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Sample records for giardia lamblia cysts

  1. Excystation of in vitro-derived Giardia lamblia cysts.

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    Boucher, S E; Gillin, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    This is the first in-depth analysis of the excystation of Giardia lamblia cysts prepared in vitro. Its goals were both to achieve efficient excystation and to gain insights into this crucial but poorly understood process. To identify the critical elements of excystation, we tested the sequential low-pH induction and protease treatments which had been reported to be important for excystation of fecal cysts. The optimal pH for induction of excystation was 4.0. Emergence was greatly (approximate...

  2. A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays

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    Widmer Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metabolism as the parasite encysts in the host's intestine and excysts upon ingestion by a new host. Results To investigate the magnitude of the transcriptional changes occurring during the G. lamblia life cycle we compared the transcriptome of G. lamblia trophozoites and cysts using single-color oligonucleotide microarrays. Cysts were found to possess a much smaller transcriptome, both in terms of mRNA diversity and abundance. Genes encoding proteins related to ribosomal functions are highly over-represented. The comparison of the transcriptome of cysts generated in culture or extracted from feces revealed little overlap, raising the possibility of significant biological differences between the two types of cysts. Conclusions The comparison of the G. lamblia cyst and trophozoite transcriptome showed that transcripts of most genes are present at a lower level in cysts. This global view of the cyst and trophozoite transcriptome complements studies focused on the expression of selected genes during trophozoite multiplication, encystation and excystation.

  3. Field portable mobile phone based fluorescence microscopy for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water samples

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    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Gorocs, Zoltan; McLeod, Euan; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that causes an intestinal infection, known as giardiasis, and it is found not only in countries with inadequate sanitation and unsafe water but also streams and lakes of developed countries. Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of this pathogen is important for monitoring of drinking water. Here we present a cost-effective and field portable mobile-phone based fluorescence microscopy platform designed for automated detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in large volume water samples (i.e., 10 ml) to be used in low-resource field settings. This fluorescence microscope is integrated with a disposable water-sampling cassette, which is based on a flow-through porous polycarbonate membrane and provides a wide surface area for fluorescence imaging and enumeration of the captured Giardia cysts on the membrane. Water sample of interest, containing fluorescently labeled Giardia cysts, is introduced into the absorbent pads that are in contact with the membrane in the cassette by capillary action, which eliminates the need for electrically driven flow for sample processing. Our fluorescence microscope weighs ~170 grams in total and has all the components of a regular microscope, capable of detecting individual fluorescently labeled cysts under light-emitting-diode (LED) based excitation. Including all the sample preparation, labeling and imaging steps, the entire measurement takes less than one hour for a sample volume of 10 ml. This mobile phone based compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform together with its machine learning based cyst counting interface is easy to use and can even work in resource limited and field settings for spatio-temporal monitoring of water quality.

  4. A real-time RT-PCR method to detect viable Giardia lamblia cysts in environmental waters.

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    Baque, Robert H; Gilliam, Amy O; Robles, Liza D; Jakubowski, Walter; Slifko, Theresa R

    2011-05-01

    Currently, USEPA Method 1623 is the standard assay used for simultaneous detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in various water matrices. However, the method is unable to distinguish between species, genotype, or to assess viability. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to address the shortcomings of USEPA Method 1623 by developing a novel molecular-based method that can assess viability of Giardia cysts in environmental waters and identify genotypes that pose a human health threat (assemblage groups A and B). Primers and TaqMan(®) probes were designed to target the beta-giardin gene in order to discriminate among species and assemblages. Viability was determined by detection of de-novo mRNA synthesis after heat induction. The beta-giardin primer/probe sets were able to detect and differentiate between Giardia lamblia assemblages A and B, and did not detect Giardia muris (mouse species) or G. lamblia assemblages C, D, E and F (non-human), with the exception of Probe A which did detect G. lamblia assemblage F DNA. Additionally, DNA or cDNA of other waterborne organisms were not detected, suggesting that the method is specific to Giardia assemblages. Assay applicability was demonstrated by detection of viable G. lamblia cysts in spiked (assemblage B) and unspiked (assemblage A and B) reclaimed water samples. PMID:21501854

  5. New Method Using Sedimentation and Immunomagnetic Separation for Isolation and Enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the isolation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts from biosolid samples has been developed that utilizes sedimentation and immunomagnetic separation. The method was used to recover stained cysts and oocysts (spike organisms) from primary settled sewage sludge, anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and bovine manure. Recovery efficiencies associated with this method were approximately 40 to 60% and were significantly greater than those associated with s...

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF MONGREL DOGS WITH 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' CYSTS AND CULTURED TROPHOZOITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In light of recent epidemiologic data implicating wild and domestic animals in the transmission of giardiasis, a study was undertaken to determine whether mongrel dogs could be infected with Giardia lamblia. After careful screening by stool examination (a minimum of six stools ex...

  7. Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Gorocs, Zoltan; Tseng, Derek; Cortazar, Bingen; Feng, Steve; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Burbano, Jordi; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of waterborne pathogens in drinkable and recreational water sources is crucial for treating and preventing the spread of water related diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we present a field-portable and cost-effective platform for detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts, one of the most common waterborne parasites, which has a thick cell wall that makes it resistant to most water disinfection techniques including chlorination. The platform consists of a smartphone coupled with an opto-mechanical attachment weighing ~205 g, which utilizes a hand-held fluorescence microscope design aligned with the camera unit of the smartphone to image custom-designed disposable water sample cassettes. Each sample cassette is composed of absorbent pads and mechanical filter membranes; a membrane with 8 ?m pore size is used as a porous spacing layer to prevent the backflow of particles to the upper membrane, while the top membrane with 5 ?m pore size is used to capture the individual Giardia cysts that are fluorescently labeled. A fluorescence image of the filter surface (field-of-view: ~0.8 cm(2)) is captured and wirelessly transmitted via the mobile-phone to our servers for rapid processing using a machine learning algorithm that is trained on statistical features of Giardia cysts to automatically detect and count the cysts captured on the membrane. The results are then transmitted back to the mobile-phone in less than 2 minutes and are displayed through a smart application running on the phone. This mobile platform, along with our custom-developed sample preparation protocol, enables analysis of large volumes of water (e.g., 10-20 mL) for automated detection and enumeration of Giardia cysts in ~1 hour, including all the steps of sample preparation and analysis. We evaluated the performance of this approach using flow-cytometer-enumerated Giardia-contaminated water samples, demonstrating an average cyst capture efficiency of ~79% on our filter membrane along with a machine learning based cyst counting sensitivity of ~84%, yielding a limit-of-detection of ~12 cysts per 10 mL. Providing rapid detection and quantification of microorganisms, this field-portable imaging and sensing platform running on a mobile-phone could be useful for water quality monitoring in field and resource-limited settings. PMID:25537426

  8. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

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    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  9. PURE CULTURE METHOD: GIARDIA LAMBLIA FROM DIFFERENT STOOL SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    H.A YOUSEFI

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.
    Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool sampl...

  10. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria; Sousa, Maria; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium s...

  11. Binding of cholera toxin to Giardia lamblia.

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    McCardell, B. A.; Madden, J M; Stanfield, J T; Tall, B D; Stephens, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Binding of cholera toxin to Giardia lamblia was demonstrated by two slightly different methods: an immunofluorescence technique using antibody to cholera toxin and anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, and a one-step fluorescence method in which G. lamblia was incubated with the B subunit of cholera toxin conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate.

  12. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria Luísa; Sousa, Maria C; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 were studied by FISH and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated MAbs. Eighteen percent of the fecal samples parasitologically positive for G. lamblia presented viable and nonviable cysts, and 5% of those positive for Cryptosporidium spp. presented viable and nonviable oocysts. Of the 18 water supply samples analyzed, 6 (33%) presented Giardia spp. viable and nonviable cysts and 2 (11%) presented viable and nonviable Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. G. lamblia identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene in the fecal and water samples found positive by FISH and FITC-conjugated MAbs. C. parvum and Cryptosporidium muris were identified, by PCR and sequencing of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene, in seven and one water samples, respectively. Our results confirm that this technique enables simultaneous visualization, species-specific identification, and viability determination of the organisms present in human fecal and water supply samples. PMID:16261356

  13. EFFECT OF HALOGENS ON 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of chlorine and other disinfecting agents on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. The agents studied included free residual chlorine and six different methods recommended for emergency disinfection of small quantities of water...

  14. A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Karakuş; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

    2009-01-01

    Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and tre...

  15. Attachment of Giardia lamblia to rat intestinal epithelial cells.

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    Inge, P M; Edson, C M; Farthing, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The human enteric protozoan, Giardia lamblia, has surface membrane lectin activity which mediates parasite adherence to erythrocytes. To determine whether an intestinal binding site exists for this lectin we have studied the interaction in vitro between axenically cultured Giardia trophozoites and isolated rat intestinal epithelial cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Giardia attached to the apical microvillus membrane and basolateral membrane of rat enterocytes. Any location on th...

  16. Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection

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    Hanevik Kurt; Dizdar Vernesa; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 month...

  17. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

    1987-05-01

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of /sup 3/H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei.

  18. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of 3H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei

  19. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

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    Guimarães Semíramis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  20. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

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    Semíramis Guimarães

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  1. Susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to Hovenia dulcis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, A P R; Vidal, F; Castro, T M; Lopes, C S; Albarello, N; Coelho, M G P; Figueiredo, S F L; Monteiro-Leal, L H

    2005-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is the causative agent of giardiasis, a common parasitic infection of the human and animal digestive tract. Although several drugs have been available to treat this infection, they present unpleasant side effects or cytotoxicity. In order to find a more natural treatment for the disease, we analyzed the effects of the methanolic extract and three fractions obtained from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae) leaves on G. lamblia. Comparing all fractions, dichloromethane was more efficient in reducing Giardia growth. The exposition of G. lamblia to this fraction lead to degenerations in the surface, modifications in the cell shape and alterations in the localization of nuclei. Besides that, the adhesion of G. lamblia was also altered. Experiments revealed that the obtained fraction did not present cytotoxic effects in mammalian cells. In summary, dichloromethane fraction has strong antigiardial effects and could become an important new substance for the treatment of giardiasis. PMID:16151735

  2. Giardia lamblia infections in B-cell-deficient transgenic mice.

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    Stager, S; Muller, N.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we infected B-cell (and antibody-)-deficient transgenic mice with the Giardia lamblia clone GS/M-83-H7. These animals were inhibited in intestinal anti-Giardia immunoglobulin A (IgA) production and could not resolve the parasite infection, and antigenic diversification within the respective parasite populations occurred in an unusually slow manner. These findings indicate an important immunological function of local IgA antibodies which promotes antigenic variation of th...

  3. Gene duplication in the genome of parasitic Giardia lamblia

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    Flores Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia are a group of widespread intestinal protozoan parasites in a number of vertebrates. Much evidence from G. lamblia indicated they might be the most primitive extant eukaryotes. When and how such a group of the earliest branching unicellular eukaryotes developed the ability to successfully parasitize the latest branching higher eukaryotes (vertebrates is an intriguing question. Gene duplication has long been thought to be the most common mechanism in the production of primary resources for the origin of evolutionary novelties. In order to parse the evolutionary trajectory of Giardia parasitic lifestyle, here we carried out a genome-wide analysis about gene duplication patterns in G. lamblia. Results Although genomic comparison showed that in G. lamblia the contents of many fundamental biologic pathways are simplified and the whole genome is very compact, in our study 40% of its genes were identified as duplicated genes. Evolutionary distance analyses of these duplicated genes indicated two rounds of large scale duplication events had occurred in G. lamblia genome. Functional annotation of them further showed that the majority of recent duplicated genes are VSPs (Variant-specific Surface Proteins, which are essential for the successful parasitic life of Giardia in hosts. Based on evolutionary comparison with their hosts, it was found that the rapid expansion of VSPs in G. lamblia is consistent with the evolutionary radiation of placental mammals. Conclusions Based on the genome-wide analysis of duplicated genes in G. lamblia, we found that gene duplication was essential for the origin and evolution of Giardia parasitic lifestyle. The recent expansion of VSPs uniquely occurring in G. lamblia is consistent with the increment of its hosts. Therefore we proposed a hypothesis that the increment of Giradia hosts might be the driving force for the rapid expansion of VSPs.

  4. Pacientes con Giardia lamblia diagnosticada por frotis duodenal / Patients with Giardia lamblia diagnosed through duodenal smear

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hidelisa, Herrero Aguirre; Jesús, Fernández Duharte; Suleidy, Vega Sam; José Antonio, Candel Herrero.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 105 pacientes mayores de 15 años con infección por Giardia lamblia, diagnosticada por frotis duodenal mediante endoscopia en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Policlínico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturn [...] ino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2012, con vistas a caracterizarles. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, síntomas digestivos referidos, positividad del frotis e imagen endoscópica. Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen. Predominaron el sexo femenino (58,0 %), el grupo etario de 29-39 años (38,0 %), la epigastralgia como síntoma principal (66,6 %) y las imágenes endoscópicas grados I y II como las más frecuentes (68,4 y 41,3 %, respectivamente). El índice de positividad a la giardiasis fue relevante Abstract in english A descriptive and cross sectional study of 105 patients older than 15 years with infection by Giardia lamblia, diagnosed through duodenal smear by means of endoscopy was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Teaching Provincial Clinica [...] l Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2012, with the objective of characterizing them. Among the analyzed variables there were: age, sex, referred digestive symptoms, positivity of the smear and endoscopic image. The percentage was used as summary measure. Female sex (58.0%), the age group 29-39 years (38.0%), the epigastralgia as main symptom (66.6%) and the endoscopic images grades I and II prevailed as the most frequent (68.4 and 41.3%, respectively). The positivity index for giardiasis was relevant

  5. Impact of Zooplankton Grazing on the Excystation, Viability, and Infectivity of the Protozoan Pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia?

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, S. J.; Wolyniak, E. A.; Dieter, K. L.; Williamson, C.E.; Jellison, K. L.

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known about the ability of the zooplankton grazer Daphnia pulicaria to reduce populations of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface waters. The potential for D. pulicaria to act as a biological filter of C. parvum and G. lamblia was tested under three grazing pressures (one, two, or four D. pulicaria grazers per 66 ml). (Oo)cysts (1 × 104 per 66 ml) were added to each grazing bottle along with the algal food Selenastrum capricornutum (6.6 × 104 cell...

  6. Ensayo inmunoenzimático en fase sólida para la detección de antígenos de Giardia lamblia

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    DINORAH TORRES

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se normalizó un sandwich ELISA para la detección de antígenos de Giardia lamblia en heces humanas. Se estudiaron 175 muestras: 77 positivas, 61 negativas a quistes y/o trofozoítos por el examen directo de las heces y 19 muestras positivas a otros parásitos diferentes de G. lamblia. La sensibilidad de la técnica fue de 94,8 % y la especificidad de 98,3 %; el método detecta una concentración de antígenos de 31 ng. El procedimiento es simple, sensible y específico, por lo que pudiera ser útil para el diagnóstico y en estudios epidemiológicos.An ELISA sandwich for the detection of Giardia lamblia antigens in human faeces was standardized. 175 samples were studied: 77 positive, 61 negative to cysts and/or trophozoites by direct faeces test, and 19 positive to other parasite different from G. lamblia. The sensitivity of the technique was 94,8 % and the specificity 98,3 %. The method detects an antigen concentration of 31 ng. The procedure is simple, sensitive and specific so, it may be useful for diagnosis and in epidemiological studies.

  7. Impact of zooplankton grazing on the excystation, viability, and infectivity of the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.

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    Connelly, S J; Wolyniak, E A; Dieter, K L; Williamson, C E; Jellison, K L

    2007-11-01

    Very little is known about the ability of the zooplankton grazer Daphnia pulicaria to reduce populations of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface waters. The potential for D. pulicaria to act as a biological filter of C. parvum and G. lamblia was tested under three grazing pressures (one, two, or four D. pulicaria grazers per 66 ml). (Oo)cysts (1 x 10(4) per 66 ml) were added to each grazing bottle along with the algal food Selenastrum capricornutum (6.6 x 10(4) cells per 66 ml) to stimulate normal grazing. Bottles were rotated (2 rpm) to prevent settling of (oo)cysts and algae for 24 h (a light:dark cycle of 16 h:8 h) at 20 degrees C. The impact of D. pulicaria grazing on (oo)cysts was assessed by (i) (oo)cyst clearance rates, (ii) (oo)cyst viability, (iii) (oo)cyst excystation, and (iv) oocyst infectivity in cell culture. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the total number of C. parvum oocysts by 52% and G. lamblia cysts by 44%. Furthermore, two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased C. parvum excystation and infectivity by 5% and 87%, respectively. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the viability of G. lamblia cysts by 52%, but analysis of G. lamblia excystation was confounded by observed mechanical disruption of the cysts after grazing. No mechanical disruption of the C. parvum oocysts was observed, presumably due to their smaller size. The data provide strong evidence that zooplankton grazers have the potential to substantially decrease the population of infectious C. parvum and G. lamblia in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:17873076

  8. What Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia tell us about the evolution of eukaryotic diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Samuelson

    2002-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are microaerophilic protists, which have long been considered models of ancient pre-mitochondriate eukaryotes. As transitional eukaryotes, amoebae and giardia appeared to lack organelles of higher eukaryotes and to depend upon energy metabolism appropriate for anaerobic conditions, early in the history of the planet. However, our studies have shown that amoebae and giardia contain splicoeosomal introns, ras-family signal-transduction proteins, ATP-binding casettes (ABC)-family drug transporters, Golgi, and a mitochondrion-derived organelle (amoebae only). These results suggest that most of the organelles of higher eukaryotes were present in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes, and so dispute the notion of transitional eukaryotic forms. In addition, phylogenetic studies suggest many of the genes encoding the fermentation enzymes of amoebae and giardia derive from prokaryotes by lateral gene transfer (LGT). While LGT has recently been shown to be an important determinant of prokaryotic evolution, this is the first time that LGT has been shown to be an important determinant of eukaryotic evolution. Further, amoebae contain cyst wall-associated lectins, which resemble, but are distinct from lectins in the walls of insects (convergent evolution). Giardia have a novel microtubule-associated structure which tethers together pairs of nuclei during cell division. It appears then that amoebae and giardia tell us less about the origins of eukaryotes and more about the origins of eukaryotic diversity.

  9. Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanevik Kurt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

  10. Comparison of microscopy, rapid immunoassay, and molecular techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Maqati, Thekra N; Hussein, Mohi I; Adam, Ahmed A; Hassan, Mohamed M Abu; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2013-04-01

    Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are recognized as the most common protozoan infections in Saudi Arabia. Microscopic examination of stool samples, either direct or concentrated, for the recovery of G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites and C. parvum oocysts is still the most commonly used for the diagnosis of both parasites. We compared the conventional parasitological techniques of iodine-stained wet mount for G. lamblia and Kinyoun's acid-fast for C. parvum against ImmunoCard STAT® Cryptosporidium/Giardia and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detecting the 18S rRNA gene of G. lamblia and conventional PCR detecting the same gene of C. parvum at a tertiary hospital in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Out of 148 stool samples, 19 and 12 true positives were identified for G. lamblia and C. parvum, respectively, using a composite reference standard. In this case, true positives and negatives were considered as those with at least two positive or negative results out of the three tests. Both ImmunoCard STAT! and PCR methods were more sensitive than the microscopic tests of a single stool specimen of 85.7% (CI=62.6-96.2%) and 85.7% (CI=56.2-97.5%) for G. lamblia and C. parvum, respectively. However, specificity of microscopic tests was higher than other techniques for both parasites. Although PCR seems to be most sensitive for both G. lamblia and C. parvum, its low specificity may render its superiority over other techniques. When a single stool sample is used for detection of G. lamblia and C. parvum, better results can be obtained when coupled with serological testing. Although PCR is the most sensitive method for the detection of both G. lamblia and C. parvum, its use requires attention in relation to the increased possible false positives. PMID:23411740

  11. Flagellar generated flow mediates attachment of Giardia Lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Theodore; Polackwich, Jamie; Burrola Gabilondo, Beatriz; McAllister, Ryan; Powers, Tom; Elmendorf, Heidi; Urbach, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite responsible for widespread diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. Attachment to the host intestinal mucosa and resistance to peristalsis is necessary for establishing infection, but the physical basis for this attachment is poorly understood. We report results from confocal fluorescence microscopy that demonstrate that the regular beating of the posterior flagella generate a flow through the ventral disk, a suction-cup shaped structure that is against the substrate during attachment. Finite element simulations show that the negative pressure generated by the flow is consistent with the measured force of attachement between the parasite and its substrate.

  12. Giardiavirus-resistant Giardia lamblia lacks a virus receptor on the cell membrane surface.

    OpenAIRE

    Sepp, T.; Wang, A. L.; WANG, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus that infects specifically the parasitic protozoan G. lamblia. Among the many collected strains of G. lamblia, a few turn out to be highly resistant to the virus infection. Two of these strains, Ac and JH, were subjected to electroporation with the RNA from GLV-infected G. lamblia WB strain. Subsequent studies indicated the presence of GLV double-stranded RNA and GLV protein in the electroporated and propagated cells...

  13. The Study of the Multilayer Filtration Process Efficiency on Giardia lamblia Elimination in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mosaviyan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Giardia lamblia is a waterborne highly infectious protozoan parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. The multilayer filtration is used in many applications such as turbidity removes from surface waters and Bacteria, Viruses and protozoan removes. This study was investigated in full-scale the efficiency of filtration process during water treatment that remove Giardia cyst in water at Isfahan province. Materials and methods: We used Information Collection Rule method (ICR. In this method the polypropylene yarn-wound cartridge filter for isolation of these parasites was examined and followed by elution, sample concentration, flotation by percoll-sucrose solution and immunofluorescence antibody (IFA staining to recognize them. Results: Result showed that three layer filtration had a maximum 2.3 log10 for remove Giardia cyst. Cysts removal in water filtration is likely to be comparable to the efficiency of turbidity. Efficiency removal was 99.5% for Giardia and 92.7% for turbidity in filtration stage. We detected 0.2 cyst per 100 liter and per 100 liter in filtered water. This observation is according to U.S.EPA standards. The number of cysts were more in high pH samples. Discussion and conclusion: Analysis of physical processes of treatment water in Isfahan plant configurations showed that granular filters (include sand, anthracite and garnet filter were more likely to have effluence in removal cysts than dual filters.

  14. Human Secretory Immune Response to Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Fraction from Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, S. M. T.; Maachee, M.; Córdova, O. M.; Diaz de la Guardia, R.; Martins, M.; Osuna, A.

    2002-01-01

    The secretory immune response in humans infected with Giardia lamblia was studied by using saliva samples and an 8-kDa antigen capable of binding fatty acids. This antigen was not recognized by saliva samples from healthy individuals. The antigen may be useful in diagnostic studies of G. lamblia infection.

  15. Crystal Structures of Carbamate Kinase from Giardia lamblia Bound with Citric Acid and AMP-PNP

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kap; Kulakova, Liudmila; Galkin, Andrey; Herzberg, Osnat

    2013-01-01

    The parasite Giardia lamblia utilizes the L-arginine dihydrolase pathway to generate ATP from L-arginine. Carbamate kinase (CK) catalyzes the last step in this pathway, converting ADP and carbamoyl phosphate to ATP and ammonium carbamate. Because the L-arginine pathway is essential for G. lamblia survival and absent in high eukaryotes including humans, the enzyme is a potential target for drug development. We have determined two crystal structures of G. lamblia CK (glCK) with bound ligands. O...

  16. Mechanisms of Giardia lamblia differentiation into cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Luján, H D; Mowatt, M R; Nash, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiologists have long been intrigued by the ability of parasitic organisms to adapt to changes in the environment. Since most parasites occupy several niches during their journey between vectors and hosts, they have developed adaptive responses which allow them to survive under adverse conditions. Therefore, the life cycles of protozoan and helminthic parasites are excellent models with which to study numerous mechanisms involved in cell differentiation, such as the regulation of gene exp...

  17. / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis emergent opportunists / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis, oportunistas emergentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joana, Barbosa; Maria José, Espinar; Acácio, Gonçalves Rodrigues; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Es un hecho conocido que las infecciones oportunistas por protozoos y hongos han aumentado en los últimos años, debido especialmente al aumento de las infecciones por VIH. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis son protozoos y hongo, respectivamente, mundialmente recono [...] cidos como agentes oportunistas emergentes, responsables de brotes epidémicos provocados por la ingestión de agua potable contaminada, incluso después de una correcta desinfección. La ingestión de estos protozoos puede provocar diferentes grados de enfermedad, entre aguda o leve (población sana) hasta situaciones más graves y agresivas, hasta a veces mortales (pacientes inmunocomprometidos y/o inmunodeprimidos). A pesar de ser responsables de muchos brotes epidémicos, su diagnóstico de laboratorio permanece arduo y trabajoso, incluso utilizando las nuevas técnicas desarrolladas en los últimos años. En esta revisión se resumen las consideraciones generales de estos oportunistas emergentes, así como los métodos de diagnóstico más usuales, incluso los más recientes y específicos. Abstract in english Epidemiological data, regarding parasitic and fungi opportunist infections, have changed in the last years, especially due to HIV infection. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are protozoan and fungi, respectively, worldwide known as opportunistic emergent agents, [...] being responsible by epidemic outbreaks after ingestion of contaminated water, even following a correct disinfection treatment. Its ingestion can cause different effects on individuals’ health, from light or acute among the healthy population, to serious, aggressive or even deadly among the immunodepressed or immunocompromised patients. Contaminated water ingestion can result in outbreaks but protozoa laboratory diagnosis still remains very laborious, even after the development of more sensitive and specific techniques in the last years. In this paper, a revision of these emergent opportunists, their main characteristics and diagnostic tools are described, including the most recent and specific techniques.

  18. Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Ivo dos Santos; Cidônia de Lourdes Vituri

    1996-01-01

    Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients exclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin concentration, a...

  19. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba spp from river waters in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Ehsan; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-12-01

    In this study, DNA from 55 surface and river water samples, which were collected from some water sources of Tehran and the Guilan Province, Iran, were extracted and examined for Entamoeba spp. and Giardia lamblia by PCR and genotyping. Twenty-seven samples, which were concentrated using the immunomagnetic separation technology (IMS) method, were examined for Giardia alone. Twenty-eight samples, which were concentrated using the sucrose flotation (SF) method, were examined for both Giardia and Entamoeba species. The results showed that 27/55 (17/27 and 10/28) (49 %), 4 /28 (14.28 %) and 3/28 (10.7 %) of the samples were positive for Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba spp and mixed infections (Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp.), respectively. Sixteen out of 55 samples were negative. Entamoeba genus-specific PCR primers in single-round PCR were used to differentiate between the Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii). With respect to the 7 samples that were positive for Entamoeba, (14.28 %) 4 out of 28 were positive for E. moshkovskii, (7.14 %), 2 out of 28 were positive for E. histolytica and (3.57 %) 1 out of 28 was positive for E. dispar. Genus-specific PCR primers in a semi-nested PCR assay was performed to genotype Giardia species. Of the 27 samples that were positive for Giardia, 10 samples were sequences. All 10 successfully sequenced samples contained assemblage B of Giardia lamblia.This is first study to investigate the G. lamblia genotypes in the water supply of the Tehran and Guilan provinces, and it is the first study to investigate Entamoeba species in the water supplies of Iran. The investigated river water supplies, which are used for agriculture, camping and animal farming, were heavily contaminated by the human pathogenic Entamoeba and Giardia parasites. There is a potential risk of waterborne outbreaks in humans and animals. PMID:26350378

  20. Chromosome-size variation in Giardia lamblia: the role of rDNA repeats.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, R D

    1992-01-01

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites contain at least five sets of chromosomes that have been categorized by chromosome-specific probes. Pulsed field separations of G. lamblia chromosomes also demonstrated minor bands in some isolates which stained less intensely with ethidium than the major chromosomal bands. Two of the minor bands of the E11 clone of the ISR isolate, MBa and MBb, were similar to each other and to chromosomal band I by hybridization to total chromosomal DNA and by hybridization of s...

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in effluent from sewage treatment plant from eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jacek; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia (synonyms: Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis) are emerging protozoa causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. These parasites can pose a serious threat to immunocompromised people, for whom the symptoms are more severe and may include abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea, nausea, headaches, malaise, and fever. One of the sources of these parasites can be treated wastewater from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). Samples of treated wastewater (effluent), each of 10 L volume, were collected from 13 municipal WTPs located in eastern Poland. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were separated by the immunomagnetic method. The presence and/or concentration of protozoan (oo)cysts in effluent samples were determined by direct immunofluorescent microscopy, nested PCR and Real Time PCR. Viability of (oo)cysts was determined by double-staining with the use of Live/Dead BacLight kit (Invitrogen). Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 8 WTPs (61.5%) and Giardia spp. cysts in 11 WTPs (84.6%) by microscopic analysis. Both pathogens were detected in samples from 7 WTPs. Median concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in 13 examined samples were 2.2/L and 6.6/L, respectively, while mean concentrations were 28.5/L and 113.6/L, respectively. In positive samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts concentrations ranged from 0.4 - 154.1 oocysts per litre, and Giardia cysts concentrations ranged from 0.7 - 660 cysts per litre. By nested PCR, Giardia DNA was detected in 4 samples of the 13 examined, (30.8%) while Cryptosporidium DNA was never detected. In Real Time PCR, positive results for Giardia were obtained in 5 samples (38.5%) and in none of the samples for Cryptosporidium, with the exception of one equivocal result. Viable (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 3 out of 4 samples examined, in the ranges of 12.5 - 60% and 50 - 100% of total (oo)cysts, respectively. In view of our preliminary study, the presence of oocysts and cysts (largely viable) in effluents from WTPs imply a risk of transmission of waterborne protozoan parasites to humans. Therefore, additional wastewater purification procedures are necessary. PMID:25000844

  2. Effect of Giardia lamblia Infection on the Cognitive Function of School children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Partovi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between helminthic parasitic infection and cognitive function has long been recognized, however there are few reports about Giardia lamblia infection. This paper describes a study about the effect of G. lamblia infection on the cognitive function. Methods: One hundred thirty two children infected with G. lamblia from Robat Karim south of western Tehran, Iran were compared with 150 children without any parasitic infection. These two groups were identical in socioeconomic and nutritional status. Cognitive function was assessed using, three tests from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children and one subset of the Clinical Evolution of Language Function. Results: Comparison of two groups revealed that uninfected children improved significantly more than children who had G. lamblia infection in the tests of Fluency (P< 0.02 and Digit-span Forwards/ Backwards (P< 0.004. Conclusion: Regular stool examination is suggested in areas with low hygienic conditions, since G. lamblia infection might be present without any clinical manifestation.

  3. Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jael, Quintero; Diana Carolina, Figueroa; Rafael, Barcelo; Linda, Breci; Humberto, Astiazaran-Garcia; Lucila, Rascon; Ramon, Robles-Zepeda; Adriana, Garibay-Escobar; Enrique, Velazquez-Contreras; Gloria Leon, Avila; Jose Manuel, Hernandez-Hernandez; Carlos, Velazquez.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lam [...] blia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

  4. Three-Dimensional Structure of a Protozoal Double-Stranded RNA Virus That Infects the Enteric Pathogen Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Mandy E.W.; Takagi, Yuko; Parent, Kristin N.; Cardone, Giovanni; Nibert, Max L; Baker, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small, nonenveloped, nonsegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting Giardia lamblia, the most common protozoan pathogen of the human intestine and a major agent of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. GLV (genus Giardiavirus) is a member of family Totiviridae, along with several other groups of protozoal or fungal viruses, including Leishmania RNA viruses and Trichomonas vaginalis viruses. Interestingly, GLV is more closely related than other Toti...

  5. Virus-mediated expression of firefly luciferase in the parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, D C; Wang, A L; Wu, C. H.; WANG, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, a prevalent human pathogen and one of the lineages that branched earliest from prokaryotes, can be infected with a double-stranded RNA virus, giardiavirus (GLV). The 6,277-bp viral genome has been previously cloned (A.L. Wang, H.-M. Yang, K.A. Shen, and C.C. Wang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:8595-8599, 1993; C.-H. Wu, C.C. Wang, H.M. Yang, and A.L. Wang, Gene, in press) and was converted to a transfection vector for G. lamblia in the present study. By flanking the firefly l...

  6. Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES

    OpenAIRE

    Nora B Molina; DANIELA POLVERINO; Marta C Minvielle; MARÍA APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO AGUILAR; JUAN A BASUALDO

    2006-01-01

    Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua destilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial). Los dat...

  7. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  8. Tetracyclines as antiparasitic agents: lipophilic derivatives are highly active against Giardia lamblia in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Edlind, T D

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of the inhibitory activities of different tetracyclines have been reported for Plasmodium falciparum but no other parasites. The in vitro response of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia to six tetracyclines in current use was determined. In addition, the experimental drug thiacycline (EMD 33,330) was evaluated. Three groups were discerned, with representative 50 and 90% inhibitory concentrations of, respectively, 36 and 130 (tetracycline), 6.4 and 22 (doxycycline), and 1.8 and...

  9. Detection and Genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by Oligonucleotide Microarray

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J; Stenger, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. In this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and...

  10. Incidence of Giardia lamblia Subspecies by PCR-RFLP in Stool Specimens of Hospitalized Children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Hazrati Tappeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent intestinal flagellate protozoa that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts causing severe intestinal disorder in children.This study was performed to determine subspecies of G.lamblia by the PCR-RFLP method, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase(gdhlocus, in hospitalized children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province,Iran and determining the infection transformational storages in this area.Overall, 720 stool specimens were collected from the hospitalized children, 34 samples were positive and Giardia cysts were detected under the microscope. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method and then washed with sterile distilled water to remove effectively the PCR inhibitors. Genomic DNA of G. lamblia isolates was extracted by freeze-thaw cycles followed by phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. The single step PCR-RFLP assay was used to differentiate the assemblages between A and B, which were found in humans. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified, and then for detection of subspecies, specific restriction RsaI and BspLI enzymes were used.Totally 34 samples were positive in terms of Giardia cyst out of 720 examined samples microscopically, so the parasite spread rate is reported 4.72%. Analysis PCR-RFLP on these samples revealed that 28 samples (93.3% have the genotype BIII and 2 samples (6.7% belong to the subgroup BIV.PCR-RFLP is a proper analytical method for determining the genotype among parasite types, using the glutamate dehydrogenizes zone's genes. Based on the results, an animal origin of infection cycle is suggested.

  11. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine

  12. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Eric T.; Kim, Jessica E.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A., E-mail: merritt@u.washington.edu [Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa, (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine.

  13. Sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression of Giardia lamblia α-18 giardin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Hu, Wei; Pan, Weida; Shi, Xianli; Tan, Liping; Song, Meiran; Li, Guoqing

    2016-03-01

    To study the genetic variation and prokaryotic expression of α18 giardin gene of Giardia lamblia zoonotic assemblage A and host-specific assemblage F, the α18 genes were amplified from G. lamblia assemblages A and F by PCR and sequenced. The PCR product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+) and the positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) strain for the expression. The expressed α18 giardin fusion protein was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis, and purified by Ni-Agarose resin. The putative sequence of α18 giardin amino acid was analyzed by bioinformatics software. Results showed that the α18 giardin gene was 861bp in length, encoding 286 amino acids; it was 100% homologous between human-derived and dog-derived G. lamblia assemblage A, but it was 86.8% homologous with G. lamblia assemblage F (cat-derived). Giardin α18 was about 36kDa in molecular weight, with good reactivity. Prediction based on in silico analyses: it had hydrophobicity, without signal peptide and transmembrane domain, and contained 11 alpha regions, 13 beta sheets, 1 beta turn and 7 random coils in secondary structure. The above information would lay the foundation for research about the subcellular localization and biological function of α18 giardin in G. lamblia. PMID:26656833

  14. Development of a rapid HRM genotyping method for detection of dog-derived Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wu, Sheng; Zheng, Guochao; Hu, Wei; Song, Meiran; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic flagellate protozoan in the intestine of human and many mammals including dogs. To assess a threat of dog-derived G. lamblia to humans, the common dog-derived G. lamblia assemblages A, C, and D were genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) technology. According to ?-giardin gene sequence, the qPCR-HRM primers BG5 and BG7 were designed. A series of experiments on the stability, sensitivity, and accuracy of the HRM method were also tested. Results showed that the primers BG5 and BG7 could distinguish among three assemblages A, C, and D, which Tm value differences were about 1 °C to each other. The melting curves of intra-assay reproducibility were almost coincided, and those of inter-assay reproducibility were much the same shape. The lowest detection concentration was about 5?×?10(-6)-ng/?L sample. The genotyping results from 21 G. lamblia samples by the HRM method were in complete accordance with sequencing results. It is concluded that the HRM genotyping method is rapid, stable, specific, highly sensitive, and suitable for clinical detection and molecular epidemiological survey of dog-derived G. lamblia. PMID:26212101

  15. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48?h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8?±?7.1?µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8?±?2.3?µg/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2?±?34.7?µg/mL), spring (IC50 102.5?±?15.3?µg/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0?±?3.1?µg/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1?±?0.9?µg/mL (222.1?±?3.2?µM)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7?±?20.7?µg/mL (461.8?±?76.3?µM)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6?±?24.8?µg/mL (494.9?±?82.2?µM)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4?±?26.0?µg/mL (680.6?±?101.7?µM)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the in vitro growth of G. lamblia trophozoites. PMID:26008200

  16. A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto J., Solari; Monica I., Rahn; Alicia, Saura; Hugo D., Lujan.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin d [...] irectly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

  17. A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J. Solari

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

  18. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA, 44 (9,9% apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052, número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015, número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059, higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024, usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034, ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03 e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012. Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada.

  19. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric T; Kim, Jessica E; Napuli, Alberto J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Buckner, Frederick S; Hol, Wim G J; Merritt, Ethan A

    2012-09-01

    The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine. PMID:22948920

  20. Identification of growth inhibiting compounds in a Giardia lamblia high-throughput screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Santiago, Rubén; Wu, Zhijin; Zhang, Linghui; Widmer, Giovanni

    2008-12-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most common eukaryotic pathogens and is classified by the CDC as a category B agent of bioterrorism. In a departure from more traditional research focused on specific pathways or molecules, we have developed a high-throughput assay for screening libraries of small compounds for inhibitors and enhancers of trophozoite multiplication. Following a 24-h period of culture in 384-well plates in the presence of compounds, trophozoites were fixed, stained and enumerated. Quadruplicate screening of 1520 compounds from two libraries of known bioactives detected numerous inhibitory compounds. Based on a stringent cut-off of 5 standard deviations from the plate mean, 50 compounds (3.3%) were inhibitory. The activity of 3 compounds was confirmed in conventional culture. Although not meeting the threshold, one compound (indirubin) was identified as an agonist of trophozoite proliferation. Demonstrating the potential of high-throughput screening for rapidly finding new compounds which perturb G. lamblia multiplication, most of the hits identified by high-throughput screening do not appear to have been tested previously for their ability to affect G. lamblia trophozoites. High-throughput screening of bioactive compounds will open new avenues to a system-wide analysis of pathways affecting G. lamblia proliferation, and eventually to other phases of the life cycle. PMID:18796315

  1. Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia / COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NORA B, MOLINA; DANIELA, POLVERINO; MARTA C, MINVIELLE; MARÍA, APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO, AGUILAR; JUAN A, BASUALDO.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua d [...] estilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial). Los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente. La combinación de buffer de lisis E y Chelex fue un método simple y económico, que produjo alto rendimiento de ADN con baja pureza. Ella técnica comercial fue un método simple, más costoso que produjo bajas cantidades de ADN con un nivel de pureza apropiado para estudios moleculares Abstract in english The efficiency of lysis procedures and DNA purification treatments of Giardia lamblia trophozoites were evaluated regarding the breaking-up efficiency, quantity and pureness of DNA, processing time and costs. Five lysis methods (distilled water and heating; distilled water, heating and proteinase K; [...] buffer D Lysis; buffer E lysis, and commercial kit), and three DNA purification methods (phenol:chloroform:isoamilic, Chelex 100 and commercial kit) were tested. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. The buffer E lysis and Chelex combination was simple and economic method which produced high DNA performance with low pureness. Commercial kit was simple and expensive method which generated low yields of DNA with appropriate purity level for molecular analysis

  2. Direct and antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity against Giardia lamblia by splenic and intestinal lymphoid cells in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    S.S Kanwar; Ganguly, N. K.; Walia, B N; Mahajan, R C

    1986-01-01

    Direct cytotoxicity and antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity against Giardia lamblia trophozoites exhibited by splenic, intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocyte populations isolated from G lamblia infected mice were studied. Different patterns of cytotoxicity were found. Intraepithelial lymphocytes showed a direct cytotoxic activity of 20.6 +/- 5.6% before infection. It was significantly higher on the 20th (p less than 0.01) and 30th (p less than 0.05) day postinfection. Lamina ...

