in southwestern Alberta.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of potential hosts of Giardia spp. was carried out during 1982 and 1983 in the Kananaskis Valley and Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Diagnosis was based mainly on fecal analysis but a few animals were examined at necropsy and scrapings from the small intestine analyzed. A total of 304 specimens was examined from humans (Homo sapiens L.) and a variety of animal species. Cysts and/or trophozoites of Giardia were found in 10.5% of the specimens examined. Positive samples were found from 20 of 21 red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi Vigors), two of six meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord), one of three long-tailed voles (Microtus longicaudus Allen), five of 50 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus Mearns), and two of 58 beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl). Cysts obtained from a beaver were successfully introduced to gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards) and the trophozoites obtained were cultured in vitro. PMID:6397598

Wallis, P M; Buchanan-Mappin, J M; Faubert, G M; Belosevic, M

1984-10-01

155

An IC-PCR method for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in natural surface waters in Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed an immunocapture-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts in surface water. Using primer pairs Cry9/Cry15 and LaxA/LaxB for Cryptosporidium and Gdh1/Gdh4 for Giardia, the sensitivity of the entire detection procedure (dealing with concentration, separation, DNA purification and PCR amplification) was at the level of 50-100 oocysts and cysts. Of 54 surface water samples, 4 were positive for Cryptosporidium and 1 for Giardia. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected for the first time in surface water in Finland. PMID:12031580

Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Hörman, Ari; Ronkainen, Pilvi; Hänninen, Marja Liisa

2002-08-01

156

Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in...

Naess Halvor; Nyland Morten; Hausken Trygve; Follestad Inghild; Nyland Harald I

2012-01-01

157

Giardia and Pets  

Science.gov (United States)

... veterinarian. Back To Top How long does Giardia survive in the environment? In the soil [ 8 , 9 ] ... cold temperatures (around 4ºC/39.2ºF), Giardia can survive for approximately 7 weeks (49 days). At room ...

158

Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos / Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado ( [...] RALF), na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5,5%), Trichuris sp (4,5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%), H. nana (1%) e Taenia sp (0,4%), Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal. Abstract in english This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5.5%), Trichuris sp (4.5%), Hymenolepis [...] diminuta (3.7%), H. nana (1%) and Taenia sp (0.4%), protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

Rosangela C., Paulino; Edilene A., Castro; Vanete, Thomaz-Soccol.

2001-10-01

159

Evaluation of an Inhouse Rapid ELISA Test for Detection of Giardia in Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries)  

OpenAIRE

Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent sheddin...

Wilson, Jolaine M.; Hankenson, F. Claire

2010-01-01

160

Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia species, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. between January 2002 and December 2004. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Protist parasites were detected in 6.4% of the beavers. All were subadults and kits. Microsporidia species were not detected. Giardia spp. was detected by IFA from four beavers; Cryptosporidium spp. was also detected by IFA from two of these beavers. However, gene sequence data for the ssrRNA gene from these two Cryptosporidium spp.-positive beavers were inconclusive in identifying the species. Nucleotide sequences of the TPI, ssrRNA, and beta-giardin genes for Giardia spp. (deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts. PMID:17315434

Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; DeStefano, Stephen; Koenen, Kiana; Kaur, Taranjit

2006-12-01

161

Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts  

Science.gov (United States)

Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia species, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. between January 2002 and December 2004. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Protist parasites were detected in 6.4% of the beavers. All were subadults and kits. Microsporidia species were not detected. Giardia spp. was detected by IFA from four beavers; Cryptosporidium spp. was also detected by IFA from two of these beavers. However, gene sequence data for the ssrRNA gene from these two Cryptosporidium spp.-positive beavers were inconclusive in identifying the species. Nucleotide sequences of the TPI, ssrRNA, and ??-giardin genes for Giardia spp. (deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts. Copyright 2006 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Fayer, R.; Santin, M.; Trout, J.M.; DeStefano, S.; Koenen, K.; Kaur, T.

2006-01-01

162

Monitoring of Cryptosporidium and Giardia river contamination in Paris area.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the protozoan contamination of river waters, which are used for drinking water in Paris and its surrounding area (about 615,000 m(3) per day in total, including 300,000 m(3) for Paris area). Twenty litre samples of Seine and Marne Rivers were collected over 30 months and analyzed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts detection according to standard national or international methods. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found, respectively, in 45.7% and 93.8% of a total of 162 river samples, with occasional high concentration peaks. A significant seasonal pattern was observed, with positive samples for Cryptosporidium more frequent in autumn than spring, summer and winter, and positive samples for Giardia less frequent in summer. Counts of enterococci and rainfalls were significantly associated with Giardia concentration but not Cryptosporidium. Other faecal bacteria were not correlated with monitored protozoan. Marne seems to contribute mainly to the parasitic contamination observed in Seine. Based on seasonal pattern and rainfall correlation, we hypothesize that the origin of contamination is agricultural practices and possible dysfunction of sewage treatment plants during periods of heavy rainfalls. High concentrations of protozoa found at the entry of drinking water plants justify the use of efficient water treatment methods. Treatment performances must be regularly monitored to ensure efficient disinfection according to the French regulations. PMID:18996551

Mons, Céline; Dumètre, Aurélien; Gosselin, Sylvie; Galliot, Christelle; Moulin, Laurent

2009-01-01

163

Identification of Zoonotic Genotypes of Giardia duodenalis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. Transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect, through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of seven groups (assemblages A to G) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals, but the role of animals in the epidemiology of human infection is still unclear, despite the fact that the zoonotic potential of Giardia was recognised by the WHO some 30 years ago. Here, we performed an extensive genetic characterization of 978 human and 1440 animal isolates, which together comprise 3886 sequences from 4 genetic loci. The data were assembled into a molecular epidemiological database developed by a European network of public and veterinary health Institutions. Genotyping was performed at different levels of resolution (single and multiple loci on the same dataset). The zoonotic potential of both assemblages A and B is evident when studied at the level of assemblages, sub-assemblages, and even at each single locus. However, when genotypes are defined using a multi-locus sequence typing scheme, only 2 multi-locus genotypes (MLG) of assemblage A and none of assemblage B appear to have a zoonotic potential. Surprisingly, mixtures of genotypes in individual isolates were repeatedly observed. Possible explanations are the uptake of genetically different Giardia cysts by a host, or subsequent infection of an already infected host, likely without overt symptoms, with a different Giardia species, which may cause disease. Other explanations for mixed genotypes, particularly for assemblage B, are substantial allelic sequence heterogeneity and/or genetic recombination. Although the zoonotic potential of G. duodenalis is evident, evidence on the contribution and frequency is (still) lacking. This newly developed molecular database has the potential to tackle intricate epidemiological questions concerning protozoan diseases.

Sprong, H.; Cacciò, S.M.

2009-01-01

164

Tarlov Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

NINDS Tarlov Cysts Information Page Synonym(s): Perineural Cysts, Sacral Nerve Root Cysts Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Tarlov Cysts? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? ...

165

Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia) is a widespread enteric pathogen in human and domestic animals. This organism is one of the most common parasites in domestic dogs in Brazil. In this study, we determined the occurrence and genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolated from dogs from south-central São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 300 fecal samples were collected. Fecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy (zinc sulfate solution flotation technique) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes. Genetic characterization was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and sequencing analysis of the GDH gene. In addition, selected samples were further characterized by RFLP and sequencing of the ?-giardin gene. The overall occurrence of G. duodenalis was 17.3% (52/300). The occurrence was higher in stray dogs (28%) than in household dogs (6.25%). Of the 36 PCR-positive samples that were selected for genotyping, only dog-specific genotype C (20 isolates), D (11 isolates) and mixed C?+?D (five isolates) isolates were detected in the study. This study provides current information on the infection rates of G. duodenalis genotypes in canine populations and describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D genotypes in dogs in Brazil. These genotypes were widespread and commonly found in domestic dogs living in urban and suburban environments of the studied area and confirmed the endemic status of Giardia in this region. PMID:21695567

Paz e Silva, Flávio M; E Silva, Paz; Monobe, Marina M; Lopes, Raimundo S; Araujo, João P

2012-01-01

166

Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchments in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human wastewater and livestock can contribute to contamination of surface water with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. In countries where a substantial proportion of drinking water is produced from surface water, e.g., Belgium, this poses a constant threat on drinking water safety. Our objective was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchment sites in Belgium and to discriminate between (oo)cysts from human or animal origin using genotyping. Monthly samples were collected from raw water and purified drinking water at four catchment sites. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected using USEPA method 1623 and positive samples were genotyped. No contamination was found in purified water at any site. In three catchments, only low numbers of (oo)cysts were recovered from raw water samples (Cryptosporidium (96 %), especially in winter and spring. Genotyping of Giardia in 38 water samples identified the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage AI, AII, BIV, BIV-like, and E. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium horse genotype, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis were detected. The genotyping results suggest that agriculture may be a more important source of surface water contamination than human waste in this catchment. In catchment sites with contaminated surface water, such as the Blankaart, continuous monitoring of treated water for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia would be justified and (point) sources of surface water contamination should be identified. PMID:25616782

Ehsan, Amimul; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Paulussen, Jef; De Coster, Lut; Schoemaker, Toon; Chalmers, Rachel; Grit, Grietje; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

2015-02-01

167

Ovarian Cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

MENU Return to Web version Ovarian Cyst Overview What is an ovarian cyst? An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac in or on the ovary. There are several types of ovarian cysts. Many ovarian cysts are noncancerous cysts that ...

168

Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points in at least one of the three applied diagnostic techniques within 33-61 days after treatment. Furthermore, all dogs had episodes of diarrhea (for 1-4 days) within 14-31 days after treatment and unformed feces during the whole experiment. The positive effect of ronidazole against Giardia infections in dogs could be confirmed in this study. In particular, the combination of ronidazole treatment combined with the disinfection of the environment and shampooing of the dogs was highly effective in reducing Giardia cyst excretion and may therefore constitute an alternative control strategy for canine giardiosis. PMID:22240238

Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

2012-06-01

169

How nuclei of Giardia pass through cell differentiation: semi-open mitosis followed by nuclear interconnection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differentiation into infectious cysts (encystation) and multiplication of pathogenic trophozoites after hatching from the cyst (excystation) are fundamental processes in the life cycle of the human intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis. During encystation, a bi-nucleated trophozoite transforms to a dormant tetra-nucleated cyst enveloped by a protective cyst wall. Nuclear division during encystation is not followed by cytokinesis. In contrast to the well-studied mechanism of cyst wall formation, information on nuclei behavior is incomplete and basic cytological data are lacking. Here we present evidence that (1) the nuclei divide by semi-open mitosis during early encystment; (2) the daughter nuclei coming from different parent nuclei are always arranged in pairs; (3) in both pairs, the nuclei are interconnected via bridges formed by fusion of their nuclear envelopes; (4) each interconnected nuclear pair is associated with one basal body tetrad of the undivided diplomonad mastigont; and (5) the interconnection between nuclei persists through the cyst stage being a characteristic feature of encysted Giardia. Based on the presented results, a model of nuclei behavior during Giardia differentiation is proposed. PMID:22209008

Jiráková, Klára; Kulda, Jaroslav; Nohýnková, Eva

2012-05-01

170

Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity but only 71% sensitivity. The Giardia ELISA correlated well with IF (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%) and was capable of detecting animal specific Giardia duodenalis genotypes. Visual interpretation appeared appropriate for assessment of ELISA results. The proportion of positive samples and possible zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs

Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.

2007-01-01

171

Giardia in beaver (Castor canadensis) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) from east Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the prevalence of Giardia sp. infection in nuisance beaver (Castor canadensis) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) in east Texas. From October 1992 through September 1993, 100 beaver and 30 nutria were collected in routine wildlife management activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Texas Animal Damage Control Service. Fecal and duodenal mucoid samples were preserved from each animal. Fecal samples were examined for the occurrence of Giardia sp. cysts using the Merifluor immunoassay detection kit: 30 beaver (30.0%) and 20 nutria (66.7%) were positive for Giardia sp. Duodenal mucoid samples were examined for Giardia sp. trophozoites using trichrome staining. with 26 beaver (26.0%) and 20 nutria (73.3%) testing positive. Combining both techniques resulted in 33 beaver (33.0%) and 22 nutria (73.3%) testing positive for Giardia sp. We found no relationship between Giardia sp. and host age, sex, river system, habitat, county, or season in beaver. However, a relationship was found when season and habitat were considered together. No relationship was found between Giardia sp. and age, river system, habitat, county, or season in nutria: however, more males (87.5%) were infected than females (46.4%). PMID:12537124

Dunlap, Brett G; Thies, Monte L

2002-12-01

172

Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Turkish Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Giardiasis is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. intestinalis), which is one of the most frequent parasites that infect Turkish children. However, molecular characterization of G. duodenalis in Turkey is relatively scarce. The present work aimed at genotyping G. duodenalis isolates from Turkey using molecular techniques. Material/Methods In the present study, 145 fecal samples from children were collected to search for the presence of Giardia by microscopy and PCR screening. PCR generated a 384 bp fragment for ?-giardin. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by using PHYLIP. Results Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the sequences, assemblage A, B, and mixed subtypes were determined. Of 22 isolates, 11 were identified as assemblage A (50%), 7 were assemblage B (31.8%), and 4 were assemblage AB (18.2%). Association between G. duodenalis assemblages and the epidemiological data was analyzed. No correlation was found between symptoms and infection with specific assemblages (P>0.05), but we found statistically significant association between age and the assemblage AB (P=0.001). Conclusions The association between G. duodenalis and the epidemiologic data were analyzed. Since assemblage A is the more prevalent subgroup compared with assemblage B, this subgroup might be responsible for common Giardia infections in Turkey. This is the first study that included a detailed phylogenetic analysis of Giardia strains from Turkey. PMID:25689970

Tamer, Gulden Sonmez; Kasap, Murat; Er, Doganhan Kadir

2015-01-01

173

Ovarian Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... new cysts. A health problem that may involve ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with ... male hormones, irregular or no periods and small ovarian cysts. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office ...

174

A Novel Giardia lamblia Nitroreductase, GlNR1, Interacts with Nitazoxanide and Other Thiazolides?  

OpenAIRE

The nitrothiazole analogue nitazoxanide [NTZ; 2-acetolyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] represents the parent compound of a class of drugs referred to as thiazolides and exhibits a broad spectrum of activities against a wide variety of helminths, protozoa, and enteric bacteria infecting animals and humans. NTZ and other thiazolides are active against a wide range of other intracellular and extracellular protozoan parasites in vitro and in vivo, but their mode of action and respective su...

Mu?ller, Joachim; Wastling, Jonathan; Sanderson, Sanya; Mu?ller, Norbert; Hemphill, Andrew

2007-01-01

175

Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custódio, José B A; Sousa, Maria do Céu

2010-04-01

176

A Preliminary Assessment of the Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the School Swimming Pool Water in Dubai, United Arab Emirates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water of school swimming pools located in Dubai, UAE. The swimming pool water samples from five schools were tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using direct immunofluorescence assay. Samples were also examined for the total coliform, fecal coliform and heterotrophic bacteria using the membrane filtration technique. The majority of the tested swimming pool water samples were found contaminated with either Cryptosporidium oocysts or Giardia cysts or both. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found to be in the higher range (1-15 oocysts per liter than that of Giardia cysts (1-4 cysts per liter. All of the swimming pool water samples were found negative for the presence of traditional bacterial indicators. However, direct DAPI staining detected several types of viable but nonculturable (VBNC bacteria on the membrane filter. In conclusion, based on the preliminary data obtained, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found to be present in the tested schools’ swimming pool water. Future work on a long term monitoring of both parasites is highly recommended to enhance the swimming pool water quality and ensure the public health safety which will help in maintaining a hygienic and healthy recreational water environment.

Alia Ali Ahmad Aljanahi

2014-06-01

177

Arachnoid Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... the prognosis? What research is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Arachnoid Cysts? Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid-filled sacs that are located between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane, one of the three ...

178

Assessment of Zoonotic Transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between Cattle and Humans in Rural Villages in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhoea in Bangladesh. The high prevalence of both parasites in humans and cattle in rural Bangladesh and the common use of water ponds by village inhabitants and their animals suggest a potential for zoonotic transmission. Direct transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and their handlers and indirect transmission through water ponds was investigated. Faecal/stool samples were collected from 623 calves and 125 calf handlers in a cross-sectional survey. In two villages, water samples were collected monthly from water ponds and faecal/stool samples were collected monthly from inhabitants and their cattle. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in water samples and in faecal/stool samples and positive samples were genotyped, to determine their human or animal origin. The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in calves was 22% and 5% respectively. In calf handlers, the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was 11.2% and 3.2% respectively. Both in the cross-sectional survey and in the longitudinal study in the villages, G. duodenalis assemblage E was most prevalent in calves, while in humans assemblage AII, BIII and BIV were found. In cattle, Cryptosporidium parvum, C. bovis and C. andersoni were identified, but no Cryptosporidium sequences were obtained from humans. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 14/24 and 12/24 water samples respectively. G. duodenalis assemblage E and BIV (-like), as well as C. andersoni and C. hominis were identified. Although the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in both water ponds suggests that water-borne transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium is possible, the genotyping results indicate that there is no significant direct or indirect (water-borne) transmission of Giardia between cattle and people in this area of rural Bangladesh. No conclusions could be drawn for Cryptosporidium, because of the low number of sequences that were obtained from human and water samples. PMID:25695662

Ehsan, Amimul M; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Parvin, Sonia M; Islam, Taohidul M; Ahmed, Uddin M; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

2015-01-01

179

Impact of Environmental Conditions on the Survival of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on Environmental Surfaces  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The...

Absar Alum; Absar, Isra M.; Hamas Asaad; Rubino, Joseph R.; Khalid Ijaz, M.

2014-01-01

180

Unique phylogenetic position of Diplomonadida based on the complete small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence of Giardia ardeae, G. muris, G. duodenalis and Hexamita sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete small-subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) coding region sequences were determined for two species of the intestinal parasite Giardia: G. ardeae and G. muris, both belonging to the order Diplomonadida, and a free-living member of this order, Hexamita sp. These sequences were compared to published SSU-rDNA sequences from a third member of the genus Giardia, G. duodenalis (often called G. intestinalis or G. lamblia) and various representative organisms from other taxa. Of the three Giardia sequences analyzed, the SSU-rRNA from G. muris is the smallest (1432 bases as compared to 1435 and 1453 for G. ardeae and G. duodenalis, respectively) and has the lowest G+C content (58.9%). The Hexamita SSU-rRNA is the largest in this group, containing 1550 bases. Because the sizes of the SSU-rRNA are prokaryotic rather than typically eukaryotic, the secondary structures of the SSU-rRNAs were constructed. These structures show a number of typically eukaryotic signature sequences. Sequence alignments based on constraints imposed by secondary structure were used for construction of a phylogenetic tree for these four taxa. The results show that of the four diplomonads represented, the Giardia species form a distinct group. The other diplomonad Hexamita and the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix appear to be distinct from Giardia. PMID:8422968

van Keulen, H; Gutell, R R; Gates, M A; Campbell, S R; Erlandsen, S L; Jarroll, E L; Kulda, J; Meyer, E A

1993-01-01

181

Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal / Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oo)cistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação d [...] e tratamento de esgoto (ETE) e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oo)cistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oo)cistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente). Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.). O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4)/l), mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oo)cistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oo)cistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.). A significativa ocorrência de (oo)cistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano. Abstract in english The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oo)cysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB), at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, [...] a sewage treatment plant (STP) and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3.92 and 3.62 (oo)cysts/l for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively). Positive cattle farms were detected during all the period, and the correspondent mean prevalences were: 36.4% for Giardia spp. and 18.0% for Cryptosporidium spp. STP effluent presented high concentration of Giardia spp. (geometric average of cysts in the order of 10(4)/l). However, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were not detected. The results showed that (oo)cysts concentration were influenced by climate factors. Precipitation and (oo)cysts concentration data were well correlated (R²=98.3%; P=0.0087 for Giardia spp. and R²=91.8%; P=0.0421 for Cryptosporidium spp.). Cysts and oocysts levels were remarkably high in the raw water source, pointing out the role of land use in an unprotected watershed as a source of protozoa. The results demonstrate the importance of preventive measures rather than relying on, sometimes unreliable, corrective measures such as water treatment, in order to minimize human health risks.

G.M.F., Dias; P.D., Bevilacqua; R.K.X., Bastos; A.A., Oliveira; G.M.M., Campos.

1291-13-01

182

Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis trophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability. PMID:25424449

Barbosa, Joana; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves; Pérez, Maria José; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

2014-01-01

183

Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis t [...] rophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

Joana, Barbosa; Acácio Gonçalves, Rodrigues; Maria José, Pérez; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

1078-10-01

184

DIFFERENTIATION OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS FROM OTHER GIARDIA SPP. BASED ON THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND GENE PROBES  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia is a waterborne organism that is the most commonly identified pathogenic intestinal protozoan in the United States. urrent detection techniques for Giardia water include microscopy and immunofluorescence techniques. peciation of the genus Giardia has been based on taxonom...

