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Sample records for giardia lamblia cysts

  1. A Novel Family of Cyst Proteins with Epidermal Growth Factor Repeats in Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Pei-Wei; Huang, Yu-Chang; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Wang, Chih-Hung; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2010-01-01

    The biological goal of Giardia lamblia life cycle is differentiation into a cyst form (encystation) that can survive in the environment and infect a new host. Since cystic stages are key to transmission of parasites, this differentiation may be a target for interruption of the life cycle. Synthesis and assembly of the extracellular cyst wall are the major hallmarks of this important differentiation. During encystation, cyst wall structural proteins are coordinately synthesized and are mainly ...

  2. Field portable mobile phone based fluorescence microscopy for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Gorocs, Zoltan; McLeod, Euan; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that causes an intestinal infection, known as giardiasis, and it is found not only in countries with inadequate sanitation and unsafe water but also streams and lakes of developed countries. Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of this pathogen is important for monitoring of drinking water. Here we present a cost-effective and field portable mobile-phone based fluorescence microscopy platform designed for automated detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in large volume water samples (i.e., 10 ml) to be used in low-resource field settings. This fluorescence microscope is integrated with a disposable water-sampling cassette, which is based on a flow-through porous polycarbonate membrane and provides a wide surface area for fluorescence imaging and enumeration of the captured Giardia cysts on the membrane. Water sample of interest, containing fluorescently labeled Giardia cysts, is introduced into the absorbent pads that are in contact with the membrane in the cassette by capillary action, which eliminates the need for electrically driven flow for sample processing. Our fluorescence microscope weighs ~170 grams in total and has all the components of a regular microscope, capable of detecting individual fluorescently labeled cysts under light-emitting-diode (LED) based excitation. Including all the sample preparation, labeling and imaging steps, the entire measurement takes less than one hour for a sample volume of 10 ml. This mobile phone based compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform together with its machine learning based cyst counting interface is easy to use and can even work in resource limited and field settings for spatio-temporal monitoring of water quality.

  3. New Method Using Sedimentation and Immunomagnetic Separation for Isolation and Enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the isolation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts from biosolid samples has been developed that utilizes sedimentation and immunomagnetic separation. The method was used to recover stained cysts and oocysts (spike organisms) from primary settled sewage sludge, anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and bovine manure. Recovery efficiencies associated with this method were approximately 40 to 60% and were significantly greater than those associated with s...

  4. Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Gorocs, Zoltan; Tseng, Derek; Cortazar, Bingen; Feng, Steve; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Burbano, Jordi; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of waterborne pathogens in drinkable and recreational water sources is crucial for treating and preventing the spread of water related diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we present a field-portable and cost-effective platform for detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts, one of the most common waterborne parasites, which has a thick cell wall that makes it resistant to most water disinfection techniques including chlorination. The platform consists of a smartphone coupled with an opto-mechanical attachment weighing ~205 g, which utilizes a hand-held fluorescence microscope design aligned with the camera unit of the smartphone to image custom-designed disposable water sample cassettes. Each sample cassette is composed of absorbent pads and mechanical filter membranes; a membrane with 8 ?m pore size is used as a porous spacing layer to prevent the backflow of particles to the upper membrane, while the top membrane with 5 ?m pore size is used to capture the individual Giardia cysts that are fluorescently labeled. A fluorescence image of the filter surface (field-of-view: ~0.8 cm(2)) is captured and wirelessly transmitted via the mobile-phone to our servers for rapid processing using a machine learning algorithm that is trained on statistical features of Giardia cysts to automatically detect and count the cysts captured on the membrane. The results are then transmitted back to the mobile-phone in less than 2 minutes and are displayed through a smart application running on the phone. This mobile platform, along with our custom-developed sample preparation protocol, enables analysis of large volumes of water (e.g., 10-20 mL) for automated detection and enumeration of Giardia cysts in ~1 hour, including all the steps of sample preparation and analysis. We evaluated the performance of this approach using flow-cytometer-enumerated Giardia-contaminated water samples, demonstrating an average cyst capture efficiency of ~79% on our filter membrane along with a machine learning based cyst counting sensitivity of ~84%, yielding a limit-of-detection of ~12 cysts per 10 mL. Providing rapid detection and quantification of microorganisms, this field-portable imaging and sensing platform running on a mobile-phone could be useful for water quality monitoring in field and resource-limited settings. PMID:25537426

  5. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  6. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria; Sousa, Maria; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium s...

  7. PURE CULTURE METHOD: GIARDIA LAMBLIA FROM DIFFERENT STOOL SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    H.A YOUSEFI

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.
    Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool sampl...

  8. Small-intestinal factors promote encystation of Giardia lamblia in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillin, F D; Reiner, D S; Boucher, S E

    1988-01-01

    Bile salts and fatty acids stimulated differentiation of cultured Giardia lamblia trophozoites into water-resistant cysts at the slightly alkaline pH of the small intestinal lumen. Maximum encystation occurred at pH 7.8. Thus, specific small-intestinal factors may influence encystation in vivo as well as in vitro.

  9. Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hanevik Kurt; Dizdar Vernesa; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 month...

  10. Attachment of Giardia lamblia to rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Inge, P M; Edson, C M; Farthing, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The human enteric protozoan, Giardia lamblia, has surface membrane lectin activity which mediates parasite adherence to erythrocytes. To determine whether an intestinal binding site exists for this lectin we have studied the interaction in vitro between axenically cultured Giardia trophozoites and isolated rat intestinal epithelial cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Giardia attached to the apical microvillus membrane and basolateral membrane of rat enterocytes. Any location on th...

  11. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of 3H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei

  12. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Semíramis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  13. Susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to Hovenia dulcis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, A P R; Vidal, F; Castro, T M; Lopes, C S; Albarello, N; Coelho, M G P; Figueiredo, S F L; Monteiro-Leal, L H

    2005-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is the causative agent of giardiasis, a common parasitic infection of the human and animal digestive tract. Although several drugs have been available to treat this infection, they present unpleasant side effects or cytotoxicity. In order to find a more natural treatment for the disease, we analyzed the effects of the methanolic extract and three fractions obtained from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae) leaves on G. lamblia. Comparing all fractions, dichloromethane was more efficient in reducing Giardia growth. The exposition of G. lamblia to this fraction lead to degenerations in the surface, modifications in the cell shape and alterations in the localization of nuclei. Besides that, the adhesion of G. lamblia was also altered. Experiments revealed that the obtained fraction did not present cytotoxic effects in mammalian cells. In summary, dichloromethane fraction has strong antigiardial effects and could become an important new substance for the treatment of giardiasis. PMID:16151735

  14. Ingestion of Giardia lamblia trophozoites by murine Peyer's patch macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, D R; Pohl, R

    1990-01-01

    Macrophages in Peyer's patches are important in the initiation of gastrointestinal immune responses to enteric pathogens. To examine their potential role in giardiasis, murine mononuclear cells were isolated from collagenase-treated Peyer's patches by their adherence to glass. These cells were incubated with Giardia lamblia trophozoites in the presence of nonimmune or immune (anti-Giardia antibody titer, greater than or equal to 1:1,024) mouse serum. Macrophages ingested trophozoites at low l...

  15. Giardia lamblia infections in B-cell-deficient transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Stager, S; Muller, N.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we infected B-cell (and antibody-)-deficient transgenic mice with the Giardia lamblia clone GS/M-83-H7. These animals were inhibited in intestinal anti-Giardia immunoglobulin A (IgA) production and could not resolve the parasite infection, and antigenic diversification within the respective parasite populations occurred in an unusually slow manner. These findings indicate an important immunological function of local IgA antibodies which promotes antigenic variation of th...

  16. Pacientes con Giardia lamblia diagnosticada por frotis duodenal / Patients with Giardia lamblia diagnosed through duodenal smear

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hidelisa, Herrero Aguirre; Jesús, Fernández Duharte; Suleidy, Vega Sam; José Antonio, Candel Herrero.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 105 pacientes mayores de 15 años con infección por Giardia lamblia, diagnosticada por frotis duodenal mediante endoscopia en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Policlínico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturn [...] ino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2012, con vistas a caracterizarles. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, síntomas digestivos referidos, positividad del frotis e imagen endoscópica. Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen. Predominaron el sexo femenino (58,0 %), el grupo etario de 29-39 años (38,0 %), la epigastralgia como síntoma principal (66,6 %) y las imágenes endoscópicas grados I y II como las más frecuentes (68,4 y 41,3 %, respectivamente). El índice de positividad a la giardiasis fue relevante Abstract in english A descriptive and cross sectional study of 105 patients older than 15 years with infection by Giardia lamblia, diagnosed through duodenal smear by means of endoscopy was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Teaching Provincial Clinica [...] l Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2012, with the objective of characterizing them. Among the analyzed variables there were: age, sex, referred digestive symptoms, positivity of the smear and endoscopic image. The percentage was used as summary measure. Female sex (58.0%), the age group 29-39 years (38.0%), the epigastralgia as main symptom (66.6%) and the endoscopic images grades I and II prevailed as the most frequent (68.4 and 41.3%, respectively). The positivity index for giardiasis was relevant

  17. Impact of Zooplankton Grazing on the Excystation, Viability, and Infectivity of the Protozoan Pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia?

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, S. J.; Wolyniak, E. A.; Dieter, K. L.; Williamson, C.E.; Jellison, K. L.

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known about the ability of the zooplankton grazer Daphnia pulicaria to reduce populations of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface waters. The potential for D. pulicaria to act as a biological filter of C. parvum and G. lamblia was tested under three grazing pressures (one, two, or four D. pulicaria grazers per 66 ml). (Oo)cysts (1 × 104 per 66 ml) were added to each grazing bottle along with the algal food Selenastrum capricornutum (6.6 × 104 cell...

  18. Impact of zooplankton grazing on the excystation, viability, and infectivity of the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, S J; Wolyniak, E A; Dieter, K L; Williamson, C E; Jellison, K L

    2007-11-01

    Very little is known about the ability of the zooplankton grazer Daphnia pulicaria to reduce populations of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface waters. The potential for D. pulicaria to act as a biological filter of C. parvum and G. lamblia was tested under three grazing pressures (one, two, or four D. pulicaria grazers per 66 ml). (Oo)cysts (1 x 10(4) per 66 ml) were added to each grazing bottle along with the algal food Selenastrum capricornutum (6.6 x 10(4) cells per 66 ml) to stimulate normal grazing. Bottles were rotated (2 rpm) to prevent settling of (oo)cysts and algae for 24 h (a light:dark cycle of 16 h:8 h) at 20 degrees C. The impact of D. pulicaria grazing on (oo)cysts was assessed by (i) (oo)cyst clearance rates, (ii) (oo)cyst viability, (iii) (oo)cyst excystation, and (iv) oocyst infectivity in cell culture. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the total number of C. parvum oocysts by 52% and G. lamblia cysts by 44%. Furthermore, two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased C. parvum excystation and infectivity by 5% and 87%, respectively. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the viability of G. lamblia cysts by 52%, but analysis of G. lamblia excystation was confounded by observed mechanical disruption of the cysts after grazing. No mechanical disruption of the C. parvum oocysts was observed, presumably due to their smaller size. The data provide strong evidence that zooplankton grazers have the potential to substantially decrease the population of infectious C. parvum and G. lamblia in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:17873076

  19. What Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia tell us about the evolution of eukaryotic diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Samuelson

    2002-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are microaerophilic protists, which have long been considered models of ancient pre-mitochondriate eukaryotes. As transitional eukaryotes, amoebae and giardia appeared to lack organelles of higher eukaryotes and to depend upon energy metabolism appropriate for anaerobic conditions, early in the history of the planet. However, our studies have shown that amoebae and giardia contain splicoeosomal introns, ras-family signal-transduction proteins, ATP-binding casettes (ABC)-family drug transporters, Golgi, and a mitochondrion-derived organelle (amoebae only). These results suggest that most of the organelles of higher eukaryotes were present in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes, and so dispute the notion of transitional eukaryotic forms. In addition, phylogenetic studies suggest many of the genes encoding the fermentation enzymes of amoebae and giardia derive from prokaryotes by lateral gene transfer (LGT). While LGT has recently been shown to be an important determinant of prokaryotic evolution, this is the first time that LGT has been shown to be an important determinant of eukaryotic evolution. Further, amoebae contain cyst wall-associated lectins, which resemble, but are distinct from lectins in the walls of insects (convergent evolution). Giardia have a novel microtubule-associated structure which tethers together pairs of nuclei during cell division. It appears then that amoebae and giardia tell us less about the origins of eukaryotes and more about the origins of eukaryotic diversity.

  20. Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanevik Kurt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

  1. The Study of the Multilayer Filtration Process Efficiency on Giardia lamblia Elimination in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mosaviyan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Giardia lamblia is a waterborne highly infectious protozoan parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. The multilayer filtration is used in many applications such as turbidity removes from surface waters and Bacteria, Viruses and protozoan removes. This study was investigated in full-scale the efficiency of filtration process during water treatment that remove Giardia cyst in water at Isfahan province. Materials and methods: We used Information Collection Rule method (ICR. In this method the polypropylene yarn-wound cartridge filter for isolation of these parasites was examined and followed by elution, sample concentration, flotation by percoll-sucrose solution and immunofluorescence antibody (IFA staining to recognize them. Results: Result showed that three layer filtration had a maximum 2.3 log10 for remove Giardia cyst. Cysts removal in water filtration is likely to be comparable to the efficiency of turbidity. Efficiency removal was 99.5% for Giardia and 92.7% for turbidity in filtration stage. We detected 0.2 cyst per 100 liter and per 100 liter in filtered water. This observation is according to U.S.EPA standards. The number of cysts were more in high pH samples. Discussion and conclusion: Analysis of physical processes of treatment water in Isfahan plant configurations showed that granular filters (include sand, anthracite and garnet filter were more likely to have effluence in removal cysts than dual filters.

  2. Flagellar generated flow mediates attachment of Giardia Lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Theodore; Polackwich, Jamie; Burrola Gabilondo, Beatriz; McAllister, Ryan; Powers, Tom; Elmendorf, Heidi; Urbach, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite responsible for widespread diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. Attachment to the host intestinal mucosa and resistance to peristalsis is necessary for establishing infection, but the physical basis for this attachment is poorly understood. We report results from confocal fluorescence microscopy that demonstrate that the regular beating of the posterior flagella generate a flow through the ventral disk, a suction-cup shaped structure that is against the substrate during attachment. Finite element simulations show that the negative pressure generated by the flow is consistent with the measured force of attachement between the parasite and its substrate.

  3. Isoprenylation of proteins in the protozoan Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, H D; Mowatt, M R; Chen, G Z; Nash, T E

    1995-06-01

    We report the ability of Giardia lamblia to modify several of its cellular proteins by isoprenylation. Trophozoites cultured in the presence of [3H]mevalonate synthesized radiolabeled proteins of approx. 50 and 21-26 kDa. Chemical analysis indicated that farnesyl and geranylgeranyl isoprenoids comprised the majority of the radiolabel covalently associated with trophozoite proteins. In addition, antibodies to human p21ras immunoprecipitated mevalonate-labelled species of approx. 21 kDa. Inhibitors of several enzymatic steps of the mevalonate pathway dramatically affected Giardia metabolism. Protein isoprenylation and cell growth were blocked by compactin and mevinolin, competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis. In the presence of these inhibitors, Giardia growth was restored by the addition of mevalonate to the culture medium. In contrast, cell growth was blocked irreversibly by inhibitors of subsequent steps in the protein isoprenylation pathway. Trophozoite growth inhibition by limonene, perillic acid, perillyl alcohol and N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine was not reversed after the addition of mevalonate, dolichol, ubiquinone or cholesterol to the medium. These observations constitute the first description of protein isoprenylation in any protozoan and indicate that this post-translational modification is an important step in the regulation of the growth of this primitive eukaryote. PMID:8538683

  4. Human Secretory Immune Response to Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Fraction from Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, S. M. T.; Maachee, M.; Córdova, O. M.; Diaz de la Guardia, R.; Martins, M.; Osuna, A.

    2002-01-01

    The secretory immune response in humans infected with Giardia lamblia was studied by using saliva samples and an 8-kDa antigen capable of binding fatty acids. This antigen was not recognized by saliva samples from healthy individuals. The antigen may be useful in diagnostic studies of G. lamblia infection.

  5. Crystal Structures of Carbamate Kinase from Giardia lamblia Bound with Citric Acid and AMP-PNP

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kap; Kulakova, Liudmila; Galkin, Andrey; Herzberg, Osnat

    2013-01-01

    The parasite Giardia lamblia utilizes the L-arginine dihydrolase pathway to generate ATP from L-arginine. Carbamate kinase (CK) catalyzes the last step in this pathway, converting ADP and carbamoyl phosphate to ATP and ammonium carbamate. Because the L-arginine pathway is essential for G. lamblia survival and absent in high eukaryotes including humans, the enzyme is a potential target for drug development. We have determined two crystal structures of G. lamblia CK (glCK) with bound ligands. O...

  6. Mechanisms of Giardia lamblia differentiation into cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Luján, H D; Mowatt, M R; Nash, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiologists have long been intrigued by the ability of parasitic organisms to adapt to changes in the environment. Since most parasites occupy several niches during their journey between vectors and hosts, they have developed adaptive responses which allow them to survive under adverse conditions. Therefore, the life cycles of protozoan and helminthic parasites are excellent models with which to study numerous mechanisms involved in cell differentiation, such as the regulation of gene exp...

  7. / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis emergent opportunists / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis, oportunistas emergentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joana, Barbosa; Maria José, Espinar; Acácio, Gonçalves Rodrigues; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Es un hecho conocido que las infecciones oportunistas por protozoos y hongos han aumentado en los últimos años, debido especialmente al aumento de las infecciones por VIH. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis son protozoos y hongo, respectivamente, mundialmente recono [...] cidos como agentes oportunistas emergentes, responsables de brotes epidémicos provocados por la ingestión de agua potable contaminada, incluso después de una correcta desinfección. La ingestión de estos protozoos puede provocar diferentes grados de enfermedad, entre aguda o leve (población sana) hasta situaciones más graves y agresivas, hasta a veces mortales (pacientes inmunocomprometidos y/o inmunodeprimidos). A pesar de ser responsables de muchos brotes epidémicos, su diagnóstico de laboratorio permanece arduo y trabajoso, incluso utilizando las nuevas técnicas desarrolladas en los últimos años. En esta revisión se resumen las consideraciones generales de estos oportunistas emergentes, así como los métodos de diagnóstico más usuales, incluso los más recientes y específicos. Abstract in english Epidemiological data, regarding parasitic and fungi opportunist infections, have changed in the last years, especially due to HIV infection. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are protozoan and fungi, respectively, worldwide known as opportunistic emergent agents, [...] being responsible by epidemic outbreaks after ingestion of contaminated water, even following a correct disinfection treatment. Its ingestion can cause different effects on individuals’ health, from light or acute among the healthy population, to serious, aggressive or even deadly among the immunodepressed or immunocompromised patients. Contaminated water ingestion can result in outbreaks but protozoa laboratory diagnosis still remains very laborious, even after the development of more sensitive and specific techniques in the last years. In this paper, a revision of these emergent opportunists, their main characteristics and diagnostic tools are described, including the most recent and specific techniques.

  8. Performance of Three Enzyme Immunoassays and Two Direct Fluorescence Assays for Detection of Giardia lamblia in Stool Specimens Preserved in ECOFIX

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorko, Daniel P.; Williams, Esther C.; Nelson, Nancy A.; Calhoun, Leslie B.; Yan, Sizhuang S.

    2000-01-01

    ECOFIX is a single-vial stool preservative that is both formalin- and mercury-free. We evaluated the abilities of three commercial Giardia lamblia-specific enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay [Alexon-Trend Inc.], Giardia Test [Techlab], and Premier Giardia lamblia [Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.]) and two commercial direct fluorescent-antibody (FA) assays for G. lamblia (Crypto/Giardia IF Test [Techlab] and Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia [Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.]) ...

  9. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba spp from river waters in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Ehsan; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-12-01

    In this study, DNA from 55 surface and river water samples, which were collected from some water sources of Tehran and the Guilan Province, Iran, were extracted and examined for Entamoeba spp. and Giardia lamblia by PCR and genotyping. Twenty-seven samples, which were concentrated using the immunomagnetic separation technology (IMS) method, were examined for Giardia alone. Twenty-eight samples, which were concentrated using the sucrose flotation (SF) method, were examined for both Giardia and Entamoeba species. The results showed that 27/55 (17/27 and 10/28) (49 %), 4 /28 (14.28 %) and 3/28 (10.7 %) of the samples were positive for Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba spp and mixed infections (Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp.), respectively. Sixteen out of 55 samples were negative. Entamoeba genus-specific PCR primers in single-round PCR were used to differentiate between the Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii). With respect to the 7 samples that were positive for Entamoeba, (14.28 %) 4 out of 28 were positive for E. moshkovskii, (7.14 %), 2 out of 28 were positive for E. histolytica and (3.57 %) 1 out of 28 was positive for E. dispar. Genus-specific PCR primers in a semi-nested PCR assay was performed to genotype Giardia species. Of the 27 samples that were positive for Giardia, 10 samples were sequences. All 10 successfully sequenced samples contained assemblage B of Giardia lamblia.This is first study to investigate the G. lamblia genotypes in the water supply of the Tehran and Guilan provinces, and it is the first study to investigate Entamoeba species in the water supplies of Iran. The investigated river water supplies, which are used for agriculture, camping and animal farming, were heavily contaminated by the human pathogenic Entamoeba and Giardia parasites. There is a potential risk of waterborne outbreaks in humans and animals. PMID:26350378

  10. Chromosome-size variation in Giardia lamblia: the role of rDNA repeats.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, R D

    1992-01-01

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites contain at least five sets of chromosomes that have been categorized by chromosome-specific probes. Pulsed field separations of G. lamblia chromosomes also demonstrated minor bands in some isolates which stained less intensely with ethidium than the major chromosomal bands. Two of the minor bands of the E11 clone of the ISR isolate, MBa and MBb, were similar to each other and to chromosomal band I by hybridization to total chromosomal DNA and by hybridization of s...

  11. Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Quintero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6 by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90% of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

  12. Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jael, Quintero; Diana Carolina, Figueroa; Rafael, Barcelo; Linda, Breci; Humberto, Astiazaran-Garcia; Lucila, Rascon; Ramon, Robles-Zepeda; Adriana, Garibay-Escobar; Enrique, Velazquez-Contreras; Gloria Leon, Avila; Jose Manuel, Hernandez-Hernandez; Carlos, Velazquez.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lam [...] blia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

  13. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  14. Virus-mediated expression of firefly luciferase in the parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, D C; Wang, A L; Wu, C. H.; WANG, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, a prevalent human pathogen and one of the lineages that branched earliest from prokaryotes, can be infected with a double-stranded RNA virus, giardiavirus (GLV). The 6,277-bp viral genome has been previously cloned (A.L. Wang, H.-M. Yang, K.A. Shen, and C.C. Wang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:8595-8599, 1993; C.-H. Wu, C.C. Wang, H.M. Yang, and A.L. Wang, Gene, in press) and was converted to a transfection vector for G. lamblia in the present study. By flanking the firefly l...

  15. Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES

    OpenAIRE

    Nora B Molina; DANIELA POLVERINO; Marta C Minvielle; MARÍA APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO AGUILAR; JUAN A BASUALDO

    2006-01-01

    Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua destilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial). Los dat...

  16. Incidence of Giardia lamblia Subspecies by PCR-RFLP in Stool Specimens of Hospitalized Children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Hazrati Tappeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent intestinal flagellate protozoa that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts causing severe intestinal disorder in children.This study was performed to determine subspecies of G.lamblia by the PCR-RFLP method, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase(gdhlocus, in hospitalized children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province,Iran and determining the infection transformational storages in this area.Overall, 720 stool specimens were collected from the hospitalized children, 34 samples were positive and Giardia cysts were detected under the microscope. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method and then washed with sterile distilled water to remove effectively the PCR inhibitors. Genomic DNA of G. lamblia isolates was extracted by freeze-thaw cycles followed by phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. The single step PCR-RFLP assay was used to differentiate the assemblages between A and B, which were found in humans. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified, and then for detection of subspecies, specific restriction RsaI and BspLI enzymes were used.Totally 34 samples were positive in terms of Giardia cyst out of 720 examined samples microscopically, so the parasite spread rate is reported 4.72%. Analysis PCR-RFLP on these samples revealed that 28 samples (93.3% have the genotype BIII and 2 samples (6.7% belong to the subgroup BIV.PCR-RFLP is a proper analytical method for determining the genotype among parasite types, using the glutamate dehydrogenizes zone's genes. Based on the results, an animal origin of infection cycle is suggested.

  17. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Eric T.; Kim, Jessica E.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A., E-mail: merritt@u.washington.edu [Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa, (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine.

  18. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine

  19. Development of a rapid HRM genotyping method for detection of dog-derived Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wu, Sheng; Zheng, Guochao; Hu, Wei; Song, Meiran; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic flagellate protozoan in the intestine of human and many mammals including dogs. To assess a threat of dog-derived G. lamblia to humans, the common dog-derived G. lamblia assemblages A, C, and D were genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) technology. According to ?-giardin gene sequence, the qPCR-HRM primers BG5 and BG7 were designed. A series of experiments on the stability, sensitivity, and accuracy of the HRM method were also tested. Results showed that the primers BG5 and BG7 could distinguish among three assemblages A, C, and D, which Tm value differences were about 1 °C to each other. The melting curves of intra-assay reproducibility were almost coincided, and those of inter-assay reproducibility were much the same shape. The lowest detection concentration was about 5?×?10(-6)-ng/?L sample. The genotyping results from 21 G. lamblia samples by the HRM method were in complete accordance with sequencing results. It is concluded that the HRM genotyping method is rapid, stable, specific, highly sensitive, and suitable for clinical detection and molecular epidemiological survey of dog-derived G. lamblia. PMID:26212101

  20. A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J. Solari

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

  1. A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto J., Solari; Monica I., Rahn; Alicia, Saura; Hugo D., Lujan.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin d [...] irectly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

  2. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA, 44 (9,9% apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052, número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015, número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059, higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024, usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034, ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03 e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012. Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada.

  3. Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections

    OpenAIRE

    Valdênia M. O. Souza; Iana R. F. Sales; Décio M. Peixoto; Vláudia M. Assis Costa; Rizzo, José A; Silva, Almerinda R; Roberta Faria Camilo; Felipe Faria Pierotti; Dirceu Solé; Emanuel S. C. Sarinho

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica resp...

  4. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric T; Kim, Jessica E; Napuli, Alberto J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Buckner, Frederick S; Hol, Wim G J; Merritt, Ethan A

    2012-09-01

    The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine. PMID:22948920

  5. Identification of growth inhibiting compounds in a Giardia lamblia high-throughput screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Santiago, Rubén; Wu, Zhijin; Zhang, Linghui; Widmer, Giovanni

    2008-12-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most common eukaryotic pathogens and is classified by the CDC as a category B agent of bioterrorism. In a departure from more traditional research focused on specific pathways or molecules, we have developed a high-throughput assay for screening libraries of small compounds for inhibitors and enhancers of trophozoite multiplication. Following a 24-h period of culture in 384-well plates in the presence of compounds, trophozoites were fixed, stained and enumerated. Quadruplicate screening of 1520 compounds from two libraries of known bioactives detected numerous inhibitory compounds. Based on a stringent cut-off of 5 standard deviations from the plate mean, 50 compounds (3.3%) were inhibitory. The activity of 3 compounds was confirmed in conventional culture. Although not meeting the threshold, one compound (indirubin) was identified as an agonist of trophozoite proliferation. Demonstrating the potential of high-throughput screening for rapidly finding new compounds which perturb G. lamblia multiplication, most of the hits identified by high-throughput screening do not appear to have been tested previously for their ability to affect G. lamblia trophozoites. High-throughput screening of bioactive compounds will open new avenues to a system-wide analysis of pathways affecting G. lamblia proliferation, and eventually to other phases of the life cycle. PMID:18796315

  6. Direct and antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity against Giardia lamblia by splenic and intestinal lymphoid cells in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    S.S Kanwar; Ganguly, N. K.; Walia, B N; Mahajan, R C

    1986-01-01

    Direct cytotoxicity and antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity against Giardia lamblia trophozoites exhibited by splenic, intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocyte populations isolated from G lamblia infected mice were studied. Different patterns of cytotoxicity were found. Intraepithelial lymphocytes showed a direct cytotoxic activity of 20.6 +/- 5.6% before infection. It was significantly higher on the 20th (p less than 0.01) and 30th (p less than 0.05) day postinfection. Lamina ...

  7. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolástico Aguiar González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  8. Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia / COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NORA B, MOLINA; DANIELA, POLVERINO; MARTA C, MINVIELLE; MARÍA, APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO, AGUILAR; JUAN A, BASUALDO.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua d [...] estilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial). Los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente. La combinación de buffer de lisis E y Chelex fue un método simple y económico, que produjo alto rendimiento de ADN con baja pureza. Ella técnica comercial fue un método simple, más costoso que produjo bajas cantidades de ADN con un nivel de pureza apropiado para estudios moleculares Abstract in english The efficiency of lysis procedures and DNA purification treatments of Giardia lamblia trophozoites were evaluated regarding the breaking-up efficiency, quantity and pureness of DNA, processing time and costs. Five lysis methods (distilled water and heating; distilled water, heating and proteinase K; [...] buffer D Lysis; buffer E lysis, and commercial kit), and three DNA purification methods (phenol:chloroform:isoamilic, Chelex 100 and commercial kit) were tested. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. The buffer E lysis and Chelex combination was simple and economic method which produced high DNA performance with low pureness. Commercial kit was simple and expensive method which generated low yields of DNA with appropriate purity level for molecular analysis

  9. Differential gene expression in Giardia lamblia under oxidative stress: significance in eukaryotic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Esha; Mukherjee, Avik K; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Ganguly, Sandipan

    2014-02-10

    Giardia lamblia is a unicellular, early branching eukaryote causing giardiasis, one of the most common human enteric diseases. Giardia, a microaerophilic protozoan parasite has to build up mechanisms to protect themselves against oxidative stress within the human gut (oxygen concentration 60 ?M) to establish its pathogenesis. G. lamblia is devoid of the conventional mechanisms of the oxidative stress management system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione cycling, which are present in most eukaryotes. NADH oxidase is a major component of the electron transport chain of G. lamblia, which in concurrence with disulfide reductase, protects oxygen-labile proteins such as pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase against oxidative stress by sustaining a reduced intracellular environment. It also contains the arginine dihydrolase pathway, which occurs in a number of anaerobic prokaryotes, includes substrate level phosphorylation and adequately active to make a major contribution to ATP production. To study differential gene expression under three types of oxidative stress, a Giardia genomic DNA array was constructed and hybridized with labeled cDNA of cells with or without stress. The transcriptomic data has been analyzed and further validated using real time PCR. We identified that out of 9216 genes represented on the array, more than 200 genes encoded proteins with functions in metabolism, oxidative stress management, signaling, reproduction and cell division, programmed cell death and cytoskeleton. We recognized genes modulated by at least ? 2 fold at a significant time point in response to oxidative stress. The study has highlighted the genes that are differentially expressed during the three experimental conditions which regulate the stress management pathway differently to achieve redox homeostasis. Identification of some unique genes in oxidative stress regulation may help in new drug designing for this common enteric parasite prone to drug resistance. Additionally, these data suggest the major role of this early divergent ancient eukaryote in anaerobic to aerobic organism evolution. PMID:24321693

  10. A new-generation 5-nitroimidazole can induce highly metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Linda A.; Burgess, Anita G.; Krauer, Kenia G.; Eckmann, Lars; Vanelle, Patrice; Maxime D. Crozet; Gillin, Frances D.; Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    The 5-nitroimidazole (NI) compound C17, with a side chain carrying a remote phenyl group in the 2-position of the imidazole ring, is at least 14-fold more active against the gut protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia than the 5-NI drug metronidazole (MTR), with a side chain in the 1-position of the imidazole ring, which is the primary drug for the treatment of giardiasis. Over 10 months, lines resistant to C17 were induced in vitro and were at least 12-fold more resistant to C17 than the parent s...

  11. In vitro susceptibilities of 25 Giardia lamblia isolates of human origin to six commonly used antiprotozoal agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Gordts, B.; Hemelhof, W; Asselman, C; Butzler, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The role drug resistance plays in the occurrence of chronic and recurrent giardiasis has not been established. Extensive data on the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of living Giardia spp. trophozoites from human origin are lacking. We have determined with a macrodilution method in semisolid medium the in vitro susceptibility of 25 Giardia lamblia isolates, all obtained by routine cultivation of the duodenal fluid of children to six commonly used antiprotozoal drugs. The results showed ...

  12. Modeling Long-Term Host Cell-Giardia lamblia Interactions in an In Vitro Co-Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Bridget S.; Estraño, Carlos E.; Cole, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, there are greater than 700,000 deaths per year associated with diarrheal disease. The flagellated intestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia, is one of the most common intestinal pathogens in both humans and animals throughout the world. While attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium, Giardia induces epithelial cell apoptosis, disrupts tight junctions, and increases intestinal permeability. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of giardiasis, including the role lamina propri...

  13. The structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from Giardia lamblia reveals divergence from eukaryotic homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Tracy L; Carter, Megan; Napuli, Alberto J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hol, Wim G J; Merritt, Ethan A

    2010-08-01

    The 2.1A crystal structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) from the diplomonad Giardia lamblia reveals that the N-terminus of this class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase forms a 16-residue alpha-helix. This helix replaces a beta-hairpin that is required by human TrpRS for normal activity and has been inferred to play a similar role in all eukaryotic TrpRS. The primary sequences of TrpRS homologs from several basal eukaryotes including Giardia lack a set of three residues observed to stabilize interactions with this beta-hairpin in the human TrpRS. Thus the present structure suggests that the activation reaction mechanism of TrpRS from the basal eukaryote G. lamblia differs from that of higher eukaryotes. Furthermore, the protein as observed in the crystal forms an (alpha(2))(2) homotetramer. The canonical dimer interface observed in all previous structures of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases is maintained, but in addition each N-terminal alpha-helix reciprocally interlocks with the equivalent helix from a second dimer to form a dimer of dimers. Although we have no evidence for tetramer formation in vivo, modeling indicates that the crystallographically observed tetrameric structure would be compatible with the tRNA binding mode used by dimeric TrpRS and TyrRS. PMID:20438846

  14. Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nazarina Ivonne, Méndez Pérez; José L., Calunga Fernández; Silvia, Menéndez Cepero.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal) en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronida [...] zol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %), de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología. Abstract in english The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy) on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated [...] with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %). Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %). It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

  15. Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarina Ivonne Méndez Pérez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %, de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología.The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %. Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %. It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

  16. Crystal structures of carbamate kinase from Giardia lamblia bound with citric acid and AMP-PNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kap; Kulakova, Liudmila; Galkin, Andrey; Herzberg, Osnat

    2013-01-01

    The parasite Giardia lamblia utilizes the L-arginine dihydrolase pathway to generate ATP from L-arginine. Carbamate kinase (CK) catalyzes the last step in this pathway, converting ADP and carbamoyl phosphate to ATP and ammonium carbamate. Because the L-arginine pathway is essential for G. lamblia survival and absent in high eukaryotes including humans, the enzyme is a potential target for drug development. We have determined two crystal structures of G. lamblia CK (glCK) with bound ligands. One structure, in complex with a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog, adenosine 5'-adenylyl-?,?-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), was determined at 2.6 Å resolution. The second structure, in complex with citric acid bound in the postulated carbamoyl phosphate binding site, was determined in two slightly different states at 2.1 and 2.4 Å resolution. These structures reveal conformational flexibility of an auxiliary domain (amino acid residues 123-170), which exhibits open or closed conformations or structural disorder, depending on the bound ligand. The structures also reveal a smaller conformational change in a region associated the AMP-PNP adenine binding site. The protein residues involved in binding, together with a model of the transition state, suggest that catalysis follows an in-line, predominantly dissociative, phosphotransfer reaction mechanism, and that closure of the flexible auxiliary domain is required to protect the transition state from bulk solvent. PMID:23700444

  17. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gil Ruiz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra.

  18. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection / Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. A., Gil Ruiz; P., Gil Simón; R., Aparicio Duque; J. L., Mayor Jerez.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia co [...] mpleta del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra. Abstract in english Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means ne [...] w perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.

  19. Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously. We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified the proportion of cases acquired in Germany in order to investigate risk factors for sporadic autochthonous Giardia infections. Methods We identified Giardia cases notified by 41 local health authorities between February 2007 and January 2008 and interviewed them on their clinical symptoms, underlying morbidities, travel abroad and potential risk factors for the disease. We conducted a case-control-study including laboratory-confirmed (microscopy or antigen-test autochthonous Giardia cases with clinical manifestations (diarrhoea, cramps, bloating and randomly selected controls from the local population registry matched by county of residence and age-group (0-5, 6-19, ?20 years. Secondary cases, controls with diarrhoea and persons who had travelled outside Germany in the three weeks prior to disease onset (exposure period were excluded. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI using conditional logistic regression. Results Of 273 interviewed cases, 131 (48% had not travelled abroad during the defined exposure period. Of these 131, 85 (65% were male, 68 (54% were living in communities with >100,000 inhabitants and 107 (83% were aged 20 years or older. We included 120 cases and 240 controls in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be male (aOR 2.5 CI 1.4-4.4, immunocompromised (aOR 15.3 CI 1.8-127 and daily consumers of green salad (aOR 2.9 CI 1.2-7.2. Contact with animals (pets/farm animals and exposure to surface water (swimming/water sports were not associated with symptomatic disease. Conclusions A substantial proportion of Giardia lamblia cases in Germany are indigenously acquired. Symptomatic cases are significantly more likely to be immunocompromised than control persons from the general population. Physicians should consider Giardia infections among patients with no recent history of travel abroad, particularly if they have immune deficiencies. Green salads may be an important vehicle of infection. Information campaigns highlighting this food-borne risk should emphasise the risk to persons with immune deficiencies.

  20. Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aimée, Echevarría; Dinorah, Torres Idavoy.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron [...] incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL), que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL. Abstract in english The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú) on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 [...] hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL). An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

  1. First genotyping of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces in Argentina, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C Minvielle

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces and their epidemiological and clinical characteristics in Argentina, South America. Seventy isolates, 60 from humans (adults and children, eight from dogs and two from cows were processed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Data corresponding to demographic, socio-cultural and environmental variables and presence/absence of signs/symptoms were collected. The triosephosphate isomerase gene was amplified from 43 (71.66% of the 60 human fecal samples. Among these, 3/43 (6.98% were genotype AII and 40/43 (93.02% were genotype B. Assemblage AII was detected in three children who lived together in a shantytown and they were oligosymptomatic and none had diarrhea. This genotype was not found in animals. Genotype B showed a high prevalence in both adults and children. It was also found in polysymptomatic people, many of whom presented diarrhea. It was also found only in one dog. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. lamblia genotypes in Argentina.

  2. First genotyping of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces in Argentina, South America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta C, Minvielle; Nora B, Molina; Daniela, Polverino; Juan A, Basualdo.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces and their epidemiological and clinical characteristics in Argentina, South America. Seventy isolates, 60 from humans (adults and children), eight from dogs and two from cows were processed by po [...] lymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Data corresponding to demographic, socio-cultural and environmental variables and presence/absence of signs/symptoms were collected. The triosephosphate isomerase gene was amplified from 43 (71.66%) of the 60 human fecal samples. Among these, 3/43 (6.98%) were genotype AII and 40/43 (93.02%) were genotype B. Assemblage AII was detected in three children who lived together in a shantytown and they were oligosymptomatic and none had diarrhea. This genotype was not found in animals. Genotype B showed a high prevalence in both adults and children. It was also found in polysymptomatic people, many of whom presented diarrhea. It was also found only in one dog. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. lamblia genotypes in Argentina.

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ?-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathuri, Puja; Nguyen, Emily Tam [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Luecke, Hartmut, E-mail: hudel@uci.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    ?-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. ?-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of ?-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of ?-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ?-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. ?-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of ?-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of ?-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis

  5. Modeling and analysis of propulsion in the multiflagellated micoorganism Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaghan, Scott C.; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze the propulsion of multiflagellated microorganisms, and to draw insight to the underlying physics and biology of the movement. Giardia lamblia was chosen as the model organism due to its unique ability to mechanically attach to various surfaces, its rapid movement, and its fine control over steering and navigation. In this work, a mechanics model was utilized to study the mechanics and propulsive contribution of the ventral and anterior flagella in Giardia. It was discovered that energy is supplied mainly at the proximal portion of these flagella, supporting the hypothesis that a decreasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) gradient along the length of the flagella would not affect the motion observed. Similarly, the elasticity of the flagella allows the energy input at the proximal portion to be transferred to the distal portion, where the majority of thrust is generated. Specifically, we found that the ventral flagella are the driving force for planar propulsion and turning, while the anterior flagella are used for steering and control.

