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Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) evaluation for detection of bovine paratuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The aim of this study is to evaluate the AGID serological test for detection of antibodies anti-Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and its possible adoption as diagnostic method in our field conditions. METHODS: Bovine serum samples from dairy herds in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were screened for the presence of antibodies against Myco. paratuberculosis using three different ELISA tests. A panel of 48 randomly selected sera were evaluated by an Agarose Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID) test using Protoplasmatic Paratuberculosis Antigen (PPA). AGID results were compared to the standards--the results of the three ELISA tests, and the specificity and sensitivity were calculated. RESULTS: From 48 sera tested for AGID, 14 (29.17%) were positive and 34 (70.83%) were negative. AGID sensitivity was 57% with two false-positive reactions, and specificity was 92.5% with nine false-negative results. The positive predictive value was calculated in 85.7% for a confidence interval of 95%. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Due to its low sensitivity and specificity rates, AGID test has shown to be unsatisfactory as a screening diagnostic method for subclinical herd infection, but it can be useful as a confirmatory test for clinical suspect animals.

Ferreira R; Fonseca LS; Lilenbaum W

2002-01-01

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An investigation of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) infection by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests and hematological applications on the dairy cows in the  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Haematological tests (alfa nafthyl acetate esterase ANAE activity, May Grünwald Giemsa staining and total leucocyte counts) were applied to 469 dairy cows, where the enzootic form of bovine leucosis was investigated. In the same 469 dairy cows, a search for antibodies directed against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) was carried out using agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) in blood samples and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in milk samples. Among the 469 animals screened, 90 were positive by ELISA and the haematological tests, while 23 were positive by the AGID test. From these results we would advise heavily infected farms to be eliminated. ELISA and haematological methods, in which ANAE activity, May-Grünwald Giemsa staining and total leucocyte counts were used together, were more reliable and sensitive than the AGID test for detecting EBL.

Kale M.; Öztürk F.

2004-01-01

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Prevalence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) in Mardan, Hangu and Kohat District of Pakistan; Comparative Analysis of PPRV Suspected serum samples using Competitive ELISA (cELISA) and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peste des petits Ruminants (PPR) is an acute, febrile, highly contagious and economically important viral disease of small ruminants. However PPR is more prevalent in sheep and goat. Competitive ELISA, Virus neutrilization test, and RT-PCR are the available techniques for diagnosis of PPR which give rapid detection where as Agar gel immunodiffusion and Counter immunoelectrophoresis were previously used for PPR detection. In this study two serological techniques were compared for PPR diagnosis. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative sensitivity of both techniques for PPR detection. For this purpose one hundred and sixty PPR suspected serum samples collected from goats and sheep flocks (unvaccinated) from three Districts of NWFP including Mardan, Hangu and Kohat were analyzed in National Veterinary Laboratories, Islamabad. Out of these 160 samples, fifty (50) were found positive for PPR antibodies with cELISA (Prevalence = 31.25%). The cELISA positive serum samples however gave negative results when tested with AGID although the control well was always positive. Thus it was concluded that cELISA technique is more sensitive and specific than AGID for PPR antibody detection. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000): 89-92

Misbah Aslam; Muhammad Abubakar; Rehana Anjum; Shamim Saleha; and Qurban Ali

2009-01-01

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Evaluation of a Pourquier ELISA kit in relation to agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for assessment of the humoral immune response in sheep and goats with and without Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was designed to evaluate a commercial ELISA kit (Institut Pourquier) for the diagnosis of ovine and caprine paratuberculosis under Australian conditions and to compare its accuracy with the existing AGID test. The sensitivity of the ELISA in sheep and goats was 34.9% and 56.4%, with a specificity of 98.8% and 100.0%, respectively. Sensitivity of AGID was 13.8% for sheep and 39.5% for goats, with specificity of 100.0% for both species. The sensitivity of the ELISA in sheep depended on the category of histological lesions. AGID and ELISA were conditionally independent, and appeared to detect overlapping but distinct subgroups of infected animals. The ELISA was significantly more sensitive than the AGID. The ELISA was simple to perform, robust and repeatable. Coefficients of variation of <12.0% were observed for positive and negative controls included on 193 plates over a 10-month period and there was a high level of intraassay repeatability with 12.0% of the duplicate samples having CV of >15.0%.

Gumber S; Eamens G; Whittington RJ

2006-06-01

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Bovine leukemia virus infection in Taiwan: evaluation of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and agar gel immunodiffusion test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

I evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test simultaneously for the detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) antibodies. Total 1,293 serum samples were tested for ELISA and AGID test and the results were compared. The results of ELISA and AGID agreed by 1,156 out of 1,293 (89.4%). All of AGID-positive 356 sera were positive by ELISA. However, of 451 ELISA-positive sera, 95 sera were either negative or equivocal by AGID test. Eleven animals which showed ELISA-positive but AGID-negative or equivocal became AGID-positive in a year. It may be inferred that ELISA detects infected cattle earlier and with greater sensitivity than AGID.

Wang CT

1991-12-01

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Detection of equine infectious anemia virus in a horse with an equivocal agar gel immunodiffusion test reaction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A horse whose serum reacted equivocally in the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for equine infectious anemia was studied over a 3-year period. The horse remained afebrile and virus was detected in only 1 of 6 horse inoculation tests. The intensity of AGID test reactions increased temporarily following this evidence for virus. Although the AGID test reaction was equivocal and 5 of the 6 transmission attempts failed, the 1 successful transmission proved the horse was infected.

Issel CJ; Adams WV Jr

1982-02-01

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Preparation of a Toxoplasma gondii agar gel immunodiffusion test antigen from ovine fetal kidney cell cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A toxoplasma gondii antigen prepared from the cell-free supernatant of ovine fetal kidney (OFK) cell cultures produced a sharp precipitation line against anti-Toxoplasma serum in an agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Results obtained from the AGID and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) tests on 46 human and nine rabbit sera were compared. Thirty-three percent of the serum samples, which were negative for the Toxoplasma IHA test, were positive when assayed by the AGID method. The AGID test appears to be superior to the IHA test for detecting low titers of antibodies against T. gondii. After 70 generations of serial passages through the OFK cell cultures, T. gondii still produced the AGID test antigen.

Chang GN; Gabrielson DA

1983-09-01

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An agar--gel immunodiffusion test for detection of Brucella antibodies in human serum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comparison was made of results obtained with a Brucella agar--gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and the standard tube-agglutination test on 612 human sera. Agreement between the tests was 97% when the titer was 1:160 or higher. Of 448 sera that showed no agglutination titer, 447 were negative with the AGID test. Results of the AGID test were also compared to those obtained with the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) agglutination test on 148 sera that demonstrated a standard tube-agglutination titer of 1:20 or higher. All sera with a 2-ME-agglutination titer of 1:40 or higher were positive with the AGID test. Of 123 sera that showed no 2-ME-agglutination titer, 21 were positive with the AGID test. Two of these 21 sera were obtained from patients with bacteriologically proven brucellosis, and eight were from abattoir employees with suspected but not bacteriologically proven brucellosis.

McMahon KJ; Renner ED; Allmaras GW; Anderson DK

1979-07-01

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Frequency of serological cross-reactions between Ibaraki and bluetongue viruses using the agar gel immunodiffusion test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The frequency of serological cross-reactions between Ibaraki (IB), and bluetongue (BT) viruses using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test was investigated. The percentage of IB neutralisation-positive bovine serum samples that were positive to the BT AGID test was 42.5%; 12.2% of the BT AGID-positive serum samples and 2.5% of the BT AGID-negative serum samples were positive to the IB AGID test. When the BT competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) was used, these cross-reactions disappeared. These results indicate that serum samples from areas in which IB is epidemic are often positive against the BT AGID test, but negative against the BT virus neutralisation test (VNT). To obtain specific BT surveillance results in these IB endemic areas, the AGID-positive results should be confirmed using the c-ELISA or VNT.

Shimizu S; Toyota I; Arishima T; Goto Y

2004-10-01

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Evaluation of an agar gel immunodiffusion test to detect infection of cattle with bluetongue viruses in Queensland, Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test to detect group-specific antibodies to infection of cattle by bluetongue viruses was evaluated using field collected sera in Queensland, Australia. The AGID test was compared to the serum neutralisation (SN) test used to detect serotype-specific bluetongue virus antibodies. The AGID test was found to be highly sensitive (95% confidence interval, 80.7-100%) but to have moderate specificity (95% confidence interval, 59.3-79.6%), relative to the SN test. The correlation between AGID and SN test results was 0.41 (P < 0.001). Using likelihood ratio estimates the chance (posttest probability) of an AGID test positive serum sample being positive (titre > or = 1:20) in the SN test was estimated to be 87% and 90% for 2+ and 3+ AGID test reactions, respectively. A serum sample was estimated to have a probability of 40% of being positive in the SN test if it gave a 1+ reaction in the AGID test. Results suggest that the AGID test should ideally be used as a screening test in serological surveys and surveillance programs. If the test is to be used for identification of individually infected cattle, a cutoff point of > or = 2+ should be employed.

Ward MP; Gardner IA; Flanagan M

1995-06-01

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Evaluation of agar gel immunodiffusion serology using caprine and ovine lentiviral antigens for detection of antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sensitivity of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for the detection of antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was investigated with CAEV or ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) as the source of antigen. A total of 218 goat serum specimens were tested for anti-CAEV antibody by AGID and immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled CAEV. In comparison with that of immunoprecipitation, the sensitivity of the CAEV AGID test was 0.91, and that of the OPPV AGID test was 0.56. The AGID test with either antigen was 100% specific. The lower sensitivity of the OPPV AGID test in detecting caprine antibody to CAEV indicates that OPPV antigen is of limited value for use in CAEV diagnosis and control programs.

Knowles DP Jr; Evermann JF; Shropshire C; VanderSchalie J; Bradway D; Gezon HM; Cheevers WP

1994-01-01

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Comparison of the agar gel immunodiffusion test and ELISA in the detection of bovine leukosis virus antibody in cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When six cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) were inoculated with lymphocytes infected with bovine leukosis virus (BLV), a depressed antibody response to BLV was observed by ELISA which was due to a decrease in IgG1 synthesis. The ELISA was more sensitive and more reliable than the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test in detecting BLV infection in cattle persistently infected with BVDV. Decreased antibody responses were manifested in the AGID test by negative, inconclusive or weakly positive reactions: only two of the six cattle developed antibodies that generated positive AGID reactions.

Roberts DH; Lucas MH; Swallow C

1989-10-01

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Agar gel immunodiffusion test for diagnosis of clinical paratuberculosis in cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During a 19-month period, the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test was used as an aid in differential diagnosis of paratuberculosis in 51 cattle with a history of chronic weight loss and/or chronic diarrhea. Thirty-three cattle were AGID test-positive for paratuberculosis. Twenty-eight cattle (87.5%) yielded Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from bacterial culture of feces. Four cattle were confirmed as having paratuberculosis on necropsy. One had a negative fecal culture but was lost to follow-up. Thus, 32 of the 33 AGID test-positive cattle (96.9%) were confirmed as paratuberculous by culture or necropsy. Of the 18 cattle that were AGID test-negative, 17 (94%) also were culture-negative after 12 to 20 weeks' incubation of the culture tubes. Direct fecal smears from 29 confirmed paratuberculous cattle were examined. Twenty-three (79.3%) had smears positive for M paratuberculosis. Fifteen culture-negative cattle were examined by direct smear; the results were negative for all.

Sherman DM; Markham RJ; Bates F

1984-07-01

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Serodiagnosis of paratuberculosis in sheep by use of agar gel immunodiffusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test was used over a 3-year period to examine 1,871 serum samples from sheep representing 5 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected flocks and 4 flocks presumed to be uninfected. Of 1,032 sheep, 31 had positive AGID test results (scoring 1 to 5), and 23 of these 31 were necropsied. Infection with M paratuberculosis was confirmed by 1 or more of the following findings: observation of typical lesions on histologic examination of sections of ileum or ileocecal lymph nodes, observation of clumps of acid-fast bacteria in mucosal smears of ileum, and isolation of the organism from feces or tissue. False-positive results on AGID testing were not found in sheep from flocks known to have exposure to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Diarrhea in infected sheep was observed infrequently; chronic, severe weight loss was the most common sign observed. On histologic examination of tissues from 20 infected sheep, 16 (80%) had diffuse lesions of the ileum and 13 (65%) had acid-fast bacteria in areas of ileal inflammation; 4 had discrete granulomas and peripheral lymphocytic infiltrates in the ileum. Sheep with diffuse lesions tended to have higher mean scores on AGID testing and examination for acid-fast bacteria, compared with those from sheep with more discrete lesions. Bacteriologic culture yielded M paratuberculosis from only 3 sheep with paratuberculosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Shulaw WP; Bech-Nielsen S; Rings DM; Getzy DM; Woodruff TS

1993-01-01

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Comparison of agar gel immunodiffusion test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR in diagnostics of enzootic bovine leukosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that induces a chronic infection in cattle. Once infected, cattle remain virus carriers for life and start to show an antibody response within a few weeks after infection. Eradication and control of the disease are based on early diagnostics and segregation of the carriers. The choice of a diagnostic method depends on the eradication programme, money resources and characteristics of the herd to be analysed. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test has been the serological test of choice for routine diagnosis of serum samples. Nevertheless, in more recent years, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has replaced the AGID for large scale testing. For this purpose, commercially available BLV-ELISA kits were compared to the AGID and to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method performed with two sets of primers, amplifying env region. The ELISA kit based on the p24 core protein was found to be less specific and served as a screening test. The ELISA kit based on the envelope glycoprotein (gpSI) served as a verification test and gave a good correlation with the AGID test and PCR method. However, ELISA showed a higher sensitivity than AGID. The p24 based ELiSA was useful for screening a large number of samples, whereas gp51 based ELISA, AGID and PCR were more important for detecting the antibody response against the individual BLV-proteins and therefore for verification of the infection with BLV.

Malovrh Tadej; Pate M.; Ocepek M.; Krt B.

2005-01-01

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Comparison of the complement-fixation and agar gel immunodiffusion tests for diagnosis of subclinical bovine paratuberculosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of the serum complement fixation (CF) test was compared with that of a serum agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test on 74 subclinically infected and 154 uninfected cattle in 6 commercial midwestern dairy herds with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection and on 30 cattle in a herd that was free of infection. Infection status of cattle within herds was established by performance of a series of 3 or more fecal cultures and of ileocecal lymph node cultures of culled cattle. In cattle with subclinical infection detected by culturing, the sensitivity estimates of the CF and AGID tests were 10.8% (3.6% SE) and 18.9% (4.5% SE), respectively. In the cattle classified as disease free, the specificity estimates of the CF and AGID tests were 97.4% (1.3% SE) and 99.4% (0.6% SE), respectively. Neither set of estimates was significantly different. Negative test results obtained with the use of either test in apparently normal cattle from suspect herds should be interpreted with caution because both tests suffer from low sensitivities in subclinically infected animals. However, the AGID test may be more useful in regulatory situations in which the CF test is currently used because the AGID test is easier to perform and to interpret.

Sherman DM; Gay JM; Bouley DS; Nelson GH

1990-03-01

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Serological differentiation of Brucella-vaccinated and -infected domesticated animals by the agar gel immunodiffusion test using Brucella polysaccharide in mongolia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate Brucella infection in cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer and yak in Mongolia, serological reactions of Brucella-infected and -vaccinated domestic animals were compared by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test with a polysaccharide (poly-B) of the B. Abortus strain S-19. The sensitivity and specificity were compared with conventional serological tests that are commonly used in Mongolia, such as the rose Bengal test, the tube agglutination test and the compliment fixation test. A total of 73.3, 100, 100, 95.8 and 61.9% of the sera from suspected cattle, yak, goat, sheep and reindeer, respectively, that were positive in the compliment fixation test, were also positive in the AGID test. Sera from vaccinated cattle, sheep and goat were positive over 90% by conventional tests 3 months after vaccination, but were negative by the AGID. These results suggest that the AGID test may be useful to differentiate infected and vaccinated animals in the field.

Erdenebaatar J; Sugar S; Yondondorj A; Nagabayashi T; Syuto B; Watarai M; Makino S; Shirahata T

2002-09-01

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Bluetongue in Bosnia: comparisons of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and standard agar gel immunodiffusion tests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At the end of August 2002, clinical symptoms of bluetongue (BT) (fever between 39 degrees C and 41 degrees C, muco-purulent or bloody nasal discharge, oedema of the lips and the intramandibular space, foot lesions including laminitis and coronitis in some cases, diarrhoea and dysentery) were recorded in Pramenka sheep flocks in north-east Bosnia in August 2002. A total of 9 599 serum samples (ovine: 8 967; bovine: 632) from 40 communities of Bosnia and Herzegovina were tested for the presence of anti-bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The c-ELISA revealed BTV-seropositive reactions in 187 (1.94%) samples and the AGID test detected 141 (1.53%) cases. Complete agreement was recorded between the c-ELISA and AGID test results for bovine sera. These results indicate that the ability of c-ELISA to detect anti-bluetongue virus antibodies in ovine sera was superior to that of the AGID. All positive sera were collected from animals in the river areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Veli? L; Veli? R; Bajrovi? T; Duki? B; Camo D

2004-10-01

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Agar gel immunodiffusion analysis using baculovirus-expressed recombinant bovine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein (gp51/gp30(T-)).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) envelope glycoprotein (gp51/ gp30(T-)), consisting of BLV gp51 and BLV gp30 that lacked its C-terminal transmembrane domain, was expressed in insect cells under the control of the baculovirus polyhedron promoter. Recombinant BLV gp51/gp30(T-) secreted from insect cells was determined by immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent and western blot assays using a BLV-specific monoclonal antibody and BLV-positive bovine antibodies. An agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test using gp51/gp30(T-) as the antigen for the detection of BLV antibodies in serum was developed and compared to traditional AGID, which uses wild type BLV antigen derived from fetal lamb kidney cells. AGID with the recombinant BLV gp51/gp30(T-) was relatively more sensitive than traditional AGID. When the two methods were tested with bovine sera from the field, the recombinant BLV gp51/gp30(T-) and traditional antigen had a relative sensitivity of 69.8% and 67.4%, respectively, and a relative specificity of 93.3% and 92.3%. These results indicated that the recombinant BLV gp51/gp30(T-) is an effective alternative antigen for the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle.

Lim SI; Jeong W; Tark DS; Yang DK; Kweon CH

2009-12-01

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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine leukosis: comparison with the agar gel immunodiffusion test approved by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four commercially available bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-ELISA kits from Europe or the United States were compared to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test officially approved by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). A total of 1200 cattle serum samples were used. Three ELISA kits based on the envelope glycoprotein (gp51) gave an excellent correlation with the AGID test. The kappa values were 0.998, 0.984, and 0.986 for the ELISA kits #1, #2, and #3, respectively. The ELISA kit based on the p24 core protein was found to be less sensitive than the officially approved AGID test and detected 5.13% of false negatives. Forty BLV AGID strongly positive serum samples were diluted. Based on the dilution experiment, the gp51 ELISA kits were found to be more sensitive than the AGID test kits. They were capable of detecting antibodies in samples diluted up to 1/5000 (kit #1), 1/20 800 (kit #2) and 1/4000 (kit #3), whereas the AGID kit was only capable of detecting antibodies in samples diluted up to 1/100. Based on these observations, the gp51 BLV-ELISA was recognized as an official test method for the serodiagnosis of bovine leukosis in Canada.

Simard C; Richardson S; Dixon P; Bélanger C; Maxwell P

2000-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Agar-gel immunodiffusion and rapid slide agglutination on canine brucellosis diagnosis Imunodifusão em gel de agar e soroaglutinação rápida para a detecção de anticorpos Anti-"Brucella canis"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid slide agglutination test (SAT) was compared to the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) for the canine brucellosis diagnosis in sera submitted or not to the treatment with 2-Mercaptoetanol. Among the 1,072 sera dogs examined in the study, 202 were positive by AGID test (18.84%), 9 by AGID 2-ME test (0.84%), 19 in the race for SAT (1, 77%) and 9 in the race for SAT 2-ME (0.84%). The statistical evaluation of the results showed no significant difference among the tests of SAT, SAT 2-ME and AGID 2-ME, but differed significantly from AGID test.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar as técnicas de soroaglutinação rápida em cartão (SAR) e de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA), para o diagnóstico de brucelose canina em soros de cães submetidos ou não ao tratamento com 2-Mercaptoetanol. Dos 1.072 soros de cães examinados no estudo, verificaram-se reações positivas em 202 na prova de IDGA (18,84%), 9 na prova de IDGA 2-ME (0,84%); 19 na prova de SAR (1,77%) e 9 na prova de SAR 2-ME (0,84%). A avaliação estatística dos resultados comprovou não haver diferença significativa entre os testes de SAR, SAR 2-ME e IDGA 2-ME, porém diferiram significativamente das obtidas no teste de IDGA.

Carla Cristina Guimarães de Moraes; Jane Megid; Luiz Carlos de Souza; Andre Marcelo Conceição Meneses; Adalberto José Crocci; Rosely Bianca Santos

2009-01-01

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Evaluation of white blood cell concentration, plasma fibrinogen concentration, and an agar gel immunodiffusion test for early identification of foals with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate WBC concentration, plasma fibrinogen concentration, and an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for early identification of Rhodococcus equi-infected foals. DESIGN: Prospective study. ANIMALS: 162 foals from a farm with enzootic R equi infection. PROCEDURE: Blood samples were obtained from each foal at 4-week intervals for measurement of WBC and plasma fibrinogen concentrations and at 2-week intervals for detection of anti-R equi antibody by an AGID assay. Diagnostic performance of WBC and fibrinogen concentrations was assessed by use of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. For each assay, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated at various cutoff points; bacteriologic culture of R equi from a tracheobronchial aspirate was used as the reference standard test. RESULTS: Diagnostic performance of WBC concentration was significantly higher than that of fibrinogen concentration. Sensitivity and specificity of measurement of WBC concentration at a cutoff of 13,000 cells/microL were 95.2 and 61.2%, respectively; at a cutoff of 15,000 cells/microL, sensitivity was 78.6% and specificity was 90.8%. When a positive test result was used as the cutoff, sensitivity of the AGID assay was 62.5% and specificity was 53.8%. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Monitoring WBC concentration is a useful approach for early detection of infected foals on farms with a high prevalence of R equi pneumonia. In contrast, serologic surveillance by use of an AGID assay is of little benefit for that purpose.

Giguère S; Hernandez J; Gaskin J; Miller C; Bowman JL

2003-03-01

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Comparison of the absorbed ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion test with clinicopathological findings in ovine clinical paratuberculosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty-two sheep with clinical paratuberculosis and 43 normal, healthy control animals were tested for serum antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis with the absorbed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. All the sheep were necropsied and the diseased cases were categorised as having either multibacillary ('lepromatous') or paucibacillary ('tuberculoid') intestinal lesions. The ELISA and AGID test were highly sensitive when testing the multibacillary group (86.4 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively) but the sensitivity of the tests in the paucibacillary group was significantly lower (10 to 50 per cent and 30 per cent, respectively). These findings were related to the ELISA optical density readings, with the multibacillary samples having values significantly greater than those of the paucibacillary and control groups, and the optical density values appearing to correlate with the numbers of mycobacteria present in the intestinal lesions. These results indicate both the usefulness of serological testing in the diagnosis of the multibacillary form of paratuberculosis and the difficulty in identifying animals with the paucibacillary form of the disease.

Clarke CJ; Patterson IA; Armstrong KE; Low JC

1996-12-01

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Comparison of the standard AGID test and competitive ELISA for detecting bluetongue virus antibodies in camels in Gujarat, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of serum antibody against bluetongue virus (BTV) in clinically healthy and diseased camels in Gujarat state were compared. Out of 176 sera tested, 22 (12.5%) and 34 (19.3%) were positive for group-specific bluetongue antibodies by AGID and cELISA, respectively. Maximum seropositivities of 18.0% by AGID and 25.8% by cELISA were recorded in the Kutchhi breed, and of 6.9% and 12.6%, respectively, in the Marwari breed. The seroprevalence detected by AGID and cELISA in clinically healthy and diseased camels did not differ significantly with regard to bluetongue disease in these breeds.