  3. Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose

    OpenAIRE

    Valdênia M. O. Souza; Iana R. F. Sales; Peixoto, Décio M.; Vláudia M. Assis Costa; Rizzo, José A; Almerinda R. Silva; Roberta Faria Camilo; Felipe Faria Pierotti; Dirceu Solé; Sarinho, Emanuel S. C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica resp...

  4. Simultaneous Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Fecal Samples by Using Multiplex Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Verweij, Jaco J; Blangé, Roy A.; Templeton, Kate; Schinkel, Janke; Brienen, Eric A. T.; van Rooyen, Marianne A. A.; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polderman, Anton M.

    2004-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium are three of the most important diarrhea-causing parasitic protozoa. For many years, microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the “gold standard” for diagnosis of E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum infections. Recently, more specific and sensitive alternative methods (PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and direct fluorescent-antibody assay) have been introduced for all three of these parasitic in...

  5. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolástico Aguiar González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  6. Cryopreservation of Giardia lamblia with dimethyl sulfoxide using a Dewar flask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, J R; Marchin, G L

    1984-04-01

    This study examined the effect of varying freezing conditions on the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia (Portland-1 strain) using a constant vacuum in a Dewar flask and an ethanol bath to regulate the cooling rate. The cryopreservation of the trophozoite stage was investigated. Dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), the cryoprotective agent of choice, was added directly to Giardia growth medium. Me2SO toxicity assays were conducted on those concentrations used in the freezing protocol. The results of this study indicated a 6.5% (v/v) Me2SO concentration yields a 90% survival based upon organism motility. A 30.9% cell viability was obtained by freezing in medium without a cryoprotective agent. Recommendations are offered concerning alternate viability criteria. PMID:6713946

  7. Significantly Diverged Did2/Vps46 Orthologues from the Protozoan Parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Somnath; Saha, Nabanita; Ray, Atrayee; Sarkar, Srimonti

    2015-09-01

    The endosomal compartment performs extensive sorting functions in most eukaryotes, some of which are accomplished with the help of the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. This pathway depends on the sequential action of complexes, termed the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). After successful sorting, the crucial step of recycling of the ESCRT complex components requires the activation of the AAA ATPase Vps4, and Did2/Vps46 plays an important role in this activation event. The endolysosomal system of the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia appears to lack complexity, for instead of having distinct early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes, there are only peripheral vesicles (PVs) that are located close to the cell periphery. Additionally, comparative genomics studies predict the presence of only a subset of the ESCRT components in G. lamblia. Thus, it is possible that the MVB pathway is not functional in G. lamblia. To address this issue, the present study focused on the two putative orthologues of Did2/Vps46 of G. lamblia as their function is likely to be pivotal for a functional MVB sorting pathway. In spite of considerable sequence divergence, compared to other eukaryotic orthologues, the proteins encoded by both these genes have the ability to function as Did2/Vps46 in the context of the yeast ESCRT pathway. Furthermore, they also localized to the cellular periphery, where PVs are also located. Thus, this report is the first to provide experimental evidence indicating the presence of a functional ESCRT component in G. lamblia by characterizing the putative Did2/Vps46 orthologues. PMID:26068593

  8. Modeling Long-Term Host Cell-Giardia lamblia Interactions in an In Vitro Co-Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Bridget S.; Estraño, Carlos E.; Cole, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, there are greater than 700,000 deaths per year associated with diarrheal disease. The flagellated intestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia, is one of the most common intestinal pathogens in both humans and animals throughout the world. While attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium, Giardia induces epithelial cell apoptosis, disrupts tight junctions, and increases intestinal permeability. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of giardiasis, including the role lamina propri...

  9. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gil Ruiz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra.

  10. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection / Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. A., Gil Ruiz; P., Gil Simón; R., Aparicio Duque; J. L., Mayor Jerez.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia co [...] mpleta del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra. Abstract in english Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means ne [...] w perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.

  11. Effects of essential oils on the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marisa; Sousa, Maria do Céu; Salgueiro, Lígia; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most important worldwide causes of intestinal infections produced by protozoa. Current therapy for giardiasis is unsatisfactory due to high incidence of undesirable side effects and significant failure in clearing parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. In the search for new therapeutic agents, we report on the effect of several essential oils on G. lamblia growth. Among eighteen tested essential oils, those with phenolic compositions were the most active, particularly if containing high contents of carvacrol, such as Thymbra capitata and Origanum virens (IC50 values of 71 and 85 microg x mL(-1), respectively). The oils from Syzygium aromaticum and Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris (IC50 values from 100 to 200 microg x mL(-1)), as well as, those from Mentha x piperita and Lippia graveolens (IC50 values over 200 microg x mL(-1)) were less active. Results support the concept that several essential oils or some of their constituents may be useful in the clinical management of Giardia infections. PMID:20184039

  12. The structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from Giardia lamblia reveals divergence from eukaryotic homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Tracy L; Carter, Megan; Napuli, Alberto J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hol, Wim G J; Merritt, Ethan A

    2010-08-01

    The 2.1A crystal structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) from the diplomonad Giardia lamblia reveals that the N-terminus of this class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase forms a 16-residue alpha-helix. This helix replaces a beta-hairpin that is required by human TrpRS for normal activity and has been inferred to play a similar role in all eukaryotic TrpRS. The primary sequences of TrpRS homologs from several basal eukaryotes including Giardia lack a set of three residues observed to stabilize interactions with this beta-hairpin in the human TrpRS. Thus the present structure suggests that the activation reaction mechanism of TrpRS from the basal eukaryote G. lamblia differs from that of higher eukaryotes. Furthermore, the protein as observed in the crystal forms an (alpha(2))(2) homotetramer. The canonical dimer interface observed in all previous structures of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases is maintained, but in addition each N-terminal alpha-helix reciprocally interlocks with the equivalent helix from a second dimer to form a dimer of dimers. Although we have no evidence for tetramer formation in vivo, modeling indicates that the crystallographically observed tetrameric structure would be compatible with the tRNA binding mode used by dimeric TrpRS and TyrRS. PMID:20438846

  13. Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nazarina Ivonne, Méndez Pérez; José L., Calunga Fernández; Silvia, Menéndez Cepero.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal) en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronida [...] zol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %), de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología. Abstract in english The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy) on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated [...] with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %). Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %). It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

  14. Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarina Ivonne Méndez Pérez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %, de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología.The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %. Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %. It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

  15. Crystal structures of carbamate kinase from Giardia lamblia bound with citric acid and AMP-PNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kap; Kulakova, Liudmila; Galkin, Andrey; Herzberg, Osnat

    2013-01-01

    The parasite Giardia lamblia utilizes the L-arginine dihydrolase pathway to generate ATP from L-arginine. Carbamate kinase (CK) catalyzes the last step in this pathway, converting ADP and carbamoyl phosphate to ATP and ammonium carbamate. Because the L-arginine pathway is essential for G. lamblia survival and absent in high eukaryotes including humans, the enzyme is a potential target for drug development. We have determined two crystal structures of G. lamblia CK (glCK) with bound ligands. One structure, in complex with a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog, adenosine 5'-adenylyl-?,?-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), was determined at 2.6 Å resolution. The second structure, in complex with citric acid bound in the postulated carbamoyl phosphate binding site, was determined in two slightly different states at 2.1 and 2.4 Å resolution. These structures reveal conformational flexibility of an auxiliary domain (amino acid residues 123-170), which exhibits open or closed conformations or structural disorder, depending on the bound ligand. The structures also reveal a smaller conformational change in a region associated the AMP-PNP adenine binding site. The protein residues involved in binding, together with a model of the transition state, suggest that catalysis follows an in-line, predominantly dissociative, phosphotransfer reaction mechanism, and that closure of the flexible auxiliary domain is required to protect the transition state from bulk solvent. PMID:23700444

  16. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Recombinant, NADH Oxidase from Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Méndez, Sara Teresa; Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    The NADH oxidase family of enzymes catalyzes the oxidation of NADH by reducing molecular O2 to H2O2, H2O or both. In the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia, the NADH oxidase enzyme (GlNOX) produces H2O as end product without production of H2O2. GlNOX has been implicated in the parasite metabolism, the intracellular redox regulation and the resistance to drugs currently used against giardiasis; therefore, it is an interesting protein from diverse perspectives. In this work, the GlNOX gene was amplified from genomic G. lamblia DNA and expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-Tagged protein; then, the enzyme was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, characterized, and its properties compared with those of the endogenous enzyme previously isolated from trophozoites (Brown et al. in Eur J Biochem 241(1):155-161, 1996). In comparison with the trophozoite-extracted enzyme, which was scarce and unstable, the recombinant heterologous expression system and one-step purification method produce a stable protein preparation with high yield and purity. The recombinant enzyme mostly resembles the endogenous protein; where differences were found, these were attributable to methodological discrepancies or artifacts. This homogenous, pure and functional protein preparation can be used for detailed structural or functional studies of GlNOX, which will provide a deeper understanding of the biology and pathogeny of G. lamblia. PMID:26685698

  17. Commercial assay for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimens by rapid solid-phase qualitative immunochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lynne S; Shimizu, Robyn Y; Novak, Susan; Carroll, Marilyn; Chan, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The ImmunoCard STAT! Cryptosporidium/Giardia rapid assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects and distinguishes between Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens (fresh, frozen, unfixed, or fixed in 5 or 10% formalin or sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin). By using specific antibodies, antigens specific for these organisms are isolated and immobilized on a substrate. After the addition of appropriate reagents, a positive test is detected visually by the presence of a gray-black color bar (regardless of the intensity) next to the organism name printed on the test device. A control is included in the device. Steps include tube preparation (buffer, patient specimen, conjugates A and B), testing (addition of sample onto the test device), and visual reading (total time, 12 min). Test performance was evaluated with known positive and negative stool specimens (170 specimens positive for Giardia and 231 specimens negative for Giardia) (85 specimens positive for Cryptosporidium and 316 specimens negative for Cryptosporidium); they were tested with trichrome, iron-hematoxylin, or modified acid-fast stains or the Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Giardia/Cryptosporidium Merifluor combination reagent; specimens with discrepant results were retested by using the Merifluor combination reagent. On the basis of the results of the reference methods, the sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were as follows: for G. lamblia, 93.5, 100, 100, and 95.5%, respectively; for C. parvum, 98.8, 100, 100, and 99.7%, respectively. False-negative results for G. lamblia were obtained with specimens with low parasite numbers (n = 7) or specimens containing trophozoites only (n = 3); one specimen with a false-negative result contained numerous cysts. The one specimen false negative for C. parvum was confirmed to be positive by immunofluorescence. No cross-reactivity was seen with 10 different protozoa (152 challenges), nine different helminths (35 challenges), or human cells (4 challenges) found in fecal specimens. This rapid test system may be very beneficial in the absence of trained microscopists; however, for patients who remain symptomatic after a negative result, the ova and parasite examination and special stains for other coccidia and the microsporidia should always remain options. PMID:12517850

  18. Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously. We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified the proportion of cases acquired in Germany in order to investigate risk factors for sporadic autochthonous Giardia infections. Methods We identified Giardia cases notified by 41 local health authorities between February 2007 and January 2008 and interviewed them on their clinical symptoms, underlying morbidities, travel abroad and potential risk factors for the disease. We conducted a case-control-study including laboratory-confirmed (microscopy or antigen-test autochthonous Giardia cases with clinical manifestations (diarrhoea, cramps, bloating and randomly selected controls from the local population registry matched by county of residence and age-group (0-5, 6-19, ?20 years. Secondary cases, controls with diarrhoea and persons who had travelled outside Germany in the three weeks prior to disease onset (exposure period were excluded. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI using conditional logistic regression. Results Of 273 interviewed cases, 131 (48% had not travelled abroad during the defined exposure period. Of these 131, 85 (65% were male, 68 (54% were living in communities with >100,000 inhabitants and 107 (83% were aged 20 years or older. We included 120 cases and 240 controls in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be male (aOR 2.5 CI 1.4-4.4, immunocompromised (aOR 15.3 CI 1.8-127 and daily consumers of green salad (aOR 2.9 CI 1.2-7.2. Contact with animals (pets/farm animals and exposure to surface water (swimming/water sports were not associated with symptomatic disease. Conclusions A substantial proportion of Giardia lamblia cases in Germany are indigenously acquired. Symptomatic cases are significantly more likely to be immunocompromised than control persons from the general population. Physicians should consider Giardia infections among patients with no recent history of travel abroad, particularly if they have immune deficiencies. Green salads may be an important vehicle of infection. Information campaigns highlighting this food-borne risk should emphasise the risk to persons with immune deficiencies.

  19. Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aimée, Echevarría; Dinorah, Torres Idavoy.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron [...] incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL), que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL. Abstract in english The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú) on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 [...] hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL). An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ?-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. ?-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of ?-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of ?-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis

  1. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ?-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathuri, Puja; Nguyen, Emily Tam [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Luecke, Hartmut, E-mail: hudel@uci.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    ?-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. ?-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of ?-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of ?-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis.

  2. Modeling and analysis of propulsion in the multiflagellated micoorganism Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaghan, Scott C.; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze the propulsion of multiflagellated microorganisms, and to draw insight to the underlying physics and biology of the movement. Giardia lamblia was chosen as the model organism due to its unique ability to mechanically attach to various surfaces, its rapid movement, and its fine control over steering and navigation. In this work, a mechanics model was utilized to study the mechanics and propulsive contribution of the ventral and anterior flagella in Giardia. It was discovered that energy is supplied mainly at the proximal portion of these flagella, supporting the hypothesis that a decreasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) gradient along the length of the flagella would not affect the motion observed. Similarly, the elasticity of the flagella allows the energy input at the proximal portion to be transferred to the distal portion, where the majority of thrust is generated. Specifically, we found that the ventral flagella are the driving force for planar propulsion and turning, while the anterior flagella are used for steering and control.

  3. Hydrologic and Vegetative Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate Microspheres in Coastal Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal par...

  4. An ancient spliceosomal intron in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a of Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Michael W

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad. This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a non-canonical 5' intron boundary sequence, CT, instead of GT. Results We have identified a second spliceosomal-type intron in G. lamblia, in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a, that possesses a canonical GT 5' intron boundary sequence. A comparison of the two known Giardia intron sequences revealed extensive nucleotide identity at both the 5' and 3' intron boundaries, similar to the conserved sequence motifs recently identified at the boundaries of spliceosomal-type introns in Trichomonas vaginalis (a parabasalid. Based on these observations, we searched the partial G. lamblia genome sequence for these conserved features and identified a third spliceosomal intron, in an unassigned open reading frame. Our comprehensive analysis of the Rpl7a intron in other eukaryotic taxa demonstrates that it is evolutionarily conserved and is an ancient eukaryotic intron. Conclusion An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and properties of the Rpl7a intron suggests its utility as a phylogenetic marker to evaluate particular eukaryotic groupings. Additionally, analysis of the G. lamblia introns has provided further insight into some of the conserved and unique features possessed by the recently identified spliceosomal introns in related organisms such as T. vaginalis and Carpediemonas membranifera.

  5. Stop codon recognition in the early-diverged protozoans Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Baofeng; Li, Cui; Yu, Jingfei; Hao, Yanrong; Guo, Ping; Shen, Quan

    2015-07-01

    Two classes of polypeptide release factors (RFs) are responsible for maintaining accuracy in translation termination; however, their detailed mechanism of action and evolutionary history of these factors remain elusive. The structure and function of RFs vary in bacteria and eukaryotes, a fact that is suggestive of evolutionary changes in the translation termination system. Giardia lamblia (Diplomonada) and Trichomonas vaginalis (Parabasalia) are considered as early-diverged eukaryotes. The class II release factor, eRF3, of Giardia (Gl-eRF3) appears to have only one domain that corresponds to EF-1α and lacks the N-terminal domain, similar to that of eRF3 of other organisms. In the present study, we show that the chimeric molecules Gl/Sc eRF1 and Tv/Sc eRF1, which are composed of the N-terminal domain of Gl-eRF1 or Tv-eRF1, fused to the core domain (M and C domain) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eRF1 (Sc-eRF1), resulting in loss of the RF properties of the N-terminal domain. This suggests that the conformation of eRF1 for stop codon recognition in Giardia and Trichomonas varies from the eRF1s of other eukaryotes, including ciliates and yeast. Further studies using intra-N-terminal chimeras of eRF1 indicated that the combination of the GTS loop and NIKS motif from Gl-eRF1 and the Y-C-F motif from Sc-eRF1within the N terminal domain of hybrid eRF1 could restore UGA, but not UAG and UGA recognition. In contrast, the combination of the GTS loop and the NIKS motif of Sc-eRF1 and the Y-C-F motif of Gl-eRF1 could restore UAG and UAA recognition, but not UGA recognition. Thus, these results confirm the findings of previous studies that three motifs in eRF1 are necessary for discrimination of the three bases of stop codons. The NIKS motif is responsible for recognition of the first two bases of UAA and UAG, and the Y-C-F motif identifies the second base of UGA by Gl-eRF1. Amino acid residue substitutions in Gl/Sc-eRF1 by corresponding residues of Sc-eRF1 could change and even restore RF activity, further suggesting different conformation of eRF1 are used for stop codon recognition in Giardia and in Saccharomyces. PMID:26310515

  6. Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose / Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdênia M. O., Souza; Iana R. F., Sales; Décio M., Peixoto; Vláudia M. Assis, Costa; José A., Rizzo; Almerinda R., Silva; Roberta Faria, Camilo; Felipe Faria, Pierotti; Dirceu, Solé; Emanuel S. C., Sarinho.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a [...] giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110). A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075), elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701), IgE específica (p = 0,250) ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between g [...] iardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

  7. Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguah Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. Method A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. Results The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%. Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. Conclusion Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples of children within the Ashanti Akim North Municipality and its prevalence significantly increases with age. Measures must be put in place to educate the community on proper personal hygiene to reduce giardiasis.

  8. A detailed look at the cytoskeletal architecture of the Giardia lamblia ventral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna R; Schwartz, Cindi L; Heumann, John M; Dawson, Scott C; Hoenger, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protistan parasite that infects and colonizes the small intestine of mammals. It is widespread and particularly endemic in the developing world. Here we present a detailed structural study by 3-D negative staining and cryo-electron tomography of a unique Giardia organelle, the ventral disc. The disc is composed of a regular array of microtubules and associated sheets, called microribbons that form a large spiral, held together by a myriad of mostly unknown associated proteins. In a previous study we analyzed by cryo-electron tomography the central microtubule portion (here called disc body) of the ventral disc and found a large portion of microtubule associated inner (MIPs) and outer proteins (MAPs) that render these microtubules hyper-stable. With this follow-up study we expanded our 3-D analysis to different parts of the disc such as the ventral and dorsal areas of the overlap zone, as well as the outer disc margin. There are intrinsic location-specific characteristics in the composition of microtubule-associated proteins between these regions, as well as large differences between the overall architecture of microtubules and microribbons. The lateral packing of microtubule-microribbon complexes varies substantially, and closer packing often comes with contracted lateral tethers that seem to hold the disc together. It appears that the marginal microtubule-microribbon complexes function as outer, laterally contractible lids that may help the cell to clamp onto the intestinal microvilli. Furthermore, we analyzed length, quantity, curvature and distribution between different zones of the disc, which we found to differ from previous publications. PMID:26821343

  9. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L than Giardia cysts (6/100 L, suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

  10. Identification of Giardia lamblia and the human infectious-species of Cryptosporidium in drinking water resources in Western Saudi Arabia by nested-PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawash, Y; Ghonaim, M; Hussein, Y; Alhazmi, A; Alturkistani, A

    2015-06-01

    The presence of Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in drinking water represents a major public health problem. This study was the first report concerned with the occurrence of these protozoa in drinking water in Saudi Arabia. The study was undertaken in Al-Taif, a high altitude region, Western Saudi Arabia. Eight underground wells water, six desalinated water and five domestic brands of bottled water samples, 10 liter each, were monthly collected between May 2013 and April 2014. All samples (n = 228), were processed using an automated wash/elution station (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.). Genomic DNA was directly isolated and purified from samples concentrates with QIAamp® Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen). The target protozoan DNA sequences were amplified using two previously published nested-PCR protocols. Of all the analyzed water, 31 samples (?14%) were found contaminated with the target protozoa. Giardia lamblia was detected in ?10% (7/72) of desalinated water and in ?9% (9/96) of wells water. On the other hand, Cryptosporidium was identified in ?8% (8/72) of desalinated water and in ?7% (7/96) of wells water. All bottled water samples (n = 60) were (oo)cysts-free. Protozoan (oo)cysts were more frequently identified in water samples collected in the spring than in other seasons. The methodology established in our study proved sensitive, cost-effective and is amenable for future automation or semi-automation. For better understanding of the current situation that represent an important health threat to the local inhabitants, further studies concerned with (oo)cyst viability, infectivity, concentration and genotype identification are recommended. PMID:26691249

  11. Evaluation Of Cytokines Changes In Patients Infected With Giardia lamblia In Comparison With Healthy Subjects

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    Mitra Zarebavani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Human Giardisis infection is caused by the flagellate protozoa. Giardia lamblia, which lives in the small intestine, causing damage and may also cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This parasitic disease has a worldwide distribution and prevalence varies from 5% to 30%. The role of both humeral and cellular immune response in the host defense against parasites has proven. Since an immune response is directly affected by cytokine, study of cytokines changes in patients with giardiosis is of particular importance. Materials and Methods: In this study the serum levels of IL-2 - 4 - 6 to 17 and 23 in patients and healthy subjects were measured and compared. Fasting blood samples were taken from the volunteers, ELISA was performed to measure cytokines. Results: In this study, the amount of IL-2 and IL-6 in infected patients was significantly more than the controls, but IL-4 levels were significantly lower in infected individuals (P=0.0001. Also for the first time in people with giardiasis IL-17 and IL-23 was measured and there was a significant aifference in these cytokines between the infected patients healthy controls(respectively P=0.044 and P=0.03 Conclusion: Host defense response against parasitic infections, is directly and affected by cytokines. Increased interleukin 2, 6, 17 and 23 in patients with Giardiosis was probably caused by immune response and local intestinal inflammation.

  12. Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2013-06-15

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

  13. Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach

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    Williams Christopher W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously appreciated. We suggest that the missing components of the exosome complex provide an explanation for the stable abundance of sterile RNA species in Giardia.

  14. X-ray structure and characterization of carbamate kinase from the human parasite Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Galkin, Andrey; Kulakova, Liudmila; Wu, Rui; Nash, Theodore E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of carbamate kinase from the human parasite G. lamblia has been determined at 3 Å resolution. Steady-state kinetic parameters have been determined and dsRNA-silencing experiments indicate that the enzyme is essential for the survival of G. lamblia.

  15. Comparative characterisation of two nitroreductases from Giardia lamblia as potential activators of nitro compounds

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    Joachim Müller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, a diarrhoeal disease affecting humans and various animal species. Nitro drugs such as the nitroimidazole metronidazole and the nitrothiazolide nitazoxanide are used for treatment of giardiasis. Nitroreductases such as GlNR1 and GlNR2 may play a role in activation or inactivation of these drugs. The aim of this work is to characterise these two enyzmes using functional assays. For respective analyses recombinant analogues from GlNR1 and GlNR2 were produced in Escherichia coli. E.?coli expressing GlNR1 and GlNR2 alone or together were grown in the presence of nitro compounds. Furthermore, pull-down assays were performed using HA-tagged GlNR1 and GlNR2 as baits. As expected, E.?coli expressing GlNR1 were more susceptible to metronidazole under aerobic and semi-aerobic and to nitazoxanide under semi-aerobic growth conditions whereas E.?coli expressing GlNR2 were susceptible to neither drug. Interestingly, expression of both nitroreductases gave the same results as expression of GlNR2 alone. In functional assays, both nitroreductases had their strongest activities on the quinone menadione (vitamin K3 and FAD, but reduction of nitro compounds including the nitro drugs metronidazole and nitazoxanide was clearly detected. Full reduction of 7-nitrocoumarin to 7-aminocoumarin was preferentially achieved with GlNR2. Pull-down assays revealed that GlNR1 and GlNR2 interacted in vivo forming a multienzyme complex. These findings suggest that both nitroreductases are multifunctional. Their main biological role may reside in the reduction of vitamin K analogues and FAD. Activation by GlNR1 or inactivation by GlNR2 of nitro drugs may be the consequence of a secondary enzymatic activity either yielding (GlNR1 or eliminating (GlNR2 toxic intermediates after reduction of these compounds.

  16. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN A WATERSHED RESERVOIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation evaluated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts at 17 sampling locations in Lake Texoma reservoir using method 1623 with standard Envirocheck™ capsule filters. The watershed serves rural agricultural communities active in cattle ranching, ...

  17. Method to enumerate oocysts of cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been recognized as etiological agents of gastrointestinal illness in humans with severe consequences on children and immunocompromised individuals. Water seems to be vehicle of infection. In last years many efforts have been done to evaluate a method to enumerate oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in waters. Throughout filtration and concentration steps, the two procedures proposed allow to enumerate oocysts and cysts belonging to the two genera of protozoa

  18. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María; Ager Jr.,Arba LeRoy; Lindo John Fitzgerald; Dubón José María; Neumeister Shondra Michelle; Baum Marianna Karas; Palmer Carol Jean

    1998-01-01

    During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 210...

  19. COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES / COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cardona

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniques have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD in the city of Manizales (Caldas were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan. RESUMEN: Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentración y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas. Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo.

  20. COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS / COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edwin, Cardona; Silvia, Castañeda; María Elena, Álvarez; Jorge Enrique, Pérez; Fredy Arvey, Rivera Páez; Germán Ariel, López Gartner.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentraci [...] ón y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD) de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas). Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto) y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo. Abstract in english The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniq [...] ues have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD) in the city of Manizales (Caldas) were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA) and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan.

  1. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J. A.; Riber, Ulla; Kurtzhals, J. A. L.; Enemark, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    assessed by seeding ColorSeed (10 replicates) into the filter unit followed by air backwash to a glass slide and counting of (oo-)cysts by epifluorescent microscopy. High recovery rates (meanSD) were found: 849%48 for Giardia cysts and 70%+/- 65 for Cryptosporidium oocysts. DNA of seeded wild type (oo...

  2. Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia

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    Gautam Pennathur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite.

  3. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

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    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA, low-zinc (ZnL, high-zinc (ZnH and supplemented-zinc (ZnS diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days. Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

  4. Voltage?dependent potassium currents expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes after injection of mRNA isolated from trophozoites of Giardia lamblia (strain Portland?1)

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Arturo; Jimenez?Cardoso, Enedina; Eligio?Garcia, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance as a health problem issue, almost nothing is known about the membrane physiology of Giardia lamblia and practically there exist no information so far regarding the variety and properties of ion channels that this protozoan parasite possesses. To address this subject we resorted to an indirect method, consisting in the injection of mRNA and further characterization of ion currents in Xenopus oocytes. In this work, we show that oocytes injected with mRNA isolated from cul...

  5. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

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    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

  6. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba / Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fidel Ángel, Núñez; Jorge Luis, López; Ana Margarita, de la Cruz; Carlos M., Finlay.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarr [...] eas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos. Abstract in english We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical sympt [...] oms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

  7. Occurrence of Giardia sp. cysts and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in faeces from public parks in the west of Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Grimason; Smith, H.V.; Parker, J. F.; Jackson, M. H.; Smith, P. G.; Girdwood, R W

    1993-01-01

    One hundred faecal specimens, randomly collected from various locations within seven public parks in the west of Scotland, were examined for the presence of Giardia sp. cysts and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. Eleven percent of samples contained Giardia sp. cysts and 1% contained Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. Occurrence data from individual parks varied from 0 to 40% for Giardia and 0 to 2.4% for Cryptosporidium. The occurrence of parasitic organisms in public parks, especially in the vicinity o...

  8. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryptosporidium and 17.14% for Giardia, the low rates were in Mosul city 10% for both protozoa. The highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium was in March 38.46% and the lowest was in November and July 0%. The highest prevalence rate of Giardia was in October 23.53% and the lowest rate in July 0%. This first study shows the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water (Ground water in Nineveh governorate.

  9. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J. A.; Riber, Ulla; Kurtzhals, J. A. L.; Enemark, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    AimsTo develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water.Methods and ResultsThis unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx. 400l. Changes in the viability was evaluated by seeding wild type (oo-)cysts (1x10(4)) followed by sonication for 5, 10, 20 or 40s (five replicates for each period). Flow cytometry analysis showed neg...

  10. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  11. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Fidel Ángel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  12. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    AimsTo develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water.Methods and ResultsThis unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx. 400l. Changes in the viability was evaluated by seeding wild type (oo-)cysts (1x10(4)) followed by sonication for 5, 10, 20 or 40s (five replicates for each period). Flow cytometry analysis showed negligible increase in the mortality of (oo-)cysts exposed to 5-10s of sonication. Recovery rate was assessed by seeding ColorSeed (10 replicates) into the filter unit followed by air backwash to a glass slide and counting of (oo-)cysts by epifluorescent microscopy. High recovery rates (meanSD) were found: 849%48 for Giardia cysts and 70%+/- 65 for Cryptosporidium oocysts. DNA of seeded wild type (oo-)cysts (1x10(2); 10 replicates) was successfully amplified using real-time PCR.ConclusionsThe use of a metallic filter, sonication and air backwash' were key factors for creating a highly efficient system for recovery of apparently undamaged protozoa.Significance and Impact of the StudyThis reagent-less system can be used for monitoring of parasite contamination in drinking water.

  13. Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon / Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Filipe Anibal, Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga, Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira, Lassance; Luanda Macedo da, Silva Neto; Carla Alexandra Almeida, Salmazo; Marcio Neves, Bóia.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além [...] de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z) para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI), altura-idade (AI), peso-altura (PA) e perímetro braquial-idade (PBI). Os exames parasitológicos foram realizados através dos métodos de Ritchie (n = 307), Kato-Katz (n = 278), Baermann-Moraes (n = 238) e Safranina-Azul-de-Metileno (n = 307). A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações independentes entre Giardia lamblia e PI (beta = -0.195, p = 0.003), PA (beta = -0.161, p = 0.018) e PBI (beta = -0.197, p = 0.011), após controle para idade, sexo, renda familiar e infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. O modelo multivariado demonstrou ainda que a única variável associada aos níveis de hemoglobina foi a idade. O estudo concluiu que a giardíase está associada, nos sujeitos pesquisados, a menores médias para os parâmetros antropométricos estudados e que um controle efetivo das parasitoses intestinais poderia contribuir para o pleno desenvolvimento das crianças na área estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and so [...] cioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ) parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307), Kato-Katz (n = 278), Baermann-Moraes (n = 238) and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307). Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282). Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242). Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003), WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018) and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011), controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.

  14. Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and socioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ, height for age (HAZ, weight for height (WHZ and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307. Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282. Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242. Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003, WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018 and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011, controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI, altura-idade (AI, peso-altura (PA e perímetro braquial-idade (PBI. Os exames parasitológicos foram realizados através dos métodos de Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 e Safranina-Azul-de-Metileno (n = 307. A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações independentes entre Giardia lamblia e PI (beta = -0.195, p = 0.003, PA (beta = -0.161, p = 0.018 e PBI (beta = -0.197, p = 0.011, após controle para idade, sexo, renda familiar e infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. O modelo multivariado demonstrou ainda que a única variável associada aos níveis de hemoglobina foi a idade. O estudo concluiu que a giardíase está associada, nos sujeitos pesquisados, a menores médias para os parâmetros antropométricos estudados e que um controle efetivo das parasitoses intestinais poderia contribuir para o pleno desenvolvimento das crianças na área estudada.

  15. Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice Are Highly Susceptible to Giardia lamblia Infection but Exhibit Normal Intestinal Immunoglobulin A Responses against the Parasite

    OpenAIRE

    Bienz, Marianne; Dai, Wen Juan; Welle, Monika; GOTTSTEIN, Bruno; Müller, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-deficient mice were infected with Giardia lamblia clone GS/M-83-H7. Murine IL-6 deficiency did not affect the synthesis of parasite-specific intestinal immunoglobulin A. However, in contrast to wild-type mice, IL-6-deficient animals were not able to control the acute phase of parasite infection. Reverse transcription-PCR-based quantitation of cytokine mRNA levels in peripheral lymph node cells exhibited a short-term up-regulation of IL-4 expression i...

  16. Rational Design Synthesis and Evaluation of First Generation Inhibitors of the Giardia Lamblia Fructose-1 6-biphosphate Aldolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z Li; Z Liu; D Cho; J Zou; M Gong; R Breece; A Galkin; L Li; H Zhao; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Inhibitors of the Giardia lamblia fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (GlFBPA), which transforms fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, were designed based on 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone and 1,2-dihydroxypyridine scaffolds that position two negatively charged tetrahedral groups for interaction with substrate phosphate binding residues, a hydrogen bond donor to the catalytic Asp83, and a Zn{sup 2+} binding group. The inhibition activities for the GlFBPA catalyzed reaction of FBP of the prepared alkyl phosphonate/phosphate substituted 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinones and a dihydroxypyridine were determined. The 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone inhibitor 8 was found to bind to GlFBPA with an affinity (K{sub i} = 14 {micro}M) that is comparable to that of FBP (K{sub m} = 2 {micro}M) or its inert analog TBP (K{sub i} = 1 {micro}M). The X-ray structure of the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex (2.3 {angstrom}) shows that 8 binds to the active site in the manner predicted by in silico docking with the exception of coordination with Zn{sup 2+}. The observed distances and orientation of the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH relative to Zn{sup 2+} are not consistent with a strong interaction. To determine if Zn{sup 2+} coordination occurs in the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex in solution, EXAFS spectra were measured. A four coordinate geometry comprised of the three enzyme histidine ligands and an oxygen atom from the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH was indicated. Analysis of the Zn{sup 2+} coordination geometries in recently reported structures of class II FBPAs suggests that strong Zn{sup 2+} coordination is reserved for the enediolate-like transition state, accounting for minimal contribution of Zn{sup 2+} coordination to binding of 8 to GlFBPA.

  17. Giardia Infection Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis & Detection Treatment Sources of Infection & Risk Factors Pathogen & Environment Prevention & Control Prevention & Control: General Public Giardia & ... J, Ley S, Felger I, Hemphill A, Muller N. Identification of differentially expressed genes in a Giardia lamblia ...

  18. Voltage-dependent potassium currents expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes after injection of mRNA isolated from trophozoites of Giardia lamblia (strain Portland-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Arturo; Jimenez-Cardoso, Enedina; Eligio-Garcia, Leticia

    2013-12-01

    Despite its importance as a health problem issue, almost nothing is known about the membrane physiology of Giardia lamblia and practically there exist no information so far regarding the variety and properties of ion channels that this protozoan parasite possesses. To address this subject we resorted to an indirect method, consisting in the injection of mRNA and further characterization of ion currents in Xenopus oocytes. In this work, we show that oocytes injected with mRNA isolated from cultured trophozoites of G. lamblia, strain Portland-1 express novel potassium currents that appear over the second day after injection and show time- and voltage-dependent activation followed by a slow inactivation. They start activating at -90 mV, with V1/2 of -30 mV; its time constant of activation (at +60 mV) is 0.11 sec, whereas that of inactivation is 1.92 sec, V1/2 = -44.6 mV. Such K currents were effectively blocked by K channel blockers TEA and 4AP, as well as Ba(2+), quinine, quinidine, charybdotoxin, dendrotoxin-1, capsaicin, margatoxin, and diltiazem. These results suggest that such currents are the result of expression of Giardia's voltage-gated K channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. PMID:24744864

  19. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette; Mogensen, Claus; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at...... predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia...... chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory....

  20. THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R SHAH MANSOURI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of 89.95±4.25 . Discussion. The comparison of the efficiency obtained with those obtained across the world from the application of other techniques associated with this method indicated that this filter was advantages to similar filters, keeping in mind also that this filter can be used in field situations. It is essential to modify in each region the method of cyst removal from sediments using Sucrose gradient according to the particular morphological characteristics and density of cystes. The optimization of Sucrose gradient and the centrifugation duration and speed seems equally important.

  1. Validation of housekeeping genes as an internal control for gene expression studies in Giardia lamblia using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Fierro, Francisco; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Garcia-Torres, Itzhel; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    2016-04-25

    The analysis of transcript levels of specific genes is important for understanding transcriptional regulation and for the characterization of gene function. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a powerful tool to quantify gene expression. The objective of this study was to identify reliable housekeeping genes in Giardia lamblia. Twelve genes were selected for this purpose, and their expression was analyzed in the wild type WB strain and in two strains with resistance to nitazoxanide (NTZ) and metronidazole (MTZ), respectively. RefFinder software analysis showed that the expression of the genes is different in the three strains. The integrated data from the four analyses showed that the NADH oxidase (NADH) and aldolase (ALD) genes were the most steadily expressed genes, whereas the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was the most unstable. Additionally, the relative expression of seven genes were quantified in the NTZ- and MTZ-resistant strains by RT-qPCR, using the aldolase gene as the internal control, and the results showed a consistent differential pattern of expression in both strains. The housekeeping genes found in this work will facilitate the analysis of mRNA expression levels of other genes of interest in G. lamblia. PMID:26778241

  2. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis cysts in the Oreto River (Sicily, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonella Di Benedetto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The presence of Giardia was investigated along the Oreto river between January 2008 and May 2009 with the aim of understanding the source of contamination by molecular typing of cysts.

    Methods: A total of 38 water samples (10 collected from the river mouth, 24 from the whole Oreto basin and 4 sewage samples from the Monreale treatment plant were processed. In addition, 22 faecal samples of livestock living close to the Oreto area, were analyzed. The presence of Giardia was determined by immunofluorescence assay and their genetic characterization was achieved by a nested PCR assay targeting the triosephosphate isomerase gene.

    Results: All water samples from the river mouth were positive for Giardia, even if the concentration of cysts fluctuated considerably among sampling occasions. Our investigation showed that the Vadduneddu and Altofonte torrents, two influents of the river, were the principal sources of contamination. Moreover, the genotypes of Vadduneddu torrent were the same as those detected in human wastewater taken from the activated sludge plant of Monreale city. Assemblages A and B were found in water samples with a predominance of Assemblage A, subtype AII. Assemblage E was only found in a single calf isolate.

    Conclusions: The data show that the high cyst counts regularly detected in the Oreto river are due to contamination with wastewater of human origin. This finding is relevant for public health, particularly because river water is used for agricultural purposes.

  3. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, M N S; Gad, J A; Riber, U; Kurtzhals, J A L; Enemark, H L

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water. METHODS AND RESULTS: This unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx. 400 ?l. Changes in the viability was evaluated by seeding wild type (oo-)cysts (1 × 10(4) ) followed by sonication for 5, 10, 20 or 40 s (five replicates for each period). Flow cytometry analysis...