  6. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L than Giardia cysts (6/100 L, suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

  7. Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose / Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdênia M. O., Souza; Iana R. F., Sales; Décio M., Peixoto; Vláudia M. Assis, Costa; José A., Rizzo; Almerinda R., Silva; Roberta Faria, Camilo; Felipe Faria, Pierotti; Dirceu, Solé; Emanuel S. C., Sarinho.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a [...] giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110). A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075), elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701), IgE específica (p = 0,250) ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between g [...] iardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

  8. Identification of Giardia lamblia and the human infectious-species of Cryptosporidium in drinking water resources in Western Saudi Arabia by nested-PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawash, Y; Ghonaim, M; Hussein, Y; Alhazmi, A; Alturkistani, A

    2015-06-01

    The presence of Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in drinking water represents a major public health problem. This study was the first report concerned with the occurrence of these protozoa in drinking water in Saudi Arabia. The study was undertaken in Al-Taif, a high altitude region, Western Saudi Arabia. Eight underground wells water, six desalinated water and five domestic brands of bottled water samples, 10 liter each, were monthly collected between May 2013 and April 2014. All samples (n = 228), were processed using an automated wash/elution station (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.). Genomic DNA was directly isolated and purified from samples concentrates with QIAamp® Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen). The target protozoan DNA sequences were amplified using two previously published nested-PCR protocols. Of all the analyzed water, 31 samples (?14%) were found contaminated with the target protozoa. Giardia lamblia was detected in ?10% (7/72) of desalinated water and in ?9% (9/96) of wells water. On the other hand, Cryptosporidium was identified in ?8% (8/72) of desalinated water and in ?7% (7/96) of wells water. All bottled water samples (n = 60) were (oo)cysts-free. Protozoan (oo)cysts were more frequently identified in water samples collected in the spring than in other seasons. The methodology established in our study proved sensitive, cost-effective and is amenable for future automation or semi-automation. For better understanding of the current situation that represent an important health threat to the local inhabitants, further studies concerned with (oo)cyst viability, infectivity, concentration and genotype identification are recommended. PMID:26691249

  9. A Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Three Zoonotic Parasites Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wu, Sheng; Yu, Xingang; Abullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Song, Meiran; Tan, Liping; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia assemblage A are common intestinal parasites of dogs and cats; they can also infect humans, causing parasitic zoonoses. In this study, a multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous identification and detection of those three zoonotic parasites. Three pairs of specific primers were designed based on ITS sequence of A. ceylanicum and A. caninum and TPI gene of G. lamblia available in the GenBank. The multiplex PCR reaction system was established by optimizing the reaction condition, and a series of tests on the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical application were also conducted. Results showed that three target fragments were amplified specifically; the detection limit was 10 eggs for both A. ceylanicum and A. caninum, 72?pg DNA for G. lamblia. Of 112 clinical fecal samples, 34.8% and 17.8% samples were positive for A. caninum and A. ceylanicum, respectively, while only 2.7% samples were positive for G. lamblia assemblage A. It is concluded that the established multiplex PCR assay is a convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and high-efficiency method for molecular detection and epidemiological investigation of three zoonotic parasites.

  10. Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2013-06-15

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

  11. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN A WATERSHED RESERVOIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation evaluated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts at 17 sampling locations in Lake Texoma reservoir using method 1623 with standard Envirocheck™ capsule filters. The watershed serves rural agricultural communities active in cattle ranching, ...

  12. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María; Ager Jr.,Arba LeRoy; Lindo John Fitzgerald; Dubón José María; Neumeister Shondra Michelle; Baum Marianna Karas; Palmer Carol Jean

    1998-01-01

    During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 210...

  13. Method to enumerate oocysts of cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been recognized as etiological agents of gastrointestinal illness in humans with severe consequences on children and immunocompromised individuals. Water seems to be vehicle of infection. In last years many efforts have been done to evaluate a method to enumerate oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in waters. Throughout filtration and concentration steps, the two procedures proposed allow to enumerate oocysts and cysts belonging to the two genera of protozoa

  14. Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Christopher W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously appreciated. We suggest that the missing components of the exosome complex provide an explanation for the stable abundance of sterile RNA species in Giardia.

  15. Inhibition of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase gene expression in Giardia lamblia by a virus-mediated hammerhead ribozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, M; Wang, A L; Wang, C C

    2000-04-01

    Giardia lamblia is a primitive eukaryotic microorganism that derives its metabolic energy primarily from anaerobic glycolysis. In trophozoites, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA with the transfer of a pair of electrons to ferredoxin, which can then reduce metronidazole and activate it into a potent antigiardiasis agent. It is unclear, however, whether this anaerobic disposal of electrons is essential for the energy metabolism in Giardia. In the present study, cDNAs encoding hammerhead ribozyme flanked with various lengths of antisense PFOR RNA were cloned into a viral vector pC631pac derived from the genome of giardiavirus (GLV). RNA transcripts of the plasmids showed high cleavage activities on PFOR mRNA in vitro. They were introduced into GLV-infected G. lamblia trophozoites by electroporation and stablized in the transfected cells via serial passages under puromycin selection. PFOR mRNA and enzyme activity in the transfected cells were decreased by 46-60% with the ribozyme PRzS flanked with 20 nt PFOR antisense RNA on each arm and by 69-80% with the ribozyme PRzL flanked with 600 and 1500 nt PFOR antisense RNA. PRzS without the inserted ribozyme or ribozyme flanked with alcohol dehydrogenase E antisense RNA showed no effect on PFOR mRNA and activity. The ribozyme-transfected cells demonstrated significantly enhanced resistance to metronidazole and grew equally well under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. In contrast, the wild-type cells grew slightly better anaerobically than the transfectants but did not grow at all in aerobic conditions. Thus, the reduced PFOR expression enables Giardia to grow under molecular oxygen and the presence of PFOR enhances the anaerobic growth of Giardia with an increased susceptibility towards metronidazole. In addition, this study demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using a viral RNA vector to express a ribozyme targeted at a specific mRNA in G. lamblia to reduce the expression of a specific gene. PMID:10792730

  16. COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES / COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cardona

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniques have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD in the city of Manizales (Caldas were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan. RESUMEN: Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentración y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas. Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo.

  17. COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS / COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edwin, Cardona; Silvia, Castañeda; María Elena, Álvarez; Jorge Enrique, Pérez; Fredy Arvey, Rivera Páez; Germán Ariel, López Gartner.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentraci [...] ón y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD) de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas). Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto) y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo. Abstract in english The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniq [...] ues have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD) in the city of Manizales (Caldas) were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA) and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan.

  18. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette; Mogensen, Claus; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coat...

  19. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryptosporidium and 17.14% for Giardia, the low rates were in Mosul city 10% for both protozoa. The highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium was in March 38.46% and the lowest was in November and July 0%. The highest prevalence rate of Giardia was in October 23.53% and the lowest rate in July 0%. This first study shows the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water (Ground water in Nineveh governorate.

  20. Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Pennathur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite.

  1. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J. A.; Riber, Ulla; Kurtzhals, J. A. L.; Enemark, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    AimsTo develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water.Methods and ResultsThis unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx. 400l. Changes in the viability was evaluated by seeding wild type (oo-)cysts (1x10(4)) followed by sonication for 5, 10, 20 or 40s (five replicates for each period). Flow cytometry analysis showed neg...

  2. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA, low-zinc (ZnL, high-zinc (ZnH and supplemented-zinc (ZnS diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days. Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

  3. Voltage?dependent potassium currents expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes after injection of mRNA isolated from trophozoites of Giardia lamblia (strain Portland?1)

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Arturo; Jimenez?Cardoso, Enedina; Eligio?Garcia, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance as a health problem issue, almost nothing is known about the membrane physiology of Giardia lamblia and practically there exist no information so far regarding the variety and properties of ion channels that this protozoan parasite possesses. To address this subject we resorted to an indirect method, consisting in the injection of mRNA and further characterization of ion currents in Xenopus oocytes. In this work, we show that oocytes injected with mRNA isolated from cul...

  4. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba / Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fidel Ángel, Núñez; Jorge Luis, López; Ana Margarita, de la Cruz; Carlos M., Finlay.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarr [...] eas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos. Abstract in english We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical sympt [...] oms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

  5. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    AimsTo develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water.Methods and ResultsThis unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx. 400l. Changes in the viability was evaluated by seeding wild type (oo-)cysts (1x10(4)) followed by sonication for 5, 10, 20 or 40s (five replicates for each period). Flow cytometry analysis showed negligible increase in the mortality of (oo-)cysts exposed to 5-10s of sonication. Recovery rate was assessed by seeding ColorSeed (10 replicates) into the filter unit followed by air backwash to a glass slide and counting of (oo-)cysts by epifluorescent microscopy. High recovery rates (meanSD) were found: 849%48 for Giardia cysts and 70%+/- 65 for Cryptosporidium oocysts. DNA of seeded wild type (oo-)cysts (1x10(2); 10 replicates) was successfully amplified using real-time PCR.ConclusionsThe use of a metallic filter, sonication and air backwash' were key factors for creating a highly efficient system for recovery of apparently undamaged protozoa.Significance and Impact of the StudyThis reagent-less system can be used for monitoring of parasite contamination in drinking water.

  6. A new-generation 5-nitroimidazole can induce highly metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Linda A; Burgess, Anita G; Krauer, Kenia G; Eckmann, Lars; Vanelle, Patrice; Crozet, Maxime D; Gillin, Frances D; Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A

    2010-07-01

    The 5-nitroimidazole (NI) compound C17, with a side chain carrying a remote phenyl group in the 2-position of the imidazole ring, is at least 14-fold more active against the gut protozoan parasite Giardialamblia than the 5-NI drug metronidazole (MTR), with a side chain in the 1-position of the imidazole ring, which is the primary drug for the treatment of giardiasis. Over 10 months, lines resistant to C17 were induced in vitro and were at least 12-fold more resistant to C17 than the parent strains. However, these lines had ID(90) values (concentration of drug at which 10% of control parasite ATP levels are detected) for MTR of >200 microM, whilst lines induced to be highly resistant to MTR in vitro have maximum ID(90) values around 100 microM (MTR-susceptible isolates typically have an ID(90) of 5-12.8 microM). The mechanism of MTR activation in Giardia apparently involves reduction to toxic radicals by the activity of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and the electron acceptor ferredoxin. MTR-resistant Giardia have decreased PFOR activity, which is consistent with decreased activation of MTR in these lines, but C17-resistant lines have normal levels of PFOR. Therefore, an alternative mechanism of resistance in Giardia must account for these super-MTR-resistant cells. PMID:20456926

  7. Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon / Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Filipe Anibal, Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga, Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira, Lassance; Luanda Macedo da, Silva Neto; Carla Alexandra Almeida, Salmazo; Marcio Neves, Bóia.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além [...] de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z) para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI), altura-idade (AI), peso-altura (PA) e perímetro braquial-idade (PBI). Os exames parasitológicos foram realizados através dos métodos de Ritchie (n = 307), Kato-Katz (n = 278), Baermann-Moraes (n = 238) e Safranina-Azul-de-Metileno (n = 307). A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações independentes entre Giardia lamblia e PI (beta = -0.195, p = 0.003), PA (beta = -0.161, p = 0.018) e PBI (beta = -0.197, p = 0.011), após controle para idade, sexo, renda familiar e infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. O modelo multivariado demonstrou ainda que a única variável associada aos níveis de hemoglobina foi a idade. O estudo concluiu que a giardíase está associada, nos sujeitos pesquisados, a menores médias para os parâmetros antropométricos estudados e que um controle efetivo das parasitoses intestinais poderia contribuir para o pleno desenvolvimento das crianças na área estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and so [...] cioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ) parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307), Kato-Katz (n = 278), Baermann-Moraes (n = 238) and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307). Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282). Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242). Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003), WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018) and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011), controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.

  8. Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and socioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ, height for age (HAZ, weight for height (WHZ and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307. Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282. Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242. Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003, WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018 and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011, controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI, altura-idade (AI, peso-altura (PA e perímetro braquial-idade (PBI. Os exames parasitológicos foram realizados através dos métodos de Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 e Safranina-Azul-de-Metileno (n = 307. A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações independentes entre Giardia lamblia e PI (beta = -0.195, p = 0.003, PA (beta = -0.161, p = 0.018 e PBI (beta = -0.197, p = 0.011, após controle para idade, sexo, renda familiar e infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. O modelo multivariado demonstrou ainda que a única variável associada aos níveis de hemoglobina foi a idade. O estudo concluiu que a giardíase está associada, nos sujeitos pesquisados, a menores médias para os parâmetros antropométricos estudados e que um controle efetivo das parasitoses intestinais poderia contribuir para o pleno desenvolvimento das crianças na área estudada.

  9. Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice Are Highly Susceptible to Giardia lamblia Infection but Exhibit Normal Intestinal Immunoglobulin A Responses against the Parasite

    OpenAIRE

    Bienz, Marianne; Dai, Wen Juan; Welle, Monika; GOTTSTEIN, Bruno; Müller, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-deficient mice were infected with Giardia lamblia clone GS/M-83-H7. Murine IL-6 deficiency did not affect the synthesis of parasite-specific intestinal immunoglobulin A. However, in contrast to wild-type mice, IL-6-deficient animals were not able to control the acute phase of parasite infection. Reverse transcription-PCR-based quantitation of cytokine mRNA levels in peripheral lymph node cells exhibited a short-term up-regulation of IL-4 expression i...

  10. Rational Design Synthesis and Evaluation of First Generation Inhibitors of the Giardia Lamblia Fructose-1 6-biphosphate Aldolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z Li; Z Liu; D Cho; J Zou; M Gong; R Breece; A Galkin; L Li; H Zhao; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Inhibitors of the Giardia lamblia fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (GlFBPA), which transforms fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, were designed based on 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone and 1,2-dihydroxypyridine scaffolds that position two negatively charged tetrahedral groups for interaction with substrate phosphate binding residues, a hydrogen bond donor to the catalytic Asp83, and a Zn{sup 2+} binding group. The inhibition activities for the GlFBPA catalyzed reaction of FBP of the prepared alkyl phosphonate/phosphate substituted 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinones and a dihydroxypyridine were determined. The 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone inhibitor 8 was found to bind to GlFBPA with an affinity (K{sub i} = 14 {micro}M) that is comparable to that of FBP (K{sub m} = 2 {micro}M) or its inert analog TBP (K{sub i} = 1 {micro}M). The X-ray structure of the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex (2.3 {angstrom}) shows that 8 binds to the active site in the manner predicted by in silico docking with the exception of coordination with Zn{sup 2+}. The observed distances and orientation of the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH relative to Zn{sup 2+} are not consistent with a strong interaction. To determine if Zn{sup 2+} coordination occurs in the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex in solution, EXAFS spectra were measured. A four coordinate geometry comprised of the three enzyme histidine ligands and an oxygen atom from the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH was indicated. Analysis of the Zn{sup 2+} coordination geometries in recently reported structures of class II FBPAs suggests that strong Zn{sup 2+} coordination is reserved for the enediolate-like transition state, accounting for minimal contribution of Zn{sup 2+} coordination to binding of 8 to GlFBPA.

  11. Giardia Infection Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis & Detection Treatment Sources of Infection & Risk Factors Pathogen & Environment Prevention & Control Prevention & Control: General Public Giardia & ... J, Ley S, Felger I, Hemphill A, Muller N. Identification of differentially expressed genes in a Giardia lamblia ...

  12. Voltage-dependent potassium currents expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes after injection of mRNA isolated from trophozoites of Giardia lamblia (strain Portland-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Arturo; Jimenez-Cardoso, Enedina; Eligio-Garcia, Leticia

    2013-12-01

    Despite its importance as a health problem issue, almost nothing is known about the membrane physiology of Giardia lamblia and practically there exist no information so far regarding the variety and properties of ion channels that this protozoan parasite possesses. To address this subject we resorted to an indirect method, consisting in the injection of mRNA and further characterization of ion currents in Xenopus oocytes. In this work, we show that oocytes injected with mRNA isolated from cultured trophozoites of G. lamblia, strain Portland-1 express novel potassium currents that appear over the second day after injection and show time- and voltage-dependent activation followed by a slow inactivation. They start activating at -90 mV, with V1/2 of -30 mV; its time constant of activation (at +60 mV) is 0.11 sec, whereas that of inactivation is 1.92 sec, V1/2 = -44.6 mV. Such K currents were effectively blocked by K channel blockers TEA and 4AP, as well as Ba(2+), quinine, quinidine, charybdotoxin, dendrotoxin-1, capsaicin, margatoxin, and diltiazem. These results suggest that such currents are the result of expression of Giardia's voltage-gated K channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. PMID:24744864

  13. Giardia sp. Cysts and Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in the Feces of Migratory Canada Geese (Branta canadensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Fayer, Ronald; Trout, James M.; Lewis, Earl J.; Farley, C. Austin; Sulaiman, Irshad; Lal, Altaf A.

    1998-01-01

    Fecal droppings of migratory Canada geese, Branta canadensis, collected from nine sites near the Chesapeake Bay (Maryland), were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia spp. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were found in feces at seven of nine sites, and Giardia cysts were found at all nine sites. The oocysts from three sites were infectious for mice and molecularly identified as the zoonotic genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum. Waterfowl can disseminate infectious C. parvum...

  14. THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R SHAH MANSOURI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of 89.95±4.25 . Discussion. The comparison of the efficiency obtained with those obtained across the world from the application of other techniques associated with this method indicated that this filter was advantages to similar filters, keeping in mind also that this filter can be used in field situations. It is essential to modify in each region the method of cyst removal from sediments using Sucrose gradient according to the particular morphological characteristics and density of cystes. The optimization of Sucrose gradient and the centrifugation duration and speed seems equally important.

  15. Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil / Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane, Beck; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de, Araújo; Adriana Tarnowski, Olicheski; Adriana Schneider, Breyer.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente e [...] studo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107) entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162) totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004). O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the [...] frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level). For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107) when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162), the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples), 15.67% (23) of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004). The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

  16. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis cysts in the Oreto River (Sicily, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonella Di Benedetto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The presence of Giardia was investigated along the Oreto river between January 2008 and May 2009 with the aim of understanding the source of contamination by molecular typing of cysts.

    Methods: A total of 38 water samples (10 collected from the river mouth, 24 from the whole Oreto basin and 4 sewage samples from the Monreale treatment plant were processed. In addition, 22 faecal samples of livestock living close to the Oreto area, were analyzed. The presence of Giardia was determined by immunofluorescence assay and their genetic characterization was achieved by a nested PCR assay targeting the triosephosphate isomerase gene.

    Results: All water samples from the river mouth were positive for Giardia, even if the concentration of cysts fluctuated considerably among sampling occasions. Our investigation showed that the Vadduneddu and Altofonte torrents, two influents of the river, were the principal sources of contamination. Moreover, the genotypes of Vadduneddu torrent were the same as those detected in human wastewater taken from the activated sludge plant of Monreale city. Assemblages A and B were found in water samples with a predominance of Assemblage A, subtype AII. Assemblage E was only found in a single calf isolate.

    Conclusions: The data show that the high cyst counts regularly detected in the Oreto river are due to contamination with wastewater of human origin. This finding is relevant for public health, particularly because river water is used for agricultural purposes.

  17. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, M N S; Gad, J A; Riber, U; Kurtzhals, J A L; Enemark, H L

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water. METHODS AND RESULTS: This unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx. 400 ?l. Changes in the viability was evaluated by seeding wild type (oo-)cysts (1 × 10(4) ) followed by sonication for 5, 10, 20 or 40 s (five replicates for each period). Flow cytometry analysis...

  18. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

  19. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, M N S; Gad, J A

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water. METHODS AND RESULTS: This unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx. 400 ?l. Changes in the viability was evaluated by seeding wild type (oo-)cysts (1 × 10(4) ) followed by sonication for 5, 10, 20 or 40 s (five replicates for each period). Flow cytometry analysis showed negligible increase in the mortality of (oo-)cysts exposed to 5-10 s of sonication. Recovery rate was assessed by seeding ColorSeed(™) (10 replicates) into the filter unit followed by air backwash to a glass slide and counting of (oo-)cysts by epifluorescent microscopy. High recovery rates (mean ± SD) were found: 84·9% ± 4·8 for Giardia cysts and 70% ± 6·5 for Cryptosporidium oocysts. DNA of seeded wild type (oo-)cysts (1 × 10(2) ; 10 replicates) was successfully amplified using real-time PCR. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a metallic filter, sonication and 'air backwash' were key factors for creating a highly efficient system for recovery of apparently undamaged protozoa. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This reagent-less system can be used for monitoring of parasite contamination in drinking water.

  20. ALTERNATIVE FILTRATION METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND CYST MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent occurrence of numerous outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis has renewed interest in water filtration for cyst removal. This paper presents an in-depth review of granular media and diatomaceous earth (D.E.) filtration research conducted in the 1930's and 1940's when Entamoeba...

  1. Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O-. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, can be facilitated by sonication. Methods: We studied the effects of ultrasound with different sonication power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection of parasites for further study. The specific operational conditions may be tailored to control survival rates and collection efficiency.

  2. Apo And Calcium-Bound Crystal Structures of Alpha-11 Giardin, An Unusual Annexin From 'Giardia Lamblia'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathuri, P.; Nguyen, E.T.; Svard, S.G.; Luecke, H.; /UC, Irvine /Uppsala U. /Karolinska Inst.

    2007-07-12

    Alpha-11 giardin is a member of the multi-gene alpha-giardin family in the intestinal protozoan, Giardia lamblia. This gene family shares an ancestry with the annexin super family, whose common characteristic is calcium-dependent binding to membranes that contain acidic phospholipids. Several alpha giardins are highly expressed during parasite-induced diarrhea in humans. Despite being a member of a large family of proteins, little is known about the function and cellular localization of alpha-11 giardin, although giardins are often associated with the cytoskeleton. It has been shown that Giardia exhibits high levels of alpha-11 giardin mRNA transcript throughout its life cycle; however, constitutive over-expression of this protein is lethal to the parasite. Determining the three-dimensional structure of an alpha-giardin is essential to identifying functional domains shared in the alpha-giardin family. Here we report the crystal structures of the apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound forms of alpha-11 giardin, the first alpha giardin to be characterized structurally. Crystals of apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin diffracted to 1.1 angstroms and 2.93 angstroms, respectively. The crystal structure of selenium-substituted apo alpha-11 giardin reveals a planar array of four tandem repeats of predominantly {alpha}-helical domains, reminiscent of previously determined annexin structures, making this the highest-resolution structure of an annexin to date. The apo alpha-11 giardin structure also reveals a hydrophobic core formed between repeats I/IV and II/III, a region typically hydrophilic in other annexins. Surprisingly, the Ca{sup 2+}-bound structure contains only a single calcium ion, located in the DE loop of repeat I and coordinated differently from the two types of calcium sites observed in previous annexin structures. The apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin structures assume overall similar conformations; however, Ca2+-bound alpha-11 giardin crystallized in a lower-symmetry space group with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. Vesicle-binding studies suggest that alpha-11 giardin, unlike most other annexins, does not bind to vesicles composed of acidic phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner.

  3. PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbabak

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

  4. Immunolocalization of Delta-Giardin within the Ventral Disc in of Trophozoites and in cysts of Giardia duodenalis using the Multiplex Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunolocalization of alpha2-, beta- and delta-giardin in Giardia showed that in the trophozoites and cysts delta-giardin it strictly associated with the ventral disc. Optical sectioning of the ventral discs, together with quantitative colocalization of the immunoreactivity for delta- and beta-giard...

  5. The abundance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in treated effluents produced by four wastewater treatment plants in the Gauteng Province of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Dungeni; MNB, Momba.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of 4 wastewater treatment plants of the Gauteng Province, namely Zeekoegat, Baviaanspoort, Rayton and Refilwe Water Care Works (WCW), in the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Wastewater influent and treated effluent samples were taken w [...] eekly between January and April 2008. Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts were detected by immunofluorescence and immunomagnetic separation, according to a modified US EPA 1623 method. Effluent samples were subjected to a molecular study for the identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype I and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A. The 18S rRNA gene for restriction digests was therefore used to characterise these (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were repeatedly detected in effluent samples collected from all wastewater treatments at lower concentration (range

  6. The Comparison of the Efficacy of Various Fixatives on Diverse Staining Methods of Giardia lamblia Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    E. Badparva; Sh. Fallahi; A. Sepahvand; Y. Pournia; Sh. Mollaei Rashnoo

    2009-01-01

    The definite and exact diagnosis of protozoa is possible using high magnification objective lenses, provided that suitable stained smears are prepared. Therefore, the appropriateness of both fixative and staining methods to the species of parasite, which is the main objective of this study, is important. In this study, five various fixatives including (Merthiolate iodine formalin) MIF, (Sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin) SAF, (Polyvinyl alcohol) PVA, formalin and schaudinn and four types of...

  7. Recovery of Cryptosporidium and Giardia organisms from surface water by counter-flow refining microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos

    2013-01-01

    As waterborne parasitic cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks continue globally, monitoring of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in surface water continues to be challenging. Lack of non-clogging and high-efficiency methods for recovery of C. parvum oocysts and G. lamblia cysts in environmental water strongly limits the sensitivity of detection methods for these protozoan organisms. In this work, the Counter-Flow Micro-Refinery (CFMR) system was developed by employing the novel counter-flow microfiltration principle to enrich (oo)cysts for subsequent analytical purposes. The CFMR system was constructed with multiple counter-flow concentration units that were arranged into two refining levels. By use of different numbers of units, the CFMR offered an adjustable concentration ratio allowing the concentration of 10 L and 100 L to hundreds of mL with no recirculation processing. With spiked samples, recovery of 81.3% oocysts and 86.2% cysts at a variance of efficiency showed consistent for a wide range of water turbidities as well as different sample volumes. No significant clogging has been observed in the experiments. Moreover, the refining filter was able to enrich and separate oocysts and cysts in water, simultaneously. This work verifies a feasible solution for recovering C. parvum oocysts and G. lamblia cysts in large-volume surface waters. The refining system has potential to be a high-efficiency monitoring tool when combined with proper analytical detection methods. PMID:24527615

  8. Detección de cryptosporidium spp y giardia lamblia en niños inmunodeprimidos del Hospital del Niño Manuel Ascencio Villarroel de Cochabamba en Agosto del 2007 / Detection of cryptosporidium spp and Giardia Lamblia in inmunodepressed children of the niñ@ Hospital Manuel Ascencio Villarroel of Cochabamba in august of 2007

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia Denisse, Barrientos Galarza; Mary Cruz, Torrico; Eduardo, Suárez Barrientos.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio transversal descriptivoque cuenta con la participación de Niños de 1 mes a 13 años que presen­ten las siguientes características: Desnutrición proteico energética grave (DNTPEG) con indicadores P/T y T/E [...] ) internados en el Hospital del niño Manuel Ascencio Villarroel. Niños portadores de VIH que acuden a consulta o están internados nacidos de madres con diagnóstico VIH positivo confirmados. Niños hemato­oncológicos que están internados. Se estudiaron 26 niños de los cuales 46,2% son niños con VIH/SIDA, 12 pacientes que presentan DNTPEG (46.2 %) y 7.7% con diagnostico hemato­oncológico que se encontraban internados o que asistían a consulta externa. Los resultados demuestran que no se encontró infección por Cryptosporidium spp en la población estudiada, se encontró un 15% de infección por Giardía lamblia, entre otros pará­sitos encontrados tenemos Strongyloides stercolaris y Entamoeba coli. Los pacientes con desnutrición están sometidos a mayor numero de factores de riesgo para contraer cualquier tipo de infecciones por microorganismos oportunistas y/o patógenos en relación a los pacientes con VIH/SIDA. Creemos que el hecho de no haber encontrado Cryptosporidium spp puede deberse a que los niños se encontraban en mejor competencia inmunológica debido a los protocolos de tratamiento antiviral que recibían y/o varios antimicrobianos que pudieron haber controlado el problema, por otro lado el conocer la situación de la enfermedad (VIH) determinó que las madres fueran mas cuidadosas con la medidas higiénico dietéticas de sus hijos. Conclusión: No se encontró infección por Cryptosporidium spp, pero se pudo evidenciar infección por Giardía lamblia en los pacientes inmunodeprimidos del hospital del niño Manuel Ascencio Villarroel de la ciudad de Cochabamba. Abstract in english This is a descriptive cross­sectional study in which partipates Children of 1 month to 13 years old that present the fo­llowing characteristics: Serious energetic protein malnutrition (DNTPEG) with indicators P/T and T/E [...] hospitalized in the Hospital of niño Manuel Ascencio Villa­rroel. Children carriers of VIH that go to consultation or are committed, born of mothers with confirmed positive diag­nosis VIH. Children hemato­oncological that are hospitalized. We have studied 26 children, 46.2% of them are children with VIH/SIDA, 12 patients whom DNTPEG presents (46.2%) and 7.7% with diagnose hemato­oncological that was hos­pitalized or that they attended external consultation. The results showed that there was not infection by Criptosporidium spp in the studied population, 15% had infection by Giardia Liamblia, among other parasites founded we have Strongy­loides Stercolaris and Entamoeba coli. Te patients with malnutrion have a grater amount of risk factors to contract any tipe of infections by oportunistic and /or several antimicrobialthay have received that could have controlled the problem, on the other hand knowing the situationof the disease (HIV) it produced that mothers were more careful with the hygie­nic dietetic measures of their children. We found Gierdia Liamblia can cause infections in inmunosupressed children pa­tients.

  9. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Shrivastava, Arpit; Smith, Woutrina A; Sahu, Priyadarshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmental loading rates. Oocysts/cysts were detected in 12% of diarrhea patients. Detection ranged from 0% to 35% for Cryptosporidium and 0% to 67% for Giardia across animal hosts. Animal loading estimates indicate the greatest contributors of environmental oocysts/cysts in the study region are cattle. Ponds were contaminated with both protozoa (oocysts: 37%, cysts: 74%), as were tube wells (oocysts: 10%, cysts: 14%). Future research should address the public health concern highlighted from these findings and investigate the role of domestic animals in diarrheal disease transmission in this and similar settings. PMID:26123963

  10. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E.; Shrivastava, Arpit; Smith, Woutrina A.; Sahu, Priyadarshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Misra, Pravas R.; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmental loading rates. Oocysts/cysts were detected in 12% of diarrhea patients. Detection ranged from 0% to 35% for Cryptosporidium and 0% to 67% for Giardia across animal hosts. Animal loading estimates indicate the greatest contributors of environmental oocysts/cysts in the study region are cattle. Ponds were contaminated with both protozoa (oocysts: 37%, cysts: 74%), as were tube wells (oocysts: 10%, cysts: 14%). Future research should address the public health concern highlighted from these findings and investigate the role of domestic animals in diarrheal disease transmission in this and similar settings. PMID:26123963

  11. Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos / Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Urbano dos, Santos; Romeu, Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno, Franco; José Roberto, Guimarães.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambai [...] a, Campinas, em São Paulo). As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL), 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL) e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV). Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise. Abstract in english In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo). The samples we [...] re collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL), 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL), and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV). Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

  12. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw water from the Atibaia river, Campinas, Brazil Ocorrência de oocistos de Cryptosporidium e cistos de Giardia em águas do Rio Atibaia, Campinas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maura Bueno FRANCO

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are waterborne parasites that have caused several outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease associated with drinking water. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these protozoa in water in the Southeast of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to verify the presence of cysts and oocysts in superficial raw water of the Atibaia River. The water samples were submitted to membrane filtration (3.0 mum and elution was processed by (1 scraping and rinsing of membrane (RM method and (2 acetone-dissolution (ADM method. Microbiologic and chemical parameters were analyzed. Aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence (Merifluor, Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio. All water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in spite of the high turbidity. Higher recovery rates occurred in samples treated by the RM method than by the ADM technique. The goal for future work is the assessment of viability of cysts and oocysts to determine the public health significance of this finding.Cryptosporidium parvum e Giardia duodenalis são parasitos transmitidos pela água e têm causado muitos surtos de doenças gastrointestinais associados à ingestão de água. Devido à falta de estudo sobre a ocorrência destes protozoários na água, no Sudeste do Brasil, uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos e oocistos na água superficial do rio Atibaia. As amostras de água foram submetidas à filtração em membrana e a eluição foi processada por: (1 lavagem e raspagem da membrana (RM e (2 dissolução em acetona (ADM. Parâmetros microbiológicos e químicos foram analisados. Alíquotas do sedimento foram examinadas por imunofluorescência. Todas as amostras de água foram positivas, a despeito da alta turbidez. Maior taxa de recuperação ocorreu em amostras tratadas pelo RM que por ADM. A meta em futuros trabalhos é determinar a viabilidade de cistos e oocistos para se obter o significado deste achado em Saúde Pública.

  13. Giardia and Vilem Dusan Lambl.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 5 (2014), e2686. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : History of Science * Giardia lamblia * Infectious disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  14. Occurrence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in the City of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RMB, Franco; R, Cantusio Neto.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of bottled mineral water has significantly increased in Brazil so that it is in the interest of public health to determine the parasitological and microbiological status of some brands of Brazilian mineral water available in the town of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, [...] detection of protozoa by direct immunofluorescence technique and microbiological parameters were determined for each specimen after membrane filtration. Giardia cysts were not present while cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in two samples. The counts of protozoa varied from 0.2 to 0.5 oocysts/l. The detected level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic bacteria reflected the level of organic enrichment of the water.

  15. Occurrence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in the City of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RMB Franco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of bottled mineral water has significantly increased in Brazil so that it is in the interest of public health to determine the parasitological and microbiological status of some brands of Brazilian mineral water available in the town of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, detection of protozoa by direct immunofluorescence technique and microbiological parameters were determined for each specimen after membrane filtration. Giardia cysts were not present while cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in two samples. The counts of protozoa varied from 0.2 to 0.5 oocysts/l. The detected level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic bacteria reflected the level of organic enrichment of the water.

  16. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis Cysts by New Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Mixed Infections in Human Samples?

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, André; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

    2010-01-01

    Of the seven genetic groups, or assemblages, currently recognized in the Giardia duodenalis species complex, only assemblages A and B are associated with human infection, but they also infect other mammals. Recent investigations have suggested the occurrence of genetic exchanges among isolates of G. duodenalis, and the application of assemblage-specific PCR has shown both assemblages A and B in a significant number of human infections. In this work, three real-time quantitative (qPCR) assays ...

  17. Isolation of Giardia from a llama and from sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiorpes, A. L.; Kirkpatrick, C E; Bowman, D D

    1987-01-01

    Giardia cysts were detected in feces of a domestic llama (Lama glama) and in feces of lambs (Ovis aries) from Wisconsin, U.S.A. All of the animals examined were immature, and they had recent histories of poor condition and passing unformed or semiformed, pale stools. Giardia cysts from both host species were excysted in vitro, and the trophozoites were cultivated axenically. Furthermore, Giardia cysts from both sources were shown to produce infection in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unquiculatu...

  18. Advances in understanding Giardia: determinants and mechanisms of chronic sequelae

    OpenAIRE

    Bartelt, Luther A.; Sartor, R. Balfour

    2015-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan that is the most common cause of intestinal parasitic infection in children living in resource-limited settings. The pathogenicity of Giardia has been debated since the parasite was first identified, and clinical outcomes vary across studies. Among recent perplexing findings are diametrically opposed associations between Giardia and acute versus persistent diarrhea and a poorly understood potential for long-term sequelae, including impaired child gro...

  19. Validity of silver, chitosan, and curcumin nanoparticles as anti-Giardia agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, D E; Elsamad, L M; Gohar, Y M

    2012-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anti parasitic potential of silver, chitosan, and curcumin nanoparticles as anti-Giardia agents. Non-treated infected control rats were inoculated with Giardia lamblia cysts in a dose of 2?×?10(5) cysts/rat. Experimental group was infected then treated with curcumin, curcumin nanoparticles, chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles, and silver nanoparticles as single or combined therapy. The number of Giardia cysts in stools and trophozoites in intestinal sections were detected. Toxicity of nanoparticles was evaluated by comparing hematological and histopathological parameters of the normal control group and treated non-infected control group. The amount of silver was also measured in the liver, kidney, small intestine, lung, and brain of rats treated with silver nanoparticles. The number of the parasites in stool and small intestinal sections decreased in treated infected rats compared with infected non-treated ones. The effect in the single therapy was better with nanoparticles, and the best effect was detected in nano-silver. The combined therapy gave better results than single. Combination between nanoparticles was better than the combination of nano-forms and native chitosan and curcumin. The best effect was detected in combinations of nano-silver and nano-chitosan but with no full eradication. In conclusion, the highest effect and complete cure was gained by combining the three nano-forms. The parasite was successfully eradicated from stool and intestine. None of the treatments exhibited any toxicity. Accumulated silver in different organs was within the safe limits. PMID:22392135

  20. Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani

    Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods. Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively.Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

  1. Comparison of Routine Method with Antibody and Antigen Ones for Diagnosing Giardia-Entamoeba Histolytica in Stool and Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharavi, MJ. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are the most prevalent human intestinal pathogenic protozoa, worldwide. The clinical features of Giardia infection are acute diarrhea, a chronic condition with continuous diarrhea and malabsorption. Entamoeba histolytica invade intestinal tract without any typical clinical indications, and it can involve liver and other organs too. Therefore, we aimed to study these protozoa by serological and parasitological methods. Material and Methods: In this comparative study, the stool and blood specimens were collected from 1025 patients selected via simple random sampling in three different laboratories located in Tehran and Karaj, Iran (2012. Formalin Detergent test was performed on all samples. Both serum and stool positive samples of this method were analyzed for antigen and antibodies related to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, respectively. Results: of 1025 stool specimens, 76 (4.7% were positive for Giardia lamblia and 19 (1.8% for Entamoeba histolytica using Formalin-detergent method. In ELISA, 81 (7.9% coproantibodies to Giardia lamblia and 24 (2.3% coproantibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, 78 (7.6% corproantigen for Giardia lamblia, and 5 (0.4% for Entamoeba histolytica were observed. circulatory antibodies to Entamoeba histlytica were detected in 22 cases (2.1% Conclusion: Sensitivity of microscopic method compared to serological methods is higher than 90%; therefore, Formalin-detergent method can be the best method for stool examination.

  2. Giardia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water. Diarrhea is the main symptom of giardia infection. Others include Passing gas Greasy stools Stomach cramps ... people have no symptoms at all. Symptoms of infection often last two to six weeks. Stool sample ...

  3. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water supplies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lechevallier, M W; Norton, W D; Lee, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by using a combined immunofluorescence test for filtered drinking water samples collected from 66 surface water treatment plants in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. Giardia cysts were detected in 17% of the 83 filtered water effluents. Cryptosporidium oocysts, were observed in 27% of the drinking water samples. Overall, cysts or oocysts were found in 39% of the treated effluent samples. Despite the frequent detection of parasites in drinkin...

  4. Evaluation of Three Commercial Assays for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Organisms in Fecal Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Stephanie P.; Ballard, Melissa M.; Beach, Michael J; Causer, Louise; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for diagnostic testing for Giardia intestinalis (G. lamblia) and Cryptosporidium parvum, with a priority being placed on obtaining diagnostic results in an efficient and timely manner. Several commercial companies have developed rapid diagnostic tests that are simple to perform and can be completed in less time than traditional methods for detecting Giardia and Cryptosporidium. We compared one of these rapid tests, the ImmunoCard STAT! (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.)...

  5. First record of Giardia in cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in cattle and to be transmitted to other animal species and humans, finding the parasite in cattle may be of major epidemiological significance. Future ...

  6. Giardia and Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Prevention & Control Prevention & Control: General Public Giardia & Pets Information for Specific Groups Information for the Public ... The page you requested has moved to Giardia & Pets. File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  7. Renal Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal Cysts Renal cysts are sacs of fluid that form in the kidneys. They are usually characterized ... evaluated? How are renal cysts treated? What are renal cysts? Renal cysts are sacs of fluid that ...

  8. Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos / Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosangela C., Paulino; Edilene A., Castro; Vanete, Thomaz-Soccol.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado ( [...] RALF), na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5,5%), Trichuris sp (4,5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%), H. nana (1%) e Taenia sp (0,4%), Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal. Abstract in english This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5.5%), Trichuris sp (4.5%), Hymenolepis [...] diminuta (3.7%), H. nana (1%) and Taenia sp (0.4%), protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

  9. “Comparación de técnicas de laboratorio para el diagnóstico de Giardia intestinalis” / “Comparison of Laboratory Techniques For the Diagnosis of Giardia Intestinalis”

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. Marinella, Calchi L; E, Acurero; R, Villalobos; M, Colina; L, Di Toro; C, Villalobos.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluar la sensibilidad y especificidad de tres técnicas de laboratorio para el diagnóstico de Giardia intestinalis. Materiales y Métodos: 31 muestras de heces provenientes de niños en edad preescolar, se procesaron a través del examen microscópico con SSF-lugol, método de concentración de Ritchie y [...] método inmunológico “Giardia-Strip”. La Técnica de Ritchie fue considerada como “Gold Standard”. Resultados: Se identificaron quistes de Giardia intestinalis en 6 muestras (19,35%) a través de la técnica de Ritchie. La técnica del examen al fresco identificó en 5 de ellas quistes del protozoario (16,1%), mostrando una sensibilidad de 83% y especificidad del 100%. La técnica Giardia-Strip identificó quistes en 4 muestras (12,9%) con sensibilidad de 66,66% y especificidad del 100%. El valor predictivo positivo para el método de “Giardia-Strip” fue 14% y valor predictivo negativo de 93%. El examen al fresco mostró valor predictivo positivo del 100% y valor predictivo negativo de 96%. Conclusiones: El concentrado de Ritchie y el examen al fresco mostraron mayor sensibilidad y especificidad en el diagnóstico de Giardia intestinalis, cuando las muestras contienen solo quistes. Sin embargo, el método Giardia-Strip, demostró mayor rapidez en la obtención de los resultados. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of three laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of Giardia intestinalis. Materials and Methods: 31 fecal samples from preschoolers were submitted to microscopic examination with SSF-Lugol, the Ritchie concentration method and the “Giardia-Strip [...] ” immunological method. The Ritchie technique was considered the “gold standard.“ Results: G. intestinalis cysts were identified in 6 samples (19.35%) using the Ritchie technique. The fresh test identified 5 cases of protozoan cysts (16.1%), showing a sensitivity of 83 % and specificity of 100 %. The Giardia-Strip identified cysts in 4 samples (12.9%) with 66.66 % sensitivity and 100% specificity. The positive predictive value for the “Giardia Strip” method was 14% and the negative predictive value was 93%. The fresh test showed a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96 %. Conclusions: Ritchie concentrate and the fresh test showed higher sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of Giardia intestinalis, when samples contain only cysts. However, the Giardia-Strip method proved faster in obtaining results.