Chandel BS; Chauhan HC; Kher HN

2003-04-01

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Avaliação do teste de imunodifusão mediante emprego do polissacarídeo "O" no diagnóstico da brucelose bovina Evaluation of agar gel immunodiffusion test using O-chain-polysaccharide for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparou-se o teste de imunodifusão dupla em ágar gel (IDGA) pelo emprego do polissacarídeo "O" como antígeno com os testes de soroaglutinação rápida, soroaglutinação lenta, 2-mercaptoetanol, reação de fixação de complemento e antígeno tamponado acidificado no diagnóstico da brucelose, em bovinos infectados, não infectados e recém-vacinados com a amostra B-19, visando à diferenciação de anticorpos vacinais daqueles associados à infecção natural pela Brucella abortus. Nenhum dos testes realizados permitiu diferenciar precisamente anticorpos vacinais daqueles induzidos pela infecção brucélica e, nas condições do presente trabalho, a utilização do IDGA com este objetivo poderia levar à retenção de animais infectados no rebanho.Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) using the O-polysaccharide was compared with serologic tests used in brucellosis diagnosis in non-infected, infected and early vaccinated cattle with strain B-19, in order to differentiate vaccinal antibodies from those resulting of natural infection by Brucella abortus. None of the techniques can differentiate with absolute reliability the vaccinal antibodies from antibodies associated with natural infection to Brucella abortus. Moreover, the use of AGID with this objective would cause maintenance of infected animals in the herd.

G.M. Costa; V.L.V. Abreu; F.C.F. Lobato; J.A. Silva; N.E. Martins

1999-01-01

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Comparative efficacy of standard AGID, CCIE and competitive ELISA for detecting bluetongue virus antibodies in indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in Rajasthan, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sero-prevalence of antibodies against blue tongue virus (BTV) in 408 local breeds of sheep in Rajasthan state in India was investigated using standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Maximum seropositivities of 11.3% (13/115), 10.7% (13/121), 7.1% (11/155) and 5.9% (1/17) were recorded in the Chokla, Magra, Nali and Pugal breeds, respectively. Out of 107 goat serum samples, 6 (5.6%) were AGID positive. The performance of the standard AGID, counter current immuno-electrophoresis (CCIE) and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of serum antibody against BTV in indigenous breeds of sheep were compared. Out of 178 sheep serum samples tested, 17 (9.5%), 22 (12.3%) and 54 (30.3%) were positive for group-specific bluetongue antibodies by AGID, CCIE and cELISA, respectively. There was appreciable difference in the seroprevalence detected by AGID, CCIE and cELISA in clinically healthy and diseased sheep with regard to relative sensitivities and specificities of the tests with cELISA being highly sensitive and specific followed by CCIE and AGID test. It was concluded that these indigenous breeds of sheep may be a potential reservoir of BTV infection and cELISA should be routinely used for the detection of antibodies against BTV in these local breeds of sheep.

Shringi S; Shringi BN

2005-03-01

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Development of a polymerase chain reaction and its comparison with agar gel immunodiffusion test in the detection of bovine leukemia virus infection/ Desenvolvimento de uma reação em cadeia pela polimerase e comparação com a imunodifusão em gel de agar na detecção de infecções pelo vírus da leucemia bovina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para a detecção do vírus da leucemia bovina (VLB) em leucócitos periféricos de bovinos infectados. Os iniciadores utilizados foram construídos para amplificar uma parte do gene env do VLB. Os produtos da PCR foram analisados por eletroforese em gel de agarose corados por brometo de etídeo. A especificidade analítica da PCR foi confirmada por restrição enzimática dos produtos da reação com Bam HI e tamb? (more) ?m pela análise da seqüência de três amostras. Sessenta e cinco animais foram testados para a presença de anticorpos anti-VLB, pela imunodifusão em gel de agar (IDGA) e pela PCR, para detecção direta do VLB. Houve 73,80% de concordância entre os dois testes. Quatro animais positivos na IDGA foram PCR negativos, enquanto 13 animais negativos na IDGA foram positivos na PCR. A sensibilidade diagnóstica obtida foi de 0,87 e a especificidade diagnóstica 0,62. A PCR desenvolvida pode ser uma ferramenta complementar no diagnóstico de infecções causadas pelo VLB, mas deve ter sua sensibilidade diagnóstica melhorada. Abstract in english Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for bovine leukemia virus (BLV) detection in the peripheral leukocytes of the infected bovines. The primers used were designed to amplify a part of env gene of BLV. PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis stained by ethidium bromide. The analytical specificity of PCR was confirmed by enzymatic restriction analysis of the PCR product with Bam HI and also by nucleotide sequence analysis of three PCR samples. Sixty f (more) ive animals were tested for anti-BLV antibody, by agar gel-immunodiffusion test (AGID) and for direct BLV detection by PCR. There was a 73.80% concordance rate between the two tests. Four animals positive in AGID were PCR negative, while 13 AGID negative animals were found PCR positive. PCR got a 0.87 diagnosis sensitivity and 0.62 specificity. The developed PCR may be complementary tool in the diagnosis of BLV infection, but should have it diagnosis sensitivity improved.

Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes; Stancek, Daniel; Lessa, Leandro Moreira; Reis, Jenner Karlisson Pimenta; Rocha, Maurílio Andrade; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

2003-01-01

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Comparison of competitive ELISA, indirect ELISA and standard AGID tests for detecting blue-tongue virus antibodies in cattle and sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performances of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a group specific monoclonal antibody against bluetongue virus, an indirect ELISA and the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test were compared in the detection of serum antibody against bluetongue virus. Test sera consisted of 1300 bovine, 530 ovine and 160 carpine samples from bluetongue-free areas of Canada, 605 bovine and ovine field samples from the USA and Barbados and 464 samples from 79 cattle and sheep experimentally infected with 19 South African and five USA serotypes of bluetongue virus. The diagnostic specificity of the competitive ELISA, as determined for the bluetongue virus-free cattle sera was superior (99.92 per cent) to that of the indirect ELISA (99.85 per cent) and the AGID (99.0 per cent). The specificities of the competitive ELISA for sheep (99.63 per cent) and goats (100.0 per cent) sera were also higher than those of the AGID test. The performance of the ELISA tests was similar whether a gamma-ray-irradiated (2.0 Mrad) or a non-irradiated bluetongue virus antigen preparation was used. The competitive ELISA results for bovine field sera from endemic areas demonstrated a relatively low level of agreement (92.04 per cent) with AGID test results, with 9.7 per cent false negatives. The possible presence in these sera of antibody to cross-reacting antigens or to other orbiviruses, eg, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, which react in the AGID but not in the competitive ELISA may account for this lack of agreement.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Afshar A; Thomas FC; Wright PF; Shapiro JL; Anderson J

1989-02-01

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Comparision of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test in Detection of MarekAND#8217;s Disease Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken to identify Marek’s disease virus (MDV) antigen by PCR and AGID and to test the significance of PCR and AGID by McNemar’s test in detection of MDV antigen in outbreak in layer flocks. A total of twelve different MD outbreak flocks with varying flock size were selected in this study. Feather follicles were collected from 10 apparently healthy birds, 10 clinically affected birds and 10 dead birds separately in each outbreak. All the samples were subjected to PCR and AGID. In PCR, 42 (35.00%), 68 (56.67%) and 106 (88.33%) samples were positive to MDV in apparently healthy birds, clinically affected birds and dead birds respectively and in AGID 28 (23.33%), 56 (46.67%) and 98 (81.67%) samples were positive to MDV in apparently healthy birds, clinically affected birds and dead birds respectively. In testing the significance of PCR and AGID in detecting MDV, significant difference existed between the two tests in feather tips of apparently healthy birds (P 0.05). Hence, PCR can be used to screen MDV in apparently healthy birds and AGID can be used to screen MDV in clinically affected and dead birds keeping feasibility and economic consideration. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000): 212-214

K. Jayalakshmi; G. Selvaraju; A. Manicavasaka Dinakaran; T.R. Gopalakrishna Murthy; M. Geetha and S. Saravanan

2010-01-01

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Use of enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for monitoring effectiveness of rinderpest vaccination and comparative evaluation with Agar-Gel immunodiffusion test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In line with other countries participating in the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign, Ghana wishes to monitor the success of a national rinderpest vaccination campaign. This involves the collection of sera from throughout the country in an epidemiologically acceptable manner and the use of a serological procedure that can test the sera for the presence of antibodies to the rinderpest virus. A comparison was carried out between an FAO/IAEA ELISA based system and an Agar-Gel Immunodiffusion test for the detection of antibodies to rinderpest virus in cattle. the ELISA was found to be faster than the Agar-Gel test, could handle larger number of samples in a short time and could detect lower levels than of immunoglobulins. Utilising the ELISA system to examine sera collected in two surveys of 3,500 and 1,818 samples from three regions (Greater Accra, Central and Volta regions) a very marked variable rate of seroconversion was demonstrated with levels lower than the desired 85%. It would appear that the primary cause of these lower than expected levels was related to an inadequate cold-chain. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

1991-01-01

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Evaluación de la eficacia de la prueba de inmunodifusión en gel agar para la detección de anticuerpos contra el virus de la leucosis enzootica bovina Assessment of the Efficacy of the Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test for the Detection of Antibodies Against the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available contra el virus de la leucosis enzoótica bovina (VLEB), comparándola con el ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA). Se procesaron 360 muestras de suero bovino para ambas pruebas, siguiendo las indicaciones del fabricante. El grado de concordancia (GC), valores predictivos (VP) y razones de verosimilitud (RV) fueron determinados y analizados. El GC entre ambas pruebas resultó ser del 86,4%, con un coeficiente Kappa (K) = 0,7. La IDGA detectó una significativa (PThe efficacy of the agar gel immunodifusion test (AGID) for the detection of antibodies against the enzootic bovine leucosis virus (EBLV) was evaluated and compared with the ELISA test. A total of 360 bovine serum samples were tested for both tests, following the manufacturer instructions. The agreement degree (AD), predictive values (PV), and coefficient of probability (CP) were determined and analyzed. There was a good AD between both tests (86.4%; Kappa coefficient =0.7). The AGID test detected a significant (P<0.001) lesser proportion (47.2%) of positive sera than the ELISA test (60.8%). The AGID sensitivity was 77.6% lower than the expected, while there was 100% specificity. The positive PV of a 100% and the positive CP with an undetermined value (?) showed that AGID is a safe test for the detection of cattle infected with EBLV. In contrast, the negative PV of 74.2% and the negative CP of 0.2 indicate that there is a slight probability that cattle, whose sera were negative to EBLV using the AGID, are really free of EBLV infection. These results suggest that AGID is a suitable test for epidemiological studies, inpopulations with high EBLV prevalence, due to the minor risk of producing false positive results. However in populations with low prevalence of the disease, the use of the AGID test would be restricted due to the high possibility of giving false negative results. Therefore, the ELISA should be the test selected for eradication programs. This work is a contribution to the control and eradication programs of the enzootic bovine leucosis, since it provides information which allows the selection of the most adequate technique, according to the epidemiological status of this disease in the zone and the sanitary target pursued

Zoraida Nava; César Obando; Magaly Bracamonte; Aurico Sousa; Mayra Hidalgo

2012-01-01

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Imunodifusão em gel de ágar com polissacarídeos de membrana de Brucella abortus 1119-3 no diagnóstico da brucelose bovina/ Membrane polysaccharides of Brucella abortus 1119-3 in agar gel immunodifusion test in diagnosis of bovine brucellosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Comparou-se a prova de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA), utilizando extrato polissacarídico (POLI O), obtido da amostra de B. abortus 1119-3, com os testes de soroaglutinação rápida em placa, de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, de antígeno acidificado e de 2-mercaptoetanol para o diagnóstico da brucelose bovina. O IDGA mostrou alta especificidade, porém sensibilidade inferior aos métodos convencionais. Abstract in english An agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test using the polysaccharide (POLIO O) extract obtained from Brucella abortus strain 1119-3, was compared to plate agglutination, tube agglutination, rose bengal plate and mercaptoethanol tests in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. The AGID assay with B. aborturs polysaccharide antigens, presented a greater specificity but lower sensitivity for detecting brucellosis infected animals as compared to the conventional methods of antibody detection.

Megid, J.; Ribeiro, M.G.; Agottani, J.V.B.; Marcos Jr, G.

1999-10-01

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Imunodifusão em gel de ágar com polissacarídeos de membrana de Brucella abortus 1119-3 no diagnóstico da brucelose bovina Membrane polysaccharides of Brucella abortus 1119-3 in agar gel immunodifusion test in diagnosis of bovine brucellosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparou-se a prova de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA), utilizando extrato polissacarídico (POLI O), obtido da amostra de B. abortus 1119-3, com os testes de soroaglutinação rápida em placa, de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, de antígeno acidificado e de 2-mercaptoetanol para o diagnóstico da brucelose bovina. O IDGA mostrou alta especificidade, porém sensibilidade inferior aos métodos convencionais.An agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test using the polysaccharide (POLIO O) extract obtained from Brucella abortus strain 1119-3, was compared to plate agglutination, tube agglutination, rose bengal plate and mercaptoethanol tests in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. The AGID assay with B. aborturs polysaccharide antigens, presented a greater specificity but lower sensitivity for detecting brucellosis infected animals as compared to the conventional methods of antibody detection.

J. Megid; M.G. Ribeiro; J.V.B. Agottani; G. Marcos Jr

1999-01-01

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Factors Affecting Assay of Myoglobin by Complement Fixation or Immunodiffusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative micro-scale complement-fixation and semi-quantitative gel immunodiffusion assays for myoglobin have been evaluated experimentally and used to measure myoglobin in the sera of more than 1500 patients. We report certain problems, observations, ...

J. E. Olerud D. L. Clark

1975-01-01

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Evaluación de la eficacia de la prueba de inmunodifusión en gel agar para la detección de anticuerpos contra el virus de la leucosis enzootica bovina/ Assessment of the Efficacy of the Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test for the Detection of Antibodies Against the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis Virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish contra el virus de la leucosis enzoótica bovina (VLEB), comparándola con el ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA). Se procesaron 360 muestras de suero bovino para ambas pruebas, siguiendo las indicaciones del fabricante. El grado de concordancia (GC), valores predictivos (VP) y razones de verosimilitud (RV) fueron determinados y analizados. El GC entre ambas pruebas resultó ser del 86,4%, con un coeficiente Kappa (K) = 0,7. La IDGA detectó una significativa (P(more) proporción (47,2%) de sueros positivos que el ELISA (60,8%). La sensibilidad de la IDGA resultó ser del 77,6% por debajo de lo deseado, mientras que tuvo un 100% de especificidad. El VP positivo de100% y la razón de verosimilitud positiva RV con valor indeterminado (?), mostraron que ésta es una prueba segura para la identificación de bovinos infectados con el VLEB. Contrariamente, el VP negativo de 74,2% y la RV negativa de 0,2, indican que existe una baja probabilidad, de que los bovinos con resultados seronegativos alVLEB, estén realmente libres de la infección por el VLEB. Los resultados sugieren que la IDGA es una prueba adecuada para estudios epidemiológicos en poblaciones con alta prevalencia del VLEB, por ser baja la posibilidad de generar resultados falsos positivos. Sin embargo, en poblaciones de baja prevalencia, su uso estaría restringido, debido a la considerable probabilidad de emitir resultados falsos negativos. En consecuencia, el ELISA debería ser la prueba de elección en programas de erradicación. Este trabajo es una contribución para el control y erradicación de la leucosis enzoótica bovina, al aportar información que permite seleccionar la técnica más adecuada, según la situación epidemiológica de esa enfermedad en la zona y el objetivo sanitario que se persigan Abstract in english The efficacy of the agar gel immunodifusion test (AGID) for the detection of antibodies against the enzootic bovine leucosis virus (EBLV) was evaluated and compared with the ELISA test. A total of 360 bovine serum samples were tested for both tests, following the manufacturer instructions. The agreement degree (AD), predictive values (PV), and coefficient of probability (CP) were determined and analyzed. There was a good AD between both tests (86.4%; Kappa coefficient =0. (more) 7). The AGID test detected a significant (P

Nava, Zoraida; Obando, César; Bracamonte, Magaly; Sousa, Aurico; Hidalgo, Mayra

2012-06-01

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Rapid serum agglutination and agar gel immunodiffusion tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis Teste de soro aglutinação rápida e do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar associados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agar gel immunodiffusion and the rapid serum agglutination tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis. The serological profile during the 12 months of infection showed a large fluctuation of antibodies that favors the failure in the diagnostic. The evaluation of tests after the experimental infection allowed to suggest that none of the tests were able to detect the infection throughout the period of study. The study reinforces the importance of considering the clinical signs to support the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar e o teste sorológico de aglutinação rápida comparados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis para o diagnóstico confirmatório da brucelose ovina. O perfil sorológico durante os 12 meses pós-infecção mostrou flutuação da resposta por anticorpos, que favorece a falha no diagnóstico. A avaliação dos testes indicou que nenhum dos testes foi capaz de detectar a infecção durante todo o período de estudo. O estudo ressalta a importância de considerar os sinais clínicos para apoiar o diagnóstico confirmatório da infecção por Brucella ovis em carneiros.

Cristiane Nakada Nozaki; Nair Silva Cavalcanti de Lira; Otávio Augusto Filho; Hymerson Costa Azevedo; Leandro Rodello; Maurício Gaudério Dasso; Sony Dimas Bicudo; João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula Antunes; Jane Megid

2011-01-01

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AVALIAÇÃO DE UMA MICROIMUNODIFUSÃO EM GEL DE ÁGAR PARA DIAGNÓSTICO DE LENTIVÍRUS DE PEQUENOS RUMINANTES (LVPR) EM CAPRINOS  

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Full Text Available Small Ruminant Lentiviruses - SRLV (Caprine Arthritis - encephalitis - CAE and Maedi-Visna) infections are characterized by slow and progressive course, in which the majority of the animals do notpresent symptoms. Thus, the serological tests are the most practical diagnostic tool as the presence of antibodies indirectly indicates SRLV infection. This work was carried out with the objective of evaluating an agar gel micro-immunodifusion (micro-AGID) test in comparison with a macro-AGID test to be used in the serological diagnostic of SRLV in goats. In the micro-AGID, 10 ?L of antigen and control serum and 30 ?L of test serum were used; in the macro-AGID, 20 ?L of sera and antigen were used. The tests were compared through the adjusted agreement index (Kappa - k) calculated according to 447 samples of goat serum from Pernambuco, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte states. Of 447 samples, 63 (14.09%) and 60 (13.42%) were positive to micro-AGID and macro-AGID, respectively, corresponding to a significant agreement between the tests (k = 0.90). Furthermore, the micro-AGID presented clearer lines than the macro-AGID and the results may be recorded 24 earlier in micro-AGID.Thus, the micro-AGID may replace the macro-AGID inthe serological SRL diagnosis.

EMMANUELA TINÉ DE ARRUDA; MICHELE MOREIRA MARTINS OLIVEIRA; SÉRGIO ALVES DO NASCIMENTO; ANA CLAUDIA CAMPOS; ROBERTO SOARES DE CASTRO

2011-01-01

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[Study of extracellular antigens by immunodiffusion methods in differentiation of pathogenic burkholderiae].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Isolation and composition comparison of extracellular antigens (ECA) of pathogenic burkholderiae in SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and their use for differentiation of these microorganisms by immunodiffusion methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 Burkholderia pseudomallei strains, 14 B. mallei strains, 5 B. thailandensis strains, 4 B. cepacia strains were studied. ECA was obtained by Liu technique on F-agar covered with cellophane. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was performed in 10% gel by Laemmli, immunodiffusion reaction (IDR) in 1% agarose gel, IDR with live cultures, immunoelectrophoresis (IEPH) was performed by the standard techniques. Sera was obtained by immunizing rabbits with a mixture of ECA and incomplete Freund adjuvant. RESULTS: ECA spectra of typical strains of the studied burkholderiae strains after the electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE stained by silver have 8 - 9 major fractions. ECA electrophoregrams of B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis had a high similarity. ECA analysis by IDR with antisera against ECA revealed maximum number of cross-reactive ECA (3) between B. pseudomallei B. thailandensis. These strains had only a single crossreactive ECA to B. mallei strain. IDR with live culture and antisera to B. thailandensis ECA revealed ECA in all the B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis strains and did not reveal those in B. mallei strains. Analysis of electrophoregram obtained with IEPH method of pathogenic burkholderiae ECA with antisera to ECA revealed differences of the composition sufficient for their differentiation. CONCLUSION: The differences of ECA composition revealed by immunodiffusion methods allowed to develop additional approaches of differentiation ofglanders and melioidosis pathogenic agents.

Budchenko AA; Mazurova IIu; Iliukhin VI

2012-01-01

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A comparison of two agar gel immunodiffusion methods and a complement fixation test for serologic diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in experimentally infected rams Comparação entre dois métodos de imunodifusão em gel de Agar e um método de fixação de complemento para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por Brucella ovis em carneiros experimentalmente infectados  

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Full Text Available A infecção por Brucella ovis é considerada uma das principais causas de epididimite e infertilidade em carneiros, resultando em falhas reprodutivas e perdas econômicas significativas em rebanhos ovinos ao redor do mundo. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar três testes sorológicos disponíveis para o diagnóstico da brucelose ovina por B. ovis, utilizando 181 soros ovinos. Amostras de soro provenientes de carneiros experimentalmente infectados foram coletadas ao longo de 192 dias pós-infecção (n=117) e durante o período pré-infecção (n=9). Adicionalmente, amostras de soro foram obtidas de ovinos provenientes de um rebanho livre para B. ovis (n=55). As técnicas de imunodifusão em gel de agar (IDGA), utilizando dois antígenos disponíveis comercialmente, e de fixação de complemento foram comparadas (FC). Foram obtidos resultados de sensibilidade especificidade semelhantes para ambos os métodos de IDGA e ainda, a técnica de IDGA foi mais eficiente do que a da FC para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por B. ovis.

M.N. Xavier; F.M. Sant'Anna; T.M.A. Silva; E.A. Costa; V.S. Moustacas; F.A. Merlo; C.A. Carvalho Júnior; M.G. Dasso; L.A. Mathias; A.M.G. Gouveia; A.P. Lage; R.L. Santos

2011-01-01

40

[Immunodiffusion analysis of plasma proteins in the canine family  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immunodiffusion studies have been made on the plasma of 9 species (Vulpes vulpes, V. corsak, Alopex lagopus, Canis aureus, C. lupus, C. familiaris, C. dingo, Nyctereutes procynoides, Fennecus zerde) from the family of Canidae using milk antisera. Unlike rabbit antisera used earlier, milk antisera make it possible to detect more significant antigenic divergency with respect to 5 alpha- and beta-globulins. These globulins seem to have a higher evolution rate of antigenic mosaics as compared to other plasma proteins in the family investigated. The family Canidae serologically may be divided into two main groups: 1) the genus Canis which includes the wolf, domestic dog, dingo, jackal and 2) species which significantly differ from the former (the fox, polar fox, dog fox, fennec). In relation to these two groups, the raccoon dog occupies special position.

Baranov OK; Iurishina NA; Savina MA

1976-09-01

 
 
 
 
41

Immunorheophoresis for the diagnosis of infectious bursal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immunorheophoresis (IR) technique was used for the detection of infectious bursal disease antigen from bursae collected from field cases and experimentally infected chickens. When these results were compared with that of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, they showed excellent agreement as determined by kappa value. However, the time taken for the appearance of the precipitin lines was reduced from 14-24 hr in the AGID test to 3-5 hr in the IR technique. PMID:9645332

Raj, G D; Jayakumar, V; Thangavelu, A; Koteeswaran, A; Venugopalan, A T

42

Immunorheophoresis for the diagnosis of infectious bursal disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The immunorheophoresis (IR) technique was used for the detection of infectious bursal disease antigen from bursae collected from field cases and experimentally infected chickens. When these results were compared with that of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, they showed excellent agreement as determined by kappa value. However, the time taken for the appearance of the precipitin lines was reduced from 14-24 hr in the AGID test to 3-5 hr in the IR technique.

Raj GD; Jayakumar V; Thangavelu A; Koteeswaran A; Venugopalan AT

1998-04-01

43

Comparison of diagnostic tests for the detection of equine infectious anemia antibody.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two diagnostic tests are approved for detecting antibody to equine infectious anemia virus: the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 420 sera from National Veterinary Services Laboratories check sets were tested with the AGID and competitive ELISA. A 100% correlation was obtained. The AGID and competitive ELISA were further used to test difficult samples with low levels of equine infectious anemia antibody (weak positives). A third test (Western blot) was also used with these weak positive samples to resolve any discordant results.