185

Assessment of the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and Giardia in non-potable reclaimed water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative risk assessment for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was performed to determine the public health significance of non-potable use of tertiary treated reclaimed water. Seven reclaimed water treatment plants in the southwestern United States participated in this study. The average public exposure to oocysts and cysts was estimated, based on concentrations, recovery efficiency, viability and three exposure scenarios. The exponential dose-response model was chosen to determine the probability of infection from ingestion of various numbers of oocysts and cysts. The risks of infection for Giardia were approximately one or two orders of magnitude higher than those for Cryptosporidium. The combined risks of infection from oocysts and cysts at sites using a combination of chlorination and UV disinfection would meet the annual acceptable risk of 1.00E-04, whereas those at the other utilities using only chlorination indicated higher probability of infection than the 1.00E-04 resulting from accidental consumption of a small amount of non-potable reclaimed water. PMID:17305151

Ryu, H; Alum, A; Mena, K D; Abbaszadegan, M

2007-01-01

186

In vitro activity of 'Mexican Arnica' Heterotheca inuloides Cass natural products and some derivatives against Giardia intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal disease that affects humans and other animals caused by parasitic protists of the genus Giardia. Giardia intestinalis (Syn. Giardia lamblia; Giardia duodenalis) infections can cause acute or chronic diarrhoea, dehydration, abdominal discomfort and weight loss. Metronidazole is the most widely used drug for treating giardiasis. Although effective, metronidazol has undesirable secondary effects. Plants used in traditional medicine as antidiarrhoeals or antiparasitics may represent alternative sources for new compounds to treat giardiasis. Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae/Compositae) plant is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine. The following secondary metabolites were isolated from H. inuloides flowers: 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), 7-hydroxycadalene (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-3(4H)-isocadalen-4-one (3), 1R,4R-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocadalen-15-oic acid (4), quercetin (5), quercetin-3,7,3'-trimethyl ether (6), quercetin-3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether (7) and eriodictyol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (8). The activity of these compounds against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites was assessed in vitro as was the activity of the semisynthetic compounds 7-acetoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (9), 7-benzoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (10), 7-acetoxycadalene (11), 7-benzoxycadalene (12), quercetin pentaacetate (13) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14). Among these, 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14) were the most active, whereas the remaining compounds showed moderate or no activity. The G. intestinalis trophozoites exposed to compound 1 showed marked changes in cellular architecture along with ultrastructural disorganization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the giardicidal activity of selected H. inuloides metabolites and some semisynthetic derivatives using an in vitro experimental model of giardiasis. PMID:25363565

Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Rufino-González, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha; Delgado, Guillermo

2015-04-01

187

Ovarian Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

... Causes pain If your cyst does not require surgery, your doctor may: Talk to you about pain medicine. Your doctor may recommend over-the-counter medicine or prescribe stronger medicine for pain relief. Prescribe hormonal birth control if you have cysts ...

188

Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the biggest lake in the world and a major water source in China. There is no information about occurrence and impact of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on the aquatic ecosystem. 61 surface water samples from 23 monitoring sites and 5 treated effluent samples were collected and analyzed. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found, respectively, in 86.4% and 65.2% of a total of 66 water samples, with high concentrations in treated effluent. The mean percent recovery was 29.14% for oocysts and 34.86% for cysts. A seasonal pattern was observed, with positive samples for Cryptosporidium more frequent in flood period and positive samples for Giardia more frequent in impounding period. Counts of enterococci, fecal coliforms and total coliforms, and turbidity were significantly associated with Cryptosporidium concentration in backwater (water in a main river which is backed up by the Three Gorges Dam) areas of tributaries but not Giardia. High associations were also found between oocyst and cyst in backwater areas of tributaries and cities. The risks of infection and illness due to water consumption in four different exposure routes were estimated. The results showed that swimming in the TGR has the highest infection risk with 1.39 × 10(-3) per time (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-600.3 × 10(-5)) for Cryptosporidium and 2.08 × 10(-4) per time (95% CI: 0.05-878.87 × 10(-6)) for Giardia, while directly drinking unboiled tap water treated with the conventional process has the highest morbidity with 524.98 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 10.35-2040.26) for Cryptosporidium and 5.89 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 0.08-22.67) for Giardia. This study provides new useful information for drinking water plants, health care workers and managers to improve the safety of tap water and deduce the risk of surface water contamination in China. PMID:23478072

Xiao, Guosheng; Qiu, Zhiqun; Qi, Junsheng; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Fengdan; Liu, Wenyi; Luo, Jiaohua; Shu, Weiqun

2013-05-01

189

Population-based analyses of Giardia duodenalis is consistent with the clonal assemblage structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite of humans and animals. Genetic characterization of single loci indicates the existence of eight groups called assemblages, which differ in their host distribution. Molecular analyses challenged the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal diplomonad by providing evidence of recombination within and between assemblages. Particularly, inter-assemblage recombination events would complicate the interpretation of multi-locus genotyping data from field isolates: where is a host infected with multiple Giardia genotypes or with a single, recombined Giardia genotype. Methods Population genetic analyses on the single and multiple-locus level on an extensive dataset of G. duodenalis isolates from humans and animals were performed. Results Our analyses indicate that recombination between isolates from different assemblages are apparently very rare or absent in the natural population of Giardia duodenalis. At the multi-locus level, our statistical analyses are more congruent with clonal reproduction and can equally well be explained with the presence of multiple G. duodenalis genotypes within one field isolate. Conclusions We conclude that recombination between G. duodenalis assemblages is either very rare or absent. Recombination between genotypes from the same assemblage and genetic exchange between the nuclei of a single cyst needs further investigation.

Takumi Katsuhisa

2012-08-01

190

Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Alava, North of Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Alava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%-2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%-5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%-9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%-6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Alava.

Cardona, Guillermo A. [Livestock Laboratory, Regional Government of Alava, Ctra. de Azua 4, 01520 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Carabin, Helene [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, 801 Northeast 13th Street, Room 309, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Goni, Pilar [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Arriola, Larraitz [Epidemiology Unit, Public Health Division of Guipuzcoa, Basque Government, Av. Navarra 4, 2013 San Sebastian (Spain); Robinson, Guy [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Crespo, Juan C. [Sub-direction of Public Health of Alava, Department of Health, Basque Government, Avda. Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Clavel, Antonio [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Chalmers, Rachel M. [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Carmena, David, E-mail: d.carmena@imperial.ac.uk [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

2011-12-15

191

Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Álava, North of Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Álava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%–2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%–5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%–9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%–6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium iumans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Álava.

192

Thornwaldt cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thornwaldt cysts are rare and benign congenital cysts in the region of the pharyngeal bursa, formed by a communication between the notochord and the nasopharyngeal endoderm. They result from a mechanical obstruction, inflammation, or abscess of the pharyngeal bursa. They are superficial to the superior constrictor muscle and covered by the nasopharyngeal mucous membrane. Most cases are asymptomatic, and patients may rarely present symptoms such as nasal obstruction, foreign body sensation, hearing loss, and periodic halitosis. Therefore, they are often accidentally diagnosed on MRI. Asymptomatic cysts do not require treatment, whereas symptomatic cases require surgical intervention by endonasal or transoral approach. Marsupialization is the procedure of choice to avoid recurrences. The aim of this article is to present and discuss 2 cases of Thornwaldt cysts. PMID:25148637

Righi, Stefano; Boffano, Paolo; Pateras, Dimitrios; Malvè, Laura; Chiodo, Domenico; Boson, Maurizio

2014-09-01

193

Pilar Cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | ... that are most often found on the scalp. The cysts are smooth and mobile, filled with keratin (a protein component found in hair, nails, and skin), and they may or may ...

194

[Protozoan pathogens of genus Cryptosporidiumand Giardia. Part I. Occurrence in water environment and health risk].  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination of water, first of all drinking water, by protozoan pathogens from genus Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia can pose significant threat for public health. These pathogens live in the intestine of humans or animals (infected or carriers). There are found in soil, food, water or on surfaces that have been contaminated with infected human or animal feces. Numerous waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia outbreaks have been reported worldwide in the last few years. These outbreaks resulted from consumption of water contaminated by protozoan pathogens. Their potential prevalence in faecal polluted water supplies, resistance to conventional water treatment and low effective disinfection, as well as imperfection techniques of detection of oocysts and cysts presence necessitates the need for consistent and effective removal of these parasites from drinking water supply. PMID:18246663

Matuszewska, Renata

2007-01-01

195

Persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus in treated sewage in São Paulo state, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract :? The persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus in samples of raw and treated sewage collected monthly in 2010 at the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, was analyzed. The USEPA Method 1623 was used to detect and quantify Giardia and Cryptosporidium. An enzyme immunoassay was carried out to test Rotavirus and Adenovirus antigen optical density (Rotascreen® and Adenoscreen®). The results show a significant decrease in the concentrations of Giardia, Rotavirus and Adenovirus (P sewage and from 0.45 to 3.5 cysts/L in treated sewage. Cryptosporidium concentration ranged from undetectable to 28.9 oocysts/L in raw sewage and undetectable to 1.05 oocysts/L in treated sewage. Rotavirus presented absorbance values that ranged from 1.17 ± 0.81 in raw sewage to 0.46 ± 0.32 in treated sewage. Adenovirus, in turn, presented absorbance values of 0.64 ± 0.20 in raw sewage and of 0.45 ± 0.04 in treated sewage. There was no significant seasonal tendency observed in the distribution of protozoa (oo)cysts and in the viral antigen density in the monthly sewage samples during 2010 (P > 0.05). Even though these pathogenic agents decreased after treatment, the remaining loads observed in treated sewage can reach the watercourses receiving it. Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus are pathogens with very low infectious doses, representing a public health risk especially for vulnerable groups, such as children living near these watercourses and homeless people using this water for various purposes. Studies addressing the environmental persistence of opportunistic pathogens in watercourses are hugely important in the public health sphere, especially in developing countries, where economic, social, cultural, and environmental factors still persist that are favorable to population's exposure to diarrhea-causing agents. PMID:23718640

Tonani, K A A; Padula, J A; Julião, F C; Fregonesi, B M; Alves, R I S; Sampaio, C F; Beda, C F; Hachich, E M; Segura-Muñoz, S I

2013-12-01

196

Giardia duodenalis in feedlot cattle from the central and western United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that has emerged as a significant opportunistic human pathogen. G. duodenalis may have a deleterious effect on animal growth and performance, therefore its potential as a production limiting organism should not be discounted. We therefore undertook this study to determine management and environmental factors in feedlots that influence the prevalence and environmental load of G. duodenalis cysts in fecal material deposited by feedlot cattle in the central and western United States. Results Twenty two feedlots from 7 states were included in the study, and up to 240 fecal samples were collected from pen floors of up to 6 pens per feedlot. Giardia duodenalis cysts were identified and counted using direct immunofluorescent microscopy. The estimated overall point prevalence of G. duodenalis was 19.1%, representing feedlots from a wide range of climates and management systems. Pen-level prevalence varied from 0 to 63.3%, with pen-level shedding estimates ranging from 0 to 261,000 cysts/g feces. Higher environmental temperatures, increased animal density, and increased time in the feedlot were associated with a lower prevalence of G. duodenalis. Removing manure before placing a new group of cattle in a pen was associated with a decreased prevalence of G. duodenalis in fecal pats. Using coccidiostats as a feed additive was associated with a higher prevalence of Giardia. Conclusion Management practices could be employed that would limit the probability that feedlot cattle shed G. duodenalis in their feces and therefore potentially limit contamination of their environment.

Pereira Maria

2009-10-01

197

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

Science.gov (United States)

... drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE-are-DYE-uh- ... properly, polluted storm water runoff, and agricultural runoff. Wells may be more vulnerable to such contamination after ...

198

Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oocistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oocistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oocistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente. Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.. O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4/l, mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oocistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oocistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.. A significativa ocorrência de (oocistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano.The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oocysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB, at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, a sewage treatment plant (STP and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3.92 and 3.62 (oocysts/l for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. Positive cattle farms were detected during all the period, and the correspondent mean prevalences were: 36.4% for Giardia spp. and 18.0% for Cryptosporidium spp. STP effluent presented high concentration of Giardia spp. (geometric average of cysts in the order of 10(4/l. However, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were not detected. The results showed that (oocysts concentration were influenced by climate factors. Precipitation and (oocysts concentration data were well correlated (R²=98.3%; P=0.0087 for Giardia spp. and R²=91.8%; P=0.0421 for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cysts and oocysts levels were remarkably high in the raw water source, pointing out the role of land use in an unprotected watershed as a source of protozoa. The results demonstrate the importance of preventive measures rather than relying on, sometimes unreliable, corrective measures such as water treatment, in order to minimize human health risks.

G.M.F. Dias

2008-12-01

199

Evaluation of cellular and humoral systemic immune response against Giardia duodenalis infection in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis causes diarrhoea in humans and a wide range of mammals, including cattle. In cattle, the infection often has a chronic character. Infected calves may excrete cysts for several months, suggesting that Giardia is able to suppress and evade the immune response. In this study six calves were infected with G. duodenalis assemblage A and E and housed in an environment that allowed reinfection. Cyst excretion was monitored twice a week and blood was collected every 2 weeks, until decreasing cyst counts indicated the development of protective immunity. The kinetics of the circulating memory cells and serum antibodies were followed up throughout this period. Cyst excretion started 1 week post-infection and remained high until week 14. Low cyst counts from week 15 p.i. onwards indicated that the calves had developed immunity. From week 5 p.i. significant proliferation of CD4(+) ?? T-cells was observed after in vitro stimulation with G. duodenalis antigen. Characterisation of the proliferating CD4(+) T-cells using real time qPCR showed that at the peak of antigen driven PBMC proliferation the majority of cells were CD4(+) T-cells expressing IL-17 and to a lesser extent FoxP3. The cell proliferation was strongly reduced after plastic adhesion of the PBMC, suggesting a role for antigen-presenting cells. Failure to restore proliferation of depleted PBMC with Giardia-stimulated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) and unchanged proliferation after depletion of CD21(+) B-cells showed that other antigen-presenting cells than MoDC and B-cells were important for T-cell proliferation. Analysis of the antibody response indicated that serum IgG1 and IgA levels against G. duodenalis assemblage A and E increased from week 11 post-infection. From the start of the antibody response, all trophozoites stained positive in an immunofluorescence assay with serum antibodies, indicating that a broad repertoire of antibodies was produced against all variant-specific surface proteins. Further research is necessary to determine which effector T-cell subset produces IL-17 and which cells play a role in antigen presentation. PMID:24702771

Grit, G H; Van Coppernolle, S; Devriendt, B; Geurden, T; Dreesen, L; Hope, J; Vercruysse, J; Cox, E; Geldhof, P; Claerebout, E

2014-05-28

200

Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. A large proportion of the (oo)cyst containing samples were selected for molecular characterization. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA locus and/or the HSP70 gene of 183 pig and 154 cattle isolates of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of C. suis, pig genotype II, C. parvum (cattle genotype), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and a novel C. suis-like genotype. For both cattle and pigs, a host age-related change in distribution of species/genotypes was observed. The zoonotic C. parvum (cattle genotype) was most prevalent in young calves. For Giardia, 82 and 145 isolates from pigs and cattle, respectively, were analysed at the 18S rDNA locus and/or the gdh gene. Giardia isolates belonging to the zoonotic Assemblage A was found in both young and older calves, as well as in weaners and piglets, whereas cows seemed to be infected purely by isolates of the livestock group, Assemblage E.

Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan

2007-01-01

201

A dual-specificity aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase in the deep-rooted eukaryote Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Cysteinyl-tRNA (Cys-tRNA) is essential for protein synthesis. In most organisms the enzyme responsible for the formation of Cys-tRNA is cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS). The only known exceptions are the euryarchaea Methanococcus jannaschii and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, which do not encode a CysRS. Deviating from the accepted concept of one aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase per amino acid, these organisms employ prolyl-tRNA synthetase as the enzyme that carrie...

Bunjun, Shipra; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Graham, David; Min, Bokkee; Kitabatake, Makoto; Wang, Alice L.; Wang, Ching C.; Vivare?s, Christian P.; Weiss, Louis M.; So?ll, Dieter

2000-01-01

202

Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs / Tratamiento con dosis única con secnidazol en corderos naturalmente infectados con Giardia duodenalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la administración oral de una dosis única de secnidazol de 10mh/kg reduce o elimina la presencia de quistes de Giardia y validar el beneficio del tratamiento con secnidazol en los signos clínicos y la consistencia fecal de corderos infectados n [...] aturalmente con Giardia duodenalis. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron corderos destetados de 12 semanas de edad que fueron asignados al azar a dos grupos con base a placebo (grupo C, n=7, grupo de control sin tratar) o tratamiento (grupo S, n=10 corderos con tratamiento de dosis única de secnidazol de 10 mg/kg). Resultados. En los días 0 y 10, antes y después del tratamiento, respectivamente, se determinó una merma en la excreción de quistes. La consistencia de la materia fecal y el estado general de salud fue registrado en cada muestreo diario. Conclusiones. Durante el estudio hubo una alta reducción en la excreción de quistes (99.98%) en el grupo tratado con secnidazol comparado con el grupo control positivo en el día 10, resultando en una disminución significativa (p Abstract in english Objetive. The purposes of this study were to determine whether secnidazole administered at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, orally, lessens or eliminates Giardia cyst shedding, and to validate the benefit of secnidazole treatment on clinical signs and faecal consistency in lambs naturally infected with Gi [...] ardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 12 weeks of age lambs were selected and randomly assigned into two groups based on placebo (group C, n=7 untreated control group) or treatment (group S, n=10 lambs treated with a single dose of secnidazole at 10 mg/kg). Results. On days 0 and 10, before and after treatment, respectively, reduction in cyst excretion was determined. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded at each sampling day. Conclusions. During the study there was a high (99.98%) reduction in cyst excretion in the secnidazol treatment group compared to the positive control group on day 10, resulting in a significant (p

Kerem, Ural; Nuran, Aysul; Huseyin, Voyvoda; Bulent, Ulutas; Osman S., Aldemir; Hasan, Eren.

2014-01-01

203

Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Central California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are of public health importance, with recognized transmission through recreational waters. Therefore, both can contaminate marine waters and shellfish, with potential to infect marine mammals in nearshore ecosystems. A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in mussels located at two distinct coastal areas in California, namely, (i) land runoff plume sites and (ii) locations near sea lion haul-out sites, as well as in feces of California sea lions (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) by the use of direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection methods and PCR with sequence analysis. In this study, 961 individual mussel hemolymph samples, 54 aliquots of pooled mussel tissue, and 303 CSL fecal samples were screened. Giardia duodenalis assemblages B and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near two land runoff plume sites (Santa Rosa Creek and Carmel River), and assemblages C and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near a sea lion haul-out site (White Rock). These results suggest that mussels are being contaminated by protozoa carried in terrestrial runoff and/or shed in the feces of CSL. Furthermore, low numbers of oocysts and cysts morphologically similar to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, were detected in CSL fecal samples, suggesting that CSL could be a source and a host of protozoan parasites in coastal environments. The results of this study showed that Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. from the feces of terrestrial animals and CSL can contaminate mussels and coastal environments. PMID:25281384

Adell, A D; Smith, W A; Shapiro, K; Melli, A; Conrad, P A

2014-12-01

204

Population-based laboratory surveillance for Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a large Canadian health region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia (intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the two most important intestinal parasites infecting North Americans but there is a paucity of active population-based surveillance data from Canada. This study determined the incidence of and demographic risk factors for developing Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a general Canadian population. Methods Population-based laboratory surveillance was conducted among all residents of the Calgary Health Region (CHR; population ? 1 million during May 1, 1999 and April 30, 2002. Results Giardia sp. infection occurred at a rate of 19.6 per 100,000 populations per year. Although the yearly incidence was stable, a significant seasonal variation was observed with a peak in late summer to early fall. Males were at higher risk for development of this infection as compared to females (21.2 vs. 17.9 per 100,000/yr; relative risk (RR 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.00–1.40, p = 0.047, and there was a significant decrease in risk associated with an increasing age. Cryptosporidium sp. infection occurred at an overall rate of 6.0 per 100,000 populations per year although a large outbreak of Cryptosporidium sp. infections occurred in the second half of the summer of 2001. During August and September of 2001, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis was 55.1 per 100,000 per year as compared to 3.1 per 100,000 per year for the remainder of the surveillance period (p Conclusion This study provides important information on the occurrence and demographic risk groups for acquisition of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in a non-selected Canadian population.

Laupland Kevin B

2005-09-01

205

Giardia infection in pigs: detection and in vitro isolation of trophozoites of the Giardia intestinalis group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia infections were detected in 14 out of 32 weaned, 1 to 2-month-old pigs, used in experiments with coccidia. Giardia trophozoites were present in the small intestine from the duodenum to the ileum with maximum numbers in the cranial part of the upper jejunum. They were localized mainly on the surface of intestinal crypts. No histological changes accompanied the infection and the infected animals were asymptomatic. Giardia trophozoites obtained from the intestines of necropsied pigs were isolated in axenic culture in a bile-supplemented TYI-S-33 medium. Morphological features of the trophozoites revealed by both light and scanning electron microscopy proved that the organism belongs to the Giardia intestinalis group. PMID:1852483

Koudela, B; Nohýnková, E; Vítovec, J; Pakandl, M; Kulda, J

1991-04-01

206

Infected giant liver cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Congenital liver cysts are not as rare as it was thought in the past. Thanks to new imaging diagnostic techniques, these cysts have been discovered with increasing frequency. Uncomplicated congenital liver cysts are usually asymptomatic or followed by mild symptoms. Various complications of these cysts were reported. Infection of the congenital liver cyst is, however, very rare complication. A 65-year old man with huge infected congenital central liver cyst containing 3400 ml of pus from which Escherichia coli was cultivated was presented. The patient had a number of other histologically confirmed congenital cysts of the liver and the cyst of the left kidney. The patient was cured by pus evacuation, partial excision of the cyst wall and drainage of the cavity and subphrenic space. The uninfected cysts were operated using deroofing technique. A year after surgery the patient remained symptom free.

?olovi? Radoje

2006-01-01

207

A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and the procedures are expensive and time consuming. These facts have motivated us to develop a new robust system for higher recovery of protozoan cysts from any fluid matrix. The new system consists of a sample collection chamber in which the fluid passes through a specially coated metallic filter with a carefully chosen pore size. On the reverse side of the filter a transducer delivers ultrasound waves in order to release trapped cysts and particles from the filter and break up parasite clusters. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were injected into the concentration unit and exposed to varying levels of ultrasonication. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed using air and the change in viability of the parasites was assessed by flowcytometry. Without sonication, the recovery rate of Cryptosporidium was around 2%. After short term sonication for 5, 10 or 20 seconds, the recovery rates were stable and ranging from 75-83%. While sonication is usually used for cell lyses, it can be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced separation of retinates of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The collected parasites may be used for molecular typing and other diagnostic and research purposes. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a robust, cheap, and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2012-01-01

208

Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 109 and 1010 (oo)cysts.d?1, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log10 removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (106 to 107 (oo)cysts.d?1) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 103 to 1011 (oo)cysts.day?1) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution

209

Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 10} (oo)cysts.d{sup ?1}, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log{sub 10} removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} (oo)cysts.d{sup ?1}) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 11} (oo)cysts.day{sup ?1}) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution.