  10. First investigations into the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in Hungarian drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutzer, J; Takó, M H; Márialigeti, K; Törökné, A; Karanis, P

    2007-12-01

    Safe drinking water is a top priority in preventing disease outbreaks and is of general concern to everyone. This study examines the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Hungarian drinking water supplies for the first time. A total of 76 raw and drinking water samples were examined using the U.S. EPA Method 1623. From these 15 of 34 (48.4%) raw water samples tested positive for Giardia and 7 (26.6%) for Cryptosporidium. Twelve of 45 (26.7%) drinking water samples were positive for Giardia and 6 (13.3%) for Cryptosporidium. Overall, Giardia cysts and/or Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 48% of the raw water samples and 35% of the drinking water samples. The highest levels in drinking water were found to be 3 oocysts/100 litres of Cryptosporidium and 63.6 cysts/100 litres for Giardia, enough to cause giardiasis. The highest levels in raw water were 1,030 cysts/100 litres for Giardia and 50 oocysts/100 litres for Cryptosporidium and higher oocyst densities were associated with source water receiving effluents from sewage treatment plants or originating from a forest environment. In addition to this monitoring, riverbank filtrated water and raw water from the River Danube in Budapest were monitored in order to ascertain protozoan removal efficiency of riverbank filtration (RBF). A total of 157 samples, including 87 samples from the River Danube and 70 samples post RBF, were examined. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected regularly in the river water but never in riverbank filtered water suggesting the effectiveness of RBF as a purification method. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in the investigated water supplies may require the water utilities and water authorities in Hungary to apply additional monitoring and treatment and/or watershed controls. PMID:17878568

  11. Sensor detection of parasite eggs and (oo-)cysts - possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    To secure the safety and quality of food and water presence of pathogens including parasites must be controlled. This relies among other things on implementation of sensitive and specific tests which are able to rule out the occurrence of parasites. Worldwide environmentally resistant oocysts and cysts ((oo-)cysts) of the protozoan genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea. Methods for routine recovery and detection of waterborne Giardia and/or Crypt...

  12. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James A; Amat, Christina B; Buret, Andre G

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host's immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed. PMID:26569316

  13. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz e Silva, Flávio M; E Silva, Paz; Monobe, Marina M; Lopes, Raimundo S; Araujo, João P

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia) is a widespread enteric pathogen in human and domestic animals. This organism is one of the most common parasites in domestic dogs in Brazil. In this study, we determined the occurrence and genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolated from dogs from south-central São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 300 fecal samples were collected. Fecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy (zinc sulfate solution flotation technique) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes. Genetic characterization was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and sequencing analysis of the GDH gene. In addition, selected samples were further characterized by RFLP and sequencing of the ?-giardin gene. The overall occurrence of G. duodenalis was 17.3% (52/300). The occurrence was higher in stray dogs (28%) than in household dogs (6.25%). Of the 36 PCR-positive samples that were selected for genotyping, only dog-specific genotype C (20 isolates), D (11 isolates) and mixed C?+?D (five isolates) isolates were detected in the study. This study provides current information on the infection rates of G. duodenalis genotypes in canine populations and describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D genotypes in dogs in Brazil. These genotypes were widespread and commonly found in domestic dogs living in urban and suburban environments of the studied area and confirmed the endemic status of Giardia in this region. PMID:21695567

  14. Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity but only 71% sensitivity. The Giardia ELISA correlated well with IF (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%) and was capable of detecting animal specific Giardia duodenalis genotypes. Visual interpretation appeared appropriate for assessment of ELISA results. The proportion of positive samples and possible zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs

  15. Myxoid Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview A myxoid cyst, also known as a digital mucous cyst or pseudocyst, is a growth usually ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ...

  16. Ovarian Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries and with getting pregnant. ... cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries and with getting pregnant. ...

  17. Giardia Infection Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Illness & Symptoms Diagnosis & Detection Treatment Sources of Infection & Risk Factors Pathogen & Environment Prevention & Control Prevention & Control: General Public Giardia & Pets Information ...

  18. Metabolic changes in Giardia intestinalis during differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, T A; Macechko, P T; Jarroll, E L

    1998-04-01

    The oxygen uptake rate and metronidazole (MTZ) sensitivity in Giardia spp. cysts is greatly reduced from that in trophozoites. Thus, this project was undertaken to assess when in the encystation process these phenomena occur. Oxygen uptake rates approximately doubled (from approximately 4.9 to 8.3 microM O2 min(-1) 10(-6) cells) during the first 5 hr into encystation. This increase was followed by a marked decrease to 2.3 microM O2 min(-1) 10(-6) by 12 hr. By 50 hr into encystation, oxygen uptake was 0.7 microM O2 min(-1) 10(-6) cells. Glucose stimulated oxygen uptake by 89% in trophozoites but did not demonstrably stimulate oxygen uptake in cells after 12 hr into encystment. Deoxy-D-glucose uptake dropped by more than an order of magnitude in encysting cells compared to nonencysting cells. In contrast, aspartate uptake remained relatively constant regardless of whether cells were encysting or not. This suggests that there is a change in the parasite's ability to transport glucose during cyst formation; a similar change in the parasite's ability to transport aspartate was not observed after 40 hr into encystation. MTZ inhibited oxygen uptake by 77% in trophozoites, but there was no detectable inhibition of oxygen uptake 8 hr after trophozoites were transferred to encystation medium. We propose that this resistance to MTZ may be due to a change in metabolic flux away from the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase pathway. Oxygen uptake by noninduced cysts increased exponentially during the 30 min following the induction of excystation. Likewise, MTZ sensitivity returned within 15 min after the induction of excystation, and by 30 min into excystation full sensitivity had returned. PMID:9576491

  19. Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Hadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study revealed the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in fecal samples which collected from stray dogs and cats in Mosul city. The total percentage of infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. in dogs were 42%, 26%, while the percentages in cats were 52%, 16% respectively and the single infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats and dogs formed highest rate was 75%, 50% respectively. The infection rate with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. appeared higher in animals aged less than one year. High percentage of infection with Giardia spp. appeared in the females of cats and dogs were 28.12%, 17.5%, while the high infection rate with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. appeared in males of dogs and cats were 50%, 60% respectively

  20. Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

  1. A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Berg, T.; Mogensen, T.; Kurtzhals, J. A. L.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and the procedures are expensive and time consuming. These facts have motivated us to develop a new robust system for higher recovery of protozoan cysts from any fluid matrix. The new system consists of a...

  2. Impact of Environmental Conditions on the Survival of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on Environmental Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Absar Alum; Isra M. Absar; Hamas Asaad; Joseph R. Rubino; M. Khalid Ijaz

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The...

  3. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Galicia (Northwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-06-01

    Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds. PMID:25669618

  4. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.

  5. Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal / Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.M.F., Dias; P.D., Bevilacqua; R.K.X., Bastos; A.A., Oliveira; G.M.M., Campos.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oo)cistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação d [...] e tratamento de esgoto (ETE) e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oo)cistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oo)cistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente). Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.). O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4)/l), mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oo)cistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oo)cistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.). A significativa ocorrência de (oo)cistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano. Abstract in english The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oo)cysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB), at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, [...] a sewage treatment plant (STP) and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3.92 and 3.62 (oo)cysts/l for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively). Positive cattle farms were detected during all the period, and the correspondent mean prevalences were: 36.4% for Giardia spp. and 18.0% for Cryptosporidium spp. STP effluent presented high concentration of Giardia spp. (geometric average of cysts in the order of 10(4)/l). However, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were not detected. The results showed that (oo)cysts concentration were influenced by climate factors. Precipitation and (oo)cysts concentration data were well correlated (R²=98.3%; P=0.0087 for Giardia spp. and R²=91.8%; P=0.0421 for Cryptosporidium spp.). Cysts and oocysts levels were remarkably high in the raw water source, pointing out the role of land use in an unprotected watershed as a source of protozoa. The results demonstrate the importance of preventive measures rather than relying on, sometimes unreliable, corrective measures such as water treatment, in order to minimize human health risks.

  6. Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joana, Barbosa; Acácio Gonçalves, Rodrigues; Maria José, Pérez; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis t [...] rophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

  7. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Alava, North of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Guillermo A. [Livestock Laboratory, Regional Government of Alava, Ctra. de Azua 4, 01520 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Carabin, Helene [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, 801 Northeast 13th Street, Room 309, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Goni, Pilar [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Arriola, Larraitz [Epidemiology Unit, Public Health Division of Guipuzcoa, Basque Government, Av. Navarra 4, 2013 San Sebastian (Spain); Robinson, Guy [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Crespo, Juan C. [Sub-direction of Public Health of Alava, Department of Health, Basque Government, Avda. Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Clavel, Antonio [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Chalmers, Rachel M. [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Carmena, David, E-mail: d.carmena@imperial.ac.uk [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Alava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%-2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%-5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%-9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%-6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Alava.

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Álava, North of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Álava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%–2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%–5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%–9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%–6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Álava.

  9. Risk assessment of Giardia from a full scale MBR sewage treatment plant caused by membrane integrity failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Zhimin; An, Wei; Xiao, Shumin; Yuan, Hongying; Zhang, Dongqing; Yang, Min

    2015-04-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are highly efficient at intercepting particles and microbes and have become an important technology for wastewater reclamation. However, many pathogens can accumulate in activated sludge due to the long residence time usually adopted in MBR, and thus may pose health risks when membrane integrity problems occur. This study presents data from a survey on the occurrence of water-borne Giardia pathogens in reclaimed water from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant with MBR experiencing membrane integrity failure, and assessed the associated risk for green space irrigation. Due to membrane integrity failure, the MBR effluent turbidity varied between 0.23 and 1.90 NTU over a period of eight months. Though this turbidity level still met reclaimed water quality standards (?5 NTU), Giardia were detected at concentrations of 0.3 to 95 cysts/10 L, with a close correlation between effluent turbidity and Giardia concentration. All ?-giardin gene sequences of Giardia in the WWTP influents were genotyped as Assemblages A and B, both of which are known to infect humans. An exponential dose-response model was applied to assess the risk of infection by Giardia. The risk in the MBR effluent with chlorination was 9.83×10(-3), higher than the acceptable annual risk of 1.0×10(-4). This study suggested that membrane integrity is very important for keeping a low pathogen level, and multiple barriers are needed to ensure the biological safety of MBR effluent. PMID:25872734

  10. Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa do A., Neiva; Maria Nilce S., Ribeiro; Flávia R. F., Nascimento; Maria do Socorro S., Cartágenes; Denise F., Coutinho-Moraes; Flavia M. M. do, Amaral.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared quest [...] ionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50%) of a single plant (64.25%) collected from backyards and gardens (44.34%) and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52%) attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ? IC50 ? 500 ?g/ml), C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ? IC50 ? 250 ?g/ml), and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50 ? 100 ?g/ml). This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.

  11. GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS / Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saleh, Ali Almannoni; Deisy, Martín Pupo; Alexis, Monzote López; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podría ser capaz de producir daños en órganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se [...] revisaron, previa búsqueda en Medline , todos los artículos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el período 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografías y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado también fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesión en “sal y pimienta” del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las más rigurosamente demostradas. En relación con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseños e instrumentación adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qué punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, además de la continuación de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploración de los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es así, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnóstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the [...] location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and reactive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

  12. Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.F. Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oocistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oocistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oocistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente. Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.. O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4/l, mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oocistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oocistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.. A significativa ocorrência de (oocistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano.The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oocysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB, at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, a sewage treatment plant (STP and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3.92 and 3.62 (oocysts/l for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. Positive cattle farms were detected during all the period, and the correspondent mean prevalences were: 36.4% for Giardia spp. and 18.0% for Cryptosporidium spp. STP effluent presented high concentration of Giardia spp. (geometric average of cysts in the order of 10(4/l. However, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were not detected. The results showed that (oocysts concentration were influenced by climate factors. Precipitation and (oocysts concentration data were well correlated (R²=98.3%; P=0.0087 for Giardia spp. and R²=91.8%; P=0.0421 for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cysts and oocysts levels were remarkably high in the raw water source, pointing out the role of land use in an unprotected watershed as a source of protozoa. The results demonstrate the importance of preventive measures rather than relying on, sometimes unreliable, corrective measures such as water treatment, in order to minimize human health risks.

  13. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campylobacter E. coli Enterovirus Giardia Hepatitis A Lead Nitrate Norovirus Radon Rotavirus Salmonella Shigella Nonpublic Water Sources Rainwater Collection Bottled Water Water & Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency ...

  14. An infected urachal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Gami, Bhavna L; Biswas, S

    2013-01-01

    Urachal cysts present very uncommonly in adults. We describe a 25-year-old man who attended with a discharging umbilical swelling and pain. Ultrasonography and CT scan demonstrated an infected urachal cyst which, following cystoscopy, was excised without complication.

  15. Posttraumatic spinal subarachnoid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of posttraumatic compressive subarachnoid cyst of the thoracic spine studied by MR, myelography, and myelo-CT is reported. This cyst was surgically confirmed and treated by shunting. (orig.). With 4 figs

  16. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan

    2007-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. A large proportion of the (oo)cyst containing samples were selected for molecular characterization. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA locus and/or the HSP70 gene of 183 pig and 154 cattle isolates of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of C. suis, pig genotype II, C. parvum (cattle genotype), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and a novel C. suis-like genotype. For both cattle and pigs, a host age-related change in distribution of species/genotypes was observed. The zoonotic C. parvum (cattle genotype) was most prevalent in young calves. For Giardia, 82 and 145 isolates from pigs and cattle, respectively, were analysed at the 18S rDNA locus and/or the gdh gene. Giardia isolates belonging to the zoonotic Assemblage A was found in both young and older calves, as well as in weaners and piglets, whereas cows seemed to be infected purely by isolates of the livestock group, Assemblage E.

  17. Comparative analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and direct microscopy for the diagnosis of Giardia intestinalis in fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Giardiasis is one of the most common nonviral infections causing diarrheal illness worldwide. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we evaluated the RIDASCREEN ® Giardia kit for detection of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples and compared the results with direct microscopy. Materials and methods: A total of 360 fecal samples were collected. They were then processed by wet film, iodine preparation and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit to determine the presence of Giardia trophozoites and cysts. Statistical analysis was performed by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy. Results and Conclusion: Of the 360 cases, 17.2% samples were positive for Giardia by direct microscopy and 23.6% were found to be positive by ELISA (sensitivity ~97%, but specificity was ~92% only. Because of less specificity, we need to perform ELISA in congruence with direct microscopy, etc. Further studies need to be performed on a larger sample size using other molecular tests in order to get more accurate estimations.

  18. Thyroglossal duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan ABUABARA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDCs are cervical cysts occurring in approximately 7% of the population, mainly during childhood. The cyst usually presents itself as a painless, asymptomatic midline swelling below the hyoid bone. Differential diagnosis involves branchial cleft cyst, lymphoepithelial cyst, thyroid gland lesions, ranula and lymphadenopathy (of various etiologies. Sonogram (ultrasound is the most frequent and appropriate imaging modality in suspected TDC. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration is an inexpensive and safe method that can be considered in selected adult patients, having prime importance to the exclusion of carcinoma. This article presents a TDC of the neck in a 5-year-old boy.

  19. Semimembranosus ganglion cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthi Kumarasamy, Suba; Kannadath, Bijun Sai; Soundamourthy, Sandosh; Subramanian, Aruna; Sinhasan, Sankappa P; Bhat, Ramachandra V

    2014-09-01

    Ganglion cysts are tumor-like lesions in the soft tissues, generated by mucoid degeneration of the joint capsule, tendon or tendon sheaths on the dorsum of hand, wrist and foot. However, an intratendinous origin for a ganglion cyst is extremely rare. During dissection of the popliteal fossa, a cyst of 2.5 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm was observed in the tendon of right semimembranosus, 3.5 cm above the insertion of the muscle. Contrast X-ray revealed the cyst as not communicating with the knee joint or any adjacent bursae. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ganglion cyst. PMID:25276481

  20. Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira Lassance; Luanda Macedo da Silva Neto; Carla Alexandra Almeida Salmazo; Marcio Neves Bóia

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and socioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WH...

  1. Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs / Tratamiento con dosis única con secnidazol en corderos naturalmente infectados con Giardia duodenalis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kerem, Ural; Nuran, Aysul; Huseyin, Voyvoda; Bulent, Ulutas; Osman S., Aldemir; Hasan, Eren.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la administración oral de una dosis única de secnidazol de 10mh/kg reduce o elimina la presencia de quistes de Giardia y validar el beneficio del tratamiento con secnidazol en los signos clínicos y la consistencia fecal de corderos infectados n [...] aturalmente con Giardia duodenalis. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron corderos destetados de 12 semanas de edad que fueron asignados al azar a dos grupos con base a placebo (grupo C, n=7, grupo de control sin tratar) o tratamiento (grupo S, n=10 corderos con tratamiento de dosis única de secnidazol de 10 mg/kg). Resultados. En los días 0 y 10, antes y después del tratamiento, respectivamente, se determinó una merma en la excreción de quistes. La consistencia de la materia fecal y el estado general de salud fue registrado en cada muestreo diario. Conclusiones. Durante el estudio hubo una alta reducción en la excreción de quistes (99.98%) en el grupo tratado con secnidazol comparado con el grupo control positivo en el día 10, resultando en una disminución significativa (p Abstract in english Objetive. The purposes of this study were to determine whether secnidazole administered at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, orally, lessens or eliminates Giardia cyst shedding, and to validate the benefit of secnidazole treatment on clinical signs and faecal consistency in lambs naturally infected with Gi [...] ardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 12 weeks of age lambs were selected and randomly assigned into two groups based on placebo (group C, n=7 untreated control group) or treatment (group S, n=10 lambs treated with a single dose of secnidazole at 10 mg/kg). Results. On days 0 and 10, before and after treatment, respectively, reduction in cyst excretion was determined. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded at each sampling day. Conclusions. During the study there was a high (99.98%) reduction in cyst excretion in the secnidazol treatment group compared to the positive control group on day 10, resulting in a significant (p

  2. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, A D; Smith, W A; Shapiro, K; Melli, A; Conrad, P A

    2014-12-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are of public health importance, with recognized transmission through recreational waters. Therefore, both can contaminate marine waters and shellfish, with potential to infect marine mammals in nearshore ecosystems. A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in mussels located at two distinct coastal areas in California, namely, (i) land runoff plume sites and (ii) locations near sea lion haul-out sites, as well as in feces of California sea lions (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) by the use of direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection methods and PCR with sequence analysis. In this study, 961 individual mussel hemolymph samples, 54 aliquots of pooled mussel tissue, and 303 CSL fecal samples were screened. Giardia duodenalis assemblages B and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near two land runoff plume sites (Santa Rosa Creek and Carmel River), and assemblages C and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near a sea lion haul-out site (White Rock). These results suggest that mussels are being contaminated by protozoa carried in terrestrial runoff and/or shed in the feces of CSL. Furthermore, low numbers of oocysts and cysts morphologically similar to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, were detected in CSL fecal samples, suggesting that CSL could be a source and a host of protozoan parasites in coastal environments. The results of this study showed that Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. from the feces of terrestrial animals and CSL can contaminate mussels and coastal environments. PMID:25281384

  3. Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber ?enel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

  4. Giardia induces proliferation and interferon ? production by intestinal lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Murine intraepithelial lymphocytes kill Giardia lambia; responses of human intestinal lymphocytes to this parasite are unknown. ?AIMS—To examine giardia induced proliferation, interferon ? production, migration, and cytotoxicity by lymphocytes from the human intestine and peripheral blood. ?METHODS—Giardia were added to intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria lymphocytes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes, obtained from jejunal mucosa and blood of otherwise ...

  5. A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

    2012-01-01

    The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and the procedures are expensive and time consuming. These facts have motivated us to develop a new robust system for higher recovery of protozoan cysts from any fluid matrix. The new system consists of a sample collection chamber in which the fluid passes through a specially coated metallic filter with a carefully chosen pore size. On the reverse side of the filter a transducer delivers ultrasound waves in order to release trapped cysts and particles from the filter and break up parasite clusters. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were injected into the concentration unit and exposed to varying levels of ultrasonication. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed using air and the change in viability of the parasites was assessed by flowcytometry. Without sonication, the recovery rate of Cryptosporidium was around 2%. After short term sonication for 5, 10 or 20 seconds, the recovery rates were stable and ranging from 75-83%. While sonication is usually used for cell lyses, it can be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced separation of retinates of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The collected parasites may be used for molecular typing and other diagnostic and research purposes. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a robust, cheap, and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste, E-mail: jeanbaptiste.burnet@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Université de Liège (ULg), Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, 165 avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium); Penny, Christian, E-mail: penny@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Ogorzaly, Leslie, E-mail: ogorzaly@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Cauchie, Henry-Michel, E-mail: cauchie@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2014-02-01

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 10} (oo)cysts.d{sup ?1}, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log{sub 10} removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} (oo)cysts.d{sup ?1}) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 11} (oo)cysts.day{sup ?1}) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution.

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 109 and 1010 (oo)cysts.d?1, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log10 removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (106 to 107 (oo)cysts.d?1) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 103 to 1011 (oo)cysts.day?1) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution

  8. Drug resistance in Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Brendan R E; McConville, Malcolm J; Ma'ayeh, Showgy Y; Dagley, Michael J; Gasser, Robin B; Svärd, Staffan G; Jex, Aaron R

    2015-11-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a microaerophilic parasite of the human gastrointestinal tract and a major contributor to diarrheal and post-infectious chronic gastrointestinal disease world-wide. Treatment of G. duodenalis infection currently relies on a small number of drug classes. Nitroheterocyclics, in particular metronidazole, have represented the front line treatment for the last 40years. Nitroheterocyclic-resistant G. duodenalis have been isolated from patients and created in vitro, prompting considerable research into the biomolecular mechanisms of resistance. These compounds are redox-active and are believed to damage proteins and DNA after being activated by oxidoreductase enzymes in metabolically active cells. In this review, we explore the molecular phenotypes of nitroheterocyclic-resistant G. duodenalis described to date in the context of the protist's unusual glycolytic and antioxidant systems. We propose that resistance mechanisms are likely to extend well beyond currently described resistance-associated enzymes (i.e., pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases and nitroreductases), to include NAD(P)H- and flavin-generating pathways, and possibly redox-sensitive epigenetic regulation. Mechanisms that allow G. duodenalis to tolerate oxidative stress may lead to resistance against both oxygen and nitroheterocyclics, with implications for clinical control. The present review highlights the potential for systems biology tools and advanced bioinformatics to further investigate the multifaceted mechanisms of nitroheterocyclic resistance in this important pathogen. PMID:25922317

  9. Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil Estudo clássico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianças atendidas em uma creche na região de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Toshiko Tashima; Maria Jacira Silva Simões; Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite; Antonio Fluminhan; Marco Antonio Nogueira; Ana Carolina Malaspina

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, b...

  10. Anterior Maxillary Dentigerous Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Rohilla, Monika; Marwah, Nikhil; Tyagi, Rishi

    2009-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is a development odontogenic cyst, which apparently develops by accumulation of fluid between reduced enamel epithelium and the tooth crown of an unerupted tooth. It is one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts associated with an erupted, developing or impacted tooth, particularly the mandibular 3rd molars, the other teeth that are commonly affected are maxillary canines and third molars. The present case report describes the surgical enucle...

  11. THYROGLOSSAL DUCT CYST

    OpenAIRE

    E.Târcoveanu; Niculescu, D.; Elena Cotea; Vasilescu, A.; Felicia Crumpei; D. Ferariu; M?dalina Palaghia; D. Dorob??

    2009-01-01

    The thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) results from a failure in obliterating the embryogenic duct produced during thyroid migration and it represents the most common type of developmental cyst encountered in the neck region. Ectopic thyroid tissue neoplasias are rare, and even rarer when associated with the TDC. Methods: During the period 1998-2008, in the First Surgical Clinic, University Hospital “St. Spiridon” Iasi, 14 patients with thyroglossal duct cyst were diagnosed and treated. All records...

  12. Right Ventricular Bronchogenic Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    PRATES Paulo R.; Lovato, Lucas; Homsi-Neto, Abud; Barra, Marinez; Sant'Anna, Joã R.M.; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Nesralla, Ivo A.

    2003-01-01

    We report an exceedingly rare case of primary bronchogenic cyst in the outflow tract of the right ventricle in a 48-year-old woman. In our review of the world literature, we found only 1 other report of an intracardiac bronchogenic cyst. Our patient's only symptom was mild dyspnea not associated with physical exertion, and the cyst was resected successfully. We report clinical aspects of the case, diagnostic methods, surgical management, and histopathologic findings. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30...

  13. [Cysts of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingso, J.G.; Kirkegaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    Cysts of the liver are discovered in connection with a scope of diseases ranging from simple, infectious, or parasitic to neoplastic cysts. Symptoms, paraclinical, radiological and diagnostic characteristics are described with emphasis on ruling out malignancy. The treatment options from ultrasound guided drainage to resections and liver transplantation are discussed. It is concluded that up to 25% of cysts must be treated surgically, because recurrence after percutaneous or laparoscopic treatme...

  14. Semimembranosus ganglion cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ananthi Kumarasamy, Suba; Kannadath, Bijun Sai; Soundamourthy, Sandosh; Subramanian, Aruna; Sinhasan, Sankappa P.; Ramachandra V. Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Ganglion cysts are tumor-like lesions in the soft tissues, generated by mucoid degeneration of the joint capsule, tendon or tendon sheaths on the dorsum of hand, wrist and foot. However, an intratendinous origin for a ganglion cyst is extremely rare. During dissection of the popliteal fossa, a cyst of 2.5 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm was observed in the tendon of right semimembranosus, 3.5 cm above the insertion of the muscle. Contrast X-ray revealed the cyst as not communicating with the knee joint or any...

  15. Parosteal aneurysmal bone cyst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meohas, Walter; de Sá Lopes, Ana Cristina; da Silveira Möller, João Victor; Barbosa, Luma Duarte; Oliveira, Marcelo Bragança dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of aneurysmal bone cysts is 0.14 cases per 100,000 individuals. Parosteal aneurysmal bone cysts are the least prevalent subtype and represent 7% of all aneurysmal bone cysts. We present the case of a 38-year-old male patient with pain and bulging in his right arm for eight months. He had previously been diagnosed as presenting giant-cell tumor, but his slides were reviewed and his condition was then diagnosed as parosteal aneurysmal bone cyst. The patient was treated with corticosteroid and calcitonin infiltration into the lesion and evolved with clinical and radiological improvement within the first five weeks after the operation. PMID:26535209

  16. An infected urachal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gami, Bhavna L; Biswas, S

    2013-01-01

    Urachal cysts present very uncommonly in adults. We describe a 25-year-old man who attended with a discharging umbilical swelling and pain. Ultrasonography and CT scan demonstrated an infected urachal cyst which, following cystoscopy, was excised without complication. PMID:23436884

  17. Epidermoid cyst post dermofasciectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, Francis P

    2010-01-01

    We report the finding of an unusual presentation of an epidermoid cyst 3 years following dermofasciectomy for Dupuytren\\'s disease. Epidermoid cysts remain a rare entity in the palmoplanter distribution but also a very unusual finding within the confines of a full thickness skin graft.

  18. Arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Inês Brás; Vieira Barbosa, José

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital cerebrospinal fluid collections, usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally in children or adolescents. They may become symptomatic after enlargement or complications, frequently presenting with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. We report an unusual case of progressive refractory headache in an adult patient due to an arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture. Although clinical improvement occurred with conservative treatment, the subdural hygroma progressively enlarged and surgical treatment was ultimately needed. Spontaneous rupture is a very rare complication of arachnoid cysts. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space causes sustained intracranial hypertension that may be life-threatening and frequently requires surgical treatment. Patients with arachnoid cysts must be informed on their small vulnerability to cyst rupture and be aware that a sudden and severe headache, especially if starting after minor trauma or a Valsalva manoeuvre, always requires medical evaluation. PMID:24581205

  19. Congenital parameatal urethral cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U?ur Öztürk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A parameatal urethral cyst, which is a very rare congenital anomaly, was first reported in two male cases in 1956 by Thompson and Lantin. We report the case of a 20-year-old male having a spherical, cystic swelling, 7 mm in size at the external urethral meatus. The diagnosis was made by physical examination and ultrasonography. The cyst was completely excised under general anesthesia. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined by a columnar pseudo-stratified and squamous epithelium. Good cosmetic results without recurrence were achieved during the 6-month postoperative period. A parameatal cyst should be treated with complete surgical excision. Puncture of the cyst with a needle or surgical incision may result in recurrence.

  20. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Tarun; Kamal, Mir Reza; Jha, Jayesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature. Here we report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with an infra-umbilical mass that turned out to be tuberculosis of the urachal cyst. PMID:23346004

  1. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Jindal, Tarun; Kamal, Mir Reza; Jha, Jayesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature. Here we report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with an infra-umbilical mass that turned out to be tuberculosis of the urachal cyst.

  2. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in well water from a native community of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama-Carmona, Ana Paola; Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Pablo; Álvarez-Valencia, Luis Humberto; Castro-Espinoza, Luciano; Balderas-Cortés, José de Jesús; Mondaca-Fernández, Iram; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Meza-Montenegro, María Mercedes

    2015-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are gastrointestinal disease-causing organisms transmitted by the fecal-oral route, zoonotic and prevalent in all socioeconomic segments with greater emphasis in rural communities. The goal of this study was to assess the risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis of Potam dwellers consuming drinking water from communal well water. To achieve the goal, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was carried out as follows: (a) identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water samples by information collection rule method, (b) assessment of exposure to healthy Potam residents, (c) dose-response modelling, and (d) risk characterization using an exponential model. All well water samples tested were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The QMRA results indicate a mean of annual risks of 99:100 (0.99) for cryptosporidiosis and 1:1 (1.0) for giardiasis. The outcome of the present study may drive decision-makers to establish an educational and treatment program to reduce the incidence of parasite-borne intestinal infection in the Potam community, and to conduct risk analysis programs in other similar rural communities in Mexico. PMID:25494486

  3. NITAZOXANIDE FOR THE TREATMENT OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS INFECTION: A COMPARATIVE TRIAL WITH SECNIDAZOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia BR?TO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nitazoxanide is a 5-nitrothiazolyl derivative with broad-spectrum activity against numerous intestinal protozoa, helminths and anaerobic bacteria licensed in the United States for the treatment of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide (NTZ versus secnidazole (SNZ in the treatment of giardiasis. Method: A randomized controlled open-label trial was carried out at the Cuban Institute of Gastroenterology in adults with confirmed Giardia duodenalis mono-infection. 125 patients were randomly assigned to receive either NTZ [500 mg two times daily for three days (n= 62] or SNZ [2 g single dose (n= 63]. The evaluation of the efficacy was based on parasitological response. All patients were asked to provide three faecal samples on days 3, 5, and 10 after treatment completion. Patients were considered to be cured, if no Giardia trophozoites or cysts were found in any of the three post-treatment faecal specimens evaluated by direct wet mounts and/or after Ritchie concentration techniques. Results: The frequency of cure was a little higher for NTZ [95.2%- (59/62] than for SNZ [93.7%- (59/63] but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Bitter taste was only reported in SNZ treated group were as yellowish coloration of the urine and rash were only reported in NTZ treated group. Nausea and headache were more common in patients treated with SNZ (P<0.05. Conclusion: NTZ, for three days, is as efficacious as a single dose SNZ in the treatment of giardiasis in adults.

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of extreme weather events and other weather-related variables on Cryptosporidium and Giardia in fresh surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Smith, Ben A; Fazil, Aamir

    2015-03-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact drinking water quality through multiple weather-related phenomena. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between various weather-related variables and the occurrence and concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in fresh surface waters. We implemented a comprehensive search in four databases, screened 1,228 unique citations for relevance, extracted data from 107 relevant articles, and conducted random-effects meta-analysis on 16 key relationships. The average odds of identifying Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in fresh surface waters was 2.61 (95% CI = 1.63-4.21; I² = 16%) and 2.87 (95% CI = 1.76-4.67; I² = 0%) times higher, respectively, during and after extreme weather events compared to baseline conditions. Similarly, the average concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified under these conditions was also higher, by approximately 4.38 oocysts/100 L (95% CI = 2.01-9.54; I(2) = 0%) and 2.68 cysts/100 L (95% CI = 1.08-6.55; I² = 48%). Correlation relationships between other weather-related parameters and the density of these pathogens were frequently heterogeneous and indicated low to moderate effects. Meta-regression analyses identified different study-level factors that influenced the variability in these relationships. The results can be used as direct inputs for quantitative microbial risk assessment. Future research is warranted to investigate these effects and potential mitigation strategies in different settings and contexts. PMID:25719461

  5. Right Ventricular Bronchogenic Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Paulo R.; Lovato, Lucas; Homsi-Neto, Abud; Barra, Marinez; Sant'Anna, Joã R.M.; Kalil, Renato A.K.; Nesralla, Ivo A.

    2003-01-01

    We report an exceedingly rare case of primary bronchogenic cyst in the outflow tract of the right ventricle in a 48-year-old woman. In our review of the world literature, we found only 1 other report of an intracardiac bronchogenic cyst. Our patient's only symptom was mild dyspnea not associated with physical exertion, and the cyst was resected successfully. We report clinical aspects of the case, diagnostic methods, surgical management, and histopathologic findings. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:71–3) PMID:12638677

  6. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs from different living conditions in Uberlândia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, M J S; Rosa, L A G; Hortêncio, S M; Faria, E S M; Rodrigues, R M; Cury, M C

    2007-03-31

    Infection rates with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were compared among dogs living under different conditions. Stool samples (n = 433) collected from dogs of different ages, gender, living conditions and origin were analyzed using three techniques, i.e., centrifugal flotation in zinc sulfate solution, centrifugal flotation in sucrose solution, and methylene blue gram safranin staining. Eighty-nine of the samples were from stay dogs living in shelters run by animal protection societies, 199 were from kennels and 122 from households. A total of 119 (29.0%) had G. duodenalis cysts and six (1.4%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Dogs from kennels were most frequently affected by G. duodenalis (49.7%) while those from shelters showed a higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. (2.2%). A significant difference (p < or = 0.05) was observed between immature dogs and adults only with respect to Giardia infection. There was no significant difference between the gender with regard to the presence of either protozoan. PMID:17112668

  7. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Bayram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

  8. Transport of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Source-specific Indicator Organisms, and Standard Water Quality Constituents During Storm Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant-Rees, P. L.; Bourdeau, D.; Baker, R.; Long, S. C.; Barten, P. K.

    2004-05-01

    Microbial and water-quality measurements are collected during storm events under a variety of meteorological and land-use conditions in order to 1) identify risk of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts and other constituents, including microbial indicator organisms, entering surface waters from various land uses during periods of surface runoff; 2) optimize storm sampling procedures for these parameters; and 3) optimize strategies for accurate determination of constituent loads. The investigation is focused on four isolated land uses: forested with free ranging wildlife, beaver influenced forested with free ranging wildlife, residential/commercial, and dairy farm grazing/pastureland using an upstream and downstream sampling strategy. Traditional water-quality analyses include pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl-nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Total coliforms and fecal coliforms are measured as industry standard microbial analyses. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, Rhodococcus coprophilus, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Somatic and F-specific coliphages are measured at select sites as potential alternative source-specific indicator organisms. Upon completion of the project, the final database will consist of wet weather transport data for a set of parameters during twenty-four distinct storm-events in addition to monthly baseline data. A subset of the results to date will be presented, with focus placed on demonstrating the impact of beaver on constituent loadings over a variety of hydrologic and meteorological conditions.

  9. A large survey of Croatian wild mammals for Giardia duodenalis reveals a low prevalence and limited zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Relja; Sprong, Hein; Lucinger, Snjezana; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

    2011-08-01

    Wild mammals are considered an important source of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis parasites, yet surprisingly little information is available on the actual prevalence and the genetic identity of the species they harbor. A large survey was conducted in Croatia by collecting 832 fecal samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 374), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 21), wild boars (Sus scrofa, n = 144), foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n = 66), bears (Ursus arctos, n = 19), wolves (Canis lupus, n = 127), jackals (Canis aureus, n = 8), and hares (Lepus europeus, n = 73). Fecal samples were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts using fluorescent microscopy. The observed prevalence ranged from low (1% in red deer, 1.7% in wild boars, and 4.5% in foxes) to moderate (10% in wolves and 12.5% in jackals) to high (24% in roe deer). No cysts were observed in bears and hares. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on microscopically positive samples to amplify fragments of the small subunit ribosomal gene, the ribosomal 5.8S gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences, and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Sequence analysis showed a predominance of G. duodenalis assemblage A in both ruminants (genotypes A1 and A3) and carnivores (genotype A1). G. duodenalis assemblages B, C, and D, as well as Giardia microti, were also detected in this study. This is the first molecular description of the parasite from the red deer, the wolf, and the jackal. The data point to a minor role of wild mammals as reservoirs of zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis, albeit cycling between sylvatic and domestic animals is possible. PMID:21142957

  10. [Infected urachal cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Kadri; Kaynak, Burak; Celik, Faik

    2005-01-01

    The urachus is a vestigial remnant of the cloaca and allantois. It is usually obliterated at early postnatal life. When this obliteration is incomplete, in addition to congenital urachal anomalies such as patent urachus, umblical-urachal sinus, vesico-urachal diverticulum, and urachal cyst, acquired urachal pathologies as infections and neoplasms can emerge. In this case report we will evaluate an infected urachal cyst established in a 26 year-old female. She presented with complaints of abdominal pain and umblical discharge. suprapubic sensitivity, abdominal mass with an overlying hyperemic skin were detected. Patient whose clinical manifestations suggested the diagnosis of infected urachal cyst which was also supported by USG and CT findings was operated. Total cyst excision was performed. PMID:15688275

  11. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Simple Kidney Cysts Page Content On this page: What are ...

  12. Spinal arachnoid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and radiological findings in six extradural and nine intradural arachnoid cysts are discussed in relation to previous reports. Only two cysts failed to opacify during positive contrast myelography; in both cases Myodil was used and in one of them contrast medium had entered the cyst on delayed films taken at 24 h. Pain was always improved and generally cured by operation, only two patients having some residual backache. There was permanent improvement of neurological function in only eight cases. The factors associated with poor permanent recovery after surgical treatment were: 1) very marked thinning of the spinal cord by the cyst, and 2) relatively longer duration of paresis - only one case had paresis for under 2 years (mean 4.8 years) compared with only two cases for over 1 year (mean 2 years) in those with good recovery. (orig.)

  13. Spinal arachnoid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, B.E.; Valentine, A.R.; Keis, B.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical and radiological findings in six extradural and nine intradural arachnoid cysts are discussed in relation to previous reports. Only two cysts failed to opacify during positive contrast myelography; in both cases Myodil was used and in one of them contrast medium had entered the cyst on delayed films taken at 24 h. Pain was always improved and generally cured by operation, only two patients having some residual backache. There was permanent improvement of neurological function in only eight cases. The factors associated with poor permanent recovery after surgical treatment were: 1) very marked thinning of the spinal cord by the cyst, and 2) relatively longer duration of paresis - only one case had paresis for under 2 years (mean 4.8 years) compared with only two cases for over 1 year (mean 2 years) in those with good recovery.

  14. Branchial cleft cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Valentino, M.; Quiligotti, C.; Carone, L.

    2013-01-01

    Branchial cleft cysts are benign lesions caused by anomalous development of the brachial cleft. This report describes a 20-year-old girl with swelling on the right lateral aspect of the neck, which expanded slowly but progressively. The clinical suspicion was that of a branchial cleft cyst. Sonography revealed a homogeneously hypo- to anechoic mass with well-defined margins and no intralesional septa. Color Doppler reviewed no internal vascularization. The ultrasound examination confirmed the...

  15. Testicular epidermoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Çakiroglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a benign, non-teratomatous tumour. It is often possible to make the diagnosis pre-operatively, combining typical sonographic features with normal biochemical tumour markers. The accurate pre-operative diagnosis will allow for testis-sparing surgery and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. An 11-year-old boy with testicular epidermoid cyst who presented with pain in testis was presented in this report.

  16. Primary Posterior Mediastinum Hydatid Cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary posterior mediastinal hydatid cyst is a serious health problem for the Mediterranean countries. We diagnosed a case of a 46-year-old female with a primary posterior mediastinum hydatid cyst on CT and MRI. It was provisionally identified as either a hydatid cyst or bronchogenic cyst or neuroenteric cyst. CT guided aspiration with 18 gauge needle confirmed as hydatid sand. This is very rare in this population but it should be kept in mind when one is looking at any cyst in the posterior mediastinum. (author)

  17. Sensor detection of parasite eggs and (oo-)cysts - possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    To secure the safety and quality of food and water presence of pathogens including parasites must be controlled. This relies among other things on implementation of sensitive and specific tests which are able to rule out the occurrence of parasites. Worldwide environmentally resistant oocysts and cysts ((oo-)cysts) of the protozoan genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea. Methods for routine recovery and detection of waterborne Giardia and/or Cryptosporidium include filtration, immunomagnetic separation and detection by microscopy of immunofluorescence stained (oo-)cysts. These methods have low recovery rates, are time consuming, costly, and require well equipped laboratory facilities. Likewise, microscopy is the universal diagnostic method for detection of helminth eggs and protozoa in food and feed despite low sensitivity, difficulties to maintain quality control and common misdiagnosis. Novel optical techniques for high-resolution imaging and image transferover data networks may offer solutions to these problems. This presentation focus on results and experiences obtained from use of the FluidScopeTM technology for online, real-time sensor detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water. This novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the protozoal content present in a sample. High sensitivity of the system is acquired through a combination of a new, patented filtration system and ultrasound to obtain high recovery rates of apparently undamaged protozoa: 84.9% (Standard deviation (±) 4.8) for Giardia cysts and 70% (± 6.5) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Ultrasound in the current system is tuned into a useful tool for enhanced elution of filtered (oo-)cysts. The combined use of a metallic filter, sonication and "air backwash" are key factors in the creation of this highly efficient and robust system which can be used continuously for extended time with minimal maintenance requirements. Sample acquisitionand analysis is performed in real-time where objects in suspension are differentiated into e.g. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., organic and inorganic subgroups. Subsequently (oo-)cysts passing through the system are collected on a filter and may be used for further molecular characterization. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where relatively long service intervals and remote operations are desired. The applications envisioned for this environmentally friendly system includes early warning of source water contamination e.g. water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, and industry in general. Development of highly specific algorithms for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia pose some challenges which will be discussed. For comparison newly developed, vision based systems for detection of helminth eggs in clinical samples and liquid suspensions will also be presented. These techniques, although not yet commercially available, offer promising options for future detection of parasites in food, feed and water even if further development is still needed before they can be used routinely.