Matsushita T; Hesterberg LK; Porter JP; Smith BJ; Newman LE

1989-01-01

44

Use of an ELISA test in the eradication of an equine infectious anaemia focus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and the classic agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test were used as diagnostic methods in the eradication of a focus of equine infectious anaemia from a herd of 86 horses. The ELISA test proved to be more sensitive, detecting positive animals earlier than the AGID test. A group of 16 animals positive only by ELISA also became positive to the AGID when retested one month later, except for 2 animals which showed clinical signs of the disease and died before retesting.

dos Reis JK; Melo LM; Rezende MR; Leite RC

1994-05-01

45

Paratuberculosis in cattle: a comparison of three serologic tests with results of fecal culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Feces and blood were collected from cattle in 13 herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis to evaluate a complement-fixation (CF) test, an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serologic diagnosis of paratuberculosis. M. paratuberculosis was isolated from the feces of 36 of 192 cattle examined. Twenty-three culture-positive animals had CF test titers regarded as suspect or positive, 10 were positive by the AGID test and 34 were suspect or positive by the ELISA. Of the 156 culture-negative animals, the CF test agreed on 136, the ELISA on 129 and the AGID on 151.

Colgrove GS; Thoen CO; Blackburn BO; Murphy CD

1989-02-01

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Extraction of Equine Infectious Anemia Immunodiffusion Antigen with the Aid of the Chaotropic Agent, Thiocyanate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Immunodiffusion antigen from spleens of horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus was prepared by methods employing freeze-thaw cycles and thiocyanate treatment. Thiocyanate (0.5 M) permitted the recovery of the greatest amount of antigen. Furthermore, it was most effective for recovery of...

Hart, L. T.; Broussard, E. A.

47

Radial Immunodiffusion of Chicken Serum Proteins I. Standardization of Optimal Test Procedures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optimal conditions were determined for the quantitaion of chicken serum albumin, conalbumin, IgG and IgM by the radial immunodiffusion test. The best diluent was 0.15 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2. The optimal concentration of the rabbit antiserum in the agar plate was inversely related to the...

Cho, H. C.; Kramer, T. T.

48

[Immuno-Diffusion And Complement-Fixation Test In Paragonimiasis Of Cat  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to observe the complement fixation test and immuno-diffusion test of paragonimiasis, the sera taken at 10 days intervals up to 150 days from cats infected with Paragonimus westermani were examined by the above two immunological methods. The resultant findings were as follows: 1)The complement fixation test showed positive reaction 20 days after the infection with 20 metacercariae, and 40~50 days after the infection with 10 metacercariae. The highest titer was observed 110 days later following the acceleration at 80 days later. 2)In immuno-diffusion test, one are appeared 30 days after the infection with 20 metacercariae, but 60 days after the infection with 10 metacercariae. However, more than two arcs were observed since 70 days after infection. 3)A relatively wide band appeared by the antigens of Fresh worm material and Somatic material. But relatively clear precipitin lines were observed in the diffusion test with V.B.S. antigen, increasing to 3~4 arcs after 110days. 4)In general, complement fixation test showed earlier and higher sensitive reaction than immuno-diffusion test, and was considered to be more valuable method forr immunological diagnosis.

Han SH; Woo CK

1969-12-01

49

Studies on the major common precipitating antigen of capripoxvirus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The proteins of sheep pox, goat pox, sheep and goat pox and lumpy skin disease (Neethling) viruses were labelled with [35S]methionine. The major structural polypeptides of these viruses co-migrated on polyacrylamide gels, demonstrating the very close biochemical relationship between them. Using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test with radiolabelled antigen preparations, a major common precipitating antigen was identified. This co-migrated on polyacrylamide gels with one of the major structural polypeptides [mol. wt. 67000 (67K)]. The use of [35S]methionine-labelled antigen preparations considerably improved the sensitivity of the AGID test as a diagnostic test for capripoxvirus antibody detection.

Kitching RP; Hammond JM; Black DN

1986-01-01

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Comparison of serological methods for the diagnostic of Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil/ Comparação entre métodos sorológicos para o diagnóstico da Artrite-encefalite caprina (CAE) no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Soros de 562 caprinos foram submetidos à pesquisa de Artrite-encefalite caprina através dos testes de imunodifusão em gel de agarose (AGID) de teste imunoenzimático (ELISA). Das amostras testadas, 79 (14,1%) foram reativas em ambos os testes, mas 141 (25,1%) foram positivos apenas no ELISA. Assim, a sensibilidade do ELISA em relação ao AGID foi de 100% e a especificidade de 70,8%. Abstract in english Serum samples of 562 goats were tested for Caprine arthritis-encephalitis using agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seventy-nine samples (14.1%) were reactive by both testes but 141 (25.1%) were reactive only by ELISA. ELISA, when compared to AGID, presented 100% sensitivity and 70.8% specificity.

Cortez-Moreira, Madelayne; Oelemann, Walter M.R.; Lilenbaum, Walter

2005-03-01

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Comparison of serological methods for the diagnostic of Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Comparação entre métodos sorológicos para o diagnóstico da Artrite-encefalite caprina (CAE) no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Serum samples of 562 goats were tested for Caprine arthritis-encephalitis using agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seventy-nine samples (14.1%) were reactive by both testes but 141 (25.1%) were reactive only by ELISA. ELISA, when compared to AGID, presented 100% sensitivity and 70.8% specificity.Soros de 562 caprinos foram submetidos à pesquisa de Artrite-encefalite caprina através dos testes de imunodifusão em gel de agarose (AGID) de teste imunoenzimático (ELISA). Das amostras testadas, 79 (14,1%) foram reativas em ambos os testes, mas 141 (25,1%) foram positivos apenas no ELISA. Assim, a sensibilidade do ELISA em relação ao AGID foi de 100% e a especificidade de 70,8%.

Madelayne Cortez-Moreira; Walter M.R. Oelemann; Walter Lilenbaum

2005-01-01

52

Quantitative determination of human apolipoprotein D by electroimmunoassay and radial immunodiffusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. An electroimmunoassay and a radial immunodiffusion procedure are described for the quantitative determination of human serum apolipoprotein D. Purified apolipoprotein D and antisera to both lipoprotein D and apolipoprotein D were used to standardize the assays. The assays are applicable to measurement of apolipoprotein D in serum and density classes. The electroimmunoassay is more sensitive (50 ng apolipoprotein D quantitatively detectable), rapid (time required for completion of assay is 5 h) and precise (the within- and between-assay coefficients of variation are 4 and 7%, respectively) than radial immunodiffusion. However, comparable results were obtained by both methods (r = 0.85). 2. Serum apolipoprotein D levels of normal subjects and hyperlipoproteinemic phenotypes IIa, IIb, III, IV and V were in the same range (10 to 12 mg/dl). In contrast, patients with hyperchylomicronemia (type I) had decreased apolipoprotein D levels (5 mg/dl; P less than 0.001). The apolipoprotein D in serum of normolipidemic subjects was detectable in all density classes but measurable only in HDL2 (21%), HDL3 (43%) and VHDL (36%). 3. Rocket electrophoresis is also a valuable tool for assessing the structural relationships among apolipoproteins or their constituent polypeptides. Interaction between serum and a mixture of antibodies to A-I, A-II and apolipoprotein D resulted in the formation of separate lipoprotein A and lipoprotein D rockets indicating that apolipoprotein D is not a constituent polypeptide of apolipoprotein A. This observation confirms the existence of lipoproteins A and D as separate lipoprotein families.

Curry MD; McConathy WJ; Alaupovic P

1977-03-01

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Designation of 15 serovars of Haemophilus parasuis on the basis of immunodiffusion using heat-stable antigen extracts.  

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Previous independent investigations of the serotyping of Haemophilus parasuis strains have led to the designation of serovars A to D, 1 to 7, Jena 6 to Jena 12, and ND1 to ND5. Heat-stable antigen preparations from the reference strains for these serovars were tested by immunodiffusion with rabbit h...

Kielstein, P; Rapp-Gabrielson, V J

54

Mycobacterium avium infection in an ostrich (Struthio camelus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acid-fast organisms were identified by histopathology of granulomatous lesions in an ostrich (Struthio camelus). The organisms were grown in Herrold's egg media with and without mycobactin and identified as Mycobacterium avium. An agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis was performed for detection of antibody for M. avium in this infected ostrich and seven other ostriches that were in contact. The results of the AGID were consistent with the pathologic diagnosis of mycobacteriosis and the isolation of M. avium in the affected ostrich.

García A; LeClear CT; Gaskin JM

2001-03-01

55

A protein immunoblot test for detection of bovine leukemia virus p24 antibody in cattle and experimentally infected sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A protein immunoblot test for detecting antibody to the bovine leukemia virus p24 antigen is described. The test employs a crude antigen preparation derived from concentrated cell culture fluid, and an optimised biotin-streptavidin-peroxidase amplification system for immunodetection. The test is highly specific and is more sensitive than the gp51 agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for detection of BLV antibody in cattle and experimentally infected sheep. In a selected set of 30 field sera from cattle which had given equivocal results in the gp51-AGID test, 21 were positive, 4 were negative, and 5 gave an uncertain result in the p24-immunoblot test.

Walker PJ; Molloy JB; Rodwell BJ

1987-02-01

56

Reverse passive haemagglutination test in the diagnosis of infectious bursal disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The reverse passive haemagglutination test (RPHA) was used to detect infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus antigen in various organs of experimentally infected chickens and field cases. The results of RPHA were compared with those of agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and latex agglutination (LAT) tests. IBD antigen was detected in 86.4%, 80.4% and 80.5% of different organs by RHPA, LAT and AGID respectively. Although the differences are not statistically significant, the LAT is recommended because of cost and speed of obtaining results.

Nachimuthu K; Raj GD; Thangavelu A; Venkatesan RA

1995-02-01

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The influence of citrate and phosphate on the Mancini single radial immunodiffusion technique and suggested improvements for the determination of urinary albumin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When adapting the immediate bromcresol green method for urinary albumin determination a correlation study with the Mancini single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) method was performed. This study showed large disparities between the two methods, SRID giving the higher results. The unsuitability of the currently used SRID methods is demonstrated and improvements to the method are suggested. Known amounts of albumin were added to urine samples as well as to a "synthetic urine", both giving falsely elevated results with the SRID method. On investigating the different components of the "synthetic urine", it was found that the disparities were due to the influence of citrate and phosphate. On addition of citric acid or phosphate to the dilution buffer and/or the gel buffer, the results of the SRID method agreed with those of other methods and with the expected values. The findings presented in this paper can probably be extended to other immunological methods too since it seems to be the antigen-antibody reaction which is affected.

Gustafsson JE; Uzqueda HR

1978-12-01

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Ocorrência da leucose enzoótica dos bovinos no Estado do Pará, Brasil Occurrence of enzootic bovine leukosis in the State of Pará, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A ocorrência da infecção pelo Vírus da Leucose Enzoótica dos Bovinos (BLV) no Estado do Pará, foi estudada através do método de imunodifusão em ágar-gel (AGID) e por um ensaio imunoenzimatico (ELISA) indireto, paralelamente. Os exames foram realizados com amostras de soros sanguíneos oriundos de bovinos de diferentes raças sendo a maioria deles adultos. A prevalência observada foi de 49,8% (359/721) no ELISA e 26,0% (174/668) no AGID. Todos os 14 grupos dos animais estudados pelo ELISA indireto, mostraram a existência da infeção, enquanto que pelo método da AGID, dois grupos de animais foram negativos.The occurrence of the infection with Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV) was examined in agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in the State of Pará, Brazil. The blood sera were collected from different breeds including Nelore, Piemontes, Simental, Holstein Frisian, Indubrasil, Girolanda, Simbrasil and their cross-breedings. The majority of the animals were adults. The overall occurrence of infections was 49.8% (359/721) and 26.0% (174/668) for ELISA and AGID test, respectively. All animal groups examined showed infection in ELISA, however in the AGID test two groups were sera negative.

Éva Molnár; László Molnár; Hilma Tavares Dias; Aluízio Otávio Almeida da Silva; William Gomes Vale

1999-01-01

59

Ocorrência da leucose enzoótica dos bovinos no Estado do Pará, Brasil/ Occurrence of enzootic bovine leukosis in the State of Pará, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A ocorrência da infecção pelo Vírus da Leucose Enzoótica dos Bovinos (BLV) no Estado do Pará, foi estudada através do método de imunodifusão em ágar-gel (AGID) e por um ensaio imunoenzimatico (ELISA) indireto, paralelamente. Os exames foram realizados com amostras de soros sanguíneos oriundos de bovinos de diferentes raças sendo a maioria deles adultos. A prevalência observada foi de 49,8% (359/721) no ELISA e 26,0% (174/668) no AGID. Todos os 14 grupos dos a (more) nimais estudados pelo ELISA indireto, mostraram a existência da infeção, enquanto que pelo método da AGID, dois grupos de animais foram negativos. Abstract in english The occurrence of the infection with Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV) was examined in agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in the State of Pará, Brazil. The blood sera were collected from different breeds including Nelore, Piemontes, Simental, Holstein Frisian, Indubrasil, Girolanda, Simbrasil and their cross-breedings. The majority of the animals were adults. The overall occurrence of infections was 49.8% (359/721) (more) and 26.0% (174/668) for ELISA and AGID test, respectively. All animal groups examined showed infection in ELISA, however in the AGID test two groups were sera negative.

Molnár, Éva; Molnár, László; Dias, Hilma Tavares; Silva, Aluízio Otávio Almeida da; Vale, William Gomes

1999-01-01

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Comparison of antigens from agents of actinomycetoma by immunodiffusion and electrophoresis procedures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antigenic extracts were prepared from culture filtrates of the principal agents known to cause actinomycetoma, namely Actinomadura madurae, Actinomadura pelletieri, Nocardia asteroides, Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia otitidis-caviarum, and Streptomyces somaliensis. These antigenic preparations were compared by immunodiffusion (ID), counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE), line immunoelectrophoresis (LIE) and rocket line immunoelectrophoresis (RLIE), with rabbit antisera prepared against each of the extracts. Cross-reactivity between antigenic extracts from the different actinomycetes, measured by determining the number of precipitin lines in homologous and heterologous systems, was common. Reactions were always stronger and more precipitin lines were present when antigenic extracts were tested against homologous antisera. Similarities between A. madurae and A. pelletieri antigens were of a low order and cross-reactivity did not exceed 33%. A. pelletieri resembled N. asteroides more closely than A. madurae, with 44% of detectable antigenic components cross-reacting. The three species of Nocardia had common antigenic epitopes, but the overall degree of similarity was of a low order (between 12 and 27% by LIE and RLIE). Antigenic extracts of S. somaliensis had few components in common with the other species tested and only one of the 34 lines present in the RLIE system for N. asteroides showed any reaction of identity with an antigenic component in the S. somaliensis extract. Single cross-reacting lines were also present in the CIE and LIE systems.

De Magaldi SW; Mackenzie DW

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Evaluation of standard reagents for radial-immunodiffusion assays. In vitro control of rabies vaccines  

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Full Text Available The RID assay is one of the in vitro methods used for in-process control in the production of rabies vaccines for veterinary use. It has been shown to be very useful for determining antigen concentration in the final bulk product. The work presented in this paper, including the production and standardization of candidate standard reagents for use in the Radial Immunodiffusion Assay (RID) was carried out at the Pan American Institute for Food Protection and Zoonoses (INPPAZ/PAHO/WHO). The study was completed with the cooperation of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, National University of La Plata (NULP), Argentina, where the validation of the proposed standards and the quality control of samples from 28 different batches of rabies vaccines produced with Pasteur strain rabies virus (PV) in BHK cells were performed. The activity of the vaccines was determined by in vivo (NIH) and in vitro (RID)assays. The results of the candidate reagents for the reagent standardization tests showed stability, sensitivity and reproducibility. The Relative Potency the 1.2 between the problem vaccines and the reference vaccine was estimated by variance and regression analysis. The results of our validation study show that the INPPAZ (PAHO/WHO) is capable of producing and distributing the above-mentioned standard reagents, as well as of providing support for the incorporation of the RID technique (sensitive, rapid and inexpensive) to the laboratories that manufacture rabies vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean.

MICELI Graciela S.; TORROBA Jorge; TORRES Walter; ESTEVES MADERO Jorge; DÍAZ Ana Maria

2000-01-01

62

An investigation of equine infectious anaemia infection in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey  

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Full Text Available In this study, 162 horses, 80 donkeys and 51 mule serum samples were collected in Konya city. Additionally, 64 horse serum samples from Ankara and 49 samples from Kayseri city were included in the study. A total of 406 serum samples were examined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibody to equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) and no positive result was detected.

O. Yapkic; S. Yavru; M. Kale; O. Bulut; A. Simsek; K.C. Sahna

2012-01-01

63

Experimental bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection in California black-tailed deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemioneus columbianus) and five fawns were inoculated with bluetongue virus (BTV) and one adult deer was inoculated with epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus to produce clinical signs and lesions of hemorrhagic disease. Serologic response was monitored using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA). Embryonating chicken eggs and vero cells were used to detect viremia. No animal exhibited clinical or pathologic signs of hemorrhagic disease. Bluetongue viremia was detected as early as 2 days post-inoculation (DPI-2) and in some animals, persisted until at least DPI-12. The earliest detection of BTV antibodies using the AGID was DPI-8. Two adult deer remained seropositive for BTV antibodies for > 9 mo and 1 yr, respectively, using both the AGID and C-ELISA tests. We observed cross reactions between BT and EHD antibodies using the AGID tests. Also, the AGID test did not consistently detect exposure to BTV. Viremia was not detected in the deer inoculated with EHD although this animal was AGID positive between DPI-6 and DPI-49.

Work TM; Jessup DA; Sawyer MM

1992-10-01

64

Evaluation of western blotting for the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukemia  

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Full Text Available A western blotting (WB) procedure has been developed for detecting antibodies to bovine leukosis virus (BLV) in cattle sera. Two hundred and thirty three serum samples from naturally infected cattle with BLV virus and serial bleedings from experimentally BLV infected cows were used. An agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used for comparing with the results obtained by WB. The AGID positive sera showed a different degree of reactivity by WB test against the two most important viral antigens (gp51 and p24), or against one of them. Other proteins (gp30, p15, p12 and p10) were not detected with any AGID positive sera, being observed occasionally three bands corresponding to the p24 protein. Using sera obtained by BLV experimental inoculation, the antibodies directed to p24 appeared early (between the 2nd and 4th week post inoculation) and thereafter antibodies to gp51were detected in some animals. The analysis of field serum samples by AGID as compared to WB showed an agreement of 90.9%. Only 1.7% of sera were negative by AGID and positive by WB and 7.2% that were not conclusive by AGID and were defined by WB (4.2% as positive and 3.0% as negative).

Gonzalez E.T.; Oliva G.A.; Norimine J.; Cid de la Paz V.; Echeverría M.G.

1999-01-01

65

Antibodies to type A influenza virus in wild waterbirds from Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Limited information exists on avian influenza (AI) virus infection in South American wild birds. As part of a national surveillance program in Argentina, indigenous waterbirds were screened for antibodies to AI virus. From November 2006 to July 2007, serum samples from 540 waterbirds of 12 species were tested for type-specific antibodies to AI virus with the use of a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) and the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Thirty-three percent (176/540) of serum samples were positive with the bELISA and 12% (64/540) were positive with the AGID test. The bELISA detected antibodies to AI virus in eight of the 12 species, and the AGID detected positives in only five species. These results provide insight into AI virus circulation in Argentinean waterbirds and preliminary data to guide further surveillance efforts.

Brown JD; Luttrell MP; Uhart MM; del Valle Ferreyra H; Romano MM; Rago MV; Stallknecht DE

2010-07-01

66

Prospective study of progeny of inapparent equine carriers of equine infectious anemia virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Progeny of a band of horses, positive by the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for equine infectious anemia (EIA) antibody, were observed through their weaning over a 4-year period. Sentinels (AGID test-negative) were allowed to mingle with EIA-infected mares and their foals in pasture situations in an area with high populations of potential vectors. Of 27 adult sentinels, 8 (30%) seroconverted in annual rates ranging from 0% to 75%. In contrast, only 2 of 31 (6%) foals weaned became infected. Difference in infection rates between adult sentinels and foals was significant (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Possible explanations for differences included protective value of colostral immunity and differences in attractiveness to blood feeding vectors. Detectable colostral immunity to EIA virus in the AGID test persisted for 25 to 195 days, with a mean of 124 days.

Issel CJ; Adams WV Jr; Foil LD

1985-05-01

67

Role of insects in the transmission of bovine leukosis virus: potential for transmission by mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine leukosis virus (BLV) was transmitted to sheep in a simulated mechanical transmission experiment, using the following species of mosquitoes; Anopheles freeborni, A stephensi, A quadrimaculatus, and A albimanus. Mosquitoes were fed on blood taken from a BLV-infected cow with persistent lymphocytosis. Mouthparts and heads of mosquitoes were removed immediately after feeding, placed in RPMI 1640 medium, and inoculated subcutaneously into sheep. Nine sheep were inoculated with mouthparts and heads from 37 to 122 mosquitoes. Infection was determined serologically. Three monthly serum samples were collected from the sheep and were tested for the presence of antibodies to BLV, using the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Sera that were negative by AGID at 3 months were tested by radioimmunoassay. Results from radioimmunoassay agreed with those obtained by AGID. Four of the 9 sheep developed antibody to BLV. Sheep that seroconverted were inoculated with mouthparts and heads from as few as 54 mosquitoes.

Buxton BA; Schultz RD; Collins WE

1982-08-01

68

[Quantitative determination of the epidermal G2-chalonelike factor in rat tissues by means of radial immunodiffusion  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A high-molecular glycoprotein (epidermal G2 chalone) shown to be homogeneous by electrophoresis and immunochemistry was isolated from rat skin. It exerts a strong tissue-rather than species-specific antimitotic effect on the keratinizing epithelium. The paper is concerned with its quantitative immunodiffusion determination in some tissues by means of monospecific antiserum. A clear-cut correlation between the mitotic index and the epidermal G2 chalone level in the mucosa is shown with special reference to vaginal epithelium of rats during the estrual cycle.

Okulov VB

1979-07-01

69

[Quantitative determination of the epidermal G2-chalonelike factor in rat tissues by means of radial immunodiffusion].  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-molecular glycoprotein (epidermal G2 chalone) shown to be homogeneous by electrophoresis and immunochemistry was isolated from rat skin. It exerts a strong tissue-rather than species-specific antimitotic effect on the keratinizing epithelium. The paper is concerned with its quantitative immunodiffusion determination in some tissues by means of monospecific antiserum. A clear-cut correlation between the mitotic index and the epidermal G2 chalone level in the mucosa is shown with special reference to vaginal epithelium of rats during the estrual cycle. PMID:157177

Okulov, V B

1979-07-01

70

Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e anti-Brucella canis em cães rurais e urbanos do Município de Monte Negro, Rondônia, Brasil Anti-Brucella abortus and anti-Brucella canis antibodies occurrence in rural and urban dogs from Monte Negro county, Rondônia, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliados 304 cães de ambiente rural e urbano do município de Monte Negro, Rondônia, através do Antígeno Acidificado Tamponado (AAT), Soroaglutinação Lenta em Tubos (SAL) e 2-Mercaptoetanol (2-ME) para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e da Imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA) e Imunodifusão em gel de ágar com soro tratado com 2-Mercaptoetanol (IDGA-ME) para Brucella canis. Foram consideradas positivas as amostras reagentes nas provas confirmatórias do 2-ME e IDGA-ME. Verificaram-se 56 (18,4%) animais reagentes ao AAT e 12 (4,0%) reagentes a SAL. Apenas um cão (0,3%) foi considerado positivo, confirmado pela prova do 2-ME. Foram observadas 11 (3,6%) reações á IDGA, porém não houve confirmação na prova do IDGA-ME. Ressalta-se a baixa ocorrência de cães positivos ao 2-ME e a ausência de animais reagentes á IDGA-ME.Serum samples from 304 dogs living in urban or rural areas of Monte Negro County, Rondônia State, Brazil, were evaluated for Brucella abortus reactivity using the Rose-Bengal Test (RBT), Standard Tube agglutination Test (SAT), and Mercaptoethanol Test (MET), and for Brucella canis reactivity using the Immunodiffusion test (AGID) and Immunodiffusion test with 2-Mercaptoethanol (ME-AGID). Serum was considered positive if reacted in the MET or ME-AGID. Fifty-six (18.4%) dogs reacted by the RBT, and 12 (4.0%) by the SAT. One (0.3%) dog was positive by the MET. Eleven (3.6%) dogs reacted by the AGID, but with no confirmation by the ME-AGID. It the small occurrence of dogs reacting by the MET and the absence of reactivity by ME-AGID is emphasized.