Burnet, Jean-Baptiste, E-mail: jeanbaptiste.burnet@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Université de Liège (ULg), Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, 165 avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium); Penny, Christian, E-mail: penny@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Ogorzaly, Leslie, E-mail: ogorzaly@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Cauchie, Henry-Michel, E-mail: cauchie@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

2014-02-01

210

Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil Estudo clássico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianças atendidas em uma creche na região de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil  

OpenAIRE

Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, b...

Nair Toshiko Tashima; Maria Jacira Silva Simões; Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite; Antonio Fluminhan; Marco Antonio Nogueira; Ana Carolina Malaspina

2009-01-01

211

Spontaneous onset corneoscleral hematic cyst  

OpenAIRE

Corneoscleral cysts are a rare entity. We report a case of spontaneous corneoscleral hematic cyst, which was treated by cyst excision and lamellar corneal patch graft. No recurrence of cyst was noticed during the 6 years of followup.

Shah S; Matalia H; Sangwan V

2006-01-01

212

Giardia duodenalis infection and wastewater irrigation in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk of Giardia duodenalis (Giardia) infection in farmers using untreated wastewater in agriculture was investigated in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan, through a cross-sectional study. The study found a significantly increased risk of (asymptomatic) Giardia infection in wastewater farming households when compared with farming households using regular (non-wastewater) irrigation water (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.5-4.4). Textile labourers who were employed in the city of Faisalabad but who lived in the same village as the wastewater farmers showed a risk of Giardia infection in between that of wastewater and non-wastewater farming households (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.1). This study suggests that exposure to wastewater with high Giardia concentrations carries an increased risk for (asymptomatic) Giardia infection. PMID:16336984

Ensink, Jeroen H J; van der Hoek, Wim; Amerasinghe, Felix P

2006-06-01

213

Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus  

OpenAIRE

O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus). As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. a...

João Fabio Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Camila Belmonte Oliveira; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Gleide Mariscano; Edson Luis Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

2008-01-01

214

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurring in natural water bodies in Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia protozoa are zoonotic parasites that cause human gastroenteritis and can be transmitted to human through the fecal-oral route and water or food. Several species belong to these genera and their resistant forms occur in water, but only some of them are infectious to human. Health risk depends on the occurrence of infectious Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in water, and only molecular techniques allow detecting them, as well as enable to identify the contamination source. In this work, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis have been performed on the basis of 18S rDNA and ß-giardin genes sequences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, in order to provide the molecular characterization of these parasites detected earlier in five natural water bodies in Poland and to track possible sources of their (oo)cysts in water. Genotyping revealed a high similarity (over 99 up to 100 %) of analyzed sequences to cattle genotype of C. parvum isolated from cattle and human and to G. intestinalis assemblage B isolated from human. The sequences obtained by others originated from patients with clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis or giardiasis and/or with the infection confirmed by different methods. The contamination of three examined lakes is probably human-originated, while the sources of contamination of two remaining lakes are wild and domestic animals. Obtained phylogenetic trees support suggestions of other authors that the bovine genotype of C. parvum should be a separate species, as well as A and B assemblages of G. intestinalis. PMID:25471902

Adamska, Ma?gorzata

2015-02-01

215

Benthic macroinvertebrate communities as aquatic bioindicators of contamination by Giardia and Cryptosporidium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benthic macroinvertebrates (community composed mostly by aquatic forms of insects, such as stonefly nymphs, dragonfly nymphs, water bugs or beetle larvae) are often used in biological monitoring programmes to evaluate the ecological status of rivers and thus to indicate the repercussions of anthropogenic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of this indicator community to detect human enteroprotozoan parasites that are transmitted via water. In total, 32 samples of macroinvertebrates were collected, with the aid of surber nets of mesh size 500 ?m, from nine rivers in Galicia (NW Spain), on different occasions between 2005 and 2009. The samples were homogenised (0.04 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2), sieved (150 and 45 ?m mesh), and concentrated (by a diphasic method). Aliquots of the sediments were then analysed by a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies against Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia cysts were detected in one (3.1%) of the samples and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in four (12.5%) of the samples. This work is the first study carried out to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this benthic community. The results demonstrate that benthic invertebrates could be used as bioindicators of contamination by these waterborne protozoans. Moreover, as this aquatic organisms act as intermittent accumulators and its monitoring enables chronological analysis of perturbations, in both the short- and mid-term, this may represent a suitable alternative or complementary method to the usual techniques of detecting human and animal enteropathogens in water samples. PMID:24553978

Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Prado-Merini, Óscar; García-Bernadal, Teresa; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ares-Mazás, Elvira

2014-05-01

216

NITAZOXANIDE FOR THE TREATMENT OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS INFECTION: A COMPARATIVE TRIAL WITH SECNIDAZOLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Nitazoxanide is a 5-nitrothiazolyl derivative with broad-spectrum activity against numerous intestinal protozoa, helminths and anaerobic bacteria licensed in the United States for the treatment of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide (NTZ versus secnidazole (SNZ in the treatment of giardiasis. Method: A randomized controlled open-label trial was carried out at the Cuban Institute of Gastroenterology in adults with confirmed Giardia duodenalis mono-infection. 125 patients were randomly assigned to receive either NTZ [500 mg two times daily for three days (n= 62] or SNZ [2 g single dose (n= 63]. The evaluation of the efficacy was based on parasitological response. All patients were asked to provide three faecal samples on days 3, 5, and 10 after treatment completion. Patients were considered to be cured, if no Giardia trophozoites or cysts were found in any of the three post-treatment faecal specimens evaluated by direct wet mounts and/or after Ritchie concentration techniques. Results: The frequency of cure was a little higher for NTZ [95.2%- (59/62] than for SNZ [93.7%- (59/63] but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Bitter taste was only reported in SNZ treated group were as yellowish coloration of the urine and rash were only reported in NTZ treated group. Nausea and headache were more common in patients treated with SNZ (P<0.05. Conclusion: NTZ, for three days, is as efficacious as a single dose SNZ in the treatment of giardiasis in adults.

Katia BR?TO

2010-09-01

217

Quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in well water from a native community of Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are gastrointestinal disease-causing organisms transmitted by the fecal-oral route, zoonotic and prevalent in all socioeconomic segments with greater emphasis in rural communities. The goal of this study was to assess the risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis of Potam dwellers consuming drinking water from communal well water. To achieve the goal, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was carried out as follows: (a) identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water samples by information collection rule method, (b) assessment of exposure to healthy Potam residents, (c) dose-response modelling, and (d) risk characterization using an exponential model. All well water samples tested were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The QMRA results indicate a mean of annual risks of 99:100 (0.99) for cryptosporidiosis and 1:1 (1.0) for giardiasis. The outcome of the present study may drive decision-makers to establish an educational and treatment program to reduce the incidence of parasite-borne intestinal infection in the Potam community, and to conduct risk analysis programs in other similar rural communities in Mexico. PMID:25494486

Balderrama-Carmona, Ana Paola; Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Pablo; Alvarez-Valencia, Luis Humberto; Castro-Espinoza, Luciano; Balderas-Cortés, José de Jesús; Mondaca-Fernández, Iram; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Meza-Montenegro, María Mercedes

2014-12-10

218

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health. PMID:24975093

Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

2014-08-15

219

Pancreatic epidermoid cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermoid cyst of intrapancreatic spleen is described but epidermoid cyst occurring in the pancreas itself is not documented. We report a 36-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain radiating to the back. On ultrasonography, a multilocular cyst was seen in the head of the pancreas. Fine-needle aspiration cytology suggested a diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, which was confirmed on histology of the resected specimen. PMID:17558078

Sahu, Kausalya Kumari; Pai, Radha R; Kini, Hema; Somayaji, Vasudeva

2007-01-01

220

Baker’s cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

Popliteal cyst; Bulge-knee ... A Baker's cyst is caused by swelling in the knee. The swelling is due to an increase in the fluid ... fluid bulges into the back of the knee. Baker's cyst commonly occurs with: A tear in the meniscal ...

221

Management of ovarian cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The treatment of an ovarian cyst relies on its nature, and accurate preoperative discrimination of benign and malignant cysts is therefore of crucial importance. This study was undertaken to review the literature concerning the preoperative diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cysts.

Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Tabor, Ann

2004-01-01

222

Beware the Tarlov cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions. PMID:19110185

Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

2009-01-01

223

Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

2013-01-01

224

The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

Yasemin Bayram

2013-03-01

225

[Recurrent Baker's cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 50-year old female patient with unilateral knee pain demonstrated a recurrent ultrasound-proven popliteal cyst (Baker's cyst). Even though a proper differential diagnosis was done, the MRT of the knee showed in a secondary step a tibial fissure as the cause of the treatment-refractory knee pain and Baker's cyst. A fracture of the tibia is a rare cause for a symptomatic Baker's cysts. Mechanical, degenerative or inflamed diseases of the joint are more frequent associated with a Baker's cyst. PMID:21792809

Stöckli, C; Hunziker, R; Tamborrini, G

2011-07-27

226

Parapelvic renal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parapelvic renal cysts are relatively common finding on sonography, CT, MRI. These cysts are more common in patients with Fabry diseases. Their size can be up to 50 mm. Parapelvic renal cysts may be asymptomatic and can cause back pain, obstruction, hypertension, pyelonephritis. The differentiation from other pathologic conditions is important - tumors, lipomatosis. Parapelvic cysts often have the picture of hydronephrosis. It is easy to distinguish cyst from varices, renal artery aneurysm, arteriovenous fistula by color and pulse Doppler ultrasonography. The diagnosis should not be based by ultrasonography only so that other pathology should not be missed. (authors)

227

Thyroglossal duct cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDCs are cervical cysts occurring in approximately 7% of the population, mainly during childhood. The cyst usually presents itself as a painless, asymptomatic midline swelling below the hyoid bone. Differential diagnosis involves branchial cleft cyst, lymphoepithelial cyst, thyroid gland lesions, ranula and lymphadenopathy (of various etiologies. Sonogram (ultrasound is the most frequent and appropriate imaging modality in suspected TDC. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration is an inexpensive and safe method that can be considered in selected adult patients, having prime importance to the exclusion of carcinoma. This article presents a TDC of the neck in a 5-year-old boy.

Allan ABUABARA

2010-06-01

228

GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. PCR methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR amplified fragments of the Giardia and Cryptosporidium SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence ana...

229

Anterior Cervical Arachnoid Cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is composed of two patients with anteriorly located cervical intradural arachnoid cyst and review of 24 cases in Englishlanguage literature. Both of our patients were in the first two decades of life with neck pain and motor weakness. With suspicious diagnosis of anterior arachnoid cyst surgery was carried out in both cases, though laminectomy in one and laminoplasty in the other. The cyst wall was widely fenestrated with subsequent subtotal excision of the cyst. Both cases had good long-term outcome. The review disclosed male predominance. 73% of the patients were diagnosed within the first two decades of life. Neck pain and motor weakness were the dominant signs and symptoms of this pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing cyst was the best mode of diagnosis. Wide cyst fenestration with waying CSF into subarachnoid cyst was the most appropriate and applied surgery with optimal outcome. PMID:23741550

Sharifi, Give

2013-01-01

230

Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water: a review  

OpenAIRE

UV disinfection technology is of growing interest in the water industry since it was demonstrated that UV radiation is very effective against (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, two pathogenic micro-organisms of major importance for the safety of drinking water. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, the new concept for microbial safety of drinking water and wastewater, requires quantitative data of the inactivation or removal of pathogenic micro-organisms by water treatment processes....

Hijnen, W. A. M.; Beerendonk, E. F.; Medema, Gerriet Jan

2006-01-01

231

The popliteal cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

A popliteal cyst, originally called Baker's cyst, is a synovial fluid-filled mass located in the popliteal fossa. The most common synovial popliteal cyst is considered to be a distension of the bursa located beneath the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Usually, in an adult patient, an underlying intra-articular disorder is present. In children, the cyst can be isolated and the knee joint normal. The anatomy, etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, imaging and treatment modalities of the popliteal cyst are presented. The authors try to answer some questions dealing with this condition. Is the cyst isolated, can it be treated as such, is its origin always well-defined and does surgical excision provide a permanent cure? PMID:16362357

Fritschy, Daniel; Fasel, Jean; Imbert, Jean-Claude; Bianchi, Stefano; Verdonk, René; Wirth, Carl Joachim

2006-07-01

232

Renal Cysts and Urinomas  

OpenAIRE

Renal cysts are a common imaging finding. Although most cysts never have symptoms, some cause pain, collecting system compression, hematuria, hypertension, and secondary infection. The mere presence of a cyst is not an indication for intervention, but treatment may be indicated in symptomatic patients or those with secondary obstruction. Urinomas generally are a contained collection of urine outside of the normal pathways where urine travels. As such, urinomas can arise anywhere from the uppe...

Lee, Jessica; Darcy, Michael

2011-01-01

233

Hydatid cyst of mediastinum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of hydatid cyst of the mediastinum in a 32-year-old female patient who was admitted with chest pain. CT scan reported posterior mediastinal mass towards the right side. Surgical exploration revealed a loculated cyst in posterior mediastinum on the right side, adherent to the overlying lung and underlying bone. Posterolateral thoracotomy was performed for cyst aspiration and excision. The patient was discharged on albendazole.

Sehgal S

2008-01-01

234

Symptomatic nonparasitic liver cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on our experience with four cases of liver cysts and review of the literature, the following conclusions are reached: (1) Diagnosis can be established with routine and special radiologic studies. (2) Laparotomy is indicated for patients with symptoms or uncertain diagnosis. (3) Surgical management should be guided by cyst size, location, and content. (4) Definitive surgical treatment is indicated only for cysts larger than 10 cm

235

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

2006-01-01

236

Parameatal urethral cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cyst formation in the parameatal area of the urethra is an uncommon entity. It was first reported in two male cases as recently as 1956 by Thompson and Lantin. Further reports have been rare. Herein, we report a case of a 21 year-old male having a spherical, cystic swelling 1 cm in size at the external urethral meatus. The diagnosis of parameatal urethral cyst was made and the cyst was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a monolocular cyst lined with transitional cells. The postoperative period was uneventful.

Aggarwal Kamal

2008-01-01

237

Parameatal urethral cyst  

OpenAIRE

Cyst formation in the parameatal area of the urethra is an uncommon entity. It was first reported in two male cases as recently as 1956 by Thompson and Lantin. Further reports have been rare. Herein, we report a case of a 21 year-old male having a spherical, cystic swelling 1 cm in size at the external urethral meatus. The diagnosis of parameatal urethral cyst was made and the cyst was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a monolocular cyst lined with transitional cells. The postop...

Aggarwal Kamal; Gupta Sanjeev; Jain Vijay; Goel Ashish

2008-01-01

238

Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba  

OpenAIRE

The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ?5?years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.41 [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.36–9.69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR?=?3.01; CI?=?1.23–7.35), belonging to a household that did not recei...

Bello, J.; Nu?n?ez, F. A.; Gonza?lez, O. M.; Ferna?ndez, R.; Almirall, P.; Escobedo, A. A.

2011-01-01

239

Prevalencia de Giardia intestinalis y predominio de genotipos zoonóticos en ovinos y bovinos de traspatio de cinco estados de la República Mexicana / Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and zoonotic genotype predominance in small scale sheep and cattle farms in five states of the Mexican Republic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar la frecuencia y genotipos de Giardia intestinalis en ovinos y bovinos de traspatio de algunos estados de la República Mexicana, en este trabajo se colectaron heces de 265 ovinos y 174 bovinos, para la búsqueda de Giardia mediante coproparasitoscópicos (CPS) de concentración [...] flotación. De las muestras fecales que resultaron positivas se obtuvieron los quistes por el método de Sheather. Los quistes se desenquistaron in vitro y los trofozoítos se mantuvieron en cultivo TYI-S-33 axénico. El ADN de los trofozoítos se obtuvo mediante extracciones fenólicas y se amplificó un segmento de ? 430 pb del gen de la enzima glutamato deshidrogenasa (gdh) por medio de la reacción en cadena de la ADN polimerasa (PCR), el producto se restringió con las enzimas Nla IV y Rsa I y se obtuvieron los polimorfismos de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP). En los CPS se encontró a Giardia en nueve bovinos (5.1%) y 30 ovinos (11.3%). Se establecieron 10 cultivos axénicos (5 de bovinos y 5 de ovinos). En un bovino se encontró el genotipo (AI), dos tuvieron mezcla de los genotipos (AI + BIII) y los otros dos fueron (E + BIII). Un ovino fue genotipo (AI) y tres tuvieron mezcla de los genotipos (AI + BIII). Éste es el primer informe que presenta predominio de genotipos zoonóticos (AI y BIII) en ovinos y bovinos de México. Es necesario investigar los genotipos de Giardia y patrones de transmisión entre animales y humanos en México. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to discover the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia intestinalis, harbored in sheep and cows on familiar farms from five states of the Mexican Republic. Stool samples from 265 sheep and 174 cows were analyzed by centrifugation and flotation in zinc sulfate to search for c [...] ysts and ova. The samples with Giardia cysts were processed in a Sheather solution in order to isolate them. Afterwards, cultures were established in TYI-S-33, each one of which was the Giardia DNA source. The DNA was obtained and used as a template to amplify a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) enzyme. The 430 bp amplicons were restricted with Nla IV and Rsa I in order to identify the restriction fragments length polymorphisms (RFLP's) patterns. From the cyst analysis, Giardia cysts in nine cows (5.1%) and 30 sheep (11.3%) were found. Then 10 axenic cultures (5 from sheep and 5 from cows) were set up. From the RFLP's pattern it was found that one cow had assemblage (AI), another two had a mixture of assemblages (AI + BIII) and the other two had (E + BIII). In sheep, it was found that two sheep had assemblage (AI) and the other three had a mixture of assemblages (AI + BIII). This is the first report in which zoonotic assemblages (A-I and BIII) predominance in ruminants from five states of Mexico have been demonstrated. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out further studies aimed at discovering other Giardia genotypes and transmission patterns between animals and humans in Mexico.

Juana Jimena, Otero-Negrete; Froylán, Ibarra-Velarde; Mario Noé, Martínez-Gordillo; Martha, Ponce-Macotela.

2011-09-01

240

Giardiasis in Bergen. Outbreak and clinical consequences.  

OpenAIRE

Background Giardia lamblia is a common cause of waterborne disease. It is endemic in many parts of the world, especially where sanitation is poor, but in Europe and North America it is most often encountered in outbreaks following contamination of drinking water. The first registered outbreak of giardiasis affecting a large community in Norway happened in Bergen in the autumn of 2004. The reservoir “Svartediket” was the source, and the water probably held Giardia cysts f...

Wensaas, Knut-arne

2011-01-01

241

Pyloroduodenal duplication cyst  

OpenAIRE

A 4-year-old girl presented with non-bilious vomiting and loss of appetite and weight. At laparotomy, a non-communicating pyloroduodenal duplication cyst was present. Subtotal excision of the cyst and cauterization of the mucosal lining of the common wall was performed. The post-operative recovery was uneventful.

Annigeri, Venkatesh M.; Hegde, Harihar V.; Patil, Preetam B.; Halgeri, Anil B.; Rao, P. Raghavendra

2012-01-01

242

Bartholin's Gland Cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

... lubricates the vaginal lips. If a flap of skin grows over the opening of one of the glands, the fluid backs up. It causes a round swelling called a cyst (say: "sis-st"). The cyst can grow from the size of a penny to larger than an orange, although most don't get bigger than a ...

243

Apyretic gastrointestinal disorders due to giardiasis contracted in Morocco  

OpenAIRE

We present the case of a 32-year-old French man who presented with morning nausea, bloating, frequent flatulence, burping, occasional pyrosis, and alternating diarrhea and constipation two weeks after a trip to Morocco. The diagnosis was established by a parasitological stool exam that revealed cysts of Giardia lamblia. He was successfully treated with tinidazole.

Meunier, Yann A.; Hole, Michael K.

2011-01-01

244

WATERBORNE 'GIARDIA' IT'S ENOUGH TO MAKE YOU SICK  

Science.gov (United States)

The roundtable consisted of a moderator and six panelists discussing various aspects of Giardia and giardiasis. The topics covered included: The organism (description, life cycle, distribution); the disease; epidemiology; waterborne outbreaks; monitoring methods; water industry a...

245

Zoonotic genotype of Giardia intestinalis detected in a ferret.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia intestinalis has been found in a variety of mammals, including humans, and consists of host-specific and zoonotic genotypes. There has been only 1 study of G. intestinalis infection in weasels, but the genotype of its isolate remains unclear. In this study, we report the isolation of Giardia in a ferret exhibited at a pet shop. The isolate was analyzed genetically to validate the possibility of zoonotic transmission. Giardia diagnostic fragments of the small subunit ribosomal RNA, beta-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes were amplified from the ferret isolate and sequenced to reveal the phylogenetic relationships between it and other Giardia species or genotypes of G. intestinalis reported previously. The results showed that the ferret isolate represented the genetic group A-I in assemblage A, which could be a causative agent of human giardiasis. PMID:15856896

Abe, Niichiro; Read, Carolyn; Thompson, R C Andrew; Iseki, Motohiro

2005-02-01

246

Congenital parameatal urethral cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A parameatal urethral cyst, which is a very rare congenital anomaly, was first reported in two male cases in 1956 by Thompson and Lantin. We report the case of a 20-year-old male having a spherical, cystic swelling, 7 mm in size at the external urethral meatus. The diagnosis was made by physical examination and ultrasonography. The cyst was completely excised under general anesthesia. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined by a columnar pseudo-stratified and squamous epithelium. Good cosmetic results without recurrence were achieved during the 6-month postoperative period. A parameatal cyst should be treated with complete surgical excision. Puncture of the cyst with a needle or surgical incision may result in recurrence.