  18. THYROGLOSSAL DUCT CYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Târcoveanu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC results from a failure in obliterating the embryogenic duct produced during thyroid migration and it represents the most common type of developmental cyst encountered in the neck region. Ectopic thyroid tissue neoplasias are rare, and even rarer when associated with the TDC. Methods: During the period 1998-2008, in the First Surgical Clinic, University Hospital “St. Spiridon” Iasi, 14 patients with thyroglossal duct cyst were diagnosed and treated. All records were reviewed for age and sex, diagnostic methods, sizes, surgical management and recurrences. Results: All patients with thyroglossal duct cysts are described as midline cysts of the neck. The ratio females/males was 6/1 with mean age 37.6 years (13-60 years. One case was with an external fistula. The treatment performed was a variant of Sistrunk’s procedure in which the thyroglossal tract was excised to a variable extent, but in all cases with central hyoidectomy. The size of the cyst ranged from 1.2 to 4 cm (mean 2.6 cm. Postoperative course was unventful in all cases. No recurrence was recorded in this series. We describe a case, a 19 years old female with thyroid papillary carcinoma evolving from a TDC. The literature is reviewed. Conclusion: The standard surgical approach to TDC is Sistrunk's operation with low recurrence rates. Malignancy within a thyroglossal duct cyst is very rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass. In such cases total thyroidectomy with removal of the tumour of thyroglossal duct and the body of the hyoid bone are recommended – because the carcinoma may be multifocal and because a lymphatic invasion of the thyroid may take place – in order to ensure a correct follow-up.

  19. Ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

  20. GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. PCR methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR amplified fragments of the Giardia and Cryptosporidium SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence ana...

  1. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

    2006-01-01

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

  2. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... can be released from the gland. Benign bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are ...

  3. Parathyroid cyst of the thymus.

    OpenAIRE

    McCluggage, W G; Russell, C F; Toner, P. G.

    1995-01-01

    A case is described of primary hyperparathyroidism in a patient with both a parathyroid cyst within the thymus gland and a concomitant parathyroid adenoma. The parathyroid adenoma contained microcystic areas of degeneration, and it is thought that the parathyroid cyst reflected degenerative change in a pre-existing adenoma. Parathyroid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions within the thymus. Fine needle aspiration and parathyroid hormone assay on cyst fluid...

  4. Apyretic gastrointestinal disorders due to giardiasis contracted in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, Yann A.; Hole, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 32-year-old French man who presented with morning nausea, bloating, frequent flatulence, burping, occasional pyrosis, and alternating diarrhea and constipation two weeks after a trip to Morocco. The diagnosis was established by a parasitological stool exam that revealed cysts of Giardia lamblia. He was successfully treated with tinidazole.

  5. Pilonidal cyst of the clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis, Margaux J; Momeni, Mazdak; Zakashansky, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    A pilonidal cyst is an epithelialized sinus tract or cyst containing hair follicles with a surrounding inflammatory reaction. It usually develops in the sacrococcygeal region with few reports of its development in the genitalia. We present a case of a periclitoral pilonidal cyst in a young woman and its management. PMID:25181383

  6. Prevalencia de Giardia intestinalis y predominio de genotipos zoonóticos en ovinos y bovinos de traspatio de cinco estados de la República Mexicana / Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and zoonotic genotype predominance in small scale sheep and cattle farms in five states of the Mexican Republic

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juana Jimena, Otero-Negrete; Froylán, Ibarra-Velarde; Mario Noé, Martínez-Gordillo; Martha, Ponce-Macotela.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar la frecuencia y genotipos de Giardia intestinalis en ovinos y bovinos de traspatio de algunos estados de la República Mexicana, en este trabajo se colectaron heces de 265 ovinos y 174 bovinos, para la búsqueda de Giardia mediante coproparasitoscópicos (CPS) de concentración [...] flotación. De las muestras fecales que resultaron positivas se obtuvieron los quistes por el método de Sheather. Los quistes se desenquistaron in vitro y los trofozoítos se mantuvieron en cultivo TYI-S-33 axénico. El ADN de los trofozoítos se obtuvo mediante extracciones fenólicas y se amplificó un segmento de ? 430 pb del gen de la enzima glutamato deshidrogenasa (gdh) por medio de la reacción en cadena de la ADN polimerasa (PCR), el producto se restringió con las enzimas Nla IV y Rsa I y se obtuvieron los polimorfismos de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP). En los CPS se encontró a Giardia en nueve bovinos (5.1%) y 30 ovinos (11.3%). Se establecieron 10 cultivos axénicos (5 de bovinos y 5 de ovinos). En un bovino se encontró el genotipo (AI), dos tuvieron mezcla de los genotipos (AI + BIII) y los otros dos fueron (E + BIII). Un ovino fue genotipo (AI) y tres tuvieron mezcla de los genotipos (AI + BIII). Éste es el primer informe que presenta predominio de genotipos zoonóticos (AI y BIII) en ovinos y bovinos de México. Es necesario investigar los genotipos de Giardia y patrones de transmisión entre animales y humanos en México. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to discover the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia intestinalis, harbored in sheep and cows on familiar farms from five states of the Mexican Republic. Stool samples from 265 sheep and 174 cows were analyzed by centrifugation and flotation in zinc sulfate to search for c [...] ysts and ova. The samples with Giardia cysts were processed in a Sheather solution in order to isolate them. Afterwards, cultures were established in TYI-S-33, each one of which was the Giardia DNA source. The DNA was obtained and used as a template to amplify a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) enzyme. The 430 bp amplicons were restricted with Nla IV and Rsa I in order to identify the restriction fragments length polymorphisms (RFLP's) patterns. From the cyst analysis, Giardia cysts in nine cows (5.1%) and 30 sheep (11.3%) were found. Then 10 axenic cultures (5 from sheep and 5 from cows) were set up. From the RFLP's pattern it was found that one cow had assemblage (AI), another two had a mixture of assemblages (AI + BIII) and the other two had (E + BIII). In sheep, it was found that two sheep had assemblage (AI) and the other three had a mixture of assemblages (AI + BIII). This is the first report in which zoonotic assemblages (A-I and BIII) predominance in ruminants from five states of Mexico have been demonstrated. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out further studies aimed at discovering other Giardia genotypes and transmission patterns between animals and humans in Mexico.

  7. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess Halvor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

  8. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, David W.; Snipes, George J.; Layton, Kennith F.; Opatowsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare event with considerable associated morbidity and potential mortality. We present a case of intracranial rupture of a dermoid cystic tumor with consequent dissemination of subarachnoid fat droplets resulting in acute aseptic chemical meningitis. Radiographic findings, operative treatment, and pathologic features are described. PMID:22275778

  9. Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    BELLO, J; Núñez, F A; González, O. M.; Ferna?ndez, R.; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ?5?years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.41 [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.36–9.69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR?=?3.01; CI?=?1.23–7.35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqu...

  10. Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, Torres-Romero; Antonio de Jesus, Euan-Canto; Namibya, Benito-González; Nayely, Padilla-Montaño; Claribel, Huchin-Chan; Julio, Lara-Riegos; Roberto, Cedillo-Rivera.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were iso [...] lated (33/429) from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh ) genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples) or assemblage B (6 samples). RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

  11. Ensaio terapêutico na infecção por Giardia muris em camundongo com metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole e furazolidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina Pedigone Cruz

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi testado in vivo a sensibilidade de Giardia muris a quatro drogas comumente usadas no tratamento da giardíase humana. Foram utilizados 7 grupos de animais, com 12 camundongos cada, sendo que o grupo controle recebeu apenas solução salina 0,15M (0,5ml/animal. Os demais grupos receberam em dose única: metronidazole e furazolidone (500mg/kg, tinidazole e secnidazole (200mg/kg. A eficácia das drogas foi avaliada através da contagem de cistos nas fezes e pela ausência de trofozoítos no intestino. O metronidazole foi a droga mais eficaz. Os cortes histológicos mostraram diferenças entre o padrão da mucosa intestinal de animais normais e parasitados. No entanto, não se observou diferença entre o padrão de mucosa de animais infectados tratados e não tratados, o que sugere que estas alterações podem ser causadas pelo parasito e não pelas drogas.A comparative study about the effectiveness of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and furazolidone was performed on Giardia muris from mice naturally infected. Groups of 12 animals each was constituted: the control treated with saline; one treated with metronidazole; one treated with furazolidone; one treated with tinidazole; one treated with secnidazole; histological normal control; histological infected. Samples of three stools were examined before and after treatment with quantification of cysts. Animals were cured when the trophozoites was not seen in the small bowel. The curative activity of drugs was 58.3% for metronidazole, 50% for furazolidone, 40% for secnidazole and 16% for tinidazole. It was also showed that there was a different pattern of the intestinal mucosa from the control and infected groups, treated or not, suggesting that the alterations encountered in the mucosa of infected animals were due to the parasitism either the action of the drugs.

  12. [Adult urachal cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ysern, Alfonso; Pérez, Lianette M; Acosta, Jaime A

    2006-01-01

    Urachal Cyst pathologies comprise lesions that arise at the medial infraumblical line which is rarely seen in an adult. It has interesting and varied forms of clinical presentations which represent a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. Persistency of the Urachus is due to failure of the normal obliteration process which occurs embriologically during the 4th gestational month. This gives way to a lesion that should be taken into account while considering the differential diagnoses of the cystic pathologies of the region. We present the case of an adult woman with a Urachal Cyst, which was surgically excised at the Hospital Interamericano de Medicina Avanzada in Caguas, Puerto Rico, followed by a brief literature review. PMID:19606802

  13. Giant supratentorial neurenteric cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Kalsoom, Anisa; Khalid, Muhammad; Bukhari, Syed Sarmad

    2014-11-01

    Intracranial neurenteric cysts are rare congenital lesions that may be mistaken for other cystic neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. A 35 years old right handed man presented with a one year history of progressive left hemiparesis, headache, personality changes and seizures. Clinical examination revealed a confused patient with left hemiparesis (power 4/5 in both left upper and lower limbs), upper motor neuron type signs in left half of the body (up going plantar reflex and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes at 3+), left facial weakness of upper motor neuron type. CT scan head with contrast revealed a non-enhancing spherical cystic lesion in the frontotemporoparietal region with minimal to moderate mass effect. The cyst was removed using a combination of hydrodissection and excision. Recovery was complete with no evidence of recurrence or residual disease at 3 months. PMID:25518778

  14. Cisto de Baker / Baker's cyst

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Kawamura, Demange.

    Full Text Available Os cistos de Baker localizam-se na região posteromedial do joelho, entre o ventre medial do músculo gastrocnêmio e o tendão semimembranoso. No adulto, esses cistos estão relacionados a lesões intra-articulares, quais sejam, lesões meniscais ou artrose. Nas crianças, geralmente são achados de exame f [...] ísico ou de exames de imagem, apresentando pouca relevância clínica. O exame de ultrassonografia é adequado para identificar e mensurar o cisto poplíteo. Para o tratamento, a abordagem principal deve ser relacionada ao tratamento da lesão articular. Na maioria dos casos não há necessidade de se abordar diretamente o cisto. Os cistos no joelho são, quase na sua totalidade, benignos (cistos de Baker e cistos parameniscais). Porém, a presença de alguns sinais demanda que o ortopedista suspeite da possibilidade de malignidade: sintomas desproporcionais ao tamanho do cisto, ausência de lesão articular (ex.: meniscal) que justifique a existência do cisto, topografia atípica, erosão óssea associada, tamanho superior a 5cm e invasão tecidual (cápsula articular). Abstract in english Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually f [...] ound on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts), presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears) that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule).

  15. Cisto de Baker Baker's cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Kawamura Demange

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cistos de Baker localizam-se na região posteromedial do joelho, entre o ventre medial do músculo gastrocnêmio e o tendão semimembranoso. No adulto, esses cistos estão relacionados a lesões intra-articulares, quais sejam, lesões meniscais ou artrose. Nas crianças, geralmente são achados de exame físico ou de exames de imagem, apresentando pouca relevância clínica. O exame de ultrassonografia é adequado para identificar e mensurar o cisto poplíteo. Para o tratamento, a abordagem principal deve ser relacionada ao tratamento da lesão articular. Na maioria dos casos não há necessidade de se abordar diretamente o cisto. Os cistos no joelho são, quase na sua totalidade, benignos (cistos de Baker e cistos parameniscais. Porém, a presença de alguns sinais demanda que o ortopedista suspeite da possibilidade de malignidade: sintomas desproporcionais ao tamanho do cisto, ausência de lesão articular (ex.: meniscal que justifique a existência do cisto, topografia atípica, erosão óssea associada, tamanho superior a 5cm e invasão tecidual (cápsula articular.Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually found on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts, presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule.

  16. Sinking characteristics of dinoflagellate cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.M.; Lively, J.J.; Reardon, E.M.; Price, C.A.

    1985-09-01

    This study reports the first direct measurements of the density and sinking rates of marine dinoflagellate cysts. Gyrodinium uncatenum, Gonyaulax tamarensis, and Scrippsiella trochoidea cysts had densities of 1.14, 1.24, and 1.32 g cm/sup -3/. No significant difference between cultured and natural cyst density was observed. Measured settling velocities ranged from 0.008 to 0.013 cm s/sup -1/ (6-11 m d/sup -1/). Settling rates calculated using the measured densities and reasonable assumptions about shape and orientation during descent were within 10-20% of measured sinking rates, confirming that cyst sinking can be described by a modification of Stokes' law for nonspherical particles in a viscous medium. The three types of cysts examined are more dense and fall faster than most vegetative phytoplankton cells. Removal of an outer layer of short calcite spines from S. trochoidea cysts reduced both cell density and radius by 7% and the sinking rate by 37%. The faster settling velocity of the spiny cyst is not considered a general effect common to all ornamented cysts but presumably applies only to those with numerous short spines or processes. Morphological features can thus markedly affect the rate of cyst deposition, but the adaptive significance of surface ornamentation remains unknown.

  17. Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Klinting, M.; Mogensen, C.; Kurtzhals, J.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O-. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, c...

  18. Prevalence and infection pattern of naturally acquired giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in range beef calves and their dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Brenda J; McAllister, Tim A; Olson, Merle E

    2003-05-30

    The prevalence and infection pattern of naturally acquired giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in 20 ranch raised beef calves and their dams from birth to weaning was determined. Rectal fecal samples were collected from calves at 3 days of age and weekly thereafter; cows' fecal samples were collected at the time of calving, 1 week later and four times during the summer grazing period. Blood samples were collected from the calves at 3 days of age to determine IgG(1) concentrations. Giardia lamblia cysts were shed by all 20 calves (100%) at some date during the duration of the study. However, only one calf (5%) shed Cryptosporidium parvum on two sample dates during the trial. Giardia cysts were first detected at 3.9+/-1.37 weeks of age with a range of 2-7 weeks of age. The geometric mean number of Giardia cysts in the calf feces increased from none at 1 week of age to a maximum of 2230 cysts/g of feces at 5 weeks of age and then decreased to 2 cysts/g at 25-27 weeks of age. Infection rate of calves shedding Giardia cysts peaked at 85% at 5 weeks of age and then decreased to 21% at 25-27 weeks of age. Giardia cysts, shed by calves peaked 1 week after initial shedding and decreased (Ppatterns of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in beef cattle under ranch conditions. PMID:12781473

  19. [Infected urachal cyst during childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Argente, V; Domínguez Hinarejos, C; Serrano Durbá, A; Estornell Moragues, F; Martínez Verduch, M; García Ibarra, F

    2006-01-01

    Urachal cysts are congenital anomalies detected predominantly during the childhood. They are often diagnosed when an infection occur mimicking a variety of acute intra-abdominal or pelvic processes. We present a case in a 7-year-old female infant, diagnosed of infected urachal cyst. The embryologic origin of this anomaly, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed. PMID:17253073

  20. Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ?5?years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children. PMID:21294949

  1. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Iñigo-Figueroa, Gemma; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Anduro-Corona, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia. PMID:26046395

  2. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Anete, Lallo; Adriano, Pereira; Ronalda, Araújo; Sandra Elisa, Favorito; Patrícia, Bertolla; Eduardo Fernandes, Bondan.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biri [...] tiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98). Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro). Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato) e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê). Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um), Akodon montensis (três) e Coendou villosus (dois), três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois) e Marmosops incanus (um) e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento. Abstract in english The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba), located in the municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and B [...] iritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98). Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus). The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis), 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita) and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans). Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.); 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus) and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita); 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

  3. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., spatial clustering and patterns of shedding in dairy calves from Córdoba, Argentina / Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., distribuição espacial e padrões de eliminação em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina, Tiranti; Alejandro, Larriestra; Claudina, Vissio; Natalia, Picco; Fabrisio, Alustiza; Americo, Degioanni; Adriana, Vivas.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., a presença de aglomerados, a distribuição espacial de acordo com o tipo de solo e padrões de eliminação de cistos e oocistos em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina. Amostras fecais f [...] oram colhidas de 620 bezerros com menos de sete semanas de idade, provenientes de 43 propriedades leiteiras e examinadas pelas técnicas de formol-éter e Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Foram realizadas uma análise univariada e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e, em seguida, uma análise multivariada com a intensidade de eliminação de cistos e oocistos, como um evento. A presença de aglomerados foi determinada com o método de varredura e a análise espacial foi realizada para explorar a sobreposição de rebanhos com alta prevalência e tipo de solo. A prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foi de 19,35% (IC 95%: 16,14; 22,54) e 34,50% (IC 95%: 30,69; 38,34), respectivamente. A probabilidade de infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. foi quase quatro vezes maior para bezerros com menos de 2 semanas em comparação com os bezerros mais velhos (RR: 3,78, IC 95% 2,27; 6,26). O mesmo padrão de infecção relacionada à idade foi observado para Giardia spp. (RR: 1,33, IC 95% 1,02; 1,75). Foi encontrado um aglomerado primário com alta prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp., e rebanhos com alta prevalência foram localizados em solos mal drenados. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to estimate calf and herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., the herd prevalence clustering, spatial distribution according to soil type and shedding patterns in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina. Six hundred twenty calves younger than 7 weeks o [...] f age from 43 dairy herds were sampled. Samples were processed with the formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Univariate analysis and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used. Factors associated were subjected to multivariate analysis with calf shedding intensity as the response variable. Clustering of herd prevalence was assessed by a scan method, and spatial analysis was applied to explore the overlapping of high prevalence herds and soil type. Overall calf prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were 19.35% (95% CI: 16.14; 22.54) and 34.50% (95% CI: 30.69; 38.34), respectively. Calves younger than two weeks of age were almost four times more likely to be infected with Cryptosporidium, in comparison to older ones (RR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.27; 6.26). Giardia spp. shedding showed a similar age pattern (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.75). A primary cluster of high Cryptosporidium prevalence was found, and high prevalence herds were located in areas with poor drained soil.

  4. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biritiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98. Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro. Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê. Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um, Akodon montensis (três e Coendou villosus (dois, três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois e Marmosops incanus (um e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento.The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba, located in the municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and Biritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98. Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus. The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis, 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans. Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.; 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita; 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata. This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

  5. Cholesterol hepatolithiasis with peribiliary cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Jo; Sairenji, Takayuki; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Osada, Isao

    2003-10-01

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of fatigue. Imaging modalities showed beaded stricture and dilation of the intrahepatic left segmental bile duct. Anomalous pancreatico-biliary ductal union and polycystic kidney disease were absent. Resection of the hepatic left lobe was performed. Grossly, cholesterol stones were impacted in the dilated intrahepatic large bile ducts, and multiple tiny cysts measuring 2-8 mm were noted in the peribiliary areas (peribiliary cysts). Histologically, the cholesterol hepatoliths consisted of cholesterol empty spaces and fibrinous materials, and, in places, foreign body giant cells were seen around the cholesterol crystals. The peribiliary cysts were lined by a layer of cuboidal epithelia. They were intimately intermingled with intrahepatic peribiliary glands, and a close association between the two components was recognized in some places. A mild degree of ascending cholangitis was noted. Bile duct anomalies including von-Meyenburg complexes and simple cysts were not recognized. Peribiliary cysts have been reported in various liver diseases, including portal hypertension, portal thrombosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and adult polycystic kidney disease. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on peribiliary cysts developing in hepatolithiasis. The present case indicates that peribiliary cysts occur in cholesterol hepatolithiasis, and suggests that they are derived from cystic dilations of intrahepatic peribiliary glands. PMID:14516324

  6. Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, the variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

  7. Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra P, Melo; Vanessa, Gómez; Isabel C, Castellanos; Magda E, Alvarado; Paula C, Hernández; Amanda, Gallego; Moisés, Wasserman.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, th [...] e variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

  8. MR imaging of pineal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors

  9. MR imaging of pineal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

  10. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Christina; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O’Sullivan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in th...

  11. Migrating lumbar facet joint cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of lumbar facet joint cysts (LFJCs) are located in the spinal canal, on the medial aspect of the facet joint with characteristic diagnostic features. When they migrate away from the joint of origin, they cause diagnostic problems. In a 7-year period we examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging five unusual cases of facet joint cysts which migrated from the facet joint of origin. Three LFJCs were identified in the right S1 foramen, one in the right L5-S1 neural foramen and one in the left erector spinae and multifidus muscles between the levels of L2-L4 spinous process. Awareness that spinal lesions identified at MRI and CT could be due to migrating facet joint cyst requires a high level of suspicion. The identification of the appositional contact of the cyst and the facet joint needs to be actively sought in the presence of degenerative facet joints. (orig.)

  12. Hydatid cyst of the tibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiwale C

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A case of hydatid cyst of the tibia, which manifested as a pathologic fracture is being reported. Pain and swelling of left lower limb with inability to bear the weight were the main features. Tender swelling was also noted at the upper and middle third of tibia. Open biopsy revealed the hydatid cyst wall and scolices of Echinococcus granulosus. Albendazole treatment was followed by curettage and bone grafting.

  13. [Prenatal diagnosis of ovarian cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémond, B; Guibert, L; Jouan, H; Milon, J; Tekou, H; Duval, J M; Babut, J M

    1986-01-01

    The authors report 10 cases of ante-natally diagnosed ovarian cysts. Ultrasonography greatly contributed to the diagnosis of this condition rarely described before. These cysts are usually follicular cysts. Physiopathological explanation still remain unclear: excessive fetal gonadotrope activity, enzymatic abnormality of the theca interna, abnormal stimulation by the mother's HCG are the main hypothesis. Ultrasonographic prenatal diagnosis is based on the discovery of an intra-abdominal round liquid area in a female fetus with normal kidneys and bladder. Obstetrical management is very simple: observation and vaginal delivery. After birth, diagnosis is assessed by clinical examination and ultrasonography which may be able to recognize a possible torsion (intracystic fluid septation). Treatment is conditioned by two facts: first these cysts are usually follicular benign lesions, second there is a high risk of complications, mainly torsion or rupture. Non-operative treatment and observation can be justified for very small cysts which have low risk of torsion. Laparotomy confirms the diagnosis: regarding non complicated cysts, surgery must be as conservative as possible: cystectomy is often feasible, leaving a laminated but functional ovary. Percutaneous puncture under ultrasonography could be considered. PMID:3533290

  14. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O2#smbullet#-) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SORGi) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (Tfinal) with Fe3+ ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pKa = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SORGi reacts with O2#smbullet#- with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k1 = 1.0 x 109 M-1 s-1 and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T1; this in turn rapidly decays to the Tfinal state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SORGi is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  15. Spontaneous hygroma in intracranial arachnoid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anamnesis and treatment of two cases of arachnoid cysts extending into the subarachnoid space are described. No traumatic incident was discovered in the previous history of these two patients. The causal genesis of neurological signs of deficiency in patients with arachnoid and acquired cysts is discussed. However, the cause of the development of a subdural hygroma in arachnoid cysts remains unclarified. CT findings of arachnoid cysts with a hypodense zone between brain surface and the vault of the cranium always require an investigation into the possibility of a spontaneous emptying of the cyst or of a congenital and not only localised extension of the cyst itself. (orig.)

  16. Spontaneous hygroma in intracranial arachnoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnoli, A.L.

    1984-06-01

    Anamnesis and treatment of two cases of arachnoid cysts extending into the subarachnoid space are described. No traumatic incident was discovered in the previous history of these two patients. The causal genesis of neurological signs of deficiency in patients with arachnoid and acquired cysts is discussed. However, the cause of the development of a subdural hygroma in arachnoid cysts remains unclarified. CT findings of arachnoid cysts with a hypodense zone between brain surface and the vault of the cranium always require an investigation into the possibility of a spontaneous emptying of the cyst or of a congenital and not only localised extension of the cyst itself.

  17. Percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy of oophoritic cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy in oophoritic cysts. Methods: Seventy six oophoritic cysts incluoling 48 simple and 28 chocolate cysts of 64 patients were treated with percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy under CT guidance. 4F multisideholes pigtail catheter was introduced into cyst using absolute alcohol as sclerosing agents. Results: The successful rate of percutaneous oophoritc cyst puncture was 100% in all 64 patients. Among them 58 were cured (90.6%), 6 improved significantly (9.4%). The total effective rate reached 100% with no serious complications. Conclusions: Catheterization sclerotherapy for oophoritic cyst is a simple, complete, safe and effective method. (authors)

  18. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible...tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts... § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible...tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts...infestation with parasites not...

  19. Giant intracranial hydatid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the infestation of the larvae of Taenia echinococcus. The definite hosts of echinococcus are various carnivores, the common being the dog. All mammals (more often being sheep and cattle are hosts. Humans are infected through the feco-oral route by the ingestion of food or milk contaminated by dog feces that contain the ova of the parasite or by direct contact with dogs. The eggs lose their enveloping layer in the stomach, releasing the embryos. The embryos pass through the wall of the gut into the portal system and are carried to the liver where most of the larvae are entrapped and encysted. Some may reach the lungs, and occasionally, some may pass through the capillary filter of the liver and lungs and enter into the systemic circulation. We report a case of giant intracranial left temporoparietooccipital extra-axial hydatid cyst with a size of 12.5 x 8.5 cm in a 5-year-old male presented with holocranial headache with the diminution of vision and papilledema with right hemiperesis successfully managed in our department surgically.

  20. Paraurethral Cysts in a Female Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Dhapodkar; Kaveh Homayoon

    2011-01-01

    Paraurethral cysts are a rare congenital abnormality seen in female neonates. We present the case of a female newborn with a paraurethral cyst resulting in urinary obstruction. Surgical intervention was chosen as a result of the obstruction.

  1. [Supratentorial endodermal cyst. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbizu, J M; Mateo-Sierra, O; Iza, B; Ruiz-Juretschke, F; Pérez-Calvo, J M

    2009-08-01

    Endodermal cysts (EC) of the central nervous system are very uncommon lesions predominantly located in the spinal canal. Although rare, intracranial EC have been mainly described in the posterior fossa, with the supratentorial location considered exceptional. Apart from the low frequency of these lesions, their pathoembriology still remais unknown. We report a patient with a huge frontal EC and review the literature. A 62-year-old man presented with abnormal behaviour, disorientation and decreased level of consciousness after moderate head injury. Initial cranial CT scan revealed a large cyst in the left frontal region with marked midline shift. Emergency puncture and decompression of the cyst demonstrated a milky fluid with high protein levels. Cranial MRI after patient improvement confirmed the existence of the cystic lesion with less mass effect. Delayed surgery was performed with craniotomy and total removal of the cyst. Pathological examination confirmed the presence of a typical EC. Patient made a complete recovery on follow-up with no recurrence on postoperative MRIs. Differential diagnosis of EC based on radiological data is quite difficult. As aggresive behaviour of this condition has been described following incomplete resections, the treatment of choice is a radical removal of the cyst in one or two stages depending on patient clinical condition. PMID:19688138

  2. Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getrude Shepelo Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal diseases are among the leading causes of calf morbidity and mortality in Kenya and elsewhere. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in calves on smallholder dairy farms (SDF in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya. These infections have been associated with economic losses by decreased growth rates, decreased productivity, and increased susceptibility to other diseases. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted on 109 farms in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya, where 220 calf fecal samples (each calf at 4 and 6 weeks of age from 110 calves (1 set of twins were collected and analyzed for Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and helminth parasites. Results: Eimeria oocysts, Cryptosporidia oocysts, and Strongyloides eggs were detected in the fecal samples examined, but no Giardia cysts were found. The overall period prevalence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 42.7% (47/110, 13.6% (15/110, and 5.4% (6/110, respectively. The prevalence at 4 weeks of age for Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 30.0% (33/110, 8.2% (9/110, and 3.7% (4/109, respectively, while the prevalence at 6 weeks of age was 20.2% (22/109, 6.5% (7/107, and 2.7% (3/110, respectively. There was, however, no significant difference in the prevalence at 4 and 6 weeks (p>0.05. Conclusion: Findings from this study show that Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides, are prevalent in the study area and indicate the need to adopt optimal management practices to control infections in calves.

  3. Biliary atresia associated with choledochal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Obaidah Abu; Dhende Nitin; Mane S; Acharya Himanshu

    2009-01-01

    Choledochal cyst and biliary atresia are rare but important causes of neonatal jaundice. Both present with jaundice and acholic stool in neonatal period. Treatment and prognosis of both entities are very different. We are presenting a case in which choledochal cyst co-existed with biliary atresia; the antenatal diagnosis was that of choledochal cyst. Patient had cyst excision with hepatojejnostomy, but ultimately required portoenterostomy because of associated biliary atresia. We conclude th...

  4. Chronic hematic cyst of the temporomandibular joint.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaan Orhan; Hideyoshi Nishiyama; Kishino Mitsunobu; Souhei Furukawa; Cagri Delilbasi

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hematic cyst refers to accumulation of blood or blood breakdown products in a non epithelium-lined fibrous tissue capsule. Hepatic cyst is a term often used for deeply placed, incompletely resorbed hematoma hemorrhagic cyst, which may remain unchanged and unidentified for long periods of time. Trauma is the major causative factor, although it is often vague or totally uncalled by the patient. Chronic hematic cysts are uncommon lesions those can present diagnostic challenge. In thi...

  5. Ruptured Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst Diagnosed by Bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Sercan Özgür

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Complicated pulmonary hydatid cyst disease can mimic tuberculosis, lung cancer, empyema and abscess. The diagnosis of complicated pulmonary hydatid cysts may not be easy. Bronchoscopy is not a routine procedure in hydatid cyst disease. However, it is inevitable when clinical and radiological appearance is atypical. A pulmonary hydatid cyst disease case with atypical clinical and radiological findings diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy was presented in this case report.

  6. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  7. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy John

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  8. Identification of a novel assemblage G subgenotype and a zoonotic assemblage B in rodent isolates of Giardia duodenalis in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Feliu, Carlos; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

    2014-02-01

    The flagellated parasite Giardia duodenalis is known as one of the most common causes of protozoal diarrhoea in both humans and animals worldwide. The aim of the present work was to perform the first study of G. duodenalis in rodents in the Canary Islands (Spain) and analyse the level of genetic variation and the potential zoonotic role of the isolates. Stool samples were collected from 284 wild rodents and Giardia cysts were detected by light microscopy. The overall prevalence of giardiasis was 25 · 4% and ranged from 19 · 4% in El Hierro to 34% in Gran Canaria. Positive samples were further characterized by PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), ?-giardin (BG) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes. Our study revealed assemblage G as the most frequent genotype and identified two rodent-infecting G. duodenalis haplotypes of this assemblage, HI and HII. Phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of haplotype HI, which we suggest to be considered as a novel G. duodenalis sub-assemblage GII, due to the high genetic distances among this sub-genotype and assemblage G. Furthermore, G. duodenalis assemblage B was detected in an inhabited area in La Palma, a fact that may pose a potential risk of G. duodenalis transmission from rodents to humans. PMID:24001274

  9. Supratentorial neurenteric cyst mimicking hydatid cyst: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Arabi, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Shah, Gaurang

    2013-01-01

    Neurenteric (NE) cysts are uncommon congenital cysts of endodermal origin. These cysts are commonly encountered in the posterior fossa surrounding the brain stem structures. We present a case of pathologically proven supratentorial NE cyst that mimicked a hydatid cyst in its clinical presentation and imaging appearance. Including this pathology in the differential diagnosis of supratentorial cystic lesions is important due to the differences in medical and surgical management.

  10. Foucher's sign of the Baker's cyst.

    OpenAIRE

    Canoso, J J; Goldsmith, M. R.; Gerzof, S G; Wohlgethan, J R

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of Foucher's sign, the change in pressure in the Baker's cyst with extension and flexion of the knee, by echography, arthrography, and computed tomography. With extension the gastrocnemius and the semimembranosus muscles approximate each other and the joint capsule compressing the cyst against the deep fascia. Opposite effects in flexion allow the cyst to relax.

  11. MR findings in thyroglossal duct cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with thyroglossal duct cysts have been studied with CT and MR. The typical CT feature of these cystic upper-neck lesions are depicted in literature, conversely MR findings are not well known. The homogeneous high intensity on T1-weighted images, higher than simple cyst or fluid, is the most typical feature of the thyroglossal cyst. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  12. Laparoscopic excision of hepatoduodenal ligament cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Deshpande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoduodenal ligament cysts are rare. These may be confused with hepatic cysts even on advanced investigative modalities like Computerized tomography scanning or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Diagnosis is often an intraoperative surprise. Laparoscopic treatment of such hepatoduodenal cysts is not described in available medical literature. We report one such case treated laparoscopically

  13. Suprasellar arachnoid cyst - a case report -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Young; Byun, Woo Mok; Park, Bok Hwan; Choi, Byung Yearn; Cho, Soo Ho [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Kyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    Arachnoid cysts are relatively common disease entity, but its location at sarsaparilla region it is important to differentiate with ependymal cysts or third ventricle or third ventricular enlargement secondary to either aqueductal stenosis of extraventricular obstructive hydrocephalus. We recently experienced a case of suprasellar arachnoid cyst and reviewed literature.

  14. Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Nojiri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

  15. Spontaneous regression of an intraspinal disc cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Eerens, I.; Wilms, G. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Goffin, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    We present a patient with a so-called disc cyst. Its location in the ventrolateral epidural space and its communication with the herniated disc are clearly shown. The disc cyst developed rapidly and regressed spontaneously. This observation, which has not been reported until now, appears to support focal degeneration with cyst formation as the pathogenesis. (orig.)

  16. Inhibitors of Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Have Potent Activity against Giardia intestinalis Trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Ranae M; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J Robert; Shibata, Sayaka; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Hol, Wim G J; Fan, Erkang; Buckner, Frederick S

    2015-11-01

    The methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) is a novel drug target for the protozoan pathogen Giardia intestinalis. This protist contains a single MetRS that is distinct from the human cytoplasmic MetRS. A panel of MetRS inhibitors was tested against recombinant Giardia MetRS, Giardia trophozoites, and mammalian cell lines. The best compounds inhibited trophozoite growth at 500 nM (metronidazole did so at ?5,000 nM) and had low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells, indicating excellent potential for further development as anti-Giardia drugs. PMID:26324270

  17. Urachal cyst, a rare cyst with multiple complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawary, Amr; Duffy, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Urachal cysts are rare, can be one of the forgotten causes of abdominal pain, and can present as adenocarcinoma of the bladder, along with many other presentations. There is a real need for physicians, general surgeons, and urologists to be acquainted with the different presentations and management of this rare condition. PMID:18661048

  18. HYDATID CYST PRESENTING AS OVARIAN CYST : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease which may present as potential health hazard to human. In developing country like India , it is a significant health problem. Surgery is the treatment of choice for hydatid cyst. Recurrence may be avoided by antihelminthic supplements post - surgery

  19. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Salih, Kuk; Suleyman, Yazar; Ulfet, Cetinkaya.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative r [...] esults. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT), +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using primers that target the ?-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

  20. Chronic hematic cyst of the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hematic cyst refers to accumulation of blood or blood breakdown products in a non epithelium-lined fibrous tissue capsule. Hepatic cyst is a term often used for deeply placed, incompletely resorbed hematoma hemorrhagic cyst, which may remain unchanged and unidentified for long periods of time. Trauma is the major causative factor, although it is often vague or totally uncalled by the patient. Chronic hematic cysts are uncommon lesions those can present diagnostic challenge. In this article we report a first case of a chronic hematic cyst of the temporomandibular joint TMJ. (author)

  1. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

    2011-10-15

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-}) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR{sub Gi}) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T{sub final}) with Fe{sup 3+} ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK{sub a} = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR{sub Gi} reacts with O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k{sub 1} = 1.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T{sub 1}; this in turn rapidly decays to the T{sub final} state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR{sub Gi} is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  2. Antibody response to Giardia muris trophozoites in mouse intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyworth, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia muris colonizes the mouse small intestinal lumen. This parasite is cleared immunologically from the intestine of normal mice. In contrast, T-lymphocyte-deficient (nude) mice have an impaired immunological response to G. muris and become chronically infected. In the present study, trophozoites were harvested from the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and nude mice and examined for surface-bound mouse immunoglobulins by immunofluorescence microscopy....

  3. Ruptured Hydatid Cyst Causing Tension Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Çakmak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cysts are parasitic infections caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Most of the cysts are asymptomatic. They most commonly involve the liver and lungs. The most common complication of hydatid cyst of the lung is the rupture of the cyst into a bronchus. Tension pneumothorax due to a ruptured hydatid cyst, on the other hand, is a very rare complication. We present in this paper a rare case with a hydatid cyst rupturing into the pleural cavity, causing tension pneumothorax. A 7-year-old girl presented with dyspnea, tachypnea, cyanosis, and tachycardia. Tension pneumothorax and a central lesion with a homogenous, smooth wall were detected. CT following tube thoracostomy revealed a ruptured hydatid cyst. The patient underwent cystotomy, closure of bronchial ostia, capitonnage, and partial decortication with posterolateral thoracotomy.

  4. Adrenal epithelial cyst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaiem, F; Korbi, S; Jedidi, S; Aloui, S; Hassan, F; Arfa, N; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S; Mzabi, S

    2012-04-01

    Epithelial-lined or true cysts of the adrenal gland are exceedingly rare accounting for only 9% of all adrenal cysts. A 55-year-old woman with a medical history for cholecystectomy and liver hydatidosis presented with an 8-month history of abdominal pain in the upper left quadrant. Physical examination was unremarkable and laboratory tests were within normal range. Computed tomography displayed a homogeneous and finely calcified cystic mass of the left adrenal gland measuring 12 x 10 cm. A hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland was suspected preoperatively and the patient underwent uneventful excision of the cyst. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed that the cyst wall was lined by cuboidal to flattened cells with bland cytologic features. Immuohistochemically, the cyst lining expressed intensely cytokeratin but was negative for CD 34 and calretinin. The final pathological diagnosis was epithelial adrenal cyst. PMID:22953505

  5. New insights about suprapatellar cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Crnkovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available bursa is located between the quadriceps tendon and femur, and it develops before the birth as a separate synovial compartment proximal to the knee joint. By the fifth month of fetal life there is a suprapatellar septum between the knee joint cavity and suprapatellar bursa which later perforates and involutes in a way that a normal communication between the cavity of bursa and knee is established. A small portion of the embrionic septum can later lag as more or less expressed suprapatellar plica. In case when suprapatellar plica has a small communication with valve mechanism or in case of complete septum, bursa becomes a separate compartment and potential location for the suprapatellar cyst development. Magnetic resonance imaging is recognised as the gold standard in diagnosis of knee cysts because of its ability to show cystic nature of the lesion, its relationship with other anatomic structures, as well as to establish whether other knee pathologies are present. Considering treatment possibilities, majority of cysts around the knee resolve spontaneously and should be treated by aspiration and application of corticosteroids. Suprapatellar cyst is a very rare knee pathology and it can in some occasions be treated using open or arthroscopic surgery.

  6. Urachal cyst causing intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Chandrasekhar; Schein, Moshe

    2005-01-01

    Urachal remnant disorders are uncommon and may cause a wide spectrum of manifestations. We report a case of an inflamed urachal cyst causing acute small bowel obstruction in a 44-year-old male patient. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:16119714

  7. Choledocal cyst: the radiological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have experienced 11 cases of radiologically or surgically proven choledochal cyst during the period of 4 years, and reviewed radiological and clinical features. The results are as follows: 1. The sex ratio of female to male was 2.7:1. Four were children under 10, and seven were adults over 30 years of age. 2. The most frequent symptom was abdominal pain (45%), which was followed by jaundice (36%) and palpable abdominal mass (27%). 3. Morphologically, 4 cases were type A of Kimura classification (segmental cystic dilatation involving common bile duct; pure type A of Alonso-Lej). The other 7 patients showed some dilatation in the intrahepatic bile ducts as well; i.e. type A' of Kimura classification. 4. The union between the common bile and main pancreatic ducts was at a high position in 5 of 6 patients in whom both ducts were adequately opacified with ERCP, PTC and/or operative cholangiography, forming an abnormally long common channel. 5. Associated choledocholithiasis was reported with increasing frequency. We experienced 4 cases (36.3%) which had multiple stones in the choledochal cyst. 6. Adenocarcinoma were combined in 2 patients; both were females of 38 and 45 years of age. 7. Ten cases were correctly diagnosed preoperatively with ultrasonography. Specific ultrasound diagnosis of a choledochal cyst could be made by identifying two bile ducts entering into the large cyst which was separated from the gallbladder and extended deep onto the portal hepatic. Dilatation of intrahepatic ducts could be easily identified.

  8. Tween as a Substitute for Diethyl Ether in the Formalin-Ether Sedimentation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    NA Ahmadi; K Pakdad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Tween as a substitute for diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique was evaluated for para­site detection.Methods: Fresh fecal material free of parasites with 10% formalin to prepare standardized specimen was thoroughly pooled. This specimen was divided into 5 equal portions; one was without infection, and each of the others was individually seeded with Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia cysts, ova of Ascaris lumbericoides, and Hymenolepis nana. Six hund...