Daniel Moura de Aguiar; Guacyara Tenório Cavalcante; Silvio Arruda Vasconcellos; Jane Megid; Vanessa Riesz Salgado; Tais Fukuta Cruz; Marcelo Bahia Labruna; Adriano Pinter; Jean Carlos Ramos da Silva; Zenaide Maria Moraes; Luís Marcelo Aranha Camargo; Solange Maria Gennari

2005-01-01

71

Testosterone Gel  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... 3. Note that there are two RLDs with different dosage forms listed in the Orange Book for AndroGel®, 1% (ie, Testosterone Transdermal Gel, 1 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

72

Early detection of maedi-visna (ovine progressive pneumonia) virus seroconversion in field sheep samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work was to investigate whether an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was useful for early detection of maedi-visna virus (MVV) infection in sheep under field conditions. An ELISA based on p25 recombinant protein and a gp46 synthetic peptide was used. Sequentially obtained serum samples (n = 1,941) were studied for 4 years. ELISA results were compared with those of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, and results of both tests were compared with a reference result established using consensus scores for at least 2 of 3 serologic techniques (AGID, ELISA, and western blotting, which was used to resolve result discrepancies between the other 2 techniques). A total of 247 discrepancies were observed between ELISA and AGID. Of these, 131 were due to an earlier detection of 120 sera by the ELISA and 11 sera by AGID. The remaining discrepancies (116) were due to the presence of false reactions in both tests. Fewer false-negative results were found by ELISA than with AGID (6 vs. 69 sera, respectively), whereas the number of false-positive results was virtually the same for ELISA and AGID (21 vs. 20, respectively). In relation to the reference result, ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 97.8% and 98.2%, respectively, whereas values for AGID were 76.3% and 98.3%, respectively. The agreement between ELISA and the reference result was higher than that between AGID and the reference result (K value: 0.96 and 0.77, respectively). A variation in the ELISA signal (based on optical density) was observed during the study period, suggesting different antibody levels throughout the animal's life. The ELISA was useful for detecting MVV-infected sheep in field conditions and has potential for use in control and eradication programs.

Varea R; Monleón E; Pacheco C; Luján L; Bolea R; Vargas MA; Van Eynde G; Saman E; Dickson L; Harkiss G; Amorena B; Badiola JJ

2001-07-01

73

Evaluation of western blotting for the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukemia Avaliação da técnica de western blot no diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A western blotting (WB) procedure has been developed for detecting antibodies to bovine leukosis virus (BLV) in cattle sera. Two hundred and thirty three serum samples from naturally infected cattle with BLV virus and serial bleedings from experimentally BLV infected cows were used. An agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used for comparing with the results obtained by WB. The AGID positive sera showed a different degree of reactivity by WB test against the two most important viral antigens (gp51 and p24), or against one of them. Other proteins (gp30, p15, p12 and p10) were not detected with any AGID positive sera, being observed occasionally three bands corresponding to the p24 protein. Using sera obtained by BLV experimental inoculation, the antibodies directed to p24 appeared early (between the 2nd and 4th week post inoculation) and thereafter antibodies to gp51were detected in some animals. The analysis of field serum samples by AGID as compared to WB showed an agreement of 90.9%. Only 1.7% of sera were negative by AGID and positive by WB and 7.2% that were not conclusive by AGID and were defined by WB (4.2% as positive and 3.0% as negative).Um sistema de western blotting (WB) foi desenvolvido para detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus da leucose em soros de bovinos. Foram utilizadas amostras de soros de 233 animais naturalmente infectados e soros de vacas experimentalmente infectadas. O teste de imunodifusão em ágar (AGID) foi usado para comparação dos resultados. Graus diferentes de reatividade foram observados em soros positivos ao AGID, quando testados em WB frente a um ou aos dois antígenos mais importantes (gp51 e p24). Outras proteínas (gp30, p15, p12 e p10) não foram detectadas por nenhum soro positivo ao AGID, sendo que três bandas correspondentes à proteína p24 foram observadas ocasionalmente. Em soros obtidos por inoculação experimental, anticorpos contra a proteína p24 foram detectados entre a segunda e a quarta semanas após a inoculação e, em alguns animais, detectaram-se anticorpos anti-gp51 mais tardiamente. O estudo de soros de campo com AGID e WB mostrou concordância de 90,9% sendo que apenas 1,7% dos soros negativos pelo AGID foram positivos ao WB e 7,2% dos resultados não conclusivos por AGID foram definidos por WB (4,2% como positivos e 3% como negativos).

E.T. Gonzalez; G.A. Oliva; J. Norimine; V. Cid de la Paz; M.G. Echeverría

1999-01-01

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Comparação de três testes sorológicos aplicados ao diagnóstico da infecção de caninos por Brucella canis/ Comparison of three serological tests applied to diagnosis of the Brucella canis infection in dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram comparados os testes de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA), imunodifusão em gel de ágar em soros tratados pelo 2-mercaptoetanol (IDGA-ME) e reação de fixação de complemento (CFT), aplicados ao diagnóstico da infecção de caninos por Brucella canis. O antígeno utilizado nas técnicas de IDGA e IDGA-ME constituiu-se de lipopolissacarídeos e proteínas de Brucella ovis, amostra Reo 198, e na CFT, o antígeno empregado foi a Brucella ovis, amostra 63/290. Fo (more) ram examinadas 80 amostras de soro sanguíneo de cães colhidas durante a campanha de vacinação anti-rábica animal do Município de Santana de Parnaíba-SP, realizada em agosto de 1999. As provas sorológicas foram comparadas, duas a duas, pelo teste de Mc Nemar, e a concordância foi analisada pelo indicador Kappa. A concordância entre as técnicas de CFT e IDGA-ME foi regular (Kappa = 0,54), entre as técnicas de IDGA e CFT foi sofrível (Kappa = 0,36) e entre as provas de IDGA e IDGA-ME também foi sofrível (Kappa = 0,39). Abstract in english The agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), agar gel immunodiffusion test in sera treated by 2-mercaptoethanol (ME-AGID) and complement fixation test (CFT), applied to diagnosis of the canine brucellosis due to Brucella canis, were compared. For this purposes, 80 blood samples from dogs were collected during the rabies vaccination campaign of Santana de Parnaíba municipality, State of São Paulo, in August 1999. The antigens used in the AGID and ME-AGID tests were lipopoly (more) saccharides and proteins from Brucella ovis, strain Reo 198, and in the CFT, the antigen employed was Brucella ovis, strain 63/290. The serological tests were compared two by two by Mc Nemar test, and the agreement was analyzed by the Kappa indicator. The agreement between the CFT and ME-AGID was moderate (Kappa = 0.54), between the AGID and CFT was fair (Kappa = 0.36) and between the AGID and ME-AGID was fair (Kappa = 0.39).

Azevedo, Sérgio Santos de; Vasconcellos, Sílvio Arruda; Keid, Lara Borges; Grasso, Lília Márcia Paulin da Silva; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Mascolli, Roberta; Alves, Clebert José

2004-04-01

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A comparative study of antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from patients and soil of ornamental plants in the immunodiffusion test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The strikingly frequent and constant presence of Aspergillus fimigatus in the soil of potted ornamental plants kept in private houses and hospitals has been the reason for studying the antigens of the strains found from the diagnostic and epidemiological angles. Culture-filtrate antigens of A. fumigatus strains isolated from the soil of 4 different ornamental plants, epiphyllum (Epiphyllum truncatum), orange tree (Citrus sinensis), Alpine rose (Azalea indica) and Christmas flower (Euphorbia pulcherrima), were compared, in the immunodiffusion test, with antigens of A. fumigatus strains from aspergillosis patients prepared in an identical way. When tested against 8 different sera from different aspergillosis patients there was a good coincidence of results. Control sera from patients suffering from diseases other than aspergillosis, no false-positive reactions could be observed. The findings are discussed in respect of diagnosis and epidemiology.

Staib F; Folkens U; Tompak B; Abel T; Thiel D

1978-11-01

76

Polyelectrolyte gels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyelectrolyte (PE) gels are swollen polymer/solvent networks that undergo a reversible volume collapse/expansion through various types of stimulation. Applications that could exploit this large deformation and solvent expulsion/absorption characteristics include robotic {open_quotes}fingers{close_quotes} and drug delivery systems. The goals of the research were to first explore the feasibility of using the PE gels as {open_quotes}smart materials{close_quotes} - materials whose response can be controlled by an external stimulus through a feedback mechanism. Then develop a predictive capability to simulate the dynamic behavior of these gels. This involved experimentally characterizing the response of well-characterized gels to an applied electric field and other stimuli to develop an understanding of the underlying mechanisms which cause the volume collapse. Lastly, the numerical analysis tool was used to simulate various potential engineering devices based on PE gels. This report discusses the pursuit of those goals through experimental and computational means.

Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

1995-06-01

77

Validation and evaluation of a commercially available ELISA for the detection of antibodies specific to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bovine pestivirus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies specific to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) with a virus neutralisation test (VNT) and agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. DESIGN: A total of 125 cattle serum samples were tested by a commercially available ELISA for antibodies specific to BVDV and by a VNT as the reference standard. A comparison between AGID and ELISA for detection of BVDV antibodies was also carried out, using 1182 serum samples from unvaccinated South Australian cattle. METHODS: Two-graph receiver operating characteristics (TG-ROC) analysis was used to confirm that the manufacturer's recommended cut-off value for the ELISA was appropriate. Two-by-two tables were constructed to analyse the concordance of serological results among the three assays. McNemar tests were used to assess the agreement among serological tests. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Using the manufacturer's cut-off threshold, supported by TG-ROC analysis, the ELISA's sensitivity and specificity were calculated to be 96.7% and 97.1%, respectively, compared with the VNT. Compared with AGID, ELISA with specific BVDV antibodies may be more sensitive and detect 5.8% more samples than AGID. McNemar test also showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between AGID and ELISA.

Lanyon SR; Anderson ML; Bergman E; Reichel MP

2013-01-01

78

Evaluation of a competitive ELISA for detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus nucleoprotein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) employing a baculovirus-expressed recombinant nucleoprotein and a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of antibodies to type A influenza virus nucleoprotein. The performance of the C-ELISA was evaluated by testing 756 chickens, 1123 turkeys, 707 emus, and 1261 ostriches, for a total of 3847 serum samples. Relative to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, the C-ELISA had a sensitivity of 100% for all four species. The C-ELISA's sensitivity relative to the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test results was 100% for chicken, turkey, and emu and 96.2% for the ostrich serum samples. More than 90% of the AGID-negative/C-ELISA-positive serum samples were found positive by HI for at least one influenza serotype. The specificity of C-ELISA relative to AGID ranged from 85.5% to 99.8% for sera collected from these species. These results indicated that the C-ELISA was more sensitive and more specific than the AGID test and as sensitive and as specific as the HI test. The C-ELISA has the potential to replace the AGID test for screening sera from avian species, including ratites, for detection of antibodies to type A influenza virus.

Zhou EM; Chan M; Heckert RA; Riva J; Cantin MF

1998-07-01

79

Performance comparison of immunodiffusion, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunochromatography and hemagglutination for serodiagnosis of human pythiosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the fungus-like organism Pythium insidiosum. Morbidity and mortality rates of pythiosis are high. The treatment of choice for pythiosis is surgical debridement of infected tissue. Early and accurate diagnosis is critical for effective treatment. In-house serodiagnostic tests, including immunodiffusion (ID), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunochromatography (ICT) and hemagglutination (HA) have been developed to detect antibodies against P. insidiosum in sera. This study compares the diagnostic performance of ID, ELISA, ICT, and HA, using sera from 37 pythiosis patients and 248 control subjects. ICT and ELISA showed optimal diagnostic performance (100% sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value). ICT was both rapid and user-friendly. ELISA results were readily quantitated. ID is relatively insensitive. HA was rapid, but diagnostic performance was poor. Understanding the advantages offered by each assay facilitates selection of an assay that is circumstance-appropriate. This will promote earlier diagnoses and improved outcomes for patients with pythiosis.

Chareonsirisuthigul T; Khositnithikul R; Intaramat A; Inkomlue R; Sriwanichrak K; Piromsontikorn S; Kitiwanwanich S; Lowhnoo T; Yingyong W; Chaiprasert A; Banyong R; Ratanabanangkoon K; Brandhorst TT; Krajaejun T

2013-05-01

80

Performance comparison of immunodiffusion, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunochromatography and hemagglutination for serodiagnosis of human pythiosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the fungus-like organism Pythium insidiosum. Morbidity and mortality rates of pythiosis are high. The treatment of choice for pythiosis is surgical debridement of infected tissue. Early and accurate diagnosis is critical for effective treatment. In-house serodiagnostic tests, including immunodiffusion (ID), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunochromatography (ICT) and hemagglutination (HA) have been developed to detect antibodies against P. insidiosum in sera. This study compares the diagnostic performance of ID, ELISA, ICT, and HA, using sera from 37 pythiosis patients and 248 control subjects. ICT and ELISA showed optimal diagnostic performance (100% sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value). ICT was both rapid and user-friendly. ELISA results were readily quantitated. ID is relatively insensitive. HA was rapid, but diagnostic performance was poor. Understanding the advantages offered by each assay facilitates selection of an assay that is circumstance-appropriate. This will promote earlier diagnoses and improved outcomes for patients with pythiosis. PMID:23537786

Chareonsirisuthigul, Takol; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Intaramat, Akarin; Inkomlue, Ruchuros; Sriwanichrak, Kanchana; Piromsontikorn, Savittree; Kitiwanwanich, Sureewan; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Banyong, Ramrada; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Krajaejun, Theerapong

2013-03-26

 
 
 
 
81

[Determination of the fraction of C3c complement by radial immunodiffusion in the serum and saliva from the parotid gland of clinically normal subjects  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It was our intention to determine the C3c fraction in the serum and in the parotid saliva of 13 clinically normal individuals by the radial immunodiffusion method. The mean value of the seric C3c was 86.92 mg/dl and the confidence levels averaged 75.53 to 100.31 mg/dl. There was no measurable concentration of C3c in the parotid saliva.

de Campos AC; Galletta VP; Cossermelli W; Gayotto MV

1989-11-01

82

Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serological diagnosis of big liver and spleen disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the serological diagnosis of big liver and spleen (BLS) disease. The test utilizes a soluble, BLS-specific antigen that can be recovered from the livers of infected hens and that is known to react in the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. For use in ELISA, the BLS-specific antigen is fractionated by gel filtration chromatography and immobilized on microtiter plates using glutaraldehyde. The ELISA was evaluated using sera from infected and uninfected flocks originating in the United Kingdom and the United States. An ELISA format that incorporated control antigen recovered from the livers of uninfected birds for each serum tested was found to be more sensitive than the AGID test. A less sensitive but more cost-effective format that did not incorporate this control is considered suitable for large-scale flock screening programs.

Todd D; Mawhinney KA; McAlinden VA; Douglas AJ

1993-07-01

83

Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in hospitalized patients with chronic pulmonary disease: usefulness of double immunodiffusion test as a screening procedure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Trezentos e cinquenta pacientes sintomáticos respiratórios admitidos no Hospial Raphael de Paula Souza, sem diagnóstico etiológico definitivo, foram triados pela técnica de imunodifusão dupla (IDD) para aspergilose. Quando a IDD foi positiva, informações adicionais como histórico e exames radiológicos foram requisitados e, quando possível, espécimes clínicos foram processados para exames micológicos e histopatológicos. Linhas de precipitação específicas (more) para o antígeno de A. fumigatus foram encontradas em 29(8,3%) dos 350 soros de pacientes testados. Dezenove (65,5% dos 29 pacientes cm sorologia positiva foram reconhecidos como tendo boa fúngica pelos achados radiológicos em dois ou por ambos em oito pacientes. Este estudo prospectivo de dois anos mostrou que aspergilose pulmonar é um problema considerável entre pacientes admitidos em um hospital para sintomáticos respiratórios, especialmente aqueles com cavidades pulmonares ou bronquiectasias. Abstract in english Double immunodiffusion (DID) was used as a screening test for the diagnosis of aspergillosis. Three hundred and fifty patients were tested, all of them referred from a specialized chest disease hospital and without a definitive etiological diagnosis. When DID was positive addtional information such as clinical history and radiographic findings were requested and also surgical specimens were obtained whenever possible. Specific precipitin hamds for Aspergillus fumigatus a (more) ntigen were found in 29 (8.3%) of 350 patients sera. Nineteen (65.5%) of the 29 patients with positive serology were recognized as having a fungus ball by X-rays signs in 17 or by pathological examination in 2 or by both in 8 patients. This two-year prospective study has shown that pulmonary aspergillos is a considerable problem among patiens admitted to a Chest Diseases Hospital, especially in those with pulmonary cavities or bronchiectasis.

Ferreira-da-Cruz, M. F.; Wanke, B.; Pirmez, C.; Galvão-Castro, B.

1988-09-01

84

Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in hospitalized patients with chronic pulmonary disease: usefulness of double immunodiffusion test as a screening procedure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Double immunodiffusion (DID) was used as a screening test for the diagnosis of aspergillosis. Three hundred and fifty patients were tested, all of them referred from a specialized chest disease hospital and without a definitive etiological diagnosis. When DID was positive addtional information such as clinical history and radiographic findings were requested and also surgical specimens were obtained whenever possible. Specific precipitin hamds for Aspergillus fumigatus antigen were found in 29 (8.3%) of 350 patients sera. Nineteen (65.5%) of the 29 patients with positive serology were recognized as having a fungus ball by X-rays signs in 17 or by pathological examination in 2 or by both in 8 patients. This two-year prospective study has shown that pulmonary aspergillos is a considerable problem among patiens admitted to a Chest Diseases Hospital, especially in those with pulmonary cavities or bronchiectasis.Trezentos e cinquenta pacientes sintomáticos respiratórios admitidos no Hospial Raphael de Paula Souza, sem diagnóstico etiológico definitivo, foram triados pela técnica de imunodifusão dupla (IDD) para aspergilose. Quando a IDD foi positiva, informações adicionais como histórico e exames radiológicos foram requisitados e, quando possível, espécimes clínicos foram processados para exames micológicos e histopatológicos. Linhas de precipitação específicas para o antígeno de A. fumigatus foram encontradas em 29(8,3%) dos 350 soros de pacientes testados. Dezenove (65,5% dos 29 pacientes cm sorologia positiva foram reconhecidos como tendo boa fúngica pelos achados radiológicos em dois ou por ambos em oito pacientes. Este estudo prospectivo de dois anos mostrou que aspergilose pulmonar é um problema considerável entre pacientes admitidos em um hospital para sintomáticos respiratórios, especialmente aqueles com cavidades pulmonares ou bronquiectasias.

M. F. Ferreira-da-Cruz; B. Wanke; C. Pirmez; B. Galvão-Castro

1988-01-01

85

Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with hemagglutination-inhibition and immunodiffusion tests for detection of antibodies to a hemagglutinating duck adenovirus in chickens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibody to a hemagglutinating duck adenovirus is described. Optimum conditions for the test were determined, and the system was compared with procedures currently used. Experimentally infected chickens were assayed for specific antibody by ELISA, hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and immunodiffusion (ID). The ELISA was a sensitive and reliable method for detecting antibody, although positive titers were not always in agreement with HI and ID results at 1 week postinoculation, probably reflecting the different classes of antibody being detected.

Piela TH; Yates VJ

1983-07-01

86

Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of bovine antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I.ELISA) is described for detection of bovine serum antibody to epizootic hemorrhagic diseases of deer virus (EHDV). Serum samples, at a dilution of 1:200, were incubated with group-specific EHDV antigens, pre-adsorbed to microtiter plates. Bound antibodies were detected by a murine monoclonal antibody to bovine immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 (heavy-chain specific) conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. The performance of the I.ELISA in detecting antibodies to EHDV in sequential serum samples from calves experimentally infected with serotypes 1,2,3 and 4 was evaluated. The I.ELISA detected EHDV antibodies from 14 days postinfection when seroconversion by the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test was also evident. The group-specific antibodies to EHDV increased exponentially during the first two to four weeks postinfection and remained relatively stable for about 12 months in some calves. Unlike observations with the AGID test, no reaction was seen in the I.ELISA between blue-tongue virus (BTV) antigen and sera from calves given a single dose of EHDV. The performance of the I.ELISA and AGID were compared using 3,135 AGID negative bovine field sera from herds in Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia and 130 AGID positive samples collected from cattle in 1987 and 1988 during and after outbreaks of EHD in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay relative to the AGID test were 99.3% and 91.5% respectively, with an overall agreement of 99.0% between the tests.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Afshar A; Wright PF; Taylor LA; Shapiro JL; Dulac GC

1992-04-01

87

Brucella canis infection in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from patos, Paraba?BA state, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the frequency of anti-Brucella canis antibodies in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from Patos, Paraíba State, Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors and to isolate and identify the agent, 193 dogs were used. Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used to detect B. canis antibodies in sera. Isolation of B. canis was carried out in blood and bone marrow from seropositive animals. Six animals tested seropositive in AGID, resulting in a frequency of 3.11%. B. canis was isolated from bone marrow of one seropositive animal, with confirmation by PCR. Lack of cleaning of the dog’s environment was identified as risk factor (odds ratio = 7.91). This is the first report of isolation of B. canis in dogs from the Northeast region of Brazil.

Fernandes, Annielle Regina Fonseca; de Azevedo, Sergio Santos; Pinheiro, Eliana Scarcelli; Genovez, Margareth Elide; de Azevedo, Adilio Santos; de Sousa Americo Batista, Carolina; Alves, Clebert Jose

2011-01-01

88

Brucella canis infection in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from patos, Paraíba state, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english To determine the frequency of anti-Brucella canis antibodies in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from Patos, Paraíba State, Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors and to isolate and identify the agent, 193 dogs were used. Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used to detect B. canis antibodies in sera. Isolation of B. canis was carried out in blood and bone marrow from seropositive animals. Six animals tested seropositive in AGID, resulting in a frequency of 3 (more) .11%. B. canis was isolated from bone marrow of one seropositive animal, with confirmation by PCR. Lack of cleaning of the dog's environment was identified as risk factor (odds ratio = 7.91). This is the first report of isolation of B. canis in dogs from the Northeast region of Brazil.

Fernandes, Annielle Regina Fonseca; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos de; Piatti, Rosa Maria; Pinheiro, Eliana Scarcelli; Genovez, Margareth Élide; Azevedo, Adílio Santos de; Batista, Carolina de Sousa Américo; Alves, Clebert José

2011-12-01

89

Brucella canis infection in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from patos, Paraíba state, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the frequency of anti-Brucella canis antibodies in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from Patos, Paraíba State, Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors and to isolate and identify the agent, 193 dogs were used. Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used to detect B. canis antibodies in sera. Isolation of B. canis was carried out in blood and bone marrow from seropositive animals. Six animals tested seropositive in AGID, resulting in a frequency of 3.11%. B. canis was isolated from bone marrow of one seropositive animal, with confirmation by PCR. Lack of cleaning of the dog's environment was identified as risk factor (odds ratio = 7.91). This is the first report of isolation of B. canis in dogs from the Northeast region of Brazil.

Annielle Regina Fonseca Fernandes; Sérgio Santos de Azevedo; Rosa Maria Piatti; Eliana Scarcelli Pinheiro; Margareth Élide Genovez; Adílio Santos de Azevedo; Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista; Clebert José Alves

2011-01-01

90

Experimental transmission of Bovine leukemia virus in cattle via rectal palpation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined whether Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was transmitted by rectal palpation using a common sleeve between a BLV-infected cow and BLV-negative steers. Three of four steers developed antibodies against BLV as determined by agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test between 7 to 10 weeks after the first rectal palpation using common sleeves from BLV-infected cow. In the steers, BLV proviral DNA were detected by PCR 1 to 5 weeks earlier than detection of the antibodies by the AGID test. Our experiments demonstrated that rectal palpation is a potential cause of BLV spread in herds and that detection of BLV proviral DNA in cattle by PCR is useful screening test for early diagnosis of BLV infection.