  4. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

  5. Recovery of DNA of Giardia intestinalis cysts from surface water concentrates measured with PCR and real time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Adamska, M.; Leo?ska-Duniec, A; A Maciejewska; Sawczuk, M.; Skotarczak, B.

    2011-01-01

    The most important restriction for the detection in water samples is the low concentration of Giardia intestinalis cysts, additional difficulty is the presence of PCR inhibitors. We have carried out trials in order to assess the sensitivity of semi-nested PCR and TaqMan real time PCR on the basis of DNA extracted from G. intestinalis cysts coming from spiked environmental and distilled water samples, filtrated with the use of Filta-Max® equipment (1623 Method). Removal of inhibitors was carri...

  6. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, M N S; Gad, J A

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water. METHODS AND RESULTS: This unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx. 400 ?l. Changes in the viability was evaluated by seeding wild type (oo-)cysts (1 × 10(4) ) followed by sonication for 5, 10, 20 or 40 s (five replicates for each period). Flow cytometry analysis showed negligible increase in the mortality of (oo-)cysts exposed to 5-10 s of sonication. Recovery rate was assessed by seeding ColorSeed(™) (10 replicates) into the filter unit followed by air backwash to a glass slide and counting of (oo-)cysts by epifluorescent microscopy. High recovery rates (mean ± SD) were found: 84·9% ± 4·8 for Giardia cysts and 70% ± 6·5 for Cryptosporidium oocysts. DNA of seeded wild type (oo-)cysts (1 × 10(2) ; 10 replicates) was successfully amplified using real-time PCR. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a metallic filter, sonication and 'air backwash' were key factors for creating a highly efficient system for recovery of apparently undamaged protozoa. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This reagent-less system can be used for monitoring of parasite contamination in drinking water.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FILTRATION METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND CYST MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent occurrence of numerous outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis has renewed interest in water filtration for cyst removal. This paper presents an in-depth review of granular media and diatomaceous earth (D.E.) filtration research conducted in the 1930's and 1940's when Entamoeba...

  8. Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O-. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, can be facilitated by sonication. Methods: We studied the effects of ultrasound with different sonication power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection of parasites for further study. The specific operational conditions may be tailored to control survival rates and collection efficiency.

  9. Apo And Calcium-Bound Crystal Structures of Alpha-11 Giardin, An Unusual Annexin From 'Giardia Lamblia'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathuri, P.; Nguyen, E.T.; Svard, S.G.; Luecke, H.; /UC, Irvine /Uppsala U. /Karolinska Inst.

    2007-07-12

    Alpha-11 giardin is a member of the multi-gene alpha-giardin family in the intestinal protozoan, Giardia lamblia. This gene family shares an ancestry with the annexin super family, whose common characteristic is calcium-dependent binding to membranes that contain acidic phospholipids. Several alpha giardins are highly expressed during parasite-induced diarrhea in humans. Despite being a member of a large family of proteins, little is known about the function and cellular localization of alpha-11 giardin, although giardins are often associated with the cytoskeleton. It has been shown that Giardia exhibits high levels of alpha-11 giardin mRNA transcript throughout its life cycle; however, constitutive over-expression of this protein is lethal to the parasite. Determining the three-dimensional structure of an alpha-giardin is essential to identifying functional domains shared in the alpha-giardin family. Here we report the crystal structures of the apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound forms of alpha-11 giardin, the first alpha giardin to be characterized structurally. Crystals of apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin diffracted to 1.1 angstroms and 2.93 angstroms, respectively. The crystal structure of selenium-substituted apo alpha-11 giardin reveals a planar array of four tandem repeats of predominantly {alpha}-helical domains, reminiscent of previously determined annexin structures, making this the highest-resolution structure of an annexin to date. The apo alpha-11 giardin structure also reveals a hydrophobic core formed between repeats I/IV and II/III, a region typically hydrophilic in other annexins. Surprisingly, the Ca{sup 2+}-bound structure contains only a single calcium ion, located in the DE loop of repeat I and coordinated differently from the two types of calcium sites observed in previous annexin structures. The apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin structures assume overall similar conformations; however, Ca2+-bound alpha-11 giardin crystallized in a lower-symmetry space group with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. Vesicle-binding studies suggest that alpha-11 giardin, unlike most other annexins, does not bind to vesicles composed of acidic phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner.

  10. PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbabak

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

  11. Recovery of DNA of Giardia intestinalis cysts from surface water concentrates measured with PCR and real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, M; Leo?ska-Duniec, A; Maciejewska, A; Sawczuk, M; Skotarczak, B

    2011-11-01

    The most important restriction for the detection in water samples is the low concentration of Giardia intestinalis cysts, additional difficulty is the presence of PCR inhibitors. We have carried out trials in order to assess the sensitivity of semi-nested PCR and TaqMan real time PCR on the basis of DNA extracted from G. intestinalis cysts coming from spiked environmental and distilled water samples, filtrated with the use of Filta-Max® equipment (1623 Method). Removal of inhibitors was carried out with addition of BSA in different concentrations. During the filtration and concentration of water samples, losses of cysts have been recorded. Moreover, addition of BSA to the PCR and real time PCR mix increases the sensitivity of reaction. The optimal concentration of BSA for semi?nested PCR was 15 and 20 ng/?l, whereas for real time PCR 5 ng/?l. PMID:22091466

  12. Comparative Analysis of the 15.5kD Box C/D snoRNP Core Protein in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia Reveals Unique Structural and Functional Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Shyamasri; Buhrman, Greg; Gagnon, Keith; Mattos, Carla; Brown, II, Bernard A.; Maxwell, E. Stuart (NCSU); (UTSMC)

    2012-07-11

    Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) guide the 2'-O-methylation of targeted nucleotides in archaeal and eukaryotic rRNAs. The archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD box C/D RNP core protein homologues initiate RNP assembly by recognizing kink-turn (K-turn) motifs. The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 {angstrom}. The Giardia 15.5kD protein exhibits the typical {alpha}-{beta}-{alpha} sandwich fold exhibited by both archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD proteins. Characteristic of eukaryotic homologues, the Giardia 15.5kD protein binds the K-turn motif but not the variant K-loop motif. The highly conserved residues of loop 9, critical for RNA binding, also exhibit conformations similar to those of the human 15.5kD protein when bound to the K-turn motif. However, comparative sequence analysis indicated a distinct evolutionary position between Archaea and Eukarya. Indeed, assessment of the Giardia 15.5kD protein in denaturing experiments demonstrated an intermediate stability in protein structure when compared with that of the eukaryotic mouse 15.5kD and archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae proteins. Most notable was the ability of the Giardia 15.5kD protein to assemble in vitro a catalytically active chimeric box C/D RNP utilizing the archaeal M. jannaschii Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins. In contrast, a catalytically competent chimeric RNP could not be assembled using the mouse 15.5kD protein. Collectively, these analyses suggest that the G. lamblia 15.5kD protein occupies a unique position in the evolution of this box C/D RNP core protein retaining structural and functional features characteristic of both archaeal L7Ae and higher eukaryotic 15.5kD homologues.

  13. Immunolocalization of Delta-Giardin within the Ventral Disc in of Trophozoites and in cysts of Giardia duodenalis using the Multiplex Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunolocalization of alpha2-, beta- and delta-giardin in Giardia showed that in the trophozoites and cysts delta-giardin it strictly associated with the ventral disc. Optical sectioning of the ventral discs, together with quantitative colocalization of the immunoreactivity for delta- and beta-giard...

  14. NL MIND-BEST: a web server for ligands and proteins discovery--theoretic-experimental study of proteins of Giardia lamblia and new compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Haddad, Mohamed; Maurel Chevalley, Séverine; Valentin, Alexis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Dea-Ayuela, María A; Teresa Gomez-Muños, María; Munteanu, Cristian R; José Torres-Labandeira, Juan; García-Mera, Xerardo; Tapia, Ricardo A; Ubeira, Florencio M

    2011-05-01

    There are many protein ligands and/or drugs described with very different affinity to a large number of target proteins or receptors. In this work, we selected Ligands or Drug-target pairs (DTPs/nDTPs) of drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different targets. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models become a very useful tool in this context to substantially reduce time and resources consuming experiments. Unfortunately most QSAR models predict activity against only one protein target and/or have not been implemented in the form of public web server freely accessible online to the scientific community. To solve this problem, we developed here a multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR) classifier using the MARCH-INSIDE technique to calculate structural parameters of drug and target plus one Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) to seek the model. The best ANN model found is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with profile MLP 20:20-15-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 611 out of 678 DTPs (sensitivity=90.12%) and 3083 out of 3408 nDTPs (specificity=90.46%), corresponding to training accuracy=90.41%. The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series. The model classifies correctly 310 out of 338 DTPs (sensitivity=91.72%) and 1527 out of 1674 nDTP (specificity=91.22%) in validation series, corresponding to total accuracy=91.30% for validation series (predictability). This model favorably compares with other ANN models developed in this work and Machine Learning classifiers published before to address the same problem in different aspects. We implemented the present model at web portal Bio-AIMS in the form of an online server called: Non-Linear MARCH-INSIDE Nested Drug-Bank Exploration & Screening Tool (NL MIND-BEST), which is located at URL: http://miaja.tic.udc.es/Bio-AIMS/NL-MIND-BEST.php. This online tool is based on PHP/HTML/Python and MARCH-INSIDE routines. Finally we illustrated two practical uses of this server with two different experiments. In experiment 1, we report by first time Quantum QSAR study, synthesis, characterization, and experimental assay of antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of oxoisoaporphine alkaloids derivatives as well as NL MIND-BEST prediction of potential target proteins. In experiment 2, we report sampling, parasite culture, sample preparation, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF, and -TOF/TOF MS, MASCOT search, MM/MD 3D structure modeling, and NL MIND-BEST prediction for different peptides a new protein of the found in the proteome of the human parasite Giardia lamblia, which is promising for anti-parasite drug-targets discovery. PMID:21277861

  15. The abundance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in treated effluents produced by four wastewater treatment plants in the Gauteng Province of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Dungeni; MNB, Momba.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of 4 wastewater treatment plants of the Gauteng Province, namely Zeekoegat, Baviaanspoort, Rayton and Refilwe Water Care Works (WCW), in the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Wastewater influent and treated effluent samples were taken w [...] eekly between January and April 2008. Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts were detected by immunofluorescence and immunomagnetic separation, according to a modified US EPA 1623 method. Effluent samples were subjected to a molecular study for the identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype I and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A. The 18S rRNA gene for restriction digests was therefore used to characterise these (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were repeatedly detected in effluent samples collected from all wastewater treatments at lower concentration (range

  16. Recovery of Cryptosporidium and Giardia organisms from surface water by counter-flow refining microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos

    2013-01-01

    As waterborne parasitic cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks continue globally, monitoring of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in surface water continues to be challenging. Lack of non-clogging and high-efficiency methods for recovery of C. parvum oocysts and G. lamblia cysts in environmental water strongly limits the sensitivity of detection methods for these protozoan organisms. In this work, the Counter-Flow Micro-Refinery (CFMR) system was developed by employing the novel counter-flow microfiltration principle to enrich (oo)cysts for subsequent analytical purposes. The CFMR system was constructed with multiple counter-flow concentration units that were arranged into two refining levels. By use of different numbers of units, the CFMR offered an adjustable concentration ratio allowing the concentration of 10 L and 100 L to hundreds of mL with no recirculation processing. With spiked samples, recovery of 81.3% oocysts and 86.2% cysts at a variance of efficiency showed consistent for a wide range of water turbidities as well as different sample volumes. No significant clogging has been observed in the experiments. Moreover, the refining filter was able to enrich and separate oocysts and cysts in water, simultaneously. This work verifies a feasible solution for recovering C. parvum oocysts and G. lamblia cysts in large-volume surface waters. The refining system has potential to be a high-efficiency monitoring tool when combined with proper analytical detection methods. PMID:24527615

  17. Method to enumerate oocysts of cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water; Metodi per il rilevamento dei cisti e oocisti di protozoi patogeni nelle acque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briancesco, R.; Bonadonna, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    2000-02-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been recognized as etiological agents of gastrointestinal illness in humans with severe consequences on children and immunocompromised individuals. Water seems to be vehicle of infection. In last years many efforts have been done to evaluate a method to enumerate oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in waters. Throughout filtration and concentration steps, the two procedures proposed allow to enumerate oocysts and cysts belonging to the two genera of protozoa. [Italian] Cryptosporidium e Giardia sono protozoi parassiti responsabili di gravi forme di gastroenterite nell'uomo e in particolare negli individui immunocompromessi e nei bambini. Perche' e' considerata il primo veicolo di infezione, il controllo della diffusione dei due parassiti nei corpi idrici, pone come prioritaria la necessita' di disporre di metodi di analisi facilmente applicabili ed efficienti. Attraverso fasi di filtrazione e di concentrazione, i metodi di seguito proposti consentono la determinazione quantitativa, a livello di genere, di oocisti di Cryptosporidium e di cisti di Giardia nelle acque.

  18. Development of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Giardia and analysis of the prevalence, cyst shedding and genotypes of Giardia present in sheep across four states in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-02-01

    A novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Giardia at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus was developed and validated. The qPCR was used to screen a total of 3412 lamb faecal samples collected from approximately 1189 lambs at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms across South Australia (SA), New South Wales (NSW), Victoria (Vic) and Western Australia (WA). The overall prevalence was 20.2% (95% CI 18.9-21.6) and of the 690 positives, 473 were successfully typed. In general, the prevalence of Giardia varied widely across the different farms with the highest prevalence in one WA farm (42.1%) at pre-slaughter sampling and the lowest prevalence in one Victorian farm (7.2%) at weaning. The range of cyst shedding at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter overall across all states was 63-1.3×10(9) cysts g(-1) (median=1.7×10(4)), 63-1.1×10(9) cysts g(-1) (median=9.6×10(3)), 63-4.7×10(9) cysts g(-1) (median=8.1×10(4)) respectively. Assemblage specific primers at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) locus identified assemblage A in 22.4% (106/473) of positive samples typed, assemblage E in 75.9% (359/473) and mixed A and E assemblages in 1.7% (8/473) of samples. A subset of representative samples from the 8 farms (n=32) were typed at both the gdh and beta-giardin loci and confirmed these results and identified sub-assemblage AII in 16 representative assemblage A isolates across the 8 farms. This demonstrates a prevalence of Giardia previously not recognised in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research to quantify the production impacts of this protozoan parasite. PMID:24355868

  19. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Shrivastava, Arpit; Smith, Woutrina A; Sahu, Priyadarshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmental loading rates. Oocysts/cysts were detected in 12% of diarrhea patients. Detection ranged from 0% to 35% for Cryptosporidium and 0% to 67% for Giardia across animal hosts. Animal loading estimates indicate the greatest contributors of environmental oocysts/cysts in the study region are cattle. Ponds were contaminated with both protozoa (oocysts: 37%, cysts: 74%), as were tube wells (oocysts: 10%, cysts: 14%). Future research should address the public health concern highlighted from these findings and investigate the role of domestic animals in diarrheal disease transmission in this and similar settings. PMID:26123963

  20. Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Urbano dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambaia, Campinas, em São Paulo. As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL, 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV. Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise.In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo. The samples were collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL, 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL, and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

  1. Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos / Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Urbano dos, Santos; Romeu, Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno, Franco; José Roberto, Guimarães.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambai [...] a, Campinas, em São Paulo). As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL), 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL) e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV). Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise. Abstract in english In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo). The samples we [...] re collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL), 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL), and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV). Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

  2. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  3. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  4. Giardia and Vilem Dusan Lambl.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 5 (2014), e2686. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : History of Science * Giardia lamblia * Infectious disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  5. Occurrence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in the City of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco RMB

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of bottled mineral water has significantly increased in Brazil so that it is in the interest of public health to determine the parasitological and microbiological status of some brands of Brazilian mineral water available in the town of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, detection of protozoa by direct immunofluorescence technique and microbiological parameters were determined for each specimen after membrane filtration. Giardia cysts were not present while cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in two samples. The counts of protozoa varied from 0.2 to 0.5 oocysts/l. The detected level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic bacteria reflected the level of organic enrichment of the water.

  6. Occurrence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in the City of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RMB, Franco; R, Cantusio Neto.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of bottled mineral water has significantly increased in Brazil so that it is in the interest of public health to determine the parasitological and microbiological status of some brands of Brazilian mineral water available in the town of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, [...] detection of protozoa by direct immunofluorescence technique and microbiological parameters were determined for each specimen after membrane filtration. Giardia cysts were not present while cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in two samples. The counts of protozoa varied from 0.2 to 0.5 oocysts/l. The detected level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic bacteria reflected the level of organic enrichment of the water.

  7. Molecular typing of canine Giardia duodenalis isolates from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Natália M N; Soares, Rodrigo M; Scalia, Luana A M; Rodrigues da Cunha, Maria Júlia; Faria, Elaine S M; Cury, Márcia Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia) is a widespread intestinal parasite in mammals, including humans and pets worldwide. It should be considered a species complex and comprises eight assemblage (A-H). This works aimed to determine the genotypic variability among G. duodenalis isolates from dogs from Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Fecal samples of 97 dogs, from 1-to-10 months old from 15 commercial kennels, were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation technique, to determine their positivity for G. duodenalis cysts. Cysts pellets were stored and submitted to PCR and nested-PCR reactions with gdh and tpi primers, and then sequencing. Among positive samples (n = 19), fragment amplifications of gdh and tpi genes was observed in 16 (84,2%) and 14 (73,6%), respectively. In total, 30 sequences were obtained. Sequencing analysis showed that for gdh, all isolates were identified as host-specific genotype D, and for tpi, besides host-specific genotype C, were also observed zoonotic genotypes A and B. This study provides, for the first time, current information about genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates found in dogs in Minas Gerais state. PMID:26704664

  8. Validity of silver, chitosan, and curcumin nanoparticles as anti-Giardia agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, D E; Elsamad, L M; Gohar, Y M

    2012-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anti parasitic potential of silver, chitosan, and curcumin nanoparticles as anti-Giardia agents. Non-treated infected control rats were inoculated with Giardia lamblia cysts in a dose of 2?×?10(5) cysts/rat. Experimental group was infected then treated with curcumin, curcumin nanoparticles, chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles, and silver nanoparticles as single or combined therapy. The number of Giardia cysts in stools and trophozoites in intestinal sections were detected. Toxicity of nanoparticles was evaluated by comparing hematological and histopathological parameters of the normal control group and treated non-infected control group. The amount of silver was also measured in the liver, kidney, small intestine, lung, and brain of rats treated with silver nanoparticles. The number of the parasites in stool and small intestinal sections decreased in treated infected rats compared with infected non-treated ones. The effect in the single therapy was better with nanoparticles, and the best effect was detected in nano-silver. The combined therapy gave better results than single. Combination between nanoparticles was better than the combination of nano-forms and native chitosan and curcumin. The best effect was detected in combinations of nano-silver and nano-chitosan but with no full eradication. In conclusion, the highest effect and complete cure was gained by combining the three nano-forms. The parasite was successfully eradicated from stool and intestine. None of the treatments exhibited any toxicity. Accumulated silver in different organs was within the safe limits. PMID:22392135

  9. Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani

    Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods. Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively.Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

  10. Giardia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water. Diarrhea is the main symptom of giardia infection. Others include Passing gas Greasy stools Stomach cramps ... people have no symptoms at all. Symptoms of infection often last two to six weeks. Stool sample ...

  11. Comparison of Routine Method with Antibody and Antigen Ones for Diagnosing Giardia-Entamoeba Histolytica in Stool and Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharavi, MJ. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are the most prevalent human intestinal pathogenic protozoa, worldwide. The clinical features of Giardia infection are acute diarrhea, a chronic condition with continuous diarrhea and malabsorption. Entamoeba histolytica invade intestinal tract without any typical clinical indications, and it can involve liver and other organs too. Therefore, we aimed to study these protozoa by serological and parasitological methods. Material and Methods: In this comparative study, the stool and blood specimens were collected from 1025 patients selected via simple random sampling in three different laboratories located in Tehran and Karaj, Iran (2012. Formalin Detergent test was performed on all samples. Both serum and stool positive samples of this method were analyzed for antigen and antibodies related to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, respectively. Results: of 1025 stool specimens, 76 (4.7% were positive for Giardia lamblia and 19 (1.8% for Entamoeba histolytica using Formalin-detergent method. In ELISA, 81 (7.9% coproantibodies to Giardia lamblia and 24 (2.3% coproantibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, 78 (7.6% corproantigen for Giardia lamblia, and 5 (0.4% for Entamoeba histolytica were observed. circulatory antibodies to Entamoeba histlytica were detected in 22 cases (2.1% Conclusion: Sensitivity of microscopic method compared to serological methods is higher than 90%; therefore, Formalin-detergent method can be the best method for stool examination.

  12. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed. PMID:26301853

  13. Evaluation of Three Commercial Assays for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Organisms in Fecal Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Stephanie P.; Ballard, Melissa M.; Beach, Michael J; Causer, Louise; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for diagnostic testing for Giardia intestinalis (G. lamblia) and Cryptosporidium parvum, with a priority being placed on obtaining diagnostic results in an efficient and timely manner. Several commercial companies have developed rapid diagnostic tests that are simple to perform and can be completed in less time than traditional methods for detecting Giardia and Cryptosporidium. We compared one of these rapid tests, the ImmunoCard STAT! (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.)...

  14. First record of Giardia in cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in cattle and to be transmitted to other animal species and humans, finding the parasite in cattle may be of major epidemiological significance. Future ...

  15. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational water in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Md Amimul; Casaert, Stijn; Levecke, Bruno; Van Rooy, Liesbet; Pelicaen, Joachim; Smis, Anne; De Backer, Joke; Vervaeke, Bart; De Smedt, Sandra; Schoonbaert, Filip; Lammens, Saskia; Warmoes, Thierry; Geurden, Thomas; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different recreational water bodies in Belgium and to estimate the infection risk associated with swimming and other recreational activities. Cryptosporidium oocysts and/or Giardia cysts were detected in three out of 37 swimming pools, seven out of 10 recreational lakes, two out of seven splash parks and four out of 16 water fountains. In the swimming pools no infection risk for Cryptosporidium could be calculated, since oocysts were only detected in filter backwash water. The risk of Giardia infection in the swimming pools varied from 1.13×10(-6) to 2.49×10(-6) per swim per person. In recreational lakes, the infection risk varied from 2.79×10(-5) to 5.74×10(-5) per swim per person for Cryptosporidium and from 7.04×10(-5) to 1.46×10(-4) for Giardia. For other outdoor water recreation activities the estimated infection risk was 5.71×10(-6) for Cryptosporidium and 1.47×10(-5) for Giardia. However, most positive samples in the recreational lakes belonged to species/genotypes that are either animal-specific or predominantly found in animals. No Cryptosporidium was found in splash parks and water fountains, but the presence of Giardia cysts suggests a risk for human infection. The infection risk of Giardia infection during a 3.5-minute visit to a splash park for children equalled 1.68×10(-4). PMID:26322773

  16. Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in water bodies of Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mean concentration (per litre) of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in recreational river areas (n = 28), drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs; n = 52) and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs; n = 50) in Galicia (NW Spain). Water samples from rivers and from the influent (50-100 l) and the treated effluent (100 l) of the water plants were filtered using Filta-Max filters (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA). A total of 232 samples were processed and the (oo)cysts were concentrated, clarified by IMS and then detected by IFAT. The viability was determined by applying fluorogenic vital dye (PI). In the recreational areas, infective forms of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 16 (57.1%; 1-60 oocysts per litre) and 17 (60.7%; 1-160 cysts per litre) samples, respectively. In the water flowing into the water treatment plants, oocysts were detected in 21 DWTPs (40.4%; 1-13 oocysts per litre) and cysts were observed in 22 DWTPs (42.3%; 1-7 cysts per litre). In the effluents from the treatment plants, Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were identified in 17 DWTPs (32.7%; 1-4 oocysts per litre) and in 19 DWTPs (36.5%; 1-5 cysts per litre), respectively. The highest concentrations of (oo)cysts were found in the WWTPs; specifically, oocysts were detected in 29 (58.0%; 1-80 oocysts per litre) and cysts in 49 (98.0%; 2-14.400 cysts per litre) WWTP effluents. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 32 (64.0%; 1-120 oocysts per litre) and 48 (96.0%; 2-6.000 cysts per litre) WWTP effluents, respectively. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0%. In all samples analysed. Moreover, it was found that the effluents from coastal WWTPs were discharged directly into the sea, while inland WWTPs were discharged directly into rivers. The concentrations of both enteropathogens detected in effluents from WWTPs therefore represent a significant risk to human and animal health. These results demonstrate the wide distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the environment, the ineffectiveness of treatments in DWTPs and WWTPs in reducing/inactivating both protozoa and the need to monitor the presence, viability and infectivity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water bodies. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. PMID:20673950

  17. Giardia and Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Prevention & Control Prevention & Control: General Public Giardia & Pets Information for Specific Groups Information for the Public ... The page you requested has moved to Giardia & Pets. File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  18. Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos / Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosangela C., Paulino; Edilene A., Castro; Vanete, Thomaz-Soccol.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado ( [...] RALF), na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5,5%), Trichuris sp (4,5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%), H. nana (1%) e Taenia sp (0,4%), Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal. Abstract in english This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%), Toxocara sp (5.5%), Trichuris sp (4.5%), Hymenolepis [...] diminuta (3.7%), H. nana (1%) and Taenia sp (0.4%), protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

  19. Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela C. Paulino

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado (RALF, na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5,5%, Trichuris sp (4,5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%, H. nana (1% e Taenia sp (0,4%, Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal.This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5.5%, Trichuris sp (4.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3.7%, H. nana (1% and Taenia sp (0.4%, protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives, seeking to reduce the risks for human and animal health.

  20. Renal Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal Cysts Renal cysts are sacs of fluid that form in the kidneys. They are usually characterized ... evaluated? How are renal cysts treated? What are renal cysts? Renal cysts are sacs of fluid that ...

  1. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Duque-Beltrán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate. One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%; specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%; positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%; and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%. This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

  2. “Comparación de técnicas de laboratorio para el diagnóstico de Giardia intestinalis” / “Comparison of Laboratory Techniques For the Diagnosis of Giardia Intestinalis”

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. Marinella, Calchi L; E, Acurero; R, Villalobos; M, Colina; L, Di Toro; C, Villalobos.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluar la sensibilidad y especificidad de tres técnicas de laboratorio para el diagnóstico de Giardia intestinalis. Materiales y Métodos: 31 muestras de heces provenientes de niños en edad preescolar, se procesaron a través del examen microscópico con SSF-lugol, método de concentración de Ritchie y [...] método inmunológico “Giardia-Strip”. La Técnica de Ritchie fue considerada como “Gold Standard”. Resultados: Se identificaron quistes de Giardia intestinalis en 6 muestras (19,35%) a través de la técnica de Ritchie. La técnica del examen al fresco identificó en 5 de ellas quistes del protozoario (16,1%), mostrando una sensibilidad de 83% y especificidad del 100%. La técnica Giardia-Strip identificó quistes en 4 muestras (12,9%) con sensibilidad de 66,66% y especificidad del 100%. El valor predictivo positivo para el método de “Giardia-Strip” fue 14% y valor predictivo negativo de 93%. El examen al fresco mostró valor predictivo positivo del 100% y valor predictivo negativo de 96%. Conclusiones: El concentrado de Ritchie y el examen al fresco mostraron mayor sensibilidad y especificidad en el diagnóstico de Giardia intestinalis, cuando las muestras contienen solo quistes. Sin embargo, el método Giardia-Strip, demostró mayor rapidez en la obtención de los resultados. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of three laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of Giardia intestinalis. Materials and Methods: 31 fecal samples from preschoolers were submitted to microscopic examination with SSF-Lugol, the Ritchie concentration method and the “Giardia-Strip [...] ” immunological method. The Ritchie technique was considered the “gold standard.“ Results: G. intestinalis cysts were identified in 6 samples (19.35%) using the Ritchie technique. The fresh test identified 5 cases of protozoan cysts (16.1%), showing a sensitivity of 83 % and specificity of 100 %. The Giardia-Strip identified cysts in 4 samples (12.9%) with 66.66 % sensitivity and 100% specificity. The positive predictive value for the “Giardia Strip” method was 14% and the negative predictive value was 93%. The fresh test showed a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96 %. Conclusions: Ritchie concentrate and the fresh test showed higher sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of Giardia intestinalis, when samples contain only cysts. However, the Giardia-Strip method proved faster in obtaining results.

  3. Tarlov Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Tarlov Cysts Information Page Synonym(s): Perineural Cysts, Sacral Nerve Root ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What are Tarlov Cysts? Tarlov cysts are sacs filled with cerebrospinal fluid ...

  4. First investigations into the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in Hungarian drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutzer, J; Takó, M H; Márialigeti, K; Törökné, A; Karanis, P

    2007-12-01

    Safe drinking water is a top priority in preventing disease outbreaks and is of general concern to everyone. This study examines the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Hungarian drinking water supplies for the first time. A total of 76 raw and drinking water samples were examined using the U.S. EPA Method 1623. From these 15 of 34 (48.4%) raw water samples tested positive for Giardia and 7 (26.6%) for Cryptosporidium. Twelve of 45 (26.7%) drinking water samples were positive for Giardia and 6 (13.3%) for Cryptosporidium. Overall, Giardia cysts and/or Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 48% of the raw water samples and 35% of the drinking water samples. The highest levels in drinking water were found to be 3 oocysts/100 litres of Cryptosporidium and 63.6 cysts/100 litres for Giardia, enough to cause giardiasis. The highest levels in raw water were 1,030 cysts/100 litres for Giardia and 50 oocysts/100 litres for Cryptosporidium and higher oocyst densities were associated with source water receiving effluents from sewage treatment plants or originating from a forest environment. In addition to this monitoring, riverbank filtrated water and raw water from the River Danube in Budapest were monitored in order to ascertain protozoan removal efficiency of riverbank filtration (RBF). A total of 157 samples, including 87 samples from the River Danube and 70 samples post RBF, were examined. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected regularly in the river water but never in riverbank filtered water suggesting the effectiveness of RBF as a purification method. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in the investigated water supplies may require the water utilities and water authorities in Hungary to apply additional monitoring and treatment and/or watershed controls. PMID:17878568

  5. ULTRASTRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIA, VIRAL-LIKE PARTICLES, AND MYCOPLASMA-LIKE ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH 'GIARDIA' SPP. (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia trophozoites and cysts, isolated from mammalian and avian hosts, were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by fluorescent light microscopy for the presence of microbial symbionts. Mycroplasma-like organisms were obser...

  6. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James A; Amat, Christina B; Buret, Andre G

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host's immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed. PMID:26569316

  7. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz e Silva, Flávio M; E Silva, Paz; Monobe, Marina M; Lopes, Raimundo S; Araujo, João P

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia) is a widespread enteric pathogen in human and domestic animals. This organism is one of the most common parasites in domestic dogs in Brazil. In this study, we determined the occurrence and genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolated from dogs from south-central São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 300 fecal samples were collected. Fecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy (zinc sulfate solution flotation technique) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes. Genetic characterization was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and sequencing analysis of the GDH gene. In addition, selected samples were further characterized by RFLP and sequencing of the ?-giardin gene. The overall occurrence of G. duodenalis was 17.3% (52/300). The occurrence was higher in stray dogs (28%) than in household dogs (6.25%). Of the 36 PCR-positive samples that were selected for genotyping, only dog-specific genotype C (20 isolates), D (11 isolates) and mixed C?+?D (five isolates) isolates were detected in the study. This study provides current information on the infection rates of G. duodenalis genotypes in canine populations and describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D genotypes in dogs in Brazil. These genotypes were widespread and commonly found in domestic dogs living in urban and suburban environments of the studied area and confirmed the endemic status of Giardia in this region. PMID:21695567

  8. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2012-06-01

    Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points in at least one of the three applied diagnostic techniques within 33-61 days after treatment. Furthermore, all dogs had episodes of diarrhea (for 1-4 days) within 14-31 days after treatment and unformed feces during the whole experiment. The positive effect of ronidazole against Giardia infections in dogs could be confirmed in this study. In particular, the combination of ronidazole treatment combined with the disinfection of the environment and shampooing of the dogs was highly effective in reducing Giardia cyst excretion and may therefore constitute an alternative control strategy for canine giardiosis. PMID:22240238

  9. Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Human and Animal Reservoirs by PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeel Fallah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia duodenalis from human and animal feces and their epidemiological in Iran. Molecular characterization of cysts of human and animal origin represents an objective means to approve or reject this hypothesis. In this study, cysts of Giardia duodenalis were collected from feces of naturally infected cats (n = 2, human (n = 34, dog (n = 2 and cattle (n = 3. PCR-RFLP analysis of the 34 specimens recovered from humans revealed 6 G. duodenalis assemblage AII, 8 G. duodenalis assemblage BIII and 4 G. duodenalis assemblage BIV. Among samples from cats, 1 was classified into assemblage AI. Genetic subgenotypes identified from human reveals that genetic diversity of this protozoan in East Azerbaijan, Iran, is similar to that of Giardia from other parts of the world. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. duodenalis genotypes in Iran.

  10. Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity but only 71% sensitivity. The Giardia ELISA correlated well with IF (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%) and was capable of detecting animal specific Giardia duodenalis genotypes. Visual interpretation appeared appropriate for assessment of ELISA results. The proportion of positive samples and possible zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs

  11. Giardia Infection Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Illness & Symptoms Diagnosis & Detection Treatment Sources of Infection & Risk Factors Pathogen & Environment Prevention & Control Prevention & Control: General Public Giardia & Pets Information ...

  12. Potential role of beavers (Castor fiber in contamination of water in the Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland with protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible influence of beavers on the contamination of lake water with zoonotic parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., with respect to the risk to human health. A total of 79 water samples were taken around the habitats of beavers from 14 localities situated in the recreational Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland. Water was sampled in the spring and autumn seasons, at different distances from beavers’ lodges (0-2, 10, 30, and 50 m. The samples were examined for the presence of (oocysts of zoonotic protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by direct fluorescence assay (DFA and by nested and real time PCR. By DFA, the presence of Giardia cysts was found in 36 samples (45.6% and the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 26 samples (32.9%. Numbers of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and summarised (oocysts of both parasites showed a significant variation depending on locality. The numbers of Giardia cysts significantly decreased with the distance from beavers’ lodges while the numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts did not show such dependence. The amount of Giardia cysts in samples collected in spring was approximately 3 times higher than in autumn. Conversely, a larger number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples collected in autumn than in spring. By PCR, Giardia DNA was found in 38 samples (48.1% whereas DNA of Cryptosporidium was found in only 7 samples (8.9%. Eleven Giardia isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or sequencing which evidenced their belonging to zoonotic assemblages: A (3 isolates and B (8 isolates. In conclusion, water in the vicinity of beavers’ lodges in the tested region was markedly contaminated with (oocysts of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which confirms the potential role of beavers as a reservoir of these parasites and indicates a need for implementation of appropriate preventive measures to protect tourists’ health.

  13. Myxoid Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview A myxoid cyst, also known as a digital mucous cyst or pseudocyst, is a growth usually ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ...

  14. Ovarian Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries and with getting pregnant. ... cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries and with getting pregnant. ...

  15. Evaluation of three commercial assays for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium organisms in fecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephanie P; Ballard, Melissa M; Beach, Michael J; Causer, Louise; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2003-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for diagnostic testing for Giardia intestinalis (G. lamblia) and Cryptosporidium parvum, with a priority being placed on obtaining diagnostic results in an efficient and timely manner. Several commercial companies have developed rapid diagnostic tests that are simple to perform and can be completed in less time than traditional methods for detecting Giardia and Cryptosporidium: We compared one of these rapid tests, the ImmunoCard STAT! (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) lateral-flow immunoassay, with the MERIFLUOR direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) test, the ProSpecT EZ microplate assay for Giardia and the ProSpecT microplate assay for Cryptosporidium, and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stained smears for the detection of Cryptosporidium using 246 specimens. The MERIFLUOR DFA (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) test detected the largest number of cases (32 Giardia and 37 Cryptosporidium) infections and was used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the other tests. For Giardia, the sensitivities of the ImmunoCard STAT! and the ProSpecT Giardia EZ microplate assay (Alexon-Trend, Inc.) were 81 and 91%, respectively. For detection of Cryptosporidium, the sensitivities of the ImmunoCard STAT!, the ProSpecT Cryptosporidium microplate assay (Alexon-Trend, Inc.), and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stained smears were 68, 70, and 78%, respectively. Test specificities were equal to or greater than 99%. Specimens with very small numbers of organisms were not detected by the ImmunoCard STAT!, the ProSpecT microplate assay or modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stained smears. PMID:12574257

  16. Giardial Triosephosphate Isomerase as Possible Target of the Cytotoxic Effect of Omeprazole in Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; Hernández-Alcántara, Gloria; Figueroa-Salazar, Rosalia; García-Torres, Itzhel; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Méndez, Sara T.; Vanoye-Carlo, América; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is highly prevalent in the developing world, and treatment failures with the standard drugs are common. This work deals with the proposal of omeprazole as a novel antigiardial drug, focusing on a giardial glycolytic enzyme used to follow the cytotoxic effect at the molecular level. We used recombinant technology and enzyme inactivation to demonstrate the capacity of omeprazole to inactivate giardial triosephosphate isomerase, with no adverse effects on its human counterpart. To est...

  17. Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Hadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study revealed the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in fecal samples which collected from stray dogs and cats in Mosul city. The total percentage of infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. in dogs were 42%, 26%, while the percentages in cats were 52%, 16% respectively and the single infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats and dogs formed highest rate was 75%, 50% respectively. The infection rate with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. appeared higher in animals aged less than one year. High percentage of infection with Giardia spp. appeared in the females of cats and dogs were 28.12%, 17.5%, while the high infection rate with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. appeared in males of dogs and cats were 50%, 60% respectively

  18. Using native riparian barriers to reduce Giardia in agricultural runoff to freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkworth, Cynthia L; Matthaei, Christoph D; Townsend, Colin R

    2010-12-01

    Waterway degradation in agricultural settings is caused by direct and diffuse sources of pollution. Waterway fencing focuses on reducing direct faecal contamination, but the extent to which it reduces overland surface runoff of pathogens is unknown. This study evaluated the potential of four riparian treatments to reduce Giardia in saturation excess surface runoff entering the waterway. Treatment 1 comprised exotic pasture grass and weeds that regenerated from bare soil between the fence and the waterway in the absence of cattle grazing and was compared with three others comprising monocultural plantings of New Zealand native grassland plants. Runoff experiments involving Giardia were performed after planting, both prior to and following the summer growing season. Giardia was not detected from any plot prior to cyst addition. In spring the native 'C. secta', 'A. lessoniana' and 'C. richardii' treatments showed significantly greater reductions in Giardia in runoff than the 'exotic grasses' treatment, while in autumn the 'C. richardii' treatment reduced Giardia more than the 'exotic grasses/weeds'. A reduction in public health risk should follow from riparian vegetation, whether exotic or native, but with an added benefit in the case of the native tussock grass C. richardii, due to the associated lower runoff rate. PMID:20705977

  19. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Galicia (Northwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-06-01

    Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds. PMID:25669618

  20. Genotyping and subtyping of Giardia and Cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z; Wang, R; Zhao, W; Qi, M; Zhao, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Liu, A

    2015-05-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. Rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. In the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in China. We collected 33 Asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents were microscopy-positive for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively. All 14 Giardia isolates were identified as Giardia duodenalis assemblage G at a minimum of one or maximum of three gene loci (tpi, gdh and bg). By small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing, Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 12) and Cryptosporidium muris (n = 7) were identified. The gp60 gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was successfully amplified and sequenced in nine C. parvum isolates, all of which belonged to the IIdA15G1 subtype. Observation of the same IIdA15G1 subtype in humans (previously) and in rodents (here) suggests that rodents infected with Cryptosporidium have the potential to transmit cryptosporidiosis to humans. PMID:25579244

  1. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats. PMID:25959691

  2. Ovarian cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the pelvis shortly before or after beginning a menstrual period Pain with intercourse or pelvic pain during movement Pelvic pain -- constant, dull aching Sudden and severe pelvic pain, often ... in menstrual periods are not common with follicular cysts, and ...