  9. Interrelation of strongyloidiasis and tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dwarakanath, A D; Welton, M; Ellis, C J; Allan, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    A 31 year old man from Gambia, resident in the United Kingdom for two years, presented with a two month history of unproductive cough, malaise, weight loss, non-specific abdominal pain, and episodic diarrhoea. Acid alcohol fast bacilli were identified in his sputum, together with Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and Giardia lamblia cysts in his stools. This case illustrates that latent strongyloidiasis can become overt in the presence of tuberculosis, and the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis mus...

  10. Intrathoracic Paraspinal Mesothelial Cyst: A Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Won; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki; Paik, Seung Sam; Chung, Won Sang; Chon, Soon Ho [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Intrathoracic mesothelial cysts are congenital developmental cysts usually located in the anterior cardiophrenic angle region (so called, pericardial cysts). We report two rare cases of an intrathoracic paraspinal mesothelial cyst which was purely cystic and had no perceptible cyst wall on CT or MRI with histopathologic findings

  11. Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst; a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Seyed-majidi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst first described by Gorlin in 1962. It is considered as extremely rare and accounts for only 1% of jaw cysts reported. Because of its diverse histopathology, there has always been confusion about its nature as a cyst, neoplasm or hamartoma.Case Report: In this report, we present a rare case of calcifying odontogenic cyst with ameloblastic proliferation, an extremely rare histologic variant, in a 15 year old female in the left mandibular molar region. The lesion was surgically removed. After enucleation and curettage, no recurrence recorded in next two years.Conclusion: Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst, microscopically resembles unicystic ameloblastoma except for the ghost cells and dystrophic calcifications within the proliferative epithelium. There has always been confusion about its nature as a cyst, neoplasm or hamartoma. Microscopically, this cyst shows ameloblastic proliferation in the connective tissue but no characteristics of basal cell hyperchromatism, vacuolization and nuclear polarization which is often seen in ameloblastoma, are present here. Ameloblastoma ex COC and ameloblastomatous COC are morphologically and clinically entirely different and easily distinguishable.Key words: Calcifying odontogenic cyst, Ghost cell, Gorlin Cyst, Ameloblastic proliferation

  12. Congenital cervical bronchogenic cyst: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiralj Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital anomalies of the embryonic foregut. They are caused by abnormal budding of diverticulum of the embryonic foregut between the 26th and 40th day of gestation. Bronchogenic cysts can appear in the mediastinum and pulmonary parenchyma, or at ectopic sites (neck, subcutaneous tissue or abdomen. So far, 70 cases of cervical localization of bronchogenic cysts have been reported. Majority of bronchogenic cysts have been diagnosed in the pediatric population. Bronchogenic cysts of the cervical area are generally asymptomatic and symptoms may occur if cysts become large or in case of infection of the cyst. The diagnosis is made based on clinical findings, radiological examination, but histopathologic findings are essential for establishing the final diagnosis. Treatment of cervical bronchogenic cyst involves surgical excision. Case Outline. Authors present a case of a 6-year-old female patient sent by a pediatrician to a maxillofacial surgeon due to asymptomatic lump on the left side of the neck. The patient had frequent respiratory infections and respiratory obstructions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the neck was performed and a well-circumscribed cystic formation on the left side of the neck was observed, with paratracheal location. The complete excision of the cyst was made transcervically. Histopathological findings pointed to bronchogenic cyst. Conclusion. Cervical bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital malformations. Considering the location, clinical findings and the radiological features, these cysts resemble other cervical lesions. Surgical treatment is important because it is both therapeutic and diagnostic. Reliable diagnosis of bronchogenic cysts is based on histopathological examination.

  13. Fluorescence decay of dyed protozoa: differences between stressed and non-stressed cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Samuel Ricardo Dos; Branco, Nilson; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Paterniani, José Euclides Stipp; Katsumata, Masakazu; Barlow, Peter W; de Mello Gallep, Cristiano

    2015-11-01

    Several series of tests have shown that fresh, intact samples of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts are not marked by fluorescent probes such as carboxyfluorcein-succinimidyl-diacetate-ester (CFDA-SE), C12-resazurin and SYTOX® Green, probably because of their robust cell walls. These dyes fail to indicate the viability of such protozoa and allow negative responses to be recorded from living and infectious samples. Cryptosporidium parvum showed stronger isolation from chemicals, with living oocysts remaining unstained by the probe for up to 90?days after extraction. However, in further fluorescence decay (FD) experiments run with G. duodenalis samples stained using CFDA-SE (comprising living, non-stressed but aged cysts, heat-killed samples and UV-C-stressed samples) each showed a different FD decay profile, here studied in seven series of tests of five replicates each. The FD profiles were fitted by double-exponential decay kinetics, with the decay constant k2 being five times higher than k1 . This FD procedure is fast and can be easily reproduced in 10 steps, taking?~?1?h of laboratory work for already purified samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25690334

  14. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, Qasem, E-mail: qasem.alramadan@epfl.ch [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; ShuJun, Li; Hua, Feng Han [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

    2010-07-12

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

  15. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Qasem; Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; Li, ShuJun; Feng, Han Hua

    2010-07-12

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits. PMID:20630184

  16. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

  17. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

  18. Epidermoid Cyst of the Cecum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Kil Yeon

    2015-01-01

    An epidermoid cyst of the cecum is extremely rare; only eight cases have been reported in the literature. A 63-year-old woman was admitted to Kyung Hee University Medical Center with a colonic mass that had been discovered incidentally during a regular health check-up. The radiographic impression was that this mass was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. During surgery, an exophytic mass in the cecal wall was resected by using an ileocecectomy. Based on the macroscopic and the microscopic findings, this case was identified as an epidermoid cyst of the cecal wall. We report this case to discuss the origin of this entity and the unusual nature of our case. PMID:25745626

  19. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Salgado, R. [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

  20. Bacteria Associated with Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, Sarah M.; Lawrence, John R.; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D. W.; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W.; Topp, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microsc...

  1. Arachnoid Cyst in Oculomotor Cistern

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Kyun; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo

    2013-01-01

    Oculomotor cistern is normal anatomic structure that is like an arachnoid-lined cerebrospinal fluid-filled sleeve, containing oculomotor nerve. We report a case of arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy. The oblique sagittal MRI, parallel to the oculomotor nerve, showed well-defined and enlarged subarachnoid spaces along the course of oculomotor nerve. Simple fenestration was done with immediate regression of symptom. When a disease develops in oculomotor ...

  2. 75 FR 11111 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...No. APHIS-2010-0010] Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY...quarantined to prevent the spread of pale cyst nematode. The description of the quarantined...INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a...

  3. 75 FR 54592 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...No. APHIS-2010-0076] Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY...quarantined to prevent the spread of pale cyst nematode. The description of the quarantined...INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a...

  4. Urachal cyst associated with a suprapubic sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirasawa, Y; Ito, Y; Tanaka, H; Seki, N

    1999-01-01

    Urachal anomalies are frequent and may exhibit many anatomical variations. We report a case of a urachal cyst that had a sinus tract extending to the lower abdomen just above the pubic symphysis. Histologic examination of the specimens showed a squamous-epithelium-lined sinus tract and a columnar-epithelium-lined cyst, which suggested a developmental disorder. This may be an extremely rare case where the urachal cyst opened into the suprapubic sinus. PMID:10370044

  5. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  6. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsadeghi, Ali; Farrokhi, Farid; Fazli-Shahri, Azadeh; Gholipour, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are among developmental disorders of the primitive foregut which are typically found above the diaphragm. Bronchial cysts discovered in the abdominal cavity or retroperitoneum are extremely rare. We present a rare case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst which was incidentally detected after a wrestling injury in a 23-year-old man who had a negative medical history. Although initial imaging studies suggested an adrenal tumor, histopathological analysis provided a definit...

  7. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of...

  8. An immunohistochemical study of branchial cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, J; Jenkins, R.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty five specimens of branchial cyst from the same number of patients have been examined. On staining with haematoxylin and eosin a consistent finding was that the mural lymphoid follicles were always aligned with their mantle zones towards the luminal epithelium. With conventional staining lymphatic sinuses were noted in 17 of the specimens, but with immunohistochemical staining these structures were apparent in 23 cysts. Their frequent occurrence in branchial cysts supports the theory th...

  9. Midline Prostatic Cyst Marsupialization Using Holmium Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet KILINC; Goger, Yunus Emre; Piskin, Mesut; Balasar, Mehmet; Kandemir, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Many of the prostatic cysts are asymptomatic and only 5% are symptomatic (Hamper et al., 1990; Higashi et al., 1990). These symptoms include pelvic pain, hematospermia, infertility, voiding dysfunction, prostatitis-like syndrome, and painful ejaculation. Treatment of prostatic cysts includes TRUSG guided drainage, endoscopic transurethral resection, and in some cases even open surgery. In the literature, endoscopic interventions use marsupialization of the midline prostatic cyst with transure...

  10. Intratendinous ganglion cyst of the semimembranosus tendon

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S.K.; Park, J.M.; Choi, J E; Rhee, S. K.; Shim, S I

    2010-01-01

    Intratendinous ganglion cyst is a very rare lesion with an unknown aetiology that originates within the tendon. We encountered a case of 43-year-old woman who complained of a palpable, non-tender mass in the thigh with increasing swelling. An intratendinous ganglion cyst in the semimembranosus tendon of the lower extremity was diagnosed and located by ultrasound and MRI. Nine months after a surgical excision, there were recurrent ganglion cysts along the semimembranosus tendon. We describe th...

  11. Cysts of the semilunar cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the studies listed in the bibliography, this dissertation reports on the pathology, clinical symptoms and radiology of cysts of the semilunar cartilage. The author analyses 118 cases of his own, with special regard to the results of pneumo-arthrographic investigations carried through according to a special technique by Schaefer. In the course of this work, measurements of the meniscal base are for the first time used as radiological criteria indicating the presence of a cyst of the semilunar cartilage. Furthermore the well-known radiological signs of cysts, such as bone defects according to Albert and Keller, light central spot in the meniscal body, as well as Rauber's sign and horizontal rupture, are investigated as to the frequency of their incidence. For that purpose all the X-ray pictures were subjected to a further dose scrutiny. A list of all the 118 cases with their clinical and radiological data is found in the annex, together with the results of the operations and patho-anatomical investigations. (orig.)

  12. Síntesis de las enzimas de piruvato, oxidorreductasa de ferredoxina y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion de Giardia intestinalis Synthesis of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase and alcohol dehydrogenase E enzymes during Giardia intestinalis excystation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Wasserman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Giardia intestinalis es un parásito unicelular diseminado mundialmente. Causa una enfermedad intestinal conocida como giardiosis y, probablemente, es el microorganismo eucarionte más tempranamente divergente.
    Objetivo. En el presente estudio se determinó la expresión de las enzimas de piruvato oxidorreductasa ferredoxina (PFOR y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol (ADHE en los estadios de quiste y trofozoíto, y durante el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion. Previamente se habían demostrado cambios en sus ARNm.
    Materiales y métodos. Se generaron proteínas recombinantes de PFOR y ADHE que fueron usadas como antígenos para la producción de anticuerpos policlonales. Éstos se emplearon para la detección de las proteínas nativas por Western blot. Evaluamos la actividad enzimática de ADHE y de la glutamato deshidrogenasa (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH por ensayos espectrofotométricos.
    Resultados. Las proteínas PFOR (139 kDa y ADHE (97 kDa se detectaron en trofozoítos, pero no en quistes. Durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion, la proteína ADHE se detectó sólo después de la primera fase de inducción y la proteína PFOR sólo después de la segunda fase. Esto indica que ambas proteínas son sintetizadas durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion, aunque en un momento diferente. La actividad enzimática de ADHE está presente sólo en los trofozoítos y no en los quistes, mientras que la actividad de la enzima GDH se detectó en trofozoítos y quistes.
    Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados muestran de forma concluyente que las enzimas PFOR y ADHE son traducidas en el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion y esto demuestra que existe un proceso activo de síntesis de proteínas durante él.Introduction. Giardia intestinalis is a unicellular parasite of worldwide distribution. It causes an intestinal illness known as giardiasis, and it is probably the earliest diverging eukaryotic microorganism. Previously, changes have been reported in the expression of mRNAs at several stages of the life cycle; however specific enzymatic activity changes have not been explored.
    Objective. The expression of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE enzymes was measured in cyst and trophozoite stages, and during the excystation process.
    Materials and methods. Recombinant proteins were generated for PFOR and ADHE to be used as antigens in the production of polyclonal antibodies for the detection of native proteins by Western Blot. The enzymatic activity of ADHE and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH was evaluated by spectrophotometric assays.
    Results. PFOR (139 kDa and ADHE (97 kDa proteins were detected in trophozoites, but not in cysts. During excystation, ADHE protein was detected after the first phase of induction, but the PFOR protein appeared only after the second phase. This indicated that both proteins were synthesized during excystation, although at different times. ADHE enzymatic activity was present only in trophozoites and not in cysts whereas GDH activity was detected in both stages.
    Conclusion. These results conclusively showed that PFOR and ADHE enzymes were translated during the excystation process and is strong evidence that active protein synthesis was occurring during excystation.

  13. Synthesis of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase and alcohol dehydrogenase E enzymes during Giardia intestinalis excystation / Síntesis de las enzimas de piruvato, oxidorreductasa de ferredoxina y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion) de Giardia intestinalis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto, Niño; Moisés, Wasserman.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Giardia intestinalis es un parásito unicelular diseminado mundialmente. Causa una enfermedad intestinal conocida como giardiosis y, probablemente, es el microorganismo eucarionte más tempranamente divergente. Objetivo. En el presente estudio se determinó la expresión de las enzimas de [...] piruvato oxidorreductasa ferredoxina (PFOR) y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol (ADHE) en los estadios de quiste y trofozoíto, y durante el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion). Previamente se habían demostrado cambios en sus ARNm. Materiales y métodos. Se generaron proteínas recombinantes de PFOR y ADHE que fueron usadas como antígenos para la producción de anticuerpos policlonales. Éstos se emplearon para la detección de las proteínas nativas por Western blot. Evaluamos la actividad enzimática de ADHE y de la glutamato deshidrogenasa (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH) por ensayos espectrofotométricos. Resultados. Las proteínas PFOR (139 kDa) y ADHE (97 kDa) se detectaron en trofozoítos, pero no en quistes. Durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion), la proteína ADHE se detectó sólo después de la primera fase de inducción y la proteína PFOR sólo después de la segunda fase. Esto indica que ambas proteínas son sintetizadas durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion), aunque en un momento diferente. La actividad enzimática de ADHE está presente sólo en los trofozoítos y no en los quistes, mientras que la actividad de la enzima GDH se detectó en trofozoítos y quistes. Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados muestran de forma concluyente que las enzimas PFOR y ADHE son traducidas en el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion) y esto demuestra que existe un proceso activo de síntesis de proteínas durante él. Abstract in english Introduction. Giardia intestinalis is a unicellular parasite of worldwide distribution. It causes an intestinal illness known as giardiasis, and it is probably the earliest diverging eukaryotic microorganism. Previously, changes have been reported in the expression of mRNAs at several stages of the [...] life cycle; however specific enzymatic activity changes have not been explored. Objective. The expression of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE) enzymes was measured in cyst and trophozoite stages, and during the excystation process. Materials and methods. Recombinant proteins were generated for PFOR and ADHE to be used as antigens in the production of polyclonal antibodies for the detection of native proteins by Western Blot. The enzymatic activity of ADHE and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Results. PFOR (139 kDa) and ADHE (97 kDa) proteins were detected in trophozoites, but not in cysts. During excystation, ADHE protein was detected after the first phase of induction, but the PFOR protein appeared only after the second phase. This indicated that both proteins were synthesized during excystation, although at different times. ADHE enzymatic activity was present only in trophozoites and not in cysts whereas GDH activity was detected in both stages. Conclusion. These results conclusively showed that PFOR and ADHE enzymes were translated during the excystation process and is strong evidence that active protein synthesis was occurring during excystation.

  14. Infected urachal cyst ruptured during medical palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yasuyuki; Miyake, Osamu; Taniwaki, Hiromichi; Morimoto, Akira; Takahashi, Satoru; Fujiwara, Ichiro

    2003-03-01

    Since most cases of urachal cyst are asymptomatic, they are frequently detected after complication by infection. Ruptured urachal cysts are frequently detected after complication by severe infections such as sepsis. We report on a 31-year-old man who was diagnosed preoperatively as having an infected urachal cyst and the decision was made to follow the patient because primary excision was scheduled to be performed a few days later. Symptoms were transiently relieved, but the cyst ruptured during medical palliation. We treated this case with a two-stage surgical procedure. PMID:12622715

  15. A Case Report of Enterogenous Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amini, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Foregut cysts are various congenital lesions originated from emberyonic foregut. Bronchogenic, enterogenous and neuroenteric cysts are the most frequent forms of foregut cysts. They create different clinical symptoms based on their location. Enterogenous cysts comprise 4-5 percent of posterior mediastinal cysts and include esophageal, gastric and enteric cysts. A 61 year old woman referred to surgical clinic with dysphasia and regurgitation 6 months ago whose illness aggravared over the last 3 months. In physical examination, a lesion was seen in the right site of posterior mediastinum. Surgical excision was done and a ciliated columnar epithelium with two thin muscular layers were reported in pathology. In reality, the distinction between esophageal and bronchogenic cysts is not always clear. Both cysts present in mediastinum and their epithelial tissues are non-specific, however presence or lack of muscle layer in cyst-wall, proximity to gastrointestinal tract or tracheobronchial tree, adaption of clinical symptoms with paraclinic results and observations during surgical procedure can reveal certain diagnosis.

  16. Bacteriological examination of radicular cysts contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrva?anin Slobodanka O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Radicular cysts are, most often, oral tissue cysts. The basis for their development are the remains of Hertwig's epithelial sheath, which is stimulated to proliferate by infectious agents, mostly periapical granuloma or pulp necrosis. The cyst contents can be liquid, either clear or milky-white, or thick and yellowish-caseous pus. Bacteriological and histopathological researches have shown that development of radicular cysts from periapical lesions is a consequence of penetration of normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. Material and methods The study has bacteriologically examined contents of 50 radicular cysts. They were operated between 1993 and 1995 at the Department of Oral Surgery of the Outpatient Health Care Centre Banjaluka. Pathological substrate of the cyst was punctured by a sterile needle and bacteriologically examined at the Microbiological Laboratory of the Clinical Centre in Banjaluka. Discussion and conclusion Radicular cysts contents most often consisted of alpha-hemolytic streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphyilococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus group B and alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus. It is concluded that normal oral cavity flora is present in the cysts contents the infection penetrated through the root canal to periapex, where, due to the course of time, radicular cyst develops from periapical granuloma.

  17. Breast cysts in adolescents - diagnostics, monitoring, treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of the paper was the US evaluation of hormonal disorders and treatment results in adolescent girls and boys with breast cysts. Material/Methods: In the years 2001 - 2009, US examination of the breast was performed in 427 children aged 10 - 18 years, with clinically suspected breast pathologies. The indications for US examination typically included pain, breast swelling and a palpable tumor. The US examination was performed using a 7 - 12 MHz linear transducer. Results: Breast cysts were found in 42 children: 36 adolescent girls and 6 boys with gynaecomastia. Infected cysts were found in 35 children. The cysts ranged in size from 5 mm to 30 mm. In 5 of the girls, large cysts were treated by an incision and drainage, and in all the children with infected cysts, antibiotic therapy was used. Hormonal disorders were found in 30 girls. A follow-up examination was performed, and the observation time varied from 1/12 to 2 years. The cysts disappeared completely in 30 children. Hormonal therapy was introduced in 5 girls. Conclusions: Breast cysts found in US examinations are indications for check-up examinations including endocrinological diagnostics and, if the cyst is persistent, possibly for hormonal treatment. (authors)

  18. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  19. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Jan O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

  20. Urban park-related risks for Giardia spp. infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A F; Rock, M; Neumann, N; Massolo, A

    2015-11-01

    Giardia spp. is a common gastrointestinal (GI) parasite of multiple host species, including dogs and humans, with the potential for zoonotic transmission. The risk of GI parasitism in dogs (including Giardia spp.) may increase with park use in urban areas. This study aimed to (1) determine whether park attendance is a risk factor for Giardia spp. infection in dogs and (2) characterize the behavioural and demographic risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in park-attending and non-park-attending dogs. From August to September 2012, a total of 1293 dog owners completed a survey and 860 corresponding dog faecal samples were collected. Dog faeces were screened for Giardia spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay and associations assessed among behaviours, demographics, and Giardia spp. infection. Main results included off-leash and swimming frequencies within parks as significantly positively associated with Giardia spp. infection in dogs. Dog-owner age was negatively associated with off-leash and swimming frequencies in parks. The results suggest some recreational behaviours in parks and certain demographics are risk factors for parasitism in pet dogs. PMID:25865261

  1. Genotyping of Brazilian Giardia duodenalis human axenic isolates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ST, Coradi; EB, David; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; TB, Carvalho; S, Guimarães.

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a complex species that comprises at least seven distinct genetic groups (A to G), but only genotypes A and B are known to infect humans and a wide variety of other mammals. Regardless of biological, biochemical and antigenic analysis, several isolates maintained in vitro were n [...] ot genetically typed yet. So, in the present study, five Brazilian axenic isolates obtained from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were typed in order to determine the major genetic groups to which the isolates belonged. DNA was extracted from axenic trophozoites, fragments of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes were amplified by PCR and the isolate genotyping was carried out using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing for both genes. The results revealed that all isolates were assigned to genotype A at both analyzed loci. Indeed, DNA sequence analysis classified the four isolates obtained from asymptomatic individuals into subtype AII, while the isolate obtained from the symptomatic patient was typed as subtype AI. Despite of the limited number of isolates assessed, the findings presented herein provide interesting insights on the occurrence of Giardia genotypes in Brazil and hold the perspective for future molecular and epidemiological investigations.

  2. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans. PMID:25066778

  3. [Urachal cyst presenting as acute urinary retention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quicios Dorado, C; Fernández Fernández, E; Gómez García, I; García Flórez, D; De Castro Guerin, C; Escudero Barrilero, A

    2005-10-01

    About 2% of adults have an urachal cyst. The diagnosis is usually made due to its clinical complications. We report an inusual case of acute urinary retention due to an urachal cyst, with hipogastric pain and anuria as initial syntoms. PMID:16353780

  4. Endoscopic approach of the overinfected urachal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, J I; Ponce de León, J; Huguet, J; Rosales, A; Caparrós, J; Villavicencio, H

    2002-01-01

    The overinfected urachus cyst presents itself in quite different forms. In spite of the accuracy of ultrasound and abdominal CT scan, sometimes the diagnosis of this urachal abnormality is imprecise and even misleading. This article describes the transvesical endoscopic drainage of an infected urachal cyst with optimum result upon the treatment of this condition. PMID:12899215

  5. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Kyung Myung; Kim, Ki Jun; Maeng, E-So [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    An retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst is extremely rare and often mimics other cystic disease such as a lymphangioma, pseudocyst, or cystic tumor of the pancreas. We have recently experienced a case of a peripancreatic bronchogenic cyst in 32-year-old woman. We report this case with a description of the CT findings and a review of the literature.

  6. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunica albuginea (TA cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries.

  7. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Daniel M.; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Tunica albuginea (TA) cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries.

  8. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinovi? Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. Case Outline. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Niš, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Conclusion. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.

  9. Papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroglossal duct is an embryologic remain of the thyroid gland development. It generally is asymptomatic but sometimes it can develop an infection cyst or a malignant neoplasic transformation. We present two cases of papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct cyst. (The author)

  10. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis. (orig.)

  11. Reoperation for congenital choledochal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todani, T; Watanabe, Y; Toki, A; Urushihara, N; Sato, Y

    1988-02-01

    A reoperation after excisional procedure was carried out in seven cases due to early or late postoperative complications. Of the 12 patients with early complications, four underwent relaparotomy due to anastomotic leakage and bleeding. Late complications were seen in nine patients with recurrent cholangitis caused by an anastomotic stricture, and three patients with intrahepatic involvement required a reoperation several years after the initial surgery. Recurrent cholangitis after biliary reconstruction mainly occurs due to an anastomotic stricture of the hepaticoenterostomy. There was no significant difference in the results between hepaticoduodenostomy and hepaticojejunostomy over a long follow-up period. A wide anastomotic stoma that permits free drainage of bile into the intestine is imperative to the prevention of cholangitis, and can be created by an incision extending along the lateral wall of both the hepatic ducts with a hepaticoenterostomy at the hilum. This procedure is obviously necessary in all patients with or without intrahepatic involvement. Carcinoma of the intrahepatic ducts and the retained distal choledochus have rarely developed in patients undergoing cyst excision followed by biliary reconstruction. Complete excision of the whole extrahepatic bile duct could prevent carcinoma arising in the distal choledochus, although it could not prevent carcinoma arising from the intrahepatic ducts. However, patients with carcinoma of the intrahepatic duct were reported to have had symptoms of biliary stricture for a long time since the cyst excision. Bile stagnation in the intrahepatic ducts is possibly responsible for the development of carcinoma. A wide anastomosis resulting in free drainage of bile appears to be essential to the prevention of carcinoma arising in the intrahepatic ducts after cyst excision. PMID:3341813

  12. Midline Prostatic Cyst Marsupialization Using Holmium Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Mehmet; Goger, Yunus Emre; Piskin, Mesut; Balasar, Mehmet; Kandemir, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Many of the prostatic cysts are asymptomatic and only 5% are symptomatic (Hamper et al., 1990; Higashi et al., 1990). These symptoms include pelvic pain, hematospermia, infertility, voiding dysfunction, prostatitis-like syndrome, and painful ejaculation. Treatment of prostatic cysts includes TRUSG guided drainage, endoscopic transurethral resection, and in some cases even open surgery. In the literature, endoscopic interventions use marsupialization of the midline prostatic cyst with transurethral resection (TUR) or transurethral incision with endoscopic urethrotomy (Dik et al., 1996; Terris, 1995). Holmium: YAG laser was employed for the marsupialization of the cyst wall in midline prostatic cyst treatment for the first time in the present study. Symptoms, treatment, and follow-up are presented in this paper. PMID:26101688

  13. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach.

  14. Pilonidal cyst on the vault: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES GUILHERME

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilonidal cysts and sinuses are described as dermoid cysts which contain follicles of hairs and sebaceous glands. They clinically present as a classic case of inflammation which comes with pain, local infection and redness. The origin of pilonidal disease remains controverse. There are many hypothesis as lack of hygiene on the affected area and a penetration and growth of a hair in the subcutaneus tissue caused by constant friction or direct trauma on the damaged area. The option for clinical treatment is very frequent. However, taking into consideration the incidence and the possibility of recidive, surgical treatment is presently recommended. Complications include cellulitis and abscess formation. Pilonidal cysts are mostly found on the sacral region. In the literature is found description of pilonidal cysts on the penis, interdigital region on the hands as well as on the cervical region. We present a case of pilonidal cyst located on the vault biparietal region, without malignant degeneration.

  15. Arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyun; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jeun, Sin Soo; Jung, So Lyung; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Bum Soo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Oculomotor cistern is normal anatomic structure that is like an arachnoid-lined cerebrospinal fluid-filled sleeve, containing oculomotor nerve. We report a case of arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy. The oblique sagittal MRI, parallel to the oculomotor nerve, showed well-defined and enlarged subarachnoid spaces along the course of oculomotor nerve. Simple fenestration was done with immediate regression of symptom. When a disease develops in oculomotor cistern, precise evaluation with proper MRI sequence should be performed to rule out tumorous condition and prevent injury of the oculomotor nerve.

  16. Arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oculomotor cistern is normal anatomic structure that is like an arachnoid-lined cerebrospinal fluid-filled sleeve, containing oculomotor nerve. We report a case of arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy. The oblique sagittal MRI, parallel to the oculomotor nerve, showed well-defined and enlarged subarachnoid spaces along the course of oculomotor nerve. Simple fenestration was done with immediate regression of symptom. When a disease develops in oculomotor cistern, precise evaluation with proper MRI sequence should be performed to rule out tumorous condition and prevent injury of the oculomotor nerve.

  17. Giardia duodenalis: genotypic comparison between a human and a canine isolates / Giardia duodenalis: comparação genotípica entre isolados humano e canino

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina Braga, Gomes; Ana Paula, Fernandes; Aline, Menezes; Ronaldo, Amorim Júnior; Edward Félix, Silva; Miriam Oliveira, Rocha.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências sugerem que a giardíase é uma doença zoonótica. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a identidade genética da Giardia duodenalis isolada de fezes humanas e de cães de Belo Horizonte. MÉTODOS: Amostras de fezes humanas e de cães foram cultivadas para isolamento de G. d [...] uodenalis. Para determinação do genótipo dos isolados, foram usados oligonuclotídeos que amplificam regiões específicas do gene para rRNA. RESULTADOS: Dois isolados de G. duodenalis foram obtidos, os quais apresentaram o genótipo do sub-grupo A. CONCLUSÕES: Estes dados sugerem que a transmissão da giardíase segue um padrão zoonótico. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that giardiasis is a zoonotic disease. The present work aimed to evaluate the genetic identity of Giardia duodenalis isolated from human and dog fecal samples from Belo Horizonte. METHODS: Human and dog fecal samples were cultured for isolation of G. duodenalis. To de [...] termine the genotype of the isolates, primers that amplify a specific region in rRNA of the protozoan were used. RESULTS: Two G. duodenalis isolates were obtained, which belong to the subgroup A genotype. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the transmission of giardiasis follows a zoonotic pattern.

  18. Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Estudo clássico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianças atendidas em uma creche na região de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nair Toshiko, Tashima; Maria Jacira Silva, Simões; Clarice Queico Fujimura, Leite; Antonio, Fluminhan; Marco Antonio, Nogueira; Ana Carolina, Malaspina.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos epidemiológicos sobre giardíase por técnicas moleculares como a RAPD (Amplificação aleatória do DNA polimórfico) podem contribuir para o entendimento de fatores relacionados à transmissão de Giardia duodenalis. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia de G. duodenalis em 101 cri [...] anças atendidas em uma creche em Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brasil. Após exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes, 15 crianças apresentaram cistos de G. duodenalis. Seus respectivos pais, irmãos e animais domésticos, além dos funcionários da creche, foram submetidos a exames parasitológicos de fezes. Destes, sete mães e nove irmãos apresentaram G. duodenalis, enquanto os pais, funcionários da creche e animais de estimação (cães) não apresentaram o parasita. Além dos 15 casos com G. duodenalis, outras 23 crianças apresentaram outros enteroparasitas (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura). As amostras contendo cistos de G. duodenalis das crianças e de seus parentes foram submetidas à análise molecular por RAPD após extração do DNA genômico e amplificação de um fragmento de uma região do rDNA 18S por PCR. Entre os 31 isolados de G. duodenalis (crianças e suas respectivas mães e irmãos), concluiu-se que a transmissão dos parasitas ocorreu entre as crianças, provavelmente durante seu convívio na creche, mas não foi decorrente do convívio familiar ou animais de estimação. Abstract in english Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a [...] daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, besides the daycare center workers, also had their feces submitted to parasitological analysis. Seven mothers and nine brothers also presented G. duodenalis cysts, while fathers, daycare workers and pets (dogs) did not presented the parasite. Besides the 15 cases with G. duodenalis, other 23 children presented other enteroparasites (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). Samples of G. duodenalis cysts from children and their relatives were submitted to molecular typing by RAPD after genomic DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rDNA region by PCR. After examining 31 isolates of G. duodenalis (children and their respective mothers and brothers), it was concluded that the parasite transmission occurred in children, probably during daily cohabitation at the daycare center, but not at home among their relatives or pets.

  19. Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil Estudo clássico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianças atendidas em uma creche na região de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Toshiko Tashima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, besides the daycare center workers, also had their feces submitted to parasitological analysis. Seven mothers and nine brothers also presented G. duodenalis cysts, while fathers, daycare workers and pets (dogs did not presented the parasite. Besides the 15 cases with G. duodenalis, other 23 children presented other enteroparasites (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. Samples of G. duodenalis cysts from children and their relatives were submitted to molecular typing by RAPD after genomic DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rDNA region by PCR. After examining 31 isolates of G. duodenalis (children and their respective mothers and brothers, it was concluded that the parasite transmission occurred in children, probably during daily cohabitation at the daycare center, but not at home among their relatives or pets.Estudos epidemiológicos sobre giardíase por técnicas moleculares como a RAPD (Amplificação aleatória do DNA polimórfico podem contribuir para o entendimento de fatores relacionados à transmissão de Giardia duodenalis. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia de G. duodenalis em 101 crianças atendidas em uma creche em Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brasil. Após exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes, 15 crianças apresentaram cistos de G. duodenalis. Seus respectivos pais, irmãos e animais domésticos, além dos funcionários da creche, foram submetidos a exames parasitológicos de fezes. Destes, sete mães e nove irmãos apresentaram G. duodenalis, enquanto os pais, funcionários da creche e animais de estimação (cães não apresentaram o parasita. Além dos 15 casos com G. duodenalis, outras 23 crianças apresentaram outros enteroparasitas (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura. As amostras contendo cistos de G. duodenalis das crianças e de seus parentes foram submetidas à análise molecular por RAPD após extração do DNA genômico e amplificação de um fragmento de uma região do rDNA 18S por PCR. Entre os 31 isolados de G. duodenalis (crianças e suas respectivas mães e irmãos, concluiu-se que a transmissão dos parasitas ocorreu entre as crianças, provavelmente durante seu convívio na creche, mas não foi decorrente do convívio familiar ou animais de estimação.

  20. Diversidad genética de poblaciones de Giardia intestinalis en Colombia Genetic diversity of Giardia intestinalis populations in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Wasserman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Giardia intestinalis es un parásito protozoario que causa la infección gastrointestinal conocida como giardiosis, la cual se transmite principalmente a través de la contaminación fecal-oral. Estudios genéticos de aislamientos de Giardia cultivados axénicamente han identificado dos grupos genéticos principales distribuidos en el mundo. En el presente estudio se analizaron 24 cepas nativas del parásito por medio de la técnica RAPD (ADN polimórfico amplificado aleatoriamente.
    Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de polimorfismo y la complejidad de las cepas circulantes en áreas específicas de Colombia.
    Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó el método RAPD debido a que permite obtener un análisis rápido, sencillo y confiable, que no requiere conocimiento previo de la genética del parásito. El análisis RAPD se realizó en cultivos continuos de aislamientos nativos recolectados en Colombia entre 1997 y 2001. Se evaluaron separadamente diversos iniciadores con el objeto de incrementar la capacidad de discriminación del método.
    Resultados. De las 24 cepas incluidas en el estudio, 22 se agruparon en clusters independientes. Las cepas que provenían de la misma zona geográfica, y que fueron recolectadas aproximadamente al mismo tiempo, generalmente presentaron patrones RAPD sumamente similares pero distinguibles entre sí. Se analizaron así mismo los clones aislados de una misma cepa y fue posible diferenciarlos molecularmente.
    Conclusión. Los resultados de las cepas estudiadas indicaron que éstas corresponden al genotipo A, y sugieren que consisten en una mezcla heterogénea de poblaciones strechamente relacionadas.
    Introduction. Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes a gastrointestinal infection known as giardiosis, which is transmitted primarily through fecal-oral contamination. Genetic studies of axenically cultivated Giardia isolates have identified two major genetic groups distributed throughout the world. In the present study 24 native strains of the parasite were analyzed by the RAPD technique (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA.
    Objective. To determine the level of polymorphism and the complexity of Giardia intestinalis circulating strains in specific areas of Colombia.
    Materials and methods. The RAPD method was used, as it allows for a quick, simple and reliable analysis that requires no prior knowledge of the genetics of the parasite. A RAPD analysis was conducted on native isolates collected in Colombia between 1997 and 2001, established in continuous cultures. Several primers were tested separately, in order to enhance the capacity for discrimination of the method.
    Results. Of the 24 strains that were included in the study, 22 were arranged in independent clusters. The strains that were from the same geographic area and collected at about the same time, generally displayed highly similar but distinguishable RAPD patterns. Clones isolated from a strain were analyzed as well, and it was possible to differentiate them molecularly.
    Conclusion. The studied strains showed to belong to genotype A .The results suggest that the Colombian strains studied consist of a heterogeneous mixture of closely related populations.

  1. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.

  2. The Minimal Proteome in the Reduced Mitochondrion of the Parasitic Protist Giardia intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Jedelský, Petr L.; Doležal, Pavel; Rada, Petr; Pyrih, Jan; Šmíd, Ond?ej; Hrdý, Ivan; Šedinová, Miroslava; Marcin?iková, Michaela; Voleman, Lubomír; Perry, Andrew J.; Beltrán, Neritza Campo; Lithgow, Trevor; Tachezy, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis are thought to be mitochondria highly-reduced in response to the oxygen-poor niche. We performed a quantitative proteomic assessment of Giardia mitosomes to increase understanding of the function and evolutionary origin of these enigmatic organelles. Mitosome-enriched fractions were obtained from cell homogenate using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. To distinguish mitosomal proteins from contamination, we used a quantitative shot-gun strategy based on i...

  3. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, Seow Huey; Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A L; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those ag...

  4. Effect of Giardia Infection on Nutritional Status in Primary Schoolchildren, in Northwest Iran

    OpenAIRE

    G.H. Ettehad; Daryani, A.; A Nemati

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the association between Giardia infection and nutritional status, a cross- sectional study was performed on twenty randomly selected primary schools from two regions of Ardabil province in 2005. Anthropometric factors including height, weight and midarm muscle circumference (MAC) were measured for 813 children (413 males, 400 females). The food intake was estimated for energy and other nutrients by 24 h recall method for three days in week. Determination of Giardia infe...

  5. The invasive potential of Giardia intestinalis in an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Robles, R; Ponce-Macotela, M; Rosas-López, L E; Ramos-Morales, A; Martínez-Gordillo, M N; González-Maciel, A

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that affects primarily children, in whom it delays physical and mental development. The pathophysiology of giardiasis in not well understood, and most reports have identified Giardia intestinalis trophozoites only in the lumen and on the brush border of the small intestine. We identified Giardia trophozoites within the epithelium of the small intestine of a lactose intolerance patient. The Giardia trophozoites were obtained and cultured in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated Giardia trophozoite invasion in an animal model. Giardia trophozoites invaded the intestinal mucosa and submucosa of infected gerbils. The invasive trophozoites were observed at 21, 30 and 60 days age, and the average numbers of invaded sites were 17?±?5, 15?±?4, and 9?±?3, respectively. We found trophozoites between epithelial cells, at the base of empty goblet cells, in lacteal vessels and within the submucosa. The morphological integrity of the invasive trophozoites was demonstrated via electron microscopy. The analysis of the gerbils infected with the trophozoites of the WB reference strain did not show intraepithelial trophozoites. These results demonstrate another Giardia pathogenic mechanism, opening the door to numerous future studies. PMID:26470844

  6. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  7. Characterisation and purification of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townson, S M; Upcroft, J A; Upcroft, P

    1996-08-01

    The major 2-oxoacid oxidoreductase (2-OR), pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) from Giardia duodenalis has been purified to apparent homogeneity. A second 2-OR with a preference for alpha-ketobutyrate as substrate was identified and was removed from PFOR containing fractions during purification. Only PFOR and the second 2-OR were identified in gels of crude Giardia extracts assayed for 2-OR activity. The native form of PFOR which is membrane associated, is a homodimer of 138 kDa subunits. Pyruvate is the preferred substrate: alpha-ketobutyrate and oxaloacetate, but not phenyl-pyruvate or alpha-ketoglutarate, are decarboxylated. PFOR from Giardia is more stable than PFOR from most other organisms and purified PFOR can be stored without deterioration at -70 degrees C. Purified PFOR donates electrons to Giardia ferredoxin (Fd I) with concomitant reduction of metronidazole. However, two other Giardia ferredoxins did not accept electrons from PFOR. Consistent with the involvement of PFOR in metronidazole activation, the activity of pyruvate dependent 2-OR activity was decreased in all metronidazole-resistant lines tested but not in furazolidone-resistant lines. The presence of three different ferredoxins and two 2-ORs in Giardia suggests that a number of different electron transport pathways operate in this organism providing unusual metabolic flexibility for a eukaryote. PMID:8855555

  8. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  9. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) exposed to varied levels of human interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Delport, Tiffany C.; Asher, Amy J.; Beaumont, Linda J.; Webster, Koa N.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Power, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    •We examine the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Australian sea lions.•The human associated Giardia duodenalis assemblages AI and B present in sea lions.•Proximity of sea lions to human settlements associated with occurrence of Giardia.•High presence of G. duodenalis in captive compared with wild sea lion populations.•Optimized PCR methodology required to determine transmission routes to sea lions.

  10. Dentigerous cyst in primary dentition: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Passi S; Gauba K; Agnihotri A; Sharma R

    2008-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is a developmental odontogenic cyst, which apparently develops by accumulation of fluid between the reduced enamel epithelium and the tooth crown of an unerupted tooth. There is usually no pain or discomfort associated with the cyst unless there is acute inflammatory exacerbation. Management of dentigerous cyst in primary dentition needs special consideration regarding the preservation of the developing permanent tooth buds. Here, we report a case of dentigerous cyst in prima...