Kohara J; Konnai S; Onuma M

2006-05-01

91

Antibody response to Jembrana disease virus in Bali cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test are described which detected antibody against Jembrana disease virus in infected Bali cattle. Both tests were specific and did not detect antibody in cattle from areas where clinical Jembrana disease has not been detected. The ELISA detected antibody in all infected cattle and had greater sensitivity than the AGID which detected antibody in less than 50% of infected cattle at any single time after infection. The antibody response to the virus was delayed; antibody was not detected by ELISA in a majority of infected cattle until 11 weeks after infection and a maximum antibody response was detected 23 to 33 weeks after infection. Antibody was still detectable 59 weeks after infection.

Hartaningsih N; Wilcox GE; Kertayadnya G; Astawa M

1994-03-01

92

Large-scale serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in Korean black goats (Capra hircus aegagrus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A national serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was conducted using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. A total of 658 black goats of various breeds were sampled from 59 farms in three regions of Korea. The CAEV-positive goats were predominantly detected in the Southern region (n=17) as compared with the Northern (n=1) and Central regions (n=0) (?(2)=6.26, P=0.044). Among 658 goats tested, 18 were positive in both ELISA and AGID, indicating a CAEV prevalence of 2.73% (95% confidence interval: 1.74-4.28). These results indicate that CAEV is present in Korean black goats.

Oem JK; Chung JY; Byun JW; Kim HY; Kwak D; Jung BY

2012-12-01

93

Development and validation of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of type A influenza antibodies in avian sera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Serologic screening of avian sera for group-specific antibodies to type A influenza is currently accomplished by using the avian influenza (AI) agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) was developed using a baculovirus vector, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, expressing the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of A/Ann Arbor/6/60 influenza virus. The recombinant NP was obtained by inoculation of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells or Trichoplusia ni insect larvae with the recombinant baculovirus. A hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibody against influenza virus A nucleoprotein was used to generate mouse ascitic fluid for the CELISA. The nucleoprotein and the monoclonal antibody were used without further purification in a CELISA for detection of avian-origin serum antibodies to type A influenza. The AI AGID and CELISA tests were compared for sensitivity and specificity using 1651 experimental and reference antisera. Samples discrepant in AGID and CELISA test results were further evaluated by the AI indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), hemagglutination-inhibition (HI), and neuraminidase-inhibition (NI) tests. The results demonstrated a high degree of correlation between the AGID and CELISA test results, with the IFA, HI, and NI tests offering additional support of CELISA test specificity. The CELISA is a rapid, economical, sensitive, and specific serodiagnostic method for screening large numbers of avian sera for antibodies to avian influenza virus.

Shafer AL; Katz JB; Eernisse KA

1998-01-01

94

COSMETIC GELS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to cosmetic gels consisting of an active base which contains 50...90% structured water of the "I" type, 0.05...2% carboxyvinyl polymers, 0.05...2% of 18% sodium hydroxide, 0.5...2% a complex of diazolinyl-urea, methyl-parabene, propyl-parabene and propylene glycol, 0.1...4% glycerine, 3...5% 1,2-pentadiol, 0.1...5% alantoin to which, depending on the skin type and on the destination, there is added a complex of active principles and finishing agents, such as: 0.1...5% coniferous purified resin, a mixture comprising 26-buteth-26-polypropylene glycol/40 polyethylene glycol, hydrogenated castor oil, 0.5...5% tincture of Plantago species and/or Capsicum annum, Salvia officinalis and propylene-glycol extracts of at least one of the following plants: Aesculus hippocastanum, Callendulae officinalis, Hypericum perforatum, Arctium lappa radix and usual adjuncts.

MANZATU IOAN; SPETEANU ROZALIA; MANZATU LILIANA; MOTOANGA VERONICA

95

Amperometric immunosensor for diagnosis of BLV infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new amperometric immunosensor for detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia protein (gp51) was designed. The detection of antibody-antigen complex formation was based on application of secondary antibodies labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) were selected as suitable mediators for this immunosensor. Optimal conditions for amperometric detection were found. Sensitivity of created system was compared with the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) reaction, and was sufficient for detection of usual anti-gp51 antibody concentration present in the blood serum of BLV-infected cattle.

Kurtinaitiene B; Ambrozaite D; Laurinavicius V; Ramanaviciene A; Ramanavicius A

2008-05-01

96

Competitive ELISA for the detection of antibodies against epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is described for the detection of antibodies against epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer viruses (EHDV). Test antisera were tested against a guinea-pig antiserum raised against EHDV core particles. The assay detected antibodies to all serotypes of EHDV, but unlike the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, gave no cross-reactions with antibodies against bluetongue, Palyam and Tilligery viruses. The C-ELISA would be ideal for use in epidemiological surveys since it is suitable for the examination of antisera from all susceptible species without the need for individual species-specific enzyme conjugates.

Thevasagayam JA; Mertens PP; Burroughs JN; Anderson J

1995-11-01

97

Evaluation of a LAM ELISA for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A milk and serum ELISA containing lipoarabinomanan (LAM) antigen was evaluated in sheep and goats versus agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using milk and lymph nodes. Milk and serum samples were obtained from six, two, and four flocks with unknown, negative and positive status of infection, respectively. By comparison of serum ELISA activity and PCR results, the positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) analysis was used for calculating the specificity and sensitivity at different cut-offs.

Munjal SK; Boehmer J; Beyerbach M; Strutzberg-Minder K; Homuth M

2004-10-01

98

Testosterone Gel REMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Text VersionPage 1. Initial REMS Approval: 02/2012 Testosterone Gel CIII Drug Class and Formulation: Testosterone Gel Products ... use of testosterone gel. II. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

99

Buckling of swelling gels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The patterns arising from the differential swelling of gels are investigated experimentally and theoretically as a model for the differential growth of living tissues. Two geometries are considered: a thin strip of soft gel clamped to a stiff gel, and a thin corona of soft gel clamped to a disk of s...

Mora, Thierry; Boudaoud, Arezki

100

Fundamentals of gel dosimeters  

Science.gov (United States)

Fundamental chemical and physical phenomena that occur in Fricke gel dosimeters, polymer gel dosimeters, micelle gel dosimeters and genipin gel dosimeters are discussed. Fricke gel dosimeters are effective even though their radiation sensitivity depends on oxygen concentration. Oxygen contamination can cause severe problems in polymer gel dosimeters, even when THPC is used. Oxygen leakage must be prevented between manufacturing and irradiation of polymer gels, and internal calibration methods should be used so that contamination problems can be detected. Micelle gel dosimeters are promising due to their favourable diffusion properties. The introduction of micelles to gel dosimetry may open up new areas of dosimetry research wherein a range of water-insoluble radiochromic materials can be explored as reporter molecules.

McAuley, K. B.; Nasr, A. T.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Fundamentals of gel dosimeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fundamental chemical and physical phenomena that occur in Fricke gel dosimeters, polymer gel dosimeters, micelle gel dosimeters and genipin gel dosimeters are discussed. Fricke gel dosimeters are effective even though their radiation sensitivity depends on oxygen concentration. Oxygen contamination can cause severe problems in polymer gel dosimeters, even when THPC is used. Oxygen leakage must be prevented between manufacturing and irradiation of polymer gels, and internal calibration methods should be used so that contamination problems can be detected. Micelle gel dosimeters are promising due to their favourable diffusion properties. The introduction of micelles to gel dosimetry may open up new areas of dosimetry research wherein a range of water-insoluble radiochromic materials can be explored as reporter molecules.

2013-06-26

102

Prevalence of antibodies to type a influenza virus in wild avian species using two serologic assays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Serologic testing to detect antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus has been an underused tool for the study of these viruses in wild bird populations, which traditionally has relied on virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a preliminary study, a recently developed commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) had sensitivity and specificity estimates of 82% and 100%, respectively, for detection of antibodies to AI virus in multiple wild bird species after experimental infection. To further evaluate the efficacy of this commercial bELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for AI virus antibody detection in wild birds, we tested 2,249 serum samples collected from 62 wild bird species, representing 10 taxonomic orders. Overall, the bELISA detected 25.4% positive samples, whereas the AGID test detected 14.8%. At the species level, the bELISA detected as many or more positive serum samples than the AGID in all 62 avian species. The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. Conversely, antibodies to AI virus were rarely detected in the terrestrial species. The serologic data yielded by both assays are consistent with the known epidemiology of AI virus in wild birds and published reports of host range based on virus isolation and RT-PCR. The results of this research are also consistent with the aforementioned study, which evaluated the performance of the bELISA and AGID test on experimental samples. Collectively, the data from these two studies indicate that the bELISA is a more sensitive serologic assay than the AGID test for detecting prior exposure to AI virus in wild birds. Based on these results, the bELISA is a reliable species-independent assay with potentially valuable applications for wild bird AI surveillance.

Brown JD; Luttrell MP; Berghaus RD; Kistler W; Keeler SP; Howey A; Wilcox B; Hall J; Niles L; Dey A; Knutsen G; Fritz K; Stallknecht DE

2010-07-01

103

Influence of management technology and parturition on antibody levels in cows with bovine leukosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sera from 97 Holstein-Friesian cows kept in isolation (herd I) were tested on 9 occasions with an interval of 90 days. The cows had previously given a positive reaction with bovine leukaemia virus antigen in the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. During the period of loose housing (at tests 1-3) 0-3 cows per test (0-3.1%) gave a negative reaction. When the same animals were kept in the tie-in system (at tests 4-7) the number of negative reactors varied between 9 and 26 (16.9-20.1%). Twenty-eight cows of herd II were tested serologically by the AGID test on a total of 9 occasions from day 60 before term up to postpartum day 90. The lowest antibody level was obtained at calving, when 7 cows gave a negative result in the AGID test. In three cows the decline of antibody level was so pronounced that their serum was negative even after postpartum day 60. One cow was negative even at the end of the test period (on postpartum day 90). The variation in serum antibody level was demonstrable also by ELISA; however, by that test none of the animals gave a negative result. The antibody level demonstrable in the milk reached its peak at calving and then it underwent a gradual decline; however, it did not drop below the detectability limit by the end of the test period. It is concluded that in bovine leukosis infected herds the performance of the AGID test is extremely impaired by the use of the tie-in housing system, as well as by a combined effect of tying in and parturition. Therefore, during the leukosis eradication and qualification of herds kept in a tie-in system, ELISA is the method that can be used, instead of AGID, with satisfactory efficacy even for the testing of sera.

Tekes L

1994-01-01

104

Sero-Survey of Equine Infectious Anemia in the Sultanate of Oman during 2007-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is a fatal and relapsing infectious disease of equines caused by the lentivirus of Retroviridae family which occurs world-wide. It tends to become an inapparent infection if death does not result from the acute clinical attack. The virus persists in infected animals for life and can be detected by serological tests like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests. Keeping in view the importance of EIA, a sero-survey and passive surveillance was designed to establish the status of EIA in Oman. For the current study, ELISA was carried out on 331 random horse serum samples collected from all over Oman and 262 serum samples submitted from race horses. Four (0.67%) out of total 593 serum samples were found positive on ELISA. These samples were further tested by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for the confirmation and were found negative. Based on the analysis of the samples, it can be assumed that the horse population in the Sultanate was free of the disease during the study period (2007-2009).

Mohammed Body, Abdulmajeed Al-Rawahi, M. Hammad Hussain*, Khalisa Al-Lamki, Saif Al-Habsy, Mahir Almaawali and Qais Abdullah Alrawahi

2011-01-01

105

TOPICAL GEL COMPOSITION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Improved topical gel compositions, such as those containing brimonidine for the treatment of skin disorders are described. The gel compositions contain carbomer and paraben, and are substantially free of paraben crystalline particles after an extended period of storage.

BUGE JEAN-CHRISTOPHE; NADAU FOURCADE KARINE; MEUNIER CYRIL

106

SHEAR GELS AND COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING SHEAR GELS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is directed to shear gels and topical compositions comprising the same. The topical compositions can be substantially free of silicone elastomers and yield excellent sensory characteristics when applied.

MOADDEL TEANOOSH; DOBKOWSKI BRIAN JOHN; WIS GABRIELA MARIA; PEHRATOVIC HASIBA

107

Shear Gels and Compositions Comprising Shear Gels  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is directed to shear gels and topical compositions comprising the same. The topical compositions can be substantially free of silicone elastomers and yield excellent sensory characteristics when applied.

MOADDEL TEANOOSH; DOBKOWSKI BRIAN JOHN; WIS GABRIELA MARIA; PEHRATOVIC HASIBA

108

Buckling of swelling gels  

CERN Multimedia

The patterns arising from the differential swelling of gels are investigated experimentally and theoretically as a model for the differential growth of living tissues. Two geometries are considered: a thin strip of soft gel clamped to a stiff gel, and a thin corona of soft gel clamped to a disk of stiff gel. When the structure is immersed in water, the soft gel swells and bends out of plane leading to a wavy periodic pattern which wavelength is measured. The linear stability of the flat state is studied in the framework of linear elasticity using the equations for thin plates. The flat state is shown to become unstable to oscillations above a critical swelling rate and the computed wavelengths are in quantitative agreement with the experiment.

Mora, T; Mora, Thierry; Boudaoud, Arezki

2005-01-01

109

Mechanochromic photonic gels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polymer gels are remarkable materials with physical structures that can adapt significantly and quite rapidly with changes in the local environment, such as temperature, light intensity, electrochemistry, and mechanical force. An interesting phenomenon observed in certain polymer gel systems is mechanochromism - a change in color due to a mechanical deformation. Mechanochromic photonic gels are periodically structured gels engineered with a photonic stopband that can be tuned by mechanical forces to reflect specific colors. These materials have potential as mechanochromic sensors because both the mechanical and optical properties are highly tailorable via incorporation of diluents, solvents, nanoparticles, or polymers, or the application of stimuli such as temperature, pH, or electric or strain fields. Recent advances in photonic gels that display strain-dependent optical properties are discussed. In particular, this discussion focuses primarily on polymer-based photonic gels that are directly or indirectly fabricated via self-assembly, as these materials are promising soft material platforms for scalable mechanochromic sensors.

Chan EP; Walish JJ; Urbas AM; Thomas EL

2013-08-01

110

Sol-gel processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sol gel processing has been reviewed from the standpoint of preparing materials in the shape of a bulk cylinder or plate, fiber or coating. Also, microstructures achieved by sol-gel processing have been reviewed. It is indicated that sol-gel processing is versatile and produces a wide variety of high technology materials having optical, electronic, chemical and biological functions. Processing of some optical coating films is discussed in more detail.

Sakka, Sumio [Fukui Univ. of Technology, Gakuen (Japan)

1995-12-31

111

CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity of fractures (with widths from 1 to 4 mm) during brine and oil flow after placement. Regardless of gel age before placement, very little gel washed out from the fractures during brine or oil flow. However, increased brine or oil flow rate and cyclic injection of oil and water significantly decreased the level of permeability reduction. A particular need exists for gels that can plug large apertures (e.g., wide fractures and vugs). Improved mechanical strength and stability were demonstrated (in 1- to 4-mm-wide fractures) for a gel that contained a combination of high- and low-molecular weight polymers. This gel reduced the flow capacity of 2- and 4-mm-wide fractures by 260,000. In a 1-mm-wide fracture, it withstood 26 psi/ft without allowing any brine flow through the fracture. Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gels exhibited disproportionate permeability reduction in fractures. The effect was most pronounced when the gel was placed as gelant or partially formed gels. The effect occurred to a modest extent with concentrated gels and with gels that were ''fully formed'' when placed. The effect was not evident in tubes. We explored swelling polymers for plugging fractures. Polymer suspensions were quickly prepared and injected. In concept, the partially dissolved polymer would lodge and swell to plug the fracture. For three types of swelling polymers, behavior was promising. However, additional development is needed before their performance will be superior to that of conventional gels.

Randall S. Seright

2003-09-01

112

Detection of Brucella ovis in ovine from Paraíba State, in the Northeast region of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the presence of Brucella ovis in ovine from Paraíba State, in the Northeast region of Brazil, 80 animals slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of Patos city were used. Before slaughter, blood samples were collected by jugular venopuncture from each animal, and after slaughter, testicles, epidydimus and uterus were aseptically collected. For the serological diagnosis of B. ovis and B. abortus infections, the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and Rose Bengal (RBT) tests were carried out, respectively. In addition, microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on testicle, epidydimus and uterus samples. Six animals (7.5%) tested positive for the presence of B. ovis antibodies and all animals tested negative for the presence of B. abortus antibodies. One AGID-positive animal tested positive at uterine swab culture. PCR was able to amplify DNA of Brucella spp. from the pool of testicle, epidydimus and uterus samples from AGID-positive animals. This is the first report of isolation and detection of B. ovis DNA by PCR in ovine from the Northeast region of Brazil.

Clebert José Alves; Salomão Moreira de Figueiredo; Sérgio Santos de Azevedo; Inácio José Clementino; Lara Borges Keid; Sílvio Arruda Vasconcellos; Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista; Vivianne Cambuí Mesquita Rocha; Severino Silvano Higino

2010-01-01

113

Rapid solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of equine infectious anemia viral antigen and antibodies: parameters involved in standardization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solid-phase radioimmunoassays (SPRIA) are described for the detection of equine infectious anemia (EIA) viral antigen and antibodies. Protein-antigen P29 currently used in the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test was used as antigen in the SPRIA. Rabbit sera selected from positive AGID test data were used to standardize the method. Briefly, wells of flexible microtitre plates coated with antigen were incubated with antiserum followed by a secondary labelled antibody. The radioactivity remaining in the wells after washing provided a measure of the amount of specific antibodies in the serum. When testing a group of rabbit sera, negative for EIA virus antibodies by the AGID test, in the SPRIA a range of positive reactivities was noted. The specificity of the reaction was assessed by inhibition with the antigen. The reaction of immune serum against EIA-virus antigen adsorbed to the wells, was completely inhibited by the antigen in solution. This property was applied in an indirect competitive SPRIA for the detection of viral protein P29. The detection threshold of the SPRIA for EIA virus protein was about 5 ng and about 1 ng of antibody can be detected. The assay is rapid, specific and sensitive and allows the testing of multiple serum samples with the advantage of employing a single secondary labelled antibody.

Horenstein AL; Feinstein RE

1985-10-01

114

Transmission of equine infectious anemia virus from horses without clinical signs of disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty seven adult horses positive to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for equine infectious anemia (EIA), but with no history of clinical EIA, were used in transfusion studies to determine whether infectious EIA virus was present in 1 to 5 ml of their blood. Of 27 recipients, 21 (78%) became AGID test-positive at an average of 24 days after inoculation. Two horses that were initially negative when screened were retested and found to carry infectious virus in 5-300 ml of whole blood; the other 4 horses were not retested. Horse flies (Tabanus fuscicostatus Hine) were unable to transmit EIA virus from 10 AGID test-positive donors with no history of clinical EIA, but virus was transmitted from a pony with artificially induced acute EIA and from a horse that had recovered from a clinical attack of EIA 9 months earlier. Histopathologic changes indicative of EIA were noted in all test-positive recipients. The most consistent lesion was paracortical lymphoid hyperplasia in the splenic lymph node.

Issel CJ; Adams WV Jr; Meek L; Ochoa R

1982-02-01

115

Cross reaction of recombinant equine infectious anemia virus antigen to heterologous strains and application for serological survey among horses in the field.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cross reactivity of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) antigen prepared using a recombinant baculovirus containing the p26 gene of strain P337-V70 was examined by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum samples serially collected from 13 horses experimentally infected with six different EIAV strains (two or three horses per strain) were subjected to the test. Positive reactions were observed in the AGID test and ELISA before or soon after the first feverish period and continued persistently in most of the horses. The results with recombinant antigens were essentially the same as those with the virion antigen prepared from horse cell cultures both in the AGID test and ELISA. The reactivities of the antigens were further compared using serum samples collected from horses in 1999 in certain districts of Mongolia where equine infectious anemia has been prevalent, and from horses in Japan in 1973 when EIA had not been eliminated completely from Japanese horses. These results were completely concurrent. Generally, recombinant antigens have high specificity but low cross reactivity to heterologous strains. However, the present study showed that the recombinant EIAV p26 antigen has cross reactivity to the heterologous strain and is useful for diagnosis of EIA in the field.

Sentsui H; Inoshima Y; Murakami K; Akashi H; Purevtseren B; Pagmajav O; Sugiura T

2001-01-01

116

STERILISED SUCRALFATE GEL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to an autoclave-sterilized gel comprising sucralfate and at least 15% by weight of a humectant, relative to the total weight of gel, and having a pH of greater than or equal to 6, more particularly for use in a skin healing treatment by topical application.

CHESNOY SOPHIE; DELAUNOIS MARLENE; ROUGE SANDRINE

117

STERILIZED SUCRALFATE GEL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to an autoclave-sterilized gel comprising sucralfate and at least 15% by weight of a humectant, relative to the total weight of gel, and having a pH of greater than or equal to 6, more particularly for use in a skin healing treatment by topical application.

CHESNOY SOPHIE; DELAUNOIS MARLENE; ROUGE SANDRINE

118

The feasibility of using antigens prepared with rough Brucella strains for diagnosis of canine brucellosis Utilidad de los antígenos preparados con cepas rugosas de Brucella en el diagnóstico de brucelosis canina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clinical diagnosis of canine brucellosis is not sensitive enough and a negative blood culture cannot rule out the disease. Indirect methods of serological testing such as agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) and indirect enzyme linked immunoassay (IELISA) are preferred for routine diagnosis. Since Brucella canis shares antigenic components with the Brucella ovis and Brucella abortus RB51 strain, it would seem that either strain could be used as antigen. We present data on AGID and IELISA tests using the B. ovis antigen, RSAT and IELISA using the B. canis antigen and IELISA using the B. abortus RB51 antigen. The cut-off values were adjusted by the ROC analysis; the IELISA-B. ovis cut-off value was 23 (%P) and the IELISA-B. abortus RB51, 24 (%P), with 100% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity. RSAT detected 100% of positive cases, while AGID was less sensitive. The sera from dogs treated with antibiotic showed that %P correlated well with the clinical course. Sera from dogs presumptively infected with B. suis were negative in all tests performed with the rough Brucella strains. RSAT is a very sensitive screening test and IELISA-B. canis, B. ovis and B. abortus RB51 could be used as confirmatory tests, since they show good specificity and sensitivity.Las técnicas más usadas en el diagnóstico de brucelosis canina son la inmunodifusión en gel de agar (AGID), la microaglutinación en portaobjetos (RSAT) y el ELISA indirecto ya que el diagnóstico clínico es poco sensible y el bacteriológico no excluye la enfermedad. Como Brucella canis comparte componentes antigénicos con Brucella ovis y Brucella abortus RB51, estas cepas podrían ser usadas indistintamente como antígenos. En este trabajo presentamos datos sobre las pruebas de AGID e IELISA con antígeno B. ovis, RSAT e IELISA con antígeno B. canis e IELISA con antígeno B. abortus RB51. Los puntos de corte ajustados con la curva ROC fueron (%P) 23 para IELISA-B. ovis y (%P) 24 para IELISA-RB51 con 100% de sensibilidad y 98,8% de especificidad. RSAT detectó el 100% de los casos positivos, pero AGID fue menos sensible. Los sueros de los perros tratados con antibióticos tuvieron un %P que correlacionó con la evolución clínica. Los perros presumiblemente infectados con B. suis fueron negativos a todos los ensayos realizados con antígenos de cepas de Brucella rugosas. RSAT es muy sensible como prueba tamiz y los IELISA con antígenos de B. canis, B. ovis y B. abortus RB51 podrían ser usados como confirmatorios ya que han demostrado alta sensibilidad y especificidad.