  3. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.

  4. Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal / Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.M.F., Dias; P.D., Bevilacqua; R.K.X., Bastos; A.A., Oliveira; G.M.M., Campos.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oo)cistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação d [...] e tratamento de esgoto (ETE) e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oo)cistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oo)cistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente). Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.). O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4)/l), mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oo)cistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oo)cistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.). A significativa ocorrência de (oo)cistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano. Abstract in english The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oo)cysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB), at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, [...] a sewage treatment plant (STP) and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3.92 and 3.62 (oo)cysts/l for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively). Positive cattle farms were detected during all the period, and the correspondent mean prevalences were: 36.4% for Giardia spp. and 18.0% for Cryptosporidium spp. STP effluent presented high concentration of Giardia spp. (geometric average of cysts in the order of 10(4)/l). However, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were not detected. The results showed that (oo)cysts concentration were influenced by climate factors. Precipitation and (oo)cysts concentration data were well correlated (R²=98.3%; P=0.0087 for Giardia spp. and R²=91.8%; P=0.0421 for Cryptosporidium spp.). Cysts and oocysts levels were remarkably high in the raw water source, pointing out the role of land use in an unprotected watershed as a source of protozoa. The results demonstrate the importance of preventive measures rather than relying on, sometimes unreliable, corrective measures such as water treatment, in order to minimize human health risks.

  5. Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis trophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ. Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

  6. Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joana, Barbosa; Acácio Gonçalves, Rodrigues; Maria José, Pérez; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis t [...] rophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

  7. In vitro activity of 'Mexican Arnica' Heterotheca inuloides Cass natural products and some derivatives against Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Rufino-González, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha; Delgado, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal disease that affects humans and other animals caused by parasitic protists of the genus Giardia. Giardia intestinalis (Syn. Giardia lamblia; Giardia duodenalis) infections can cause acute or chronic diarrhoea, dehydration, abdominal discomfort and weight loss. Metronidazole is the most widely used drug for treating giardiasis. Although effective, metronidazol has undesirable secondary effects. Plants used in traditional medicine as antidiarrhoeals or antiparasitics may represent alternative sources for new compounds to treat giardiasis. Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae/Compositae) plant is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine. The following secondary metabolites were isolated from H. inuloides flowers: 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), 7-hydroxycadalene (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-3(4H)-isocadalen-4-one (3), 1R,4R-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocadalen-15-oic acid (4), quercetin (5), quercetin-3,7,3'-trimethyl ether (6), quercetin-3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether (7) and eriodictyol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (8). The activity of these compounds against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites was assessed in vitro as was the activity of the semisynthetic compounds 7-acetoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (9), 7-benzoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (10), 7-acetoxycadalene (11), 7-benzoxycadalene (12), quercetin pentaacetate (13) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14). Among these, 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14) were the most active, whereas the remaining compounds showed moderate or no activity. The G. intestinalis trophozoites exposed to compound 1 showed marked changes in cellular architecture along with ultrastructural disorganization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the giardicidal activity of selected H. inuloides metabolites and some semisynthetic derivatives using an in vitro experimental model of giardiasis. PMID:25363565

  8. Hepatic cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of a 38 year-old woman is mentioned, to who was diagnosed hepatic cysts; it consulted for a clinical square of constant abdominal pain in the right hypochondrium, of several months of evolution, not associated with the ingestion of foods. They are practiced among other exams the TAC and echography and it is practiced surgical resection

  9. Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa do A., Neiva; Maria Nilce S., Ribeiro; Flávia R. F., Nascimento; Maria do Socorro S., Cartágenes; Denise F., Coutinho-Moraes; Flavia M. M. do, Amaral.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared quest [...] ionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50%) of a single plant (64.25%) collected from backyards and gardens (44.34%) and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52%) attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ? IC50 ? 500 ?g/ml), C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ? IC50 ? 250 ?g/ml), and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50 ? 100 ?g/ml). This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.

  10. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Álava, North of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Álava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%–2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%–5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%–9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%–6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Álava.

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Alava, North of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Guillermo A. [Livestock Laboratory, Regional Government of Alava, Ctra. de Azua 4, 01520 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Carabin, Helene [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, 801 Northeast 13th Street, Room 309, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Goni, Pilar [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Arriola, Larraitz [Epidemiology Unit, Public Health Division of Guipuzcoa, Basque Government, Av. Navarra 4, 2013 San Sebastian (Spain); Robinson, Guy [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Crespo, Juan C. [Sub-direction of Public Health of Alava, Department of Health, Basque Government, Avda. Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Clavel, Antonio [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Chalmers, Rachel M. [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Carmena, David, E-mail: d.carmena@imperial.ac.uk [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Alava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%-2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%-5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%-9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%-6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Alava.

  12. Risk assessment of Giardia from a full scale MBR sewage treatment plant caused by membrane integrity failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Zhimin; An, Wei; Xiao, Shumin; Yuan, Hongying; Zhang, Dongqing; Yang, Min

    2015-04-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are highly efficient at intercepting particles and microbes and have become an important technology for wastewater reclamation. However, many pathogens can accumulate in activated sludge due to the long residence time usually adopted in MBR, and thus may pose health risks when membrane integrity problems occur. This study presents data from a survey on the occurrence of water-borne Giardia pathogens in reclaimed water from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant with MBR experiencing membrane integrity failure, and assessed the associated risk for green space irrigation. Due to membrane integrity failure, the MBR effluent turbidity varied between 0.23 and 1.90 NTU over a period of eight months. Though this turbidity level still met reclaimed water quality standards (?5 NTU), Giardia were detected at concentrations of 0.3 to 95 cysts/10 L, with a close correlation between effluent turbidity and Giardia concentration. All ?-giardin gene sequences of Giardia in the WWTP influents were genotyped as Assemblages A and B, both of which are known to infect humans. An exponential dose-response model was applied to assess the risk of infection by Giardia. The risk in the MBR effluent with chlorination was 9.83×10(-3), higher than the acceptable annual risk of 1.0×10(-4). This study suggested that membrane integrity is very important for keeping a low pathogen level, and multiple barriers are needed to ensure the biological safety of MBR effluent. PMID:25872734

  13. Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Ural

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purposes of this study were to determine whether secnidazole administered at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, orally, lessens or eliminates Giardia cyst shedding, and to validate the benefit of secnidazole treatment on clinical signs and faecal consistency in lambs naturally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 12 weeks of age lambs were selected and randomly assigned into two groups based on placebo (group C, n=7 untreated control group or treatment (group S, n=10 lambs treated with a single dose of secnidazole at 10 mg/kg. Results. On days 0 and 10, before and after treatment, respectively, reduction in cyst excretion was determined. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded at each sampling day. Conclusions. During the study there was a high (99.98% reduction in cyst excretion in the secnidazol treatment group compared to the positive control group on day 10, resulting in a significant (p<0.001 reduction, making secnidazole highly effective treatment option.

  14. GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS / Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saleh, Ali Almannoni; Deisy, Martín Pupo; Alexis, Monzote López; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podría ser capaz de producir daños en órganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se [...] revisaron, previa búsqueda en Medline , todos los artículos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el período 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografías y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado también fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesión en “sal y pimienta” del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las más rigurosamente demostradas. En relación con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseños e instrumentación adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qué punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, además de la continuación de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploración de los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es así, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnóstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the [...] location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and reactive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

  15. Giardia duodenalis in feedlot cattle from the central and western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Maria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that has emerged as a significant opportunistic human pathogen. G. duodenalis may have a deleterious effect on animal growth and performance, therefore its potential as a production limiting organism should not be discounted. We therefore undertook this study to determine management and environmental factors in feedlots that influence the prevalence and environmental load of G. duodenalis cysts in fecal material deposited by feedlot cattle in the central and western United States. Results Twenty two feedlots from 7 states were included in the study, and up to 240 fecal samples were collected from pen floors of up to 6 pens per feedlot. Giardia duodenalis cysts were identified and counted using direct immunofluorescent microscopy. The estimated overall point prevalence of G. duodenalis was 19.1%, representing feedlots from a wide range of climates and management systems. Pen-level prevalence varied from 0 to 63.3%, with pen-level shedding estimates ranging from 0 to 261,000 cysts/g feces. Higher environmental temperatures, increased animal density, and increased time in the feedlot were associated with a lower prevalence of G. duodenalis. Removing manure before placing a new group of cattle in a pen was associated with a decreased prevalence of G. duodenalis in fecal pats. Using coccidiostats as a feed additive was associated with a higher prevalence of Giardia. Conclusion Management practices could be employed that would limit the probability that feedlot cattle shed G. duodenalis in their feces and therefore potentially limit contamination of their environment.

  16. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... department for recommended procedures. Remember to have your well water tested regularly , at least once a year, after ...

  17. Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira Lassance; Luanda Macedo da Silva Neto; Carla Alexandra Almeida Salmazo; Marcio Neves Bóia

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and socioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WH...

  18. Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. em água de manancial superficial de abastecimento contaminada por dejetos humano e animal Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in a fresh water supply source contaminated with human and animal excreta and waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.F. Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se ocorrência de cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. - (oocistos - na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, localizada no município de Viçosa, MG. O estudo incluiu as populações humana e animal existentes na área da bacia, bem como no efluente de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE e de duas instalações para suínos. Os resultados indicam presença de (oocistos no manancial (médias geométricas: 3,92 e 3,62 (oocistos/l para Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp., respectivamente. Propriedades com exploração bovina foram positivas ao longo de todo período (prevalência média de propriedades positivas 36,4% para Giardia spp. e 18,0% para Cryptosporidium spp.. O efluente da ETE apresentou elevada concentração de cistos de Giardia spp. (média geométrica na ordem de 10(4/l, mas não foram encontrados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. A ocorrência de (oocistos apresentou comportamento sazonal, sendo que os valores médios de (oocistos e de pluviosidade do trimestre de coleta revelaram bom ajuste de correlação (R²=98,3%; P=0,0087 para Giardia spp. e R²=91,8%; P=0,0421 para Cryptosporidium spp.. A significativa ocorrência de (oocistos no manancial sugere que a forma de ocupação do solo interfere na qualidade parasitológica da água bruta. Os resultados apontam para a importância de adoção de medidas preventivas, como proteção de áreas de mananciais, objetivando reduzir riscos de transmissão de protozoários via água de consumo humano.The occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts - (oocysts - was studied in a watershed (São Bartolomeu Stream-SB, at Viçosa city, MG. In the studied area, characterization of animal farms and identification of sewage and animal wastes discharges were undertaken. In addition, a sewage treatment plant (STP and effluents of two swine farms were sampled. The results presented protozoan contamination (geometric averages: 3.92 and 3.62 (oocysts/l for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. Positive cattle farms were detected during all the period, and the correspondent mean prevalences were: 36.4% for Giardia spp. and 18.0% for Cryptosporidium spp. STP effluent presented high concentration of Giardia spp. (geometric average of cysts in the order of 10(4/l. However, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were not detected. The results showed that (oocysts concentration were influenced by climate factors. Precipitation and (oocysts concentration data were well correlated (R²=98.3%; P=0.0087 for Giardia spp. and R²=91.8%; P=0.0421 for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cysts and oocysts levels were remarkably high in the raw water source, pointing out the role of land use in an unprotected watershed as a source of protozoa. The results demonstrate the importance of preventive measures rather than relying on, sometimes unreliable, corrective measures such as water treatment, in order to minimize human health risks.

  19. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan

    2007-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. A large proportion of the (oo)cyst containing samples were selected for molecular characterization. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA locus and/or the HSP70 gene of 183 pig and 154 cattle isolates of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of C. suis, pig genotype II, C. parvum (cattle genotype), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and a novel C. suis-like genotype. For both cattle and pigs, a host age-related change in distribution of species/genotypes was observed. The zoonotic C. parvum (cattle genotype) was most prevalent in young calves. For Giardia, 82 and 145 isolates from pigs and cattle, respectively, were analysed at the 18S rDNA locus and/or the gdh gene. Giardia isolates belonging to the zoonotic Assemblage A was found in both young and older calves, as well as in weaners and piglets, whereas cows seemed to be infected purely by isolates of the livestock group, Assemblage E.

  20. Simplified protocol for DNA extraction and amplification of 2 molecular markers to detect and type Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda-Shimoda, Carla Fernanda; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Pavanelli, Mariana Felgueira; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of 3 kits: QIAmp® DNA stool mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), PureLink PCR Purification®, and PureLink™ Genomic DNA® (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for DNA extraction, and of 2 molecular markers (heat shock protein [HSP] and ?-giardin genes) for detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis stool samples. The detection and typing limits of the markers were determined by the DNA concentration of trophozoites and cysts and were tested in 26 clinical samples. Of the 3 kits tested, the PureLink PCR Purification gave the best results when tested with clinical samples with low, intermediate, and high numbers of cysts. The DNA extracted from trophozoites and cysts was diluted successively in 1:2 ratios until it was no longer possible to observe the amplified product in polyacrylamide gel. Similarly, a suspension of cysts was diluted until no cysts were observed, and then the DNA was extracted. The amount of DNA of trophozoites and cysts for the typing of the parasite was smaller for the HSP marker than for ?-giardin. Combined use of both markers allowed us to detect DNA of Giardia in parasitologically positive samples in a higher percentage (75%) than the results obtained for each marker and in 1 parasitologically negative sample, indicating that this combination increased the potential to accurately detect and genotype this parasite. We also concluded that the HSP marker has a higher limit of detection and typing than the ?-giardin marker and that the DNA extraction method tested for G. duodenalis is simpler and more efficient than those that are currently in use and can be applied on a large scale. PMID:24207076

  1. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants one of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection. There are different ways to disinfect these waters, however to date the most common disinf...

  2. Comparative analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and direct microscopy for the diagnosis of Giardia intestinalis in fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Giardiasis is one of the most common nonviral infections causing diarrheal illness worldwide. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we evaluated the RIDASCREEN ® Giardia kit for detection of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples and compared the results with direct microscopy. Materials and methods: A total of 360 fecal samples were collected. They were then processed by wet film, iodine preparation and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit to determine the presence of Giardia trophozoites and cysts. Statistical analysis was performed by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy. Results and Conclusion: Of the 360 cases, 17.2% samples were positive for Giardia by direct microscopy and 23.6% were found to be positive by ELISA (sensitivity ~97%, but specificity was ~92% only. Because of less specificity, we need to perform ELISA in congruence with direct microscopy, etc. Further studies need to be performed on a larger sample size using other molecular tests in order to get more accurate estimations.

  3. Biological and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolates from five hydrographical basins in northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, André; Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, João; Magalhães, Elisabete Silva; Castro, António; Viana Da Costa, Alexandra; Correia da Costa, José Manuel

    2010-06-01

    To understand the situation of water contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the northern region of Portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. A total of 283 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623 EPA, USA. Genetic characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing of genes 18S rRNA of Cryptosporidium spp. and beta-giardin of Giardia spp. Infectious stages of the protozoa were detected in 72.8% (206 of 283) of the water samples, with 15.2% (43 of 283) positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, 9.5% (27 of 283) positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and 48.1% (136 of 283) samples positive for both parasites. The most common zoonotic species found were G. duodenalis assemblages A-I, A-II, B, and E genotypes, and Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cryptosporidium muris. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are important public health issues in northern Portugal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw water samples in the northern region of Portugal. PMID:20585525

  4. Hydatid cyst within a choledochal cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Shukla, Ram Mohan; Maitra, Sujay; Bhattacharya, Malay; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath

    2013-01-01

    A 5 year 4 months old male child presenting with pain abdomen and jaundice was diagnosed to have type 1 choledochal cyst on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography. On exploration, the cystic dilatation of common bile duct was found to have a hydatid cyst (HC) inside it. The per-operative findings were confirmed by histopathology. Association of HC within a choledochal cyst is extremely rare and has been reported only twice before in the available English literature. PMID:24347872

  5. Giardia induces proliferation and interferon ? production by intestinal lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Murine intraepithelial lymphocytes kill Giardia lambia; responses of human intestinal lymphocytes to this parasite are unknown. ?AIMS—To examine giardia induced proliferation, interferon ? production, migration, and cytotoxicity by lymphocytes from the human intestine and peripheral blood. ?METHODS—Giardia were added to intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria lymphocytes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes, obtained from jejunal mucosa and blood of otherwise ...

  6. Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs / Tratamiento con dosis única con secnidazol en corderos naturalmente infectados con Giardia duodenalis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kerem, Ural; Nuran, Aysul; Huseyin, Voyvoda; Bulent, Ulutas; Osman S., Aldemir; Hasan, Eren.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la administración oral de una dosis única de secnidazol de 10mh/kg reduce o elimina la presencia de quistes de Giardia y validar el beneficio del tratamiento con secnidazol en los signos clínicos y la consistencia fecal de corderos infectados n [...] aturalmente con Giardia duodenalis. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron corderos destetados de 12 semanas de edad que fueron asignados al azar a dos grupos con base a placebo (grupo C, n=7, grupo de control sin tratar) o tratamiento (grupo S, n=10 corderos con tratamiento de dosis única de secnidazol de 10 mg/kg). Resultados. En los días 0 y 10, antes y después del tratamiento, respectivamente, se determinó una merma en la excreción de quistes. La consistencia de la materia fecal y el estado general de salud fue registrado en cada muestreo diario. Conclusiones. Durante el estudio hubo una alta reducción en la excreción de quistes (99.98%) en el grupo tratado con secnidazol comparado con el grupo control positivo en el día 10, resultando en una disminución significativa (p Abstract in english Objetive. The purposes of this study were to determine whether secnidazole administered at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, orally, lessens or eliminates Giardia cyst shedding, and to validate the benefit of secnidazole treatment on clinical signs and faecal consistency in lambs naturally infected with Gi [...] ardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 12 weeks of age lambs were selected and randomly assigned into two groups based on placebo (group C, n=7 untreated control group) or treatment (group S, n=10 lambs treated with a single dose of secnidazole at 10 mg/kg). Results. On days 0 and 10, before and after treatment, respectively, reduction in cyst excretion was determined. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded at each sampling day. Conclusions. During the study there was a high (99.98%) reduction in cyst excretion in the secnidazol treatment group compared to the positive control group on day 10, resulting in a significant (p

  7. Posttraumatic spinal subarachnoid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of posttraumatic compressive subarachnoid cyst of the thoracic spine studied by MR, myelography, and myelo-CT is reported. This cyst was surgically confirmed and treated by shunting. (orig.). With 4 figs

  8. An infected urachal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Gami, Bhavna L; Biswas, S

    2013-01-01

    Urachal cysts present very uncommonly in adults. We describe a 25-year-old man who attended with a discharging umbilical swelling and pain. Ultrasonography and CT scan demonstrated an infected urachal cyst which, following cystoscopy, was excised without complication.

  9. Beware the Tarlov cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions. PMID:19110185

  10. A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

    2012-01-01

    The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and the procedures are expensive and time consuming. These facts have motivated us to develop a new robust system for higher recovery of protozoan cysts from any fluid matrix. The new system consists of a sample collection chamber in which the fluid passes through a specially coated metallic filter with a carefully chosen pore size. On the reverse side of the filter a transducer delivers ultrasound waves in order to release trapped cysts and particles from the filter and break up parasite clusters. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were injected into the concentration unit and exposed to varying levels of ultrasonication. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed using air and the change in viability of the parasites was assessed by flowcytometry. Without sonication, the recovery rate of Cryptosporidium was around 2%. After short term sonication for 5, 10 or 20 seconds, the recovery rates were stable and ranging from 75-83%. While sonication is usually used for cell lyses, it can be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced separation of retinates of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The collected parasites may be used for molecular typing and other diagnostic and research purposes. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a robust, cheap, and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste, E-mail: jeanbaptiste.burnet@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Université de Liège (ULg), Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, 165 avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium); Penny, Christian, E-mail: penny@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Ogorzaly, Leslie, E-mail: ogorzaly@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Cauchie, Henry-Michel, E-mail: cauchie@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2014-02-01

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 10} (oo)cysts.d{sup ?1}, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log{sub 10} removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} (oo)cysts.d{sup ?1}) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 11} (oo)cysts.day{sup ?1}) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution.

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 109 and 1010 (oo)cysts.d?1, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log10 removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (106 to 107 (oo)cysts.d?1) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 103 to 1011 (oo)cysts.day?1) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution

  13. Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil Estudo clássico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianças atendidas em uma creche na região de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Toshiko Tashima; Maria Jacira Silva Simões; Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite; Antonio Fluminhan; Marco Antonio Nogueira; Ana Carolina Malaspina

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, b...

  14. Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber ?enel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

  15. Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custódio, José B A; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2010-04-01

    The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p < 0.001) since the first hour of incubation and were able to kill almost 50% of the parasites population in a time-dependent manner. The main ultrastructural alterations promoted by essential oils were deformations in typical trophozoite appearance, often roundly shape, irregular dorsal and ventral surface, presence of membrane blebs, electrodense precipitates in cytoplasm and nuclei, and internalization of flagella and ventral disc. Our data suggest that essential oils induced cell death probably by processes associated to the loss of osmoregulation caused by plasmatic membrane alterations. Experiments revealed that the essential oils did not present cytotoxic effects in mammalian cells. In conclusion, T. capitata, O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

  16. Hydatid cyst of mediastinum

    OpenAIRE

    Sehgal S; Mishra B; Thakur A; Dogra V; Loomba P; Banerjee A.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of hydatid cyst of the mediastinum in a 32-year-old female patient who was admitted with chest pain. CT scan reported posterior mediastinal mass towards the right side. Surgical exploration revealed a loculated cyst in posterior mediastinum on the right side, adherent to the overlying lung and underlying bone. Posterolateral thoracotomy was performed for cyst aspiration and excision. The patient was discharged on albendazole.

  17. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Manchanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts occur due to the anomalous development of the primitive tracheobronchial tree early in fetal life. They are usually present in middle mediastinum. Rarely, they have been found in other locations. We describe two patients with subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts located over manubrium sterni with special emphasis on the difficulties in pre-operative diagnosis. The two boys were managed by complete excision of the cysts. The children are well on follow-up.

  18. Right Ventricular Bronchogenic Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    PRATES Paulo R.; Lovato, Lucas; Homsi-Neto, Abud; Barra, Marinez; Sant'Anna, Joã R.M.; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Nesralla, Ivo A.

    2003-01-01

    We report an exceedingly rare case of primary bronchogenic cyst in the outflow tract of the right ventricle in a 48-year-old woman. In our review of the world literature, we found only 1 other report of an intracardiac bronchogenic cyst. Our patient's only symptom was mild dyspnea not associated with physical exertion, and the cyst was resected successfully. We report clinical aspects of the case, diagnostic methods, surgical management, and histopathologic findings. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30...

  19. Parosteal aneurysmal bone cyst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meohas, Walter; de Sá Lopes, Ana Cristina; da Silveira Möller, João Victor; Barbosa, Luma Duarte; Oliveira, Marcelo Bragança dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of aneurysmal bone cysts is 0.14 cases per 100,000 individuals. Parosteal aneurysmal bone cysts are the least prevalent subtype and represent 7% of all aneurysmal bone cysts. We present the case of a 38-year-old male patient with pain and bulging in his right arm for eight months. He had previously been diagnosed as presenting giant-cell tumor, but his slides were reviewed and his condition was then diagnosed as parosteal aneurysmal bone cyst. The patient was treated with corticosteroid and calcitonin infiltration into the lesion and evolved with clinical and radiological improvement within the first five weeks after the operation. PMID:26535209

  20. Management of ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Tabor, Ann; Mosgaard, Berit; Andersen, Erik Soegaard; Kjer, Jens Joergen; Hahn-Pedersen, Suzanne; Toftager-Larsen, Kim; Mogensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    diagnosis and the treatment are assessed in relation to age, menopausal status, pregnancy, and whether the cyst is presumed to be benign or malignant. In general, expectant management is the choice in premenopausal and pregnant women with non-suspicious cysts and normal levels of CA-125. In postmenopausal....... METHODS: Articles concerning ovarian cysts from a medline literature search during the period 1985-2003 were included in addition to articles found as references in the initial publications. RESULTS: Different methods for discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian cysts are discussed. The...

  1. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in dairy calves in British Columbia.

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Olson; Guselle, N J; O'Handley, R M; Swift, M L; McAllister, T. A.; Jelinski, M D; Morck, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Giardia infections in dairy calves and to compare Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections in calves of different ages. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 386 male and female Holstein calves (newborn to 24 wk) in 20 dairies located in the lower Fraser river valley area of British Columbia. Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium muris were enumerated in each sample after concentration by sucrose gradient centri...

  2. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities as aquatic bioindicators of contamination by Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Prado-Merini, Óscar; García-Bernadal, Teresa; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ares-Mazás, Elvira

    2014-05-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates (community composed mostly by aquatic forms of insects, such as stonefly nymphs, dragonfly nymphs, water bugs or beetle larvae) are often used in biological monitoring programmes to evaluate the ecological status of rivers and thus to indicate the repercussions of anthropogenic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of this indicator community to detect human enteroprotozoan parasites that are transmitted via water. In total, 32 samples of macroinvertebrates were collected, with the aid of surber nets of mesh size 500 ?m, from nine rivers in Galicia (NW Spain), on different occasions between 2005 and 2009. The samples were homogenised (0.04 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2), sieved (150 and 45 ?m mesh), and concentrated (by a diphasic method). Aliquots of the sediments were then analysed by a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies against Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia cysts were detected in one (3.1%) of the samples and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in four (12.5%) of the samples. This work is the first study carried out to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this benthic community. The results demonstrate that benthic invertebrates could be used as bioindicators of contamination by these waterborne protozoans. Moreover, as this aquatic organisms act as intermittent accumulators and its monitoring enables chronological analysis of perturbations, in both the short- and mid-term, this may represent a suitable alternative or complementary method to the usual techniques of detecting human and animal enteropathogens in water samples. PMID:24553978

  3. NITAZOXANIDE FOR THE TREATMENT OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS INFECTION: A COMPARATIVE TRIAL WITH SECNIDAZOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia BR?TO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nitazoxanide is a 5-nitrothiazolyl derivative with broad-spectrum activity against numerous intestinal protozoa, helminths and anaerobic bacteria licensed in the United States for the treatment of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide (NTZ versus secnidazole (SNZ in the treatment of giardiasis. Method: A randomized controlled open-label trial was carried out at the Cuban Institute of Gastroenterology in adults with confirmed Giardia duodenalis mono-infection. 125 patients were randomly assigned to receive either NTZ [500 mg two times daily for three days (n= 62] or SNZ [2 g single dose (n= 63]. The evaluation of the efficacy was based on parasitological response. All patients were asked to provide three faecal samples on days 3, 5, and 10 after treatment completion. Patients were considered to be cured, if no Giardia trophozoites or cysts were found in any of the three post-treatment faecal specimens evaluated by direct wet mounts and/or after Ritchie concentration techniques. Results: The frequency of cure was a little higher for NTZ [95.2%- (59/62] than for SNZ [93.7%- (59/63] but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Bitter taste was only reported in SNZ treated group were as yellowish coloration of the urine and rash were only reported in NTZ treated group. Nausea and headache were more common in patients treated with SNZ (P<0.05. Conclusion: NTZ, for three days, is as efficacious as a single dose SNZ in the treatment of giardiasis in adults.

  4. Detection of Cryptosporidium felis and Giardia duodenalis Assemblage F in a cat colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Dubey, J P

    2006-08-31

    Eighteen cats, 3-6 months of age, bred and housed in a closed colony, were transferred from that colony and placed in separate stainless steel cages in a building designed for housing animals. At daily intervals, feces were collected from the litter pans in each cage, pans and cages were cleaned, and fresh food and water were provided. Beginning 4 weeks after the transfer, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were detected in the feces of two cats by brightfield microscopy. For the following 21 days, with minor exceptions, feces from each cat were collected daily and examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and by molecular methods that included DNA extraction, 18S rDNA gene amplification, and DNA sequence analysis. Within those 22 days, every cat was found to be infected with Cryptosporidium felis and excreted oocysts for 6-18 days. Eight of these 18 cats also excreted cysts of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage F, a genotype found only in cats. Six Giardia infections were concurrent during part of the patency with C. felis infections. Neither diarrhea nor other signs of illness were observed in any of the cats during this time. Because C. felis is zoonotic these findings suggest that care should be taken by veterinary health care providers and others in close contact with cats, even when cats appear healthy and asymptomatic. PMID:16621289

  5. An infected urachal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gami, Bhavna L; Biswas, S

    2013-01-01

    Urachal cysts present very uncommonly in adults. We describe a 25-year-old man who attended with a discharging umbilical swelling and pain. Ultrasonography and CT scan demonstrated an infected urachal cyst which, following cystoscopy, was excised without complication. PMID:23436884

  6. Epidermoid cyst post dermofasciectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, Francis P

    2010-01-01

    We report the finding of an unusual presentation of an epidermoid cyst 3 years following dermofasciectomy for Dupuytren\\'s disease. Epidermoid cysts remain a rare entity in the palmoplanter distribution but also a very unusual finding within the confines of a full thickness skin graft.

  7. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Bayram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

  8. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oocysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Sheludchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP with (n = 1 and without (n = 3 baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation.

  9. Arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Inês Brás; Vieira Barbosa, José

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital cerebrospinal fluid collections, usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally in children or adolescents. They may become symptomatic after enlargement or complications, frequently presenting with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. We report an unusual case of progressive refractory headache in an adult patient due to an arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture. Although clinical improvement occurred with conservative treatment, the subdural hygroma progressively enlarged and surgical treatment was ultimately needed. Spontaneous rupture is a very rare complication of arachnoid cysts. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space causes sustained intracranial hypertension that may be life-threatening and frequently requires surgical treatment. Patients with arachnoid cysts must be informed on their small vulnerability to cyst rupture and be aware that a sudden and severe headache, especially if starting after minor trauma or a Valsalva manoeuvre, always requires medical evaluation. PMID:24581205

  10. A large survey of Croatian wild mammals for Giardia duodenalis reveals a low prevalence and limited zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Relja; Sprong, Hein; Lucinger, Snjezana; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

    2011-08-01

    Wild mammals are considered an important source of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis parasites, yet surprisingly little information is available on the actual prevalence and the genetic identity of the species they harbor. A large survey was conducted in Croatia by collecting 832 fecal samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 374), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 21), wild boars (Sus scrofa, n = 144), foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n = 66), bears (Ursus arctos, n = 19), wolves (Canis lupus, n = 127), jackals (Canis aureus, n = 8), and hares (Lepus europeus, n = 73). Fecal samples were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts using fluorescent microscopy. The observed prevalence ranged from low (1% in red deer, 1.7% in wild boars, and 4.5% in foxes) to moderate (10% in wolves and 12.5% in jackals) to high (24% in roe deer). No cysts were observed in bears and hares. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on microscopically positive samples to amplify fragments of the small subunit ribosomal gene, the ribosomal 5.8S gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences, and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Sequence analysis showed a predominance of G. duodenalis assemblage A in both ruminants (genotypes A1 and A3) and carnivores (genotype A1). G. duodenalis assemblages B, C, and D, as well as Giardia microti, were also detected in this study. This is the first molecular description of the parasite from the red deer, the wolf, and the jackal. The data point to a minor role of wild mammals as reservoirs of zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis, albeit cycling between sylvatic and domestic animals is possible. PMID:21142957

  11. Oesophageal duplication cyst mimicking hydatid cyst in endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Melih; Erginel, Basak; Yildiz, Abdullah; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Sever, Nihat; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2015-09-01

    The cystic appearance of both oesophageal duplications and pulmonary hydatid cysts can cause a misdiagnosis very easily due to rarity of cystic oesophageal duplications beside the higher incidence of hydatid cyst, especially in endemic areas. Here we report a 7-year-old girl with an oesophageal duplication cyst on the left side misdiagnosed as a hydatid cyst. The aim of the study is to report rare oesophageal duplications in the differential diagnosis of intrathoracic cysts. PMID:26702290

  12. Oesophageal duplication cyst mimicking hydatid cyst in endemic areas

    OpenAIRE

    AKIN, Melih; Erginel, Basak; Abdullah YILDIZ; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Sever, Nihat; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    The cystic appearance of both oesophageal duplications and pulmonary hydatid cysts can cause a misdiagnosis very easily due to rarity of cystic oesophageal duplications beside the higher incidence of hydatid cyst, especially in endemic areas. Here we report a 7-year-old girl with an oesophageal duplication cyst on the left side misdiagnosed as a hydatid cyst. The aim of the study is to report rare oesophageal duplications in the differential diagnosis of intrathoracic cysts.

  13. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Tarun; Kamal, Mir Reza; Jha, Jayesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature. Here we report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with an infra-umbilical mass that turned out to be tuberculosis of the urachal cyst. PMID:23346004

  14. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Jindal, Tarun; Kamal, Mir Reza; Jha, Jayesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature. Here we report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with an infra-umbilical mass that turned out to be tuberculosis of the urachal cyst.

  15. GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. PCR methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR amplified fragments of the Giardia and Cryptosporidium SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence ana...

  16. Symptomatic Sacral Perineurial (Tarlov) Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Sajko, Tomislav; Kova?, Damir; Kudeli?, Nenad; Kova?, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (?1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in ...

  17. [Cysts of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingso, J.G.; Kirkegaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    Cysts of the liver are discovered in connection with a scope of diseases ranging from simple, infectious, or parasitic to neoplastic cysts. Symptoms, paraclinical, radiological and diagnostic characteristics are described with emphasis on ruling out malignancy. The treatment options from ultrasound...... guided drainage to resections and liver transplantation are discussed. It is concluded that up to 25% of cysts must be treated surgically, because recurrence after percutaneous or laparoscopic treatment is between 5% and 71%, and only resection or liver transplantation are curative Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/14...

  18. Right Ventricular Bronchogenic Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Paulo R.; Lovato, Lucas; Homsi-Neto, Abud; Barra, Marinez; Sant'Anna, Joã R.M.; Kalil, Renato A.K.; Nesralla, Ivo A.

    2003-01-01

    We report an exceedingly rare case of primary bronchogenic cyst in the outflow tract of the right ventricle in a 48-year-old woman. In our review of the world literature, we found only 1 other report of an intracardiac bronchogenic cyst. Our patient's only symptom was mild dyspnea not associated with physical exertion, and the cyst was resected successfully. We report clinical aspects of the case, diagnostic methods, surgical management, and histopathologic findings. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:71–3) PMID:12638677

  19. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recycled waters used for irrigation and first description of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. muris in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Biba, Anastasia; Mavridou, Athena; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-05-01

    Here, we present the first time findings regarding the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in sewage waters and the first molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species in Greece. Biological treatment plants from three regions in Greece have been investigated. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was by modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast (MZN-AF) and by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFT) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts, whereas nested PCR based on the SSU rDNA assay was used for molecular detection of Cryptosporidium followed by sequencing for the genetic characterization of the species. In total, 73 samples (37 raw sewage samples and 38 of treated water samples) were collected and analyzed. Of the 73 water samples, 4 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and staining, 12 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by nested PCR; 9 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT. We showed that Cryptosporidium cysts are found both in the input and the discharge of the biological treatment plants. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene resulted in the determination of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris Greek isolates. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in wastewaters and the first molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in Greek environments. As the treated water is used for irrigation, or it is discharged into the sea, our findings indicate that biological treatment facilities constitute a possible risk for public health because the related species are prevalent in humans; the results invite for further epidemiological investigations to evaluate the real public health risk in Greece. PMID:25687523

  20. [Infected urachal cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Kadri; Kaynak, Burak; Celik, Faik

    2005-01-01

    The urachus is a vestigial remnant of the cloaca and allantois. It is usually obliterated at early postnatal life. When this obliteration is incomplete, in addition to congenital urachal anomalies such as patent urachus, umblical-urachal sinus, vesico-urachal diverticulum, and urachal cyst, acquired urachal pathologies as infections and neoplasms can emerge. In this case report we will evaluate an infected urachal cyst established in a 26 year-old female. She presented with complaints of abdominal pain and umblical discharge. suprapubic sensitivity, abdominal mass with an overlying hyperemic skin were detected. Patient whose clinical manifestations suggested the diagnosis of infected urachal cyst which was also supported by USG and CT findings was operated. Total cyst excision was performed. PMID:15688275

  1. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Simple Kidney Cysts Page Content On this page: What are ...

  2. Spinal arachnoid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and radiological findings in six extradural and nine intradural arachnoid cysts are discussed in relation to previous reports. Only two cysts failed to opacify during positive contrast myelography; in both cases Myodil was used and in one of them contrast medium had entered the cyst on delayed films taken at 24 h. Pain was always improved and generally cured by operation, only two patients having some residual backache. There was permanent improvement of neurological function in only eight cases. The factors associated with poor permanent recovery after surgical treatment were: 1) very marked thinning of the spinal cord by the cyst, and 2) relatively longer duration of paresis - only one case had paresis for under 2 years (mean 4.8 years) compared with only two cases for over 1 year (mean 2 years) in those with good recovery. (orig.)

  3. Spinal arachnoid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, B.E.; Valentine, A.R.; Keis, B.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical and radiological findings in six extradural and nine intradural arachnoid cysts are discussed in relation to previous reports. Only two cysts failed to opacify during positive contrast myelography; in both cases Myodil was used and in one of them contrast medium had entered the cyst on delayed films taken at 24 h. Pain was always improved and generally cured by operation, only two patients having some residual backache. There was permanent improvement of neurological function in only eight cases. The factors associated with poor permanent recovery after surgical treatment were: 1) very marked thinning of the spinal cord by the cyst, and 2) relatively longer duration of paresis - only one case had paresis for under 2 years (mean 4.8 years) compared with only two cases for over 1 year (mean 2 years) in those with good recovery.

  4. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

    2006-01-01

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

  5. Testicular epidermoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Çakiroglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a benign, non-teratomatous tumour. It is often possible to make the diagnosis pre-operatively, combining typical sonographic features with normal biochemical tumour markers. The accurate pre-operative diagnosis will allow for testis-sparing surgery and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. An 11-year-old boy with testicular epidermoid cyst who presented with pain in testis was presented in this report.