  11. ANO1: an additional key player in cyst growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2014-05-01

    Chloride secretion driven by calcium-dependent chloride channels has a major impact on cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease. Buchholz et al. studied the functional role of anoctamin 1 (ANO1), a recently identified calcium-activated chloride channel, in kidney cyst growth, using principal-like cells forming cysts within a collagen matrix and an embryonic kidney cyst model. Their results support a potential role for this chloride channel in cyst generation. PMID:24786872

  12. Transitional cell carcinoma in urachal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Himanshu C; Marda, Sapna; Goswami, Kirti G; Vadvala, Harshna; Parekh, Keyur; Parikh, Keyur; Vadodaria, Himanshu

    2010-12-01

    A 33-year-old male patient with abdominal mass for a year was referred to our institute. CT scan with intravenous contrast was performed, which showed a cystic lesion at the infraumbilical region, beneath the anterior abdominal wall with the presence of solid enhancing mass apposed to the anterior wall of the cyst. We suggested a diagnosis of urachal cyst with possibility of malignancy. On surgical exploration, the cystic mass was found superior to and separate from the urinary bladder dome. Histopathology revealed transitional cell carcinoma in a urachal cyst. PMID:19760449

  13. THE DIFFERENTIATIVE DIAGNOSIS OF RENAL CYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Seregin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Despite the progress of diagnostic possibilities, the interpretation of renal cysts is still difficult and may have false negative results. So far there is no algorithm of renal cysts patients examination and treatment. Further diagnostic process improvement and an exact knowledge of the possibilities of each method are needed. The main factor for choosing the right tactics of treatment and giving the prognosis of the disease is not only the diagnosis, but also the exact gradation of the renal cysts according to the Bosniak classification. 

  14. An Unusual Case of Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Mirhoseini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is a parasitic disease in all over the world which is caused by a Cestode (tape worm. Liver, lung, and brain are the most Common involved organs and involvement of muscles and bones is unusual. We report a 32years old man who had low back and radicular leg pain. He had a paravertebral mass with involvement of Spinal column. This patient was operated with differential diagnosis of tumor or hydatid cyst. The final diagnosis was hydatidosis of paravertebral muscles and vertebral column. Keywords: hydatidosis, p aravertebral muscle hydatid cyst, spinal column hydatid cyst

  15. Endodermal cyst of the oculomotor nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.A. [School of Medicine, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Enterline, D.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Fukushima, T. [Carolina Neuroscience Research Inst., Carolina Skull Base Surgery Center, Raleigh, NC (United States); McLendon, R.E.; Cummings, T.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Endodermal cysts are rare congenital intracranial lesions. Although histologically benign, they can become symptomatic as a result of mass effect and cause neurological deficits. We report a 30-year-old woman who presented with paresis of her right oculomotor nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 13 x 8-mm cystic lesion originating from the right oculomotor nerve at its exit from the mesencephalon. She underwent craniotomy, biopsy, slit resection, and drainage of the cyst. To our knowledge, endodermal cysts have not been previously described in relation to the oculomotor nerve. (orig.)

  16. Endodermal cyst of the oculomotor nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endodermal cysts are rare congenital intracranial lesions. Although histologically benign, they can become symptomatic as a result of mass effect and cause neurological deficits. We report a 30-year-old woman who presented with paresis of her right oculomotor nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 13 x 8-mm cystic lesion originating from the right oculomotor nerve at its exit from the mesencephalon. She underwent craniotomy, biopsy, slit resection, and drainage of the cyst. To our knowledge, endodermal cysts have not been previously described in relation to the oculomotor nerve. (orig.)

  17. Z PLASTY IN PILONIDAL CYST REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BEHDAD

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The present study was coducted to evaluate the outcome and complications of Z plasty in pilonidal cyst repair. Methods. Sixty patients with pilonidal cyst were selected and repaired by Z plasty method in Al-Zahra hospital (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. The patients were followed for 6 months and complications such as seruma, infection and replapse wre evaluated. Results. The incidence of seruma, infection and relapse after Z plasty was 6.6, 1.6 and 3.4 percent, respectively. Discussion. Z plasty is a choice operation for pilonidal cyst repair.

  18. Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  19. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis from human and animal samples from Brazil using beta-giardin gene: a phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotão, A C; Costa-Macedo, L M; Haddad, F S M; Brandão, A; Peralta, J M; Fernandes, O

    2007-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the major diarrhea agents in human and animals distributed worldwide, and present high levels of genetic diversity, showing seven genotypes: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. Only Assemblages A and B have been detected in humans and in a wide range of other mammalians hosts, whereas the remaining Assemblages (C-G) are host-specific. Molecular characterization of cysts of human and animal origin are useful to address the co-circulate isolates between these host, and represents an objective means to evaluate zoonotic infection hypothesis. In the present work the G. duodenalis genotypes were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and DNA sequencing analysis of PCR products of the beta-giardin gene. The cysts were collected in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, from a population composed by humans (n=366, 310 children and 56 adults), domestic animals (n=11) from a municipal daycare center in the surroundings of a slum and neighborhood medium-high class domestic animals (n=18). Parasitological exams were developed in human fecal samples. Parasites were found in 60% (186/310) and 66% (37/56) of the samples from children and adults, respectively. Among children's samples, 27.7% (86/310) were positive for G. duodenalis. Only 1.7% (1/56) of the adults was positive for this parasite. In general a total of 87 fecal samples (86 from children and 1 from adult) from all population studied were positive for G. duodenalis, and 62 of these were subjected to molecular analysis using a PCR that amplified a fragment of the beta-giardin gene. Sixty samples were typed as genotype A1, two as genotype A2 and genotype B was not encountered. Among domestic animals samples (n=29), eight (seven dogs and one cat) from the slum community were identified as genotype A1, and all control samples (n=18) were negative in the molecular assay. The host-specific genotypes C, D and, F were not found. In this study we described single case of G. duodenalis infection associated with a child and her dog and both isolates characterized as genotype A1. Despite the low incidence, this data suggest the putative existence of a zoonotic cycle of G. duodenalis in the studied population. PMID:17428432

  20. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  1. Thoracic radiculopathy caused by a myodil cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M O; Goyal, K; Johnston, R A

    2000-08-01

    We report the case of a myodil cyst causing a thoracic radiculopathy in a patient who had undergone a myelogram 30 years previously. Although myodil is no longer used, sequelae can continue to be seen for many years. PMID:11045204

  2. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt blockage by hydatid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar A Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunt is one of the commonest procedures done in neurosurgical practice throughout the world. One of the commonest problems after putting the VP shunt is the shunt obstruction, which can be due to varied causes. Shunt obstruction secondary to the parasitic infections is rarely seen. We are presenting a 15-year-old child, a case of operated cerebral hydatid cyst with hydrocephalus. She presented with shunt malfunction after 1 year of surgical excision of the hydatid cyst. Revision of the VP shunt was done and peroperatively, it was found that the shunt tubing was obstructed due to small hydatid cysts. This is the first reported case of VP shunt obstruction by hydatid cyst.

  3. Dermoid cyst in the mouth floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dermoid cyst account for the 0.01 % of all cysts of buccal cavity. Its more frequent location is in the mouth floor. This is the case of a female patient aged 19 who approximately 7 years noted an increase of volume under tongue growing gradually and noting outside face and the discomfort at to speak and to chew. Complementary studies were conducted and under general anesthesia a surgical exeresis was carried out by intrabuccal approach achieving excellent esthetic and functional results. Histopathologic diagnosis matched with a dermoid cyst of mouth floor. Patient has not lesion recurrence after three years after operation. We conclude that the Dermoid cyst of mouth floor appear as benign tumor of middle line. The intrabuccal exeresis demonstrates esthetic and functional benefits. (author)

  4. The appearances of lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, A M; Fon, G T

    1991-12-01

    Intraspinal synovial cysts most commonly occur in the lower lumbar spine and may cause radicular symptoms. Eight symptomatic patients are described, each of whom had a single synovial cyst with associated facet joint degeneration. Four were at the L4-5 level and two each at L3-4 and L5-S1. Myelography in four patients revealed a posterolateral indentation on the contrast column in each case. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a structure of similar or greater density than the thecal sac in six cases and of gas density in one case. Two of the former cases also contained gaseous elements, three cases had a mildly dense rim and in the eighth case calcification was demonstrated within the cyst. One cyst resolved after facet joint injection with local anaesthetic and steroid. PMID:1773558

  5. [Chronic fever revealing an urachal cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitten, Thierry; Ben Abdelgheni, Maher; Rohr, Serge; Boujan, Fazel; Blicklé, Jean-Frédéric; Andrès, Emmanuel

    2003-12-01

    In the adult, the urachus remains as a non-specific fibrous formation extended from the bladder dome to the Retzius space. This urachal remnant is commonly asymptomatic or may be revealed by a cyst. This later may also be asymptomatic or lead to local inflammation or inflammatory pseudo-tumor. We report an original observation of chronic fever revealing an urachal cyst in a 21-Year-old male. PMID:15037830

  6. Infected urachal cyst in the adult

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Sobral; Álvaro Brandão; Edson Retroz; Paulo Azinhais; Louis Sousa; Ricardo Godinho; Hugo Coelho; Pedro Peralta; Ricardo Leão; Bruno Pereira; Vânia Grenha; Paulo Temido; Ricardo Borges

    2011-01-01

    Infected urachal cysts are a rare clinical manifestation in adults. We present the case of an adult male patient with an infected urachal cyst, discuss the embryology, clinical presentation, diagnostics and the therapeutic procedure. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose this condition with unspecific clinical features. Ultrasound and MRI are useful in making the diagnosis. Surgery continues to be the therapeutic procedure of choice.

  7. Alveolar hydatid cyst: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behiye Zarif-Zakerian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease due to invasion of the Echinococcus multilocularis larva into the different tissues. The main host of this tape worms is Canidae family, especially foxes and jackals. Human beings are usually infected through eating contaminated vegetables and water with parasite eggs. In this article, one case of alveolar hydatid cyst has been reported in a 35 year-old woman

  8. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ajla Rahimi? ?ati?; Maida Nikši?; Zlata Kadeni?

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial dermoid cysts are congenital, usually nonmalignant lesions with an incidence of 0.5% of all intracranial tumors. They tend to occur in the midline sellar, parasellar, or frontonasal regions. Although theirnature is benign, dermoid cysts have a high morbidity and mortality risk, especially when rupture occurs. A 40 year old woman presented with head injury after she experienced sudden loss of consciousness. She hada history of headache, loss of consciousness; her past medical hist...

  9. [Severe cholestasis in congenital choledochus cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höring, E; Lüke, F; Helfen, M; Gaisberg, U; Kieninger, G

    1989-05-01

    A nineteen year old female was admitted to the hospital presenting with sudden onset of severe jaundice and the biochemical constellation of cholestasis. The sonographically and radiologically diagnosis of choledochal cyst was confirmed intraoperatively. The choledochal cyst of type IVa reached from the papilla until the hepatocholedochal junction. A lateroterminal choledochojejunostomy with a Y-Roux-anastomosis was constructed. The patient became symptom-free after the operation. PMID:2661941

  10. Pilonidal cyst on the vault: case report

    OpenAIRE

    BORGES GUILHERME; MACIEL JR JAYME ANTUNES; CARELLI EDMUR FRANCO; ALVARENGA MARCELO; CASTRO RAFAEL DE; BONILHA LEONARDO

    1999-01-01

    Pilonidal cysts and sinuses are described as dermoid cysts which contain follicles of hairs and sebaceous glands. They clinically present as a classic case of inflammation which comes with pain, local infection and redness. The origin of pilonidal disease remains controverse. There are many hypothesis as lack of hygiene on the affected area and a penetration and growth of a hair in the subcutaneus tissue caused by constant friction or direct trauma on the damaged area. The option for clinical...

  11. Z PLASTY IN PILONIDAL CYST REPAIR

    OpenAIRE

    Behdad, A.; M HOSSEINI POUR

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. The present study was coducted to evaluate the outcome and complications of Z plasty in pilonidal cyst repair. Methods. Sixty patients with pilonidal cyst were selected and repaired by Z plasty method in Al-Zahra hospital (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services). The patients were followed for 6 months and complications such as seruma, infection and replapse wre evaluated. Results. The incidence of seruma, infection and relapse after Z...

  12. Pilonidal Cyst of the Penis Mimicking Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Cormio; Francesca Sanguedolce; Paolo Massenio; Giuseppe Di Fino; Giuseppe Carrieri

    2013-01-01

    Pilonidal sinus is a long-standing chronic inflammatory condition consisting of a sinus tract from the skin-lined orifice extending into subcutaneous tissue, with hairs attached to the wall of the tract and projecting outside of the opening. Penile location is rare, and differential diagnosis with severe balanoposthitis, epidermal cysts, and neoplasms can be difficult. We report a rare case of pilonidal cyst located between coronal sulcus and prepuce which, due to its ulcerated aspect and abs...

  13. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis.

  14. Hydatid Cysts of Liver and Portal Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Emre, Ali; Ario?ul, Orhan; Alper, Aydin; Ökten, Attilâ; Uras, Ali; Yalçin, Süleyman

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of portal hypertension due to hydatid cysts of the liver are reported. In one of the patients, symptoms were secondary to obstruction of inferior vena cava and hepatic outflow tract. The other patient was operated on with a diagnosis of extrahepatic presinusoidal portal hypertension caused by extrinsic compression of the liver by an hydatid cyst. Although hydatidosis is a benign disease, it can produce serious complications as in these reported cases. Therefore hydatidos...

  15. NASOPHARYNGEAL BRANCHIAL CYST CAUSING STRIDOR IN NEONATE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaskaran Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonates may present with various causes of stridor. Nasopharyngeal cysts are rare congenital lesions causing difficulty in breathing. Differential diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cysts include thornwalds cyst, rathke cleft and craniopharyngioma, teratoma, epidemoid cysts, dermoid cyst, nasopharyngeal encephalocele, infected cyst and branchial cyst. Though branchial cysts are very rarely present in nasopharynx, they are easy to diagnose on MRI and fall under the category of preventable causes of neonatal stridor. Their surgical excision is the treatment of choice but sometimes owing to the other prematurities present the neonate period is not always the best time to operate. We report a case of a newborn child with nasopharyngeal branchial cyst presenting with stridor and managed conservatively with aspiration

  16. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin

    2008-01-01

    A unique case of fetal goiter accompanied by bilateral ovarian cysts in a mother treated with methimazole for Graves'disease is reported. The abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound at 31 weeks of gestation. Umbilical fetal blood sampling revealed elevated serum TSH, normal concentrations of free T 4 , normal FSH and LH and high concentrations of E 2 . A series of weekly amniocenteses and intra-amniotic injections of levothyroxine was initiated, along with a reduction of the mother's methimazole dosage. The level of TSH in amniotic fluid was initially high, but was considerably reduced by each injection and followed by a gradual reduction of fetal goiter as well as the left ovarian cyst. The right cyst ruptured spontaneously. At 36 weeks + 4 days, the patient underwent elective caesarean section and gave birth to a female, weighing 2,880 g with 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 10. The thyroid gland appeared normal in size, and cord blood TSH and free T 4 were both within normal limits. At ultrasound control6 days later, the right ovarian cyst was not visible, while the left cyst was still present. Thus, our report supports previous findings that fetal goiter can be treated successfully with intra-amniotic injection of levothyroxine.More importantly, it shows that fetal hypothyroidism with elevated levels of TSH can be accompanied by ovarian cysts,suggesting interference between thyreotropic and gonadotropic hormones.

  17. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in captive wild ruminants in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Goossens, Els; Levecke, Bruno; Vercammen, Francis; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2009-03-01

    Both Cryptosporidium and Giardia are frequently found in the stool of domestic ruminants, especially young animals. Wild ruminants are also host to these protozoa, but the prevalence of these parasites in both free-ranging and captive nondomesticated ruminants needs to be further investigated. Moreover, the role of wild ruminants serving as reservoirs for these zoonotic parasites remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in captive wild ruminants younger than 6 mo and to determine the potential of these animals to serve as reservoirs for these zoonotic parasites. A total of 67 captive wild ruminants belonging to 21 different animal species at the Antwerp Zoo (Belgium), along with 82 American bison (Bison bison) on a commercial breeding farm, were sampled for the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, using a commercial immunofluoresence assay (Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia IFA). The Cryptosporidium prevalence was 7.5% in the Antwerp Zoo animals and 3.7% in the bison from the breeding farm. All but two of the Cryptosporidium-positive animals were younger than 1 mo of age. Molecular characterization by amplification of the 70-kDa heat-shock protein and the 18S ribosomal DNA gene identified Cryptosporidium parvum in four animals of the Antwerp Zoo. The prevalence of Giardia was 8.9% in the Antwerp Zoo animals and 23.2% in the bison calves. Most Giardia-positive animals were older than 1 mo of age. Molecular characterization on the beta-giardin gene and the triose phosphate isomerase gene identified Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in the Antwerp Zoo and both G. duodenalis assemblage A and assemblage E in the bison calves. These findings indicate that both protozoan parasites are prevalent in captive wild ruminants and that these animals can serve as a potential reservoir for zoonotic transmission. PMID:19368251

  18. Challenges in using chrysophyte cysts as tools in palaeoclimatological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkonen, Sanna; Weckström, Jan; Korhola, Atte

    2013-04-01

    Chrysophytes, also known as the golden-brown algae (classes Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae), often form an essential component of phytoplankton in oligotrophic northern waters. All chrysophytes are believed to produce siliceous resting stages which are often well preserved and abundant in the sediments of most lakes. These resting stages also known as stomatocysts or simply cysts have recently been used in a variety of palaeoenvironmental studies linking cyst assemblages to certain environmental variables such as temperature, pH, salinity and ice cover times. For most of the cysts the cyst producing chrysophyte species is still unknown. Cyst identification is based on the size, shape, ornamentation and the pore morphology of the cyst. The problem however is the minuscule surface structure of the cyst which can often be detected only using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The use of a SEM is usually expensive and time-consuming but leaves an image of each cyst counted for future reference. The problem with using a SEM is the fact that, unlike with a light microscope, you cannot see through the cyst if the pore is not visible and therefore you are left with a large number of cysts which in some cases have several different identity options. The use of a light microscope is faster but cysts often have to be put into collective categories which can lead into problems in palaeoreconstructions if cysts in the same group have different environmental preferences. More problems in identification arise when cysts are corroded in the sediment or not fully developed. Since no larger scale chrysophyte cyst studies have previously been carried out in Finland (or Fennoscandia), the sediment material also contains many previously undescribed cyst morphotypes. Here we discuss the challenges of cyst identification and the use of chrysophyte cysts in paleoclimatic reconstructions based on circa 15000 SEM images of cysts in Finnish lakes.

  19. Giardia duodenalis in Damascus, Syria: Identification of Giardia genotypes in a sample of human fecal isolates using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyzing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skhal, Dania; Aboualchamat, Ghalia; Al Nahhas, Samar

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals. It is most prevalent in many developing and industrialized countries. G. duodenalis is considered to be a complex species. While no morphological distinction among different assemblages exist, it can be genetically differentiated into eight major assemblages: A to H. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis in human isolates (a study conducted for the first time in Syria). 40 fecal samples were collected from three different hospitals during the hot summer season of 2014. Extraction of genomic DNA from all Giardia positive samples (based on a microscopic examination) was performed using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. ?-giardin gene was used to differentiate between different Giardia assemblages. The 514bp fragment was amplified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction method, followed by digestion in HaeIII restriction enzyme. Our result showed that genotype A was more frequent than genotype B, 27/40 (67.5%); 4/40 (10%) respectively. A mixed genotype of A+B was only detected in 9 isolates (22.5%). This is the first molecular study performed on G. duodenalis isolates in Syria in order to discriminate among the different genotypes. Further expanded studies using more genes are needed to detect and identify the Giardia parasite at the level of assemblage and sub-assemblage. PMID:26524628

  20. Echographic and computer-aided tomographic characterization of prostatic cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transrectal ultrasonic examination of the prostate were carried out in 965 patients aged 43 to 87. Cyst-like formations were revealed in 206 (21.3 %) patients. Acquired cysts caused by development of nodular prostatic hyperplasia were found in 193 patients, congenital cysts (cysts of prostatic utricle and Mueller's duct) in 13 patients. In one aided tomography was carried out to more accurately localize the cysts, assess the status of the prostate and adjacent tissues, and to differentiate cysts from other bulky formations of the prostate, if necessary. 8 refs.; 5 figs

  1. Atlantoaxial Joint Synovial Cyst: Diagnosis and Percutaneous Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synovial cysts at the atlantoaxial level are found uncommonly. Lumbar symptomatic cases are treated by percutaneous cyst aspiration with or without corticoid injection or by surgical resection, but synovial cysts at the C1-C2 level are usually treated by surgery. We report here a 92-year-old woman with a retro-odontoid synovial cyst producing spinal cord compression that was treated by percutaneous aspiration of the cyst under CT guidance. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an atlantoaxial synovial cyst successfully treated with a minimally invasive procedure.

  2. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashad Bhagwat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints.

  3. Craniofacial Procedure to Treat Encephalocele and an Arachnoid Cyst

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lose the pressure on his brain and hopefully cure the arachnoid cyst. When people are found to ... cysts fenestrated, have a lifetime or long-term cure, and about a quarter to a third end ...

  4. Craniofacial Procedure to Treat Encephalocele and an Arachnoid Cyst

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arachnoid cyst, deflate it, and then under the microscope we’re going to try to create some ... think, for example looking at the arachnoid cyst part of things, once we’re able to drain ...

  5. Craniofacial Procedure to Treat Encephalocele and an Arachnoid Cyst

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of this developing later on in life into cancer?” And, you know, my understanding is that there ... the encephalocele. Clearly, the arachnoid cyst is not cancer. This is a cyst, a bubble, a lining ...

  6. Infected thyroglossal duct cyst involving submandibular region: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rahul A; Bhowate, Rahul; Degweker, Shirish; Bhake, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct cyst presents most frequently in the midline of the neck, either at or just below the level of the hyoid bone. They generally manifest as painless neck swelling, and they move on protrusion of tongue and during swallowing. A case of thyroglossal cyst was reported in the left submandibular region in a 14-year-old girl, above the level of hyoid bone; ultrasound examination favored a cystic lesion which moved in a vertical fashion on swallowing whereas fine needle aspiration cytology report was suggestive of simple cystic lesion of thyroglossal cyst. No lymphoid or malignant cells were present. The cyst was excised completely by surgical procedure under general anesthesia. Histopathological analysis revealed thyroglossal cyst showing columnar and flattened epithelium of cyst with focal aggregate of chronic inflammatory cells supported by fibrocollagenous cyst wall. The clinical, ultrasound, and histopathological findings suggested that the lesion was an infected thyroglossal cyst. There was no evidence of recurrence 6 months after surgery. PMID:22567451

  7. Giardia agilis: Ultrastructure of the Trophozoites in the Frog Intestine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Inês L, Sogayar; Elisa Aparecida, Gregório.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Intestine samples of Bufo sp. tadpoles with parasitism confirmed for Giardia agilis were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The G. agilis trophozoites were long and thin. The plasma membrane was sometimes undulated and the cytoplasm, adjacent to the dorsal and ventral regions, showed numer [...] ous vacuoles. The two nuclei presented prominent nucleoli. The cytoplasm was electron-dense with free ribosomes, glycogen and rough endoplasmic reticulum-like structures. Polyhedral inclusions were observed in the cytoplasm and outside the protozoan; some of these inclusions exhibited membrane disruption. The flagella ultrastructure is typical, with the caudal pair accompanied by the funis. Next to the anterior pair, osmiophilic material was noticed. The ventro-lateral flange was short and thick, supported by the marginal plates that penetrated into its distal extremity; only its distal portion had adjacent osmiophilic filament. The G. agilis trophozoites showed the general subcellular feature of the genus. However, the ventro-lateral flange ultrastructure was an intermediate type between G. muris and G. duodenalis.

  8. Retrovesical hydatic cyst: About 4 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Ahmed; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Cherif, Mohamed; Rebai, Mohamed Hedi; Kerkeni, Walid; Ayed, Haroun; Derouiche, Amine; Ben Slama, Riadh; Chebil, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The hydatid cyst is a real public health problem in Tunisia. The retrovesical localization is rare. It is considered an aberrant or ectopic location defined by the development of the parasite in the subvesical and retrovesical fat. Methods: From 2004 to 2013, 4 patients with retrovesical hydatid cyst were hospitalized and operated in the Department of Urology at the Charles Nicolle hospital of Tunis in Tunisia. The average patient age was 40.75 years (range: 23–76). Signs of bladder irritation were the most frequent presenting complaint. No cases of hydaturia were noted. The diagnosis was made on the ultrasound and the computed tomographic urography. Hydatid serology was positive for 3 patients. In 3 cases, a hydatid cyst of the liver was associated. A total cysto-pericystectomy was performed for 1 patient, for others it was partial. Results: The postoperative course was uneventful. No urinary fistula or infection of the residual cavity was observed. One patient had a retroperitoneal cyst recurrence requiring reoperation. Conclusion: Retrovesical location of hydatid cyst is rare and treatment is primarily surgical. PMID:26225181

  9. Ultrasound controlled puncture of renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonographically-guided renal cyst puncture was done in 128 patients on outpatient basis. Cortical renal cysts were seen in both male and female patients in an equal ratio. Mean age was 59.6 years. Complication rate of percutaneous puncture was low. Only twice transient haematuria was observed, needing no treatment. Aspirated fluids were examined cytologically and biochemically. None of the aspirated specimens showed malignant cells. Biochemically lactate dehydrogenase activity and concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, potassium and creatinine were determined. Potassium and creatinine determination were found to be valuable in distinguishing between cystic-like lesions containing secondary urine (like caliceal cysts, hydronephrosis, urinoma) and those containing primary urine (like cortical renal cysts). Thus measurement of potassium and creatinine in aspirated fluids may be helpful in determining the need for open exploratory surgery. In cases where cystic lesions produce urographically visible defects of the pelvic system, a dilatation of this area after evacuation of the cyst can be demonstrated via intravenous urography. (orig.)

  10. Endoscopic treatment of the suprasellar arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical options for suprasellar arachnoid cyst are cystoperitoneal shunt, craniotomy fenestration and endoscopic fenestration. Endoscopic management has been found to be safe and effective. We report our experience with endoscopic management in 12 (male five, female seven; age range 8 months to 42 years patients with suprasellar arachnoid cyst. The endoscopic procedure included lateral ventricle puncture by precoronal burr hole and superior and inferior wall of the cyst was communicated with the lateral ventricle and the interpeduncular cistern respectively. All patients had hydrocephalus. Four pediatric patients had macrocephaly. All adult patients had visual disturbances. One adult patient presented with psychomotor disturbance along with features of raised intracranial pressure. All cases improved following endoscopic treatment. There were no complications or death. One patient required VP shunt. Postoperative MRI showed significant reduction in cyst volume in 11 patients. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 6 and a half years. Our study suggests that endoscopic technique is a safe and effective alternative treatment for suprasellar arachnoid cyst. It prevents complications such as subdural effusion and intracranial hematoma, which are not uncommon with craniotomy fenestration.

  11. Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1?:?100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFc?-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFc?-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the diminished number of IgA-positive cells registered in the Giardia group at 7 days post-infection was restored by kefir feeding, although the increase in IgA-positive cells was no longer observed in the kefir group at that time. No significant differences in CXCL10 expression were registered between groups, in concordance with the absence of inflammation in small-intestinal tissue. Interestingly, a slight reduction in CCL20 expression was observed in the Giardia group, suggesting that G. intestinalis might downregulate its expression as a way of evading the inflammatory immune response. On the other hand, a trend towards an increase in TNF-? expression was observed in the kefir group, while the Giardia-kefir group showed a significant increase in TNF-? expression. Moreover, kefir-receiving mice (kefir and Giardia-kefir groups) showed an increase in the expression of IFN-?, the most relevant Th1 cytokine, at 2 days post-infection. Our results demonstrate that feeding mice with kefir reduces G. intestinalis infection and promotes the activation of different mechanisms of humoral and cellular immunity that are downregulated by parasitic infection, thus contributing to protection. PMID:24072759

  12. Towards an Ecological Understanding of Dinoflagellate Cyst Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Bravo; Rosa Isabel Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of many dinoflagellates includes at least one nonflagellated benthic stage (cyst). In the literature, the different types of dinoflagellate cysts are mainly defined based on morphological (number and type of layers in the cell wall) and functional (long- or short-term endurance) differences. These characteristics were initially thought to clearly distinguish pellicle (thin-walled) cysts from resting (double-walled) dinoflagellate cysts. The former were considered short-term (te...

  13. Laparoscopic management of pedicle torsion of adnexal cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuxia; Xie, Yuanyuan; WU, XIAOQING; Li, Lu; MA, Yifei; WANG, XIAOYUAN

    2013-01-01

    Pedicle torsion of adnexal cysts results from the increased weight of cysts, longer length of the ovarian and suspensory ligaments or ovarian teratoma. Color doppler ultrasonography is particularly important for detecting suspected cyst torsion. Laparoscopy is becoming more important in the early diagnosis and treatment of adnexal cyst torsion due to its advantages, such as its minimally invasive nature, reduced acute stress reaction and facilitation of direct observation of intra-abdominal l...

  14. Giant Pelvic Retroperitoneal Epidermoid Cyst: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Fdili Alaoui, F. Z.; Oussaden, A.; H. Bouguern; El Fatemi, H.; Melhouf, M. A.; A. Amarti; Ait Taleb, K.

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst is a frequent benign cutaneous tumor. The pelvic localization does not occur very often. The literature that taps into such cases is very limited in scope. Here is a report of a 27-year-old woman with a giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst. The use of ultrasound exploration and computed tomography has indicated ovarian origins. The surgery also revealed a retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst, uterus and ovaries were all intact. The evacuation of a cyst was found to contain ...

  15. Infant with a Sudden, Large, Post-Extubation Subglottic Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Zamzil Amin ASHA’ARI; Suhaimi, Yusof; Fadzil, Ahmad; Muhammad ZIHNI

    2012-01-01

    Acquired subglottic cyst in infancy is almost always associated with episodes of early life intubation. Most cases typically presented late, usually days to months after extubation. We report a case of a subglottic cyst with different presentation than the norm. This case highlights that subglottic cyst can present acutely, and rapidly enlarging soon after the airway extubation. As the management of a large subglottic cyst can be challenging, a close observation for early diagnosis and interv...

  16. Male median raphe cysts: serial retrospective analysis and histopathological classification

    OpenAIRE

    Shao I-Hung; Chen Tai-Di; Shao Hsiang-Te; Chen Hsiao-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To review the clinical and pathological characteristics of median raphe cysts and to classify the lesions according to pathogenesis and histopathological findings. Methods The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with median raphe cysts between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed to document the clinical presentation and pathological findings of the cysts. Results Most patients were asymptomatic; however, 9 patients had inflammatory or infectious cysts that were tender o...

  17. Core histone genes of Giardia intestinalis: genomic organization, promoter structure, and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rodney D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protist found in freshwaters worldwide, and is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea in humans. The phylogenetic position of this parasite is still much debated. Histones are small, highly conserved proteins that associate tightly with DNA to form chromatin within the nucleus. There are two classes of core histone genes in higher eukaryotes: DNA replication-independent histones and DNA replication-dependent ones. Results We identified two copies each of the core histone H2a, H2b and H3 genes, and three copies of the H4 gene, at separate locations on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 within the genome of Giardia intestinalis, but no gene encoding a H1 linker histone could be recognized. The copies of each gene share extensive DNA sequence identities throughout their coding and 5' noncoding regions, which suggests these copies have arisen from relatively recent gene duplications or gene conversions. The transcription start sites are at triplet A sequences 1–27 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon for each gene. We determined that a 50 bp region upstream from the start of the histone H4 coding region is the minimal promoter, and a highly conserved 15 bp sequence called the histone motif (him is essential for its activity. The Giardia core histone genes are constitutively expressed at approximately equivalent levels and their mRNAs are polyadenylated. Competition gel-shift experiments suggest that a factor within the protein complex that binds him may also be a part of the protein complexes that bind other promoter elements described previously in Giardia. Conclusion In contrast to other eukaryotes, the Giardia genome has only a single class of core histone genes that encode replication-independent histones. Our inability to locate a gene encoding the linker histone H1 leads us to speculate that the H1 protein may not be required for the compaction of Giardia's small and gene-rich genome.

  18. Development of the yellow potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) on potatoes after gamma irradiation of cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation inhibited the development of the yellow potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) Behrens when cysts containing juveniles in anabiosis were irradiated with a dose of 0.5 kGy or higher. A dose of 0.5 kGy reduced the infestation level and the density of females/cysts on root of infested plants. However, a few cysts were found on roots of plants grown in pots with soil treated with a dose of 3.0 kGy. Development of the second generation of the potato cyst nematode (= F1 cysts that originated from irradiated cysts) was much weaker than that of the parental generation. The F1 females and/or cysts were found only in the control and in the 0.5 kGy treatment in low numbers. (author)

  19. Laser treatment of primary ring-shaped epithelial iris cyst.

    OpenAIRE

    Bron, A J; Wilson, C.B.; Hill, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    This is the first report of a ring-shaped, primary cyst of the iris pigment epithelium. The patient, a 28-year-old woman, presented with angle closure glaucoma. Ocular pressure was controlled medically, and the iris cyst was treated by argon laser photocoagulation. The derivation of the cyst, differential diagnosis, and mechanism of angle closure glaucoma are discussed.

  20. Intrahepatic cysts in biliary atresia after successful hepatoportoenterostomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, S.; Nishina, T; Tsuchida, Y

    1984-01-01

    A patient with an unusual association of biliary atresia and two intrahepatic cysts is reported. The infant was treated by a hepatoportoenterostomy at 2 months of age and by subsequent drainage of the cysts at 13 months. These cysts were detected by ultrasound during a febrile illness.

  1. Radiographically ossified ganglion cyst of finger in a swimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, J.; Anavim, A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Orange (United States); Lin, F. [Department of Pathology, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    Ganglion cysts are fibrous-walled cystic lesions closely associated with joint or tendon sheaths and contain gelatinous mucinous fluid. The radiographic appearance is usually normal. Calcification or ossification in these cysts is extremely unusual. We report on an unusual appearing ganglion cyst of the little finger in a swimmer with ossification resembling myositis ossificans. (orig.) With 3 figs., 8 refs.

  2. Choledochal cyst as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waidner Uta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Choledochal cysts are rare congenital anomalies. Their diagnosis is difficult, particulary in adults. Case presentation This case report demonstrates the diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls. Conclusion To prevent cost-intensive and potentially life-threating complications, a choledochal cyst must be considered in the differential diagnosis whenever the rather common diagnosis of a hepatic cyst is considered.

  3. Thoracic intraspinal synovial cyst causing myelopathy: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Ho Yeon; Jo, Byung June; Lie, Wei Chiang; Yoon, Deug Hee; Paeng, Sung Suk [Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeun [Chunk Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Intraspinal synovial cysts are commonly found in the lumbar spine and occur less commonly in the cervical spine. Occurrence of a cyst in the thoracic spine causing myelopathy is extremely rare. We report here the radiological findings of a case of a thoracic intraspinal synovial cyst that caused myelopathy at the T2-3 level with an accompanying review of the clinical literature.

  4. A rare case: a large perianal epidermal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebrail Akyuz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perianal epidermal cyst is a rare entity. A 44 year old male presented with perianal swelling which was progressively increasing in size. Pelvic tomography revealed a 7 cm cystic tumor. The tumor was excised totally and pathological diagnosis was epidermal cyst. To our knowledge, here we report the eleventh case of perianal epidermal cyst.

  5. Rectal duplication cyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Peter H; Hagen, Regine; Willi, Barbara; Ruetten, Maja; Venzin, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    Enteric duplication is a rare developmental malformation in people, dogs and cats. The purpose of the present report is to describe the first case of a rectal duplication cyst in a 7-year-old domestic shorthair cat presenting for acute constipation and tenesmus. On rectal palpation a spherical mass compressing the lumen of the rectum could be felt in the dorsal wall of the rectum. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of a well demarcated cystic lesion in the pelvic canal, dorsal to the rectum. The cyst was surgically removed via a perineal approach. No communication with the rectal lumen could be demonstrated. Histopathological examination was consistent with a rectal duplication cyst. Clinical signs resolved completely after excision of this conjoined non-communicating cystic rectal duplicate. PMID:21115381

  6. An Unusual Presacral Cyst in An Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, Ratnaprabha Kundlikrao; Laxmilal, Vageriya Natasha; Kandalkar, Bhuvaneshwari Mahendra; Vinod, Parelkar Sandesh

    2015-01-01

    The neurenteric cyst is a rare developmental lesion arising as a result of persistence of the neurenteric canal. It usually presents in the second and third decade. Lesions occurring in children are rare. Majority of the cases presented with signs of spinal cord involvement. This is a rare case of neurenteric cyst in an infant who presented with a presacral mass. A nine-month-old female had an antenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal lesion. Radiology suggested a diagnosis of sacrococcygeal teratoma. Histology was typical of a neurenteric cyst. We report this case to create awareness about this rare cystic lesion and inclusion of this entity in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses in children at this location. PMID:26500914

  7. Lymphoepithelial cyst in the palatoglossus arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanice Maria Marçal Vieira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe a case of a lymphoepithelial cyst in the palatoglossus arch. A 16-years-old black man said that he was observed a lesion in his mouth. On the physical exam, a pedicled, consistent, smooth surface 1.5 x 1 cm lesion, similar in color to the adjacent mucosa, was found. The lesion was surgically removed and the microscopic exam showed mucosal fragments with pedicled lesion; the cystic cavity sometimes lined with pseudostratified cylindrical epithelium and others with stratified squamous flat interface of the epithelium. Around the cyst, a well-delimited mass of lymphoid tissue, presenting lymphoid follicles, was also seen. Lymphoepithelial cyst has clinical characteristics similar to those of others lesions that occur in the oral cavity. The diagnosis should be based on conservative biopsy, with total removal of lesion.

  8. Cysts of the central nervous system : a clinicopathologic study of 145 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram C

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic, non-inflammatory cysts of the central nervous system may cause symptoms because of pressure, rupture or secondary inflammation. A total of 145 cases of cysts were reviewed during a study period of 12 years. The clinical details and histological features were noted in all cases. During this period 53 epidermoid cysts, 16 dermoid cysts, 38 colloid cysts, 23 arachnoid cysts, 5 neurenteric cysts, 5 ependymal and glial cysts, 2 Rathke?s cleft cysts and 3 unclassified cysts were encountered. The possible histogenesis is also discussed.

  9. Evidence from bioinformatics, expression and inhibition studies of phosphoinositide-3 kinase signalling in Giardia intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crompton Mark R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a parasitic protozoan and major cause of diarrhoeal disease. Disease transmission is dependent on the ability of the parasite to differentiate back and forth between an intestine-colonising trophozoite and an environmentally-resistant infective cyst. Our current understanding of the intracellular signalling mechanisms that regulate parasite replication and differentiation is limited, yet such information could suggest new methods of disease control. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K signalling pathways have a central involvement in many vital eukaryotic processes, such as regulation of cell growth, intracellular membrane trafficking and cell motility. Here we present evidence for the existence of functional PI3K intracellular signalling pathways in G. intestinalis. Results We have identified and characterised two genes, Gipi3k1 and Gipi3k2, which encode putative PI3Ks. Both genes are expressed in trophozoites and encysting cells, suggesting a possible role of GiPI3K1 and GiPI3K2 in regulating giardial growth and differentiation. Extensive nucleotide and amino acid sequence characterisation predicts that both encoded PI3Ks are functional as indicated by the presence of highly conserved structural domains and essential catalytic residues. The inhibitory effect of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 on trophozoite proliferation also supports their functionality. Phylogenetic analysis supports the identity of GiPI3K1 as a Class I isoform and GiPI3K2 as a Class III isoform. In addition, giardial genes encoding putative homologues of phosphoinositide-metabolising enzymes such as PTEN, MTM, PIPkin and PI 5-phosphatase as well as downstream effectors with phosphoinositide-binding domains have been identified, placing GiPI3K1 and GiPI3K2 in a broader signalling context. Compared with twenty-six PI3Ks from other organisms, GiPI3K1 and GiPI3K2 are unique in that they contain large insertions within their highly conserved kinase domains. The function of these insertions is unknown; however we show here that they are not intron-derived and would probably not hinder substrate binding. These insertions may represent a plausible drug target. Conclusion G. intestinalis encodes and expresses two putative PI3Ks, at least one of which appears to be required during normal parasite proliferation. The identification of Class I and Class III but not Class II isoforms suggests that both extracellularly-initiated signalling (Class I-regulated and intracellular vesicle trafficking (Class III-regulated might be controlled by PI3Ks in G. intestinalis. The presence of genes encoding putative homologues of phosphoinositide-metabolising enzymes and downstream effectors in the G. intestinalis genome further suggests that the overall architecture of PI3K signalling may be comparable with pathways present in other better-studied organisms.