G. I. Escobar; E. J. Boeri; S. M. Ayala; N. E. Lucero

2010-01-01

119

Swollen polymers and gels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter deals with the NMR observation of dynamic fluctuations which occur in polymeric systems observed above or near the glass transition temperature, with emphasis on the restriction brought about over local micro-dynamics by the gelation process: principles of NMR approaches (longitudinal, transverse magnetic relaxation, pseudo-solid spin-echoes); concentrated polymer solutions (segmental motions, solvent diffusion, evidence for a temporary gel-like behaviour, mechanisms near the glass transition); free chains in polymeric gels (dynamical contrast, nature of systems, nature of the spin-system responses, property of superposition, polymeric gel-free volume). 5 fig., 31 ref.

Cohen-Addad, J.P. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)

1994-12-31

120

Swollen polymers and gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter deals with the NMR observation of dynamic fluctuations which occur in polymeric systems observed above or near the glass transition temperature, with emphasis on the restriction brought about over local micro-dynamics by the gelation process: principles of NMR approaches (longitudinal, transverse magnetic relaxation, pseudo-solid spin-echoes); concentrated polymer solutions (segmental motions, solvent diffusion, evidence for a temporary gel-like behaviour, mechanisms near the glass transition); free chains in polymeric gels (dynamical contrast, nature of systems, nature of the spin-system responses, property of superposition, polymeric gel-free volume). 5 fig., 31 ref

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Fracture energy of gels  

CERN Multimedia

To clarify effects of crack speed and cross-link density on fracture energy of acrylamide gels, we evaluated the roughness of the fracture surface and measured the fracture energy taking into account the roughness. The fracture energy increases linearly with crack speed $V$ in a fast crack speed region, and the increasing rate of fracture energy with $V$ decreases with increasing cross link density in the gels. In a slow crack speed region the fracture energy depends on crack speed more strongly than in the fast crack speed region. This indicates that a qualitative change exists in fracture process of the gels.

Tanaka, Y; Miyamoto, Y; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Fukao, Koji; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

2000-01-01

122

[The dynamics of antibodies with IgD-class cardiolipin and treponemal group specificity in syphilis assessed quantitatively by radial immunodiffusion  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

150 sera (positive at the VDRL, ELISA-Reiter, FTA-ABS tests) were tested by IDRS for the IgD quantification in syphilis. They were collected from men, 25-45 years old, in different stages of the disease, treated or not. The reference normal values for the seric IgD were established on 154 sera taken from men, 25-45 years old, apparently healthy: 0-131.2 UI/ml, with an average of 29.92 +/- 29.61 UI/ml. The IgD values with cardiolipin or group treponemal specificity were obtained from the difference between the values of the immunodiffusion diameters produced by sera, before and after the complete absorbtion with VDRL antigen or delipidated treponemal suspension. The individual values for each serum, mean +/- SD, and the percent values against the total IgD, for each stage of the disease were calculated. The medium levels of the total IgD range within normal limits, except for epsilon 2, where they are considerably higher than normal (52.53 +/- 26.66 UI/ml). All the individual minimal values, between 7.09 and 14.89 UI/ml, are higher than the normal minimal values, under 3.54 UI/ml. Treponemal IgD are present in all the sera in all stages of the disease and the cardiolipin IgD are completely absent. The mean values of the treponemal IgD are about 7-9 UI/ml, with a maximum of 19.3 UI/ml in epsilon 2. A higher percent of treponemal IgD is found, around 30%, with a maximum of 36.7% in epsilon 2. The high percent of the treponemal IgD in epsilon latent and epsilon treated persistent positive shows a continuous activation of the circulating B lymphocytes by the treponemal antigens and therefore an active infectious process. The exclusive presence of the treponemal IgD in all the cases of syphilis, irrespective of the evolution stages, indicated the extremely specific diagnosis value of their detection.

Ionescu DA; Petrovici M; Ionescu-Dorohoi T

1989-04-01

123

Mechanically induced gel formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mechanical triggering of gelation of an organic solution by a carbazole-based bisurea organogelator is described. Both the duration of the mechanical stimulation and the gelator concentration control the gelation process and the characteristics of the gel obtained.

van Herpt JT; Stuart MC; Browne WR; Feringa BL

2013-07-01

124

GEL FOR ORAL CAVITY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gel for the oral cavity contains sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, glycerol, menthol, xylite, the stain, the crystalline maltose, sodium citrate, the extract of the plantain, chlorohexidine 0.05%, and the water.

TERESHYNA TETIANA PETRIVNA; MOZHOVA NATALIIA VITALIIVNA

125

Preparation of chitosan gel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

Moussaoui Y.; Mnasri N.; Elaloui E.; Ben Salem R.; Lagerge S.; de Menorval L. C.

2012-01-01

126

Polymer gel dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. (topical review)

2010-03-07

127

Validation of egg yolk antibody testing as a method to determine influenza status in white leghorn hens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Determination of the avian influenza (AI) status of a flock has traditionally been done by detection of serum antibodies. However, for many diseases, detection of antibodies in egg yolk has been effective in monitoring the disease status of laying flocks. This study compared the utility of egg yolk vs. serum for determining AI status in laying hen flocks. Specific-pathogen-free white leghorn hens were inoculated via the respiratory tract with a low-pathogenic H7N2 AI virus or sterile allantoic fluid or subcutaneously with an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine produced from the same AI virus or normal allantoic fluid. Antibody levels were determined by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-influenza antibodies were detected in sera of all live virus-inoculated hens by day 7 postinoculation (PI) (AGID and ELISA tests), but detection of antibodies in egg yolk was delayed by a few days, with all being positive by day 14 PI. Sera from all vaccinated hens were positive by day 14 PI (AGID and ELISA tests), and egg yolk was positive by day 18 PI. The HI test was less sensitive than the ELISA and AGID tests in detecting anti-influenza antibodies in both sera and yolk. Serum and yolk from all control birds remained negative throughout the study. These studies show that currently used serologic tests can detect antibodies in serum and yolk samples from hens exposed to live AI virus or from those that have been vaccinated. Antibody is detected earlier in the serum than in the yolk and antibody is detected earlier from birds exposed to a live infection compared to birds vaccinated with an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine.

Beck JR; Swayne DE; Davison S; Casavant S; Gutierrez C

2003-01-01

128

Comparison of serological tests for detection of antibodies to infectious laryngotracheitis virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four serological tests i.e. ELISA, serum neutralisation (SN), fluorescent antibody (FA), and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) were compared for sensitivity using several criteria, for detection and titration of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus antibodies in chicken sera. In the ELISA test, sera were tested in parallel on virus positive and negative control antigens with results expressed as positive-negative difference. Non-specific binding was not a problem in this test. SN tests were performed in microtitre plates using chick embryo liver cells, while sera for FA tests were titrated on multispot slides on which were fixed ILT virus-infected chick embryo liver cell cultures. The AGID test was the standard test still widely used for serological diagnosis of ILT. The four tests were compared using (1) sera from experimentally inoculated birds bled regularly at intervals from 4 to 35 days post-inoculation, (2) convalescent sera from a natural outbreak of ILT, and (3) serial dilutions of an ILT positive serum. In all experiments the ELISA test was of slightly greater sensitivity than SN and was comparable to the FA test. In the experimentally infected birds ELISA and FA test detected sero-conversion in more birds at 7 days than SN. In tests with the serially diluted hyperimmune ILT serum, ELISA, FA and SN tests were comparable. SN however was the most useful test for quantification of ILT antibodies. ILT-SN titres in birds were never high, the highest titre recorded in experimental birds and in convalescent sera was 1/48. AGID was found to be less sensitive than ELISA, FA or SN test but was considered useful for detection of antibodies on a flock basis, since, with the convalescent sera AGID detected a significant proportion of positives.

Adair BM; Todd D; McKillop ER; Burns K

1985-10-01

129

Comparison of serological tests for detection of antibodies to infectious laryngotracheitis virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four serological tests i.e. ELISA, serum neutralisation (SN), fluorescent antibody (FA), and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) were compared for sensitivity using several criteria, for detection and titration of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus antibodies in chicken sera. In the ELISA test, sera were tested in parallel on virus positive and negative control antigens with results expressed as positive-negative difference. Non-specific binding was not a problem in this test. SN tests were performed in microtitre plates using chick embryo liver cells, while sera for FA tests were titrated on multispot slides on which were fixed ILT virus-infected chick embryo liver cell cultures. The AGID test was the standard test still widely used for serological diagnosis of ILT. The four tests were compared using (1) sera from experimentally inoculated birds bled regularly at intervals from 4 to 35 days post-inoculation, (2) convalescent sera from a natural outbreak of ILT, and (3) serial dilutions of an ILT positive serum. In all experiments the ELISA test was of slightly greater sensitivity than SN and was comparable to the FA test. In the experimentally infected birds ELISA and FA test detected sero-conversion in more birds at 7 days than SN. In tests with the serially diluted hyperimmune ILT serum, ELISA, FA and SN tests were comparable. SN however was the most useful test for quantification of ILT antibodies. ILT-SN titres in birds were never high, the highest titre recorded in experimental birds and in convalescent sera was 1/48. AGID was found to be less sensitive than ELISA, FA or SN test but was considered useful for detection of antibodies on a flock basis, since, with the convalescent sera AGID detected a significant proportion of positives. PMID:18766940

Adair, B M; Todd, D; McKillop, E R; Burns, K

1985-10-01

130

Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the chemical robot.

Shingo Maeda; Yusuke Hara; Satoshi Nakamaru; Shuji Hashimoto

2011-01-01

131

Structure of mineral gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements have been performed to investigate the nanoscale structure of materials of the systems xTiO2-(1-x)SiO2 and xZrO2-(1-x)SiO2 with x ? 10 mol % at different processing stages. The materials were prepared by sol-gel using the alkoxides method, in strong acidic conditions. Samples were studied as xerogels heat-treated at 120 and 850 deg. C and as wet gels at gel point and after aging. All samples showed identical microstructure at gel point, extended linear chains ?10 nm long. The aged gel has a mass fractal structure with fractal dimension of 1.7 - 1.9. The 120 deg. C heat-treated xerogels show homogeneous oxide regions with mass fractal structure. For the 850 deg. C heat-treated xerogel the oxide regions average size has reduced and it has densified as compared to 120 deg. C heat-treated sample. (author)

1999-01-01

132

Ass bone gel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides ass bone gel, which is prepared from the following raw materials by weight parts according to a method comprising the following work procedures: a. firstly, carrying out coarse crushing on ass bone with cleaned surfaces, then, placing the ass bone into a container, adding water into the container for high-pressure steaming boiling or water decocting boiling, filtering obtained materials, concentrating filter liquor to obtain ass bone gel concentration liquor and b. adding yellow wine, rock candy and bean oil into the ass bone gel liquor of the work procedure a according to a mixture ratio of ass bone gel concentration liquor/yellow wine/rock candy/bean oil=10 to 200/1 to 50/1 to 30, and then, preparing the materials into gel blocks by a conventional method. The invention reduces the environment pollution, provides a novel path for the integrated development and utilization of waste materials, changes waste materials into useful materials, and has the advantages of simple process, low cost and easy operation.

FANGLING DU; WEIRONG JIN; KANG SONG; FENGE ZHANG; QINGJUN ZHU

133

Active Polymer Gel Actuators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of heart muscles. Here we show a novel biomimetic gel actuator that can walk spontaneously with a wormlike motion without switching of external stimuli. The self-oscillating motion is produced by dissipating chemical energy of oscillating reaction. Although the gel is completely composed of synthetic polymer, it shows autonomous motion as if it were alive.

Shingo Maeda; Yusuke Hara; Ryo Yoshida; Shuji Hashimoto

2010-01-01

134

Comparison of four serologic tests for the detection of antibodies to bovine leukemia virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four tests for detection of antibodies to bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were compared. The sera that were tested came from cattle in naturally infected commercial dairy herds, cattle that were infected under experimental conditions, and cattle in an isolated BLV-free herd. The tests that were compared included a radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIA) with p24 antigen, a RIA with glycoprotein (gp) antigen, an agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test with gp antigen, and a virus-neutralization (VN) test that was based on inhibition of BLV-induced syncytia in cell culture. Results of the 4 serologic tests agreed for 96.8% of the sera from cattle in commercial herds. The gp RIA detected the greatest number of positive sera (188); it was followed in turn by the p24 RIA (187), the VN test (183), and the AGID test (176). The gpd RIA titers of the 12 sera that gave negative AGID results were 175 or less. In RIA, the percentage of precipitation of labeled antigen by positive sera was almost always higher with gp antigen than with p24 antigen. Satisfactory sensitivity in the p24 RIA required the acceptance of a low level of antigen precipitation, 15%, as a positive test. In the gp RIA, however, almost all positive sera precipitated at least 50% of the labeled antigen. Nonspecific precipitation of antigen in the RIA by sera from BLV-free cattle ranged from 4% to 10%. Examination of sequential serum samples from 17 experimentally infected cattle showed that BLV antibody was first detected 2 to 8 weeks after inoculation. In 9 cattle, seroconversion was detected simultaneously by all of the tests. Results from the other 8 cattle indicated that seroconversion could be detected first by p24 RIA, followed by the gp RIA and the VN test. The longest interval between RIA seroconversion and AGID seroconversion was 10 days. Monthly tests of sera from 10 laboratory cattle that were infected by contact exposure showed that 7 animals seroconverted in all tests at the same time. Two cattle were positive first in RIA, but the next month they were also positive in the VN and AGID tests. One animal was positive in the RIA and the VN test for 2 months before antibody was detected by AGID.

Miller JM; Schmerr MJ; Van Der Maaten MJ

1981-01-01

135

Vesicular phospholipid gels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Highly concentrated phospholipid dispersions of vesicular morphology, Vesicular phospholipid Gels (VPGs) are of importance for sustained release of drugs upon implantation, or, upon transfer into SUV-dispersions, for drug delivery upon i.v. injection. Here the formation of homogeneous lipid and lipid/drug-blends is described as well as the preparation of VPGs by high-pressure homogenization, along with remote loading via "passive loading".

Brandl M

2010-01-01

136

Aprotic gel polymer electrolytes.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Brno : University of Technology Brno, 2008, s. 71-72. ISBN 978-80-214-3659-6.[International Conference Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /9./. Brno (CZ), 29.06.2008-03.07.2008]Grant CEP: GA ?R(CZ) GA104/06/1471; GA AV ?R(CZ) KJB208130604Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z40320502Klí?ová slova: gel polymer electrolytesKód oboru RIV: CA - Anorganická chemie

Vondrák, Ji?íG; Sedla?íková, M.; Krejza, O.

137

SOROPREVALÊNCIA DA PNEUMONIA PROGRESSIVA OVINA (MAEDI-VISNA) NA REGIÃO DE BOTUCATU – SP PREVALENCE OF SERUM ANTIBODIES TO OVINE PROGRESSIVE PNEUMONIA (MAEDI-VISNA) IN BOTUCATU REGION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo visou determinar a soroprevalência da pneumonia progressiva ovina, na região de Botucatu, mediante prova de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA). Foram avaliadas quatrocentas amostras de soro sanguíneo de ovinos de oito propriedades de corte, com criação em sistema semi-intensivo, de diferentes municípios da região. Nenhuma das amostras de soro foi reagente na prova de IDGA. A análise desses resultados mostra discordância com estudos realizados em outros estados brasileiros, nos quais a prevalência da doença vem aumentando progressivamente.PALAVRAS-CHAVES: IDGA, lentivírus, ovinos. The present study aimed to verify the prevalence of the ovine progressive pneumonia in Botucatu region by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID).  Serum samples of 400 sheep from eight specific farms for meat, with type of semi-intensive breeding of different areas. All the samples tested were negative to Maedi-Visna. The analysis of results was discordant with studies made in others Brazilians states, where the prevalence of the disease comes increasing progressively.KEY WORDS: AGID, lentivirus, sheep.

Eric Pivari Rosa; Rogério Martins Amorim; Danilo Otávio Laurenti Ferreira; Simone Biaggio Chiacchio; José Rafael Modolo

2009-01-01

138

Ocular tolerance of sertaconazole gel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro and in vivo tolerance of sertaconazole gel, a new topical azole antifungal, was studied. Ketoconazole gel (Panfungol) was used as a reference substance. The methods applied for tolerance assessment were the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test for the in vitro assay and a modified Draize test for the in vivo assay. The results obtained show that both substances can be classified as slightly irritant and with acceptable tolerance. However, unlike ketoconazole gel, sertaconazole gel did not cause a positive lesion index in vivo. Ketoconazole was 5.25 times more irritant in vitro than sertaconazole gel, whose effect was similar to that of saline solution. Consequently, the negligible irritant effect of sertaconazole gel on a type of epithelium that is extremely sensitive, i.e. the cornea, confirms the good tolerance of this new antifungal gel on other structures such as the skin and mucous membranes. PMID:8786760

Romero, A; Grau, M T; Villamayor, F; Zapatero, J; Mayordomo, L; Tortajada, A; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A

139

Ocular tolerance of sertaconazole gel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The in vitro and in vivo tolerance of sertaconazole gel, a new topical azole antifungal, was studied. Ketoconazole gel (Panfungol) was used as a reference substance. The methods applied for tolerance assessment were the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test for the in vitro assay and a modified Draize test for the in vivo assay. The results obtained show that both substances can be classified as slightly irritant and with acceptable tolerance. However, unlike ketoconazole gel, sertaconazole gel did not cause a positive lesion index in vivo. Ketoconazole was 5.25 times more irritant in vitro than sertaconazole gel, whose effect was similar to that of saline solution. Consequently, the negligible irritant effect of sertaconazole gel on a type of epithelium that is extremely sensitive, i.e. the cornea, confirms the good tolerance of this new antifungal gel on other structures such as the skin and mucous membranes.

Romero A; Grau MT; Villamayor F; Zapatero J; Mayordomo L; Tortajada A; Sacristán A; Ortiz JA

1996-01-01

140

Prevalência da infecção por lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes em caprinos em Teresina, Piauí/ Prevalence of small ruminants lentiviruses infection in goats from Teresina, Piauí, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The prevalence of anti-lentiviruses antibodies of small ruminants was investigated in goat herds in the city of Teresina, PI, Brazil. A seroepidemiological survey was conducted involving 480 animals, apparently healthy, belonging to six rural properties. The diagnostic test was the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), using antigens produced from cellular cultures infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV Cork). Prevalences by gender and age were estimated cons (more) idering sampling fractions for each farm. A general prevalence of 4.2%, was observerved, being 4.2% for females and 3.6% for males. Prevalences were higher among older goats. Regarding the breed standard, 23.5% were of the Anglo Nubian, 5.9% of the Boer, 35.3% Anglo Nubian x Boer crossbred, and 35.3% of undefined breed. It is concluded that small ruminant lentiviruses are endemic among goat herds of Teresina.

Sampaio Júnior, A.; Batista, M.C.S.; Cruz, M.S.P.; Silva, R.A.B.; Bona Nascimento, C.; Werneck, G.L.

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Prevalência da infecção por lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes em caprinos em Teresina, Piauí Prevalence of small ruminants lentiviruses infection in goats from Teresina, Piauí, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of anti-lentiviruses antibodies of small ruminants was investigated in goat herds in the city of Teresina, PI, Brazil. A seroepidemiological survey was conducted involving 480 animals, apparently healthy, belonging to six rural properties. The diagnostic test was the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), using antigens produced from cellular cultures infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV Cork). Prevalences by gender and age were estimated considering sampling fractions for each farm. A general prevalence of 4.2%, was observerved, being 4.2% for females and 3.6% for males. Prevalences were higher among older goats. Regarding the breed standard, 23.5% were of the Anglo Nubian, 5.9% of the Boer, 35.3% Anglo Nubian x Boer crossbred, and 35.3% of undefined breed. It is concluded that small ruminant lentiviruses are endemic among goat herds of Teresina.

A. Sampaio Júnior; M.C.S. Batista; M.S.P. Cruz; R.A.B. Silva; C. Bona Nascimento; G.L. Werneck

2011-01-01

142

Monoclonal antibody based competitive ELISA for the detection of antibodies against epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A monoclonal antibody based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MC-ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer viruses (EHDV) is described. Test sera were competed with a monoclonal antibody against the VP7 protein of EHDV serotype 1. The assay was capable of detecting antibodies to all serotypes of EHDV but unlike the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, gave no cross-reactions with antibodies against bluetongue, Palyam or Tilligery viruses. The MC-ELISA was more sensitive than a polyclonal based ELISA reported previously (Thevasagayam et al., 1995b) and would be ideal for epidemiological surveys since it is suitable for the examination of antisera from all animal species without the need for individual anti-species enzyme conjugates.

Thevasagayam JA; Woolhouse TR; Mertens PP; Burroughs JN; Anderson J

1996-04-01

143

Rapid solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of equine infectious anemia viral antigen and antibodies: parameters involved in standardization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid-phase radioimmunoassays (SPRIA) are described for the detection of equine infectious anemia (EIA) viral antigen and antibodies. Protein-antigen P29 currently used in the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test was used as antigen in the SPRIA. The specificity of the reaction was assessed by inhibition with the antigen. The reaction of immune serum against EIA-virus antigen adsorbed to the wells, was completely inhibited by the antigen in solution. This property was applied in an indirect competitive SPRIA for the detection of viral protein P29. The detection threshold of the SPRIA for EIA virus protein was about 5 ng and about 1 ng of antibody can be detected. The assay is rapid, specific and sensitive and allows the testing of multiple serum samples with the advantage of employing a single secondary labelled antibody. (orig.)

1985-01-01

144

Hair styling gel foam  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Present invention relates to a hair styling gel foam which boosts exceptionally hair volume. The inventors have surprisingly found out that a composition comprising at least one cationic polymer, at least one silicone oil, at least one thickener and a propellant mixture of alkane and dimethylether in an aqueous or aqueous- alcoholic medium has excellent hair styling and restyling benefits together with excellent volumizing and bodifying effects and also exceptional with the cracking sound heard when foam disappears. The hair feels excellently natural both visually and upon touching and looks excellently shiny.

SULZBACH MELINA; WEICHAUS DIRK; CAJAN CHRISTINE

145

HAIR STYLING GEL FOAM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Present invention relates to a hair styling gel foam which boosts exceptionally hair volume. The inventors have surprisingly found out that a composition comprising at least one cationic polymer, at least one silicone oil, at least one thickener and a propellant mixture of alkane and dimethylether in an aqueous or aqueous- alcoholic medium has excellent hair styling and restyling benefits together with excellent volumizing and bodifying effects and also exceptional with the cracking sound heard when foam disappears. The hair feels excellently natural both visually and upon touching and looks excellently shiny.

SULZBACH MELINA; WEICHAUS DIRK; CAJAN CHRISTINE

146

Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity. PMID:21523903

Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

2011-04-26

147

Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

Tam SK; Dusseault J; Bilodeau S; Langlois G; Hallé JP; Yahia L

2011-07-01

148

Foam and gel decontamination techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site is investigating decontamination technology to improve current decontamination techniques, and thereby reduce radiation exposure to plant personnel, reduce uptake of radioactive material, and improve safety during decontamination and decommissioning activities. When decontamination chemicals are applied as foam and gels, the contact time and cleaning ability of the chemical increases. Foam and gel applicators apply foam or gel that adheres to the surface being decontaminated for periods ranging from fifteen minutes (foam) to infinite contact (gel). This equipment was started up in a cold environment. The desired foam and gel consistency was achieved, operators were trained in its proper maintenance and operation, and the foam and gel were applied to walls, ceilings, and hard to reach surfaces. 17 figs.

McGlynn, J.F.; Rankin, W.N.

1989-01-01

149

Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

Adolf, Douglas B. (Albuquerque, NM); Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Segalman, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Witkowski, Walter R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

150

Vanadium pentoxide gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on cryogenic transmission electron Microscopy (cry-TEM) and rheological characterization conducted in order to understand structural development of vanadium pentoxide gels during processing. Sols were prepared by ion exchange from sodium metavanadate solutions. Cryo-TEM revealed that fine threads about 1.5nm wide initially form and grow into ribbons approximately 25nm wide and at least 1000nm long. The threads appear to self assembly into the ribbons. During this structural development, the dynamic viscosity increased. Upon steady shearing of the sols, the system exhibited thixotropy, i.e. the viscosity decreased with time under constant shear stress and subsequently rheopexy, the viscosity increased with time. Comparison of the structure before and after shearing indicated that during the rheological experiments aggregation of small particles or fragments was occurring

1990-01-01

151

Transparent sun protection gel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to transparent sunscreen gels comprising (a) silicone oil (b) polyoxyalkylene-organpolysiloxanes of the general formula (I) where R is an alkyl radical or a hydrogen radical, n=10 to 200, m=1 to 25 and o=1 to 100 with the proviso that, in the average molecule, o> /=m and 3o< n, p=7 to 17, and the molar mass of the residue (C2H4O-)x-(C3H6O-)yR is from about 250 to about 2000, where x and y are chosen such that the weight ratio of oxyethylene groups to oxypropylene groups is from 100:0 to about 20:80, (c) water, (d) a component chosen from alcohols and/or polyols and (e) at least one UV absorber soluble in the aqueous or in the oily phase.