  6. Multiple lymphatic cervical cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors described a case of 60 year-old woman with multiple lateral neck cysts. 4 cysts were located in the supraclavicular region of lateral neck triangle. During histopathological studies of postoperative specimens a cystic hygroma diagnosis was established. The fact, that cystic lymphangioma occurred in an adult woman, was interesting. The authors stress the necessity of preoperative evaluation of tumor size in view of the possibility of its penetration into the thorax. The CT examination may be useful in these cases. (author)

  7. Spinal dermoid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 25-year-old male complained of intermittent, sharp pains about the left eye and in the left side of the chest. Neurological examination revealed paresthesia and impaired perception of touch and pin-pricks in the dermatomes of Th8 and Th9 on the left side. In all four extremities, the muscle stretch reflexes were equal and slightly hyperactive, without weakness or sensory deficits. Metrizamide myelography showed defective filling at the level between the upper 8th and 9th thoracic vertebrae. The lesion was also demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) scan performed 1 hour later, appearing as an oval, radiolucent mass in the left dorsal spinal canal, which compressed the spinal cord forward and toward the right. Serial sections of the spinal canal revealed the lesion to be partly filled with contrast medium. Repeat CT scan 24 hours after metrizamide myelography showed more contrast medium in the periphery of the lesion, giving it a doughnut-shaped appearance. At surgery a smooth-surfaced cyst containing sebum and white hair was totally removed from the intradural extramedullary space. The histological diagnosis was dermoid cyst. There have been a few reported cases of intracranial epidermoid cyst in which filling of the cyst was suggested on metrizamide CT myelography. These findings may complicate the differential diagnosis of arachnoid cyst and dermoid or epidermoid cyst when only CT is used. (author)

  8. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess Halvor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

  9. Sensor detection of parasite eggs and (oo-)cysts - possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    To secure the safety and quality of food and water presence of pathogens including parasites must be controlled. This relies among other things on implementation of sensitive and specific tests which are able to rule out the occurrence of parasites. Worldwide environmentally resistant oocysts and cysts ((oo-)cysts) of the protozoan genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea. Methods for routine recovery and detection of waterborne Giardia and/or Cryptosporidium include filtration, immunomagnetic separation and detection by microscopy of immunofluorescence stained (oo-)cysts. These methods have low recovery rates, are time consuming, costly, and require well equipped laboratory facilities. Likewise, microscopy is the universal diagnostic method for detection of helminth eggs and protozoa in food and feed despite low sensitivity, difficulties to maintain quality control and common misdiagnosis. Novel optical techniques for high-resolution imaging and image transferover data networks may offer solutions to these problems. This presentation focus on results and experiences obtained from use of the FluidScopeTM technology for online, real-time sensor detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water. This novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the protozoal content present in a sample. High sensitivity of the system is acquired through a combination of a new, patented filtration system and ultrasound to obtain high recovery rates of apparently undamaged protozoa: 84.9% (Standard deviation (±) 4.8) for Giardia cysts and 70% (± 6.5) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Ultrasound in the current system is tuned into a useful tool for enhanced elution of filtered (oo-)cysts. The combined use of a metallic filter, sonication and "air backwash" are key factors in the creation of this highly efficient and robust system which can be used continuously for extended time with minimal maintenance requirements. Sample acquisitionand analysis is performed in real-time where objects in suspension are differentiated into e.g. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., organic and inorganic subgroups. Subsequently (oo-)cysts passing through the system are collected on a filter and may be used for further molecular characterization. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where relatively long service intervals and remote operations are desired. The applications envisioned for this environmentally friendly system includes early warning of source water contamination e.g. water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, and industry in general. Development of highly specific algorithms for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia pose some challenges which will be discussed. For comparison newly developed, vision based systems for detection of helminth eggs in clinical samples and liquid suspensions will also be presented. These techniques, although not yet commercially available, offer promising options for future detection of parasites in food, feed and water even if further development is still needed before they can be used routinely.

  10. Primary Posterior Mediastinum Hydatid Cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary posterior mediastinal hydatid cyst is a serious health problem for the Mediterranean countries. We diagnosed a case of a 46-year-old female with a primary posterior mediastinum hydatid cyst on CT and MRI. It was provisionally identified as either a hydatid cyst or bronchogenic cyst or neuroenteric cyst. CT guided aspiration with 18 gauge needle confirmed as hydatid sand. This is very rare in this population but it should be kept in mind when one is looking at any cyst in the posterior mediastinum. (author)

  11. Growing Hemorrhagic Choroidal Fissure Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelal, Faz?l; Gurkan, Gokhan; Feran, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal fissure cysts are often incidentally discovered. They are usually asymptomatic. The authors report a case of growing and hemorrhagic choroidal fissure cyst which was treated surgically. A 22-year-old female presented with headache. Cranial MRI showed a left-sided choroidal fissure cyst. Follow-up MRI showed that the size of the cyst had increased gradually. Twenty months later, the patient was admitted to our emergency department with severe headache. MRI and CT showed an intracystic hematoma. Although such cysts usually have a benign course without symptoms and progression, they may rarely present with intracystic hemorrhage, enlargement of the cyst and increasing symptomatology.

  12. Apyretic gastrointestinal disorders due to giardiasis contracted in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, Yann A.; Hole, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 32-year-old French man who presented with morning nausea, bloating, frequent flatulence, burping, occasional pyrosis, and alternating diarrhea and constipation two weeks after a trip to Morocco. The diagnosis was established by a parasitological stool exam that revealed cysts of Giardia lamblia. He was successfully treated with tinidazole.

  13. Ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

  14. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... can be released from the gland. Benign bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are ...

  15. Parathyroid cyst of the thymus.

    OpenAIRE

    McCluggage, W G; Russell, C F; Toner, P. G.

    1995-01-01

    A case is described of primary hyperparathyroidism in a patient with both a parathyroid cyst within the thymus gland and a concomitant parathyroid adenoma. The parathyroid adenoma contained microcystic areas of degeneration, and it is thought that the parathyroid cyst reflected degenerative change in a pre-existing adenoma. Parathyroid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions within the thymus. Fine needle aspiration and parathyroid hormone assay on cyst fluid...

  16. Symptomatic pineal cyst: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, P K; Ecklund, J; Parisi, J E; Ondra, S

    1990-09-01

    Pineal cysts are being described with increasing frequency since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging. Although pineal cysts are incidental findings in as many as 4% of magnetic resonance imaging studies, symptomatic pineal cysts are quite rare. We present a case of pineal cyst causing aqueductal obstruction with symptomatic hydrocephalus and resultant headache and syncope, which was treated by surgical resection. A review of the relevant literature and discussion follow. PMID:2234341

  17. Giant Intraabdominal Endometrial Cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis is the condition where endometrium gets implanted and flourishes outside the uterine cavity, most commonly in ovary and on the peritoneum which lines the abdominal cavity and viscera. Endometrial cells in areas outside the uterus are influenced by hormonal changes and respond in a way similar to the endometrium inside the uterus. Symptoms often worsen with the menstrual cycle. We present a case of 50 years old female who presented with gross abdominal distension and abdominal pain over years. CT scan showed a huge intraabdominal cyst of unknown origin which was compressing adjacent structures. Patient underwent a high risk operation and whole cyst weighing 214 kg (471 lbs) was removed along with both ovaries and uterus. Histopathologically, it was reported as endometrial cyst. (author)

  18. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  19. Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Torres-Romero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were isolated (33/429 from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples or assemblage B (6 samples. RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

  20. Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, Torres-Romero; Antonio de Jesus, Euan-Canto; Namibya, Benito-González; Nayely, Padilla-Montaño; Claribel, Huchin-Chan; Julio, Lara-Riegos; Roberto, Cedillo-Rivera.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were iso [...] lated (33/429) from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh ) genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples) or assemblage B (6 samples). RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

  1. Abdominal neurenteric cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoje Colovi?, Marjan Micev, Miodrag Jovanovi?, Slavko Mati?, Nikica Grubor, Henry Dushan E Atkinson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurenteric cysts are extremely rare congenital anomalies, often presenting in the first 5 years of life, and are caused by an incomplete separation of the notochord from the foregut during the third week of embryogenesis. They are frequently accompanied with spinal or gastrointestinal abnormalities, but the latter may be absent in adults. Although usually located in the thorax, neurenteric cysts may be found along the entire spine. We present a 24-year-old woman admitted for epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, low grade fever and leucocytosis. She underwent cystogastrostomy for a loculated cyst of the distal pancreas at the age of 4 years, which recurred when she was at the age of 11 years. Ultrasound and computer tomography (CT scan revealed a 16 cm × 15 cm cystic mass in the body and tail of pancreas, with a 6-7 mm thickened wall. Laboratory data and chest X-ray were normal and spinal radiographs did not show any structural abnormalities. The patient underwent a complete cyst excision, and after an uneventful recovery, remained symptom-free without recurrence during the 5-year follow-up. The cyst was found to contain 1200 mL of pale viscous fluid. It was covered by a primitive single-layered cuboidal epithelium, along with specialized antral glandular parenchyma and hypoplastic primitive gastric mucosa. Focal glandular groups resembling those of the body of the stomach were also seen. In addition, ciliary respiratory epithelium, foci of squamous metaplasia and mucinous glands were present. The wall of the cyst contained a muscular layer, neuroglial tissue with plexogenic nerve fascicles, Paccini corpuscle-like structures, hyperplastic neuro ganglionar elements and occasional psammomatous bodies, as well as fibroblast-like areas of surrounding stroma. Cartilagenous tissue was not found in any part of the cyst. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of neurogenic elements marked by S-100, GFAP, NF and NSE. The gastric epithelium showed mostly CK7 and EMA immunoexpression, and the respiratory epithelium revealed a CK8 and CK18 immunoprofile without CK 10/13 positive elements, though neither CEA or AFP positive cells were found. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an abdominally located neurenteric cyst with no associated spinal anomalies.

  2. Ensaio terapêutico na infecção por Giardia muris em camundongo com metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole e furazolidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina Pedigone Cruz

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi testado in vivo a sensibilidade de Giardia muris a quatro drogas comumente usadas no tratamento da giardíase humana. Foram utilizados 7 grupos de animais, com 12 camundongos cada, sendo que o grupo controle recebeu apenas solução salina 0,15M (0,5ml/animal. Os demais grupos receberam em dose única: metronidazole e furazolidone (500mg/kg, tinidazole e secnidazole (200mg/kg. A eficácia das drogas foi avaliada através da contagem de cistos nas fezes e pela ausência de trofozoítos no intestino. O metronidazole foi a droga mais eficaz. Os cortes histológicos mostraram diferenças entre o padrão da mucosa intestinal de animais normais e parasitados. No entanto, não se observou diferença entre o padrão de mucosa de animais infectados tratados e não tratados, o que sugere que estas alterações podem ser causadas pelo parasito e não pelas drogas.A comparative study about the effectiveness of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and furazolidone was performed on Giardia muris from mice naturally infected. Groups of 12 animals each was constituted: the control treated with saline; one treated with metronidazole; one treated with furazolidone; one treated with tinidazole; one treated with secnidazole; histological normal control; histological infected. Samples of three stools were examined before and after treatment with quantification of cysts. Animals were cured when the trophozoites was not seen in the small bowel. The curative activity of drugs was 58.3% for metronidazole, 50% for furazolidone, 40% for secnidazole and 16% for tinidazole. It was also showed that there was a different pattern of the intestinal mucosa from the control and infected groups, treated or not, suggesting that the alterations encountered in the mucosa of infected animals were due to the parasitism either the action of the drugs.

  3. Imaging of nasopharyngeal cysts and bursae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysts and bursae of the nasopharynx are uncommon and seldom symptomatic when compared with malignant tumors of this region. However, it is noteworthy that in the presence of symptoms, a good knowledge of their radiological appearance is useful to establish the correct diagnosis. Cysts of Rathke's pouch, pharyngeal bursa of Luschka, Tornwaldt's cysts, retentional cysts of the seromucinous glands, oncocytic cysts, intra-adenoid cysts, branchial cysts, prevertebral or retropharyngeal abscess and pseudocysts of the nasopharynx will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajko, Tomislav; Kova?, Damir; Kudeli?, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

    2009-12-01

    Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts. PMID:20102100

  5. Intrathoracic duplication cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrospective review of thoracic enteric cysts diagnosed in a Regional Children's Hospital over a 28-year period are presented. Fifteen of the 17 children presented in the first year of life. There were eight associated anomalies of the gastrointestinal and nervous system. The radiological findings are discussed in detail. 16 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, David W.; Snipes, George J.; Layton, Kennith F.; Opatowsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare event with considerable associated morbidity and potential mortality. We present a case of intracranial rupture of a dermoid cystic tumor with consequent dissemination of subarachnoid fat droplets resulting in acute aseptic chemical meningitis. Radiographic findings, operative treatment, and pathologic features are described. PMID:22275778

  7. Giardia duodenalis genotypes in domestic and wild animals from Romania identified by PCR-RFLP targeting the gdh gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriana, Gy?rke; Zsuzsa, Kalmár; Mirabela Oana, Dumitrache; Mircea, Gherman C?lin; Viorica, Mircean

    2016-02-15

    Sixty Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic (n=49) and wild (n=11) animals (dogs, cats, deers, wolves, raccoon dog and muskrat) were analysed by PCR-RFLP at glutamate dehydrogenase locus (gdh). The isolates were obtained from positive feces samples for Giardia cysts analysed by flotation technique with saturated sodium chloride solution (specific gravity 1.28). Three G. duodenalis genotypes were identified: C (10/60; 16.7%); D (42/60; 70.0%); and E (7/60; 11.7%). In dogs all three genotypes were found, with the following prevalences: 76.9% genotype D (30/39); 23.1% C (9/39); 2.6% genotype E (1/39). One dog was co-infected with C and D genotypes. In cats we identified only G. duodenalis genotype D. Wolves and raccoon dog harbored infection with G. duodenalis genotype D, deers with E type and muskrat C type. This is the first study regarding genotyping of G. duodenalis in cats and wild animals from Romania. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblages E in roe deers; assemblage C in wolves and muskrat; and assemblage D in raccoon dog. PMID:26827864

  8. Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Klinting, M.; Mogensen, C.; Kurtzhals, J.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    -. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, can be facilitated by sonication. Methods: We studied the effects of ultrasound with different sonication......Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O...

  9. [Adult urachal cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ysern, Alfonso; Pérez, Lianette M; Acosta, Jaime A

    2006-01-01

    Urachal Cyst pathologies comprise lesions that arise at the medial infraumblical line which is rarely seen in an adult. It has interesting and varied forms of clinical presentations which represent a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. Persistency of the Urachus is due to failure of the normal obliteration process which occurs embriologically during the 4th gestational month. This gives way to a lesion that should be taken into account while considering the differential diagnoses of the cystic pathologies of the region. We present the case of an adult woman with a Urachal Cyst, which was surgically excised at the Hospital Interamericano de Medicina Avanzada in Caguas, Puerto Rico, followed by a brief literature review. PMID:19606802

  10. Giant supratentorial neurenteric cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Kalsoom, Anisa; Khalid, Muhammad; Bukhari, Syed Sarmad

    2014-11-01

    Intracranial neurenteric cysts are rare congenital lesions that may be mistaken for other cystic neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. A 35 years old right handed man presented with a one year history of progressive left hemiparesis, headache, personality changes and seizures. Clinical examination revealed a confused patient with left hemiparesis (power 4/5 in both left upper and lower limbs), upper motor neuron type signs in left half of the body (up going plantar reflex and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes at 3+), left facial weakness of upper motor neuron type. CT scan head with contrast revealed a non-enhancing spherical cystic lesion in the frontotemporoparietal region with minimal to moderate mass effect. The cyst was removed using a combination of hydrodissection and excision. Recovery was complete with no evidence of recurrence or residual disease at 3 months. PMID:25518778

  11. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Iñigo-Figueroa, Gemma; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Anduro-Corona, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia. PMID:26046395

  12. Maxillary Air Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and v...

  13. Cisto de Baker / Baker's cyst

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Kawamura, Demange.

    Full Text Available Os cistos de Baker localizam-se na região posteromedial do joelho, entre o ventre medial do músculo gastrocnêmio e o tendão semimembranoso. No adulto, esses cistos estão relacionados a lesões intra-articulares, quais sejam, lesões meniscais ou artrose. Nas crianças, geralmente são achados de exame f [...] ísico ou de exames de imagem, apresentando pouca relevância clínica. O exame de ultrassonografia é adequado para identificar e mensurar o cisto poplíteo. Para o tratamento, a abordagem principal deve ser relacionada ao tratamento da lesão articular. Na maioria dos casos não há necessidade de se abordar diretamente o cisto. Os cistos no joelho são, quase na sua totalidade, benignos (cistos de Baker e cistos parameniscais). Porém, a presença de alguns sinais demanda que o ortopedista suspeite da possibilidade de malignidade: sintomas desproporcionais ao tamanho do cisto, ausência de lesão articular (ex.: meniscal) que justifique a existência do cisto, topografia atípica, erosão óssea associada, tamanho superior a 5cm e invasão tecidual (cápsula articular). Abstract in english Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually f [...] ound on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts), presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears) that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule).

  14. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female. PMID:26941503

  15. Sinking characteristics of dinoflagellate cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.M.; Lively, J.J.; Reardon, E.M.; Price, C.A.

    1985-09-01

    This study reports the first direct measurements of the density and sinking rates of marine dinoflagellate cysts. Gyrodinium uncatenum, Gonyaulax tamarensis, and Scrippsiella trochoidea cysts had densities of 1.14, 1.24, and 1.32 g cm/sup -3/. No significant difference between cultured and natural cyst density was observed. Measured settling velocities ranged from 0.008 to 0.013 cm s/sup -1/ (6-11 m d/sup -1/). Settling rates calculated using the measured densities and reasonable assumptions about shape and orientation during descent were within 10-20% of measured sinking rates, confirming that cyst sinking can be described by a modification of Stokes' law for nonspherical particles in a viscous medium. The three types of cysts examined are more dense and fall faster than most vegetative phytoplankton cells. Removal of an outer layer of short calcite spines from S. trochoidea cysts reduced both cell density and radius by 7% and the sinking rate by 37%. The faster settling velocity of the spiny cyst is not considered a general effect common to all ornamented cysts but presumably applies only to those with numerous short spines or processes. Morphological features can thus markedly affect the rate of cyst deposition, but the adaptive significance of surface ornamentation remains unknown.

  16. Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, the variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

  17. Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra P, Melo; Vanessa, Gómez; Isabel C, Castellanos; Magda E, Alvarado; Paula C, Hernández; Amanda, Gallego; Moisés, Wasserman.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, th [...] e variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

  18. Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2006-06-01

    Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes. PMID:17312792

  19. Characterization and separation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia cells using on-chip dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan Unni, Harikrishnan; Hartono, Deny; Yue Lanry Yung, Lin; Mah-Lee Ng, Mary; Pueh Lee, Heow; Cheong Khoo, Boo; Lim, Kian-Meng

    2012-03-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been shown to have significant potential for the characterization of cells and could become an efficient tool for rapid identification and assessment of microorganisms. The present work is focused on the trapping, characterization, and separation of two species of Cryptosporidium (C. parvum and C. muris) and Giardia lambia (G. lambia) using a microfluidic experimental setup. Cryptosporidium oocysts, which are 2-4??m in size and nearly spherical in shape, are used for the preliminary stage of prototype development and testing. G. lambia cysts are 8-12??m in size. In order to facilitate effective trapping, simulations were performed to study the effects of buffer conductivity and applied voltage on the flow and cell transport inside the DEP chip. Microscopic experiments were performed using the fabricated device and the real part of Clausius-Mossotti factor of the cells was estimated from critical voltages for particle trapping at the electrodes under steady fluid flow. The dielectric properties of the cell compartments (cytoplasm and membrane) were calculated based on a single shell model of the cells. The separation of C. muris and G. lambia is achieved successfully at a frequency of 10?MHz and a voltage of 3 Vpp (peak to peak voltage). PMID:22662073

  20. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Anete, Lallo; Adriano, Pereira; Ronalda, Araújo; Sandra Elisa, Favorito; Patrícia, Bertolla; Eduardo Fernandes, Bondan.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biri [...] tiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98). Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro). Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato) e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê). Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um), Akodon montensis (três) e Coendou villosus (dois), três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois) e Marmosops incanus (um) e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento. Abstract in english The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba), located in the municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and B [...] iritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98). Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus). The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis), 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita) and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans). Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.); 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus) and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita); 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

  1. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., spatial clustering and patterns of shedding in dairy calves from Córdoba, Argentina / Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., distribuição espacial e padrões de eliminação em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina, Tiranti; Alejandro, Larriestra; Claudina, Vissio; Natalia, Picco; Fabrisio, Alustiza; Americo, Degioanni; Adriana, Vivas.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., a presença de aglomerados, a distribuição espacial de acordo com o tipo de solo e padrões de eliminação de cistos e oocistos em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras em Córdoba, Argentina. Amostras fecais f [...] oram colhidas de 620 bezerros com menos de sete semanas de idade, provenientes de 43 propriedades leiteiras e examinadas pelas técnicas de formol-éter e Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Foram realizadas uma análise univariada e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e, em seguida, uma análise multivariada com a intensidade de eliminação de cistos e oocistos, como um evento. A presença de aglomerados foi determinada com o método de varredura e a análise espacial foi realizada para explorar a sobreposição de rebanhos com alta prevalência e tipo de solo. A prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foi de 19,35% (IC 95%: 16,14; 22,54) e 34,50% (IC 95%: 30,69; 38,34), respectivamente. A probabilidade de infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. foi quase quatro vezes maior para bezerros com menos de 2 semanas em comparação com os bezerros mais velhos (RR: 3,78, IC 95% 2,27; 6,26). O mesmo padrão de infecção relacionada à idade foi observado para Giardia spp. (RR: 1,33, IC 95% 1,02; 1,75). Foi encontrado um aglomerado primário com alta prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp., e rebanhos com alta prevalência foram localizados em solos mal drenados. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to estimate calf and herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., the herd prevalence clustering, spatial distribution according to soil type and shedding patterns in dairy calves from Cordoba, Argentina. Six hundred twenty calves younger than 7 weeks o [...] f age from 43 dairy herds were sampled. Samples were processed with the formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Univariate analysis and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used. Factors associated were subjected to multivariate analysis with calf shedding intensity as the response variable. Clustering of herd prevalence was assessed by a scan method, and spatial analysis was applied to explore the overlapping of high prevalence herds and soil type. Overall calf prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were 19.35% (95% CI: 16.14; 22.54) and 34.50% (95% CI: 30.69; 38.34), respectively. Calves younger than two weeks of age were almost four times more likely to be infected with Cryptosporidium, in comparison to older ones (RR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.27; 6.26). Giardia spp. shedding showed a similar age pattern (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.75). A primary cluster of high Cryptosporidium prevalence was found, and high prevalence herds were located in areas with poor drained soil.

  2. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Enemark, Heidi L.; Vigre, Håkan

    sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg....../calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For...... Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age...

  3. [Infected urachal cyst during childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Argente, V; Domínguez Hinarejos, C; Serrano Durbá, A; Estornell Moragues, F; Martínez Verduch, M; García Ibarra, F

    2006-01-01

    Urachal cysts are congenital anomalies detected predominantly during the childhood. They are often diagnosed when an infection occur mimicking a variety of acute intra-abdominal or pelvic processes. We present a case in a 7-year-old female infant, diagnosed of infected urachal cyst. The embryologic origin of this anomaly, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed. PMID:17253073

  4. Fictitious pancreatitis in choledochal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringel, G; Filler, R M

    1982-08-01

    The classical presentation of choledocal cyst has been regarded as a triad of abdominal pain, jaundice and a palpable abdominal mass; unusual presentations include rupture of the choledocal cyst with bile peritonitis, pancreatitis and bleeding esophageal varices. We are reporting 3 children presenting clinically as recurrent acute pancreatitis with elevated serum amylase and found to have type I choledocal cyst. Despite elevated serum amylase there was no evidence of pancreatic inflammation at laparotomy. High amylase concentration was found in fluid contained within the cyst. This was probably responsible for the elevated serum amylase and also the inflammatory reaction seen in the wall of the choledocal cyst. These cases support the hypothesis that pancreatic reflux into the bile ducts is the etiological factor in the development of choledocal cyst. Our 3 cases were treated by cyst excision and have remained asymptomatic. The presence of hyperamylasemia should not delay appropriate surgical management. The treatment of choice is cyst excision, since it will eliminate factors contributing to the development of cholangitis and hyperamylasemia. PMID:6181241

  5. [Rathke's pouch cyst: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Madalosso, Fabiola A; Hohmann, Fábio B

    2003-06-01

    The Rathke's pouch cysts are a relatively common autopsy finding, but rarely have they been reported as a clinical entity. We report a Rathke's pouch cyst patient's case with visual impairment and emphasize aspects like clinical presentation, radiological studies and treatment. Many published series about this pathology have been reviewed and compared with the present case. PMID:12806513

  6. DNA extraction from protozoan oocysts/cysts in feces for diagnostic PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawash, Yousry

    2014-06-01

    PCR detection of intestinal protozoa is often restrained by a poor DNA recovery or by inhibitors present in feces. The need for an extraction protocol that can overcome these obstacles is therefore clear. QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) was evaluated for its ability to recover DNA from oocysts/cysts directly from feces. Twenty-five Giardia-positive, 15 Cryptosporidium-positive, 15 Entamoeba histolytica-positive, and 45 protozoa-free samples were processed as control by microscopy and immunoassay tests. DNA extracts were amplified using 3 sets of published primers. Following the manufacturer's protocol, the kit showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% towards Giardia and Entamoeba. However, for Cryptosporidium, the sensitivity and specificity were 60% (9/15) and 100%, respectively. A series of optimization experiments involving various steps of the kit's protocol were conducted using Cryptosporidium-positive samples. The best DNA recoveries were gained by raising the lysis temperature to the boiling point for 10 min and the incubation time of the InhibitEX tablet to 5 min. Also, using a pre-cooled ethanol for nucleic acid precipitation and small elution volume (50-100 µl) were valuable. The sensitivity of the amended protocol to Cryptosporidium was raised to 100%. Cryptosporidium DNA was successfully amplified by either the first or the second primer set. When applied on parasite-free feces spiked with variable oocysts/cysts counts, ? 2 oocysts/cysts were theoretically enough for detection by PCR. To conclude, the Qiagen kit with the amended protocol was proved to be suitable for protozoan DNA extraction directly from feces and support PCR diagnosis. PMID:25031466

  7. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O2#smbullet#-) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SORGi) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (Tfinal) with Fe3+ ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pKa = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SORGi reacts with O2#smbullet#- with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k1 = 1.0 x 109 M-1 s-1 and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T1; this in turn rapidly decays to the Tfinal state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SORGi is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  8. Intraepithelial giardia intestinalis: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gordillo, Mario Noé; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Montijo-Barrios, Ericka; Ponce-Macotela, Martha

    2014-12-01

    The giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease. The WHO has estimated more than 280 million of human infections each year; however, intraepithelial giardiasis is a rare entity, there are only 5 reports showing invasive giardiasis. A pediatric female patient with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea, or pasty stools, without fever, was seen in the Gastroenterology and Nutrition Service. The stool studies were negative for pathogens and lactose hydrogen breath test was positive. The presumptive clinical diagnosis was giardiasis and the patient was empirically treated with nitazoxanide. But, the patient persisted with abdominal pain and pasty stools. Endoscopy was indicated to search for Helicobacter and Giardia. Guardian and patient gave written informed consent. Hematological profile was normal. The endoscopy was performed under general anesthesia and the biopsies and duodenal aspirate were obtained. The microscopic analyses of duodenal fluid showed Giardia trophozoites. Electron microscopic analysis was negative for Helicobacter pylori, but Giardia trophozoites with a typical crescent shape within the tissue were found. The patient was treated with tinidazole, subsequent tests showed that lactose absorption was normal, stool examinations were negative for Giardia and abdominal pain had stopped. This case suggest that intraepithelial giardiasis could be a common entity but unseen because the giardiasis diagnosis is usually made on fecal samples. Future studies are necessary to determine the role of intraepithelial trophozoites in giardiasis pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25546671

  9. Imaging of nasopharyngeal cysts and bursae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, D.; Ricolfi, Frederic [CHU DIJON, Service de Neuroradiologie et de Radiologie des Urgences, Dijon, Cedex (France); Duvillard, Christian; Ballester, Michel [CHU DIJON, Service d' ORL, Dijon, Cedex (France); Assous, Dorothee [CHU DIJON, Service d' Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques Faculte de Medecine, Dijon, Cedex (France); Krause, Denis [CHU DIJON, Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle, Dijon, Cedex (France)

    2006-10-15

    Cysts and bursae of the nasopharynx are uncommon and seldom symptomatic when compared with malignant tumors of this region. However, it is noteworthy that in the presence of symptoms, a good knowledge of their radiological appearance is useful to establish the correct diagnosis. Cysts of Rathke's pouch, pharyngeal bursa of Luschka, Tornwaldt's cysts, retentional cysts of the seromucinous glands, oncocytic cysts, intra-adenoid cysts, branchial cysts, prevertebral or retropharyngeal abscess and pseudocysts of the nasopharynx will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  10. Surgical management of symptomatic pineal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisoff, J H; Epstein, F

    1992-12-01

    The authors present a series of six patients with large symptomatic benign pineal cysts and review the 27 patients previously reported in the literature. Patients with symptomatic pineal cysts most often present with one of three syndromes: 1) paroxysmal headache with gaze paresis; 2) chronic headache, gaze paresis, papilledema, and hydrocephalus; or 3) pineal apoplexy with acute hydrocephalus. Surgical intervention with radical cyst removal is the treatment of choice for all symptomatic pineal cysts. Complete cyst removal is desirable; however, radical subtotal resection is appropriate if the cyst cannot be easily separated from the quadrigeminal plate. Ventricular shunting should be reserved for patients with persistent hydrocephalus after cyst resection. PMID:1432132

  11. Transcriptional profiling of Giardia intestinalis in response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'ayeh, Showgy Y; Knörr, Livia; Svärd, Staffan G

    2015-12-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a microaerophilic parasite that infects the human upper small intestine, an environment that is fairly aerobic with reactive oxygen species being produced to fight off the parasite. It is quite perplexing how Giardia, lacking conventional eukaryotic antioxidant machinery (e.g. catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase), can cope with the oxidative stress in this environment. We used transcriptomics (RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR) to study giardial gene expression changes in response to oxygen (O2; 1h) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 150?M, 500?M and 1mM for 1h). The results showed phenotypic and transcriptional differences between Giardia isolates of different genotypes (WB, assemblage A and GS, assemblage B), with GS being more tolerant to H2O2 and exhibiting higher basic transcript levels of antioxidant genes (e.g. NADH oxidase lateral transfer candidate, peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) and thioredoxin (Trx)-like proteins). Cysteine is a major antioxidant in Giardia and its role in oxidative defense could be highlighted here by the up-regulation of gene transcripts encoding the cysteine-rich variable surface proteins (VSPs) and high cysteine membrane proteins (HCMPs). Genes in the thioredoxin system (Prx1, Trx and Trx reductase) occupied a central role in the gene expression response to oxidative stress, together with genes encoding metabolic (NADPH-producing enzymes, glutathione and glycerol biosynthetic enzymes) and O2-consuming nitric oxide detoxification enzymes (e.g. nitroreductase, flavohemoprotein and a flavodiiron protein). This study reveals the intricate network of genes associated with the oxidative stress response in Giardia, and provides a stepping-stone towards future studies at the protein level. PMID:26341007

  12. A giant traumatic iris cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott Pooi Wah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 52 year-old construction worker presented with progressive painful blurring of vision in the left eye associated with redness for past 1 month. There was a history of penetrating injury in the same eye 10 years ago and he underwent primary wound toilet and suturing, lens removal with intraocular lens implantation. Slit lamp examination revealed a corneal scar at 9’oclock, a large transilluminant iris cyst superotemporally and adherent to corneal endothelium. It was extended from angle of the pupil and obstructing the visual axis. The patient underwent excision of an iris cyst through superior limbal incision. Viscodissection was done to separate the cyst from the corneal endothelium and underlying iris stroma. Trypan blue ophthalmic solution was injected into the cyst to stain the cyst capsule. Post operatively 7 days, vision improved to 6/7.5 without complication. There was no recurrence up to 1 year postoperation. Histopathological finding revealed a benign cyst mass lined by simple cuboidal to nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. We had achieved a good surgical outcome with no complication to date for our case study. We advocate this modified surgical method to completely remove iris cyst.

  13. Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlov, I. M.

    1970-01-01

    Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

  14. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  15. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  16. MR imaging of pineal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

  17. [Large simple liver cyst treated laparoscopically].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazauskas, T; Greif, F; Michowitz, M; Lelcuk, S

    1994-01-01

    Simple liver cysts of various sizes are present in 1% of the population. Most are found incidentally and require no treatment. However, in a few the cyst is symptomatic and requires surgery: celiotomy and unroofing of the cyst. A 64-year-old woman with a symptomatic, simple cyst of the liver underwent laparoscopic surgery. After an uneventful course she was discharged on the 3rd postoperative day. Simple liver cysts can be safely treated by laparoscopic surgery. PMID:8138207

  18. [Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

    2008-01-01

    Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery. PMID:19143297

  19. Aberrent Thoracic Duct Cyst in Postrior Mediastinum

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo Jin; Park, Seonng Yong; Choi, Ho

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic duct cysts in the upper portion of the diaphragm are mostly found in the neck and are rarely found in the mediastinum. Thoracic duct cysts should be differentiated from other mediastinal tumors or cysts, and surgical treatment is required to avoid the development of chylothorax if the cyst ruptures. Herein, we report the case of a patient with a thoracic cyst located just above the diaphragm that was treated with surgical resection.

  20. A rare case of tubeculous mesenteric cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Ashok Gujar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 17 year old female weighing 85 kg with chronic abdominal pain. Radiological imaging techniques revealed it as an enteric duplication cyst or mesenteric cyst. Diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed the cyst originating from mesentery. After laparoscopic excision of this cyst histopathology report was unusual, as a tuberculous mesenteric cyst. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3424-3426

  1. NASOLABIAL CYST: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial cyst is a rare nonodontogenic , soft - tissue cyst occurring in the sublabial area and anterior maxillary region. The cyst is derived from epithelial cells retained in the mesenchyme after fusion of the medial and lateral nasal processes and the maxillary prominence during fetal life due to the persistence of epithelial remnants from the nasolacrimal duct extending between the lateral nasal process and the maxillary prominence. The patient usually presents with a slowly enlarging asymptomatic swelling. They are usually diagnosed in early stages because of cosmetic problems. In our paper we report a nasolabial cyst of a 62 - year - old female and discuss the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and review of literature.

  2. Migrating lumbar facet joint cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of lumbar facet joint cysts (LFJCs) are located in the spinal canal, on the medial aspect of the facet joint with characteristic diagnostic features. When they migrate away from the joint of origin, they cause diagnostic problems. In a 7-year period we examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging five unusual cases of facet joint cysts which migrated from the facet joint of origin. Three LFJCs were identified in the right S1 foramen, one in the right L5-S1 neural foramen and one in the left erector spinae and multifidus muscles between the levels of L2-L4 spinous process. Awareness that spinal lesions identified at MRI and CT could be due to migrating facet joint cyst requires a high level of suspicion. The identification of the appositional contact of the cyst and the facet joint needs to be actively sought in the presence of degenerative facet joints. (orig.)

  3. Hydatid cyst of the tibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiwale C

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A case of hydatid cyst of the tibia, which manifested as a pathologic fracture is being reported. Pain and swelling of left lower limb with inability to bear the weight were the main features. Tender swelling was also noted at the upper and middle third of tibia. Open biopsy revealed the hydatid cyst wall and scolices of Echinococcus granulosus. Albendazole treatment was followed by curettage and bone grafting.

  4. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy John

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  5. [Prenatal diagnosis of ovarian cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémond, B; Guibert, L; Jouan, H; Milon, J; Tekou, H; Duval, J M; Babut, J M

    1986-01-01

    The authors report 10 cases of ante-natally diagnosed ovarian cysts. Ultrasonography greatly contributed to the diagnosis of this condition rarely described before. These cysts are usually follicular cysts. Physiopathological explanation still remain unclear: excessive fetal gonadotrope activity, enzymatic abnormality of the theca interna, abnormal stimulation by the mother's HCG are the main hypothesis. Ultrasonographic prenatal diagnosis is based on the discovery of an intra-abdominal round liquid area in a female fetus with normal kidneys and bladder. Obstetrical management is very simple: observation and vaginal delivery. After birth, diagnosis is assessed by clinical examination and ultrasonography which may be able to recognize a possible torsion (intracystic fluid septation). Treatment is conditioned by two facts: first these cysts are usually follicular benign lesions, second there is a high risk of complications, mainly torsion or rupture. Non-operative treatment and observation can be justified for very small cysts which have low risk of torsion. Laparotomy confirms the diagnosis: regarding non complicated cysts, surgery must be as conservative as possible: cystectomy is often feasible, leaving a laminated but functional ovary. Percutaneous puncture under ultrasonography could be considered. PMID:3533290

  6. Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getrude Shepelo Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal diseases are among the leading causes of calf morbidity and mortality in Kenya and elsewhere. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in calves on smallholder dairy farms (SDF in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya. These infections have been associated with economic losses by decreased growth rates, decreased productivity, and increased susceptibility to other diseases. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted on 109 farms in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya, where 220 calf fecal samples (each calf at 4 and 6 weeks of age from 110 calves (1 set of twins were collected and analyzed for Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and helminth parasites. Results: Eimeria oocysts, Cryptosporidia oocysts, and Strongyloides eggs were detected in the fecal samples examined, but no Giardia cysts were found. The overall period prevalence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 42.7% (47/110, 13.6% (15/110, and 5.4% (6/110, respectively. The prevalence at 4 weeks of age for Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 30.0% (33/110, 8.2% (9/110, and 3.7% (4/109, respectively, while the prevalence at 6 weeks of age was 20.2% (22/109, 6.5% (7/107, and 2.7% (3/110, respectively. There was, however, no significant difference in the prevalence at 4 and 6 weeks (p>0.05. Conclusion: Findings from this study show that Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides, are prevalent in the study area and indicate the need to adopt optimal management practices to control infections in calves.

  7. Inhibitors of Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Have Potent Activity against Giardia intestinalis Trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Ranae M; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J Robert; Shibata, Sayaka; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Hol, Wim G J; Fan, Erkang; Buckner, Frederick S

    2015-11-01

    The methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) is a novel drug target for the protozoan pathogen Giardia intestinalis. This protist contains a single MetRS that is distinct from the human cytoplasmic MetRS. A panel of MetRS inhibitors was tested against recombinant Giardia MetRS, Giardia trophozoites, and mammalian cell lines. The best compounds inhibited trophozoite growth at 500 nM (metronidazole did so at ?5,000 nM) and had low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells, indicating excellent potential for further development as anti-Giardia drugs. PMID:26324270

  8. Identification of a novel assemblage G subgenotype and a zoonotic assemblage B in rodent isolates of Giardia duodenalis in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Feliu, Carlos; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

    2014-02-01

    The flagellated parasite Giardia duodenalis is known as one of the most common causes of protozoal diarrhoea in both humans and animals worldwide. The aim of the present work was to perform the first study of G. duodenalis in rodents in the Canary Islands (Spain) and analyse the level of genetic variation and the potential zoonotic role of the isolates. Stool samples were collected from 284 wild rodents and Giardia cysts were detected by light microscopy. The overall prevalence of giardiasis was 25 · 4% and ranged from 19 · 4% in El Hierro to 34% in Gran Canaria. Positive samples were further characterized by PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), ?-giardin (BG) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes. Our study revealed assemblage G as the most frequent genotype and identified two rodent-infecting G. duodenalis haplotypes of this assemblage, HI and HII. Phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of haplotype HI, which we suggest to be considered as a novel G. duodenalis sub-assemblage GII, due to the high genetic distances among this sub-genotype and assemblage G. Furthermore, G. duodenalis assemblage B was detected in an inhabited area in La Palma, a fact that may pose a potential risk of G. duodenalis transmission from rodents to humans. PMID:24001274

  9. Percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy of oophoritic cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy in oophoritic cysts. Methods: Seventy six oophoritic cysts incluoling 48 simple and 28 chocolate cysts of 64 patients were treated with percutaneous transcatheter sclerotherapy under CT guidance. 4F multisideholes pigtail catheter was introduced into cyst using absolute alcohol as sclerosing agents. Results: The successful rate of percutaneous oophoritc cyst puncture was 100% in all 64 patients. Among them 58 were cured (90.6%), 6 improved significantly (9.4%). The total effective rate reached 100% with no serious complications. Conclusions: Catheterization sclerotherapy for oophoritic cyst is a simple, complete, safe and effective method. (authors)

  10. Spontaneous hygroma in intracranial arachnoid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anamnesis and treatment of two cases of arachnoid cysts extending into the subarachnoid space are described. No traumatic incident was discovered in the previous history of these two patients. The causal genesis of neurological signs of deficiency in patients with arachnoid and acquired cysts is discussed. However, the cause of the development of a subdural hygroma in arachnoid cysts remains unclarified. CT findings of arachnoid cysts with a hypodense zone between brain surface and the vault of the cranium always require an investigation into the possibility of a spontaneous emptying of the cyst or of a congenital and not only localised extension of the cyst itself. (orig.)