U?ur Öztürk

2012-03-01

247

Ubiquitination dynamics in the early-branching eukaryote Giardia intestinalis  

OpenAIRE

Ubiquitination is a highly dynamic and versatile posttranslational modification that regulates protein function, stability, and interactions. To investigate the roles of ubiquitination in a primitive eukaryotic lineage, we utilized the early-branching eukaryote Giardia intestinalis. Using a combination of biochemical, immunofluorescence-based, and proteomics approaches, we assessed the ubiquitination status during the process of differentiation in Giardia. We observed that different types of ...

Polo, Simona Laura Anna

2013-01-01

248

Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst  

OpenAIRE

Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature. Here we report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with an infra-umbilical mass that turned out to be tuberculosis of the urachal cyst.

Jindal, Tarun; Kamal, Mir Reza; Jha, Jayesh Kumar

2012-01-01

249

Spontaneous onset corneoscleral hematic cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corneoscleral cysts are a rare entity. We report a case of spontaneous corneoscleral hematic cyst, which was treated by cyst excision and lamellar corneal patch graft. No recurrence of cyst was noticed during the 6 years of followup.

Shah S

2006-01-01

250

Tarlov Cyst and Infertility  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467

Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

2009-01-01

251

Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were iso [...] lated (33/429) from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh ) genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples) or assemblage B (6 samples). RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

Julio César, Torres-Romero; Antonio de Jesus, Euan-Canto; Namibya, Benito-González; Nayely, Padilla-Montaño; Claribel, Huchin-Chan; Julio, Lara-Riegos; Roberto, Cedillo-Rivera.

2014-06-01

252

[Cysts of the liver  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cysts of the liver are discovered in connection with a scope of diseases ranging from simple, infectious, or parasitic to neoplastic cysts. Symptoms, paraclinical, radiological and diagnostic characteristics are described with emphasis on ruling out malignancy. The treatment options from ultrasound guided drainage to resections and liver transplantation are discussed. It is concluded that up to 25% of cysts must be treated surgically, because recurrence after percutaneous or laparoscopic treatment is between 5% and 71%, and only resection or liver transplantation are curative Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/14

Hillingso, J.G.; Kirkegaard, P.

2008-01-01

253

Longitudinal Poisson regression to evaluate the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and fecal indicator bacteria in coastal California wetlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally influenced slough bordered by urban and agricultural areas, (ii) a seasonal wetland adjacent to a dairy, and (iii) a constructed wetland that receives agricultural runoff. Wetland type, seasonality, rainfall, and various water quality parameters were evaluated using longitudinal Poisson regression to model effects on concentrations of protozoa and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform). Among wetland types, the dairy wetland exhibited the highest protozoal and bacterial concentrations, and despite significant reductions in microbe concentrations, the wetland could still be seen to influence water quality in the downstream tidal wetland. Additionally, recent rainfall events were associated with higher protozoal and bacterial counts in wetland water samples across all wetland types. Notably, detection of E. coli concentrations greater than a 400 most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml was associated with higher Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. These findings show that natural wetlands draining agricultural and livestock operation runoff into human-utilized waterways should be considered potential sources of pathogens and that wetlands can be instrumental in reducing pathogen loads to downstream waters. PMID:22427504

Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Conrad, Patricia A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

2012-05-01

254

Co-infection of Giardia intestinalis and Cyclospora cayetanensis in an immunocompetent patient with prolonged diarrhea: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclospora cayetanensis is an agent of emerging infectious disease, and a recognized cause of diarrhea in some patients. Also, the flagellated protozoan, Giardia intestinalis, induces a diarrheal illness of the small intestine. Cases of cyclosporiasis are frequently missed, primarily due to the fact that the parasite can be quite difficult to detect in human fecal samples, despite an increasing amount of data regarding this parasite. On the other hand, G. intestinalis can be readily recognized via the microscopic visualization of its trophozoite or cyst forms in stained preparations or unstained wet mounts. In this report, we describe an uncommon case of co-infection with G. intestinalis and C. cayetanensis in an immunocompetent patient with prolonged diarrhea, living in a non-tropical region of Turkey. PMID:16820767

Koru, Ozgur; Araz, Engin; Inci, Askin; Tanyuksel, Mehmet

2006-06-01

255

Prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis from faecal samples of stray dogs in Hualien city of eastern Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea through waterborne transmission or fecal-oral infection. The cysts are chlorine-resistant and, therefore, can pollute drinking water and induce a pandemic disease. In this study, we aimed to detect G. duodenalis infection in stray dogs in Hualien, Taiwan. We collected faecal samples from 118 dogs and amplified DNA sequences of the ?-giardin gene by nested polymerase chain reactions (nested PCR). Eleven of the 118 faecal samples tested positive for the parasite. The genotype analysis of the 11 samples indicated that 7 samples belonged to assemblage C and four samples belonged to assemblage D. Our study provided a better understanding of the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in dogs from Hualien City, and human infection could not be induced by this zoonotic infection pathway in Hualien City. PMID:25134899

Tseng, Y C; Ho, G D; Chen T, T W; Huang, B F; Cheng, P C; Chen, J L; Peng, S Y

2014-06-01

256

Spinal arachnoid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical and radiological findings in six extradural and nine intradural arachnoid cysts are discussed in relation to previous reports. Only two cysts failed to opacify during positive contrast myelography; in both cases Myodil was used and in one of them contrast medium had entered the cyst on delayed films taken at 24 h. Pain was always improved and generally cured by operation, only two patients having some residual backache. There was permanent improvement of neurological function in only eight cases. The factors associated with poor permanent recovery after surgical treatment were: 1) very marked thinning of the spinal cord by the cyst, and 2) relatively longer duration of paresis - only one case had paresis for under 2 years (mean 4.8 years) compared with only two cases for over 1 year (mean 2 years) in those with good recovery. (orig.)

257

Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Simple bone cysts (SBC are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

Madhusudan S. Astekar

2012-05-01

258

Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient. PMID:24765458

Hs, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A; Astekar, Madhusudan S

2012-05-29

259

Bilateral inflamed paratubal cysts  

OpenAIRE

Paramesonephric duct remnants are an infrequent cause of abdominal symptoms in childhood. Preoperative diagnosis is often difficult and diagnosis is usually made at surgery. We report a rare presentation of an acute abdomen in a child with bilateral inflamed fimbrial cysts. Ultrasound revealed the presence of a multicystic lesion behind bladder. It was only at laparotomy the diagnosis of bilateral inflamed fimbrial cysts was establsihed. These were excised and the child made an uneventful pos...

Upadhyaya, M.; Cusick, E.

2012-01-01

260

Iatrogenic Intraspinal Epidermoid Cyst  

OpenAIRE

Epidermoid cyst is generally regarded as congenital disease, and commonly related to other congenital spinal anomalies. However, it also develops iatrogenically. We report one rare case of epidermoid cyst that we experineced among intradural extramedullary tumors. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to low back pain with radiating pain into a right lower extremity that initiated about a month ago. She complained sensory lose and motor weakness (grade 4+) on her right...

Park, Min Ho; Cho, Tach Geun; Moon, Jae Gon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

2014-01-01

261

Pelvic aneurysmal bone cyst  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes an extremely rare case of a huge aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the pelvis, occurring in the patient’s 5th decade of life. The patient presented with a history of painless huge pelvic mass for 10 years. Plain radiograph and computed tomography showed huge expansile lytic lesion arising from the right iliac bone. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to profuse bleeding from the tumour.

Suraya, A.; Nurhazla, H.; Mia, Sharifah; Sp, Tan

2011-01-01

262

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of extreme weather events and other weather-related variables on Cryptosporidium and Giardia in fresh surface waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global climate change is expected to impact drinking water quality through multiple weather-related phenomena. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between various weather-related variables and the occurrence and concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in fresh surface waters. We implemented a comprehensive search in four databases, screened 1,228 unique citations for relevance, extracted data from 107 relevant articles, and conducted random-effects meta-analysis on 16 key relationships. The average odds of identifying Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in fresh surface waters was 2.61 (95% CI = 1.63-4.21; I(2) = 16%) and 2.87 (95% CI = 1.76-4.67; I(2) = 0%) times higher, respectively, during and after extreme weather events compared to baseline conditions. Similarly, the average concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified under these conditions was also higher, by approximately 4.38 oocysts/100 L (95% CI = 2.01-9.54; I(2) = 0%) and 2.68 cysts/100 L (95% CI = 1.08-6.55; I(2) = 48%). Correlation relationships between other weather-related parameters and the density of these pathogens were frequently heterogeneous and indicated low to moderate effects. Meta-regression analyses identified different study-level factors that influenced the variability in these relationships. The results can be used as direct inputs for quantitative microbial risk assessment. Future research is warranted to investigate these effects and potential mitigation strategies in different settings and contexts. PMID:25719461

Young, Ian; Smith, Ben A; Fazil, Aamir

2015-03-01

263

Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ?5?years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children. PMID:21294949

Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

2011-01-01

264

The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O2#sm_bullet#-) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SORGi) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (Tfinal) with Fe3+ ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pKa = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SORGi reacts with O2#sm_bullet#- with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k1 = 1.0 x 109 M-1 s-1 and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T1; this in turn rapidly decays to the Tfinal state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SORGi is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scGiardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

265

Incidental Pancreatic Cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypothesis Widespread use of computed tomography and ultrasound has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with asymptomatic cystic lesions of the pancreas. Design Retrospective case series of patients with pancreatic cystic lesions. Setting University-affiliated tertiary care referral center. Patients Two hundred twelve patients with pancreatic cystic lesions seen in our surgical practice during 5 years (April 1997-March 2002). Main Outcome Measures Presence or absence of symptoms, cyst size and location, cytologic or pathologic diagnosis, surgical treatment, and outcome. Results Seventy-eight (36.7%) of 212 patients were asymptomatic. Incidental cysts were smaller (3.3 ± 1.9 vs 4.6 ± 2.7 cm; P<.001) and were found in older patients (65 ± 13 vs 56 ± 15 years; P<.001). Seventy-eight percent of the asymptomatic patients and 87% of those with symptoms underwent surgery, with a single operative death in the entire group (0.5%). Seventeen percent of asymptomatic cysts were serous cystadenomas; 28%, mucinous cystic neoplasms; 27%, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms; and 2.5%, ductal adenocarcinomas. The respective numbers for symptomatic cysts were 7%, 16%, 40%, and 9%. Ten percent of asymptomatic patients had a variety of other cystic lesions, and in 12%, no definitive cytologic or pathologic diagnosis was obtained. Overall, 17% of asymptomatic patients had in situ or invasive cancer, and 42% had a premalignant lesion. When evaluated as a function of size, only 1 (3.5%) of 28 asymptomatic cysts smaller than 2 cm had cancer compared with 13 (26%) of 50 cysts larger than 2 cm (P = .04). The proportion of premalignant lesions, however, remained high in both groups (46% and 38%, respectively). Pseudocysts comprised only 3.8% of asymptomatic cysts compared with 19.4% of symptomatic cysts (P = .003). Conclusions Incidental pancreatic cysts are common, occur in older patients, are smaller than symptomatic cysts, and are unlikely to be pseudocysts. More than half of them are either malignant or premalignant lesions and therefore cannot be dismissed. PMID:12686529

Fernández-del Castillo, Carlos; Targarona, Javier; Thayer, Sarah P.; Rattner, David W.; Brugge, William R.; Warshaw, Andrew L.

2014-01-01

266

THYROGLOSSAL DUCT CYST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC results from a failure in obliterating the embryogenic duct produced during thyroid migration and it represents the most common type of developmental cyst encountered in the neck region. Ectopic thyroid tissue neoplasias are rare, and even rarer when associated with the TDC. Methods: During the period 1998-2008, in the First Surgical Clinic, University Hospital “St. Spiridon” Iasi, 14 patients with thyroglossal duct cyst were diagnosed and treated. All records were reviewed for age and sex, diagnostic methods, sizes, surgical management and recurrences. Results: All patients with thyroglossal duct cysts are described as midline cysts of the neck. The ratio females/males was 6/1 with mean age 37.6 years (13-60 years. One case was with an external fistula. The treatment performed was a variant of Sistrunk’s procedure in which the thyroglossal tract was excised to a variable extent, but in all cases with central hyoidectomy. The size of the cyst ranged from 1.2 to 4 cm (mean 2.6 cm. Postoperative course was unventful in all cases. No recurrence was recorded in this series. We describe a case, a 19 years old female with thyroid papillary carcinoma evolving from a TDC. The literature is reviewed. Conclusion: The standard surgical approach to TDC is Sistrunk's operation with low recurrence rates. Malignancy within a thyroglossal duct cyst is very rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass. In such cases total thyroidectomy with removal of the tumour of thyroglossal duct and the body of the hyoid bone are recommended – because the carcinoma may be multifocal and because a lymphatic invasion of the thyroid may take place – in order to ensure a correct follow-up.

E. Târcoveanu

2009-02-01

267

Ovarian chocolate cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the ssing the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

268

In Vitro Effects of Thiazolides on Giardia lamblia WB Clone C6 Cultured Axenically and in Coculture with Caco2 Cells  

OpenAIRE

The thiazolides represent a novel class of anti-infective drugs, with the nitrothiazole nitazoxanide [2-acetolyloxy-N-(5-nitro 2-thiazolyl) benzamide] (NTZ) as the parent compound. NTZ exhibits a broad spectrum of activities against a wide variety of helminths, protozoa, and enteric bacteria infecting animals and humans. In vivo, NTZ is rapidly deacetylated to tizoxanide (TIZ), which exhibits similar activities. We have here comparatively investigated the in vitro effects of NTZ, TIZ, a numbe...

Mu?ller, Joachim; Ru?hle, Ge?raldine; Mu?ller, Norbert; Rossignol, Jean-franc?ois; Hemphill, Andrew

2006-01-01

269

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Verification testing of the Leopold Ultrabar Mark III Ultrafiltration System was conducted from February 3 to March 9, 1999. The performance claim evaluated during field testing of the Leopold Ultrabar Mark III Ultrafiltration System was that the system is capable of a mini...

270

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., spatial clustering and patterns of shedding in dairy calves from Córdoba, Argentina / Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., distribuição espacial e padrões de eliminação em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., a presença de aglomerados, a distribuição espacial de acordo com o tipo de solo e padrões de eliminação de cistos e oocistos em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina. Amostras fecais f [...] oram colhidas de 620 bezerros com menos de sete semanas de idade, provenientes de 43 propriedades leiteiras e examinadas pelas técnicas de formol-éter e Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Foram realizadas uma análise univariada e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e, em seguida, uma análise multivariada com a intensidade de eliminação de cistos e oocistos, como um evento. A presença de aglomerados foi determinada com o método de varredura e a análise espacial foi realizada para explorar a sobreposição de rebanhos com alta prevalência e tipo de solo. A prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foi de 19,35% (IC 95%: 16,14; 22,54) e 34,50% (IC 95%: 30,69; 38,34), respectivamente. A probabilidade de infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. foi quase quatro vezes maior para bezerros com menos de 2 semanas em comparação com os bezerros mais velhos (RR: 3,78, IC 95% 2,27; 6,26). O mesmo padrão de infecção relacionada à idade foi observado para Giardia spp. (RR: 1,33, IC 95% 1,02; 1,75). Foi encontrado um aglomerado primário com alta prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp., e rebanhos com alta prevalência foram localizados em solos mal drenados. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to estimate calf and herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., the herd prevalence clustering, spatial distribution according to soil type and shedding patterns in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina. Six hundred twenty calves younger than 7 weeks o [...] f age from 43 dairy herds were sampled. Samples were processed with the formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Univariate analysis and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used. Factors associated were subjected to multivariate analysis with calf shedding intensity as the response variable. Clustering of herd prevalence was assessed by a scan method, and spatial analysis was applied to explore the overlapping of high prevalence herds and soil type. Overall calf prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were 19.35% (95% CI: 16.14; 22.54) and 34.50% (95% CI: 30.69; 38.34), respectively. Calves younger than two weeks of age were almost four times more likely to be infected with Cryptosporidium, in comparison to older ones (RR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.27; 6.26). Giardia spp. shedding showed a similar age pattern (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.75). A primary cluster of high Cryptosporidium prevalence was found, and high prevalence herds were located in areas with poor drained soil.

Karina, Tiranti; Alejandro, Larriestra; Claudina, Vissio; Natalia, Picco; Fabrisio, Alustiza; Americo, Degioanni; Adriana, Vivas.

2011-06-01

271

CERVICAL SYNOVIAL CYST: CASE REPORT  

OpenAIRE

A 47-year-old female school teacher with a six-week history of left-sided scapular and arm pain is presented. We report her evaluation and treatment Although lumbar degenerative synovial cysts have been reported over 200 times in the literature,6 cervical synovial cysts are much more rare. This case reports a cervicothoracic junction degenerative synovial cyst presenting as radiculopathy.

Found, Ernest; Bewyer, Dennis

2011-01-01

272

Chylous cysts of the mesentery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mesenteric cysts are uncommon lesions with a variable clinical presentation. A provisional diagnosis is possible on clinical and radiological grounds, while confirmation is subject to histopathological examination. We present two cases of mesenteric cysts, both occurring in children. Following clinical examination and histopathological analysis, both were diagnosed as cases of chylous mesenteric cysts.

Ansari H

2007-01-01

273

Three cases of liver cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three cases of liver cyst were reported. They were performed ultrasonography, computed tomography, radionuclide liver scintigraphy and selective angiography examinations. Ultrasonography is recommended as the screening procedure of liver cyst, because it usually comfirms the cystic charactaristics of the lesion. Selective angiography should raise the suspicion of liver cyst and give the information about location, extent and nature of the lesion. (author)

274

New observations on meniscal cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meniscal cysts, assess the frequency of various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, and emphasize radiographic observations not commonly reported. A total of 2,095 consecutive knee MR imaging reports from a 22 month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of meniscal cysts. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the cases where cysts were reported. A meniscal cyst was considered present if abnormally increased signal was identified within an enlarged meniscus (i.e., intrameniscal cyst) or if a loculated fluid-intensity lesion with a clear connection to the adjacent meniscus was identified (i.e., parameniscal cyst). Presence or absence of a meniscal tear, intrameniscal and parameniscal signal intensity, patient age, sex, location of meniscal cyst, presence of discoid meniscus, and size of the parameniscal cyst component were recorded. All knee imaging examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR unit. Imaging findings were correlated with arthroscopic reports when available. A total of 167 cases (8.0%) of meniscal cysts were diagnosed in 161 patients. Of the 167 cysts, 69 (41.3%) were located in the lateral meniscus and 98 (58.7%) in the medial meniscus. In 6 patients (3.7%), meniscal cysts were present in both menisci of the same knee. Twelve (7.2%) meniscal cysts were associated with discoid menisci. Ninety-seven (57.8%) meniscal cysts were associated with meniscal tears. Of the total number of meniscal cysts, 104 (62.3%) had a parameniscal cyst. An isolated intrameniscal cyst was present in 63 (37.7%) cases. One hundred (96%) of the parameniscal cyst components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. All cysts exhibited abnormal intrameniscal signal. Only 14 (8.4%) of the intrameniscal components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. The arthroscopic reports of 88 of the 161 (54.7%) patients were available for review and correlation. A tear extending to the articular surface of the meniscus was reported to be present in 74 of the 88 (84%) arthroscopic examinations. Knowledge of the spectrum of findings and the relative frequency of various MR imaging characteristics as well as common potential pitfalls is important to the accurate diagnosis and management of mensical cysts. In particular, controversy exists as to the incidence of articular surface tears in association with meniscal cysts, with some authors reporting greater than 98% correlation with tears. Only 58% of cysts were associated with an articular surface tear. Ninety six percent of the parameniscal signal was isointense to fluid, only 8% of the intramensical signal was isointense to fluid. (orig.)