Bungard Andrea Dr.; Jenni Klaus Dr.; Leidreiter Holger Dr.; Walter Alfred

152

Transparent sunscreen gels  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to transparent sunscreen gels comprising (a) silicone oil (b) polyoxyalkylene-organpolysiloxanes of the general formula (I) where R is an alkyl radical or a hydrogen radical, n=10 to 200, m=1 to 25 and o=1 to 100 with the proviso that, in the average molecule, o> /=m and 3o< n, p=7 to 17, and the molar mass of the residue (C2H4O-)x-(C3H6O-)yR is from about 250 to about 2000, where x and y are chosen such that the weight ratio of oxyethylene groups to oxypropylene groups is from 100:0 to about 20:80, (c) water, (d) a component chosen from alcohols and/or polyols and (e) at least one UV absorber soluble in the aqueous or in the oily phase.

BUNGARD ANDREA; JENNI KLAUS; LEIDREITER HOLGER; WALTER ALFRED

153

Gel-based and gel-free proteomic technologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proteomics refers to the analysis of expression, localization, functions, posttranslational modifications, and interactions of proteins expressed by a genome at a specific condition and at a specific time. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methods have emerged as a key technology for unbiased systematic and high-throughput identification and quantification of complex protein mixtures. These methods have the potential to reveal unknown and novel changes in protein interactions and assemblies that regulate cellular and physiological processes. Both gel-based (one-dimensional [1D] gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional [2D] polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2D difference in-gel electrophoresis [DIGE]) and gel-free (liquid chromatography [LC], capillary electrophoresis) approaches have been developed and utilized in a variety of combinations to separate proteins prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Detailed protocols for global proteomic analysis from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) using two central strategies, 2D-DIGE-MS and 2D-LC-MS, are presented here.

Scherp P; Ku G; Coleman L; Kheterpal I

2011-01-01

154

A new agarose gel model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new agarose gel model is introduced, which corresponds to what the authors believe agarose gels look like microscopically. While the scientific literature is filled with studies of the microscopic structure of agarose, the fact remains that there is no unambiguous and exact model of its underlying structure. Given this, the authors are left to construct their own model numerically.

Hasenfeld, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Cell Biology; Pepke, E.; Lim, H.A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Supercomputer Computations Research Inst.; Cantor, C.R. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Center for Advanced Biotechnology

1993-12-31

155

Pecan drying with silica gel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High moisture in-shell pecans were dried by keeping them in direct and indirect contact with silica gel to investigate their drying characteristics. In-shell pecans were also dried with ambient air from a controlled environment chamber and with air dehumidified by silica gel. Direct contact and dehumidified air drying seemed feasible approaches.

Ghate, S.R.; Chhinnan, M.S.

1983-07-01

156

Multicompartment polymersome gel for encapsulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce an approach that combines the concepts of emulsion-templating and dewetting for fabricating polymersomes with a large number of compartments. The resultant polymersome gel behaves as a gel-like solid, but is a true vesicle suspended in an aqueous environment. Due to the thin membranes t...

Shum, HC; Weitz, DA

157

Electrochemical Light-Emitting Gel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Light-emitting gel, a gel state electroluminescence material, is reported. It is composed of a ruthenium complex as the emitter, an ionic liquid as the electrolyte, and oxide nanoparticles as the gelation filler. Emitted light was produced via electrogenerated chemiluminescence. The light-emitting g...

Nobuyuki Itoh

158

Electrochemical Light-Emitting Gel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Light-emitting gel, a gel state electroluminescence material, is reported. It is composed of a ruthenium complex as the emitter, an ionic liquid as the electrolyte, and oxide nanoparticles as the gelation filler. Emitted light was produced via electrogenerated chemiluminescence. The light-emitting gel operated at low voltage when an alternating current was passed through it, regardless of its structure, which is quite thick. The luminescence property of the gel is strongly affected by nanoparticle materials. TiO2 nanoparticles were a better gelation filler than silica or ZnO was, with respect to luminescence stability, thus indicating a catalytic effect. It is demonstrated that the light-emitting gel device, with quite a simple fabrication process, flashes with the application of voltage.

Nobuyuki Itoh

2010-01-01

159

Silicone gel including antimicrobial agent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Silicone gel sheets containing Ofloxacin (OFLX), that provide a continual drug delivery system from a wound dressing to the wound so as to prevent infection and to promote healing, are described. It was found that silicone gel sheets without added medication did not inhibit microbial growth but that gel sheets containing 0.02% and 0.2% of OFLX had a positive antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a dose-dependent fashion in vitro. Further, this antimicrobial efficacy was greatly increased in a silicone gel sheet that contained 0.02% of OFLX and an additional 10% of silicone oil. In animal experiments, a silicone gel sheet containing OFLX prevented microbiol growth and promoted rapid epithelialisation in wounds to which Staphylococcus aureus had been applied, whereas wounds covered only with OpSite all resulted in continued infection.

Sawada Y; Suzuki T; Hatayama I; Sone K

1990-01-01

160

Silicone gel including antimicrobial agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicone gel sheets containing Ofloxacin (OFLX), that provide a continual drug delivery system from a wound dressing to the wound so as to prevent infection and to promote healing, are described. It was found that silicone gel sheets without added medication did not inhibit microbial growth but that gel sheets containing 0.02% and 0.2% of OFLX had a positive antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a dose-dependent fashion in vitro. Further, this antimicrobial efficacy was greatly increased in a silicone gel sheet that contained 0.02% of OFLX and an additional 10% of silicone oil. In animal experiments, a silicone gel sheet containing OFLX prevented microbiol growth and promoted rapid epithelialisation in wounds to which Staphylococcus aureus had been applied, whereas wounds covered only with OpSite all resulted in continued infection. PMID:2107010

Sawada, Y; Suzuki, T; Hatayama, I; Sone, K

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Sonication-triggered instantaneous gel-to-gel transformation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new peptide-based isomers containing cholesterol and naphthalic groups have been designed and synthesized. We found that the position of L-alanine in the linker could tune the gelation properties and morphologies. The molecule with the L-alanine residue positioned in the middle of the linker (1b) shows better gelation behavior than that with L-alanine directly linked to the naphthalimido moiety (1a). As a result, a highly thermostable organogel of 1b with a unique core-shell structure was obtained at high temperature and pressure in acetonitrile. Moreover, the gels of 1a and 1b could undergo an instantaneous gel-to-gel transition triggered by sonication. Ultrasound could break the core-shell microsphere of 1b and the micelle structure of 1a into entangled fibers. By studying the mechanism of the sonication-triggered gel-to-gel transition process of these compounds, it can be concluded that ultrasound has a variety of effects on the morphology, such as cutting, knitting, unfolding, homogenizing, and even cross-linking. Typically, ultrasound can cleave and homogenize pi-stacking and hydrophobic interactions among the gel molecules and then reshape the morphologies to form a new gel. This mechanism of morphology transformation triggered by sonication might be attractive in the field of material storage and controlled release.

Yu X; Liu Q; Wu J; Zhang M; Cao X; Zhang S; Wang Q; Chen L; Yi T

2010-08-01

162

AndroGel® (testosterone gel) 1% CIII NDA 21-015 Pediatric ...  

Science.gov (United States)

Text VersionPage 1. AndroGel® (testosterone gel) 1% CIII NDA 21-015 ... Pediatric Advisory Committee AndroGel® (testosterone gel) 1% CIII NDA 21-015 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

163

Serological estimation of prey-protein gut-residence time and quantification of meal size for grass shrimp consuming meiofaunal copepods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of experiments using serological reagents was conducted to examine predation, ingestion and digestion in a model predator-prey system. The harpacticoid copepod Amphiascoides atopus, obtained from mass culture, was used as prey and the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, as predator. Bulk-gut passage time in P. pugio was measured by visualization of latex beads and ranged from 0.5 to 4 h in starved and continuously-fed grass shrimp. A polyclonal antibody was prepared from crude extracts of A. atopus; cross reactions with P. pugio and three other crustaceans were either negligible or not detected using slide agar-gel-double-immunodiffusion (AGID) and Western blot preparations. The presence of A. atopus antigens was detected with great sensitivity (e.g., seven copepods, 35 µg dry weight, gave positive results) in grass shrimp gut contents even when proteins of other crustacean prey were present. Prey-proteins could be detected for as long as 4 h with AGID and 8 h with Western blot techniques. Individual grass shrimp that were fed A. atopus and consumed from 0 to 98 copepods h(-1) were subjected to Western-blot preparation with chemiluminescence detection and densitometric evaluation. There was a significant curvilinear relationship between protein content and the number of copepod prey ingested. Results suggest that serological techniques can be modified to estimate the mass or abundance of standard-sized prey ingested by field-collected predators.

Hoyt M; Fleeger JW; Siebeling R; Feller RJ

2000-05-01

164

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis confirmed following serological surveillance of small ruminants in Grenada, West Indies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveillance for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection in small ruminants of Grenada was undertaken using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 479 sheep tested, 11 (2.3%) were ELISA positive while only 1 out of 260 goats (0.3%) was ELISA positive. Five of the 12 ELISA-positive animals were also positive in a commercial agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay, and 4 of these showed acid-fast rods consistent with Map in fecal smears. Two sheep that were test-positive by ELISA, AGID, and fecal smears were euthanized and necropsied. Both had gross and histological lesions of paratuberculosis affecting the ileocecal area of small intestines and adjacent lymph nodes. These tissues were successfully cultured in 2 of 3 variants of Middlebrook 7H10 medium. The identity of acid-fast organisms isolated from the tissues was confirmed as Map by multiplex conventional polymerase chain reaction. Using IS1311 amplification and Hinf I restriction digest analysis, isolates were identified as cattle (C) strains of Map. The current study describes Map infection in Grenada and confirms the presence of C type in sheep on the island of Carriacou. The low seroprevalence in clinically normal animals on the islands of Grenada and Carriacou suggests that control measures implemented in the near future may have a good chance of preventing spread of the infection. PMID:23780930

Kumthekar, Sachin; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Ghosh, Pallab; Tiwari, Keshaw; Sharma, Ravindra N; Hariharan, Harry

2013-06-18

165

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis confirmed following serological surveillance of small ruminants in Grenada, West Indies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surveillance for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection in small ruminants of Grenada was undertaken using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 479 sheep tested, 11 (2.3%) were ELISA positive while only 1 out of 260 goats (0.3%) was ELISA positive. Five of the 12 ELISA-positive animals were also positive in a commercial agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay, and 4 of these showed acid-fast rods consistent with Map in fecal smears. Two sheep that were test-positive by ELISA, AGID, and fecal smears were euthanized and necropsied. Both had gross and histological lesions of paratuberculosis affecting the ileocecal area of small intestines and adjacent lymph nodes. These tissues were successfully cultured in 2 of 3 variants of Middlebrook 7H10 medium. The identity of acid-fast organisms isolated from the tissues was confirmed as Map by multiplex conventional polymerase chain reaction. Using IS1311 amplification and Hinf I restriction digest analysis, isolates were identified as cattle (C) strains of Map. The current study describes Map infection in Grenada and confirms the presence of C type in sheep on the island of Carriacou. The low seroprevalence in clinically normal animals on the islands of Grenada and Carriacou suggests that control measures implemented in the near future may have a good chance of preventing spread of the infection.

Kumthekar S; Manning EJ; Ghosh P; Tiwari K; Sharma RN; Hariharan H

2013-07-01

166

Experimental infection of calves with an apparently specific goat-pathogenic strain of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four calves and four goat kids were inoculated perorally with a Norwegian goat-pathogenic strain of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. None of the calves developed clinical disease, pathological lesions or humoral antibody response, but the organism was reisolated from the small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes when the calves were slaughtered after 7, 12, 14 and 18 months, respectively. As one of the goats died of non-specific causes and one did not become infected, two remained as positive controls. One of these became subclinically and one clinically infected, but both showed distinct histopathological lesions at necropsy. Both were shown to be positive in the complement fixation test (CFT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) but only the clinically affected goat proved positive in the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The AGID test was found to be of low diagnostic value, and the ELISA was as sensitive as the CFT in detecting infection at an early stage. However, when infection was finally established, the ELISA titres became far higher than the CFT titres. The results confirm previous experience in Norway, that the current Norwegian strain of M. paratuberculosis has little or no pathogenicity for cattle.

Saxegaard F

1990-02-01

167

Clinical resolution of Brucella canis-induced ocular inflammation in a dog.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 2-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was referred with an 8-month history of recurrent bilateral anterior uveitis and hyphema secondary to infection with Brucella canis. Treatment with doxycycline PO and atropine and prednisone acetate topically prior to referral had failed to resolve the ocular inflammation. Successful control of ocular inflammation was achieved after initiation of treatment with gentamicin SC and ciprofloxacin and doxycycline PO. The finite indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) titer was reduced by half, and results of an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test became negative after rifampin was added to the treatment protocol. Treatment with gentamicin was eventually discontinued because of evidence of renal toxicosis and cutaneous reactions to repeated injections. Thirty-five months after initial examination of the dog, results of the AGID test were still negative, the finite IFA titer was stable, and ocular inflammation had resolved, suggesting that the ocular infection may have been eliminated. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of the successful treatment of ocular inflammation caused by B canis infection in a dog.

Vinayak A; Greene CE; Moore PA; Powell-Johnson G

2004-06-01

168

The use of antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants in ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rinderpest had been reported in most parts of Ethiopia when the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC) was launched. As a result of intensive disease investigation and strategic vaccination, most parts of the country are now considered provisionally free, and widespread vaccination has been replaced by clinical and serological surveillance. Details of any episodes of disease are recorded and followed up after laboratory confirmation of suspected cass using antigen-capture ELISA. This paper is based on observations on the performance of the antigen detection ELISA compared to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, which also differentiates rinderpest from peste des petits ruminants (PPR). The stability of the specific viral antigen was monitored for 4 days, and rinderpest and PPR antigens were still detected, depending on the type of specimen. Antigen capture ELISA is more rapid, sensitive and virus specific than the AGID. Even if the cold chain of the specimen is compromised for a day or two during sample collection and submission, the specimen may still be suitable for testing by ELISA.

Abraham G; Berhan A

2001-10-01

169

Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases.

Daltabuit Test M; de la Concha-Bermejillo A; Espinosa LE; Loza Rubio E; Aguilar Setién A

1999-07-01

170

Antibodies against certain bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viral serotypes in Indonesian ruminants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The orbiviruses contain several important viruses of livestock including bluetongue (BT) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer (EHD) which share some group antigens. Preliminary screening of sera for antibodies to orbiviruses by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test has previously revealed widespread infections with the BT group in Indonesia. However serum neutralization (SN) tests give a more accurate estimate of exposure to each serotype in the BT and EHD groups, and in this study were applied to sera that had reacted previously in the AGID test. Five different serotypes of BT and one serotype of EHD virus were studied. Reactors to BT serotype 20 were the most prevalent, followed by EHD type 5 and BT types 21, 12, 1 and 17. Antibodies against BT serotype 20 were present in cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep, but were most common in buffaloes. Buffaloes showed the highest exposure to the BT serotypes tested. Antibody to EHD type 5 occurred most frequently in cattle. Antibodies against all BT and EHD serotypes tested were found in buffaloes and cattle while goats had antibodies against BT types 20, 21 and EHD type 5 and sheep had antibodies only against BT type 20.

Sendow I; Daniels PW; Cybinski DH; Young PL; Ronohardjo P

1991-06-01

171

Immunochromatographic lateral flow test for detection of antibodies to Equine infectious anemia virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a simple immunochromatographic lateral flow (ICLF) test for specific detection of Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) antibodies in equine sera. Viral recombinant p26 capsid protein (rp26) was used as the capture protein in the test line and as the detector reagent conjugated to colloidal gold. The performance of rp26-ICLF was evaluated, and the results obtained were compared with a commercially available agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test used as a standard of comparison according to international guidelines. The values obtained for comparative diagnostic sensitivity (98.3%), diagnostic specificity (87.4%) and concordance (92.4%) were similar to those reported for other ICLF tests for animal infectious diseases. Very good repeatability and reproducibility, as well as a total agreement with blind previous results from three proficiency test panels, were obtained, thus indicating that rp26-ICLF is a precise test. The end point of the twofold serial dilution of serum samples was the same as, and even better than, the AGID test, thus demonstrating the same analytical sensitivity as that of the reference method for EIA diagnosis. No cross-reactivity was observed when serum samples from horses with other infectious diseases were analyzed. rp26-ICLF proved to be a precise and rapid test suitable for field screening in veterinary practice, since minimal equipment and operator expertise are required. However, further research should be carried out to increase the level of sensitivity.

Alvarez I; Gutierrez G; Barrandeguy M; Trono K

2010-08-01

172

Prevalence of maedi-visna infection in culled ewes in Alberta.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maedi-visna (MV) is a relatively common chronic infection of sheep in North America resulting in economic loss to the sheep industry. The objectives of this study were to: 1) measure the prevalence of MV infection in culled ewes in Alberta, by histologic examination (lungs and udder) and serologic testing using an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, 2) examine any geographic differences in its prevalence in the province, 3) evaluate the level of agreement between histopathologic examination and serologic testing, 4) grade the lesions and correlate the serologic results with the presence of severe histological lesions, and 5) correlate the presence of histological lesions in the lungs and udder in the same animal. Based on histologic findings, the prevalence of MV was 26.8%, compared with 13.0% using serologic testing. There were no significant geographical differences in prevalence, fair agreement (kappa = 42.0%) between histopathologic and serologic results, and poor agreement (kappa = 11.5%) between the presence of lung and udder histological lesions within the same animal. This study indicates that MV is relatively common in culled ewes in Alberta, with no significant geographic variation. The poor sensitivity of the AGID test, compared with histologic examination, should be taken into consideration when interpreting serologic results.

Fournier D; Campbell JR; Middleton DM

2006-05-01

173

Serologic survey of brucellosis in captive neotropical wild carnivores in northeast Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract. This study reports the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus and B. canis in wild neotropical carnivores kept in captivity in three zoos in northeastern Brazil. A total of 42 serum samples were examined, 17 from coatis (Nasua nasua), eight from crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), three from crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three from hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), two from little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), five from tayras (Eira barbara), two from greater grisons (Galictis vittata), and two from neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis). The Rose-Bengal test and complement fixation test (CFT) were performed to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies, whereas the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was employed to detect anti-B. canis antibodies. The overall seroprevalence varied by species and by test; in addition, CFT and AGID seemed better able to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. canis, respectively. This is the first study on the presence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in captive carnivores from Brazil, as well as the first report of antibodies to Brucella spp. in coatis, crab-eating raccoons, hoary foxes, little spotted cats, tayras, and greater grisons.

Oliveira-Filho EF; Pinheiro JW; Souza MM; Santana VL; Silva JC; Mota RA; Sá FB

2012-06-01

174

Serologic survey of brucellosis in captive neotropical wild carnivores in northeast Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. This study reports the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus and B. canis in wild neotropical carnivores kept in captivity in three zoos in northeastern Brazil. A total of 42 serum samples were examined, 17 from coatis (Nasua nasua), eight from crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), three from crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three from hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), two from little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), five from tayras (Eira barbara), two from greater grisons (Galictis vittata), and two from neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis). The Rose-Bengal test and complement fixation test (CFT) were performed to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies, whereas the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was employed to detect anti-B. canis antibodies. The overall seroprevalence varied by species and by test; in addition, CFT and AGID seemed better able to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. canis, respectively. This is the first study on the presence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in captive carnivores from Brazil, as well as the first report of antibodies to Brucella spp. in coatis, crab-eating raccoons, hoary foxes, little spotted cats, tayras, and greater grisons. PMID:22779245

Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Pinheiro, José W Junior; Souza, Marcília M A; Santana, Vânia L A; Silva, Jean C R; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sá, Fabricio B

2012-06-01

175

Toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis and brucellosis in stray dogs housed at the shelter in Umuarama municipality, Parana, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are diseases with worldwide distribution. Among stray dogs, these zoonoses are facilitated by direct contact with other animal species, by the habit of scavenging garbage and hunting in search of food, drinking standing water, smelling other animals' urine, licking female genitalia and the sexual act itself. METHODS: The objective of this study was to detect antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella canis and anti-Brucella abortus in stray dogs housed in shelters at Umuarama city, Parana, Brazil. In order to detect toxoplasmosis, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed, agglutination microscopic (MAT) test for leptospirosis and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and buffered acidified antigen (BAA) tests for brucellosis. RESULTS: Of the 175 serum samples analyzed, 70.85% were considered positive for toxoplasmosis by IFA, 20% by MAT for leptospirosis and 2.85% by AGID for Brucella canis. CONCLUSIONS: The serological results of this study showed that stray dogs housed at the private shelter are potential carriers of these three different zoonoses and contribute to the spread and maintenance of these etiologic agents in the urban area of Umuarama (PR), Brazil.

de Paula Dreer MK; Gonçalves DD; da Silva Caetano IC; Gerônimo E; Menegas PH; Bergo D; Ruiz Lopes-Mori FM; Benitez A; de Freitas JC; Evers F; Navarro IT; Martins LD

2013-09-01

176

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is worthwhile considering that only some 30 species make up the bulk of the bacterial population in human faeces at any one time based on the classical cultivation-based approach. The situation in the rumen is similar. Thus, it is practical to focus on specific groups of interest within the complex community. These may be the predominant or the most active species, specific physiological groups or readily identifiable (genetic) clusters of phylogenetically related organisms. Several 16S rDNA fingerprinting techniques can be invaluable for selecting and monitoring sequences or phylogenetic groups of interest and are described below. Over the past few decades, considerable attention was focussed on the identification of pure cultures of microbes on the basis of genetic polymorphisms of DNA encoding rRNA such as ribotyping, amplified fragment length polymorphism and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. However, many of these methods require prior cultivation and are less suitable for use in analysis of complex mixed populations although important in describing cultivated microbial diversity in molecular terms. Much less attention was given to molecular characterization of complex communities. In particular, research into diversity and community structure over time has been revolutionized by the advent of molecular fingerprinting techniques for complex communities. Denaturing or temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE/TGGE) methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of human, pig, cattle, dog and rodent intestinal populations

2005-01-01

177

Evaluation of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect avian influenza virus antibodies in multiple experimentally infected avian species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wild birds of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Traditionally, AI virus surveillance in wild birds has relied on virus identification strategies, including virus isolation and detection. To evaluate the accuracy of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for detection of antibodies in wild birds, which is indicative of AI virus infection, we tested 281 serum samples from various wild avian species that were experimentally infected with AI viruses. Included in these samples were 178 samples from birds with confirmed AI virus infections (122 infected with low-pathogenic AI [LPAI] viruses and 56 infected with highly pathogenic AI [HPAI] viruses) and 103 samples from birds that were uninfected, negative controls. The sensitivities of the bELISA and the AGID test were 0.820 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.756 to 0.874) and 0.674 (95% CI, 0.600 to 0.742), respectively. Both tests had an estimated specificity of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.965 to 1.00). The bELISA was significantly more sensitive than the AGID test for both LPAI virus- and HPAI virus-infected birds. Both assays, however, had a higher sensitivity for birds infected with HPAI virus than for birds infected with LPAI virus. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the bELISA for detection of antibodies to both LPAI and HPAI viruses in multiple avian species, representing five avian orders and 17 genera. Additional studies are warranted to further evaluate the utility of the bELISA for use with naturally infected birds.