  11. Spontaneous hygroma in intracranial arachnoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnoli, A.L.

    1984-06-01

    Anamnesis and treatment of two cases of arachnoid cysts extending into the subarachnoid space are described. No traumatic incident was discovered in the previous history of these two patients. The causal genesis of neurological signs of deficiency in patients with arachnoid and acquired cysts is discussed. However, the cause of the development of a subdural hygroma in arachnoid cysts remains unclarified. CT findings of arachnoid cysts with a hypodense zone between brain surface and the vault of the cranium always require an investigation into the possibility of a spontaneous emptying of the cyst or of a congenital and not only localised extension of the cyst itself.

  12. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

    2011-10-15

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-}) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR{sub Gi}) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T{sub final}) with Fe{sup 3+} ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK{sub a} = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR{sub Gi} reacts with O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k{sub 1} = 1.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T{sub 1}; this in turn rapidly decays to the T{sub final} state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR{sub Gi} is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  13. Cryptosporidium and Giardia: new challenges to the water industry

    OpenAIRE

    Medema, Gerriet Jan

    1999-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis have emerged as significant waterborne pathogens over the past decades. Many outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recorded, primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom.Chapter 1 gives an overview on the currently available knowledge on the parasites, the disease, the transmission through drinking water and the measures to prevent waterborne transmission. The disease caus...

  14. Antibody response to Giardia muris trophozoites in mouse intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyworth, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia muris colonizes the mouse small intestinal lumen. This parasite is cleared immunologically from the intestine of normal mice. In contrast, T-lymphocyte-deficient (nude) mice have an impaired immunological response to G. muris and become chronically infected. In the present study, trophozoites were harvested from the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and nude mice and examined for surface-bound mouse immunoglobulins by immunofluorescence microscopy....

  15. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Salih, Kuk; Suleyman, Yazar; Ulfet, Cetinkaya.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative r [...] esults. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT), +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using primers that target the ?-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

  16. Giant intracranial hydatid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Trivedi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the infestation of the larvae of Taenia echinococcus. The definite hosts of echinococcus are various carnivores, the common being the dog. All mammals (more often being sheep and cattle are hosts. Humans are infected through the feco-oral route by the ingestion of food or milk contaminated by dog feces that contain the ova of the parasite or by direct contact with dogs. The eggs lose their enveloping layer in the stomach, releasing the embryos. The embryos pass through the wall of the gut into the portal system and are carried to the liver where most of the larvae are entrapped and encysted. Some may reach the lungs, and occasionally, some may pass through the capillary filter of the liver and lungs and enter into the systemic circulation. We report a case of giant intracranial left temporoparietooccipital extra-axial hydatid cyst with a size of 12.5 x 8.5 cm in a 5-year-old male presented with holocranial headache with the diminution of vision and papilledema with right hemiperesis successfully managed in our department surgically.

  17. [Supratentorial endodermal cyst. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbizu, J M; Mateo-Sierra, O; Iza, B; Ruiz-Juretschke, F; Pérez-Calvo, J M

    2009-08-01

    Endodermal cysts (EC) of the central nervous system are very uncommon lesions predominantly located in the spinal canal. Although rare, intracranial EC have been mainly described in the posterior fossa, with the supratentorial location considered exceptional. Apart from the low frequency of these lesions, their pathoembriology still remais unknown. We report a patient with a huge frontal EC and review the literature. A 62-year-old man presented with abnormal behaviour, disorientation and decreased level of consciousness after moderate head injury. Initial cranial CT scan revealed a large cyst in the left frontal region with marked midline shift. Emergency puncture and decompression of the cyst demonstrated a milky fluid with high protein levels. Cranial MRI after patient improvement confirmed the existence of the cystic lesion with less mass effect. Delayed surgery was performed with craniotomy and total removal of the cyst. Pathological examination confirmed the presence of a typical EC. Patient made a complete recovery on follow-up with no recurrence on postoperative MRIs. Differential diagnosis of EC based on radiological data is quite difficult. As aggresive behaviour of this condition has been described following incomplete resections, the treatment of choice is a radical removal of the cyst in one or two stages depending on patient clinical condition. PMID:19688138

  18. Dermoid cyst with respiratory manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calle-Cabanillas MI, Ibañez-Muñoz C, Pérez-Sáez J, Navazo-Eguía AI, Clemente-García A, Sánchez-Hernández JM.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermoid cysts are congenital tumors caused by entrapment of ectoderm during embryogenesis. The most common localization are the gonads and less than 10% are in the head and neck. They are slow growing and generally observed between the second and third decades of life, being unusual in chilhood. Description: We report a case of a 5 year old male with recurrent respiratory infections, mouth breathing and snoring with apneas and daytime sleepiness. On physical examination tonsillar hypertrophy and a 4 cm sublingual tumor are detected. As complementary tests are performed overnight polysomnography with AHI of 18.3 / h and ultrasonography, reported as cystic mass with multiple rounded echogenic structures inside. Results: The patient was diagnosed with severe OSA and tonsillectomy and intraorally enucleation of tumor (as diagnosis and treatment were performed; with histopathological diagnosis of dermoid cyst. In the postoperative control we check the resolution of respiratory events and snoring. Discussion: Dermoid cysts of the oral cavity (where sublingual localization is the most common represent only 0,01% of all cysts and 1,6% of all dermoid cysts. Usually present as slow-growing asymptomatic mass, even if they reach large size can compromise swallowing, speech or breathing and eventually cause, as in our case, a severe OSA. The surgical treatment allows to confirm the diagnosis an avoid the risk of infectious complications and eventual malignant transformation.

  19. Dermoid cyst of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsuspectable chronic rupture was discovered during surgical remotion of a very large ovarian dermoid cyst. Abdomen X-ray, US and CT examinations were presurgically performed. Standing X-ray projection of the abdomen allowed the appearing of a new radiographic finding of dermoid cyst, the ''fat floating'' as the equivalent of the ''gravity dependent layering'' in US and CT features. Thisding of dermoid cyst, the ''fat floating'' as the equivalent of the ''gravity dependent layering'' in US and CT features. This radiographic sign appears as an horizontal line between two soft tissues of different opacity; it is caused by oleous and sebaceous fluid floating over serous fluid and over serous fluid and over intracystic debris. Literature was reviewed and radiographic findings in dermoid cyst were reconsidered; the sign of ''fat floating'' could enhance the diagnostic accuracy of abdomen X-ray. So when a pelvic or an abdominal-pelvic mass is discovered in a young woman, standing projection is required for abdomen X-ray. Rupture of a dermoid cyst may happen without notice and chronically; CT has been more accurate than US in evaluating rupture, in particular the peritoneal spread of oleous pseudocyst

  20. MRI findings of postoperative maxillary cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve patients with postoperative maxillary cysts were examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the results were compared with the results from conventional tomography and CT. The exact location of these cysts could not be determined clearly via conventional tomography and CT, however, MRI showed the entire image of the cysts, even in the case of a small hidden cyst. With MRI multidirectional imaging, the extension of the cysts were easily identified without any image artifacts due to artificial teeth and MRI was valuable in deciding the surgical approaches. As well, in the case of these cysts, long spin echo (SE) showed a higher signal intensity than did short SE. Therefore, these cysts could be differentiated from any neoplastic mass which did not show a high signal intensity in long SE. MRI was superior to conventional tomography and CT in diagnosing postoperative maxillary cysts and will e widely used in the future. (author)

  1. Risk Factors for Arachnoid Cyst Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurosurgeons at Primary Children's Medical Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, evaluated factors that are associated with rupture of arachnoid cysts (intracystic hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, or adjacent subdural hygroma in children with previously asymptomatic arachnoid cysts.

  2. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  3. Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

    2012-01-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal...

  4. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  5. Chronic hematic cyst of the temporomandibular joint.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaan Orhan; Hideyoshi Nishiyama; Kishino Mitsunobu; Souhei Furukawa; Cagri Delilbasi

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hematic cyst refers to accumulation of blood or blood breakdown products in a non epithelium-lined fibrous tissue capsule. Hepatic cyst is a term often used for deeply placed, incompletely resorbed hematoma hemorrhagic cyst, which may remain unchanged and unidentified for long periods of time. Trauma is the major causative factor, although it is often vague or totally uncalled by the patient. Chronic hematic cysts are uncommon lesions those can present diagnostic challenge. In thi...

  6. Ruptured Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst Diagnosed by Bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Sercan Özgür

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Complicated pulmonary hydatid cyst disease can mimic tuberculosis, lung cancer, empyema and abscess. The diagnosis of complicated pulmonary hydatid cysts may not be easy. Bronchoscopy is not a routine procedure in hydatid cyst disease. However, it is inevitable when clinical and radiological appearance is atypical. A pulmonary hydatid cyst disease case with atypical clinical and radiological findings diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy was presented in this case report.

  7. Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Fee, Dominic B.; Karin R Swartz; Dianne Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009.

  8. [Epipleural branchiogenic cervical cyst (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, H A

    1978-05-01

    A case of a 71-year-old male patient with a branchiogenetic cervical cyst is presented. In addition to the clinical manifestation in the eight decade the speciality of this cyst was epipleural localisation. The longest diameter of the cyst was parallel to the right clavicule under the M. omohyoid. The cyst medially filled up the venous angle. Embryology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis as well as the therapy and prognosis are discussed in regard of cases of literature. PMID:651490

  9. Concomitant bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign germ tumor, comprising 1-2% of all resected benign testicular masses. Approximately 300 cases have been reported to date. Unilateral involvement has often been reported in the English literature. However, bilateral occurrence is very rare and to the best of our knowledge, there only 3 previous reports of bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts. The fact that they are completely benign makes them amenable to treatment by local excision, thereby saving patient from orchidectomy. Recognition of their characteristic ulatrsonographic features is very important to avoid unnecessary intervention. We present here, a case of bilateral epidermoid cyst in which characteristic ultrasound (US) findings allowed testis-sparing enucleation instead of radical orchiectomy. (author)

  10. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan; Enemark, Heidi L.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    calves. For Giardia, 82 and 145 isolates from pigs and cattle, respectively, were analysed at the 18S rDNA locus and/or the gdh gene. Giardia isolates belonging to the zoonotic Assemblage A was found in both young and older calves, as well as in weaners and piglets, whereas cows seemed to be infected...

  11. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Youngjoon Kim; Hyunjung Kim

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male pat...

  12. Foucher's sign of the Baker's cyst.

    OpenAIRE

    Canoso, J J; Goldsmith, M. R.; Gerzof, S G; Wohlgethan, J R

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of Foucher's sign, the change in pressure in the Baker's cyst with extension and flexion of the knee, by echography, arthrography, and computed tomography. With extension the gastrocnemius and the semimembranosus muscles approximate each other and the joint capsule compressing the cyst against the deep fascia. Opposite effects in flexion allow the cyst to relax.

  13. Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Nojiri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

  14. MR findings in thyroglossal duct cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with thyroglossal duct cysts have been studied with CT and MR. The typical CT feature of these cystic upper-neck lesions are depicted in literature, conversely MR findings are not well known. The homogeneous high intensity on T1-weighted images, higher than simple cyst or fluid, is the most typical feature of the thyroglossal cyst. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  15. Laparoscopic excision of hepatoduodenal ligament cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Deshpande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoduodenal ligament cysts are rare. These may be confused with hepatic cysts even on advanced investigative modalities like Computerized tomography scanning or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Diagnosis is often an intraoperative surprise. Laparoscopic treatment of such hepatoduodenal cysts is not described in available medical literature. We report one such case treated laparoscopically

  16. Spontaneous regression of an intraspinal disc cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Eerens, I.; Wilms, G. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Goffin, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    We present a patient with a so-called disc cyst. Its location in the ventrolateral epidural space and its communication with the herniated disc are clearly shown. The disc cyst developed rapidly and regressed spontaneously. This observation, which has not been reported until now, appears to support focal degeneration with cyst formation as the pathogenesis. (orig.)

  17. HYDATID CYST PRESENTING AS OVARIAN CYST : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease which may present as potential health hazard to human. In developing country like India , it is a significant health problem. Surgery is the treatment of choice for hydatid cyst. Recurrence may be avoided by antihelminthic supplements post - surgery

  18. Urachal cyst, a rare cyst with multiple complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawary, Amr; Duffy, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Urachal cysts are rare, can be one of the forgotten causes of abdominal pain, and can present as adenocarcinoma of the bladder, along with many other presentations. There is a real need for physicians, general surgeons, and urologists to be acquainted with the different presentations and management of this rare condition. PMID:18661048

  19. Biochemical composition of benign thyroid cyst fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozata, M; Kurt, I; Serdar, M A; Onde, M E; Aydin, A; Corakci, A; Gundogan, M A

    1997-04-01

    Although the availability of thyroid cyst fluid is easy by fine-needle aspiration, less is known about the biochemical composition of thyroid cyst fluid. The authors have, therefore, determined the biochemical composition of 18 benign thyroid cyst fluid specimens. They found that the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the concentrations of total protein, total bilirubin, and uric acid were highly increased in thyroid cyst fluid specimens when compared with normal human serum specimens. The concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in cyst fluid were within normal serum limits. Selenium (Se) concentrations in most cyst fluids were low. Moreover, there was no correlation between Se and other biochemical parameters. Protein electrophoresis of cyst fluid specimens yielded high concentrations of alpha 1 and especially alpha 2 globulin fractions indicating an inflammation. The concentrations or activities of biochemical analytes were not significantly different in pure and mixed cysts. Those parameters were also not significantly different between cyst fluids of different colors. The gross appearance of the fluid and the presence of certain biochemical analytes were consistent with a hemorrhagic origin of most of the cyst fluid specimens. However, some biochemical markers indicate that autolysis or necrosis of thyroid tissue may also contribute the composition of thyroid cyst fluid. The reason for lower Se concentration in the thyroid cyst fluid may be the lower Se concentration in the Turkish population. These results also suggest that the fluid color or nature of cyst, e.g., pure or mixed cyst, is not a main determinant of biochemical composition of benign thyroid cyst fluid. PMID:9258464

  20. Interrelation of strongyloidiasis and tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dwarakanath, A D; Welton, M; Ellis, C J; Allan, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    A 31 year old man from Gambia, resident in the United Kingdom for two years, presented with a two month history of unproductive cough, malaise, weight loss, non-specific abdominal pain, and episodic diarrhoea. Acid alcohol fast bacilli were identified in his sputum, together with Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and Giardia lamblia cysts in his stools. This case illustrates that latent strongyloidiasis can become overt in the presence of tuberculosis, and the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis mus...

  1. Tween as a Substitute for Diethyl Ether in the Formalin-Ether Sedimentation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    NA Ahmadi; K Pakdad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Tween as a substitute for diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique was evaluated for para­site detection.Methods: Fresh fecal material free of parasites with 10% formalin to prepare standardized specimen was thoroughly pooled. This specimen was divided into 5 equal portions; one was without infection, and each of the others was individually seeded with Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia cysts, ova of Ascaris lumbericoides, and Hymenolepis nana. Six hund...

  2. Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

    2012-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

  3. Chronic hematic cyst of the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hematic cyst refers to accumulation of blood or blood breakdown products in a non epithelium-lined fibrous tissue capsule. Hepatic cyst is a term often used for deeply placed, incompletely resorbed hematoma hemorrhagic cyst, which may remain unchanged and unidentified for long periods of time. Trauma is the major causative factor, although it is often vague or totally uncalled by the patient. Chronic hematic cysts are uncommon lesions those can present diagnostic challenge. In this article we report a first case of a chronic hematic cyst of the temporomandibular joint TMJ. (author)

  4. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Qasem; Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; Li, ShuJun; Feng, Han Hua

    2010-07-12

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits. PMID:20630184

  5. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, Qasem, E-mail: qasem.alramadan@epfl.ch [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; ShuJun, Li; Hua, Feng Han [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

    2010-07-12

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

  6. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

  7. Ruptured Hydatid Cyst Causing Tension Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Çakmak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cysts are parasitic infections caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Most of the cysts are asymptomatic. They most commonly involve the liver and lungs. The most common complication of hydatid cyst of the lung is the rupture of the cyst into a bronchus. Tension pneumothorax due to a ruptured hydatid cyst, on the other hand, is a very rare complication. We present in this paper a rare case with a hydatid cyst rupturing into the pleural cavity, causing tension pneumothorax. A 7-year-old girl presented with dyspnea, tachypnea, cyanosis, and tachycardia. Tension pneumothorax and a central lesion with a homogenous, smooth wall were detected. CT following tube thoracostomy revealed a ruptured hydatid cyst. The patient underwent cystotomy, closure of bronchial ostia, capitonnage, and partial decortication with posterolateral thoracotomy.

  8. Adrenal epithelial cyst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaiem, F; Korbi, S; Jedidi, S; Aloui, S; Hassan, F; Arfa, N; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S; Mzabi, S

    2012-04-01

    Epithelial-lined or true cysts of the adrenal gland are exceedingly rare accounting for only 9% of all adrenal cysts. A 55-year-old woman with a medical history for cholecystectomy and liver hydatidosis presented with an 8-month history of abdominal pain in the upper left quadrant. Physical examination was unremarkable and laboratory tests were within normal range. Computed tomography displayed a homogeneous and finely calcified cystic mass of the left adrenal gland measuring 12 x 10 cm. A hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland was suspected preoperatively and the patient underwent uneventful excision of the cyst. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed that the cyst wall was lined by cuboidal to flattened cells with bland cytologic features. Immuohistochemically, the cyst lining expressed intensely cytokeratin but was negative for CD 34 and calretinin. The final pathological diagnosis was epithelial adrenal cyst. PMID:22953505

  9. A giant splenic hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Rikki; Sandhu, Karamjot Singh; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Samita; Jindal, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with pain in the left hypochondrium, which had been progressing for 5 months. Examination revealed large splenomegaly, and ultrasonography showed a huge hydatid cyst in the spleen. Preoperative planning and postoperative care lead to successful management of this entity. Radiological investigations also play a major role in diagnosis and decrease morbidity. PMID:26722171

  10. Urachal cyst causing intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Chandrasekhar; Schein, Moshe

    2005-01-01

    Urachal remnant disorders are uncommon and may cause a wide spectrum of manifestations. We report a case of an inflamed urachal cyst causing acute small bowel obstruction in a 44-year-old male patient. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:16119714

  11. Lymphoepithelial Cyst of the Mediastinum

    OpenAIRE

    Ulku, Refik; YILMAZ, Fahri; Eren, Sevval; ONAT, Serdar

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of lymphoepithelial cyst of the mediastinum. A 38-year-old woman was found to have a right paratracheal mediastinal mass on chest radiograph. Computed tomographic scanning showed a cystic mass on the right side of the trachea. The encapsulated mass was situated in the upper mediastinum and was adherent to the trachea.

  12. A giant splenic hydatid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    SINGAL, Rikki; Sandhu, Karamjot Singh; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Samita; Jindal, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with pain in the left hypochondrium, which had been progressing for 5 months. Examination revealed large splenomegaly, and ultrasonography showed a huge hydatid cyst in the spleen. Preoperative planning and postoperative care lead to successful management of this entity. Radiological investigations also play a major role in diagnosis and decrease morbidity.

  13. Choledocal cyst: the radiological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have experienced 11 cases of radiologically or surgically proven choledochal cyst during the period of 4 years, and reviewed radiological and clinical features. The results are as follows: 1. The sex ratio of female to male was 2.7:1. Four were children under 10, and seven were adults over 30 years of age. 2. The most frequent symptom was abdominal pain (45%), which was followed by jaundice (36%) and palpable abdominal mass (27%). 3. Morphologically, 4 cases were type A of Kimura classification (segmental cystic dilatation involving common bile duct; pure type A of Alonso-Lej). The other 7 patients showed some dilatation in the intrahepatic bile ducts as well; i.e. type A' of Kimura classification. 4. The union between the common bile and main pancreatic ducts was at a high position in 5 of 6 patients in whom both ducts were adequately opacified with ERCP, PTC and/or operative cholangiography, forming an abnormally long common channel. 5. Associated choledocholithiasis was reported with increasing frequency. We experienced 4 cases (36.3%) which had multiple stones in the choledochal cyst. 6. Adenocarcinoma were combined in 2 patients; both were females of 38 and 45 years of age. 7. Ten cases were correctly diagnosed preoperatively with ultrasonography. Specific ultrasound diagnosis of a choledochal cyst could be made by identifying two bile ducts entering into the large cyst which was separated from the gallbladder and extended deep onto the portal hepatic. Dilatation of intrahepatic ducts could be easily identified.

  14. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  15. Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirdağ), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites. PMID:19851968

  16. Síntesis de las enzimas de piruvato, oxidorreductasa de ferredoxina y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion de Giardia intestinalis Synthesis of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase and alcohol dehydrogenase E enzymes during Giardia intestinalis excystation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Wasserman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Giardia intestinalis es un parásito unicelular diseminado mundialmente. Causa una enfermedad intestinal conocida como giardiosis y, probablemente, es el microorganismo eucarionte más tempranamente divergente.
    Objetivo. En el presente estudio se determinó la expresión de las enzimas de piruvato oxidorreductasa ferredoxina (PFOR y deshidrogenasa E de alcohol (ADHE en los estadios de quiste y trofozoíto, y durante el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion. Previamente se habían demostrado cambios en sus ARNm.
    Materiales y métodos. Se generaron proteínas recombinantes de PFOR y ADHE que fueron usadas como antígenos para la producción de anticuerpos policlonales. Éstos se emplearon para la detección de las proteínas nativas por Western blot. Evaluamos la actividad enzimática de ADHE y de la glutamato deshidrogenasa (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH por ensayos espectrofotométricos.
    Resultados. Las proteínas PFOR (139 kDa y ADHE (97 kDa se detectaron en trofozoítos, pero no en quistes. Durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion, la proteína ADHE se detectó sólo después de la primera fase de inducción y la proteína PFOR sólo después de la segunda fase. Esto indica que ambas proteínas son sintetizadas durante el desenquistamiento (excystacion, aunque en un momento diferente. La actividad enzimática de ADHE está presente sólo en los trofozoítos y no en los quistes, mientras que la actividad de la enzima GDH se detectó en trofozoítos y quistes.
    Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados muestran de forma concluyente que las enzimas PFOR y ADHE son traducidas en el proceso de desenquistamiento (excystacion y esto demuestra que existe un proceso activo de síntesis de proteínas durante él.Introduction. Giardia intestinalis is a unicellular parasite of worldwide distribution. It causes an intestinal illness known as giardiasis, and it is probably the earliest diverging eukaryotic microorganism. Previously, changes have been reported in the expression of mRNAs at several stages of the life cycle; however specific enzymatic activity changes have not been explored.
    Objective. The expression of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE enzymes was measured in cyst and trophozoite stages, and during the excystation process.
    Materials and methods. Recombinant proteins were generated for PFOR and ADHE to be used as antigens in the production of polyclonal antibodies for the detection of native proteins by Western Blot. The enzymatic activity of ADHE and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH was evaluated by spectrophotometric assays.
    Results. PFOR (139 kDa and ADHE (97 kDa proteins were detected in trophozoites, but not in cysts. During excystation, ADHE protein was detected after the first phase of induction, but the PFOR protein appeared only after the second phase. This indicated that both proteins were synthesized during excystation, although at different times. ADHE enzymatic activity was present only in trophozoites and not in cysts whereas GDH activity was detected in both stages.
    Conclusion. These results conclusively showed that PFOR and ADHE enzymes were translated during the excystation process and is strong evidence that active protein synthesis was occurring during excystation.

  17. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Jan O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

  18. Urban park-related risks for Giardia spp. infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A F; Rock, M; Neumann, N; Massolo, A

    2015-11-01

    Giardia spp. is a common gastrointestinal (GI) parasite of multiple host species, including dogs and humans, with the potential for zoonotic transmission. The risk of GI parasitism in dogs (including Giardia spp.) may increase with park use in urban areas. This study aimed to (1) determine whether park attendance is a risk factor for Giardia spp. infection in dogs and (2) characterize the behavioural and demographic risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in park-attending and non-park-attending dogs. From August to September 2012, a total of 1293 dog owners completed a survey and 860 corresponding dog faecal samples were collected. Dog faeces were screened for Giardia spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay and associations assessed among behaviours, demographics, and Giardia spp. infection. Main results included off-leash and swimming frequencies within parks as significantly positively associated with Giardia spp. infection in dogs. Dog-owner age was negatively associated with off-leash and swimming frequencies in parks. The results suggest some recreational behaviours in parks and certain demographics are risk factors for parasitism in pet dogs. PMID:25865261

  19. Fluorescence decay of dyed protozoa: differences between stressed and non-stressed cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Samuel Ricardo Dos; Branco, Nilson; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Paterniani, José Euclides Stipp; Katsumata, Masakazu; Barlow, Peter W; de Mello Gallep, Cristiano

    2015-11-01

    Several series of tests have shown that fresh, intact samples of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts are not marked by fluorescent probes such as carboxyfluorcein-succinimidyl-diacetate-ester (CFDA-SE), C12-resazurin and SYTOX® Green, probably because of their robust cell walls. These dyes fail to indicate the viability of such protozoa and allow negative responses to be recorded from living and infectious samples. Cryptosporidium parvum showed stronger isolation from chemicals, with living oocysts remaining unstained by the probe for up to 90?days after extraction. However, in further fluorescence decay (FD) experiments run with G. duodenalis samples stained using CFDA-SE (comprising living, non-stressed but aged cysts, heat-killed samples and UV-C-stressed samples) each showed a different FD decay profile, here studied in seven series of tests of five replicates each. The FD profiles were fitted by double-exponential decay kinetics, with the decay constant k2 being five times higher than k1 . This FD procedure is fast and can be easily reproduced in 10 steps, taking?~?1?h of laboratory work for already purified samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25690334

  20. Intrathoracic Paraspinal Mesothelial Cyst: A Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Won; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki; Paik, Seung Sam; Chung, Won Sang; Chon, Soon Ho [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Intrathoracic mesothelial cysts are congenital developmental cysts usually located in the anterior cardiophrenic angle region (so called, pericardial cysts). We report two rare cases of an intrathoracic paraspinal mesothelial cyst which was purely cystic and had no perceptible cyst wall on CT or MRI with histopathologic findings

  1. Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst; a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Seyed-majidi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst first described by Gorlin in 1962. It is considered as extremely rare and accounts for only 1% of jaw cysts reported. Because of its diverse histopathology, there has always been confusion about its nature as a cyst, neoplasm or hamartoma.Case Report: In this report, we present a rare case of calcifying odontogenic cyst with ameloblastic proliferation, an extremely rare histologic variant, in a 15 year old female in the left mandibular molar region. The lesion was surgically removed. After enucleation and curettage, no recurrence recorded in next two years.Conclusion: Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst, microscopically resembles unicystic ameloblastoma except for the ghost cells and dystrophic calcifications within the proliferative epithelium. There has always been confusion about its nature as a cyst, neoplasm or hamartoma. Microscopically, this cyst shows ameloblastic proliferation in the connective tissue but no characteristics of basal cell hyperchromatism, vacuolization and nuclear polarization which is often seen in ameloblastoma, are present here. Ameloblastoma ex COC and ameloblastomatous COC are morphologically and clinically entirely different and easily distinguishable.Key words: Calcifying odontogenic cyst, Ghost cell, Gorlin Cyst, Ameloblastic proliferation

  2. Congenital cervical bronchogenic cyst: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiralj Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital anomalies of the embryonic foregut. They are caused by abnormal budding of diverticulum of the embryonic foregut between the 26th and 40th day of gestation. Bronchogenic cysts can appear in the mediastinum and pulmonary parenchyma, or at ectopic sites (neck, subcutaneous tissue or abdomen. So far, 70 cases of cervical localization of bronchogenic cysts have been reported. Majority of bronchogenic cysts have been diagnosed in the pediatric population. Bronchogenic cysts of the cervical area are generally asymptomatic and symptoms may occur if cysts become large or in case of infection of the cyst. The diagnosis is made based on clinical findings, radiological examination, but histopathologic findings are essential for establishing the final diagnosis. Treatment of cervical bronchogenic cyst involves surgical excision. Case Outline. Authors present a case of a 6-year-old female patient sent by a pediatrician to a maxillofacial surgeon due to asymptomatic lump on the left side of the neck. The patient had frequent respiratory infections and respiratory obstructions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the neck was performed and a well-circumscribed cystic formation on the left side of the neck was observed, with paratracheal location. The complete excision of the cyst was made transcervically. Histopathological findings pointed to bronchogenic cyst. Conclusion. Cervical bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital malformations. Considering the location, clinical findings and the radiological features, these cysts resemble other cervical lesions. Surgical treatment is important because it is both therapeutic and diagnostic. Reliable diagnosis of bronchogenic cysts is based on histopathological examination.

  3. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans. PMID:25066778

  4. Genotyping of Brazilian Giardia duodenalis human axenic isolates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ST, Coradi; EB, David; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; TB, Carvalho; S, Guimarães.

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a complex species that comprises at least seven distinct genetic groups (A to G), but only genotypes A and B are known to infect humans and a wide variety of other mammals. Regardless of biological, biochemical and antigenic analysis, several isolates maintained in vitro were n [...] ot genetically typed yet. So, in the present study, five Brazilian axenic isolates obtained from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were typed in order to determine the major genetic groups to which the isolates belonged. DNA was extracted from axenic trophozoites, fragments of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes were amplified by PCR and the isolate genotyping was carried out using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing for both genes. The results revealed that all isolates were assigned to genotype A at both analyzed loci. Indeed, DNA sequence analysis classified the four isolates obtained from asymptomatic individuals into subtype AII, while the isolate obtained from the symptomatic patient was typed as subtype AI. Despite of the limited number of isolates assessed, the findings presented herein provide interesting insights on the occurrence of Giardia genotypes in Brazil and hold the perspective for future molecular and epidemiological investigations.

  5. Serological versus antigen detection methods for Giardia duodenalis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M; Farid, A; Rabia, I; Mostafa, B; El Amir, A

    2014-12-01

    Giardiasis constitutes an important public health problem in the world. Contamination of the water with fecal materials including viruses and pathogenic protozoa still represents an environmental health hazard, especially in rural areas. The survey study evaluated the relation between seropositivity and some risk factors. Moreover, the study compared between the serological IgG and IgM level and antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of giardiasis. The results indicate that sex distribution and age were the mean risk factors for seroprevelence. In this study, sera samples were employed in sandwich ELISA assay, to detect circulating Giardia antigens. None of the negative control serum samples gave a positive reaction, but cross reaction was encountered with 3 case of Cryptosporidium. The specificity of the assay was 94.830/a. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the Giardia patient's sera was 94.12% which was higher than that of IgG (86.25%) and IgM (87.50%) secretion measurements. In conclusion, antigen detection methods give better and earlier diagnosis for giardiasis can be performed quickly and do not require an experienced and skilled morphologist. PMID:25643512

  6. Epidermoid Cyst of the Cecum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Kil Yeon

    2015-01-01

    An epidermoid cyst of the cecum is extremely rare; only eight cases have been reported in the literature. A 63-year-old woman was admitted to Kyung Hee University Medical Center with a colonic mass that had been discovered incidentally during a regular health check-up. The radiographic impression was that this mass was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. During surgery, an exophytic mass in the cecal wall was resected by using an ileocecectomy. Based on the macroscopic and the microscopic findings, this case was identified as an epidermoid cyst of the cecal wall. We report this case to discuss the origin of this entity and the unusual nature of our case. PMID:25745626

  7. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Salgado, R. [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

  8. CT diagnosis of simple renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT is indispensable in the evaluation of renal masses, providing noninvasive and clear transverse images. With wider clinical application of CT, renal cysts have been found more frequently. CT examinations on 500 patients, who underwent CT for the diagnosis of renal diseases except for renal cysts, have been reviewed and analysed. The incidence of renal cysts was 9.6 % without prediction for sexes, but the incidence and sizes of the cysts increased with the advancing age. The upper portion of the kidneys was more frequently involved, but there was no relationship between number, sex and age of the patients. Since renal cysts produce mass effect in the kidneys, understanding of the nature and incidence of the renal cysts is important in diagnosing renal mass lesions. (author)

  9. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

  10. Unusual Cases of Epidermoid cyst: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Yadav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the oro-facial region cystic lesions of different etiologies are encountered owing to the presence of the teeth in the jaw bones. A bewildering variety of developmental, odontogenic and non-odontogenic cysts are seen. Epidermoid cyst is a rare developmental cyst of the oro-facial region which results from entrapped epidermal elements without adnexal appendages. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts occur in oro-facial region with an incidence of 6.9-7% and represents less than 0.01% of all oral cavity cysts. Here we report two cases of epidermoid cysts occurring at unusual locations involving upper left maxillary region lateral to the nose and pinna of the ear.

  11. MRI identification of intraventricular cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurocysticercosis has a high prevalence rate in southern Brazil, presenting a large scope of clinical and pathological manifestations. When hydrocephalus is present the demonstration of intraventricular cysts may have prognostic and therapeutic implications, nevertheless its pre-operative identification has been difficult by the low sensibility of the imaging methods employed so far. The authors report 7 cases of intraventricular cysticercosis shown by magnetic resonance imaging. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  12. Arachnoid Cyst in Oculomotor Cistern

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Kyun; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo

    2013-01-01

    Oculomotor cistern is normal anatomic structure that is like an arachnoid-lined cerebrospinal fluid-filled sleeve, containing oculomotor nerve. We report a case of arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy. The oblique sagittal MRI, parallel to the oculomotor nerve, showed well-defined and enlarged subarachnoid spaces along the course of oculomotor nerve. Simple fenestration was done with immediate regression of symptom. When a disease develops in oculomotor ...

  13. Bacteria Associated with Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, Sarah M.; Lawrence, John R.; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D. W.; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W.; Topp, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microsc...

  14. Diversidad genética de poblaciones de Giardia intestinalis en Colombia Genetic diversity of Giardia intestinalis populations in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Wasserman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Giardia intestinalis es un parásito protozoario que causa la infección gastrointestinal conocida como giardiosis, la cual se transmite principalmente a través de la contaminación fecal-oral. Estudios genéticos de aislamientos de Giardia cultivados axénicamente han identificado dos grupos genéticos principales distribuidos en el mundo. En el presente estudio se analizaron 24 cepas nativas del parásito por medio de la técnica RAPD (ADN polimórfico amplificado aleatoriamente.
    Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de polimorfismo y la complejidad de las cepas circulantes en áreas específicas de Colombia.
    Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó el método RAPD debido a que permite obtener un análisis rápido, sencillo y confiable, que no requiere conocimiento previo de la genética del parásito. El análisis RAPD se realizó en cultivos continuos de aislamientos nativos recolectados en Colombia entre 1997 y 2001. Se evaluaron separadamente diversos iniciadores con el objeto de incrementar la capacidad de discriminación del método.
    Resultados. De las 24 cepas incluidas en el estudio, 22 se agruparon en clusters independientes. Las cepas que provenían de la misma zona geográfica, y que fueron recolectadas aproximadamente al mismo tiempo, generalmente presentaron patrones RAPD sumamente similares pero distinguibles entre sí. Se analizaron así mismo los clones aislados de una misma cepa y fue posible diferenciarlos molecularmente.
    Conclusión. Los resultados de las cepas estudiadas indicaron que éstas corresponden al genotipo A, y sugieren que consisten en una mezcla heterogénea de poblaciones strechamente relacionadas.
    Introduction. Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes a gastrointestinal infection known as giardiosis, which is transmitted primarily through fecal-oral contamination. Genetic studies of axenically cultivated Giardia isolates have identified two major genetic groups distributed throughout the world. In the present study 24 native strains of the parasite were analyzed by the RAPD technique (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA.
    Objective. To determine the level of polymorphism and the complexity of Giardia intestinalis circulating strains in specific areas of Colombia.
    Materials and methods. The RAPD method was used, as it allows for a quick, simple and reliable analysis that requires no prior knowledge of the genetics of the parasite. A RAPD analysis was conducted on native isolates collected in Colombia between 1997 and 2001, established in continuous cultures. Several primers were tested separately, in order to enhance the capacity for discrimination of the method.
    Results. Of the 24 strains that were included in the study, 22 were arranged in independent clusters. The strains that were from the same geographic area and collected at about the same time, generally displayed highly similar but distinguishable RAPD patterns. Clones isolated from a strain were analyzed as well, and it was possible to differentiate them molecularly.
    Conclusion. The studied strains showed to belong to genotype A .The results suggest that the Colombian strains studied consist of a heterogeneous mixture of closely related populations.

  15. Cysts of the semilunar cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the studies listed in the bibliography, this dissertation reports on the pathology, clinical symptoms and radiology of cysts of the semilunar cartilage. The author analyses 118 cases of his own, with special regard to the results of pneumo-arthrographic investigations carried through according to a special technique by Schaefer. In the course of this work, measurements of the meniscal base are for the first time used as radiological criteria indicating the presence of a cyst of the semilunar cartilage. Furthermore the well-known radiological signs of cysts, such as bone defects according to Albert and Keller, light central spot in the meniscal body, as well as Rauber's sign and horizontal rupture, are investigated as to the frequency of their incidence. For that purpose all the X-ray pictures were subjected to a further dose scrutiny. A list of all the 118 cases with their clinical and radiological data is found in the annex, together with the results of the operations and patho-anatomical investigations. (orig.)

  16. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  17. Tarlov cysts: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Goyal, Tarun; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Chakraborty, Soumya

    2012-04-01

    Perineural cysts are common and usually detected incidentally during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. Treatment is indicated only when the cyst is symptomatic. We report one such patients presented with cauda equina syndrome and another with low back pain with claudication. They underwent excision and duraplasty; both motor and sensory fibres were carefully separated from the cyst wall using a nerve root retractor and penfield. There was no nerve root damage or neural deficit. Symptoms were relieved postoperatively. PMID:22535818

  18. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsadeghi, Ali; Farrokhi, Farid; Fazli-Shahri, Azadeh; Gholipour, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are among developmental disorders of the primitive foregut which are typically found above the diaphragm. Bronchial cysts discovered in the abdominal cavity or retroperitoneum are extremely rare. We present a rare case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst which was incidentally detected after a wrestling injury in a 23-year-old man who had a negative medical history. Although initial imaging studies suggested an adrenal tumor, histopathological analysis provided a definit...

  19. Urachal cyst associated with a suprapubic sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirasawa, Y; Ito, Y; Tanaka, H; Seki, N

    1999-01-01

    Urachal anomalies are frequent and may exhibit many anatomical variations. We report a case of a urachal cyst that had a sinus tract extending to the lower abdomen just above the pubic symphysis. Histologic examination of the specimens showed a squamous-epithelium-lined sinus tract and a columnar-epithelium-lined cyst, which suggested a developmental disorder. This may be an extremely rare case where the urachal cyst opened into the suprapubic sinus. PMID:10370044

  20. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Muthu, Valliappan; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum. Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:26664169

  1. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum. Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  2. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of...

  3. Midline Prostatic Cyst Marsupialization Using Holmium Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet KILINC; Goger, Yunus Emre; Piskin, Mesut; Balasar, Mehmet; Kandemir, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Many of the prostatic cysts are asymptomatic and only 5% are symptomatic (Hamper et al., 1990; Higashi et al., 1990). These symptoms include pelvic pain, hematospermia, infertility, voiding dysfunction, prostatitis-like syndrome, and painful ejaculation. Treatment of prostatic cysts includes TRUSG guided drainage, endoscopic transurethral resection, and in some cases even open surgery. In the literature, endoscopic interventions use marsupialization of the midline prostatic cyst with transure...