Anderson, Jada Jean; Connor, Gregory F.; Helms, Clyde A. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2010-12-15

275

Atypically located hydatid cyst cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six hydatid cysts cases without a primary source anywherewere presented. Hydatid cyst is a parasitic diseasewell known for years are commonly located in liver andlungs. Those intradiaphragmatic and intramyocardiacwere diagnosed preoperatively but those lying subcutaneouslyon sternum and the right first rib were recognizedafter operation. They were also confirmed with pathologicstudy. Patients were also detected for hydatid cysts elsewhere.As an endemic disease in our country, atypicallocations should be kept in mind. This disease is to beremembered in considering soft tissue tumors. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 352-355Key words: Atypically cyst, intradiaphragmatic cyst, intramyocardialcyst

Fatih Metero?lu

2013-09-01

276

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in cetaceans on the European Atlantic coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in cetacean specimens stranded on the northwestern coast of Spain (European Atlantic coast) by analysis of 65 samples of large intestine from eight species. The parasites were identified by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR amplification of the ?-giardin gene, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the SSU-rDNA gene of Giardia and the SSU-rDNA gene of Cryptosporidium. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 7 (10.8 %) and 9 samples (13.8 %), respectively. In two samples, co-infection with both parasites was observed. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, C, D and F, and Cryptosporidium parvum were identified. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Kogia breviceps and Stenella coeruleoalba and also the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. in B. acutorostrata and of C. parvum in S. coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus. These results extend the known host range of these waterborne enteroparasites. PMID:25418072

Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Martínez-Cedeira, José A; Romero-Suances, Rafael; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

2015-02-01

277

Intraepithelial giardia intestinalis: a case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease. The WHO has estimated more than 280 million of human infections each year; however, intraepithelial giardiasis is a rare entity, there are only 5 reports showing invasive giardiasis. A pediatric female patient with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea, or pasty stools, without fever, was seen in the Gastroenterology and Nutrition Service. The stool studies were negative for pathogens and lactose hydrogen breath test was positive. The presumptive clinical diagnosis was giardiasis and the patient was empirically treated with nitazoxanide. But, the patient persisted with abdominal pain and pasty stools. Endoscopy was indicated to search for Helicobacter and Giardia. Guardian and patient gave written informed consent. Hematological profile was normal. The endoscopy was performed under general anesthesia and the biopsies and duodenal aspirate were obtained. The microscopic analyses of duodenal fluid showed Giardia trophozoites. Electron microscopic analysis was negative for Helicobacter pylori, but Giardia trophozoites with a typical crescent shape within the tissue were found. The patient was treated with tinidazole, subsequent tests showed that lactose absorption was normal, stool examinations were negative for Giardia and abdominal pain had stopped. This case suggest that intraepithelial giardiasis could be a common entity but unseen because the giardiasis diagnosis is usually made on fecal samples. Future studies are necessary to determine the role of intraepithelial trophozoites in giardiasis pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25546671

Martínez-Gordillo, Mario Noé; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Montijo-Barrios, Ericka; Ponce-Macotela, Martha

2014-12-01

278

Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts. PMID:20102100

Sajko, Tomislav; Kova?, Damir; Kudeli?, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

2009-12-01

279

Intradural spinal cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

18 cases of benign intradural spinal cyst (9 arachnoidal, 2 neuroepithelial, 7 endodermal) are reported and compared with 94 cases (67 arachnoidal, 7 neuroepithelial, 20 endodermal) obtained from the literature. Arachnoidal intradural cysts (AIC) have no sex preference, occur at around the fourth-fifth decades of life and have characteristic intermittent root symptoms. They prefer the thoracic level and the posterior position. (Myelography images the cystic cavity (diverticular form). Surgical removal is usually easy. Neuroepithelial intradural cysts (NIC) are rare, have a 2:1 predilection for females and occur after the fourth decade. They have a serious clinical course similar to intramedullary or extramedullary tumours. They prefer the conus-cauda and the anterolateral positions. They often give rise to manometric block and to albuminocytological dissociation. There may be substantial adhesions to the cord and roots and the intramedullary variety presents no clear plane of cleavage. Endodermal intradural cysts (EIC) have a 2:1 predilection for males and prefer the second and third decades. They may have an intermittent or serious course with signs of root and cord impairment. They prefer the cervical segment (in the anterior position) and the conus-cauda (in the posterior position). As a rule they present manometric block and albuminocytological dissociation. Their frequent tough adhesions to the roots and cord demand special care during their removal. PMID:6880882

Fortuna, A; Mercuri, S

1983-01-01

280

Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermoid cyst is generally regarded as congenital disease, and commonly related to other congenital spinal anomalies. However, it also develops iatrogenically. We report one rare case of epidermoid cyst that we experineced among intradural extramedullary tumors. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to low back pain with radiating pain into a right lower extremity that initiated about a month ago. She complained sensory lose and motor weakness (grade 4+) on her right extremity as well as urinary dysfunction and sphincter dysfunction. She had a lumbar puncture three times due to Pneumococcal meningitis when she was 13 years old. The well-circumscribed intradural extramedullary mass of 1.8×1.6×4 cm size was found on the L4-5 in a magnetic resonance image. Gross total tumor removal was garried out after the total laminectomy L5 and partial laminectomy L4. The tumor mass was gray-colored and so fragile that it was easy to be removed. The histological diagnosis confirmed epidermoid cyst without malignancy. After the operation, the patient progressively showed remarkable neurological recovery. In this case, the cause of epidermoid cyst is considered iatrogenic concerning history of several times of lumbar puncture as meningitis. PMID:25346768

Park, Min Ho; Cho, Tach Geun; Moon, Jae Gon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

2014-09-01

281

Intrathoracic duplication cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Retrospective review of thoracic enteric cysts diagnosed in a Regional Children's Hospital over a 28-year period are presented. Fifteen of the 17 children presented in the first year of life. There were eight associated anomalies of the gastrointestinal and nervous system. The radiological findings are discussed in detail. 16 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

282

Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, besides the daycare center workers, also had their feces submitted to parasitological analysis. Seven mothers and nine brothers also presented G. duodenalis cysts, while fathers, daycare workers and pets (dogs) did not presented the parasite. Besides the 15 cases with G. duodenalis, other 23 children presented other enteroparasites (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). Samples of G. duodenalis cysts from children and their relatives were submitted to molecular typing by RAPD after genomic DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rDNA region by PCR. After examining 31 isolates of G. duodenalis (children and their respective mothers and brothers), it was concluded that the parasite transmission occurred in children, probably during daily cohabitation at the daycare center, but not at home among their relatives or pets. PMID:19229386

Tashima, Nair Toshiko; Simões, Maria Jacira Silva; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Fluminhan, Antonio; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Malaspina, Ana Carolina

2009-01-01

283

Imaging diagnosis of Baker's cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the imaging features of Baker's cysts and to improve the accuracy in diagnosis. Methods: Imaging manifestation of 22 cases with Baker's cysts were analyzed retrospectively. The location and shape of cysts and feature of signal (density) and relation with the adjacent cysts were reviewed. Results: With 22 cases of Baker's cysts, 9 cases (40.9%) located between the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranous muscle, 4 cases (18.2%) in the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, 4 cases (18.2%) in the joint capsule, 3 cases (13.6%) in the semimembranous muscle, 1 cases located between the lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle and biceps muscle of thigh, 1 cases in the popliteal muscle. Conclusion: The location, size, shape, adjacent relationship and accompanied diseases of Baker's cysts can be better displayed on the CT, MRI, which can provide important clinical value. (authors)

284

Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

Nagy John

2008-09-01

285

Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq  

OpenAIRE

A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot) and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107), while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was...

Butty, E. T.

2011-01-01

286

[Coccygodynia disclosing Tarlov's cysts].  

Science.gov (United States)

In a 63-year old male patient coccygodynia, initially isolated then complicated by incomplete cauda equina syndrome, could be attributed to large perineurel meningeal cysts on the sacral nerve roots. The diagnosis was suspected at computerized tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance and confirmed by sacculoradiculography. Intradural injections of corticosteroids provided lasting pain relief. Arachnoid cysts are often asymptomatic, by they may be responsible for coccygodynia and/or incomplete cauda equina syndrome. Their presence is suggested by the characteristics of the symptoms which are paroxysmal, exacerbated in standing position, relieved in dorsal position and revived by percussing the sacrum. Treatment is medical in most cases. The decision to operate depends on the persistence and intensity of pain and on whether signs of neurological defecit are present. PMID:2096431

Dehaine, V; Wechsler, B; Ziza, J M; de Gennes, C; Robain, G; Fohanno, D; Metzger, J; Godeau, P

1990-01-01

287

Bronchogenic cysts; images evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bronchogenic cyst's represent the result of abnormal development of the tracheo-bronchial tree, and are considered to be the 5% of the pediatric mediastinal masses, and around the 4% of pulmonary radiolucent lesions in the adults. It's well known that it occurs more often in the mediastinum, although it also can be present in the pulmonary parenchyma as well as in extratoracic sites. We present a 68-year-old patient, with bronchogenic cyst since her infancy that shows different stages at different moments, with fluid level inside. Those changes did not produce any clinical variation, and the patient was asymptomatic. Also we review and present some other cases evaluated by different imaging modalities

288

Intradiploic epidermoid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied 37 intradiploic epidermoid cysts, reviewing typical and atypical radiological features and the differential diagnosis. The most common clinical feature was a long standing lump in the scalp, occurring in 25 patients (67.7 %). Plain films were the most cost-effective radiological technique in diagnosis. The typical finding was a well-defined lytic lesion with sclerotic border, seen in 29 cases (78 %). Atypical lesions were those larger than 5 cm and/or with an ill-defined edge, being observed in 8 cases (22 %). CT and MRI were the best methods for assessing atypical ones. In all cases with typical radiological findings a preoperative diagnosis of intradiploic epidermoid cyst was suggested. (orig.). With 8 figs., 3 tabs

289

Calcified hepatic hydatid cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: 62-years-old woman had been diagnosed with right suprarenal and renal masses at abdominal ultrasonography. Pre-contrast axial and post-contrast coronal abdominal CT also demonstrated a laminar calcified liver mass, 7x4 cm in size, in segment seven. Liver mass was found incidentally and not related to the primer disease of the patient. Although ultrasonography is helpful in diagnosis of hydatid cyst, CT is more effective in detection of solid components and calcification

290

Cisto de Baker Baker's cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os cistos de Baker localizam-se na região posteromedial do joelho, entre o ventre medial do músculo gastrocnêmio e o tendão semimembranoso. No adulto, esses cistos estão relacionados a lesões intra-articulares, quais sejam, lesões meniscais ou artrose. Nas crianças, geralmente são achados de exame físico ou de exames de imagem, apresentando pouca relevância clínica. O exame de ultrassonografia é adequado para identificar e mensurar o cisto poplíteo. Para o tratamento, a abordagem principal deve ser relacionada ao tratamento da lesão articular. Na maioria dos casos não há necessidade de se abordar diretamente o cisto. Os cistos no joelho são, quase na sua totalidade, benignos (cistos de Baker e cistos parameniscais. Porém, a presença de alguns sinais demanda que o ortopedista suspeite da possibilidade de malignidade: sintomas desproporcionais ao tamanho do cisto, ausência de lesão articular (ex.: meniscal que justifique a existência do cisto, topografia atípica, erosão óssea associada, tamanho superior a 5cm e invasão tecidual (cápsula articular.Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually found on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts, presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule.

Marco Kawamura Demange

2011-01-01

291

Squamous-lined cysts of the pancreas: lymphoepithelial cysts, dermoid cysts (teratomas), and accessory-splenic epidermoid cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the pancreas, 3 types of morphologically similar lesions may present as "squamous cysts": Lymphoepithelial cysts, dermoid cysts (monodermal teratomas), and epidermoid cysts in intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are seen predominantly in men (M/F: 4/1) and in adulthood (mean age, 56, and range, 35 to 74 years). They may occur at any site of the organ (head, body, or tail). LECs are well-delineated cysts that may be multilocular (60%) or unilocular (40%), and they are characterized microscopically by stratified squamous epithelium surrounded by a band of mature lymphoid tissue with intervening well-formed germinal centers. Solid lymphoepithelial clusters are seldom seen. The pathogenesis of LECs is unclear; clinical diseases that are known to be associated with their counterparts in the salivary glands such as Sjogren disease or human immunodeficiency virus have not been documented for the LECs of the pancreas. The second type of squamous-lined cyst in the pancreas is the epidermoid cyst arising in intrapancreatic accessory spleen. These are located almost exclusively in the tail of the pancreas, in the fourth decade of life (mean age = 38). Their mean size is 4.5 cm (range, 2.3 to 6.5). In some cases, the cyst lining may be partly mucinous. Dermoid cysts of the pancreas are also rare. The cases that appear to be true dermoid cysts occur in a younger age group (mean age, 23, range, 2 to 53 years), and in contrast with LEC, there is no gender predominance. Mucinous epithelium, respiratory-type mucosa and sebaceous units are more readily identifiable in dermoid cysts, and they may contain hair. Subepithelial lymphoid tissue is not a feature. They are sometimes complicated by suppurative infections. The importance of these lesions is in their distinction from other cystic neoplasms, especially mucinous cystic tumors. PMID:10721807

Adsay, N V; Hasteh, F; Cheng, J D; Klimstra, D S

2000-02-01

292

Conjunctival cysts in anophthalmic orbits.  

OpenAIRE

Five out of 149 patients (3%) who received an intraorbital implant to prevent or treat the disfiguring symptoms associated with the postenucleation socket syndrome developed intraorbital conjunctival cysts. All five patients had received a secondary implant two 14 months previously. After excision of the cysts four patients required additional surgery for lack of conjunctiva and/or recurrent cyst formation. The clinical findings, mechanism of development, and management of this rare but serio...

Smit, T. J.; Koornneef, L.; Zonneveld, F. W.

1991-01-01

293

[Traumatic cysts of the spleen].  

Science.gov (United States)

During a routine clinical examination of a 7-year-old girl and a 17-year-old man a large tumor was discovered in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Large splenic cyst were found in the spleen at splenectomy. The traumatic etiology of the cysts can be assumed on the basis of histologic results, as well as of a significant history of previous trauma. The etiology, differential diagnosis, therapy, and classification of splenic cysts are discussed. PMID:844390

Wolter, D; Nestle, W; Wentzensen, A; Bültmann, B

1977-03-01

294

[Mesoappendix cyst. A case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenteric cysts are lesions that appear very rare. Its incidence ranges from 1:20,000 in children and 1:100,000 in adults. Their clinical manifestations are atypical and they include abdominal pain, vomit, tumor and complications from hemorrhage, peritonitis when there is a rupture of infected cyst, intestinal occlusion, renal failure, volvulus and malignant transformation. We present a case of mesenteric cyst, located in the mesoappendix with slight vascular compromise and chronic symptoms, its treatment and evolution. PMID:19241665

Montiel-Jarquín, José Alvaro; Romero-Morales, Luis Enrique; Enríquez-Adalid, Ramiro Martín; Mendoza-García, Valentín Aurelio; Reyes-Páramo, Pedro; López-Colomo, Aurelio

2008-01-01

295

DNA extraction from protozoan oocysts/cysts in feces for diagnostic PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

PCR detection of intestinal protozoa is often restrained by a poor DNA recovery or by inhibitors present in feces. The need for an extraction protocol that can overcome these obstacles is therefore clear. QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) was evaluated for its ability to recover DNA from oocysts/cysts directly from feces. Twenty-five Giardia-positive, 15 Cryptosporidium-positive, 15 Entamoeba histolytica-positive, and 45 protozoa-free samples were processed as control by microscopy and immunoassay tests. DNA extracts were amplified using 3 sets of published primers. Following the manufacturer's protocol, the kit showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% towards Giardia and Entamoeba. However, for Cryptosporidium, the sensitivity and specificity were 60% (9/15) and 100%, respectively. A series of optimization experiments involving various steps of the kit's protocol were conducted using Cryptosporidium-positive samples. The best DNA recoveries were gained by raising the lysis temperature to the boiling point for 10 min and the incubation time of the InhibitEX tablet to 5 min. Also, using a pre-cooled ethanol for nucleic acid precipitation and small elution volume (50-100 µl) were valuable. The sensitivity of the amended protocol to Cryptosporidium was raised to 100%. Cryptosporidium DNA was successfully amplified by either the first or the second primer set. When applied on parasite-free feces spiked with variable oocysts/cysts counts, ? 2 oocysts/cysts were theoretically enough for detection by PCR. To conclude, the Qiagen kit with the amended protocol was proved to be suitable for protozoan DNA extraction directly from feces and support PCR diagnosis. PMID:25031466

Hawash, Yousry

2014-06-01

296

Cryptosporidium and Giardia: treatment options and prospects for new drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis are the most common enteric protozoan pathogens affecting humans worldwide. In recent years, nitazoxanide has been licensed in the United States for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in non-immunodeficient children and adults, becoming the first drug approved for treating this disease. There is a need for a highly effective treatment for cryptosporidiosis in immunodeficient patients, but the quest for such a drug has proven to be elusive. While not effective against Cryptosporidium, nitroimidazoles such as metronidazole or tinidazole are effective treatments for giardiasis and can be administered as a single dose. Albendazole and nitazoxanide are effective against giardiasis but require multiple doses. Nitazoxanide is the first new drug developed for treating giardiasis in more than 20years. New potentially promising drug targets in Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been identified, but there appears to be little activity toward clinical development of new drugs. PMID:19632225

Rossignol, Jean-François

2010-01-01

297

Giardia intestinalis Incorporates Heme into Cytosolic Cytochrome b5  

OpenAIRE

The anaerobic intestinal pathogen Giardia intestinalis does not possess enzymes for heme synthesis, and it also lacks the typical set of hemoproteins that are involved in mitochondrial respiration and cellular oxygen stress management. Nevertheless, G. intestinalis may require heme for the function of particular hemoproteins, such as cytochrome b5 (cytb5). We have analyzed the sequences of eukaryotic cytb5 proteins and identified three distinct cytb5 groups: group I, which consists of C-tail ...

Pyrih, Jan; Harant, Karel; Martincova?, Eva; Sutak, Robert; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Hrdy?, Ivan; Tachezy, Jan

2014-01-01

298

High Sensitivity of Giardia duodenalis to Tetrahydrolipstatin (Orlistat) In Vitro  

OpenAIRE

Giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis, is currently treated mainly with nitroimidazoles, primarily metronidazole (MTZ). Treatment failure rates of up to 20 percent reflect the compelling need for alternative treatment options. Here, we investigated whether orlistat, a drug approved to treat obesity, represents a potential therapeutic agent against giardiasis. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of orlistat and MTZ on a long-term in vitro culture adapted G. ...

Hahn, Juliane; Seeber, Frank; Kolodziej, Herbert; Ignatius, Ralf; Laue, Michael; Aebischer, Toni; Klotz, Christian

2013-01-01

299

Cryptosporidium and Giardia: new challenges to the water industry  

OpenAIRE

The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis have emerged as significant waterborne pathogens over the past decades. Many outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recorded, primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom.Chapter 1 gives an overview on the currently available knowledge on the parasites, the disease, the transmission through drinking water and the measures to prevent waterborne transmission. The disease caus...

Medema, Gerriet Jan

1999-01-01

300

The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-}) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR{sub Gi}) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T{sub final}) with Fe{sup 3+} ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK{sub a} = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR{sub Gi} reacts with O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k{sub 1} = 1.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T{sub 1}; this in turn rapidly decays to the T{sub final} state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR{sub Gi} is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

2011-10-15

301

Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, th [...] e variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

Sandra P, Melo; Vanessa, Gómez; Isabel C, Castellanos; Magda E, Alvarado; Paula C, Hernández; Amanda, Gallego; Moisés, Wasserman.

2008-06-01

302

Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT), +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using primers that target the ?-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month. PMID:23295744

Kuk, Salih; Yazar, Suleyman; Cetinkaya, Ulfet

2012-12-01

303

Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT, +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification was performed using primers that target the ?-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

Salih Kuk

2012-12-01

304

Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative r [...] esults. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT), +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using primers that target the ?-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

Salih, Kuk; Suleyman, Yazar; Ulfet, Cetinkaya.

2012-12-01

305

Intracranial and orbital hydatid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parasitic diseases involving brain and orbit are relatively rare in Tunisia; the most frequently encountered is the hydatid cyst, 55 examples of which were seen since CT scanning was introduced into Tunisia 2 years ago. Various aspects of the intracerebral and orbital hydatid cysts are reported and a tentative classification is made based on characteristics revealed by CT. (orig.)

306

Branchial cyst in a dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

A French bulldog was presented with a facial swelling. Histology revealed a branchial cleft cyst. The first attempt to treat by incision, aspiration and drainage was unsuccessful. A complete surgical excision of the mass using a CO2 Laser lead to a full recovery. The location, size and type of tissues were compatible with a first branchial cleft cyst Type II. PMID:23985094

Roux, P; Kuehn, N

2013-09-01

307

Arachnoid cyst: adversity ans plasticity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report four cases of surgically treated intracranial arachnoid cysts, one with cyst-peritoneal shunt and three with craniotomy and arachnoid membrane resection. Their classification and etiopathogeny are discussed, and especially the different methods of treatment comparing the drastic complications (adversities with the favorable solutions in severe clinical cases (plasticity treated at our institution.

BORGES GUILHERME

1999-01-01

308

Arachnoid cyst: adversity ans plasticity  

OpenAIRE

We report four cases of surgically treated intracranial arachnoid cysts, one with cyst-peritoneal shunt and three with craniotomy and arachnoid membrane resection. Their classification and etiopathogeny are discussed, and especially the different methods of treatment comparing the drastic complications (adversities) with the favorable solutions in severe clinical cases (plasticity) treated at our institution.

BORGES GUILHERME; ZAMBELLI HELDER JOSÉ LESSA; FERNANDES YVENS BARBOSA; CARELLI EDMUR FRANCO; BONILHA LEONARDO

1999-01-01

309

Tailgut cyst in a child  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tailgut cyst, or retrorectal cystic hamartoma, is a rare congenital lesion found in the presacral space. The lesion has been infrequently reported in the literature. We report the MRI findings of a tailgut cyst in a 2-year-old girl who presented with a sacral dimple and skin discoloration. (orig.)

Podberesky, Daniel J.; Emery, Kathleen H.; Care, Marguerite M.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Falcone, Richard A.; Ryckman, Frederick C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Miles, Lili [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

2005-02-01

310

Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report an unusual patient with multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts. A 20-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache and progressive left-sided hempiparesis. A cerebral CT scan showed a large and heterogeneous parieto-occipital lesion. During surgery an infected hydatid cyst was discovered with multiple daughter vesicles. Post-operatively the patient was treated with albendazol, cefotaxime and metronidazole. The clinical course was good with total recovery of the hemiparesis. A follow-up CT scan showed persistence of some small deep-seated cysts. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cyst is uncommon and can be confused with other cystic brain lesions. The aim of surgery is to remove the cyst unruptured and this should be followed by antihelminthic and antibiotic treatment in order to avoid recurrences. PMID:18342511

Gana, R; Skhissi, M; Maaqili, R; Bellakhdar, F

2008-05-01

311

Popliteal cysts: a current review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Baker's cyst, or popliteal cyst, is a fluid-filled mass that is a distention of a preexisting bursa in the popliteal fossa, most commonly the gastrocnemio-semimembranosus bursa. This bursa is unique in that it communicates with the knee joint, unlike other periarticular bursae, via an opening in the joint capsule posterior to the medial femoral condyle. Many have theorized that this opening creates a valve-like mechanism in the presence of effusion that contributes to the formation of these cysts in adults. Popliteal cysts rarely manifest alone and are most often found in conjunction with other intra-articular pathologies and inflammatory conditions, such as osteoarthritis, meniscus tears, and rheumatoid arthritis. In children, popliteal cysts are only occasionally associated with these conditions and are more often an incidental finding discovered during a routine physical examination. Popliteal cysts may present as either a chronically persistent or relapsing condition or as an acute and dramatic condition that can occur in the case of cyst rupture presenting as pseudothrombophlebitis. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proven to be consistent and accurate in the confirmation of popliteal cysts, with magnetic resonance imaging becoming the modern imaging modality of choice. This review discusses the anatomy and etiology of popliteal cysts, describes the common clinical presentations, reviews the differential diagnoses, and provides guidance for proper diagnostic imaging. It also provides a comparison of current conservative, minimally invasive, and invasive treatment options, along with a discussion of results. Postoperative rehabilitation depends largely on the condition associated with the popliteal cyst. PMID:25102502

Herman, Alyssa M; Marzo, John M

2014-08-01

312

OCCURRENCE OF 'CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI' AND 'GIARDIA SPECIES' IN MUSKRAT (ONDATRA ZIBETHICA)  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 189 muskrat fecal samples were surveyed for Campylobacter and Giardia species. Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 47.5% of these samples, and Giardia species were detected in 82.5%. These findings indicate that muskrat may be of importance to the health both of hu...