  10. Histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of cutaneous cysts in Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: clues for differentiation of nonsyndromic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Mariantonieta; Ständer, Sonja; Metze, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Goltz-Gorlin syndrome presents with multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, and cutaneous cysts, among other manifestations. The cutaneous cysts have been described as both epidermoid cysts and keratocysts but were not further characterized. Light microscopic examinations were made on 23 cutaneous cysts in 4 patients associated with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome located on extremities, face, trunk, palms, and soles and compared with nonsyndromic vellus hair cysts, steatocystomas, and hybrid cysts. Twenty-one of the syndromic cysts revealed alternating infundibular-like and steatocystoma-like squamous epitheliums in varying proportions. The cysts were lined by both smooth and corrugated squamous epithelium. The horny layer was composed by alternating areas of thin, lamellate, and compact eosinophilic keratin. Only 2 cases showed an exclusive steatocystoma-like type of epithelium very similar to odontogenic keratocysts. Sebaceous glands and follicular structures were absent. There were no differences between palmar and plantar cysts and other anatomic locations. The ultrastructural findings in syndromatic cysts confirmed variable expression of keratohyalin granules. Only 3 of 6 cases of nonsyndromic hybrid cysts showed overlapping features with syndromic cysts. Immunohistochemical profiling of keratin, involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin, and BCL-2 expression in syndromatic cysts showed exclusive positivity of K19 and continuous staining for BCL-2. In summary, 2 types of cutaneous cysts are characteristic of Goltz-Gorlin, irrelevant of their anatomic location, namely steatocystoma-like and more frequently hybrid-like. The diagnosis of syndromic hybrid-like cysts should be considered whenever infundibular and steatocystoma differentiation alternate and overlap. Altogether, these findings in epithelial cysts may raise the suspicion of Goltz-Gorlin as an underlying cause. PMID:24698937

  11. [Urachal cyst. Report of 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Kamel, R; Ounaies, A; Saadani, H; Hlila, M; Jemni, M

    2001-04-01

    The authors report three cases of cyst of the urachus, one of which was complicated by infection. This diagnosis is only rarely established clinically. The current performance of ultrasonography allows very precise analysis of the anterosuperior surface of the bladder, which may reveal the diagnosis. The authors discuss the problems raised by cysts of the urachus and emphasize the importance of clinical history, physical examination and complementary investigations, particularly CT which should allow the diagnosis of this disease, which needs to be treated surgically. PMID:11400498

  12. [Urachal cyst in an adult woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tica, V I; Beghim, M; Beghim, Esra; Dehelean, I; Zaher, M; Tica, Irina

    2007-01-01

    Urachal abnormalities represent a rare pathology and, in case of presence, they are more frequent in children and, among adults, in men. We report a case of urachal cyst in an adult woman in whom it was difficult to determine preoperatively the origin of the abdominal tumor. Positive diagnosis and treatment implied surgical exploration and resection. Even rare, this pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an abdominal cyst. While the diagnosis may be established by clinical examination and imaging methods, surgical exploration is justified and, besides, offers the therapeutic opportunity. PMID:17615928

  13. Primary Amenorrhea with Bilateral Endometriotic Cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary amenorrhea is a common problem. Diagnosis is usually by going through systematic approach of history, examination and investigations. This case had bilateral large endometriotic cysts in the adnexal region. Uterus was normal sized with well-formed endometrium. She underwent laparotomy followed by drainage of endometriotic cysts, stripping and reconstruction of ovaries was performed. Patient was given a trial of combined oral contraceptive pills for two consecutive cycles to observe withdrawal bleeding, but it failed. Till now we are unable to find out such case in literature. Exact case of primary amenorrhea could not be found. (author)

  14. Dynamic study of arachnoid cysts with metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial arachnoid cysts do not usually present diagnostic problems when studied by CT, since they appear as low density images similar to those produced by CSF, do not change on intravenous contrast perfusion, and are located extraparenchymatously. Sometimes, however, their diagnosis can become difficult or doubtful mainly in cases of deep, basal or paramedian cysts. On the other hand, the functional or dynamic aspects of these structures remain unkown when the study is limited to simple CT. Computed cysternography with metrizamide (CCM) and time control will not only show the relationship between these structures and the arachnoid space but also their dynamic aspect, which may determine the surgical treatment. (orig.)

  15. Giant epidermal cyst of the tarsal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male patient presented with a right upper eyelid mass with mechanical ptosis. The patient gave no history of trauma or surgery. On examination, there was a huge cystic mass fixed to the tarsal plate. Excisional biopsy with tarsectomy was done. Histopathology sections demonstrated a keratin-filled cyst arising from the tarsus. A thorough Pubmed search did not reveal an epidermal cyst of the tarsal plate of this size which was successfully managed. The incision was made in such a way that postoperative ptosis would be avoided. Excess skin was removed during the surgery.

  16. The odontogenic keratocyst: from cyst to tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The odontogenic keratocysts had traditionally been considered as a developmental odontogenic cyst. The characteristics exhibited by this pathology such as its clinical behavior, the high rate of recurrence, its association with the syndrome nevoid basal cell carcinoma, high mitotic activity shown by the epithelial lining and the presence of 'cysts daughter' in capsule of fibrous connective tissue, as well as the discovery of genetic abnormalities caused the World Health Organization (WHO) reclassified as a benign neoplasm and will use the term odontogenic keratocyst tumor to name it. (author)

  17. Proteintabende enteropati forårsaget af torakal cyste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinani, Atef; Havelund, Troels

    2009-01-01

    A case of gastrointestinal protein loss in a 58-year-old man presenting with peripheral oedema and low levels of serum proteins is presented. Measurement of gastrointestinal protein loss with 111Indium-labelled transferrin showed a protein loss of 12.5% over 96 hours. Capsule endoscopy showed villous lymphangiectasia and it was assumed that the protein loss was secondary to a large left-sided thoracic cyst obstructing the thoracic lymph drainage. The patient improved following surgical removal of the cyst. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Aug-31

  18. Cysts of the lower male genitourinary tract: embryologic and anatomic considerations and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebel, Haytham M; Farg, Hashim M; Kolokythas, Orpheus; El-Diasty, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Cysts of the lower male genitourinary tract are uncommon and usually benign. These cysts have different anatomic origins and may be associated with a variety of genitourinary abnormalities and symptoms. Various complications may be associated with these cysts, such as urinary tract infection, pain, postvoiding incontinence, recurrent epididymitis, prostatitis, and hematospermia, and they may cause infertility. Understanding the embryologic development and normal anatomy of the lower male genitourinary tract can be helpful in evaluating these cysts and in tailoring an approach for developing a differential diagnosis. There are two main groups of cysts of the lower male genitourinary tract: intraprostatic cysts and extraprostatic cysts. Intraprostatic cysts can be further classified into median cysts (prostatic utricle cysts, müllerian duct cysts), paramedian cysts (ejaculatory duct cysts), and lateral cysts (prostatic retention cysts, cystic degeneration of benign prostatic hypertrophy, cysts associated with tumors, prostatic abscess). Extraprostatic cysts include cysts of the seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and Cowper duct. A variety of pathologic conditions can mimic these types of cysts, including ureterocele, defect resulting from transurethral resection of the prostate gland, bladder diverticulum, and hydroureter and ectopic insertion of ureter. Accurate diagnosis depends mainly on the anatomic location of the cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasonography (US) are excellent for detecting and characterizing the nature and exact anatomic origin of these cysts. In addition, transrectal US can play an important therapeutic role in the management of cyst drainage and aspiration, as in cases of prostatic abscess. PMID:23842975

  19. Fish-bone associated infected urachal cyst: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital urachal abnormalities are more common in children, but urachal cyst is more frequently seen in adults. Infection within a cyst produces significant symptoms, which may explain the fact that three times as many infected cysts as uninfected urachal cysts are detected in adults. We report here on a case of infected urachal cyst with a fish bone and also the fistular formation between the ileum and urachus in a 63-year-old male with a history of urinary frequency and a tender mass at the lower abdominal quadrant

  20. Dentigerous cyst in primary dentition: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passi S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentigerous cyst is a developmental odontogenic cyst, which apparently develops by accumulation of fluid between the reduced enamel epithelium and the tooth crown of an unerupted tooth. There is usually no pain or discomfort associated with the cyst unless there is acute inflammatory exacerbation. Management of dentigerous cyst in primary dentition needs special consideration regarding the preservation of the developing permanent tooth buds. Here, we report a case of dentigerous cyst in primary dentition in a 10-year-old male patient and its management.

  1. Fish-bone associated infected urachal cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chae Hoon; Kim, You Me [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Congenital urachal abnormalities are more common in children, but urachal cyst is more frequently seen in adults. Infection within a cyst produces significant symptoms, which may explain the fact that three times as many infected cysts as uninfected urachal cysts are detected in adults. We report here on a case of infected urachal cyst with a fish bone and also the fistular formation between the ileum and urachus in a 63-year-old male with a history of urinary frequency and a tender mass at the lower abdominal quadrant.

  2. Large adrenal cysts in teenage girls: diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadley, P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G IX8 (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Daneman, A. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G IX8 (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Wesson, D. [Department of Surgery, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Shandling, B. [University of Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[Division of General Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Phillips, M.J. [The Division of Pathology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Phillips, J. [University of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    Large adrenal cysts usually occur in the fifth and sixth decades of a patient`s life but are rare in the first two decades. This paper presents the clinical, cross-sectional imaging, surgical, pathological and follow-up data of three teenage girls with large adrenal cysts. Two had vague upper abdominal pain and, in the other, the cyst was found incidentally. The cysts were surgically removed in two patients, while in the third, follow-up imaging has shown no change in the cyst over a 4-year period, suggesting that conservative management is a reasonable option. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  3. Primary left ventricular hydatid cyst in a child: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkvatan, A. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Yelgec, N.S. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Calikoglu, U.; Olcer, T. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-12-01

    The most common cause of echinococcosis in humans is Echinococcus granulosus. Although hydatid cyst is most frequently localized in liver (more than 65% of cases) and lung (25%) by means of portal and systemic circulation, it may involve other tissues and organs. Cardiac hydatid cysts account for only 0.5%-2% of all hydatid cysts, even in endemic areas. Of all cardiac hydatid cysts, the left ventricle accounts for 60%, right ventricle 10%, pericardium 7%, pulmonary artery 6%, left atrial appendage 6%, and interventricular septum 4%. We report the case of a myocardial hydatid cyst of the left ventricle in a 9-year-old boy. (author)

  4. Primary left ventricular hydatid cyst in a child: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common cause of echinococcosis in humans is Echinococcus granulosus. Although hydatid cyst is most frequently localized in liver (more than 65% of cases) and lung (25%) by means of portal and systemic circulation, it may involve other tissues and organs. Cardiac hydatid cysts account for only 0.5%-2% of all hydatid cysts, even in endemic areas. Of all cardiac hydatid cysts, the left ventricle accounts for 60%, right ventricle 10%, pericardium 7%, pulmonary artery 6%, left atrial appendage 6%, and interventricular septum 4%. We report the case of a myocardial hydatid cyst of the left ventricle in a 9-year-old boy. (author)

  5. Large adrenal cysts in teenage girls: diagnosis and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large adrenal cysts usually occur in the fifth and sixth decades of a patient's life but are rare in the first two decades. This paper presents the clinical, cross-sectional imaging, surgical, pathological and follow-up data of three teenage girls with large adrenal cysts. Two had vague upper abdominal pain and, in the other, the cyst was found incidentally. The cysts were surgically removed in two patients, while in the third, follow-up imaging has shown no change in the cyst over a 4-year period, suggesting that conservative management is a reasonable option. (orig.). With 2 figs

  6. Spontaneous rupture of non-parasitic hepatic cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, G; Gatti, C; Delmonte, A; Teragni, C; Bernardo, G

    2006-01-01

    Intrahepatic cysts are generally classified as congenital, traumatic, infectious or neoplastic. Non-parasitic hepatic cysts (NPHCs) include simple cysts and adult polycystic liver disease in which the liver is diffusely occupied by cysts. NPHCs usually reach a large size before causing symptoms, unless a complication such as rupture, bleeding, infection, obstructive jaundice or neoplastic transformation occurs. We report the case of a 67-year-old man with spontaneous rupture of simple liver cyst. The clinical pictures and the unusual ultrasound features of this rare condition are discussed. PMID:16409436

  7. Male median raphe cysts: serial retrospective analysis and histopathological classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao I-Hung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To review the clinical and pathological characteristics of median raphe cysts and to classify the lesions according to pathogenesis and histopathological findings. Methods The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with median raphe cysts between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed to document the clinical presentation and pathological findings of the cysts. Results Most patients were asymptomatic; however, 9 patients had inflammatory or infectious cysts that were tender or painful. Four patients who had cysts on the parameatus and distal prepuce had difficulty voiding. Hematuria and hematospermia were noted in 2 cases. Thirty-one cysts were lined with an urothelium-like epithelium, and a squamous epithelium lining was found in 3 cases. In 2 cases, a well-formed mucinous glandular structure was observed. The other 20 cysts consisted of mixed epithelia. After excision of the cysts under local or general anesthesia, an urethral fistula developed as a complication in only 1 case. Conclusions Median raphe cysts are benign lesions formed due to tissue trapping during the development of urethral folds. The cysts can be defined into 4 types based on pathological findings: urethral, epidermoid, glandular, and mixed. The associated symptoms and signs should be taken into consideration when determining the treatment for the cysts. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http//http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7727074877500751

  8. Intracranial neuroenteric cysts: a concise review including an illustrative patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauden, Andrew J; Khurana, Vini G; Tsui, Alpha E; Kaye, Andrew H

    2012-03-01

    Neuroenteric cysts (NC) are rare, benign lesions lined by mucin-secreting cuboidal or columnar epithelium of an intestinal or respiratory type. They are regarded as ectopic endodermal cysts, and tend to be found in the spine rather than an intracranial location. Advances in neuroimaging have led to an increased frequency of diagnosis of NC, especially as an incidental finding, although such cysts may be confused radiologically with other lesions such as epidermoid and arachnoid cysts. We undertook a PubMed search of the literature using the search terms "neuroenteric cyst" and its many pseudonyms, including "endodermal cyst", "enterogenous cyst", "neurenteric cyst", "epithelial cyst", "intestinome", "teratomatous cyst", "gastrocytoma", and also "enterogenic", "foregut", "respiratory", and "bronchogenic cyst". Only reports in English and those containing histopathologically-confirmed NC were considered for this review. In total, 140 patients with intracranial NC were found, including the patient reported in the present review. This review describes the classification, epidemiology, embryology, clinical presentation, radiology, histopathology, and surgical treatment of NC, and includes an illustrative patient. PMID:22260959

  9. Acetabular paralabral cyst: an unusual cause of femoral vein compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullar, Raj S; Kapron, Ashley L; Ihnat, Daniel; Aoki, Stephen K; Maak, Travis G

    2015-02-01

    Acetabular labral tears are a known cause of hip pain in the young, active patient. Labral tears can be due to trauma, femoroacetabular impingement, capsular laxity, dysplasia, and degenerative pathology. Paralabral cysts are relatively common in association with labral tears of the hip, with cysts seen on magnetic resonance imaging studies in as many as 50% to 70% of patients with labral tears. In some cases the cysts can become sizeable and cause neurovascular compression. Nonoperative interventions for the management of paralabral cysts in the shoulder and knee have shown high recurrence rates. In the shoulder and knee, arthroscopic debridement of paralabral cysts has shown good results with lower recurrence rates and resolution of neurovascular function. In the hip there is limited literature regarding surgical management of paralabral cysts. We present a surgical technique for arthroscopic decompression of acetabular paralabral cysts combined with labral repair. PMID:25973371

  10. Spontaneous haemorrhage and rupture of third ventricular colloid cyst.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst.

  11. Acetabular Paralabral Cyst: An Unusual Cause of Femoral Vein Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullar, Raj S.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Ihnat, Daniel; Aoki, Stephen K.; Maak, Travis G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetabular labral tears are a known cause of hip pain in the young, active patient. Labral tears can be due to trauma, femoroacetabular impingement, capsular laxity, dysplasia, and degenerative pathology. Paralabral cysts are relatively common in association with labral tears of the hip, with cysts seen on magnetic resonance imaging studies in as many as 50% to 70% of patients with labral tears. In some cases the cysts can become sizeable and cause neurovascular compression. Nonoperative interventions for the management of paralabral cysts in the shoulder and knee have shown high recurrence rates. In the shoulder and knee, arthroscopic debridement of paralabral cysts has shown good results with lower recurrence rates and resolution of neurovascular function. In the hip there is limited literature regarding surgical management of paralabral cysts. We present a surgical technique for arthroscopic decompression of acetabular paralabral cysts combined with labral repair. PMID:25973371

  12. Congenital esophageal cysts--two cases in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Liaño, A; Ciga, M A; Trujillo, R; Aizcorbe, M; Cobo, F; Oteiza, F

    1999-01-01

    Esophageal cysts are a rare clinicopathological condition. They usually cause respiratory symptoms in children, while they are often asymptomatic in adults. Two cases of esophageal cysts in adults, recently diagnosed and treated in our department, are reported. In the 1st case (a 52 year-old woman) dysphagia was the main symptom. In the 2nd one (a 39 year-old woman) the patient was asymptomatic. Both were surgically excised by enucleation, with no post-operative complications. The histological study showed both cysts to be lined with ciliated cylindrical epithelium, and they were therefore considered to be congenital. Smooth muscle was only seen in the cyst wall in the 2nd case, but it was not organized in 2 layers, as is typical of duplication cysts. Cartilage or respiratory glands, the pathognomonic features of bronchogenic cysts, were not identified in either of them. Therefore, the diagnosis was inclusion cysts in both cases. PMID:10522006

  13. Posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Samal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cystic lesions of vagina are relatively uncommon and an incidental finding during routine gynaecological examination. Mullerian cysts are congenital cysts of vagina, usually reported during childbearing age group. These cysts mostly arise at the level of cervix and extend anteriorly in relation to bladder, but very rarely they may also extend posteriorly. This is a rare case of posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin. A 36-year-old multi para (P2L2 both SVD, presented with a mass descending through vagina since 2-3 months. Pelvic examination revealed a 5x5 cm cystic mass arising from the posterior vaginal wall. Complete excision of the cyst was done. The cyst was filled with chocolate coloured material and histopathology confirmed a Mullerian cyst. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 245-246

  14. CT guided puncture aspiration and sclerosing treatment of ovary cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the method and the curative effect with CT guided percutaneous puncture aspiration and sclerosing treatment of ovary cyst. Method: 22 ovary cysts in 22 patients were treated with percutaneous puncture aspiration and underwent repeated sclerotherapy with 99.7% ethanol injection. Among the 22 patients, 18 patients had solitary ovary cyst and was aspirated with an 18-22G gauge aspiration needle. The amount of aspirated fluid varied from 30ml-500ml and 25%-30% cyst volume was replaced by appropriate ethanol Post treatment follow-up were achieved every 3 months. Results All the Punctures were successfully completed. During the 3 months to one year follow-up, 16 ovary cyst disappeared, 6 cysts were small over 50%, without main complication. Conclusion CT guided percutaneous puncture aspiration and sclerosing treatment of ovary cyst is a treatment of choice because of its safety, low complication, and high curative effect. (authors)

  15. Multiple soft tissue aneurysmal cysts: An occurrence after resection of primary aneurysmal bone cyst of fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkuzhali P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of multiple extraosseous aneurysmal cysts occurring in the muscle and subcutaneous plane of postero-lateral aspects of the upper right leg. They appeared about 15 months after resection of aneurysmal bone cyst of the upper end of the fibula. They varied in size from 2 cm to 5 cm. Radiologically they were well-defined lesions with central septate areas surrounded by a rim of calcification. Histologically they showed central cystic spaces separated by septa consisting of fibroblasts, osteoclast type of giant cells and reactive woven bone. Thus they showed histological similarity with aneurysmal bone cysts, but did not show any connection with the bone. Only very few examples of aneurysmal cysts of soft tissue had been described in the past one decade and they were reported in various locations including rare sites such as arterial wall and larynx. Recent cytogenetic analyses have shown abnormalities involving 17p11-13 and/or 16q22 in both osseous and extraosseous aneurysmal cysts indicating its probable neoplastic nature. Our case had unique features like multiplicity and occurrence after resection of primary aneurysmal bone cyst of the underlying bone.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF LAMBLIASIS MICROSCOPIC DIAGNOSTICS BY THE METHOD OF POLARIZED FLUORESCENCE FOR PATIENTS WITH ROSACEA AND URTICARIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryana Kovalchuk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little information about diagnosis of concurrent lambliasis in patients with rosacea and urticaria. We used method of polarized fluorescence to diagnose liambliasis, taking into account belonging of macromolecular structures of unicellular parasites Giardia lamblia to the optically active substances with the properties of liquid crystals. Material and Methods: Lambliasis was diagnosed on the basis of feces parasitological research and duodenal contents by methods of light and optic microscopy and polarized fluorescence in 105 patients with rosacea and urticaria. Research results were processed by the method of variation statistics in the Statgraf program by using Student’s criterion. Results: Search results of lamblia in patients with rosacea and urticaria depended on the conditions of its holding, patients’ preparation and from the previously received basic therapy if it consisted absorbents. Due to the fact that the fluorescence polarization as a physical method does not require the use of any generally toxic, dye- fluorochromes, qualitative cyto fluorescent analysis of lamblia in greeting microdrugs enables to distinguish vegetative forms of cysts. Conclussions: Polarized fluorescence method allows optimize the microscopic diagnosis of lambliasis, increasing its sensitivity. Previous preparation for the laboratory examination of Giardia lamblia is needed for the best exposure of vermin for patients with rosacea and urticaria.

  17. Radiological findings in congenitial chlorodochal cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though an extremely rare disorder, a choledochal cyst is a remote possibility in patients where the following three symptoms are found to concur: icterus, pain and palpable tumour in the right upper quadrant. Sonography and computerized tomography permit a rapid, non-invasive and reliable diagnosis of this malformation. (orig.)

  18. Ciliated Foregut Cyst of the Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi, Imtiaz A.; Parra-Davila, Eduardo; Casillas, Victor J.; Sleeman, Danny; Levi, Joé U.

    1998-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas are relatively uncommon. We describe the case of a young man with a complex cystic mass located within the head of the pancreas. The patient underwent exploration with resection of the mass. Pathology revealed a ciliated epithelial cyst, a rare cystic lesion of the pancreas.

  19. Multiple aneurysmal bone cysts in a foal.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, H. L.; Livesey, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    Multiple aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are previously unreported in horses. An ABC was diagnosed in the left 3rd metacarpal of a Thoroughbred foal, which partially resolved following surgical curettage. A 2nd ABC developed in the left tibia, 7 wk postoperatively, and the foal was euthanized.

  20. Urachal adenocarcinoma masquerading as an urachal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chowdhury, Manoj Kumar

    2008-06-01

    Urachal adenocarcinoma arising in the dome of the bladder or at the pre-existing urachal remnant is rare. An early case of urachal cyst harboring adenocarcinoma, clinically diagnosed as ovarian tumor, which was surgically removed with a good prognosis is reported. PMID:23133041

  1. Urachal adenocarcinoma masquerading as an urachal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chowdhury, Manoj Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Urachal adenocarcinoma arising in the dome of the bladder or at the pre-existing urachal remnant is rare. An early case of urachal cyst harboring adenocarcinoma, clinically diagnosed as ovarian tumor, which was surgically removed with a good prognosis is reported.

  2. Pineal cysts: an incidental MRI finding?

    OpenAIRE

    Di Costanzo, A; Tedeschi, G; Di Salle, F; Golia, F; Morrone, R.; Bonavita, V

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of pineal cysts (PC) in "standard" MRI was reviewed. Seven cases of PC were found from 400 consecutive MRI examinations. PC did not produce clinically relevant symptoms in any of the patients. Our data, as well as those emerging from a critical review of the literature, suggest that PC are often asymptomatic and represent an incidental MRI finding.

  3. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  4. Large inclusion cyst complicating female genital mutilation

    OpenAIRE

    Awadia Khojali Mohammed Ali; Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali; Abdalla Ali Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM), which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient's movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.

  5. Large inclusion cyst complicating female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM, which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient’s movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.

  6. Choledochal cysts: our ten year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cianci, F

    2012-04-01

    We present our experience in the management of choledochal cysts from 1999 to 2009. A retrospective review of all charts with a diagnosis of choledochal cysts in our institution in this ten-year period. Data was collated using Excel. A total of 17 patients were diagnosed with choledochal cyst: 9 females and 8 males. The average age at diagnosis was 28 months (range from 0 to 9 years). The most common presenting symptoms were obstructive jaundice 6 (35%) and abdominal pain and vomiting 4 (23%). Ultrasound (US) was the initial diagnostic test in all cases with 4 patients requiring further investigations. All patients underwent Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy. The average length of stay was 11 days. Patients were followed up with Liver Function Tests (LFTS) and US 4-6 weeks post-operatively. Three patients developed complications including post-op collection, high drain output requiring blood transfusion and adhesive bowel obstruction. Our overall experience with choledochal cyst patients has been a positive one with effective management and low complication rates.

  7. Dermoid cyst of the floor of mouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case report of a 30 years old male with a huge suprahyoid neck swelling and causing respiratory as well as oral function difficulties is reported. The mass was enucleated through oral route, following which normal oral functions as well as respiratory ease were restored. The gross appearance was consistent with dermoid form of congenital cyst of the mouth floor. (author)

  8. Large primary splenic cyst: A laparoscopic technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geraghty, M

    2009-01-01

    Splenic cysts are rare lesions with around 800 cases reported in the world literature. Traditionally splenectomy was the treatment of choice. However, with the recognition of the important immunological function of the spleen, new techniques to preserve splenic function have been developed. This case emphasizes that in selected cases splenic preservation is appropriate.

  9. Benign renal complex cysts: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 13 benign complex renal cysts using T1 and T2-weighted images and contrast-enhanced images. The results have been compared to CT and ultrasonographic findings in all cases and correlated with histopathologic datas in 12 cases. Five groups have been defined according to the MR features. Group 1: homogeneous low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and homogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted images mimicking simple cyst (n = 2); group 2: homogeneous high signal intensity on both T1 and T2-weighted images mimicking hemorrhagic cyst (n = 1); group 3: characterized by high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and fluid-iron level on T2-weighted images (n = 3); group 4: characterized by fluid-iron level on both T1 and T2-weighted images (n = 3); group 5: pseudotumoral feature: heterogeneous signal intensity and/or wall contrast enhancement (n = 3). Among the 13 indeterminate lesions on ultrasonography and CT, MRI was of diagnostic value in 8 cases, whereas the 5 remaining cases remained indeterminate on MR images. Our results suggest that MRI can be useful in the diagnosis of benign complex cyst of the kidney presenting as indeterminate cystic lesion on other modalities. (authors). 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  10. PREVALENCE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM, GIARDIA AND ENTEROCYTOZOON BIENEUSI GENOTYPES IN CATS FROM BOGOTA (COLUMBIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cats from Bogota (Colombia) was determined from fecal specimens and scrapings of duodenal and ileal mucosa screened by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the genotype(s) present. Of 46 cats, six (13%)...

  11. TRIOSEPHOSPHATE ISOMERASE GENE CHARACTERIZATION AND POTENTIAL ZOONOTIC TRANSMISSION OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    To address the source of infection in humans and public health importance of Giardia parasites from animals, the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene was characterized. A two-step nested PCR protocol was developed to amplify a fragment (530 bp) of the TPI gene from various G. duodenalis isolates. Nu...

  12. Effect of Giardia infection on nutritional status in primary schoolchildren, in northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettehad, G H; Daryani, A; Nemati, A

    2010-03-01

    In order to determine the association between Giardia infection and nutritional status, a cross-sectional study was performed on twenty randomly selected primary schools from two regions of Ardabil province in 2005. Anthropometric factors including height, weight and midarm muscle circumference (MAC) were measured for 813 children (413 males, 400 females). The food intake was estimated for energy and other nutrients by 24 h recall method for three days in week. Determination of Giardia infection was done by using direct wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation concentration. 10.9% of boys and 17.2% of girls were infected with Giardia infection. Weight and MAC in none infected girls and boys (only 7 and 11 years old) were higher than in infected groups. The average values for weight, height and MAC for both genders were lower than those of NCHS values. Vitamin E and phosphorous intake in non infected boys (in 7-10 years old) were less than infected boys. Calorie, protein, vitamins (B3, B5, B6, E and folacin) and minerals (copper, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium and selenium) intake of infected girls were less than non infected girls in 11-12 years old category. Based on the results found in this study, we conclude that Giardia infection may affect on some of anthropometric factors as well as the calorie and other nutrients intake in some of age groups. PMID:20464945

  13. Effect of Giardia Infection on Nutritional Status in Primary Schoolchildren, in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Ettehad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the association between Giardia infection and nutritional status, a cross- sectional study was performed on twenty randomly selected primary schools from two regions of Ardabil province in 2005. Anthropometric factors including height, weight and midarm muscle circumference (MAC were measured for 813 children (413 males, 400 females. The food intake was estimated for energy and other nutrients by 24 h recall method for three days in week. Determination of Giardia infection was done by using direct wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation concentration.10.9% of boys and 17.2% of girls were infected with Giardia infection. Weight and MAC in none infected girls and boys (only 7 and 11 years old were higher than in infected groups. The average values for weight, height and MAC for both genders were lower than those of NCHS values. Vitamin E and phosphorous intake in non infected boys (in 7-10 years old were less than infected boys. Calorie, protein, vitamins (B3, B5, B6, E and folacin and minerals (copper, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium and selenium intake of infected girls were less than non infected girls in 11-12 years old category. Based on the results found in this study, we conclude that Giardia infection may affect on some of anthropometric factors as well as the calorie and other nutrients intake in some of age groups.

  14. Adaptive Immunity-Dependent Intestinal Hypermotility Contributes to Host Defense against Giardia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Yolanda S.; Gillin, Frances D.; Eckmann, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Humans infected with Giardia exhibit intestinal hypermotility, but the underlying mechanisms and functional significance are uncertain. Here we show in murine models of giardiasis that small-intestinal hypermotility occurs in a delayed fashion relative to peak parasite burden, is dependent on adaptive immune defenses, and contributes to giardial clearance.

  15. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ? 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ?12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities. PMID:25366301

  16. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  17. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Oh, Christopher C. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 {+-} 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  18. Investigación de Blastocystis spp, Giardia spp y Cryptosporidium spp en aguas de consumo en una comunidad de Caracas- Venezuela: Reporte preliminar / Surveillance of Blastocystis spp, Giardia spp and Cryptosporidium spp in human consumption water in a community of Caracas- Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen T, Guzmán de R; Anabel, Bandes; Johnny, Urbina; Jessica, Cruz; Anaibeth J, Nessi P; Mónica V, Galindo P; Carolina M, Wagner A; María A, Vethencourt Y; Angelyseb, Dorta P; María V, Pérez de G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los mecanismos de transmisión de protozoarios intestinales, es el consumo de agua contaminada con quistes y ooquistes, cuya eliminación por cloración o filtración no resulta eficaz. En una comunidad de Caracas, se evaluó la posible contaminación del agua de consumo, con Blastocystis spp, Giar [...] dia spp y Cryptosporidium spp. El sedimento obtenido mediante filtración y separación inmunomagnética de 15 muestras de agua, se examinó microscópicamente al fresco, con coloraciones, inmunofluorescencia y cultivo en medio de Boeck- Drbohlav modificado (BDM). Se recopiló información sobre las condiciones de suministro, almacenamiento y consumo del agua, además del procedimiento utilizado para el lavado de frutas y vegetales. El único parásito observado fue Blastocystis spp (60%), mediante examen directo/cultivo (33%). Se observó un mayor consumo de agua filtrada que hervida (p= 0,001). Predominó el uso del agua de chorro para el lavado de vegetales y frutas, más que con agua y vinagre (p= 0,011). Se observó una mayor proporción de averías en los sistemas de recolección de aguas servidas (78,6%), más que en los sistemas de aguas blancas (28,6%, p= 0,011). El hallazgo de Blastocystis spp en el agua, se correlaciona con la prevalencia del parásito en habitantes de este sector. Destaca el papel del agua en la transmisión de Blastocystis spp, por lo cual se recomienda filtrarla y hervirla para prevenir la infección con este parásito. Abstract in english Many intestinal protozoa are transmitted by contaminated water with cysts and oocysts and methods for their elimination as filtration or chlorination are not completely effective. We evaluated a possible consumption water contamination with Blastocystis spp, Giardia spp and Cryptosporidium spp in a [...] community located in Caracas, Venezuela. The pellet obtained by immunomagnetic separation filtration of 15 water samples were examined by microscopic observation (direct examination), stain techniques, immunofluorescence and culture in Drbohlav Boeck-modified medium (BDM). We also collected information about consuming habits, water supply, storage and washing procedures of vegetables and fruits at assessed homes. The only parasite detected was Blastocystis spp (60%), by direct examination/culture (33%). A higher consumption of boiled filtered water (p = 0.001) was observed. The use of tub water for washing vegetables and fruits was predominant, instead of using water and vinegar (p = 0.011). We observed a higher proportion of nonfunctioning sewage collection (78.6%), rather than white water systems (28.6%, p = 0.011). Finding Blastocystis spp in water samples correlates with prevalence of this parasite in residents of this sector. The role of water in Blastocystis spp transmission is significant, so we recommend filtering and boiling it to prevent infection with this parasite.

  19. Quiste suprarrenal primario / Primary adrenal cyst

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricio, Cabané T; Patricio, Gac M; Jorge, Mariño B; Daniela, Ibacache A; Alejandra, Ledezma S; Claudia, Morales H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los quistes suprarrenales son las lesiones quísticas más frecuentes de la glándula suprarrenal, a pesar de que constituyen una rara entidad. Típicamente se presentan por un cuadro de dolor abdominal o masa palpable, pero en la actualidad se detectan cada vez con más frecuencia en estudios radiológic [...] os como incidentalomas. Los quistes suprarrenales cuentan con amplios diagnósticos diferenciales, lo que hace un difícil diagnóstico definitivo y una dificultad en el manejo posterior. Estos quistes se clasifican en cuatro subtipos: endoteliales, pseudoquiste, epiteliales y parasitarios. El manejo de un quiste suprarrenal se puede resumir en tres pilares fundamentales: descartar el estado funcional del quiste, evaluación de eventual malignidad por imágenes, y evitar las posibles complicaciones (hemorragia, infección), sobre todo en los quistes de gran tamaño. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con quiste suprarrenal izquierdo no funcionante asociado a dolor abdominal. Se realiza revisión de la literatura y se plantean los distintos diagnósticos y alternativas terapéuticas. Abstract in english Adrenal cyst is the commonest type of benign lesions of adrenal gland, althought is a very rare entity. Tipically, they are presented with abdominal pain or palpable mass, but nowdays they are detected most frecuently an imaging studies like incidentaloma. Adrenal Cyst have a broad differential diag [...] noses, rendering definitive diagnosis and subsequent management difficult. Are categorized into four subtypes: endothelial, pseudocyst, epithelial, and parasitic. This management paradigm may be summarized as: ruling out functional status of the cyst, evaluating chances of incidental malignancy by imaging, avoiding potential complications of surveillance (hemorrhage, infection), particularly in large cysts. A case of a patient with a left non-functioning adrenal cyst is reported, with abdominal pain. The diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed and the literature is reviewed.

  20. Quiste suprarrenal primario Primary adrenal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Cabané T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los quistes suprarrenales son las lesiones quísticas más frecuentes de la glándula suprarrenal, a pesar de que constituyen una rara entidad. Típicamente se presentan por un cuadro de dolor abdominal o masa palpable, pero en la actualidad se detectan cada vez con más frecuencia en estudios radiológicos como incidentalomas. Los quistes suprarrenales cuentan con amplios diagnósticos diferenciales, lo que hace un difícil diagnóstico definitivo y una dificultad en el manejo posterior. Estos quistes se clasifican en cuatro subtipos: endoteliales, pseudoquiste, epiteliales y parasitarios. El manejo de un quiste suprarrenal se puede resumir en tres pilares fundamentales: descartar el estado funcional del quiste, evaluación de eventual malignidad por imágenes, y evitar las posibles complicaciones (hemorragia, infección, sobre todo en los quistes de gran tamaño. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con quiste suprarrenal izquierdo no funcionante asociado a dolor abdominal. Se realiza revisión de la literatura y se plantean los distintos diagnósticos y alternativas terapéuticas.Adrenal cyst is the commonest type of benign lesions of adrenal gland, althought is a very rare entity. Tipically, they are presented with abdominal pain or palpable mass, but nowdays they are detected most frecuently an imaging studies like incidentaloma. Adrenal Cyst have a broad differential diagnoses, rendering definitive diagnosis and subsequent management difficult. Are categorized into four subtypes: endothelial, pseudocyst, epithelial, and parasitic. This management paradigm may be summarized as: ruling out functional status of the cyst, evaluating chances of incidental malignancy by imaging, avoiding potential complications of surveillance (hemorrhage, infection, particularly in large cysts. A case of a patient with a left non-functioning adrenal cyst is reported, with abdominal pain. The diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed and the literature is reviewed.

  1. Current status and future trends in Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Ahmad, R A; Smith, H V

    2008-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoeal diseases of humans worldwide, and are included in the World Health Organisation's 'Neglected Diseases Initiative'. Cryptosporidium and Giardia occur commonly in Malaysian human and non-human populations, but their impact on disease, morbidity and cost of illness is not known. The commonness of contributions from human (STW effluents, indiscriminate defaecation) and non-human (calving, lambing, muck spreading, slurry spraying, pasturing/grazing of domestic animals, infected wild animals) hosts indicate that many Malaysian environments, particularly water and soil, are sufficiently contaminated to act as potential vehicles for the transmission of disease. To gain insight into the morbidity and mortality caused by human cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, they should be included into differential diagnoses, and routine laboratory testing should be performed and (as for many infectious diseases) reported to a centralised public health agency. To understand transmission routes and the significance of environmental contamination better will require further multidisciplinary approaches and shared resources, including raising national perceptions of the parasitological quality of drinking water. Here, the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia should be an integral part of the water quality requirement. A multidisciplinary approach among public health professionals in the water industry and other relevant health- and environment-associated agencies is also required in order to determine the significance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination of Malaysian drinking water. Lastly, adoption of validated methods to determine the species, genotype and subgenotype of Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in Malaysia will assist in developing effective risk assessment, management and communication models. PMID:18209286

  2. Molecular Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Symptomatic Individuals Attending Two Major Public Hospitals in Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2015-01-01

    Background The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite causing human giardiasis, a major gastrointestinal disease of global distribution affecting both developing and industrialised countries. In Spain, sporadic cases of giardiasis have been regularly identified, particularly in pediatric and immigrant populations. However, there is limited information on the genetic variability of circulating G. duodenalis isolates in the country. Methods In this longitudinal molecular epidemiological study we report the diversity and frequency of the G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages identified in 199 stool samples collected from 184 individual with symptoms compatible with giardiasis presenting to two major public hospitals in Madrid for the period December 2013–January 2015. G. duodenalis cysts were initially detected by conventional microscopy and/or immunochomatography on stool samples. Confirmation of the infection was performed by direct immunofluorescence and real-time PCR methods. G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multi-locus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and ?-giardin (BG) genes of the parasite. Sociodemographic and clinical features of patients infected with G. duodenalis were also analysed. Principal findings Of 188 confirmed positive samples from 178 giardiasis cases a total of 124 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully typed at the GDH and/or the BG loci, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages BIV (62.1%), AII (15.3%), BIII (4.0%), AI (0.8%), and AIII (0.8%). Additionally, 6.5% of the isolates were only characterised at the assemblage level, being all of them assigned to assemblage B. Discordant genotype results AII/AIII or BIII/BIV were also observed in 10.5% of DNA isolates. A large number of multi-locus genotypes were identified in G. duodenalis assemblage B, but not assemblage A, isolates at both the GDH and BG loci, confirming the high degree of genetic variability observed in other molecular surveys. BIV was the most prevalent genetic variant of G. duodenalis found in individuals with symptomatic giardiasis in the population under study. Conclusions Human giardiasis is an ongoing public health problem in Spain affecting primarily young children under four years of age but also individuals of all age groups. Our typing and sub-typing results demonstrate that assemblage B is the most prevalent G. duodenalis assemblage circulating in patients with clinical giardiasis in Central Spain. Our analyses also revealed a large genetic variability in assemblage B (but not assemblage A) isolates of the parasite, corroborating the information obtained in similar studies in other geographical regions. We believe that molecular data presented here provide epidemiological evidence at the population level in support of the existence of genetic exchange within assemblages of G. duodenalis. PMID:26641082

  3. CD56 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Jaafari-Ashkavandi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT, 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT, 3 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC. All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91% of ameloblastomas, 3 (75% AOT, 4 (40% KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions.

  4. Molecular Insights for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Soil-Transmitted Helminths from a Facility-Based Surveillance System in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Velasquez, Daniel E.; Arvelo, Wences; Cama, Vitaliano A.; López, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Dawn M. Roellig; Kahn, Geoffrey D.; Lindblade, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    We molecularly characterized samples with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and soil-transmitted helminths from a facility-based surveillance system for diarrhea in Santa Rosa, Guatemala. The DNA sequence analysis determined the presence of Giardia assemblages A (N = 7) and B (N = 12) and, Cryptosporidium hominis (N = 2) and Cryptosporidium parvum (N = 2), suggestive of different transmission cycles. All 41 samples with soil-transmitted helminths did not have the ?-tubulin mutation described for benz...

  5. The Toxoplasma gondii cyst wall protein CST1 is critical for cyst wall integrity and promotes bradyzoite persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Tadakimi; Bzik, David J.; Ma, Yan Fen; Fox, Barbara A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-12-26

    Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world’s population. A key to the success of T.gondii is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in a fragile brain cyst phenotype revealed by a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that reinforces the cyst wall structure and confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst.

  6. Giardia in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and domestic cattle in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Woutrina A; Cranfield, Michael R; Ramer, Jan; Hassell, James; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten V K

    2014-01-01

    Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) are critically endangered primates surviving in two isolated populations in protected areas within the Virunga Massif of Rwanda, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. Mountain gorillas face intense ecologic pressures due to their proximity to humans. Human communities outside the national parks, and numerous human activities within the national parks (including research, tourism, illegal hunting, and anti-poaching patrols), lead to a high degree of contact between mountain gorillas and wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. To assess the pathogen transmission potential between wildlife and livestock, feces of mountain gorillas, forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) in Rwanda were examined for the parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia was found in 9% of mountain gorillas, 6% of cattle, and 2% of forest buffalo. Our study represents the first report of Giardia prevalence in forest buffalo. Cryptosporidium-like particles were also observed in all three species. Molecular characterization of Giardia isolates identified zoonotic genotype assemblage B in the gorilla samples and assemblage E in the cattle samples. Significant spatial clustering of Giardia-positive samples was observed in one sector of the park. Although we did not find evidence for transmission of protozoa from forest buffalo to mountain gorillas, the genotypes of Giardia samples isolated from gorillas have been reported in humans, suggesting that the importance of humans in this ecosystem should be more closely evaluated. PMID:24171566

  7. Evaluación de la capacidad inmunogénica de la vacuna Giardia-vax, utilizando un modelo experimental de giardiasis en gerbos (Meriones unguiculatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Enedina Jim\\u00E9nez Cardoso; Leticia Eligio Garc\\u00EDa; Adri\\u00E1n Cort\\u00E9s Campos

    2002-01-01

    Se evaluó la efectividad profiláctica de la vacuna Giardia-vax a la infección experimental en Meriones unguiculatus (gerbos) desafiados con trofozoitos de Giardia intestinalis. Se utilizaron 45 animales con un peso de 16.0 g ± 0.5 g, distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos de 15 animales: a) Grupo testigo negativo, sin infectar; b) testigo positivo, infectado por vía gástrica con 1 × 107 trofozoitos de Giardia intestinalis cepa Portland-I; y c) el grupo vacunado con dos dosis d...