  4. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Sahajal Dhooria; Valliappan Muthu; Ritesh Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum. Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tu...

  5. Combined roentgenoultrasonic diagnosis of false pancreatic cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray and ultrasound semiotics of false pancreatic cysts in 21 patients have been described. Such a study proves to be highly informative permitting early detection of false pancreatic cysts and observation of the stages of their formation and development of complications. The ultrasound method has advantages for the investigation of patients in early time of false cyst formation and provides an opportunity to detect formations of minimum sizes

  6. 75 FR 11111 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...No. APHIS-2010-0010] Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY...quarantined to prevent the spread of pale cyst nematode. The description of the quarantined...INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a...

  7. 75 FR 54592 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...No. APHIS-2010-0076] Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY...quarantined to prevent the spread of pale cyst nematode. The description of the quarantined...INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a...

  8. Thoracic Duct Cyst in Mediastinum - A case report -

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Mu-yeop; Bae, Chi-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The thoracic duct cyst is an extremely rare cystic lesion in the mediastinum. Surgical treatment of the cyst is necessary to confirm histologic diagnosis and prevent potential complications such as spontaneous or traumatic rupture of the cyst and chylothorax.

  9. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the clinical, radiological and surgical findings in patients with both pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst. We retrospectively selected patients with both lesions from the 374 patients in whom a sellar/juxtasellar lesion was detected on MRI at 1.5 tesla. All patients received intravenous contrast medium. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst were found in eight patients (2.1 %). The frequency of the combination was 3.5 % of pituitary adenomas and 11 % of Rathke's cleft cysts. Symptoms were always due to the adenoma, secreting adrenocorticotrophin in two patients and growth hormone in six. The adenoma was larger in five patients, and the cyst in three. The cysts gave variable signal. The adenoma was adjacent to the cyst in seven patients, and enclosed it in the other patient. As a result of experience with MRI, concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst are now known not to be as rare as thought previously. When a nonenhancing cyst-like structure is demonstrated in a patient with pituitary adenoma, the possibility of a coexisting Rathke's cleft cyst should be considered. (orig.)

  10. Infected urachal cyst ruptured during medical palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yasuyuki; Miyake, Osamu; Taniwaki, Hiromichi; Morimoto, Akira; Takahashi, Satoru; Fujiwara, Ichiro

    2003-03-01

    Since most cases of urachal cyst are asymptomatic, they are frequently detected after complication by infection. Ruptured urachal cysts are frequently detected after complication by severe infections such as sepsis. We report on a 31-year-old man who was diagnosed preoperatively as having an infected urachal cyst and the decision was made to follow the patient because primary excision was scheduled to be performed a few days later. Symptoms were transiently relieved, but the cyst ruptured during medical palliation. We treated this case with a two-stage surgical procedure. PMID:12622715

  11. Multidirectional Instability Accompanying an Inferior Labral Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Chang-Yun; Ji, Jong-Hun; Kim, Sung-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Paralabral cyst of the shoulder joint can be observed in 2% to 4% of the general population, particularly in men during the third and fourth decade. On average, these cysts measure 10 mm to 20 mm in diameter and are located preferentially on the postero-superior aspect of the glenoid. The MRI has increased the frequency of the diagnosis of paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint. Paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint usually develop in the proximity of the labrum. The relationship between sho...

  12. Breast cysts in adolescents - diagnostics, monitoring, treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of the paper was the US evaluation of hormonal disorders and treatment results in adolescent girls and boys with breast cysts. Material/Methods: In the years 2001 - 2009, US examination of the breast was performed in 427 children aged 10 - 18 years, with clinically suspected breast pathologies. The indications for US examination typically included pain, breast swelling and a palpable tumor. The US examination was performed using a 7 - 12 MHz linear transducer. Results: Breast cysts were found in 42 children: 36 adolescent girls and 6 boys with gynaecomastia. Infected cysts were found in 35 children. The cysts ranged in size from 5 mm to 30 mm. In 5 of the girls, large cysts were treated by an incision and drainage, and in all the children with infected cysts, antibiotic therapy was used. Hormonal disorders were found in 30 girls. A follow-up examination was performed, and the observation time varied from 1/12 to 2 years. The cysts disappeared completely in 30 children. Hormonal therapy was introduced in 5 girls. Conclusions: Breast cysts found in US examinations are indications for check-up examinations including endocrinological diagnostics and, if the cyst is persistent, possibly for hormonal treatment. (authors)

  13. A Case Report of Enterogenous Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amini, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Foregut cysts are various congenital lesions originated from emberyonic foregut. Bronchogenic, enterogenous and neuroenteric cysts are the most frequent forms of foregut cysts. They create different clinical symptoms based on their location. Enterogenous cysts comprise 4-5 percent of posterior mediastinal cysts and include esophageal, gastric and enteric cysts. A 61 year old woman referred to surgical clinic with dysphasia and regurgitation 6 months ago whose illness aggravared over the last 3 months. In physical examination, a lesion was seen in the right site of posterior mediastinum. Surgical excision was done and a ciliated columnar epithelium with two thin muscular layers were reported in pathology. In reality, the distinction between esophageal and bronchogenic cysts is not always clear. Both cysts present in mediastinum and their epithelial tissues are non-specific, however presence or lack of muscle layer in cyst-wall, proximity to gastrointestinal tract or tracheobronchial tree, adaption of clinical symptoms with paraclinic results and observations during surgical procedure can reveal certain diagnosis.

  14. Bacteriological examination of radicular cysts contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrva?anin Slobodanka O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Radicular cysts are, most often, oral tissue cysts. The basis for their development are the remains of Hertwig's epithelial sheath, which is stimulated to proliferate by infectious agents, mostly periapical granuloma or pulp necrosis. The cyst contents can be liquid, either clear or milky-white, or thick and yellowish-caseous pus. Bacteriological and histopathological researches have shown that development of radicular cysts from periapical lesions is a consequence of penetration of normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. Material and methods The study has bacteriologically examined contents of 50 radicular cysts. They were operated between 1993 and 1995 at the Department of Oral Surgery of the Outpatient Health Care Centre Banjaluka. Pathological substrate of the cyst was punctured by a sterile needle and bacteriologically examined at the Microbiological Laboratory of the Clinical Centre in Banjaluka. Discussion and conclusion Radicular cysts contents most often consisted of alpha-hemolytic streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphyilococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus group B and alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus. It is concluded that normal oral cavity flora is present in the cysts contents the infection penetrated through the root canal to periapex, where, due to the course of time, radicular cyst develops from periapical granuloma.

  15. EVALUATING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AND GIARDIA IN STORMWATER AS A THREAT TO DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreak in the United Kingdom in 1983, thepathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have become the subject of growing local, state, andnational concern. Both organisms have been the causative agent of many gastrointestinalilln...

  16. SEM (SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY) EVIDENCE FOR A NEW SPECIES, 'GIARDIA PSITTACI' (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia trophozoites were isolated from the small intestine of budgerigars (parakeets) and examined morphologically with light and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of a claw-hammer shape median body suggested classification of these trophozoites as G. duodenalis. Howeve...

  17. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Prashad Bhagwat; Jain Anil; Dhammi Ish

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as inciden...

  18. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biritiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98. Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro. Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê. Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um, Akodon montensis (três e Coendou villosus (dois, três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois e Marmosops incanus (um e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento.The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba, located in the municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and Biritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98. Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus. The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis, 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans. Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.; 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita; 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata. This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

  19. Effect of Giardia Infection on Nutritional Status in Primary Schoolchildren, in Northwest Iran

    OpenAIRE

    G.H. Ettehad; Daryani, A.; A Nemati

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the association between Giardia infection and nutritional status, a cross- sectional study was performed on twenty randomly selected primary schools from two regions of Ardabil province in 2005. Anthropometric factors including height, weight and midarm muscle circumference (MAC) were measured for 813 children (413 males, 400 females). The food intake was estimated for energy and other nutrients by 24 h recall method for three days in week. Determination of Giardia infe...

  20. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Yvonne A. L. Lim; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those ag...

  1. The Minimal Proteome in the Reduced Mitochondrion of the Parasitic Protist Giardia intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Jedelský, Petr L.; Doležal, Pavel; Rada, Petr; Pyrih, Jan; Šmíd, Ond?ej; Hrdý, Ivan; Šedinová, Miroslava; Marcin?iková, Michaela; Voleman, Lubomír; Perry, Andrew J.; Beltrán, Neritza Campo; Lithgow, Trevor; Tachezy, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis are thought to be mitochondria highly-reduced in response to the oxygen-poor niche. We performed a quantitative proteomic assessment of Giardia mitosomes to increase understanding of the function and evolutionary origin of these enigmatic organelles. Mitosome-enriched fractions were obtained from cell homogenate using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. To distinguish mitosomal proteins from contamination, we used a quantitative shot-gun strategy based on i...

  2. Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Estudo clássico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianças atendidas em uma creche na região de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nair Toshiko, Tashima; Maria Jacira Silva, Simões; Clarice Queico Fujimura, Leite; Antonio, Fluminhan; Marco Antonio, Nogueira; Ana Carolina, Malaspina.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos epidemiológicos sobre giardíase por técnicas moleculares como a RAPD (Amplificação aleatória do DNA polimórfico) podem contribuir para o entendimento de fatores relacionados à transmissão de Giardia duodenalis. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia de G. duodenalis em 101 cri [...] anças atendidas em uma creche em Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brasil. Após exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes, 15 crianças apresentaram cistos de G. duodenalis. Seus respectivos pais, irmãos e animais domésticos, além dos funcionários da creche, foram submetidos a exames parasitológicos de fezes. Destes, sete mães e nove irmãos apresentaram G. duodenalis, enquanto os pais, funcionários da creche e animais de estimação (cães) não apresentaram o parasita. Além dos 15 casos com G. duodenalis, outras 23 crianças apresentaram outros enteroparasitas (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura). As amostras contendo cistos de G. duodenalis das crianças e de seus parentes foram submetidas à análise molecular por RAPD após extração do DNA genômico e amplificação de um fragmento de uma região do rDNA 18S por PCR. Entre os 31 isolados de G. duodenalis (crianças e suas respectivas mães e irmãos), concluiu-se que a transmissão dos parasitas ocorreu entre as crianças, provavelmente durante seu convívio na creche, mas não foi decorrente do convívio familiar ou animais de estimação. Abstract in english Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a [...] daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, besides the daycare center workers, also had their feces submitted to parasitological analysis. Seven mothers and nine brothers also presented G. duodenalis cysts, while fathers, daycare workers and pets (dogs) did not presented the parasite. Besides the 15 cases with G. duodenalis, other 23 children presented other enteroparasites (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). Samples of G. duodenalis cysts from children and their relatives were submitted to molecular typing by RAPD after genomic DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rDNA region by PCR. After examining 31 isolates of G. duodenalis (children and their respective mothers and brothers), it was concluded that the parasite transmission occurred in children, probably during daily cohabitation at the daycare center, but not at home among their relatives or pets.

  3. Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil Estudo clássico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianças atendidas em uma creche na região de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Toshiko Tashima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, besides the daycare center workers, also had their feces submitted to parasitological analysis. Seven mothers and nine brothers also presented G. duodenalis cysts, while fathers, daycare workers and pets (dogs did not presented the parasite. Besides the 15 cases with G. duodenalis, other 23 children presented other enteroparasites (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. Samples of G. duodenalis cysts from children and their relatives were submitted to molecular typing by RAPD after genomic DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rDNA region by PCR. After examining 31 isolates of G. duodenalis (children and their respective mothers and brothers, it was concluded that the parasite transmission occurred in children, probably during daily cohabitation at the daycare center, but not at home among their relatives or pets.Estudos epidemiológicos sobre giardíase por técnicas moleculares como a RAPD (Amplificação aleatória do DNA polimórfico podem contribuir para o entendimento de fatores relacionados à transmissão de Giardia duodenalis. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia de G. duodenalis em 101 crianças atendidas em uma creche em Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brasil. Após exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes, 15 crianças apresentaram cistos de G. duodenalis. Seus respectivos pais, irmãos e animais domésticos, além dos funcionários da creche, foram submetidos a exames parasitológicos de fezes. Destes, sete mães e nove irmãos apresentaram G. duodenalis, enquanto os pais, funcionários da creche e animais de estimação (cães não apresentaram o parasita. Além dos 15 casos com G. duodenalis, outras 23 crianças apresentaram outros enteroparasitas (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura. As amostras contendo cistos de G. duodenalis das crianças e de seus parentes foram submetidas à análise molecular por RAPD após extração do DNA genômico e amplificação de um fragmento de uma região do rDNA 18S por PCR. Entre os 31 isolados de G. duodenalis (crianças e suas respectivas mães e irmãos, concluiu-se que a transmissão dos parasitas ocorreu entre as crianças, provavelmente durante seu convívio na creche, mas não foi decorrente do convívio familiar ou animais de estimação.

  4. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.

  5. The invasive potential of Giardia intestinalis in an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Robles, R; Ponce-Macotela, M; Rosas-López, L E; Ramos-Morales, A; Martínez-Gordillo, M N; González-Maciel, A

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that affects primarily children, in whom it delays physical and mental development. The pathophysiology of giardiasis in not well understood, and most reports have identified Giardia intestinalis trophozoites only in the lumen and on the brush border of the small intestine. We identified Giardia trophozoites within the epithelium of the small intestine of a lactose intolerance patient. The Giardia trophozoites were obtained and cultured in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated Giardia trophozoite invasion in an animal model. Giardia trophozoites invaded the intestinal mucosa and submucosa of infected gerbils. The invasive trophozoites were observed at 21, 30 and 60 days age, and the average numbers of invaded sites were 17?±?5, 15?±?4, and 9?±?3, respectively. We found trophozoites between epithelial cells, at the base of empty goblet cells, in lacteal vessels and within the submucosa. The morphological integrity of the invasive trophozoites was demonstrated via electron microscopy. The analysis of the gerbils infected with the trophozoites of the WB reference strain did not show intraepithelial trophozoites. These results demonstrate another Giardia pathogenic mechanism, opening the door to numerous future studies. PMID:26470844

  6. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  7. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  8. Prevalence of Giardia in dairy cattle in Lusaka and Chilanga districts, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakandelwa, Cliff; Siwila, Joyce; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B; Phiri, Isaac G K

    2016-01-15

    Giardia is an intestinal protozoan parasite of mammals including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of Giardia infections in smallholder and commercial dairy herds in Chilanga and Lusaka districts of Zambia. A total of 377 calves aged from 1 to 365 days were sampled on 34 farms. All faecal samples were analyzed for Giardia antigen using a commercially available ELISA kit. Overall prevalence of Giardia was 34.5% (95% CI=29.7-39.3). Among smallholder farms, animal level prevalence ranged from 0 to 100% (mean=44.6±36.9 standard deviations) and 12.5 to 60.9% (mean=33.5±16.7 standard deviations) within commercial herds. Prevalence was highest in calves less than three months old (p=0.010), and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between smallholder and commercial farms (p=0.300). Giardia prevalence was not associated with occurrence of diarrhoea in the calves (p=0.205). The study demonstrates that Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the study areas, especially in calves less than three months of age. PMID:26790746

  9. Two cases of symptomatic perineural cysts (tarlov cysts) in one family: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Il Sup; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

    2008-09-01

    Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

  10. Mullerian cyst of the uterus misdiagnosed as ovarian cyst on pelvic sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Man-Wa; Ngu, Siew-Fei; Cheung, Vincent Y T

    2014-01-01

    Mullerian cyst of the uterus, also known as endosalpingiosis, is rare and often can be misdiagnosed as adnexal cyst on pelvic sonography. A 47-year-old woman was referred for an incidental finding of a right adnexal mass on pelvic sonography, suspected to be an ovarian cyst. During laparoscopy, a pedunculated cystic mass arising from the right anterior uterine wall was seen. The mass was resected laparoscopically and histologic examination showed a benign Mullerian cyst of the uterus. Diagnosis of Mullerian cyst of the uterus can be challenging. However, with increased awareness, preoperative diagnosis of this condition should be possible sonographically. PMID:23949900

  11. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinovi? Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. Case Outline. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Niš, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Conclusion. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.

  12. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Kyung Myung; Kim, Ki Jun; Maeng, E-So [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    An retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst is extremely rare and often mimics other cystic disease such as a lymphangioma, pseudocyst, or cystic tumor of the pancreas. We have recently experienced a case of a peripancreatic bronchogenic cyst in 32-year-old woman. We report this case with a description of the CT findings and a review of the literature.

  13. Retroperitoneal Cyst: An Uncommon Presentation of Filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Ganesan; Saurabh Galodha; Rajan Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal parasitic cysts are rare. Here we report about a middle aged male patient from rural north India with a recent onset of central abdominal retroperitoneal lump, pain, and fever. After surgical resection due to diagnostic uncertainty, at histopathology, it turned out be a filarial cyst. After receiving a course of diethylcarbamazine, the patient is asymptomatic at 4 months' follow-up.

  14. Arachnoid cysts with intracystic and subdural haematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of arachnoid cysts with acute intracystic and subdural haematomas are described. CT examination was performed in both cases, and showed a hyperdense expansion with thinning of the inner table of the skull. The different ways in which subdural haematomas associated with arachnoid cysts may be seen on CT are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Arachnoid cysts with intracystic and subdural haematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, F J; Rovira, M; Ibarra, B; Piqueras, J; Rovira, M

    1989-05-01

    Two cases of arachnoid cysts with acute intracystic and subdural haematomas are described. CT examination was performed in both cases, and showed a hyperdense expansion with thinning of the inner table of the skull. The different ways in which subdural haematomas associated with arachnoid cysts may be seen on CT are discussed. PMID:2743985

  16. Arachnoid cysts with intracystic and subdural haematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, F.J.; Rovira, M. Jr.; Ibarra, B.; Piqueras, J.; Rovira, M. (Hospital General ' Vall d' Hebron' , Barcelona (Spain). Servicio de Neuroradiologia)

    1989-05-01

    Two cases of arachnoid cysts with acute intracystic and subdural haematomas are described. CT examination was performed in both cases, and showed a hyperdense expansion with thinning of the inner table of the skull. The different ways in which subdural haematomas associated with arachnoid cysts may be seen on CT are discussed. (orig.).

  17. [Urachal cyst presenting as acute urinary retention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quicios Dorado, C; Fernández Fernández, E; Gómez García, I; García Flórez, D; De Castro Guerin, C; Escudero Barrilero, A

    2005-10-01

    About 2% of adults have an urachal cyst. The diagnosis is usually made due to its clinical complications. We report an inusual case of acute urinary retention due to an urachal cyst, with hipogastric pain and anuria as initial syntoms. PMID:16353780

  18. Endoscopic approach of the overinfected urachal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, J I; Ponce de León, J; Huguet, J; Rosales, A; Caparrós, J; Villavicencio, H

    2002-01-01

    The overinfected urachus cyst presents itself in quite different forms. In spite of the accuracy of ultrasound and abdominal CT scan, sometimes the diagnosis of this urachal abnormality is imprecise and even misleading. This article describes the transvesical endoscopic drainage of an infected urachal cyst with optimum result upon the treatment of this condition. PMID:12899215

  19. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis. (orig.)

  20. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunica albuginea (TA cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries.

  1. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Daniel M.; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Tunica albuginea (TA) cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries.

  2. Cardiac hydatid cyst revealed by ventricular tachycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibn Elhadj, Zied; Boukhris, Marouane; Kammoun, Ikram; Halima, Afef Ben; Addad, Faouzi; Kachboura, Salem

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a human parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus Granulosus. The liver and the lungs are the most common locations. Cardiac involvement is rare and accounts for 0.5–2% of all hydatid disease. We report an unusual presentation of cardiac hydatid cyst revealed by ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a history of cerebral hydatid cyst.

  3. Portal hypertension due to choledochal cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of portal hypertension secondary to choledochal cyst is reported. A young female presented with haematemesis, malena and splenomegaly in addition to the classic triad of jaundice, pain and abdominal mass. Oesophagogastroscopy revealed second degree varices. Excision of cyst and hepaticojejunostomy was performed. At six months follow up patient was completely asymptomatic with no endoscopic evidence of varices. (author)

  4. Papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroglossal duct is an embryologic remain of the thyroid gland development. It generally is asymptomatic but sometimes it can develop an infection cyst or a malignant neoplasic transformation. We present two cases of papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct cyst. (The author)

  5. Epidermoid cyst of clitoris mimicking clitoromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Satish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clitoromegaly in pediatric and adolescent age group is usually indicative of a disorder of sexual differentiation. We report a girl child presenting with clitoral enlargement due to an epidermoid cyst. The cyst was excised with complete cosmetic recovery.

  6. Arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyun; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jeun, Sin Soo; Jung, So Lyung; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Bum Soo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Oculomotor cistern is normal anatomic structure that is like an arachnoid-lined cerebrospinal fluid-filled sleeve, containing oculomotor nerve. We report a case of arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy. The oblique sagittal MRI, parallel to the oculomotor nerve, showed well-defined and enlarged subarachnoid spaces along the course of oculomotor nerve. Simple fenestration was done with immediate regression of symptom. When a disease develops in oculomotor cistern, precise evaluation with proper MRI sequence should be performed to rule out tumorous condition and prevent injury of the oculomotor nerve.

  7. Arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oculomotor cistern is normal anatomic structure that is like an arachnoid-lined cerebrospinal fluid-filled sleeve, containing oculomotor nerve. We report a case of arachnoid cyst in oculomotor cistern, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy. The oblique sagittal MRI, parallel to the oculomotor nerve, showed well-defined and enlarged subarachnoid spaces along the course of oculomotor nerve. Simple fenestration was done with immediate regression of symptom. When a disease develops in oculomotor cistern, precise evaluation with proper MRI sequence should be performed to rule out tumorous condition and prevent injury of the oculomotor nerve.

  8. Pilonidal cyst on the vault: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES GUILHERME

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilonidal cysts and sinuses are described as dermoid cysts which contain follicles of hairs and sebaceous glands. They clinically present as a classic case of inflammation which comes with pain, local infection and redness. The origin of pilonidal disease remains controverse. There are many hypothesis as lack of hygiene on the affected area and a penetration and growth of a hair in the subcutaneus tissue caused by constant friction or direct trauma on the damaged area. The option for clinical treatment is very frequent. However, taking into consideration the incidence and the possibility of recidive, surgical treatment is presently recommended. Complications include cellulitis and abscess formation. Pilonidal cysts are mostly found on the sacral region. In the literature is found description of pilonidal cysts on the penis, interdigital region on the hands as well as on the cervical region. We present a case of pilonidal cyst located on the vault biparietal region, without malignant degeneration.

  9. Chronic suppurative inflammatory cyst in the sacrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jun-Yeong; Ha, Kee-Yong

    2012-11-01

    Sacral bone remodeling with abnormal dilatation of intervertebral foramina is usually associated with Tarlov's perineurial cysts but can also be caused by slow-growth lesions. In this case report, an atypical inflammatory sacral cyst with bone scalloping was found and some possible causes are suggested. A 77-year-old woman complained of severe back pain and claudication with anal tone weakness. A plain roentgenogram and CT showed spinal canal expansion and characteristic border scalloping of the sacrum. MRI showed septated cystic content with peripheral enhancement. Laminectomy was performed. The cyst contained yellowish viscous material that was easily removed. The neurological symptoms improved after surgery. The cystic wall was composed of dense fibrous tissue without epithelial cell lining; the cystic content was, on histology, inflammatory cells including neutrophils and lymphocytes. Patients who have sacral intraspinal cysts should be identified before doing the treatment such as acupuncture and epidural steroid injection to avoid infection to those cysts. PMID:26662739

  10. Midline Prostatic Cyst Marsupialization Using Holmium Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Mehmet; Goger, Yunus Emre; Piskin, Mesut; Balasar, Mehmet; Kandemir, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Many of the prostatic cysts are asymptomatic and only 5% are symptomatic (Hamper et al., 1990; Higashi et al., 1990). These symptoms include pelvic pain, hematospermia, infertility, voiding dysfunction, prostatitis-like syndrome, and painful ejaculation. Treatment of prostatic cysts includes TRUSG guided drainage, endoscopic transurethral resection, and in some cases even open surgery. In the literature, endoscopic interventions use marsupialization of the midline prostatic cyst with transurethral resection (TUR) or transurethral incision with endoscopic urethrotomy (Dik et al., 1996; Terris, 1995). Holmium: YAG laser was employed for the marsupialization of the cyst wall in midline prostatic cyst treatment for the first time in the present study. Symptoms, treatment, and follow-up are presented in this paper. PMID:26101688

  11. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach.

  12. CT findings of thyroglossal duct cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of thyroglossal duct cysts. Sixteen patients with pathologically proved thyroglossal duct cysts were included in the study. CT scans were assessed retrospectively for shape, size, location, density of the central portions, septations, rim enhancement, changes in the adjacent fascial planes and investment within the strap muscles in the infrahyoid cysts. Thirteen cases of thyroglossal duct cysts were seen as round or oval cystic masses, two cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped lobulated cystic masses, and one case was seen as ovoid soft tissue mass. The cysts were from 1.4 to 5.7 cm in diameter (mean, 2.6 cm). The cyst was infrahyoid in 15 cases and suprahyoid in one case. The cyst was located in midline in eight cases, off midline in four cases, and both midline and off midline in four cases. The density of the central portions ranged from 15 to 82HU (mean, 32HU). Septations were noted in four cases. Rim enhancement was seen in 14 cases (93%), and heterogeneously enhancing soft tissue mass was seen in one case. In four cases, abnormal fascial planes were observed. All but one of the infrahyoid cysts (14/15) were embedded within the strap muscles, and one case of them was located anteriorly to strap muscles. CT permits one to make the diagnosis a thyroglossal duct cyst with a high degree of accuracy, as it can differentiate thyroglossal duct cysts from the other anterior neck masses by their typical location, characteristic morphology, and investment within the strap muscles

  13. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis from human and animal samples from Brazil using beta-giardin gene: a phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotão, A C; Costa-Macedo, L M; Haddad, F S M; Brandão, A; Peralta, J M; Fernandes, O

    2007-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the major diarrhea agents in human and animals distributed worldwide, and present high levels of genetic diversity, showing seven genotypes: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. Only Assemblages A and B have been detected in humans and in a wide range of other mammalians hosts, whereas the remaining Assemblages (C-G) are host-specific. Molecular characterization of cysts of human and animal origin are useful to address the co-circulate isolates between these host, and represents an objective means to evaluate zoonotic infection hypothesis. In the present work the G. duodenalis genotypes were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and DNA sequencing analysis of PCR products of the beta-giardin gene. The cysts were collected in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, from a population composed by humans (n=366, 310 children and 56 adults), domestic animals (n=11) from a municipal daycare center in the surroundings of a slum and neighborhood medium-high class domestic animals (n=18). Parasitological exams were developed in human fecal samples. Parasites were found in 60% (186/310) and 66% (37/56) of the samples from children and adults, respectively. Among children's samples, 27.7% (86/310) were positive for G. duodenalis. Only 1.7% (1/56) of the adults was positive for this parasite. In general a total of 87 fecal samples (86 from children and 1 from adult) from all population studied were positive for G. duodenalis, and 62 of these were subjected to molecular analysis using a PCR that amplified a fragment of the beta-giardin gene. Sixty samples were typed as genotype A1, two as genotype A2 and genotype B was not encountered. Among domestic animals samples (n=29), eight (seven dogs and one cat) from the slum community were identified as genotype A1, and all control samples (n=18) were negative in the molecular assay. The host-specific genotypes C, D and, F were not found. In this study we described single case of G. duodenalis infection associated with a child and her dog and both isolates characterized as genotype A1. Despite the low incidence, this data suggest the putative existence of a zoonotic cycle of G. duodenalis in the studied population. PMID:17428432

  14. Infection rate and genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis in pet and stray dogs in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Rongjun; Li, Junqiang; Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Longxian; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important protozoan parasite that is known to be zoonotic. To assess the potential zoonotic transmission of giardiasis from dogs and to identify genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in dog populations, we examined the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in both pet dogs (from pet dog farms, pet shops, pet hospitals, pet markets) and stray dogs of different ages in Henan Province, China. A total of 940 fresh fecal specimens were collected from 2007 to 2013 in Henan Province. The overall infection rate of G. duodenalis was 14.3% (134/940) as determined by microscopy, with the highest infection rate (17.3%) observed in dogs from shelters. Young dogs were more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs, and G. duodenalis cysts were found more frequently in diarrheic dogs. All G. duodenalis-positive isolates were characterized at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and ?-giardin (bg) loci, and 37, 51, and 48 sequences were obtained, respectively. The dog-specific assemblages C and D were identified using multi-locus sequence analysis. Six novel sequences of the tpi locus, one novel sequence of the gdh locus and two novel sequences of the bg locus were detected among the G. duodenalis assemblage C isolates, while two novel sequences of the gdh locus were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage D isolates. Our data indicate that G. duodenalis is a common parasite and cause of diarrheal disease in dogs in Henan Province. However, there was no evidence for zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in the study population. PMID:26631754

  15. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in captive wild ruminants in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Goossens, Els; Levecke, Bruno; Vercammen, Francis; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2009-03-01

    Both Cryptosporidium and Giardia are frequently found in the stool of domestic ruminants, especially young animals. Wild ruminants are also host to these protozoa, but the prevalence of these parasites in both free-ranging and captive nondomesticated ruminants needs to be further investigated. Moreover, the role of wild ruminants serving as reservoirs for these zoonotic parasites remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in captive wild ruminants younger than 6 mo and to determine the potential of these animals to serve as reservoirs for these zoonotic parasites. A total of 67 captive wild ruminants belonging to 21 different animal species at the Antwerp Zoo (Belgium), along with 82 American bison (Bison bison) on a commercial breeding farm, were sampled for the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, using a commercial immunofluoresence assay (Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia IFA). The Cryptosporidium prevalence was 7.5% in the Antwerp Zoo animals and 3.7% in the bison from the breeding farm. All but two of the Cryptosporidium-positive animals were younger than 1 mo of age. Molecular characterization by amplification of the 70-kDa heat-shock protein and the 18S ribosomal DNA gene identified Cryptosporidium parvum in four animals of the Antwerp Zoo. The prevalence of Giardia was 8.9% in the Antwerp Zoo animals and 23.2% in the bison calves. Most Giardia-positive animals were older than 1 mo of age. Molecular characterization on the beta-giardin gene and the triose phosphate isomerase gene identified Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in the Antwerp Zoo and both G. duodenalis assemblage A and assemblage E in the bison calves. These findings indicate that both protozoan parasites are prevalent in captive wild ruminants and that these animals can serve as a potential reservoir for zoonotic transmission. PMID:19368251

  16. Giardia duodenalis in Damascus, Syria: Identification of Giardia genotypes in a sample of human fecal isolates using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyzing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skhal, Dania; Aboualchamat, Ghalia; Al Nahhas, Samar

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals. It is most prevalent in many developing and industrialized countries. G. duodenalis is considered to be a complex species. While no morphological distinction among different assemblages exist, it can be genetically differentiated into eight major assemblages: A to H. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis in human isolates (a study conducted for the first time in Syria). 40 fecal samples were collected from three different hospitals during the hot summer season of 2014. Extraction of genomic DNA from all Giardia positive samples (based on a microscopic examination) was performed using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. ?-giardin gene was used to differentiate between different Giardia assemblages. The 514bp fragment was amplified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction method, followed by digestion in HaeIII restriction enzyme. Our result showed that genotype A was more frequent than genotype B, 27/40 (67.5%); 4/40 (10%) respectively. A mixed genotype of A+B was only detected in 9 isolates (22.5%). This is the first molecular study performed on G. duodenalis isolates in Syria in order to discriminate among the different genotypes. Further expanded studies using more genes are needed to detect and identify the Giardia parasite at the level of assemblage and sub-assemblage. PMID:26524628

  17. Surgical treatment of congenital biliary duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang De-chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is acknowledged that total cyst excision is a safe and ideal surgical treatment for congenital biliary duct cyst, compared to simple internal drainage. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal operation occasion and the effect of laparoscopy on congenital biliary duct cyst based upon total cyst excision. Methods From January 2002 to January 2011, 217 patients were admitted to Southwest Hospital for congenital biliary duct cyst. To determine the optimal surgery occasion, we divided these subjects into three groups, the infant group (age ? 3 years, the immaturity group (3 18 years, and then evaluated the feasibility, risk and long-term outcome after surgery in the three groups. To analyze the effect of laparoscopic technique on congenital biliary duct cyst, we divided the patients into the laparoscopy and the open surgery groups. Results Among the three groups, the morbidity from cholangiolithiasis before surgical treatment had obvious discrepancy (p 0.05. Similarly, no significant discrepancy was observed in the morbidity from postoperative complications or long-term postoperative complications (p > 0.05 between the laparoscopic and the open surgery groups. Conclusions We conclude that total cyst excision should be performed as early as possible. The optimal treatment occasion is the infant period, and laparoscopic resection may be a new safe and feasible minimally invasive surgery for this disease.

  18. CT Imaging Findings of Ruptured Ovarian Endometriotic Cysts: Emphasis on the Differential Diagnosis with Ruptured Ovarian Functional Cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of abnormal CT findings in patients with surgically proven ruptured endometriotic cysts, as compared with those abnormal CT findings of ruptured ovarian functional cysts. This study included 13 retrospectively identified patients with surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian endometriotic cysts and who had also undergone preoperative CT scanning during the previous seven years. As a comparative group, 25 cases of surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian functional cysts were included. We assessed the morphologic features of the cysts and the ancillary findings based on CT. For the endometriotic cysts, the mean maximum cyst diameter was significantly larger than that of the functional cysts (70.1 mm versus 36.4 mm, respectively, p < 0.05). The endometriotic cysts frequently had a multilocular shape and a thicker cyst wall, as compared to that of functional cysts, and these differences were statistically significant. Among the ancillary findings, endometriotic cysts showed a significantly higher prevalence of loculated ascites, ascites confined to the pelvic cavity without extension to the upper abdomen, and peritoneal strandings and infiltrations (p < 0.05). Although 11 of the 25 cases of functional cysts showed active extravasation of contrast material at the ovarian bleeding site, only one of 13 cases of endometriotic cysts showed active extravasation. The diagnosis of ruptured endometriotic cyst should be suspected for a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of multilocular or bilateral ovarian cysts with a thick wall and loculated ascites confined to the pelvic cavity with pelvic fat infiltrations

  19. Sublingual epidermoid cyst: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandogan Tolga

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidermoid and dermoid cysts represent less than 0.01% of all oral cavity cysts. The cysts can be defined as epidermoid when the lining presents only epithelium, dermoid cysts when skin adnexa are found, and teratoid cysts when other tissue such as muscle, cartilage, and bone are present. In this article, we present the case of an epidermoid cyst, with an oral as well as a submental component, in an 11 year old boy who presented with complaints of a mass in the oral cavity, difficulty chewing and swallowing of solid foods for about 3 years. He was admitted to the otolaryngology department. On examination, a mass displacing the tongue superiorly and posteriorly was noticed. An MRI scan was done and showed a 40 × 35 mm well-circumscribed non-enhancing cystic mass extending from the sublingual area to the level of the thyroid notch. The content of the cyst was homogenous. On examining the neck, a firm swelling was also noticed in the submental area, extending down to the thyroid notch. Under general anesthesia and with nasotracheal intubation, the patient underwent surgical removal of the mass. Extraorally, a midline submental horizontal incision was performed through the mucosa overlying the swelling and the cyst was dissected from the surrounding tissues and removed. On histological examination, acidophilic stratum corneum and basophilic dot like staining of stratum granulosum, which is the hallmark of an epidermoid cyst, were seen. The patient did well postoperatively, and no recurrence was noticed at the 6-months follow-up.

  20. ANO1: an additional key player in cyst growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2014-05-01

    Chloride secretion driven by calcium-dependent chloride channels has a major impact on cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease. Buchholz et al. studied the functional role of anoctamin 1 (ANO1), a recently identified calcium-activated chloride channel, in kidney cyst growth, using principal-like cells forming cysts within a collagen matrix and an embryonic kidney cyst model. Their results support a potential role for this chloride channel in cyst generation. PMID:24786872

  1. [A new case of pericardial thymic cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, G; Guerard, S; Godon, P; Heyraud, J D; Brichon, P Y; Van De Walle, J P; Brion, R

    2000-07-01

    The thymic cysts are benign tumours of the thymo-pharyngeal canal, usually located in the cervico-mediastinal region. The authors report the case of a large thymic cyst with an ectopic right paracardiac location compressing the right heart chambers. It was a chance finding on chest X-ray of an asymptomatic 21 year old man. Though suggestive of a pericardial cyst in view of its position, curative surgical ablation allowed confirmation of the diagnosis at anatomo-pathological examination. PMID:10975041

  2. Post-traumatic leptomeningeal cyst in adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report of a rare case of post-traumatic leptomeningeal cyst in a 25 year old female, who received depressed and compound fracture in the left fronto-temporal bone and linear fractures in the left temporal bone following a traffic accident. Plain skull series obtained on 4 months after the trauma demonstrates a leptomeningeal cyst measuring 2.0 X 1.5 X 0.5 cm in its dimension in the left fronto-temporal bone associated with linear fractures. Etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and signs, roentgenological findings, differential diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of leptomeningeal cyst are discussed with a review of the literature

  3. Transitional cell carcinoma in urachal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Himanshu C; Marda, Sapna; Goswami, Kirti G; Vadvala, Harshna; Parekh, Keyur; Parikh, Keyur; Vadodaria, Himanshu

    2010-12-01

    A 33-year-old male patient with abdominal mass for a year was referred to our institute. CT scan with intravenous contrast was performed, which showed a cystic lesion at the infraumbilical region, beneath the anterior abdominal wall with the presence of solid enhancing mass apposed to the anterior wall of the cyst. We suggested a diagnosis of urachal cyst with possibility of malignancy. On surgical exploration, the cystic mass was found superior to and separate from the urinary bladder dome. Histopathology revealed transitional cell carcinoma in a urachal cyst. PMID:19760449

  4. An Unusual Case of Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Mirhoseini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is a parasitic disease in all over the world which is caused by a Cestode (tape worm. Liver, lung, and brain are the most Common involved organs and involvement of muscles and bones is unusual. We report a 32years old man who had low back and radicular leg pain. He had a paravertebral mass with involvement of Spinal column. This patient was operated with differential diagnosis of tumor or hydatid cyst. The final diagnosis was hydatidosis of paravertebral muscles and vertebral column. Keywords: hydatidosis, p aravertebral muscle hydatid cyst, spinal column hydatid cyst

  5. THE DIFFERENTIATIVE DIAGNOSIS OF RENAL CYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Seregin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Despite the progress of diagnostic possibilities, the interpretation of renal cysts is still difficult and may have false negative results. So far there is no algorithm of renal cysts patients examination and treatment. Further diagnostic process improvement and an exact knowledge of the possibilities of each method are needed. The main factor for choosing the right tactics of treatment and giving the prognosis of the disease is not only the diagnosis, but also the exact gradation of the renal cysts according to the Bosniak classification. 

  6. Endodermal cyst of the oculomotor nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.A. [School of Medicine, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Enterline, D.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Fukushima, T. [Carolina Neuroscience Research Inst., Carolina Skull Base Surgery Center, Raleigh, NC (United States); McLendon, R.E.; Cummings, T.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Endodermal cysts are rare congenital intracranial lesions. Although histologically benign, they can become symptomatic as a result of mass effect and cause neurological deficits. We report a 30-year-old woman who presented with paresis of her right oculomotor nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 13 x 8-mm cystic lesion originating from the right oculomotor nerve at its exit from the mesencephalon. She underwent craniotomy, biopsy, slit resection, and drainage of the cyst. To our knowledge, endodermal cysts have not been previously described in relation to the oculomotor nerve. (orig.)