313

Epicardial cysts: report of two rare cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epicardial cysts originating directly from the epicardium are seen very rarely. Complete surgical excision is recommended when these cysts are detected. If cysts compress surrounding vital structures, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) should also be considered. We report herein 2 cases of multiloculated epicardial cysts, both of which were successfully excised, 1 with CPB. PMID:22360907

Hatemi, Ali Can; Kumbasar, Ulas; Servet, Ercan; Coskun, Ugur; Bostan, Cem; Oz, Büge

2012-02-01

314

[Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery. PMID:19143297

Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

2008-01-01

315

Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts  

Science.gov (United States)

Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

Tarlov, I. M.

1970-01-01

316

Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

317

Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2012-08-15

318

MR imaging of pineal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer ml or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors

319

Thoracal spinal extradural arachnoid cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arachnoid cyst are fluid-filled that are located between the arachnoid and piamater or duplicationof arachnoid membrane. Extradural arachnoid cysts in the spine are rare and primary are congenital or acquired. These are occurring idiopathic, posttraumatic and post arachnoiditis. A 32 year-old male patient is became a clinic with urinary retention and gait disorders. Thoracic Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a spinal extradurally cystic mass isointense with that cerebro-spinal fluid at T7-8 level. Patient underwent an operation. The diagnosis of arachnoid cyst was made based on histopathology exam. The case was reported due to very rare occurrence of this entity.

Olcay Eser

2011-12-01

320

Computed tomography of follicular cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A follicular cyst of the maxillary sinus was found in a 16-year-old girl complained of right-sided nasal obstruction of a 4-months' duration. Plain X-ray and computed tomography revealed a homogenous cystic shadow in the maxillary sinus and a dental shadow. The cyst and tooth were removed by trans-bucco-labial approach. It was concluded that CT is useful to ascertain the region of cyst and to determin the anatomical correlation to the surrounding structures. (author)

321

Computed tomography of follicular cyst  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A follicular cyst of the maxillary sinus was found in a 16-year-old girl complained of right-sided nasal obstruction of a 4-months' duration. Plain X-ray and computed tomography revealed a homogenous cystic shadow in the maxillary sinus and a dental shadow. The cyst and tooth were removed by trans-bucco-labial approach. It was concluded that CT is useful to ascertain the region of cyst and to determine the anatomical correlation to the surrounding structures.

Teramura, Kimiko; Takeoda, Shoji; Nishijima, Wataru; Kitano, Motoo; Tsuchiya, Shinichi (Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan))

1983-09-01

322

Hydatid cyst of head of pancreas mimicking choledochal cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 5-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain, intermittent jaundice and a gall bladder lump. Clinical examination and preoperative imaging suggested the diagnosis of a type I choledochal cyst (CDC). During surgery, this was found to be a hydatid cyst (HC) occupying the head of pancreas causing obstruction to the common bile duct (CBD). A pancreatic HC mimicking a CDC and presenting with CBD obstruction is unusual. PMID:22693192

Agrawal, Sanwar; Parag, Pulak

2011-01-01

323

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

2008-05-29

324

Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matricefluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

325

Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

Ramadan, Qasem, E-mail: qasem.alramadan@epfl.ch [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; ShuJun, Li; Hua, Feng Han [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

2010-07-12

326

Multiplex PCR for the detection and quantification of zoonotic taxa of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma in wastewater and mussels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii are important parasitic protists linked to water- and food-borne diseases. The accurate detection of these pathogens is central to the diagnosis, tracking, monitoring and surveillance of these protists in humans, animals and the environment. In this study, we established a multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR), coupled to high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, for the specific detection and quantification of each G. duodenalis (assemblage A), C. parvum and T. gondii (Type I). Once optimised, this assay was applied to the testing of samples (n = 232) of treated wastewater and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Of 119 water samples, 28.6% were test-positive for G. duodenalis, C. parvum and/or both pathogens; of 113 mussel samples, 66.6% were test-positive for G. duodenalis, C. parvum and/or both pathogens, and 13.2% were test-positive for only T. gondii. The specificity of all amplicons produced was verified by direct sequencing. The oo/cysts numbers (per 5 ?l of DNA sample) ranged from 10 to 64. The present multiplex assay achieved an efficiency of 100% and a R(2) value of >0.99. Current evidence indicates that this assay provides a promising tool for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of three key protist taxa. PMID:25591902

Marangi, Marianna; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Lacasella, Vita; Lonigro, Antonio; Gasser, Robin B

2015-04-01

327

Migrating lumbar facet joint cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The majority of lumbar facet joint cysts (LFJCs) are located in the spinal canal, on the medial aspect of the facet joint with characteristic diagnostic features. When they migrate away from the joint of origin, they cause diagnostic problems. In a 7-year period we examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging five unusual cases of facet joint cysts which migrated from the facet joint of origin. Three LFJCs were identified in the right S1 foramen, one in the right L5-S1 neural foramen and one in the left erector spinae and multifidus muscles between the levels of L2-L4 spinous process. Awareness that spinal lesions identified at MRI and CT could be due to migrating facet joint cyst requires a high level of suspicion. The identification of the appositional contact of the cyst and the facet joint needs to be actively sought in the presence of degenerative facet joints. (orig.)

Palmieri, Francesco; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N.; Lalam, Radhesh K.; Tins, Bernhard J.; Tyrrell, Prudencia N.M.; McCall, Iain W. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

2006-04-15

328

Intracranial epidermoid cyst: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracranial epidermoid cysts are estimated to constitute 0.2 to 1.8% of brain tumours (4) and they can be divided into four categories describing their anatomic origin and frequent primary location: retro-sellar-cerebellopontine angle, parasellar-sylvian fissure, suprasellar-chiasmatic and basilar-posterior fossa. We describe an unusual case of pre-pontine epidermoid cyst arising in the temporal lobe and in inter-peduncles cistern: development and surgical treatment are discussed. PMID:19354040

Ulivieri, Simone; Oliveri, Giuseppe; Filosomi, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia

2008-01-01

329

Hydatid cyst of the tibia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case of hydatid cyst of the tibia, which manifested as a pathologic fracture is being reported. Pain and swelling of left lower limb with inability to bear the weight were the main features. Tender swelling was also noted at the upper and middle third of tibia. Open biopsy revealed the hydatid cyst wall and scolices of Echinococcus granulosus. Albendazole treatment was followed by curettage and bone grafting.

Madiwale C

1992-10-01

330

CYSTS OF THE LATERAL MENISCUS  

OpenAIRE

Accurate diagnosis and management of knee pain with or without mechanical symptoms challenges the physical therapist's clinical reasoning skills. Meniscal cysts are one relatively rare disorder of the knee that can cause both pain and mechanical symptoms and are frequently associated with a meniscal tear. In patients with suspected meniscal cysts, systematic differential diagnosis and sound clinical reasoning encourages appropriate integration of the clinical examination with diagnostic imagi...

Crowell, Michael S.; Westrick, Richard B.; Fogarty, Brian T.

2013-01-01

331

Hydatid cysts of the lung  

OpenAIRE

Cystic hydatid disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with the larval cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Cysts commonly develop in the liver and lungs. Diagnosis in non-endemic regions is often delayed due to a failure to consider hydatidosis. This results from a non-specific presentation and a failure to record an accurate geographical history. The diagnosis requires integrating an appropriate index of suspicion with correct interpretation of imaging and serological tests.

Widdrington, J. D.; Echevarria, C.; Bone, M.; Ellis, R.

2010-01-01

332

A case of successfully treated giardiasis in pancreas.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of giardiasis in the pancreas in a patient with diabetes mellitus. The patient is interesting in the following: 1) Giardia lamblia was found only in the pancreas and not in the gall bladder by cytology on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) and by cerulein-secretin test (CST). 2) ERCP revealed multiple small cysts scattered throughout the pancreas. 3) Decreased pancreatic exocrine function was recovered by treatment with metronidazole. PMID:9364099

Miyahara, T; Kubokawa, M; Koyanagi, S; Migita, Y; Oogoshi, K; Sakai, H; Ito, T; Nakano, I; Nawata, H

1997-09-01

333

Class B Alkaline Stabilization to Achieve Pathogen Inactivation  

OpenAIRE

Liming is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the persistence of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. The survival of fecal coliforms, Salmonella, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, bacteriophage MS-2, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, and Ascaris lumbricoides ova was evaluated under lime stabilization conditions in a water matr...

Giovanni Widmer; Glenda Batzer; Helene Balkin; Margolin, Aaron B.; Hansen, Jacqueline J.; Bean, Christine L.

2007-01-01

334

Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57Co-vitamin B12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B12 was unimpaired. (author)

335

Giardiasis.  

OpenAIRE

Giardiasis is one of the most common pathogenic intestinal protozoal infections worldwide. Giardia lamblia is the most frequently identified etiologic agent in outbreaks associated with the ingestion of surface water, often due to ineffective filtration or pretreatment. In addition to humans, other sources of infection include beavers, perhaps muskrats, and possibly domestic animals. A low infecting dose (10 to 25 cysts) is reported to be sufficient to produce human infection. Clinical manife...

Wolfe, M. S.

1992-01-01

336

Genotyping of Brazilian Giardia duodenalis human axenic isolates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a complex species that comprises at least seven distinct genetic groups (A to G, but only genotypes A and B are known to infect humans and a wide variety of other mammals. Regardless of biological, biochemical and antigenic analysis, several isolates maintained in vitro were not genetically typed yet. So, in the present study, five Brazilian axenic isolates obtained from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were typed in order to determine the major genetic groups to which the isolates belonged. DNA was extracted from axenic trophozoites, fragments of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi genes were amplified by PCR and the isolate genotyping was carried out using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and DNA sequencing for both genes. The results revealed that all isolates were assigned to genotype A at both analyzed loci. Indeed, DNA sequence analysis classified the four isolates obtained from asymptomatic individuals into subtype AII, while the isolate obtained from the symptomatic patient was typed as subtype AI. Despite of the limited number of isolates assessed, the findings presented herein provide interesting insights on the occurrence of Giardia genotypes in Brazil and hold the perspective for future molecular and epidemiological investigations.

ST Coradi

2011-01-01

337

Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans. PMID:25066778

Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

2015-01-01

338

Serological versus antigen detection methods for Giardia duodenalis diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiasis constitutes an important public health problem in the world. Contamination of the water with fecal materials including viruses and pathogenic protozoa still represents an environmental health hazard, especially in rural areas. The survey study evaluated the relation between seropositivity and some risk factors. Moreover, the study compared between the serological IgG and IgM level and antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of giardiasis. The results indicate that sex distribution and age were the mean risk factors for seroprevelence. In this study, sera samples were employed in sandwich ELISA assay, to detect circulating Giardia antigens. None of the negative control serum samples gave a positive reaction, but cross reaction was encountered with 3 case of Cryptosporidium. The specificity of the assay was 94.830/a. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the Giardia patient's sera was 94.12% which was higher than that of IgG (86.25%) and IgM (87.50%) secretion measurements. In conclusion, antigen detection methods give better and earlier diagnosis for giardiasis can be performed quickly and do not require an experienced and skilled morphologist. PMID:25643512

Bashir, M; Farid, A; Rabia, I; Mostafa, B; El Amir, A

2014-12-01

339

Genotyping of Brazilian Giardia duodenalis human axenic isolates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a complex species that comprises at least seven distinct genetic groups (A to G), but only genotypes A and B are known to infect humans and a wide variety of other mammals. Regardless of biological, biochemical and antigenic analysis, several isolates maintained in vitro were n [...] ot genetically typed yet. So, in the present study, five Brazilian axenic isolates obtained from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were typed in order to determine the major genetic groups to which the isolates belonged. DNA was extracted from axenic trophozoites, fragments of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes were amplified by PCR and the isolate genotyping was carried out using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing for both genes. The results revealed that all isolates were assigned to genotype A at both analyzed loci. Indeed, DNA sequence analysis classified the four isolates obtained from asymptomatic individuals into subtype AII, while the isolate obtained from the symptomatic patient was typed as subtype AI. Despite of the limited number of isolates assessed, the findings presented herein provide interesting insights on the occurrence of Giardia genotypes in Brazil and hold the perspective for future molecular and epidemiological investigations.

ST, Coradi; EB, David; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; TB, Carvalho; S, Guimarães.

340

Percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy of oophoritic cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy in oophoritic cysts. Methods: Seventy six oophoritic cysts incluoling 48 simple and 28 chocolate cysts of 64 patients were treated with percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy under CT guidance. 4F multisideholes pigtail catheter was introduced into cyst using absolute alcohol as sclerosing agents. Results: The successful rate of percutaneous oophoritc cyst puncture was 100% in all 64 patients. Among them 58 were cured (90.6%), 6 improved significantly (9.4%). The total effective rate reached 100% with no serious complications. Conclusions: Catheterization sclerotherapy for oophoritic cyst is a simple, complete, safe and effective method. (authors)

341

Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: a case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Bronchogenic cysts are among developmental disorders of the primitive foregut which are typically found above the diaphragm. Bronchial cysts discovered in the abdominal cavity or retroperitoneum are extremely rare. We present a rare case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst which was incidentally detected after a wrestling injury in a 23-year-old man who had a negative medical history. Although initial imaging studies suggested an adrenal tumor, histopathological analysis provided a definite diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst. Though rare, bronchogenic cysts must be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions. This is the first case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst reported in Iran. PMID:25405122

Mirsadeghi, Ali; Farrokhi, Farid; Fazli-Shahri, Azadeh; Gholipour, Bahareh

2014-01-01

342

Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirda?), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites. PMID:19851968

Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

2009-01-01

343

Giant intracranial hydatid cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the infestation of the larvae of Taenia echinococcus. The definite hosts of echinococcus are various carnivores, the common being the dog. All mammals (more often being sheep and cattle are hosts. Humans are infected through the feco-oral route by the ingestion of food or milk contaminated by dog feces that contain the ova of the parasite or by direct contact with dogs. The eggs lose their enveloping layer in the stomach, releasing the embryos. The embryos pass through the wall of the gut into the portal system and are carried to the liver where most of the larvae are entrapped and encysted. Some may reach the lungs, and occasionally, some may pass through the capillary filter of the liver and lungs and enter into the systemic circulation. We report a case of giant intracranial left temporoparietooccipital extra-axial hydatid cyst with a size of 12.5 x 8.5 cm in a 5-year-old male presented with holocranial headache with the diminution of vision and papilledema with right hemiperesis successfully managed in our department surgically.

Trivedi A

2007-01-01

344

MRI findings of Rathke cleft cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristic MRI findings of the Rathke cleft cyst. During a seven-year period, we retrospectively evaluated the MRI findings of 24 pathologically-proven Rathke cleft cysts. The patients included ten men and 14 women, and their mean age was 37. MRI findings were analyzed in terms of location, shape, size, signal intensity, homogeneity of cyst content, pattern of contrast enhancement, displacement of the pituitary stalk, and mass effect of the cyst on adjacent structures. MRI findings of midline intrasellar cyst with a staging water bag appearance, high signal intensity on T1- and T2WI, inhomogeneity of cyst content, and peripheral rim enhancement surrounding the cyst are common, and are characteristic of the Rathke cleft cyst. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs

345

Mesenteric and omental cyst: CT findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mesenteric and omental cysts are uncommon lesions found all age groups. They elicit interest because of their unclear pathogenesis and confusing terminology. CT findings of 12 case with mesenteric and omental cysts were described and compared with surgical and pathologic findings. In mesenteric and omental cyst, the histologic diagnoses were lymphangioma(7 cases), nonpancreatic pseudocyst(3 cases), mesothelial cyst(2 cases). Lymphangiomas were usually multiloculated cyst with enhancing wall, located in the small bowel mesentery. And these cystic lesions were frequently attached to bowel and required resection of a bowel segment. In three cases of pseudocyst, thick and enhancing wall was shown in unilocular cyst. Two cases of mesothlial cyst were located in greater omentum, showed very thin wall in unilocuation. The CT features of the mesenteric and omental cysts are fairly characteristic. Identification of lymphangioma, which shows a multilocuation and enhancing wall, is important due to frequent bowel resection in operative field.

Kim, Myung Gyu; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Yun Hwan; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Seoul, Hae Young [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1994-02-15

346

A huge presacral Tarlov cyst. Case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perineural cysts have become a common incidental finding during lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Only some of the symptomatic cysts warrant treatment. The authors describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with, to the best of their knowledge, the largest perineural cyst reported to date. A 29-year-old woman had been suffering from long-standing constipation and low-back pain. During an obstetric investigation for infertility, the clinician discovered a huge presacral cystic mass. Computed tomography myelography showed the lesion to be a huge Tarlov cyst arising from the left S-3 nerve root and compressing the ipsilateral S-2 nerve. The cyst was successfully treated by ligation of the cyst neck together with sectioning of the S-3 nerve root. Postoperative improvement in her symptoms and MR imaging findings were noted. Identification of the nerve root involved by the cyst wall, operative indication, operative procedure, and treatment of multiple cysts are important preoperative considerations. PMID:17688070

Ishii, Kazuhiko; Yuzurihara, Masahito; Asamoto, Shunji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Motoo

2007-08-01

347

Mesenteric and omental cyst: CT findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mesenteric and omental cysts are uncommon lesions found all age groups. They elicit interest because of their unclear pathogenesis and confusing terminology. CT findings of 12 case with mesenteric and omental cysts were described and compared with surgical and pathologic findings. In mesenteric and omental cyst, the histologic diagnoses were lymphangioma(7 cases), nonpancreatic pseudocyst(3 cases), mesothelial cyst(2 cases). Lymphangiomas were usually multiloculated cyst with enhancing wall, located in the small bowel mesentery. And these cystic lesions were frequently attached to bowel and required resection of a bowel segment. In three cases of pseudocyst, thick and enhancing wall was shown in unilocular cyst. Two cases of mesothlial cyst were located in greater omentum, showed very thin wall in unilocuation. The CT features of the mesenteric and omental cysts are fairly characteristic. Identification of lymphangioma, which shows a multilocuation and enhancing wall, is important due to frequent bowel resection in operative field

348

Azithromycin in the treatment of a dog infected with Giardia intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia intestinalis infection is a common cause of diarrhoea in humans and other mammalian species throughout the world. This report describes a case of a dog suffering from diarrhoea, infected with G. intestinalis, effectively treated with azithromycin. Azithromycin is an azalide, semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic having a large spectrum of activity against bacterial pathogens and some protozoa. In this case, Giardia infection in a dog was confirmed by microscopic examination and PCR. Sequencing of the detected Giardia amplicon confirmed infection with assemblage A-I. The dog received azithromycin administered at dose of 10 mg/kg per os, once a day for 5 days. After the therapy, the diarrhoea stopped. Effectiveness of the treatment was also confirmed by PCR and microscopic examination. This is the first report on the therapy of canine giardiosis with azithromycin. It seems that azithromycin can be considered as promising antibiotic for the control of Giardia infection in dogs. PMID:18942546

Zygner, W; Jaros, D; Gójska-Zygner, O; Wedrychowicz, H

2008-01-01

349

SEM (SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY) EVIDENCE FOR A NEW SPECIES, 'GIARDIA PSITTACI' (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia trophozoites were isolated from the small intestine of budgerigars (parakeets) and examined morphologically with light and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of a claw-hammer shape median body suggested classification of these trophozoites as G. duodenalis. Howeve...

350

Dermoid cyst with respiratory manifestations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Dermoid cysts are congenital tumors caused by entrapment of ectoderm during embryogenesis. The most common localization are the gonads and less than 10% are in the head and neck. They are slow growing and generally observed between the second and third decades of life, being unusual in chilhood. Description: We report a case of a 5 year old male with recurrent respiratory infections, mouth breathing and snoring with apneas and daytime sleepiness. On physical examination tonsillar hypertrophy and a 4 cm sublingual tumor are detected. As complementary tests are performed overnight polysomnography with AHI of 18.3 / h and ultrasonography, reported as cystic mass with multiple rounded echogenic structures inside. Results: The patient was diagnosed with severe OSA and tonsillectomy and intraorally enucleation of tumor (as diagnosis and treatment were performed; with histopathological diagnosis of dermoid cyst. In the postoperative control we check the resolution of respiratory events and snoring. Discussion: Dermoid cysts of the oral cavity (where sublingual localization is the most common represent only 0,01% of all cysts and 1,6% of all dermoid cysts. Usually present as slow-growing asymptomatic mass, even if they reach large size can compromise swallowing, speech or breathing and eventually cause, as in our case, a severe OSA. The surgical treatment allows to confirm the diagnosis an avoid the risk of infectious complications and eventual malignant transformation.

Calle-Cabanillas MI, Ibañez-Muñoz C, Pérez-Sáez J, Navazo-Eguía AI, Clemente-García A, Sánchez-Hernández JM.

2013-07-01

351

Thoracoscopic removal of oesophageal duplication cyst  

OpenAIRE

A 4-year-old boy presented with vomiting and recurrent cough. He was investigated and found to have thoracic oesophageal duplication cyst. He was taken up for thoracoscopic removal of the cyst. The cyst was attached to the oesophagus and shared a common wall. The boy tolerated the procedure well and follow-up showed no recurrence of the cyst with total resolution of the symptoms. We share our experience with the management of this boy.