  8. Multicentric calcified trichilemmal cysts with alopecia universalis affecting siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneef N Sadath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichilemmal cyst, also known as "pilar cyst," is a benign cyst containing keratin and its breakdown products with a wall resembling external root sheath of hair. It occurs mostly in females as a solitary firm nodule over scalp. Occurrence of multiple trichilemmal cysts in areas other than scalp is extremely rare. We are reporting a case of a 40-years-old female who presented with multiple calcified trichilemmal cysts in multicentric distribution associated with alopecia universalis. Similar complaints were present in elder sister of the patient, indicating a genetic background. Multicentric distribution of trichilemmal cysts, calcification, familial occurrence, and association with alopecia universalis seen in our case are all rare and intriguing features.

  9. Unusual long-term complications of a splenic cyst.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, E V M

    2012-02-01

    Splenic cysts are relatively uncommon, and are usually asymptomatic. They are benign, typically treated conservatively and followed up with ultrasound examination, with few reported complications. We report a case of a simple splenic cyst that was followed up on imaging over a seven-year period. During that time, the cyst gradually enlarged from 5 cm to 12 cm in diameter, however the patient remained asymptomatic. After seven years, the patient was admitted with abdominal pain and a pelvic mass. The spleen was located within the pelvis, which was felt to be due to the weight of the cyst which caused the spleen to migrate out of its normal position. This case illustrates an extremely unusual complication, and suggests that while most splenic cysts may be managed conservatively, enlarging cysts may be prone to gravitational effects and prophylactic treatment should be considered.

  10. Unusual long-term complications of a splenic cyst.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, E V M

    2010-01-01

    Splenic cysts are relatively uncommon, and are usually asymptomatic. They are benign, typically treated conservatively and followed up with ultrasound examination, with few reported complications. We report a case of a simple splenic cyst that was followed up on imaging over a seven-year period. During that time, the cyst gradually enlarged from 5 cm to 12 cm in diameter, however the patient remained asymptomatic. After seven years, the patient was admitted with abdominal pain and a pelvic mass. The spleen was located within the pelvis, which was felt to be due to the weight of the cyst which caused the spleen to migrate out of its normal position. This case illustrates an extremely unusual complication, and suggests that while most splenic cysts may be managed conservatively, enlarging cysts may be prone to gravitational effects and prophylactic treatment should be considered.

  11. Retrorectal dermoid cyst: a rare clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, I; Badulescu, Adriana; Mastalier, B; Munteanu, Mihaela Luminita; Diaconu, Emilia; Popescu, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    The retrorectal space represents the anatomical site at which level we identify the embryologic reminiscents in which it can develop liquid tumors - cysts or solid tumors - neoplasia. These tumors are rare but pose a diagnostic and therapeutic interest. This paper presents the case of a young 18 years-old diagnosed incidentally at a gynecological examination, with a palpable tumor developed, at the retrorectal space. Imaging examinations - transvaginal ultrasound and abdominal - pelvic computer tomographic exam - have supported the presence of a cystic tumor with a maximum diameter of 7.8 cm., in the space retrorectal. The lesion presented surgical indication, so it needed a posterior approach with resection of the coccyx enough for the control and safety of the operation. Histopathological examination revealed a dermoid cyst. Five years after surgery the patient is presented in good general condition, asymptomatic without clinical and imaging signs of local-regional recurrence. PMID:24778859

  12. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-15

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  13. Metastatic potential of an aneurysmal bone cyst

    OpenAIRE

    van de Luijtgaarden, Addy C.M.; Veth, Rene P. H.; Slootweg, Piet J.; Wijers-Koster, Pauline M.; Schultze Kool, Leo J.; Bovee, Judith V.M.G.; Winette T. A. van der Graaf

    2009-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bone tumors consisting of blood-filled cavities lined by connective tissue septa. Recently, the hypothesis that ABCs are lesions reactive to local hemodynamics has been challenged after the discovery of specific recurrent chromosomal abnormalities. Multiple cases of malignant transformation of ABC into (osteo)sarcoma have been described, as well as a number of cases of telangiectatic osteosarcoma which had been misdiagnosed as ABC. We herewith document ...

  14. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders; Skibsted, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    A unique case of fetal goiter accompanied by bilateral ovarian cysts in a mother treated with methimazole for Graves'disease is reported. The abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound at 31 weeks of gestation. Umbilical fetal blood sampling revealed elevated serum TSH, normal concentrations of free T 4 , normal FSH and LH and high concentrations of E 2 . A series of weekly amniocenteses and intra-amniotic injections of levothyroxine was initiated, along with a reduction of the mother's methi...

  15. Infected urachal cyst in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu?ko, Natalia; Dobruch, Jakub; Piotrowicz, Sebastian; Szostek, Przemys?aw; Borówka, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The urachus is the remnant of the cloaca, which in adults attaches the bladder dome to the umbilicus. After birth it obliterates and presents as the midline umbilical ligament. Patent urachal anomalies are usually detected in childhood. In adults they occur very rarely and the presentation and diagnosis may be occasionally challenging. We present and discuss the case of an infected urachal cyst found in a 30-year-old adult. PMID:25140240

  16. Infected urachal cyst in a young adult

    OpenAIRE

    Mu?ko, Natalia; Dobruch, Jakub; Piotrowicz, Sebastian; Szostek, Przemys?aw; Borówka, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The urachus is the remnant of the cloaca, which in adults attaches the bladder dome to the umbilicus. After birth it obliterates and presents as the midline umbilical ligament. Patent urachal anomalies are usually detected in childhood. In adults they occur very rarely and the presentation and diagnosis may be occasionally challenging. We present and discuss the case of an infected urachal cyst found in a 30–year–old adult.

  17. Suprapubic cartilaginous cyst – A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Durgakeri; Paul Strauss; Kelvin Stribley

    2013-01-01

    Suprapubic cartilaginous cyst (SPCC) is a rare condition known to occur in postmenopausal multiparous women. It is due to the degeneration of the pubic symphysis. Due to its slow progression and rarity in occurrence, it is often misdiagnosed. Presentation includes a painless mass in the suprapubic region, urinary retention, recurrent urinary tract infections, dysuria and dyspareunia. Knowledge of this condition is of great importance, as this is a benign condition that is managed conservative...

  18. Vermian agenesis without posterior fossa cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsbaum, C. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France); Moreau, V. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France); Bulteau, C. [Dept. of Pediatric Neurology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France); Burstyn, J. [Dept. of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France); Lair Milan, F. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France); Kalifa, G. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France)

    1994-12-01

    We report 11 cases of vermian partial agenesis without posterior fossa cyst or hemispheric abnormalities. Characteristic MR signs were: absence of the posterior lobe, hypoplasia of the anterior lobe, a narrow sagittal cleft separating the hemispheres (``buttocks sign``) and fourth ventricle deformity. The main clinical signs were complex oculomotor dysfunction and developmental delay. None of the patients had respiratory symptoms. Consideration is given to the relationship between Joubert syndrome and this entity as well as to embroyological data. (orig.)

  19. Vermian agenesis without posterior fossa cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report 11 cases of vermian partial agenesis without posterior fossa cyst or hemispheric abnormalities. Characteristic MR signs were: absence of the posterior lobe, hypoplasia of the anterior lobe, a narrow sagittal cleft separating the hemispheres (''buttocks sign'') and fourth ventricle deformity. The main clinical signs were complex oculomotor dysfunction and developmental delay. None of the patients had respiratory symptoms. Consideration is given to the relationship between Joubert syndrome and this entity as well as to embroyological data. (orig.)

  20. CD10 and osteopontin expression in dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Azim Adel M; Masloub Shaimaa M; Abd Elhamid Ehab S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims and Objectives To investigate the expression of CD10 and osteopontin in dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma and to correlate their expression with neoplastic potentiality of dentigerous cyst and local invasion and risk of local recurrence in ameloblastoma. Methods CD10 and osteopontin expression was studied by means of immunohistochemistry in 9 cases of dentigerous cysts (DC) and 17 cases of ameloblastoma. There were 7 unicystic ameloblastoma (UCA) and 10 multicystic ameloblastom...

  1. Acetabular Paralabral Cyst: An Unusual Cause of Femoral Vein Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Kullar, Raj S.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Ihnat, Daniel; Aoki, Stephen K.; Maak, Travis G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetabular labral tears are a known cause of hip pain in the young, active patient. Labral tears can be due to trauma, femoroacetabular impingement, capsular laxity, dysplasia, and degenerative pathology. Paralabral cysts are relatively common in association with labral tears of the hip, with cysts seen on magnetic resonance imaging studies in as many as 50% to 70% of patients with labral tears. In some cases the cysts can become sizeable and cause neurovascular compression. Nonoperative inte...

  2. A Giant Scapular Aneurysmal Bone Cyst in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Theodoros Beslikas; Anastasios Chytas; Andreas Christodoulou; Ioannis Gigis; Ioannis Christoforidis

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are rare benign bone tumours. Scapula is a very rare location, and the relative literature is sparse. The purpose of this study is to present a case of a giant aggressive scapular aneurysmal bone cyst in a child. A 7-year-old boy presented to our hospital with pain and a palpated mass on the right scapula. Imaging studies (radiographs computed tomography scintigraphy) were indicative of aneurysmal bone cyst. We performed curettage and bone grafting after the diagn...

  3. Corpus Luteum Cyst Rupture - US Findings and Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Shang Hun; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Jeong, Yoong Ki [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hung [Dong Kang General Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To describe the US findings of corpus luteum cyst rupture in order to elucidate the associated clinical features. Twenty patients with proven corpus luteum cyst rupture were included in this study. The US findings of these patients were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the presence of designable cyst, size of the cyst, thickness and blood flow of the cyst wall, extension and echogenicity of peritoneal fluid, and involved site (right or left ovary). We also surveyed the clinical features such as the onset period according to the menstrual cycle, and the presence of suspectable cause. Fourteen of the 20 patients revealed designable cysts (mean diameter of 2.6 cm) with thick walled cysts (mean thickness, 4.6 mm, 2.4-6.8 mm) and increased blood flow. Six patients didn't reveal any cyst but only hematoma in adnexa. All patients had hemoperitoneum in the pelvic cavity, and the hemoperitoneum was extended to Morrison's pouch in 8 patients and to the subphrenic space in 6. The cysts occurred in the right adnexa in 15 patients and in the left in 5. Mean interval from the last menstrual period (LMP) was 26 days (13-44 days) and 6 of the 8 patients for whom it had been possible to obtain detailed history taking had had coitus just before the occurrence of symptom. When women who are hospitalized for acute abdomen and who are in luteal phase reveal US findings of hematoma or thick-walled cyst in adnexa and hemoperitoneum, a corpus luteum cyst rupture is highly suspected. In our case study the corpus luteum cyst rupture predominantly occurred in the right side, and the most suspectable cause was trauma such as coitus in the luteal phase

  4. Laparoscopically Resected Foregut Cyst Adjacent to the Right Adrenal Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, E.; Nakayama, H.; Ozaki, N; Kitamura, Y.; Funatsuka, M.; Ueda, M.; Chikugo, K.; Hirata, A.; Kurashina, A.; Kuratsuka, H.; Nakagawa, M.(Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan); Nagaoka, S

    1998-01-01

    A case of 49-year-old woman with a retroperitoneal undifferentiated foregut cyst attached to the right adrenal gland is reported. The bronchogenic cyst is a type of foregut cyst with a cartilage component, but in this case the multicystic tumor lacked both cartilage and gland. It is quite rare among retroperitoneal tumors and has not been reported so far to have malignant potential. The preoperative diagnosis was an adrenal benign incidentaloma, and the patient successfully underw...

  5. Clinical review of 144 children with periorbital dermoid cyst

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    Yi-Lan Tan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze the clinical features, computer tomography(CTimage findings and treatment experience of color Doppler ultrasound for children with periorbital dermoid cyst. METHODS: The clinic data of 114 cases which dermoid cyst was illustrated by pathological histology after surgery was retrospectively analyzed. All patients were performed color Doppler ultrasound and some patients were underwent CT. Surgical incisions were designed according to the position of cyst. RESULTS:Among 114 cases, 61 cases in right eye, 53 cases in left eye. The location of cyst was at superior temporal in 68 cases(59.6%, supraorbital in 27 cases(23.7%, medial superior in 13 cases(11.4%, medial inferior in 5 cases(4.4%, infraorbital in 1 case(0.9%. Cyst was adhered to periostea in 49 cases. Color Doppler ultrasound showed the clear cyst boundary in 100 cases(87.7%, hypoecho in 105 cases(92.1%, homogeneous in 61 cases(53.5%, fluid dark area in 4 cases and no-blood flow inside cyst in 107 cases(93.9%. Forty patients were performed by CT, and CT value ranged from -55?32Hu and bony destruction surrounding cyst was showed in 7 cases. According to the position of cyst, eye brow incision were designed in 72 cases, upper eyelid crease incision in 10 cases, skin incision upper the cyst in 30 cases, fornix incision in 2 cases. All patients were followed up for 3mo?4a, no complications and recurrence. CONCLUSION:Combination with color Doppler and CT can make an accurate and locative diagnose of periorbital dermoid cyst in children before surgery. Surgical incision designed by lesion position and complete removal of the cyst wall is the key to get better cosmetic appearance and avoid recurrence.

  6. Diagnostic problems with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts

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    Adas Gokhan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The splenic cysts constitute a very rare clinical entity. They may occur secondary to trauma or even being more seldom due to parasitic infestations, mainly caused by ecchinocccus granulosus. Literature lacks a defined concencus including the treatment plans and follow up strategies, nor long term results of the patients. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnosis, management of patients with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts together with their long term follow up progresses. Methods Twenty-four patients with splenic cysts have undergone surgery in our department over the last 9 years. Data from eighteen of the twenty-four patients were collected prospectively, while data from six were retrospectively collected. All patients were assessed in terms of age, gender, hospital stay, preoperative diagnosis, additional disease, serology, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT, cyst recurrences and treatment. Results In this study, the majority of patients presented with abdominal discomfort and palpable swelling in the left hypochondrium. All patients were operated on electively. The patients included 14 female and 10 male patients, with a mean age of 44.77 years (range 20–62. Splenic hydatid cysts were present in 16 patients, one of whom also had liver hydatid cysts (6.25%. Four other patients were operated on for a simple cyst (16% two patients for an epithelial cyst, and the last two for splenic lymphangioma. Of the 16 patients diagnosed as having splenic hydatit cysts, 11 (68.7% were correctly diagnosed. Only two of these patients were administered benzimidazole therapy pre-operatively because of the risk of multicystic disease The mean follow-up period was 64 months (6–108. There were no recurrences of splenic cysts. Conclusion Surgeons should keep in mind the possibility of a parasitic cyst when no definitive alternative diagnosis can be made. In the treatment of splenic hydatidosis, benzimidazole therapy is not necessary, although it is crucial to perform splenectomy without rupturing and spilling the cysts.

  7. Lung cyst in a toddler: Congenital or infective?

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    Kotyal B Mahendrappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysts and cavities are commonly encountered lesions in the lung on chest radiography and chest computed tomography. They are usually of congenital origin in children. Common causes of acquired lung cysts during childhood include necrotizing pneumonias, trauma, cystic fibrosis and kerosene poisoning. We report here a toddler who presented with bronchopneumonia, was treated for the same, then found to have a left lower lobar lung cyst, which disappeared after 2 months with appropriate conservative management.

  8. Orbital Hematic Cyst: Case Report and Clarification of Terms

    OpenAIRE

    Friedberg, Marc H.; David, Odile; Woog, John; Heilman, Carl B.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of a hematic cyst and review the literature in order to clarify nomenclature discrepancies regarding terms used to describe cysts containing blood and blood breakdown products in and around the orbit. We believe orbital cysts containing blood and blood breakdown products should be separated into two major categories depending on the presence or absence of an epithelial or endothelial lining. A hemorrhage into a preexisting lesion such as a dermoid, on lymphangioma, which con...

  9. Cerebellar cysts in children: a pattern recognition approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boltshauser, Eugen; Scheer, Ianina; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar cysts may be seen in selected genetic disorders and acquired anomalies. Here, we review our experience, excluding cystic tumors and parasitic cysts. The pathogenesis is heterogeneous: Cysts may involve/represent normal structures (e.g., Virchow-Robin spaces), be "destructive" (such as in some types of pontocerebellar hypoplasias), "malformative" (such as in some forms of congenital muscular dystrophies and GPR56-related migration disorders), or "disruptive" (such as in some cerebel...

  10. Primary pelvic hydatid cyst: Case report

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    Stanojevi? Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary hydatid cyst in the pelvis is an extremely rare site of the disease and occurs in approximately 0.7% of the patients with this disease. Case report. The case of a 65-year-old woman is reported, who was admitted for surgical treatment of incidentally detected pelvis tumor of unclear origin. Intraoperatively, it was noted that the tumor in the pelvis was cystic, resembling a hydatid disease, involving left pararectal space and extending to the sacroiliac joint. The total cystectomy with partial pericystectomy was performed. The section was sent to histopathology, which confirmed intraoperative findings. Discussion and conclusion. A pelvic hydatid cyst is in most cases diagnosed intraoperatively but the disease should be taken into consideration in cases of cystic tumors of unclear origin, especially in endemic regions and in persons with positive history of pet keeping. Surgical management is the treatment of choice. The principal goal is the compromise between the need to completely remove the cyst and the fact that it is a benign disease so the patient should not be unnecessarily exposed to an increased operative risk.

  11. Aneurysmal bone cyst associated with fibrous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Vernon Ho; Jordan, David R; Jabi, Maha; Agbi, Charles

    2002-11-01

    We report the clinicopathologic features of a 22-year-old patient with aneurysmal bone cyst and fibrous dysplasia of the orbit. The patient was evaluated clinically with computed tomography of the orbit before surgery. An orbital biopsy specimen was examined histologically with conventional light microscopy. The lesion was treated with combined neurosurgical and orbital intervention. Clinical evaluation revealed axial and inferior displacement of the globe. Computed tomography revealed a cystic mass in the superotemporal left orbit with adjacent bone erosion. "Ground-glass" thickening of the adjacent frontal bone and sphenoid bone was observed. Microscopic examination showed fibrous stroma with giant cells and hemosiderin-laden macrophages with adjacent trabeculae of woven bone and osteoblast cells. A fronto-orbital craniotomy was performed, the cystic cavity was excised, and the hyperostotic bone was debulked. After treatment, the globe position and patient appearance have improved. There has been no sign of recurrence of the aneurysmal bone cyst. Aneurysmal bone cyst should be considered in patients with fibrous dysplasia that has a cystic component, or in patients with fibrous dysplasia who present with sudden expansion of their lesion. PMID:12439066

  12. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

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    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  13. [Emergency surgery: suppurating urachal cyst producing intestinal occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, A; Gheller, P; Danek, R; Guidolin, D; Pozzi-Mucelli, F P

    1999-01-01

    Urachal cysts are anomalies related to the persistence of urachal remnants after the birth. They are seldom asymptomatic, but in some cases they mimic acute abdominal disease. We report a case of a 67-year-old man with relapsing episodes of intestinal sub-occlusion caused by the presence of an infected urachal cyst. The surgical procedure we used consisted of a viscerolysis and excision of the infected cyst, avoiding partial resection of the dome of the urinary bladder. Our article also includes a review of the literature on urachal infected cyst and its management. PMID:10742900

  14. Granulomatous inflammation masquerading as an infected urachal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Joseph W; Gorman, Emily F; Johnson, Emilie K; Cilento, Bartley G

    2014-12-01

    Errors in urachal obliteration may result in 4 clinical anomalies: patent urachus, urachal cyst, urachal sinus, or vesicourachal diverticulum. Despite the fact that urachal cysts are one of the more common of these anomalies, most go undetected, presenting in the setting of infection. There are reports in the literature of cysts misdiagnosed as other inflammatory processes; however, the converse is reported with less frequency. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who was admitted to our institution with a suspected urachal cyst. This was subsequently diagnosed as a granulomatous mass caused by the gram negative bacterium Bartonella. PMID:25432845

  15. Simple bone cyst of the mandible: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their names, simple bone cysts are no longer categorized as cysts since they lack an epithelial lining. However, their nature remains controversial. The internal structure is totally radiolucent, sometimes showing multilocular appearance, although the lesion does not contain true septa and the ridges of bone is produced by the scalloping effect. We presented two cases of histopathologically confirmed simple bone cyst. Radiographic features such as multilocular appearance and significant buccal and lingual expansion are not usual findings for simple bone cyst, whereas evident in our presented cases.

  16. First record of cysts in the tidal tardigrade Echiniscoides sigismundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Lykke K. B.; Andersen, Kasper N.; Hygum, Thomas L.; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja

    2014-12-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic metazoans that withstand environmental extremes by entering dormant states, such as cryptobiosis (latent life). In addition, they may also form cysts. Here, we present the first report of cyst formation in a marine heterotardigrade, i.e., Echiniscoides sigismundi, which constitutes a cryptic species complex present worldwide in tidal zones. The cysts were initially discovered during experimental series constructed to investigate osmotic stress tolerance. The animals, which eventually formed cysts, showed signs of an imminent molt at the beginning of experimentation. We use the term "cyst" for stages, where a total of three or more cuticles have been synthesized. Our observations show that encystment in E. sigismundi involves synthesizing of at least two new cuticle layers. Legs with discharged claws are present in connection with the first outer cuticle, as well as the second cuticular layer. In the most developed cyst, a third cuticle lacking claws seems to surround the animal, which is delineated by a fourth cuticle. Many features are shared with the well-studied cysts of eutardigrades. The cysts of E. sigismundi, however, lack pigmentation and have an extra set of claws, and the animal inside retains buccopharyngeal sclerified parts, until discharging the third cuticle. The finding of cysts in a marine heterotardigrade is novel and confirms that encystment also occurs within this major evolutionary lineage.

  17. Conjunctival inclusion cysts following small incision cataract surgery

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    Narayanappa Shylaja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of acquired conjunctival inclusion cysts following various ophthalmic surgeries such as strabismus surgery, scleral buckling, pars plana vitrectomy, ptosis surgery and phacoemulsification has been reported. We report two cases of conjunctival inclusion cysts following manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS in two male patients aged 65 and 67 years. The cysts originated from the scleral tunnel used for manual SICS. Both were treated by excision and confirmed histopathologically. No recurrence was noted at three months follow-up. To our knowledge, conjunctival inclusion cysts following SICS have not been reported previously. Careful reflection of conjunctiva during tunnel construction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation may prevent their occurrence.

  18. Role of tumour necrosis factor in pathogenesis of radicular cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The radicular cyst is very common odontogenic cyst of the jaws, which is usually associated with a tooth with necrotic pulp. The cyst formation requires proliferation of the epithelial rest cells of Malassez present in the periodontal ligament. Proliferation of epithelial rest cells of Malassez is an essential event in the Pathogenesis of radicular cyst. The wall of the cyst contains epithelial cells, macrophages, fibroblasts and other cells. TNF is one of inflammatory mediators, which is produced by macrophages and monocytes. This study was carried out to investigate the role of tumour necrosis factor in the pathogenesis of radicular cyst, which is by far the commonest cystic lesion of the jaws. Methods: Explants from 20 radicular cysts were cultured in vitro to grow the epithelial cells. However, the cultures were rapidly contaminated with fibroblasts and it was impossible to grow the epithelial cells separately. Therefore, the proliferative effect of Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) was studied on mammalian epithelial cells. Results: TNF at low concentration had a proliferative effect on the epithelial cells, which may play some role in pathogenesis of radicular cyst. Conclusion: TNF stimulated the epithelial cell proliferation in low concentration and inhibit the proliferation in higher concentrations. These two effects may have some implications in the pathogenesis of radicular cyst. (author)

  19. Hydatid Cyst of Right Atrium: A Case Report

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    Maral Mokhtari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid cyst is rare and usually occurs in the setting of disseminated disease. Herein, we reported a case of isolated right atrial hydatid cyst misdiagnosed clinically as a tumor. A 65-year-old woman diagnosed as having large right atrial mass suspected of malignancy underwent resection of the cardiac mass. Histopathological examination showed laminated membrane and protoscolices of Echinococcus Granulosus. However, all other work-ups failed to document systemic diseases. Therefore, isolated cardiac hydatid cyst was diagnosed. Hydatid cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cardiac mass, especially in endemic areas.

  20. Cervical cyst of the ligamentum flavum and C7-T1 subluxation: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Gorgoglione, Leonardo; Bisceglia, Michele; D’Angelo, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    A patient with progressive gait disturbance resulting from a cyst of the cervical ligamentum flavum associated with C7-T1 listhesis is reported. Surgical removal of the cyst improved the patient’s myelopathy. Intraspinal degenerative cysts are preferentially located in the lumbar region:unusual is the cervical localization. Differential diagnosis includes ligamentum flavum cyst, synovial and ganglion cysts. Association between degenerative intraspinal cysts and listhesis is discussed. To our ...

  1. Gigantic Intracranial Hydatid Cyst and MRI Findings with a Case Report

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    Mustafa Koç

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is a parasitic infestation with rare presentation in the cerebrum. Hydatid cyst disease is rare in the cerebrum and lebions are usaally single, accounting for only 1,6-5,2 % of all hydatid cysts. The differential diagnosis of cerebral cystic echinococcosis includes abscess, cystic tumor, arachnoid cyst, and porencephalic cyst. In this report, we aim to present MRI findings of a gigantic intracranial hydatid cyst mass which ihas not been previously described in this size before.

  2. Imaging of the jaw cysts with a dental CT software program : distinction of odontogenic keratocysts from other cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of a dental CT software program in the assessment of jaw cysts and in the differentiation of odontogenic keratocysts and other cysts. Seventeen patients with proven jaw cysts(8 maxillae and 9 mandibles) were evaluated with a dental CT sofware program for location, locularity, the presence or absence of marginal scallping, and height to length ratio. For the delineation of involvement or displace-ment of neurovascular bundles, cortical erosion, perforation or expansion, and tooth root resorption by the jaw cysts, images from this program were compared to conventional images. Seventeen lesions icomprised 15 odontogenic cysts (five odontogenic keratocysts, five radicular, three residual and two dentigerous cysts) and two non-odontogenic cysts (one nasopalatine duct cyst and one postoperative maxillary cyst). Images of jaw cysts obtained with the dental CT software program delineated much more clearly than conventional images the status of neurovascular bundle and cortical bone, but there was no clear difference between the two modalities in delineating tooth root erosion. Dental CT findings of five mandibular odontogenic keratocysts were scalloped margin in all, mandibular ramus involvement in four, height to length ratio below 60% in four ,and multilocularity in two. The findings of the other 12 cysts (eight maxillae and four mandibles) were unilocularity in all, smooth inner margin in ten, height to length ratio below 60% in only two, and ramus involvement in none. A dental CT software program is an improved imaging modality for assessing jaw cysts;and findings which tend to indicate odontogenic keratocysts are marginal scalloping, mandibular ramus involvement, prominent spread along the marrow space and multilocularity

  3. Hidatidosis. Experiencia institucional / Hydatid cyst. Hospital experience

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Tamayo Meneses; Rodolfo, Pacheco Llerena; Ruth, Fernandez Hinojosa; Jorge, Chungara Montaño.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseño de la investigación: analítico retrospectivo. Objetivo de la investigación: describir las características de la enfermedad hidatídica en pacientes hospitalizados. Lugar de la investigación: Hospital del Niño "Ovidio Aliaga Uría" de la ciudad de La Paz. Periodo de la investigación: enero 1984 [...] a Febrero 1999. Material y Métodos: se estudiaron todos los casos con diagnóstico de egreso de hidatidosis o quiste hidatídico. Para procurar incluir a todos los casos, fuera del libro de egresos, se utilizó el registro de anatomía patológica. En el período elegido se estudiaron 40 casos de quiste hidatídico en 31 niños, de los que se realizó una revisión pormenorizada de la historia clínica, con énfasis en aspectos clínicos, localización de los quistes, tratamiento instaurado, evolución y reingreso por la misma patología. Resultados: de los 31 niños, nueve ingresaron por esta patología 2 veces, unos con ubicación similar del quiste a su primer ingreso y otros con localización diferente. No hubo predomino de sexo (22 varones y 18 niñas) con edades límites de 3 a 14 años (predominio entre 5 a 10), procediendo la mayor parte de casos de barrios periféricos de la ciudad de La Paz y El Alto. La ubicación más frecuente de la lesión quística fue la pulmonar con 25 casos, seguida de la hepática con 10, en ambos órganos 8 casos y el resto con localizaciones diversas e incluso poco usuales como la parotídea y esplénica. El tratamiento fue quirúrgico en todos los casos y desde 1996 se instituyó el uso sistemático pre y postquirúrgico del albendazol una vez confirmado el diagnóstico. Conclusiones: este estudio demuestra una frecuencia institucional creciente de esta patología, ratifica alta morbilidad, elevado costo referido a cirugías obligatorias, larga estancia hospitalaria, presencia de complicaciones inherentes a la misma enfermedad e infecciosas asociadas y mortalidad elevada. Lo anterior justifica plenamente una revisión objetiva y una actualización del tema, habida cuenta de los avances en cirugía y en la terapéutica antiparasitaria con énfasis en aspectos preventivos. Abstract in english Research design: retrospective analysis. Objective: To describe the characteristics of hydatid cyst in hospitalizad patients. Place: Hospital del Niño "Dr Ovidio Aliaga Uria", La Paz. Time period: January 1984 to February 1999. Materials and method: All cases that were diagnosed upon release with hy [...] datosis or hydatid cyst. In order to be able to include all cases, aside from the release book, we used the pathologic anatomy book. During the chosen period of time we studied 40 cases of hydatid cyst in 31 children, whose medical histories were thoroughly checked, emphasizing all clinical aspects, location of the cysts, and type of treatment, evolution and re-admission for the same reason. Results: Of 31 children, 9 were admitted twice for the same reason, some with the cyst located in the same place as in their first admission, others with a different location. There was no major difference in the incidence related to sex (22 boys and 18 girls), aged between 3 to 14 years (mostly from 5 to 10). Most came from urban low-middle class neighborhoods in La Paz and El Alto. The most frequent location of the cyst was the lungs (25 cases), followed by liver (10 cases); there were 8 cases with cysts in both organs, the rest had different locations and often unusual such as the parotid gland and spleen Surgical treatment applied in all cases and from 1996 onwards systematic use of Albendazol both before and after surgery was established, once diagnosis had been confirmed. Conclusions: This study shows an increasing frequency of this pathology, it confirms a high morbidity, high cost due to mandatory surgery, long hospital stays, complications due to the same disease, related infections and a high mortality rate. This amply justifies an objective revision and up-dating of the subject, bearing in mind new surgical procedures and anti-parasite medication emphasizing prevent

  4. Terminalia ferdinandiana extracts as inhibitors of Giardia duodenalis proliferation: a new treatment for giardiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, P; Matthews, B; McDonnell, P A; Cock, I E

    2015-07-01

    Giardisis is a debilitating disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites of the genus Giardia. High-antioxidant T. ferdinandiana fruit extracts were investigated for the ability to block Giardia duodenalis growth. Methanolic and aqueous extracts had the most potent growth inhibitory activity (IC50 values of approximately 700 and 140 ?g/ml, respectively). Ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts also inhibited G. duodenalis growth, albeit with lower potency. The hexane extract was completely devoid of G. duodenalis growth inhibitory activity. All extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia fransiscana bioassay. Nontargeted HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectroscopy (with screening against three compound databases) putatively identified 17 compounds in all of the inhibitory extracts but not in the inactive hexane extract. The low toxicity of the Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit extracts and their potent G. duodenalis growth inhibitory bioactivity indicate their potential as medicinal agents in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:25876047

  5. Data from a proteomic baseline study of Assemblage A in Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Samantha J; Lacey, Ernest; Haynes, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Eight Assemblage A strains from the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis were analysed using label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics, to evaluate inter- and intra-assemblage variation and complement available genetic and transcriptomic data. Isolates were grown in biological triplicate in axenic culture, and protein extracts were subjected to in-solution digest and online fractionation using Gas Phase Fractionation (GPF). Recent reclassification of genome databases for subassemblages was evaluated for database-dependent loss of information, and proteome composition of different isolates was analysed for biologically relevant assemblage-independent variation. The data from this study are related to the research article "Quantitative proteomics analysis of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A - a baseline for host, assemblage and isolate variation" published in Proteomics (Emery et al., 2015 [1]). PMID:26380841

  6. Albendazole induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Espinosa, Rodrigo; Argüello-García, Raúl; Saavedra, Emma; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The control of Giardia duodenalis infections is carried out mainly by drugs, among these albendazole (ABZ) is commonly used. Although the cytotoxic effect of ABZ usually involves binding to ?-tubulin, it has been suggested that oxidative stress may also play a role in its parasiticidal mechanism. In this work the effect of ABZ in Giardia clones that are susceptible or resistant to different concentrations (1.35, 8, and 250 ?M) of this drug was analyzed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced by ABZ in susceptible clones and this was associated with a decrease in growth that was alleviated by cysteine supplementation. Remarkably, ABZ-resistant clones exhibited partial cross-resistance to H2O2, whereas a Giardia H2O2-resistant strain can grow in the presence of ABZ. Lipid oxidation and protein carbonylation in ABZ-treated parasites did not show significant differences as compared to untreated parasites; however, ABZ induced the formation of 8OHdG adducts and DNA degradation, indicating nucleic acid oxidative damage. This was supported by observations of histone H2AX phosphorylation in ABZ-susceptible trophozoites treated with 250 ?M ABZ. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ABZ partially arrested cell cycle in drug-susceptible clones at G2/M phase at the expense of cells in G1 phase. Also, ABZ treatment resulted in phosphatidylserine exposure on the parasite surface, an event related to apoptosis. All together these data suggest that ROS induced by ABZ affect Giardia genetic material through oxidative stress mechanisms and subsequent induction of apoptotic-like events. PMID:26300866

  7. Arginine Consumption by the Intestinal Parasite Giardia intestinalis Reduces Proliferation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, Maria C.; Persson, Lo; Svard, Staffan G.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consum...

  8. Determination of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in sheep and goat from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Hedieh; Jalali, Mohamad Hossein Razi; Shapouri, Masoud Seyfi Abad; Hajikolaii, Mohamad Rahim Haji

    2012-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic intestinal protozoan worldwide So far, seven assemblages have recognized for G. duodenalis (A–G) and there are the firm findings which assemblages A and B have zoonotic potential and assemblage E in livestock. In the presented work, the G. duodenalis isolate were determined genetically by the single PCR ssu-rRNA and nested PCR of triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes in asymptomatic and symptomatic sheep and goats from Ahvaz, south west of Iran. Th...

  9. An antioxidant response is involved in resistance of Giardia duodenalis to albendazole

    OpenAIRE

    Argüello-García, Raúl; Cruz-Soto, Maricela; González-Trejo, Rolando; Paz-Maldonado, Luz María T.; Bazán-Tejeda, M. Luisa; MENDOZA-HERNÁNDEZ, GUILLERMO; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a therapeutic benzimidazole used to treat giardiasis that targets ?-tubulin. However, the molecular bases of ABZ resistance in Giardia duodenalis are not understood because ?-tubulin in ABZ-resistant clones lacks mutations explaining drug resistance. In previous work we compared ABZ-resistant (1.35, 8, and 250 ?M) and ABZ-susceptible clones by proteomic analysis and eight proteins involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton dynamics, and antioxidant response were found as...

  10. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowei S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes.

  11. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp. PMID:24081933

  12. CT of liver cysts in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.; Seith, A.; Suri, S. [Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research. Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Radiodiagnosis; Dhiman, R.K.; Chawla, Y.K. [Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Hepatology; Sud, K.; Kohli, H.S.; Sakhuja, V. [Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Nephrology

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the CT appearances of liver cysts in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Material and methods: Contrast-enhanced CT images of 24 patients with ADPKD were retrospectively evaluated for the presence, number, size and distribution of liver cysts. An attempt was made to categorize these cysts into peribiliary cysts (located adjacent to larger portal triads or in the hepatic hilum) and intrahepatic cysts (within the liver parenchyma but not in contact with larger portal triads). When it was not possible to definitely categorize the cysts into either type, the cysts were labeled as indeterminate. Results: Liver cysts were seen in 13 (54%) patients. Intrahepatic cysts were seen in 12 patients, and were mainly peripheral in location with sizes ranging from less than 10 mm to 8 cm. Peribiliary cysts were seen in all 13 patients and were usually less than 10 mm in size. These cysts were seen as discrete cysts (8 patients), a string of cysts (10 patients), or as a tubular structure paralleling the portal vessels, mimicking biliary dilatation (11 patients). Twelve patients also showed indeterminate cysts which defied definite categorization into either type; two common causes of confusion included large (more than 10 mm) discrete cysts in the hilar region and the presence of a vessel adjacent to peripheral cysts. Conclusion: Liver cysts in patients with ADPKD show a wide variety of appearances of CT. Familiarity with these findings is essential to avoid confusion with other abnormalities. (orig.)

  13. Craniofacial Procedure to Treat Encephalocele and an Arachnoid Cyst

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you determine at the time of surgery. The risk factors for trying to figure out if a cyst is going to be recur or become a problem center on a couple different things. ... years are at slightly higher risk; the size of the cyst, the bigger the ...

  14. An infected urachal cyst containing an appendicolith: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guen Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Choi, Kum-Ja; Hwang, Ji Young

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of an 8-year-old girl with an infected urachal cyst containing an appendicolith found secondary to an appendico-urachal cyst fistula caused by perforated appendicitis. The clinical features and computed tomographic manifestations of this unusual case are discussed. PMID:19006779

  15. A case of giant urachal cyst in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Nakada

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of giant urachal cyst in a neonate presenting characteristic features on fetal ultrasonography. A 28-year-old woman of 21 weeks gestation was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a cystic mass in the lower portion of the fetal abdomen. On fetal ultrasonography, at 23 weeks gestation, the two umbilical arteries in the base of the umbilical cord became separated from each other due to the fetal cyst. On fetal MRI, at 25 weeks gestation, the cyst was depicted as a unilocular serous cyst, independent of the surrounding organs such as the kidney, gallbladder and intestines. The cyst had no communication with the bladder or umbilical cord. A male infant was delivered at term. Although the infant was thriving and remained asymptomatic, an enhanced CT examination 13 days after birth showed the cyst was still present without any decrease in size. The infant underwent surgery to make a definite diagnosis and to prevent future complications. The cyst was excised without any complication and finally diagnosed as a urachal cyst based on morphological and pathological findings.

  16. Epidermoid cyst of the ileum in a miniature dachshund dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Shunsuke; Kainuma, Risa; Kimura, Ken; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Saori; Katayama, Masaaki; Sato, Reeko; Yasuda, Jun

    2014-04-01

    A 13-year-old castrated male miniature dachshund dog was presented with chronic vomiting and diarrhea. Contrast radiography and surgical exploration revealed an ileal cyst, which was excised. A diagnosis of epidermoid cyst was made from a combination of the clinical findings and histological examination of the surgical specimen. PMID:24688137

  17. Epidermoid cyst of the ileum in a miniature dachshund dog

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura, Shunsuke; Kainuma, Risa; KIMURA, Ken; OKAMURA, Yasuhiko; KOBAYASHI, Saori; KATAYAMA, Masaaki; Sato, Reeko; Yasuda, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A 13-year-old castrated male miniature dachshund dog was presented with chronic vomiting and diarrhea. Contrast radiography and surgical exploration revealed an ileal cyst, which was excised. A diagnosis of epidermoid cyst was made from a combination of the clinical findings and histological examination of the surgical specimen.

  18. [Intradural arachnoid cyst associated with syringomyelia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishi, Yukitomo; Aoyama, Takeshi; Kurisu, Kota; Hida, Kazutoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2014-05-01

    An intradural arachnoid cyst is a relatively rare condition, occurring within the spinal subarachnoid space. We present the even-more rare case of an intradural arachnoid cyst associated with syringomyelia at the same spinal level. The patient was a 66-year-old man who presented with bilateral leg numbness and gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intradural arachnoid cyst located dorsal to, and compressing, the thoracic spinal cord at the level of the 7th thoracic vertebra (Th 7). In addition, syringomyelia existed at the level of Th 8, slightly caudal to the intradural arachnoid cyst. We dissected the cyst but did not perform any surgical procedures for the syringomyelia. Post-operative MRI showed that the cyst had disappeared and the syringomyelia had spontaneously shrunk. The patient was discharged with improvement in his numbness and gait disturbance. There are a few case reports of intradural arachnoid cysts associated with syringomyelia, but recent evidence suggests that its occurrence is more common than previously thought. A combination of these two diseases is thought to be caused by blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, which is also thought to cause adhesive arachnoiditis. For this reason, resection of the arachnoid cyst could improve the CSF flow and contribute to the shrinkage of syringomyelia. Furthermore, early treatment may correlate with improvement in radiological findings and neurological symptoms. PMID:24807552

  19. Testis-sparing surgery in testicular mass: Testicular epidermoid cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi-Zafarghandi, Reza; Shakiba, Behnam; Ameli, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    We present 3 patients with testicular epidermoid cysts who experienced testis-sparing surgery. These patients had a palpable painless testicular mass and underwent inguinal testicular exploration. Intraoperative frozen section revealed no evidence of malignancy and therefore enucleation of the tumour was performed. We demonstrate that careful intraoperative frozen-section examination helps to avoid unnecessary orchidectomy in testicular epidermoid cysts.

  20. Epidermal Inclusion Cyst after Breast Reconstruction with TRAM Flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report our experience about a case of an epidermal inclusion cyst in a 50-year-old female who underwent a total mastectomy and breast reconstruction with TRAM (transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous) flaps for the breast cancer. We also discussed the radiologic possibilities of the epidermal inclusion cyst after having undergone reconstruction surgery