  7. Endodermal cyst of the oculomotor nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endodermal cysts are rare congenital intracranial lesions. Although histologically benign, they can become symptomatic as a result of mass effect and cause neurological deficits. We report a 30-year-old woman who presented with paresis of her right oculomotor nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 13 x 8-mm cystic lesion originating from the right oculomotor nerve at its exit from the mesencephalon. She underwent craniotomy, biopsy, slit resection, and drainage of the cyst. To our knowledge, endodermal cysts have not been previously described in relation to the oculomotor nerve. (orig.)

  8. Laparoscopic management of neonatal ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oak Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first prenatal detection of an ovarian cyst was by Valenti in 1975. Since then antenatal and neonatal ovarian cysts are encountered more frequently due to the improvement of imaging techniques as well as routine antenatal ultrasound scanning. We discuss here the laparoscopic management of three cases of neonatal ovarian cysts. This approach is well tolerated by neonates, and it may overcome the controversy between the ?wait and see? policy and early surgical intervention, as laparoscopy has both diagnostic and therapeutic value with minimal morbidity, and ovarian salvage whenever possible.

  9. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Pitkänen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria. Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies.

  10. Low risk for transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from dogs to humans in rural Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to utilise molecular tools to determine the prevalence and compare genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting humans and dogs living in a previously identified Giardia-endemic village in rural Cambodia in order to ascertain zoonotic transmission risk. FINDINGS: The prevalence...

  11. MRI of aneurysmal bone cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preoperative findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in six histology-proven aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are examined and compared with previous publications concerning MRI of ABC. The signal intensities differ considerably, and not all of our cases conform with the literature data. They can be summarised in three different subheadings: one form that is very inhomogeneous in T1- and T2-weighting, with fluid-fluid levels in the cystic spaces; one intermediate form without fluid-fluid levels, which is inhomogeneous only in T2-weighted images; and finally, an unusual form of ABC has homogeneous low signal both in T1- and T2-weighting, and which has not been described in literature so far. (orig.)

  12. Paraesophageal cyst in a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2 year old Morgan gelding was evaluated for a non-painful mass located caudodorsal to the larynx. Radiographically, the mass was ovoid shaped and had a peripheral rim of mineralization. Slight ventral displacement of the dorsal margin of the trachea could also be identified. Uniform moderate level echoes were seen throughout the interior of the mass on ultrasound examination. An esophagram was performed and demonstrated displacement without involvement of the esophagus by the mass. The esophagus appeared as a separate structure from the mass on both the ultrasound examination and esophagram. During surgical removal, themass also appeared as a distinct structure from the esophagus. Histologically, the mass was consistent with an epithelial inclusion cyst which originated from the esophagus

  13. Botryoid odontogenic cyst developing from lateral periodontal cyst: A rare case and review on pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Botryoid odontogenic cyst (BOC is considered to be a polycystic variant of the lateral periodontal cyst (LPC as the specimen resembled a cluster of grapes. It is a non-inflammatory odontogenic cyst. The BOCs can be unicystic or multicystic. These cysts have potential to extend in the bone and become multilocular and they have a high recurrence rate. Till now, only 73 cases of BOC have been reported. The pathogenesis of BOC is still debatable. We review different pathogenesis proposed for BOC and discuss a rare case of BOC developing from lining of an abnormally large LPC which showed aggressive behaviour in terms of growth and size.

  14. Giardia agilis: Ultrastructure of the Trophozoites in the Frog Intestine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Inês L, Sogayar; Elisa Aparecida, Gregório.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Intestine samples of Bufo sp. tadpoles with parasitism confirmed for Giardia agilis were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The G. agilis trophozoites were long and thin. The plasma membrane was sometimes undulated and the cytoplasm, adjacent to the dorsal and ventral regions, showed numer [...] ous vacuoles. The two nuclei presented prominent nucleoli. The cytoplasm was electron-dense with free ribosomes, glycogen and rough endoplasmic reticulum-like structures. Polyhedral inclusions were observed in the cytoplasm and outside the protozoan; some of these inclusions exhibited membrane disruption. The flagella ultrastructure is typical, with the caudal pair accompanied by the funis. Next to the anterior pair, osmiophilic material was noticed. The ventro-lateral flange was short and thick, supported by the marginal plates that penetrated into its distal extremity; only its distal portion had adjacent osmiophilic filament. The G. agilis trophozoites showed the general subcellular feature of the genus. However, the ventro-lateral flange ultrastructure was an intermediate type between G. muris and G. duodenalis.

  15. Dermoid cyst in the mouth floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dermoid cyst account for the 0.01 % of all cysts of buccal cavity. Its more frequent location is in the mouth floor. This is the case of a female patient aged 19 who approximately 7 years noted an increase of volume under tongue growing gradually and noting outside face and the discomfort at to speak and to chew. Complementary studies were conducted and under general anesthesia a surgical exeresis was carried out by intrabuccal approach achieving excellent esthetic and functional results. Histopathologic diagnosis matched with a dermoid cyst of mouth floor. Patient has not lesion recurrence after three years after operation. We conclude that the Dermoid cyst of mouth floor appear as benign tumor of middle line. The intrabuccal exeresis demonstrates esthetic and functional benefits. (author)

  16. Surgical results of sacral perineural (Tarlov cysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka,Masato

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes and to determine indicators of the necessity of surgical intervention. Twelve consecutive patients harboring symptomatic sacral perineural cysts were treated between 1995 and 2003. All patients were assessed for neurological deficits and pain by neurological examination. Magnetic resonance of imaging, computerized tomography, and myelography were performed to detect signs of delayed filling of the cysts. We performed a release of the valve and imbrication of the sacral cysts with laminectomies in 8 cases or recapping laminectomies in 4 cases. After surgery, symptoms improved in 10 (83% of 12 patients, with an average follow-up of 27 months. Ten patients had sacral perineural cysts with signs of positive filling defect. Two (17% of 12 patients experienced no significant improvement. In one of these patients, the filling defect was negative. In conclusion, a positive filling defect may become an indicator of good treatment outcomes.

  17. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  18. Duplication Cyst of the Sigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Domajnko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male with developmental delay presented with abdominal pain of two days' duration. He was afebrile and his abdomen was soft with mild diffuse tenderness. There were no peritoneal signs. Plain x-ray demonstrated a large air-filled structure in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a 9×8 cm structure adjacent to the hepatic flexure containing an air-fluid level. It did not contain oral contrast and had no apparent communication with the colon. At operation, the cystic lesion was identified as a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon that was adherent to the right upper quadrant. The cyst was excised with a segment of the sigmoid colon and a stapled colo-colostomy was performed. Recovery was uneventful. Final pathology was consistent with a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon. The cyst was attached to the colon but did not communicate with the lumen.

  19. Thoracic radiculopathy caused by a myodil cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M O; Goyal, K; Johnston, R A

    2000-08-01

    We report the case of a myodil cyst causing a thoracic radiculopathy in a patient who had undergone a myelogram 30 years previously. Although myodil is no longer used, sequelae can continue to be seen for many years. PMID:11045204

  20. Percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydatic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is an endemic disease and an important public health problem in some countries of the world. The results of surgical treatment are associated with a high rate of mortality, morbidity, postoperative recurrence and a long period of hospital stay and the medical treatment results are still controversial. Although the percutaneous aspiration and treatment of liver hydatid cysts were considered to be contraindicated due to risks of anaphylactic shock and dissemination of clear-crystal fluid into the abdomen, several reports of successful percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts have been published in the literature. Today, percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts is the most effective and reliable treatment procedure in the selected cases. In this review, indications, contraindications, method and techniques, healing criteria, complications, results and importance of the percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts are discussed

  1. [Hyalin substance in odontogenic cysts. Histological observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palattella, G; Minarchi, C; Ruggeri, B; Massi, C; Palattella, A

    1989-05-15

    The odontogenic cysts contain the hyaline deposits in 69.2%. The hyaline deposits appear as a zone that was continuous with basament membrane or as an irregular deposit within the connective tissue. PMID:2484170

  2. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Vaziri, Siavoosh; Faraji, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described. PMID:26139761

  3. The appearances of lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, A M; Fon, G T

    1991-12-01

    Intraspinal synovial cysts most commonly occur in the lower lumbar spine and may cause radicular symptoms. Eight symptomatic patients are described, each of whom had a single synovial cyst with associated facet joint degeneration. Four were at the L4-5 level and two each at L3-4 and L5-S1. Myelography in four patients revealed a posterolateral indentation on the contrast column in each case. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a structure of similar or greater density than the thecal sac in six cases and of gas density in one case. Two of the former cases also contained gaseous elements, three cases had a mildly dense rim and in the eighth case calcification was demonstrated within the cyst. One cyst resolved after facet joint injection with local anaesthetic and steroid. PMID:1773558

  4. A Rare Case Report of Conjunctival Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salagar, Kavita Mallikarjun; Pujari, M R; Murthy, Chethan N

    2015-11-01

    A conjunctival cyst is a thin-walled sac or vesicle that contains fluid. This vesicle may develop either on or under the conjunctiva. It develops due to variety of causes such as infection, inflammation, retention cyst and rarely drug induced. The authors aimed to report a case of conjuctival cyst in a 34-year-old male following instillation of anti-allergic topical drugs for over period of one year. Conjuctival cyst developing due to chronic use of anti-allergic topical drugs containing preservatives is one of the complications associated with it. Presence of a preservative in an ocular medication has often been considered in damaging the epithelium. Inclusion of a preservative is equally necessary, especially in multiple-drug therapy in order to protect against dangerous organisms accidentally gaining access during instillation. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorobutanol, chlorhexidine acetate (CHA) and phenylmercuric nitrate or acetate are some commonly used preservatives in eye drops. PMID:26675748

  5. Recurring Acute Abdomen, Ovarian Cyst and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Rohatgi, N Rohatgi and K Buckshee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation, large ovarian cyst and multicystic ovaries associated with primaryhypothyroidism is infrequently reported and not widely recognized in gynaecologic literature. We reporta case of a 15 year old girl who had an acute abdomen and emergency laparotomy revealed bilaterallyenlarged ovaries, a large ovarian cyst with torsion in the right ovary and ascites. Thus right adnexa wasremoved. At that time thyroid dysfunction was neither suspected nor investigated. Five years later patientagain developed acute abdomen with a large cyst in the remaining left ovary. Thyroid evaluation at thispoint of time indicated profound hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroxin resulted in marked clinicalimprovement and resolution of the ovarian cyst thus highlighting the significance of assessing thyroid functiontests in young girls with above clinical profile. Surgery is indicated if there is a complication or failure tomedical treatment. We conclude that severe hypothyroidism was probably responsible for various ovariandisorders that might have resulted from the effects of an excess amount of TSH on immature ovaries.

  6. Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1?:?100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFc?-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFc?-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the diminished number of IgA-positive cells registered in the Giardia group at 7 days post-infection was restored by kefir feeding, although the increase in IgA-positive cells was no longer observed in the kefir group at that time. No significant differences in CXCL10 expression were registered between groups, in concordance with the absence of inflammation in small-intestinal tissue. Interestingly, a slight reduction in CCL20 expression was observed in the Giardia group, suggesting that G. intestinalis might downregulate its expression as a way of evading the inflammatory immune response. On the other hand, a trend towards an increase in TNF-? expression was observed in the kefir group, while the Giardia-kefir group showed a significant increase in TNF-? expression. Moreover, kefir-receiving mice (kefir and Giardia-kefir groups) showed an increase in the expression of IFN-?, the most relevant Th1 cytokine, at 2 days post-infection. Our results demonstrate that feeding mice with kefir reduces G. intestinalis infection and promotes the activation of different mechanisms of humoral and cellular immunity that are downregulated by parasitic infection, thus contributing to protection. PMID:24072759

  7. Retroperitoneal Cyst: An Uncommon Presentation of Filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Senthil; Galodha, Saurabh; Saxena, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal parasitic cysts are rare. Here we report about a middle aged male patient from rural north India with a recent onset of central abdominal retroperitoneal lump, pain, and fever. After surgical resection due to diagnostic uncertainty, at histopathology, it turned out be a filarial cyst. After receiving a course of diethylcarbamazine, the patient is asymptomatic at 4 months' follow-up. PMID:26664759

  8. [Chronic fever revealing an urachal cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitten, Thierry; Ben Abdelgheni, Maher; Rohr, Serge; Boujan, Fazel; Blicklé, Jean-Frédéric; Andrès, Emmanuel

    2003-12-01

    In the adult, the urachus remains as a non-specific fibrous formation extended from the bladder dome to the Retzius space. This urachal remnant is commonly asymptomatic or may be revealed by a cyst. This later may also be asymptomatic or lead to local inflammation or inflammatory pseudo-tumor. We report an original observation of chronic fever revealing an urachal cyst in a 21-Year-old male. PMID:15037830

  9. Infected urachal cyst in the adult

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Sobral; Álvaro Brandão; Edson Retroz; Paulo Azinhais; Louis Sousa; Ricardo Godinho; Hugo Coelho; Pedro Peralta; Ricardo Leão; Bruno Pereira; Vânia Grenha; Paulo Temido; Ricardo Borges

    2011-01-01

    Infected urachal cysts are a rare clinical manifestation in adults. We present the case of an adult male patient with an infected urachal cyst, discuss the embryology, clinical presentation, diagnostics and the therapeutic procedure. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose this condition with unspecific clinical features. Ultrasound and MRI are useful in making the diagnosis. Surgery continues to be the therapeutic procedure of choice.

  10. Unusual Dermoid Cyst in Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Evanice Menezes Marçal Vieira; Alvaro Henrique Borges; Luis Evaristo Ricci Volpato; Alessandra Nogueira Porto; Artur Aburad Carvalhosa; Gilberto de Almeida Botelho; Matheus Coelho Bandeca

    2014-01-01

    Dermoid cysts in oral cavity are unusual lesions. Their etiology is not yet clear and can be associated with trapped cells as a result of the inclusion error resulting in the development into the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm tissues. The aim of this case report is to evidence the presence of a dermoid cyst in the floor of mouth surgically removed. In the present case, the lesion showed soft consistency, floating, regular borders, smooth surface, and the same color as the adjacent mucosa, ...

  11. Primary aneurysmal bone cyst of coronoid process

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal Tanu; Syal Rajan; Tyagi Isha; Goyal Amit; Jain Manoj

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Aneurysmal bone cysts are relatively uncommon in the facial skeleton. These usually affect the mandible but origin from the coronoid process is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a coronoid process aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as temporal fossa swelling. Case presentation A 17 year old boy presented with a progressively increasing swelling in the left temporal region developed over the previous 8 months. An expansile lytic cysti...

  12. [Intrasellar arachnoid cyst: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Hayashi, S; Nakai, M; Ryujin, Y; Uematsu, Y; Nakai, K; Itakura, T

    1995-09-01

    Intrasellar arachnoid cyst is very rare. We report a case of intrasellar arachnoid cyst. A 44-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of his headache and visual disturbance on August 6, 1993. Neurological examination revealed bilateral decreased visual acuity and visual field defect. Endocrinological examination showed panhypopituitarism. Other neurological findings were normal. X-ray film of the skull showed a ballooning dilation of the sella turcica with thinning of the sellar floor. CT scan showed a cystic lesion with CSF-density occupied the sella. After intravenous administration of contrast medium, the cyst showed no enhancement. MRI showed the intrasellar mass had the same characteristics as the surrounding subarachnoid space. Bilateral carotid angiographies demonstrated that the carotid siphons were stretched and displaced laterally, and the A1 portions of the anterior cerebral arteries were raised. We made a diagnosis of intrasellar cystic lesion. On August 18, the sella turcica was opened via the transsphenoidal rhinoseptal approach. The cyst contained CSF-like fluid, and a part of the cyst wall was resected. The cavity was filled with Gelfoam and the sellar floor was repaired with bone flap. Postoperatively, the patient's visual disturbance improved, but diabetis insipidus appeared and required hormonal replacement. The patient was discharged on September 27 with improvement of visual acuity and visual field. Histological examination demonstrated that the cyst wall consisted of thick arachnoidal cells with fibrous connective tissue. The arachnoidal cells with oval nuclei was stained with epithelial membrane antigen. Symptoms, signs and radiological findings of intrasellar arachnoid cyst are similar to those of various sellar lesions including pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, empty sella, Rathke's cleft cyst, epidermoid et al.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7566427

  13. Alveolar hydatid cyst: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behiye Zarif-Zakerian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease due to invasion of the Echinococcus multilocularis larva into the different tissues. The main host of this tape worms is Canidae family, especially foxes and jackals. Human beings are usually infected through eating contaminated vegetables and water with parasite eggs. In this article, one case of alveolar hydatid cyst has been reported in a 35 year-old woman

  14. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ajla Rahimi? ?ati?; Maida Nikši?; Zlata Kadeni?

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial dermoid cysts are congenital, usually nonmalignant lesions with an incidence of 0.5% of all intracranial tumors. They tend to occur in the midline sellar, parasellar, or frontonasal regions. Although theirnature is benign, dermoid cysts have a high morbidity and mortality risk, especially when rupture occurs. A 40 year old woman presented with head injury after she experienced sudden loss of consciousness. She hada history of headache, loss of consciousness; her past medical hist...

  15. [Severe cholestasis in congenital choledochus cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höring, E; Lüke, F; Helfen, M; Gaisberg, U; Kieninger, G

    1989-05-01

    A nineteen year old female was admitted to the hospital presenting with sudden onset of severe jaundice and the biochemical constellation of cholestasis. The sonographically and radiologically diagnosis of choledochal cyst was confirmed intraoperatively. The choledochal cyst of type IVa reached from the papilla until the hepatocholedochal junction. A lateroterminal choledochojejunostomy with a Y-Roux-anastomosis was constructed. The patient became symptom-free after the operation. PMID:2661941

  16. Dentigerous cyst presenting as facial pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case is presented in which a maxillary dentigerous cyst had eroded the posterior wall of the right maxillary sinus into the pterygo-palatine fossa causing facial pain due to pressure on the nerves. It had also eroded the lateral wall of sinus and into the oral cavity and got infected resulting in foul smelling oral discharge. The case was dealt with complete removal of cyst using Caldwell Luc's approach. (author)

  17. Hydatid Cysts of Liver and Portal Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Emre, Ali; Ario?ul, Orhan; Alper, Aydin; Ökten, Attilâ; Uras, Ali; Yalçin, Süleyman

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of portal hypertension due to hydatid cysts of the liver are reported. In one of the patients, symptoms were secondary to obstruction of inferior vena cava and hepatic outflow tract. The other patient was operated on with a diagnosis of extrahepatic presinusoidal portal hypertension caused by extrinsic compression of the liver by an hydatid cyst. Although hydatidosis is a benign disease, it can produce serious complications as in these reported cases. Therefore hydatidos...

  18. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis.

  19. The crystal structure of Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 in the apo form: when protein post-translational modifications make the difference.

    KAUST Repository

    Fiorillo, Annarita

    2014-03-21

    The 14-3-3s are a family of dimeric evolutionary conserved pSer/pThr binding proteins that play a key role in multiple biological processes by interacting with a plethora of client proteins. Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects millions of people worldwide causing an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. The single giardial 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3), unique in the 14-3-3 family, needs the constitutive phosphorylation of Thr214 and the polyglycylation of its C-terminus to be fully functional in vivo. Alteration of the phosphorylation and polyglycylation status affects the parasite differentiation into the cyst stage. To further investigate the role of these post-translational modifications, the crystal structure of the g14-3-3 was solved in the unmodified apo form. Oligomers of g14-3-3 were observed due to domain swapping events at the protein C-terminus. The formation of filaments was supported by TEM. Mutational analysis, in combination with native PAGE and chemical cross-linking, proved that polyglycylation prevents oligomerization. In silico phosphorylation and molecular dynamics simulations supported a structural role for the phosphorylation of Thr214 in promoting target binding. Our findings highlight unique structural features of g14-3-3 opening novel perspectives on the evolutionary history of this protein family and envisaging the possibility to develop anti-giardial drugs targeting g14-3-3.

  20. Core histone genes of Giardia intestinalis: genomic organization, promoter structure, and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rodney D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protist found in freshwaters worldwide, and is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea in humans. The phylogenetic position of this parasite is still much debated. Histones are small, highly conserved proteins that associate tightly with DNA to form chromatin within the nucleus. There are two classes of core histone genes in higher eukaryotes: DNA replication-independent histones and DNA replication-dependent ones. Results We identified two copies each of the core histone H2a, H2b and H3 genes, and three copies of the H4 gene, at separate locations on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 within the genome of Giardia intestinalis, but no gene encoding a H1 linker histone could be recognized. The copies of each gene share extensive DNA sequence identities throughout their coding and 5' noncoding regions, which suggests these copies have arisen from relatively recent gene duplications or gene conversions. The transcription start sites are at triplet A sequences 1–27 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon for each gene. We determined that a 50 bp region upstream from the start of the histone H4 coding region is the minimal promoter, and a highly conserved 15 bp sequence called the histone motif (him is essential for its activity. The Giardia core histone genes are constitutively expressed at approximately equivalent levels and their mRNAs are polyadenylated. Competition gel-shift experiments suggest that a factor within the protein complex that binds him may also be a part of the protein complexes that bind other promoter elements described previously in Giardia. Conclusion In contrast to other eukaryotes, the Giardia genome has only a single class of core histone genes that encode replication-independent histones. Our inability to locate a gene encoding the linker histone H1 leads us to speculate that the H1 protein may not be required for the compaction of Giardia's small and gene-rich genome.

  1. NASOPHARYNGEAL BRANCHIAL CYST CAUSING STRIDOR IN NEONATE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaskaran Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonates may present with various causes of stridor. Nasopharyngeal cysts are rare congenital lesions causing difficulty in breathing. Differential diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cysts include thornwalds cyst, rathke cleft and craniopharyngioma, teratoma, epidemoid cysts, dermoid cyst, nasopharyngeal encephalocele, infected cyst and branchial cyst. Though branchial cysts are very rarely present in nasopharynx, they are easy to diagnose on MRI and fall under the category of preventable causes of neonatal stridor. Their surgical excision is the treatment of choice but sometimes owing to the other prematurities present the neonate period is not always the best time to operate. We report a case of a newborn child with nasopharyngeal branchial cyst presenting with stridor and managed conservatively with aspiration

  2. Challenges in using chrysophyte cysts as tools in palaeoclimatological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkonen, Sanna; Weckström, Jan; Korhola, Atte

    2013-04-01

    Chrysophytes, also known as the golden-brown algae (classes Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae), often form an essential component of phytoplankton in oligotrophic northern waters. All chrysophytes are believed to produce siliceous resting stages which are often well preserved and abundant in the sediments of most lakes. These resting stages also known as stomatocysts or simply cysts have recently been used in a variety of palaeoenvironmental studies linking cyst assemblages to certain environmental variables such as temperature, pH, salinity and ice cover times. For most of the cysts the cyst producing chrysophyte species is still unknown. Cyst identification is based on the size, shape, ornamentation and the pore morphology of the cyst. The problem however is the minuscule surface structure of the cyst which can often be detected only using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The use of a SEM is usually expensive and time-consuming but leaves an image of each cyst counted for future reference. The problem with using a SEM is the fact that, unlike with a light microscope, you cannot see through the cyst if the pore is not visible and therefore you are left with a large number of cysts which in some cases have several different identity options. The use of a light microscope is faster but cysts often have to be put into collective categories which can lead into problems in palaeoreconstructions if cysts in the same group have different environmental preferences. More problems in identification arise when cysts are corroded in the sediment or not fully developed. Since no larger scale chrysophyte cyst studies have previously been carried out in Finland (or Fennoscandia), the sediment material also contains many previously undescribed cyst morphotypes. Here we discuss the challenges of cyst identification and the use of chrysophyte cysts in paleoclimatic reconstructions based on circa 15000 SEM images of cysts in Finnish lakes.

  3. Evidence from bioinformatics, expression and inhibition studies of phosphoinositide-3 kinase signalling in Giardia intestinalis

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    Crompton Mark R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a parasitic protozoan and major cause of diarrhoeal disease. Disease transmission is dependent on the ability of the parasite to differentiate back and forth between an intestine-colonising trophozoite and an environmentally-resistant infective cyst. Our current understanding of the intracellular signalling mechanisms that regulate parasite replication and differentiation is limited, yet such information could suggest new methods of disease control. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K signalling pathways have a central involvement in many vital eukaryotic processes, such as regulation of cell growth, intracellular membrane trafficking and cell motility. Here we present evidence for the existence of functional PI3K intracellular signalling pathways in G. intestinalis. Results We have identified and characterised two genes, Gipi3k1 and Gipi3k2, which encode putative PI3Ks. Both genes are expressed in trophozoites and encysting cells, suggesting a possible role of GiPI3K1 and GiPI3K2 in regulating giardial growth and differentiation. Extensive nucleotide and amino acid sequence characterisation predicts that both encoded PI3Ks are functional as indicated by the presence of highly conserved structural domains and essential catalytic residues. The inhibitory effect of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 on trophozoite proliferation also supports their functionality. Phylogenetic analysis supports the identity of GiPI3K1 as a Class I isoform and GiPI3K2 as a Class III isoform. In addition, giardial genes encoding putative homologues of phosphoinositide-metabolising enzymes such as PTEN, MTM, PIPkin and PI 5-phosphatase as well as downstream effectors with phosphoinositide-binding domains have been identified, placing GiPI3K1 and GiPI3K2 in a broader signalling context. Compared with twenty-six PI3Ks from other organisms, GiPI3K1 and GiPI3K2 are unique in that they contain large insertions within their highly conserved kinase domains. The function of these insertions is unknown; however we show here that they are not intron-derived and would probably not hinder substrate binding. These insertions may represent a plausible drug target. Conclusion G. intestinalis encodes and expresses two putative PI3Ks, at least one of which appears to be required during normal parasite proliferation. The identification of Class I and Class III but not Class II isoforms suggests that both extracellularly-initiated signalling (Class I-regulated and intracellular vesicle trafficking (Class III-regulated might be controlled by PI3Ks in G. intestinalis. The presence of genes encoding putative homologues of phosphoinositide-metabolising enzymes and downstream effectors in the G. intestinalis genome further suggests that the overall architecture of PI3K signalling may be comparable with pathways present in other better-studied organisms.

  4. Atlantoaxial Joint Synovial Cyst: Diagnosis and Percutaneous Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synovial cysts at the atlantoaxial level are found uncommonly. Lumbar symptomatic cases are treated by percutaneous cyst aspiration with or without corticoid injection or by surgical resection, but synovial cysts at the C1-C2 level are usually treated by surgery. We report here a 92-year-old woman with a retro-odontoid synovial cyst producing spinal cord compression that was treated by percutaneous aspiration of the cyst under CT guidance. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an atlantoaxial synovial cyst successfully treated with a minimally invasive procedure.

  5. Echographic and computer-aided tomographic characterization of prostatic cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transrectal ultrasonic examination of the prostate were carried out in 965 patients aged 43 to 87. Cyst-like formations were revealed in 206 (21.3 %) patients. Acquired cysts caused by development of nodular prostatic hyperplasia were found in 193 patients, congenital cysts (cysts of prostatic utricle and Mueller's duct) in 13 patients. In one aided tomography was carried out to more accurately localize the cysts, assess the status of the prostate and adjacent tissues, and to differentiate cysts from other bulky formations of the prostate, if necessary. 8 refs.; 5 figs

  6. Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/ Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados

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    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate. Efficacy of 97,05% for metronidazole, 98,30% for fenbendazole and 100% for secnidazole were observed in the study. According to the results it was concluded that the tested drugs were effective for the treatment of mice parasitized by Giardia muris.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol contra Giardia muris em camundongos naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 40 camundongos da espécie Mus musculus divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, sendo grupo A, grupo controle, não tratados, e grupos B, C e D tratados com 4mg/ml de metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol, respectivamente. Para avaliar a eficácia dos medicamentos foram realizadas duas coletas de fezes uma no dia zero e outra 10 dias após tratamento. As amostras foram processadas e analisadas a partir do método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. No estudo observou-se eficácia de 97,05% para metronidazol, 98,30% para fenbendazole e 100% para secnidazol no tratamento de giardiase murina. Com base nos resultados concluí-se que as drogas testadas apresentaram eficácia no tratamento de camundongos parasitados por Giardia muris.

  7. CT guided percutaneous renal cysts puncture with ethanol therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyse our clinical experience with CT guided percutaneous renal cysts puncture and ethanol therapy. Methods: Five hundred and ten renal cysts in 445 patients were undergone CT guided percutaneous renal cysts puncture and ethanol therapy. Among the 445 cases, 385 cases had solitary renal cyst, 53 multiple renal cysts, and 7 polycystic kidneys. The renal cysts varied in size from 1.9 to 13.5 cm in diameter. The amount of aspirated fluid varied from 3 to 780 ml. A 18-21 gauge aspiration needles were used for all patients. A 25.0% cyst volume replacement with 99.7% ethanol was approved to be appropriate. Results: 427 renal cysts in 396 patients were followed up by computed tomographic (CT) or ultrasound for less than 3 months to more than one year duration. The curative effective rate and disappearance rate of the renal cystic cavity in solitary renal cysts were 97% and 82%, respectively. In multiple renal cysts, the corresponding values were 95% and 79%. In polycystic kidneys, the curative rate was 67%. The complications such as local abdominal pain (28 cases) and hematuria (four cases) were observed in this series. There were no fatal complications. Conclusions: CT guided percutaneous renal cyst puncture and ethanol therapy is an useful procedure for the treatment of solitary renal cysts and multiple renal cysts

  8. MANAGEMENT OF OVARIAN CYST BY AYURVEDIC TREATMENT: A CASE REPORT

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    Sehgal Himanshu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cysts are fluid filled sacs inside the ovary that are common among women during their reproductive years. Most cysts are harmless and go away without any treatment, but some may cause problems such as rupturing, bleeding, or pain; and surgery may be required to remove the cyst(s. When the follicles (sacs in the ovaries do not rupture, they form small cysts called 'simple cysts'. These form whenever ovary produces too much of estrogen hormone. 'Dermoid cysts' & 'chocolate cysts' are other types of cysts. 'Large' or 'pathological cysts' can occur in about 5% of women during their reproductive years. Management of Ovarian cyst through surgery is available to meet urgent medical need, but huge challenges remain to treat by medicines. Ayurveda, (the Science of Life which is the oldest well documented ancient Indian System of medicine is giving new ray of hope in the management of ovarian cyst (Kaphaj Granthi vikaar. This article presents a successfully managed case of ovarian cyst in the form of a case report by Ayurvedic treatment.

  9. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Tarja Pitkänen; Tiina Juselius; Eija Isomäki; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Matti Valve; Anna-Liisa Kivimäki; Kirsti Lahti; Marja-Liisa Hänninen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and ...

  10. PREVALENCE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM, GIARDIA AND ENTEROCYTOZOON BIENEUSI GENOTYPES IN CATS FROM BOGOTA (COLUMBIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cats from Bogota (Colombia) was determined from fecal specimens and scrapings of duodenal and ileal mucosa screened by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the genotype(s) present. Of 46 cats, six (13%)...

  11. Effect of Giardia Infection on Nutritional Status in Primary Schoolchildren, in Northwest Iran

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    G.H. Ettehad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the association between Giardia infection and nutritional status, a cross- sectional study was performed on twenty randomly selected primary schools from two regions of Ardabil province in 2005. Anthropometric factors including height, weight and midarm muscle circumference (MAC were measured for 813 children (413 males, 400 females. The food intake was estimated for energy and other nutrients by 24 h recall method for three days in week. Determination of Giardia infection was done by using direct wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation concentration.10.9% of boys and 17.2% of girls were infected with Giardia infection. Weight and MAC in none infected girls and boys (only 7 and 11 years old were higher than in infected groups. The average values for weight, height and MAC for both genders were lower than those of NCHS values. Vitamin E and phosphorous intake in non infected boys (in 7-10 years old were less than infected boys. Calorie, protein, vitamins (B3, B5, B6, E and folacin and minerals (copper, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium and selenium intake of infected girls were less than non infected girls in 11-12 years old category. Based on the results found in this study, we conclude that Giardia infection may affect on some of anthropometric factors as well as the calorie and other nutrients intake in some of age groups.

  12. Adaptive Immunity-Dependent Intestinal Hypermotility Contributes to Host Defense against Giardia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Yolanda S.; Gillin, Frances D.; Eckmann, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Humans infected with Giardia exhibit intestinal hypermotility, but the underlying mechanisms and functional significance are uncertain. Here we show in murine models of giardiasis that small-intestinal hypermotility occurs in a delayed fashion relative to peak parasite burden, is dependent on adaptive immune defenses, and contributes to giardial clearance.

  13. Effect of Giardia infection on nutritional status in primary schoolchildren, in northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettehad, G H; Daryani, A; Nemati, A

    2010-03-01

    In order to determine the association between Giardia infection and nutritional status, a cross-sectional study was performed on twenty randomly selected primary schools from two regions of Ardabil province in 2005. Anthropometric factors including height, weight and midarm muscle circumference (MAC) were measured for 813 children (413 males, 400 females). The food intake was estimated for energy and other nutrients by 24 h recall method for three days in week. Determination of Giardia infection was done by using direct wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation concentration. 10.9% of boys and 17.2% of girls were infected with Giardia infection. Weight and MAC in none infected girls and boys (only 7 and 11 years old) were higher than in infected groups. The average values for weight, height and MAC for both genders were lower than those of NCHS values. Vitamin E and phosphorous intake in non infected boys (in 7-10 years old) were less than infected boys. Calorie, protein, vitamins (B3, B5, B6, E and folacin) and minerals (copper, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium and selenium) intake of infected girls were less than non infected girls in 11-12 years old category. Based on the results found in this study, we conclude that Giardia infection may affect on some of anthropometric factors as well as the calorie and other nutrients intake in some of age groups. PMID:20464945

  14. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AND GIARDIA IN STORMWATER AS A THREAT TO DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreak in the United Kingdom in 1983, the pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have become the subject of growing local, state, and national concern. In the last decade, these organisms have been the causative agent of many gastroint...

  15. A large scale molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in horses in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in horses is poorly known. The present study examined feces from 195 horses, 1 month to 17 years of age, in 4 locations in Colombia. Prevalence of infection was determined by PCR and all positives were sequenced to determine the genotypes. Thirty four (...

  16. The minimal proteome in the reduced mitochondrion of the parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedelský, Petr L; Doležal, Pavel; Rada, Petr; Pyrih, Jan; Smíd, Ond?ej; Hrdý, Ivan; Sedinová, Miroslava; Marcin?iková, Michaela; Voleman, Lubomír; Perry, Andrew J; Beltrán, Neritza Campo; Lithgow, Trevor; Tachezy, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis are thought to be mitochondria highly-reduced in response to the oxygen-poor niche. We performed a quantitative proteomic assessment of Giardia mitosomes to increase understanding of the function and evolutionary origin of these enigmatic organelles. Mitosome-enriched fractions were obtained from cell homogenate using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. To distinguish mitosomal proteins from contamination, we used a quantitative shot-gun strategy based on isobaric tagging of peptides with iTRAQ and tandem mass spectrometry. Altogether, 638 proteins were identified in mitosome-enriched fractions. Of these, 139 proteins had iTRAQ ratio similar to that of the six known mitosomal markers. Proteins were selected for expression in Giardia to verify their cellular localizations and the mitosomal localization of 20 proteins was confirmed. These proteins include nine components of the FeS cluster assembly machinery, a novel diflavo-protein with NADPH reductase activity, a novel VAMP-associated protein, and a key component of the outer membrane protein translocase. None of the novel mitosomal proteins was predicted by previous genome analyses. The small proteome of the Giardia mitosome reflects the reduction in mitochondrial metabolism, which is limited to the FeS cluster assembly pathway, and a simplicity in the protein import pathway required for organelle biogenesis. PMID:21390322

  17. Endoscopic treatment of the suprasellar arachnoid cyst

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    Yadav Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical options for suprasellar arachnoid cyst are cystoperitoneal shunt, craniotomy fenestration and endoscopic fenestration. Endoscopic management has been found to be safe and effective. We report our experience with endoscopic management in 12 (male five, female seven; age range 8 months to 42 years patients with suprasellar arachnoid cyst. The endoscopic procedure included lateral ventricle puncture by precoronal burr hole and superior and inferior wall of the cyst was communicated with the lateral ventricle and the interpeduncular cistern respectively. All patients had hydrocephalus. Four pediatric patients had macrocephaly. All adult patients had visual disturbances. One adult patient presented with psychomotor disturbance along with features of raised intracranial pressure. All cases improved following endoscopic treatment. There were no complications or death. One patient required VP shunt. Postoperative MRI showed significant reduction in cyst volume in 11 patients. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 6 and a half years. Our study suggests that endoscopic technique is a safe and effective alternative treatment for suprasellar arachnoid cyst. It prevents complications such as subdural effusion and intracranial hematoma, which are not uncommon with craniotomy fenestration.

  18. Percutaneous alcohol sclerotherapy for symptomatic congenital cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Sang Young; Lee, Jeung Min; Son, Myung Hee; Song, Ho Young; Choi, Ki Chul [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Twenty patients with symptomatic congenital cysts in the liver, kidney, thyroid, and lower neck underwent, ultrasound guided percutaneous aspiration through a drainage catheter with temporary instillation of 95% ethanol into the cyst. Our procedure was based on the method as described by Bean and Rodan(16) in 1985. Additionally, two other steps were added to prevent the dilutional effect of residual cyst fluid. One was the preliminary washing of the cyst with alcohol. The other was to treat with 30% replacement of alcohol every 10 minutes during the treatment secession. Minor complications of transient temperature elevation and haziness occurred, but no major complications were encountered. After the alcohol treatment follow up examinations were performed with computed tomography or ultrasonography at 6 weeks, 6 months, 9 months and 15 months. Although there was diminished size, recurrence was noted in 6 of twenty patients(30%) at 6 weeks and one of twenty patients(5%) at 6 months. There was no recurrence at 9 months and 15 months. The results indicated that percutaneous aspiration and alcohol sclerotherapy are safe and effective therapy for symptomatic congenital cysts.

  19. Symptomatic pineal cysts: clinical manifestations and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, G; Benoit, Y; Baert, E; Meire, F; Caemaert, J

    2002-03-01

    Between 1991 and 2000, seven patients presented with symptomatic pineal cysts at our hospital (6 females, 1 male). Average age was 22 years (range 4-33 years). Headache was present in 6 patients, who were subsequently operated on. A scotoma and a transient inferior visual field deficit were minor signs in two patients respectively. A Parinaud syndrome with vertical gaze paralysis was found in none. In one child, paroxysmal pupillary dilatations and contractions ('springing pupils') constituted the only signs and a conservative policy was adopted. Four patients presented with hydrocephalus and were treated by an endoscopic resection of their pineal cysts (one stereotactically, three free-hand). Two other patients presented with a prolonged history of symptoms and signs: headache alone in one, headache with discrete neurological deficits in the other. Ventricles in these two patients were not dilated and therefore an open cyst resection by infratentorial supracerebellar approach was performed. Average follow-up in the six "operated" patients was 29 months (range 12-108 months). All four patients treated by endoscopy, are symptom-free at follow-up, whereas the two who were approached by open surgery, are not. Clinical presentation, radiological evaluation and treatment modalities of pineal cysts are discussed and compared with experiences reported in the literature. It is concluded that pineal cysts in the presence of obstructive hydrocephalus are a clear indication for endoscopy with a rigid endoscope. PMID:11956936

  20. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Bhagwat; Jain, Anil K; Dhammi, Ish K

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints. PMID:21139800