Agarwal Prakash; Bagdi Rajkishore

2011-01-01

352

Thoracoscopic removal of oesophageal duplication cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 4-year-old boy presented with vomiting and recurrent cough. He was investigated and found to have thoracic oesophageal duplication cyst. He was taken up for thoracoscopic removal of the cyst. The cyst was attached to the oesophagus and shared a common wall. The boy tolerated the procedure well and follow-up showed no recurrence of the cyst with total resolution of the symptoms. We share our experience with the management of this boy.

Agarwal Prakash

2011-01-01

353

Biliary tract duplication cyst with gastric heterotopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cystic duplications of the biliary tract are rare anomalies, easily mistaken for choledochal cysts. Surgical drainage is the preferred therapy for choledochal cyst, but cystic duplication necessitates surgical excision as duplications may contain heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to peptic ulceration of the biliary tract. We report a case of biliary tract duplication cyst containing heterotopic alimentary mucosa which had initially been diagnosed and surgically treated as a choledochal cyst. (orig.)

354

Parapharyngeal second branchial cyst: A case report  

OpenAIRE

Branchial cleft cysts extending to the lateral wall of the pharynx are rare. An eight year old female child presented with a cystic swelling in the left parotid region. A bluish cyst was seen anterior to the anterior pillar of left tonsil. CT scan showed the cyst extending into left parapharyngeal space. External part of the cyst was excised via a transcervical approach and the internal part was marsupalised per orally

Ghosh, Swapan Kr; Kr, Tarun; Datta, Saumyajit; Banka, Alok

2006-01-01

355

Cervical thoracic duct cyst: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thoracic duct cysts are uncommon lesions that most commonly occur in the abdominal and thoracic portion of the thoracic duct: the cervical portion is the rarest location. The main causes of thoracic duct cyst are surgical injuries such as neck dissection and blunt trauma. We report here on a rare case of spontaneous cervical thoracic duct cyst that was noted on ultrasonography and CT. The thoracic duct cyst was confirmed by fine needle aspiration and it was treated by sclerotherapy

356

Cervical thoracic duct cyst: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thoracic duct cysts are uncommon lesions that most commonly occur in the abdominal and thoracic portion of the thoracic duct: the cervical portion is the rarest location. The main causes of thoracic duct cyst are surgical injuries such as neck dissection and blunt trauma. We report here on a rare case of spontaneous cervical thoracic duct cyst that was noted on ultrasonography and CT. The thoracic duct cyst was confirmed by fine needle aspiration and it was treated by sclerotherapy.

Park, Sang Hyun; Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Chi Kyu; Jo, Sung Sik; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Yung [Chunan Hospital Soonchunhyang University, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

2007-06-15

357

Snapping Knee Caused by Medial Meniscal Cyst  

OpenAIRE

Snapping phenomenon around the medial aspect of the knee is rare. We present this case of snapping knee caused by the sartorius muscle over a large medial meniscal cyst in a 66-year-old female. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large medial meniscal cyst with a horizontal tear of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic cyst decompression with limited meniscectomy resulted in the disappearance of snapping, and no recurrence of the cyst was observed during a 2-year follow-up period.

Tsuyoshi Ohishi; Daisuke Suzuki; Kazufumi Yamamoto; Tomohiro Banno; Hiroki Ushirozako; Yoichi Koide; Yukihiro Matsuyama

2014-01-01

358

Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

2011-08-01

359

p63 expression in randomized odontogenic cysts.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To find out the immunohistochemical assessment of p63 expression in odontogenic cysts based on the differences among their clinical behaviors. METHODS This study was carried out on 34 archival paraffin-embedded specimens of odontogenic cysts. We obtained the specimens from the Pathology Department of Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran from March 2003 to February 2008. The specimens comprised 12 dentigerous cysts, 9 radicular cysts, and 13 keratocystic odonto...

Maryam Seyedmajidi; Shahryar Shafaee; Ensieh Shafigh; Ali Bijani; Hamid Hamidi

2011-01-01

360

Prevesical hydatid cyst: An exceptional occurrence  

OpenAIRE

Echinococcal cysts usually involve the liver; extrahepatic localization is reported in 11% of all cases of abdominal hydatid disease. We report a case of a prevesical hydatid cyst. A 53-year-old man was admitted with a large suprapubic mass. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a cystic mass situated in front of the urinary bladder. There were no cysts in any other location. Serological tests were positive for Echinococcus. The patient was operated on and the cyst was compl...

Chokki A; Zribi R; Nouira S; Dziri Ch

2008-01-01

361

“Primary Omental Hydatid Cyst”: A Rare Entity  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydatid cyst is caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus commonly seen in temperate regions. Primary omental hydatid cyst is rare entity. Diagnosis can be achieved with contrast-enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis along with serology. Eosinophilia is a strong pointer to hydatid cyst as a differential diagnosis. Open or laparoscopic excision of the cyst along with medical therapy remains the treatment of choice. PMID:23050190

Sable, Shailesh; Mehta, Jyoti; Yadav, Sudeep; Jategaokar, Priyadarshan; Haldar, Premashish J.

2012-01-01

362

Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst  

OpenAIRE

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal...

Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

2012-01-01

363

Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst  

OpenAIRE

Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009.

Fee, Dominic B.; Swartz, Karin R.; Michael Boland; Dianne Wilson

2009-01-01

364

Sacral Perineural Cyst Accompanying Disc Herniation  

OpenAIRE

Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shu...

Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Hyeun Sung

2009-01-01

365

Antigenic detection of Giardia duodenalis in companion dogs of Ahvaz area, south-west of Iran  

OpenAIRE

Introduction and objective: Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite in several animal species and humans. The objective of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of G. duodenalis in the fecal samples of companion dogs in Ahvaz area, south-western Iran. Materials and methods: A total of 150 companion dogs of different ages were examined for antigenic detection of G. duodenalis in fecal samples by a commercial Giardia Antigen Test Kit. Fecal centrifugation-flotation ...

Ali Reza Alborzi; Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali; Reza Avizeh; Bahman Mosallanejad

2010-01-01

366

Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis Infection in Household Cats of Ahvaz District, South-West of Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: The occurrence of Giardia duodenalis in cats is of potential significance from both clinical and public health perspectives. The object of this study was antigenic detection of G. duo­denalis in house­hold cats of Ahvaz district, South-West of Iran.Methods: The prevalence of G. duodenalis was determined in fecal samples by two techniques: centrifuga­tion-flotation and a commercial Giardia Antigen Test Kit (immunochromatography assay) in 150 household cats of different ages amon...

Ar, Alborzi; Mh, Razi Jalali; Avizeh, R.; Mosallanejad, B.

2010-01-01

367

Antigen expression from the ribosomal DNA repeat unit of Giardia intestinalis.  

OpenAIRE

The amitochondrial human intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis is regarded to be the most ancient living example of single-celled eukaryotes and should display primitive features of pre-metazoan gene regulation. Characterization of E. coli clones which express Giardia antigens from plasmid vectors has revealed that an antigen is encoded by the rDNA repeat unit from the strand complementary to that encoding the rRNAs. The open reading frame (ORF) originates in the spacer region between the ...

Upcroft, J. A.; Healey, A.; Mitchell, R.; Boreham, P. F.; Upcroft, P.

1990-01-01

368

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia  

OpenAIRE

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis have been found in swimming pool filter backwash during outbreaks. To determine baseline prevalence, we sampled pools not associated with outbreaks and found that of 160 sampled pools, 13 (8.1%) were positive for 1 or both parasites; 10 (6.2%) for Giardia sp., 2 (1.2%) for Cryptosporidium spp., and 1 (0.6%) for both.

Shields, Joan M.; Gleim, Elizabeth R.; Beach, Michael J.

2008-01-01

369

Ginkgolide B inhibits renal cyst development in in vitro and in vivo cyst models  

OpenAIRE

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited disease characterized by massive enlargement of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney. However, there is no effective therapy yet for this disease. To examine whether ginkgolide B, a natural compound, inhibits cyst development, a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cyst model, an embryonic kidney cyst model, and a PKD mouse model were used. Interestingly, ginkgolide B significantly inhibited MDCK cyst formation dose dependentl...

Zhou, Hong; Gao, Jinsheng; Zhou, Li; Li, Xin; Li, Weidong; Li, Xuejun; Xia, Yin; Yang, Baoxue

2012-01-01

370

Extraneural rupture of intraneural ganglion cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rupture of simple (extraneural) cysts such as popliteal cysts (Baker's cysts) is a well-known occurrence. The purpose of this report is to introduce the similar occurrence of extraneural rupture of peroneal and tibial intraneural cysts in the knee region, describe the associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and identify risk factors. There was MRI evidence of rupture in 20 of 38 intraneural cases reviewed, mainly in the region of the fibular head and popliteal fossa. Ruptured intraneural cysts and simple cysts share these MRI findings: T2 hyperintense fluid within surrounding intermuscular fascial planes and enhancement with intravenous contrast consistent with inflammation. The mean maximal diameter of the ruptured intraneural cysts was statistically significantly smaller than that of the unruptured cysts. The authors believe that extraneural rupture of an intraneural cyst is due to increased intraarticular pressures transmitted within the cyst and/or elevated extrinsic pressure delivered to the cyst, such as by trauma, akin to the etiology of rupture of extraneural ganglion cysts. PMID:21838077

Shahid, Kameron R; Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

2011-01-01

371

Pericoccygeal Epidermoid Cyst: Report of Two Cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pericoccygeal epidermoid cyst is a rare benign congenital lesion lined with keratinized squamous epithelium. We report the magnetic resonance imaging findings of an epidermoid cyst at the precoccygeal tip as a cause of coccygodynia in a 32-year-old woman and a retrococcygeal epidermoid cyst in a 27-year-old man. We also describe the pericoccygeal lesions and coccygodynia.

372

Pericoccygeal Epidermoid Cyst: Report of Two Cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pericoccygeal epidermoid cyst is a rare benign congenital lesion lined with keratinized squamous epithelium. We report the magnetic resonance imaging findings of an epidermoid cyst at the precoccygeal tip as a cause of coccygodynia in a 32-year-old woman and a retrococcygeal epidermoid cyst in a 27-year-old man. We also describe the pericoccygeal lesions and coccygodynia.

Lee, Yeon Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Daejeon St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Ok [Dept. of Pathology, Daejeon St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15

373

Unicystic ameloblastoma arising from a residual cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraoral swellings involving alveolar ridges in edentulous patients are clinically diagnosed as residual cysts, traumatic bone cysts, Stafne's jaw bone cavity, ameloblastoma and metastatic tumours of the jaw. This case report describes a residual cyst in a 68-year-old edentulous male patient which was enucleated and histopathologically confirmed as a unicystic ameloblastoma. PMID:25199192

Mahajan, Amit D; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Khurana, Neha M; Shah, Navin

2014-01-01

374

Testicular epidermoid cyst and organ preserving surgery  

OpenAIRE

Epidermoid cyst is a rare and non-teratomatous, benign tumour of the testis. Testis-sparing surgery is recommended as surgical treatment. We present a 9-year-old-boy with testicular epidermoid cyst. The embryology, histogenesis and treatment of epidermoid cyst of testis, are discussed.

Somuncu Salih; Cakmak Murat; Atasoy Pinar; Akman Hulya; Ulusoy Sevgi

2006-01-01

375

Testicular epidermoid cyst and organ preserving surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst is a rare and non-teratomatous, benign tumour of the testis. Testis-sparing surgery is recommended as surgical treatment. We present a 9-year-old-boy with testicular epidermoid cyst. The embryology, histogenesis and treatment of epidermoid cyst of testis, are discussed.

Somuncu Salih

2006-01-01

376

ODONTOGENIC CYST - CASE REPORT AND REVIEW  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Odontogenic cysts are defined as epithelial cell lined cysts. Maxillary sinus is closely related to the upper premolar and molar teeth. Any infection / pathology involving the root of these teeth will also have its effect on the maxillary sinus. Case report: To present a case of Odontogenic cyst in the left ma...

Sankaranarayanan Gopalakrishnan; Km, Elango; Thamizharasan P

2014-01-01

377

Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

Hidetoshi Nojiri

2009-10-01

378

Malignant cysts of the male breast.  

OpenAIRE

Two cases of male breast carcinoma presenting as cystic swellings are reported. Cysts of the male breast are rare, but unlike cysts in female breasts are more likely to represent significant pathology. We recommend consideration of excision biopsy of isolated cysts in male breasts.

Stebbings, W. S.; George, B. D.; Boyle, S.; Plowman, P. N.; Gilmore, O. J.

1987-01-01

379

Paradental (mandibular inflammatory buccal) cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paradental cyst is commonly misinterpreted when associated with atypical clinical and radiographic characteristics, in turn causing diagnostic problems. For this reason, the study of the differential diagnosis of this lesion has become extremely important. In addition, the correlation of clinical, histologic, and radiographic findings are also of great value in obtaining accurate diagnoses. The minor variations in the clinical appearance of paradental cysts make it feasible to consider the two main groups of cysts separately: those associated with 1st and 2nd permanent molars of the mandible and those associated with the 3rd mandibular molar. Moreover, this distinction in localization may well dictate the necessary treatment. Bearing in mind the minor clinical variations, the present article aims to discuss the differential diagnosis of this lesion and its different possible treatments by presenting a case report to illustrate the findings. PMID:21161456

Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Reis, Brenda Mayra Maciel Vasconcelos; Freire-Maia, Belini

2011-06-01

380

Concomitant bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign germ tumor, comprising 1-2% of all resected benign testicular masses. Approximately 300 cases have been reported to date. Unilateral involvement has often been reported in the English literature. However, bilateral occurrence is very rare and to the best of our knowledge, there only 3 previous reports of bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts. The fact that they are completely benign makes them amenable to treatment by local excision, thereby saving patient from orchidectomy. Recognition of their characteristic ulatrsonographic features is very important to avoid unnecessary intervention. We present here, a case of bilateral epidermoid cyst in which characteristic ultrasound (US) findings allowed testis-sparing enucleation instead of radical orchiectomy. (author)

381

Prevalence of intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in pet shop puppies in east Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites and genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in puppies from nine pet shops in east Japan. Fresh fecal samples from 1794 puppies (?3 months old) were collected on one occasion. Giardia spp. was examined for specific coproantigen using ELISA kit (SNAP®Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., USA). Other intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Genotyping was determined for the random 29 stool samples identified as Giardia spp. positive using PCR and direct sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Overall prevalence of protozoan Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. revealed 23.4% and 11.3%, respectively. Prevalence of ascarids, Strongyloides spp. and hookworms were recorded 1.8%, 1.1% and 0.1%, respectively. Protozoan Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., thus, represent important pathogens among pet shop puppies. All genotyped G. intestinalis isolates were belonged to assemblage C or D, identified as dog-specific genotypes. Zoonotic assemblage A and B were not demonstrated. The result suggests that the risk of zoonotic transmission of G. intestinalis from pet shops puppies to humans may be quite low in Japan. PMID:21093154

Itoh, N; Itagaki, T; Kawabata, T; Konaka, T; Muraoka, N; Saeki, H; Kanai, K; Chikazawa, S; Hori, Y; Hoshi, F; Higuchi, S

2011-02-28

382

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB David

2011-01-01

383

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

384

Prevalence of Giardiasis in Children Attending Semi-urban Daycare Centres in Guatemala and Comparison of 3 Giardia Detection Tests  

OpenAIRE

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite widely prevalent in children attending daycare centres worldwide and has been associated with undernutrition. Stool samples from 48 Guatemalan children (aged 1.5-7 years) attending participating daycare centres were analyzed over five weeks for presence of Giardia intestinalis using light microscopy, ELISA, and rapid dipstick test. Giardia prevalence rates were 43.7% at Week 0 and 44.7% at Week 4, based on ELISA. Intensity, but not prevalence, of...

Duffy, Terri-lynn; Montenegro-bethancourt, Gabriela; Solomons, Noel W.; Belosevic, Miodrag; Clandinin, M. Thomas

2013-01-01

385

Antibiotic sclerotherapy for renal cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven patients with a large symptomatic renal cyst were treated by aspiration under US guidance and injection of a tetracycline solution (5-8 ml; 1%). All patients were relieved of complaints directly after treatment and US follow-up revealed complete remission or only small residual cysts after one week to twenty-one months. The combination of a strong sclerosing action with a long-acting local antibiotic prophylaxis gives tetracycline an advantage over other sclerosing agents, especially in patients with impaired renal function. PMID:2538886

van der Ent, C K; van Dalen, A; Enterman, J H

1989-03-01

386

Ecchinococcal cyst of the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation with the larval stage of echinococcus which is found most frequently in Mediterranean area, Australia, and south America, and rarely in Korea. The case presented herein was a 43-year-old man who had been to the middle East Asia for three years. His initial ultrasonogram showed a well-defined cystic mass in the right hepatic lobe. It was surrounded by three layers of capsule and contained multiple small daughter cysts with echogenic debris. Computed tomograms and magnetic resonance images showed similar findings. Ultrasonography was the most accurate among the three imaging modalities in demonstrating the internal architecture of the echinococal cyst

387

Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.

Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.

2011-01-01

388

Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Estudo clássico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianças atendidas em uma creche na região de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Estudos epidemiológicos sobre giardíase por técnicas moleculares como a RAPD (Amplificação aleatória do DNA polimórfico) podem contribuir para o entendimento de fatores relacionados à transmissão de Giardia duodenalis. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia de G. duodenalis em 101 cri [...] anças atendidas em uma creche em Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brasil. Após exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes, 15 crianças apresentaram cistos de G. duodenalis. Seus respectivos pais, irmãos e animais domésticos, além dos funcionários da creche, foram submetidos a exames parasitológicos de fezes. Destes, sete mães e nove irmãos apresentaram G. duodenalis, enquanto os pais, funcionários da creche e animais de estimação (cães) não apresentaram o parasita. Além dos 15 casos com G. duodenalis, outras 23 crianças apresentaram outros enteroparasitas (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura). As amostras contendo cistos de G. duodenalis das crianças e de seus parentes foram submetidas à análise molecular por RAPD após extração do DNA genômico e amplificação de um fragmento de uma região do rDNA 18S por PCR. Entre os 31 isolados de G. duodenalis (crianças e suas respectivas mães e irmãos), concluiu-se que a transmissão dos parasitas ocorreu entre as crianças, provavelmente durante seu convívio na creche, mas não foi decorrente do convívio familiar ou animais de estimação. Abstract in english Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a [...] daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, besides the daycare center workers, also had their feces submitted to parasitological analysis. Seven mothers and nine brothers also presented G. duodenalis cysts, while fathers, daycare workers and pets (dogs) did not presented the parasite. Besides the 15 cases with G. duodenalis, other 23 children presented other enteroparasites (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). Samples of G. duodenalis cysts from children and their relatives were submitted to molecular typing by RAPD after genomic DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rDNA region by PCR. After examining 31 isolates of G. duodenalis (children and their respective mothers and brothers), it was concluded that the parasite transmission occurred in children, probably during daily cohabitation at the daycare center, but not at home among their relatives or pets.

Nair Toshiko, Tashima; Maria Jacira Silva, Simões; Clarice Queico Fujimura, Leite; Antonio, Fluminhan; Marco Antonio, Nogueira; Ana Carolina, Malaspina.

2009-02-01

389

Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil Estudo clássico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianças atendidas em uma creche na região de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, besides the daycare center workers, also had their feces submitted to parasitological analysis. Seven mothers and nine brothers also presented G. duodenalis cysts, while fathers, daycare workers and pets (dogs did not presented the parasite. Besides the 15 cases with G. duodenalis, other 23 children presented other enteroparasites (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. Samples of G. duodenalis cysts from children and their relatives were submitted to molecular typing by RAPD after genomic DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rDNA region by PCR. After examining 31 isolates of G. duodenalis (children and their respective mothers and brothers, it was concluded that the parasite transmission occurred in children, probably during daily cohabitation at the daycare center, but not at home among their relatives or pets.Estudos epidemiológicos sobre giardíase por técnicas moleculares como a RAPD (Amplificação aleatória do DNA polimórfico podem contribuir para o entendimento de fatores relacionados à transmissão de Giardia duodenalis. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia de G. duodenalis em 101 crianças atendidas em uma creche em Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brasil. Após exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes, 15 crianças apresentaram cistos de G. duodenalis. Seus respectivos pais, irmãos e animais domésticos, além dos funcionários da creche, foram submetidos a exames parasitológicos de fezes. Destes, sete mães e nove irmãos apresentaram G. duodenalis, enquanto os pais, funcionários da creche e animais de estimação (cães não apresentaram o parasita. Além dos 15 casos com G. duodenalis, outras 23 crianças apresentaram outros enteroparasitas (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura. As amostras contendo cistos de G. duodenalis das crianças e de seus parentes foram submetidas à análise molecular por RAPD após extração do DNA genômico e amplificação de um fragmento de uma região do rDNA 18S por PCR. Entre os 31 isolados de G. duodenalis (crianças e suas respectivas mães e irmãos, concluiu-se que a transmissão dos parasitas ocorreu entre as crianças, provavelmente durante seu convívio na creche, mas não foi decorrente do convívio familiar ou animais de estimação.

Nair Toshiko Tashima

2009-02-01

390

[Echinococcal cysts in the liver and lungs].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present the case of a patient with relapsing parasitic cyst of the liver and a parasitic cyst of the lungs. The patient was treated by surgery. The cystectomy of the echinococcus cyst in the liver was made in the first stage and subsequently a resection of the lung tissue containing another echinococcus cyst was made. Pharmacological therapy by the anti-helmintic drug albendazol was a part of the treatment. There were no complications during both surgical interventions and the subsequent treatment. In the scolocidal liquid of the liver cyst, echinococcus organisms were diagnosed by microscopy and documented by photography. PMID:14502882

Páral, J; Plodr, M; Ferko, A; Zvák, I

2003-07-01

391

MRI of hemorrhagic choroid plexus cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An unusual case of hemorrhage within a cyst in the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle is presented. Choroid plexus cysts are commonly found incidentally on imaging studies, particularly MRI, where their characteristic appearance produces little diagnostic difficulty. In this case, high signal intensity of the cyst contents on T1-weighted images and apparent hemosiderin deposition in the cyst wall, not previously described, represented a dramatic change from a study 10 weeks previously and allowed a presumptive diagnosis of hemorrhage into the cyst, a presumption further supported by the changes in signal 20 weeks later. (orig.)

392

Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young

2012-01-01

393

Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

2012-07-01

394

Diagnosis and treatment of cysts of the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Is is shown that ultrasonography, computer tomography, laparoscopy provide for liver cyst detection. Parasitic cyst of Echinococcus and opisthhordeiasis nature are subject to surgical treatment. Selective procedures under echinococcosis include echinococcotomy and liver resection, and under opisthorchiasis - liver resection. Under nonparasitic liver cysts of minor size dynamic observation is advisable, under medium, hard and multiple complication cysts - sergical treatment is advisable. Selective procedures under non-complicated cysts include cyst resection with tamponage using omentum, and under complicated multiple cysts - liver resection

395

Arachnoid cyst of the middle cranial fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The middle cranial fossa is the most common site for intracranial arachnoid cysts. Galassi and his associates have provided a useful classification of middle fossa arachnoid cysts based on their computed tomographic appearances. The Type I cyst is a small lenticular lesion. The Type II cyst is quadrangular in shape, reflecting a completely open insula. The Type III cyst appears as a large area of smoothly rounded lucency, with a significant compression of the brain. We report a 2-year-old boy with a middle fossa arachnoid cyst. This cyst differed from the type of Galassi's classification in its extension. Computerized tomograms showed low-density lesions of the bilateral middle cranial fossa and suprasellar area, which was not enhanced with contrast medium. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed a CSF-like pattern (Kjos) and revealed delicate anatomical structures in the surrounding brain. Arachnoid cysts are usually single lesions. However, not infrequently these cystic cavities may be divided by membranous septa into two or more compartments. Bilateral, more or less symmetrical arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa as seen in this patient, however, seem to be very rare. Only a few such cases have been reported previously. MRI was superior to X-ray CT in characterizing intracranial cystic lesions because of its ability to categorize cysts into Kjos's three groups on the basis of the intensity pattern of the cyst contents, thereby improving diagnostic specificits, thereby improving diagnostic specificity and patient management. (author)

396

Symptomatic Tarlov cyst: report and review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand. PMID:16881441

Chaiyabud, Pradit; Suwanpratheep, Kitti

2006-07-01

397

The expression of cytokeratin in keratocystic odontogenic tumor, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst and dermoid cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocysts exhibits either parakeratosis or orthokeratosis. In 2005, the WHO classified odontogenic keratocysts with parakeratosis as keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT). Odontogenic keratocysts with orthokeratosis were not classified as odontogenic tumors, but instead referred to as orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). To clarify the difference between these two lesions, we investigated their biological characteristics using immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins (CK) in KCOT and OOC as well as in dentigerous cysts (DC), radicular cysts (RC) and dermoid cysts (DMC). We examined twenty-five cases of KCOT, fifteen cases each of OOC, DC and RC, and ten cases of DMC. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of CK10, 13, 17 and 19. To evaluate the immunohistochemical staining pattern, we divided the epithelial lining of the lesions into three layers (surface layer: su, spinous layer: sp, basal layer: ba). For CK10, most OOC and DMC specimens of su and sp were positive. For CK13 and 19, most KCOT, DC and RC specimens of su and sp were positive. For CK17, most KCOT specimens of su and sp were positive. The percentages of total CK expression of su and sp, and ba of CK19 differed significantly between the lesions (P < 0.001). These results support the hypothesis that OOC originate from not the odontogenic apparatus, but the oral epithelial component. PMID:24092058

Tsuji, Kaname; Wato, Masahiro; Hayashi, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Norihiro; Matsushita, Takumi; Ito, Tomohiko; Gamoh, Shoko; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Akio; Morita, Shosuke

2014-09-01

398

Prenatal and postnatal sonographic findings of uncomplicated ovarian cysts: 'Daughter cyst' sign  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To compare pre- and postnatal sonographic findings of ovarian cysts in neonates and to present a 'daughter cyst' sign for uncomplicated ovarian cysts. The study group consisted of six cases of neonatal ovarian cysts which were evaluated by both prenata (mean, IUP 36 weeks+3 days) and postnatal(mean, 2 days after birth) ultrasound studies. Two ovarian cysts were confirmed by surgery and the remaining four were clinically diagnosed. Postnatal sonography was prospectively evaluated and prenatal ultrasound scans were retrospectively evaluated. The size, contents, and wall thickness of the cyst were evaluated. We also analyzed presence or absence of a 'daughter cyst' , defined as a small cyst surrounded by a complete wall, protruding into the cyst lumen or along the cyst wall. Pathologic correlation of the daughter cyst was performed in two cases. The mean sizes of the ovarian cysts were 59.6 X 46.1 mm on prenatal and 73.0 X 49.2 mm on postnatal studies. Five were anechoic and thin walled cysts on both pre- and postnatal studies. One case revealed debris in the cyst lumen on prenatal study but was completely involuted on postnatal study. All six were unilocular in shape. The 'daughter cyst' sign was seen in two on prenatal and in four (80%) on postnatal studies. The 'daughter cyst' on sonography was corresponded to a follicle on pathology. The 'daughter cyst' sign appeared to be helpful for the diagnosis of neonatal ovarian cyst on both pre- and postnatal ultrasound studie both pre- and postnatal ultrasound studies.

399

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. PMID:25270421

Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

2015-01-01

400

Retroperitoneal Bronchogenic Cyst Mimicking Hydatid Liver: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Bronchogenic cysts frequently occur in the mediastinum. They may be rarely encountered in the abdomen and retroperitoneum. Bronchogenic cysts can in fact mimic hydatid cysts. We report a case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst below the right hemidiaphragm mimicking a hydatid cyst of the liver in a 30-year-old female.

Parray, Fazl Q.; Afak Yusuf Sherwani; Sajad Ahmad Dangroo; Rafia Aziz Bisati; Nighat Shaffi Malik

2012-01-01

401

Spinal endodermal cyst resembling an arachnoid cyst in appearance: Pitfalls in intraoperative diagnosis of cystic lesions  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Surgical treatment of endodermal cysts requires total removal of the cyst wall during the first operation to prevent recurrence. Therefore, intraoperative pathological diagnosis plays an important role in determining the optimal surgical strategy. We present a rare case of a spinal endodermal cyst and discuss its diagnostic difficulty during the intraoperative pathological examination. Case Description: An 18-year-old male presented with progressive paraparesis and precordial oppression. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary cystic mass having the same signal intensity as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) without gadolinium enhancement at the T1-T2 level. The preoperative diagnosis was an endodermal or arachnoid cyst. The patient underwent surgery. An intraoperative frozen section showed a cyst wall consisting of loose, thin, fibrous tissue intermittently covered by flattened epithelium. The diagnosis was an arachnoid cyst. Accordingly, partial resection of the cyst wall was performed to create CSF communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis from permanent sections was an endodermal cyst, which was lined with ciliated columnar epithelium that was immunopositive for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen. Subsequent paraffin embedding and immunostaining of the intraoperative frozen sample also confirmed patchy cytokeratin expression by all flattened epithelial cells. The patient's cyst had refilled 10 months after surgery, and he subsequently underwent fenestration of the cyst wall and placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt. Conclusion: Examination of multiple samples from multiple sites or intraoperative immunostaining of frozen sections is recommended for accurate intraoperative diagnosis of endodermal cysts. PMID:22937478

Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Nakamizo, Akira; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Tanaka, Shunya; Tsuchimochi, Ryosuke; Amano, Toshiyuki; Yoshimoto, Koji; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iwaki, Toru; Sasaki, Tomio

2012-01-01

402

Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst; a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst first described by Gorlin in 1962. It is considered as extremely rare and accounts for only 1% of jaw cysts reported. Because of its diverse histopathology, there has always been confusion about its nature as a cyst, neoplasm or hamartoma.Case Report: In this report, we present a rare case of calcifying odontogenic cyst with ameloblastic proliferation, an extremely rare histologic variant, in a 15 year old female in the left mandibular molar region. The lesion was surgically removed. After enucleation and curettage, no recurrence recorded in next two years.Conclusion: Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst, microscopically resembles unicystic ameloblastoma except for the ghost cells and dystrophic calcifications within the proliferative epithelium. There has always been confusion about its nature as a cyst, neoplasm or hamartoma. Microscopically, this cyst shows ameloblastic proliferation in the connective tissue but no characteristics of basal cell hyperchromatism, vacuolization and nuclear polarization which is often seen in ameloblastoma, are present here. Ameloblastoma ex COC and ameloblastomatous COC are morphologically and clinically entirely different and easily distinguishable.Key words: Calcifying odontogenic cyst, Ghost cell, Gorlin Cyst, Ameloblastic proliferation

M Seyed-majidi

2009-01-01

403

Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266) from A. agrarius, A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for Cryptosporidium spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for Giardia spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and Giardia infection where A. agrarius was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of Cryptosporidium COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from A. agrarius (from a semi-aquatic, urban area) was identified as C. parvum and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the C. parvum zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of C. ubiquitum from three small rodent species. PMID:25780818

Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Bu?kowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Zale?ny, Grzegorz; Hildebrand, Joanna

2015-02-24

404

Structural organization of very small chromosomes: study on a single-celled evolutionary distant eukaryote Giardia intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

During mitotic prophase, chromosomes of the pathogenic unicellular eukaryote Giardia intestinalis condense in each of the cell's two nuclei. In this study, Giardia chromosomes were investigated using light microscopy, high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy, and in situ hybridization. For the first time, we describe the overall morphology, condensation stages, and mitotic segregation of these chromosomes. Despite the absence of several genes involved in the cohesion and condensation pathways in the Giardia genome, we observed chromatin organization similar to those found in eukaryotes, i.e., 10-nm nucleosomal fibrils, 30-nm fibrils coiled to chromomeres or in parallel arrangements, and closely aligned sister chromatids. DNA molecules of Giardia terminate with telomeric repeats that we visualized on each of the four chromatid endings of metaphase chromosomes. Giardia chromosomes lack primary and secondary constrictions, thus preventing their classification based on the position of the centromere. The anaphase poleward segregation of sister chromatids is atypical in orientation and tends to generate lagging chromatids between daughter nuclei. In the Giardia genome database, we identified two putative members of the kleisin family thought to be responsible for condensin ring establishment. Thus far, Giardia chromosomes (300 nm to 1.5 ?m) are the smallest chromosomes that were analyzed at the ultrastructural level. This study complements the existing molecular and sequencing data on Giardia chromosomes with cytological and ultrastructural information. PMID:25171919

T?mová, Pavla; Uzlíková, Magdalena; Wanner, Gerhard; Nohýnková, Eva

2015-03-01

405

Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

1981-01-01

406

Giant radicular cyst of the maxilla.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radicular cysts are inflammatory odontogenic cysts of tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Most of these lesions involve the apex of offending tooth and appear as well-defined radiolucencies. Owing to its clinical characteristics similar to other more commonly occurring lesions in the oral cavity, differential diagnosis should include dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, periapical cementoma and Pindborg tumour. The present case report documents a massive radicular cyst crossing the midline of the palate. Based on clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings, the present case was diagnosed as an infected radicular cyst. The clinical characteristics of this cyst could be considered as an interesting and unusual due to its giant nature. The lesion was surgically enucleated along with the extraction of the associated tooth; preservation of all other teeth and vital structures, without any postoperative complications and satisfactory healing, was achieved. PMID:24792022

Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Shrivastava, Ratika; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2014-01-01

407

[Tarlov's cyst: definition, etiopathogenesis, propaedeutic and treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Tarlov's cyst or perineurial cyst is disease on portion of the posterior nerve root in lumbo-sacral region. The lack of knowledge of physicians around the world about Tarlov's cyst as to their nature, significance and treatment also with differential diagnostics to radiculopathy in legs. With review of literature discuss about definition, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic investigation and treatment clinic and/or surgery. The pathogenesis Tarlov's cyst remains unclear; several cases have history of the trauma, old hemorrhage, congenital and iatrogenic. Cysts provoke low back pain, sacral radiculopathy, dyspareunia, urinary incontence. The magnetic resonance imaging is now the gold standard to diagnose cysts. The treatment is clinic or surgery depending neurologics finding and neuroimage. PMID:18625096

De Sá, Márcia Cristina; D'Angelo, Carla Tereza; Da Ros Malacarne, Guilherme; Neto, Pedro; Pagura, Jorge

2008-01-01

408

Epithelial iris cyst after cataract surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of an epithelial inclusion cyst of the iris following cataract surgery that was successfully treated with en bloc excision, after an unsuccessful attempt with Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd YAG) Laser. A 60-year-old man had undergone cataract surgery two years back. One year later, he developed a pigmented epithelial inclusion cyst of the iris which progressively increased in size. His vision reduced to finger counting close to face as the cyst grew over the pupil. We performed Nd YAG laser cystotomy of the cyst wall initially, but the treated lesion recurred. So we performed an en bloc iris excision of the cyst with sector iridectomy. There was no recurrence as determined by slit lamp examination at six months after treatment. Hence, we conclude that en bloc excision can be used to effectively treat epithelial inclusion cyst of the iris. PMID:22344022

Chaudhry, M; Grover, S; Sood, N; Gupta, R

2012-01-01

409

[Choroidal epithelial cyst of the quadrigeminal plate].  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of choroidal epithelial cyst of the quadrigeminal plate is reported. A twenty-five-year-old man was admitted to our department because of Parinaud's sign and intermittent headache. CT and MRI showed a cyst in the posterior part of the third ventricle. Left occipital transtentorial approach was carried out and the wall of the cyst was subtotally removed. The cyst contained watery clear fluid. On light microscopy, the cyst wall consisted of a single layer, flat epithelial cells and thick collagenous connective tissue. An electronmicroscopic study revealed that the epithelial cells rested on a basement membrane separating them from the underlying collagenous tissue. Microvilli without coating material were presented on the surface of the cells. With this data in hand, the cyst was considered to originate from the developing choroid plexus. PMID:8974094

Maruiwa, H; Terasaki, M; Miyagi, T; Shigemori, M

1996-12-01

410

Epidermoid cyst of the cecum.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidermoid cyst of the cecum is extremely rare; only eight cases have been reported in the literature. A 63-year-old woman was admitted to Kyung Hee University Medical Center with a colonic mass that had been discovered incidentally during a regular health check-up. The radiographic impression was that this mass was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. During surgery, an exophytic mass in the cecal wall was resected by using an ileocecectomy. Based on the macroscopic and the microscopic findings, this case was identified as an epidermoid cyst of the cecal wall. We report this case to discuss the origin of this entity and the unusual nature of our case. PMID:25745626

Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Kil Yeon; Sung, Ji-Youn

2015-02-01

411

Subarachnoid cyst in a cat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A five-year-old domestic longhair was presented with hind-limb ataxia and some degree of incontinence of two weeks' duration. An enlarged spinal canal from the twelfth thoracic (T-12) vertebra to the third lumbar (L(3)) vertebra was identified on survey radiographs. An intradural-extramedullary cavity at the twelfth (T-12) and thirteenth (T-13) thoracic vertebrae, filled with contrast material, was demonstrated on myelography. A left-sided hemilaminectomy was performed over this region, and a subarachnoid cavitation or cyst was found to be the cause of the severe spinal-cord compression. The cyst was drained. The cat showed improvement in the neurological signs during the first three weeks postoperatively. Six months later no neurological deficits were identified on follow-up examination

412

Scintigraphy of aneurysmal bone cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone scintigrams with Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals of 25 aneurysmal bone cysts showed abnormal activity in every case. In 22 cases, the activity was correlated with the true pathologic extent of the lesions; only three exhibited a false-positive extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor margins. Sixteen scintigrams (64%) revealed increased uptake, chiefly around the periphery of the lesions, with less activity in their centers. This feature could not be explained simply by the cystic nature of the lesions, since aneurysmal bone cysts may contain considerable fibrous tissue septa containing trabeculae of reactive new bone. However, there was no correlation between any specific anatomic or histologic pattern and the intensity and pattern of abnormal scintigraphic activity

413

MR imaging of epidermoid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a review of literature, MRI assessments of four cases of epidermoid cysts (E.C.) are reported. E.C., (characterized in computed tomography by hypo or iso-density areas non enhanced by contrast), are characterized in MRI by: 1) an important variability of signal intensity between the different cases, and sometimes between the differents parts of the same cyst, 2) the absence of edema in surrounding parenchyma, in spite of important mass effect, 3) well defined limits, permitting certainty of the extra-cerebral nature of this tumor, 4) the presence of calcifications earyl perceptible in MRI. It is proposed that the variability of signal intensity of E.C. is caused by different relaxation time values corresponding to different concentrations of keratin, cholesterol and water content. (orig.)

414

Craniofacial Procedure to Treat Encephalocele and an Arachnoid Cyst  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to get to the arachnoid cyst, this big bubble that’s inside the head. Now arachnoid cysts are ... is not cancer. This is a cyst, a bubble, a lining of the surface of the brain. ...

415

75 FR 54592 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. APHIS-2010-0076] Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY...quarantined to prevent the spread of pale cyst nematode. The description of the quarantined...INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a...

2010-09-08

416

[Vascular complications of Baker's cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of Baker's cyst is clinically demonstrated as compression syndrome of the vessels and nervous stem in the popliteal area. This result frequent in deep venous thrombosis, nervous injuries and blood flow insufficiency distal to the compression site. We present two cases of compression stenosis of the popliteal vessels, clinically manifested. The patients underwent surgical decompression and cystic removal, thus leading to arterial perfusion and/or venous derivation improvement of the lower extremity. PMID:18443539

Govedarski, V; Denchev, B; Nedevska, M; Zakhariev, T; Nachev, G

2007-01-01

417

Pancreas divisum and choledochal cyst  

OpenAIRE

Pancreas divisum (PD) is the most common congenital variant of the pancreas, affecting 5% to 14% of the population. The ventral duct only drains the ventral pancreas through the major papilla, whereas the majority of the pancreas drains via the dorsal duct through the minor papilla. We report the case of a 21-year-old woman with recurrent acute pancreatitis who presented with the rare finding of choledochal cyst and pancreas divisum (PD). She underwent minor papilla sphincteroto...

Arulprakash S; Balamurali R; Pugazhendhi T; Kumar S.

2009-01-01

418

MRI identification of intraventricular cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neurocysticercosis has a high prevalence rate in southern Brazil, presenting a large scope of clinical and pathological manifestations. When hydrocephalus is present the demonstration of intraventricular cysts may have prognostic and therapeutic implications, nevertheless its pre-operative identification has been difficult by the low sensibility of the imaging methods employed so far. The authors report 7 cases of intraventricular cysticercosis shown by magnetic resonance imaging. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

419

Management of symptomatic liver cysts.  

OpenAIRE

Non-parasitic liver cysts are seen in up to 5% of the population. They become symptomatic when they are large and can cause pain, nausea, vomiting, early satiety and obstructive jaundice. Treatment modalities include percutaneous drainage, open deroofing, hepatic resection and lately, laparoscopic deroofing. We assessed our management of eleven symptomatic patients over the last five years between May 1996 and August 2001. Two of these had mild symptoms and were kept under review. The remaini...

Pitale, A.; Bohra, A. K.; Diamond, T.

2002-01-01

420

Protein variation in cyst nematodes.  

OpenAIRE

The magnitude of the protein divergence strongly suggests that Globoderarostochiensis and G.pallida have experienced hardly any morphological evolution during a time period of millions of years (chapter II). These morphologically nearly indistinguishable potato cyst nematode species are discriminated from one another by 70 % of their proteins revealed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE), which definitively excludes a recent divergence as has been suggested by a number of authors. T...

Bakker, J.

1987-01-01

421

Seven years experience of bronchogenic cysts.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To reveal the clinical, radiological, and surgical results of bronchogenic cysts. METHODS Patients that underwent surgical procedure between January 2000 and June 2007, at Izmir Dr. Suat Seren Chest Disease and Thoracic Surgery Training Hospital, Izmir, Turkey with a radiological diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst were assessed retrospectively. Patients with confirmed histopathologically bronchogenic cyst (n=28) were evaluated for age, gender, symptoms, clinical and radiologic...

Soner Gursoy; Ahmet Ucvet; Ozturk, Ali A.; Erbaycu, Ahmet E.; Oktay Basok; Nur Yucel

2009-01-01

422

Laparoscopic Management of Huge Ovarian Cysts  

OpenAIRE

Objectives. Huge ovarian cysts are conventionally managed by laparotomy. We present 5 cases with huge ovarian cysts managed by laparoscopic endoscopic surgery without any complications. Materials and Methods. We describe five patients who had their surgeries conducted in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (King Fahad Medical City). Results. Patients age ranged between 19 and 69 years. Tumor markers were normal for all patients. The maximum diameter of all cysts ranged between 18 a...

Alobaid, A.; Memon, A.; Alobaid, S.; Aldakhil, L.

2013-01-01

423

The Baker's cyst - a diagnostic problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precise definition of Baker's cyst has been prevented by variety of synonyms. Following anatomical description, Baker's determination, and investigations of myself one should differentiate between the rupture of capsule, bursa semimembranos-gastrocnemia, and Baker's cyst because thea are clearly independent from the pathologic-anatomical point of view. Clinical importance of Baker's cyst in connection with further diseases of the knee joint and therapeutical possibilities are discussed. (orig.)

424

Paraovarian Hydatid Cyst Mimicking Acute Abdomen  

OpenAIRE

Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease that is produced by Echinococcus granulosus and still represents an important medical problem in many countries. Echinococcosis in extrahepatic sites is usually asymptomatic unless the cyst causes symptoms due to pressure, as in our case, or ruptures to the peritoneal cavity. Echinococcal cysts at unusual locations many times pose diagnostic dilemmas, and the diagnosis sometimes is made intraoperatively. Primary ovarian and paraovarian cyst hydatid diseas...

Parvin Mostafa Gharabaghi; Neda Shoari; Azadeh Azadi; Ali Dastran Tabrizi; Keivan Kashy Zonouzy; Amir Vahedi

2014-01-01