Brown JD; Stallknecht DE; Berghaus RD; Luttrell MP; Velek K; Kistler W; Costa T; Yabsley MJ; Swayne D

2009-06-01

178

Evaluation of four serological tests for bovine paratuberculosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The standard complement fixation (CF) test, a commercial agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test (ImmuCell Corporation, Portland, Maine), and two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; Allied Laboratories, Glenwood Springs, Colo. [Allied ELISA], and the CSL, Limited, [Parkville, Victoria, Australia] enzyme immunoassay [CSL ELISA]) were evaluated by using sera from the Repository for Paratuberculosis Specimens. The case definition of subclinical bovine paratuberculosis was isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from fecal samples or internal organs of dairy cattle without diarrhea or weight loss. Animals designated as free of the disease originated exclusively from certified paratuberculosis-free herds in Wisconsin. None of the cattle evaluated had been vaccinated for paratuberculosis. Among 177 M. paratuberculosis-infected cattle, the CF test, the AGID test, the Allied ELISA, and the CSL ELISA had test sensitivities of 38.4, 26.6, 58.8, and 43.4%, respectively, and specificities of 99.0, 100.0, 95.4, and 99.0%, respectively. Only 108 of the infected cattle were confirmed by culture or by a commercial DNA probe (IDEXX Corporation, Portland, Maine) to be shedding the organism in fecal samples at the time of serological testing. Among the 108 M. paratuberculosis fecal shedders, the CF test, the AGID test, the Allied ELISA, and the CSL ELISA were positive for 54.6, 40.7, 65.7, and 56.5% of the cows, respectively; and among the 69 cows that were nonshedders, the tests were positive for 14.5, 4.3, 47.8, and 24.6% of the cows, respectively. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the rate of positive test results for all four tests between these two groups of animals. The CF test performed well when it was compared with the other serological tests if a titer of >/- 1.8 was classified as a positive test result.

Sockett DC; Conrad TA; Thomas CB; Collins MT

1992-05-01

179

Validation of egg yolk antibody based C-ELISA for avian influenza surveillance in breeder duck.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Active surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) has expanded from chicken to various poultry species including duck. To further effective antibody screening in laying breeder ducks, we validated the egg yolk antibody as alternative source to serum for AIV antibody. Sera and eggs were collected at weekly intervals after two types of AIV vaccination, H5N3 and H9N2. The antibody levels were determined by an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA). AGID test did not detect antibodies in egg yolk, and the agreement between AGID test and either HI test or C-ELISA in serum was slight and fair based on kappa statistics (kappa value (kappa)< or =0.19 in H5N3 group and kappa< or =0.37 in H9N2 groups). However, there was almost perfect agreement between HI test and C-ELISA (kappa>0.9 in all group). The C-ELISA was as sensitive and specific as the HI test, and could be used as a pre-screening test for the detection of type A avian influenza virus antibody. Comparison was made between egg yolk and serum antibody titers by a regression analysis. A high correlation was observed between serum and yolk antibody titers (r=0.8762 for H5N3 and 0.8914 for H9N2 in HI test; r=1 for H5N3 and 0.9686 for H9N2 in ELISA test), although egg yolk antibodies were detected later and remained lower levels than serum antibodies. In field trials involving 54 duck flocks, the positive rate of egg yolk and serum samples showed agreement for the detection of AIV antibody. We concluded that as an alternative to serum, antibody monitoring of laying breeder duck using egg yolk with C-ELISA is feasible and is recommended.

Jeong OM; Kim MC; Kang HM; Ha GW; Oh JS; Yoo JE; Park CH; Kwon JS; Pack MR; Kim HR; Kim YJ; Kwon JH; Lee YJ

2010-08-01

180

Evaluation of alternative methods for the detection of bovine leukaemia virus in cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To evaluate commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for their ability to detect antibodies against or nucleic acid of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV), the causal agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), and to assess their usefulness in a national eradication programme. METHODS: Eighty-two well-defined sera (including 18 from an OIE reference laboratory) and 399 field sera from New Zealand cattle were tested in five ELISAs and the results compared with the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and electrophoretic immunoblotting (EIB) results. A polymerase chain reaction-based technique, which could detect BLV-RNA and proviral-DNA, was also evaluated on a subsample of the field cases. RESULTS: Two commercial ELISAs classified 99% of the defined sera correctly, with the other three ranging in their correct classification between 88% and 95%. The ELISAs agreed in their general classification on the majority of the 399 blood samples (91.7%), and with the AGID for more than 95 % of the sera. In a dilution series of the international reference serum E4, the highest dilution with a positive (or suspicious) result ranged from 1:80 to 1:5120. A dilution series of 202 field positive samples tested in the preferred ELISA detected 98% of positive sera at a 15 and 1: 10 dilution, reducing to 78% at a 1:80 dilution of the sera. Agreement between serological tests and PCR was poor, mainly due to failure of the PCR to detect a number of serologically positive animals. CONCLUSION: ELISA tests detected about 10% more reactors than the AGID and the EIB combined. Some ELISA-positive animals were not detected by PCR, raising doubts about the usefulness of PCR-based technology in EBL eradication programmes.

Reichel MP; Tham KM; Barnes S; Kittelberger R

1998-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Ovine lentivirus is aetiologically associated with chronic respiratory disease of sheep on the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) infection in sheep with chronic respiratory disease on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. All seven Merino crossbred sheep with chronic dyspnoea and emaciation examined for gross and microscopic lesions had lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and one also had pulmonary abscesses. Two of the sheep with LIP also had lesions of ovine pulmonary carcinoma (OPC, jaagsiekte). Using in situ hybridization, OvLV DNA localized to a high proportion of pulmonary macrophages in lungs with lesions of LIP. Lung tissue samples from six of these sheep were positive for a syncytium-inducing virus in cultures of lamb testis cells. Thin-section electron microscopy of infected cells showed virions with morphogenesis typical of lentiviruses. In a western blotting assay, monoclonal antibodies to the OvLV capsid (CA, p27) and matrix (MA, p15) proteins of a North American OvLV isolate reacted with similar-sized bands of the virus, and serum from six of the sheep were reactive with CA from the Kenyan viral isolate. Using an OvLV agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, all seven sheep were positive for serum antiviral antibody, as were 29% of 63 clinically normal sheep from Laikipia District. However, when sera from the healthy sheep were tested in a western blot assay, only 52% had IgG reactive to the OvLV CA, indicating a high rate of false negative reactions with the AGID test. Serum samples from 87 Red Maasai or Dorper crossbred sheep from two farms in other parts of Kenya were OvLV seronegative by both the AGID test and the western blot assay. These results document the first identification of OvLV as a cause of chronic respiratory disease in sheep in Kenya and show a high rate of infection in sheep flocks, with a high prevalence of chronic respiratory disease.

Rwambo PM; Brodie SJ; DeMartini JC

2001-12-01

182

Comparison of serological tests based on outer membrane or internal antigens for detecting antibodies to Brucella ovis in infected flocks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work was to compare the performance of 6 serological tests using outer or internal antigens from Brucella for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in sheep in an endemic area. Outer membrane antigens included a hot saline extract (HS) and the rough lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) from B. ovis. Internal antigens were LPS-free total cytosolic proteins (CP) and an 18-kDa cytosolic protein (p18) from Brucella spp. Sera from 200 sheep from naturally infected flocks were assayed by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) and by complement fixation test (CFT), both using HS, and by 4 ELISA using HS, R-LPS, CP, and p18, respectively. The percentage of positive results was 45.5% for ELISA with HS, 42.0% for ELISA with p18, 39.5% for CFT, 33.5% for ELISA with R-LPS, 29.0% for ELISA with CP, and 18.0% for AGID. Taking CFT as the reference test for calculating relative test parameters, the ELISA with HS had the best sensitivity (96.2%), while AGID and the ELISA with R-LPS had the best specificity (96.6%). The ELISA with CP was not more sensitive than the ELISA with p18 (67.1% vs. 79.7%) in spite of the higher number of antigens in CP. The lower relative sensitivity of tests using internal antigens might reflect a lack of antibodies to cytosolic proteins in some infected animals or a shorter persistence of these antibodies relative to antibodies to outer membrane components after recovery from infection.

Estein SM; Baldi PC; Bowden RA

2002-09-01

183

Comparison of serological tests based on outer membrane or internal antigens for detecting antibodies to Brucella ovis in infected flocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to compare the performance of 6 serological tests using outer or internal antigens from Brucella for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in sheep in an endemic area. Outer membrane antigens included a hot saline extract (HS) and the rough lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) from B. ovis. Internal antigens were LPS-free total cytosolic proteins (CP) and an 18-kDa cytosolic protein (p18) from Brucella spp. Sera from 200 sheep from naturally infected flocks were assayed by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) and by complement fixation test (CFT), both using HS, and by 4 ELISA using HS, R-LPS, CP, and p18, respectively. The percentage of positive results was 45.5% for ELISA with HS, 42.0% for ELISA with p18, 39.5% for CFT, 33.5% for ELISA with R-LPS, 29.0% for ELISA with CP, and 18.0% for AGID. Taking CFT as the reference test for calculating relative test parameters, the ELISA with HS had the best sensitivity (96.2%), while AGID and the ELISA with R-LPS had the best specificity (96.6%). The ELISA with CP was not more sensitive than the ELISA with p18 (67.1% vs. 79.7%) in spite of the higher number of antigens in CP. The lower relative sensitivity of tests using internal antigens might reflect a lack of antibodies to cytosolic proteins in some infected animals or a shorter persistence of these antibodies relative to antibodies to outer membrane components after recovery from infection. PMID:12296393

Estein, Silvia M; Baldi, Pablo C; Bowden, Raúl A

2002-09-01

184

Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

Shaw, David Glenn (Tucson, AZ); Pollard, John Randolph (Tucson, AZ); Brooks, Robert Aubrey (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01

185

DISPERSION, GEL AND EMULSIFICATION SYSTEM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A dispersion which contains particles of a carboxylic acid polymer dispersed in an organic medium containing an emollient ester and/or a non-ionic surfactant. The dispersion can be used to form a gel composition by mixing with a water miscible emollient ester and optionally water. The dispersion and gel can be used to form an emulsification system. The dispersion, gel and emulsification system are suitable for use in forming end-use emulsions, preferably at low temperature and low shear, and in particular, emulsions having a high oil phase concentration. The emulsions can be used in a wide range of applications, including personal care, household and industrial.

TAMOR MILDRED ESTRADA; DOWDELL DAVID PETER

186

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OFCHITOSAN GELS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The main goal of this work is the preparation and characterization of gelsusingchitosan for further formulation and topic applications. To achieve this goal several gels from pharmaceutical quality chitosan of low( Mw= 72.180 g/mol ) andmedium.( Mw= 103.000 g/mol) molecular weight with a 4% w/w were employed.The prepared gels were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy andreological analyses.The spectroscopic study shows no great difference b (more) etween both gels and most of chitosan bands are exhibited.The reological studies shows that both gels exhibit a non newtonian flow independent of the time, with seudoplastic for low molecular weight chitosan and plastic behavior for the medium molecular weight

FERNÁNDEZ, MARCOS; VON PLESSING, CARLOS; CÁRDENAS, GALO

2006-12-01

187

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OFCHITOSAN GELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main goal of this work is the preparation and characterization of gelsusingchitosan for further formulation and topic applications. To achieve this goal several gels from pharmaceutical quality chitosan of low( Mw= 72.180 g/mol ) andmedium.( Mw= 103.000 g/mol) molecular weight with a 4% w/w were employed.The prepared gels were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy andreological analyses.The spectroscopic study shows no great difference between both gels and most of chitosan bands are exhibited.The reological studies shows that both gels exhibit a non newtonian flow independent of the time, with seudoplastic for low molecular weight chitosan and plastic behavior for the medium molecular weight

MARCOS FERNÁNDEZ; CARLOS VON PLESSING; GALO CÁRDENAS

2006-01-01

188

Raft Instability of Biopolymer Gels  

CERN Document Server

Following recent X-ray diffraction experiments by Wong, Li, and Safinya on biopolymer gels, we apply Onsager excluded volume theory to a nematic mixture of rigid rods and strong ``$\\pi/2$'' cross-linkers obtaining a long-ranged, highly anisotropic depletion attraction between the linkers. This attraction leads to breakdown of the percolation theory for this class of gels, to breakdown of Onsager's second-order virial method, and to formation of heterogeneities in the form of raft-like ribbons.

Borukhov, I

2001-01-01

189

Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order to evaluate the influence of the compatibility between gel and filler. Time-resolved SANS and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) shows that the presence of silica particles affects the ordering of the polystyrene domains during gelsetting. The scattering pattern of silica-reinforced gels reveals strong scattering at very low q, but no structure and formfactor information. However, on heating above the viscoelastic to plastic transition, the 'typical' scattering pattern of the copolymer gel builds-up. All reinforced gels are strengthened by the addition of the reinforcing agent. The transitions from a viscoclastic rubber to a plastic fluid and from a plastic fluid to a viscoelastic liquid are shifted to more elevated temperatures when silica is added to the triblock copolymer gel. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.

2004-01-01

190

Detecção de Erwinia psidii via enriquecimento em extrato de folhas de goiabeira e imunodifusão radial dupla/ Detection of Erwinia psidii through enrichment in guava leaf extract and double radial immunodiffusion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Uma das principais doenças que afetam a produção de goiaba no Brasil é a seca-dos-ponteiros, causada pela bactéria Erwinia psidii, cuja disseminação é favorecida por mudas contaminadas. O desenvolvimento de métodos diagnósticos mais eficazes poderia reduzir a disseminação da bactéria no país. Considerando a necessidade de se disponibilizar um método eficiente e simples para a detecção de E. psidii em material de propagação, foi objetivo desse trabalho p (more) roduzir antissoros policlonais específicos contra a bactéria e desenvolver um método de detecção utilizando o enriquecimento da população bacteriana em extrato de folhas de goiabeira seguido de imunodifusão radial dupla. Um antissoro foi produzido contra a estirpe tipo da bactéria IBSBF 435 (ICMP 8426, NCPPB 3555), avaliado quanto à eficiência e especificidade e utilizado na determinação dos limiares de detecção da mesma. O antissoro As15-1 reagiu positivamente com todos as estirpes testadas de E. psidii, não reagindo com estirpes de outros gêneros e espécies de bactérias fitopatogênicas e apresentou reação cruzada com dois isolados não patogênicos da flora da goiabeira. O crescimento da população bacteriana no extrato de folhas foi observado após 12 h de incubação a partir de populações iniciais de 10³, 10(5) e 10(7) ufc/mL, até 60 h. A partir de 12 h, já foi possível detectar E. psidii por enriquecimento e imunodifusão radial nas amostras com populações iniciais de 10(7) ufc/mL e a partir de 36 h, detectou-se a bactéria mesmo em amostras com populações iniciais de 10³ ufc/mL. Considerando a possibilidade de falsos positivos, é recomendável associar outros métodos diagnósticos ao método aqui proposto. Abstract in english One of the most important diseases affecting guava production in Brazil is bacterial blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia psidii. Pathogen dissemination often occurs through contaminated propagating plant material. The development of more effective diagnostic methods may reduce pathogen dissemination in the country. Considering the need for a reliable and simple method for detecting the pathogen in plant material, the objectives of this study were to produce E. psdii-s (more) pecific polyclonal antibodies and to develop a detection method using bacterial population enrichment on guava leaf extracts followed by double radial immunodiffusion. The antiserum was produced against the E. psidii type strain IBSBF 435 (ICMP 8426, NCPPB 3555) and its efficiency, specificity and sensitivity threshold were determined. The antiserum As15-1 was tested with strains of several plant-pathogenic bacteria and reacted positively with all strains of E. psidii, although cross reactions were detected with two non-pathogenic isolates from guava flora. Bacterial multiplication on leaf extracts was observed 12 h after incubation from initial populations of 10³, 10(5) and 10(7) ufc/mL, up to 60 h. After 12 h it was already possible to detect E. psidii in samples with starting populations of 10(7) cfu/mL. After 36 h, the enrichment technique allowed the detection of E. psidii using double radial immunodiffusion in samples with populations as low as 10³ cfu/mL. Considering the possibility of false positives it is desirable to associate other diagnostic methods with the method proposed in this study.

Teixeira, Ana Cristina O.; Ferreira, Marisa A.S.V.; Marques, Abi S.A.

2008-06-01

191

Detecção de Erwinia psidii via enriquecimento em extrato de folhas de goiabeira e imunodifusão radial dupla Detection of Erwinia psidii through enrichment in guava leaf extract and double radial immunodiffusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afetam a produção de goiaba no Brasil é a seca-dos-ponteiros, causada pela bactéria Erwinia psidii, cuja disseminação é favorecida por mudas contaminadas. O desenvolvimento de métodos diagnósticos mais eficazes poderia reduzir a disseminação da bactéria no país. Considerando a necessidade de se disponibilizar um método eficiente e simples para a detecção de E. psidii em material de propagação, foi objetivo desse trabalho produzir antissoros policlonais específicos contra a bactéria e desenvolver um método de detecção utilizando o enriquecimento da população bacteriana em extrato de folhas de goiabeira seguido de imunodifusão radial dupla. Um antissoro foi produzido contra a estirpe tipo da bactéria IBSBF 435 (ICMP 8426, NCPPB 3555), avaliado quanto à eficiência e especificidade e utilizado na determinação dos limiares de detecção da mesma. O antissoro As15-1 reagiu positivamente com todos as estirpes testadas de E. psidii, não reagindo com estirpes de outros gêneros e espécies de bactérias fitopatogênicas e apresentou reação cruzada com dois isolados não patogênicos da flora da goiabeira. O crescimento da população bacteriana no extrato de folhas foi observado após 12 h de incubação a partir de populações iniciais de 10³, 10(5) e 10(7) ufc/mL, até 60 h. A partir de 12 h, já foi possível detectar E. psidii por enriquecimento e imunodifusão radial nas amostras com populações iniciais de 10(7) ufc/mL e a partir de 36 h, detectou-se a bactéria mesmo em amostras com populações iniciais de 10³ ufc/mL. Considerando a possibilidade de falsos positivos, é recomendável associar outros métodos diagnósticos ao método aqui proposto.One of the most important diseases affecting guava production in Brazil is bacterial blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia psidii. Pathogen dissemination often occurs through contaminated propagating plant material. The development of more effective diagnostic methods may reduce pathogen dissemination in the country. Considering the need for a reliable and simple method for detecting the pathogen in plant material, the objectives of this study were to produce E. psdii-specific polyclonal antibodies and to develop a detection method using bacterial population enrichment on guava leaf extracts followed by double radial immunodiffusion. The antiserum was produced against the E. psidii type strain IBSBF 435 (ICMP 8426, NCPPB 3555) and its efficiency, specificity and sensitivity threshold were determined. The antiserum As15-1 was tested with strains of several plant-pathogenic bacteria and reacted positively with all strains of E. psidii, although cross reactions were detected with two non-pathogenic isolates from guava flora. Bacterial multiplication on leaf extracts was observed 12 h after incubation from initial populations of 10³, 10(5) and 10(7) ufc/mL, up to 60 h. After 12 h it was already possible to detect E. psidii in samples with starting populations of 10(7) cfu/mL. After 36 h, the enrichment technique allowed the detection of E. psidii using double radial immunodiffusion in samples with populations as low as 10³ cfu/mL. Considering the possibility of false positives it is desirable to associate other diagnostic methods with the method proposed in this study.

Ana Cristina O. Teixeira; Marisa A.S.V. Ferreira; Abi S.A. Marques

2008-01-01

192

Inquérito sorológico e fatores de risco para a brucelose por Brucella canis em cães do município de Santana de Parnaíba, Estado de São Paulo Serological survey and risk factors for brucellosis due to Brucella canis in dogs of the Santana de Parnaíba municipality, State of São Paulo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi investigada a prevalência da brucelose causada por Brucella canis em cães do município de Santana de Parnaíba, SP, Brasil, e realizado um estudo de possíveis fatores de risco associados à soropositividade para B. canis. Foram examinadas 410 amostras de soro sanguíneo de cães colhidas durante a campanha de vacinação anti-rábica animal, realizada em agosto de 1999. A imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA), utilizando antígeno de lipopolissacarídeos e proteínas de Brucella ovis, amostra Reo 198, foi empregada em soros normais como teste de triagem, e, para a confirmação, a mesma técnica foi aplicada em soros tratados pelo 2-mercaptoetanol (IDGA-ME). A reação de fixação de complemento (CFT), utilizando antígeno de B. ovis, amostra 63/290, também foi utilizada como prova confirmatória. A determinação da prevalência considerou como positivos os animais que reagiram positivamente nos dois testes confirmatórios (IDGA-ME e CFT). A prevalência da B. canis foi de 2,2% (I.C. 95% = 1,01-4,13%). A análise estatística mostrou que os cães com acesso irrestrito à rua o dia todo (manejo do tipo solto) estiveram mais expostos ao risco da infecção por B. canis, com um valor de odds ratio de 8,73 (I.C. 95% = 1,48-51,55) e p=0,04.The prevalence of brucellosis due to Brucella canis was investigated in dogs of the Santana de Parnaíba county, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, and the risk factors for infection were analyzed. For this purpose, 410 blood samples were collected from dogs during the rabies vaccination campaign, in August 1999. The agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), using lipopolysaccharides and protein antigens from Brucella ovis, strain Reo 198, was applied first as a screening test on normal sera, and secondly, for confirmation. The same AGID test was applied to sera treated previously with 2-mercaptoethanol (ME-AGID). The complement fixation test (CFT), using B. ovis antigen, strain 63/290, was applied also as a confirmatory test. For the prevalence analysis, animals presenting positive results in both ME-AGID and CFT were considered positive. The prevalence of brucellosis due to B. canis was 2.2% (95% C.I.=1.01-4.13%). Dogs that were allowed by their owners to stay free outside their home had a higher risk for contracting B. canis infection, with an odds ratio value of 8.73 (95% C.I.=1.48-51.55) and p=0.04.

Sérgio S. Azevedo; Sílvio A. Vasconcellos; Clebert J. Alves; Lara B. Keid; Lília M.P. S. Grasso; Roberta Mascolli; Sônia R. Pinheiro

2003-01-01

193

Inquérito sorológico e fatores de risco para a brucelose por Brucella canis em cães do município de Santana de Parnaíba, Estado de São Paulo/ Serological survey and risk factors for brucellosis due to Brucella canis in dogs of the Santana de Parnaíba municipality, State of São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foi investigada a prevalência da brucelose causada por Brucella canis em cães do município de Santana de Parnaíba, SP, Brasil, e realizado um estudo de possíveis fatores de risco associados à soropositividade para B. canis. Foram examinadas 410 amostras de soro sanguíneo de cães colhidas durante a campanha de vacinação anti-rábica animal, realizada em agosto de 1999. A imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA), utilizando antígeno de lipopolissacarídeos e proteín (more) as de Brucella ovis, amostra Reo 198, foi empregada em soros normais como teste de triagem, e, para a confirmação, a mesma técnica foi aplicada em soros tratados pelo 2-mercaptoetanol (IDGA-ME). A reação de fixação de complemento (CFT), utilizando antígeno de B. ovis, amostra 63/290, também foi utilizada como prova confirmatória. A determinação da prevalência considerou como positivos os animais que reagiram positivamente nos dois testes confirmatórios (IDGA-ME e CFT). A prevalência da B. canis foi de 2,2% (I.C. 95% = 1,01-4,13%). A análise estatística mostrou que os cães com acesso irrestrito à rua o dia todo (manejo do tipo solto) estiveram mais expostos ao risco da infecção por B. canis, com um valor de odds ratio de 8,73 (I.C. 95% = 1,48-51,55) e p=0,04. Abstract in english The prevalence of brucellosis due to Brucella canis was investigated in dogs of the Santana de Parnaíba county, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, and the risk factors for infection were analyzed. For this purpose, 410 blood samples were collected from dogs during the rabies vaccination campaign, in August 1999. The agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), using lipopolysaccharides and protein antigens from Brucella ovis, strain Reo 198, was applied first as a screen (more) ing test on normal sera, and secondly, for confirmation. The same AGID test was applied to sera treated previously with 2-mercaptoethanol (ME-AGID). The complement fixation test (CFT), using B. ovis antigen, strain 63/290, was applied also as a confirmatory test. For the prevalence analysis, animals presenting positive results in both ME-AGID and CFT were considered positive. The prevalence of brucellosis due to B. canis was 2.2% (95% C.I.=1.01-4.13%). Dogs that were allowed by their owners to stay free outside their home had a higher risk for contracting B. canis infection, with an odds ratio value of 8.73 (95% C.I.=1.48-51.55) and p=0.04.

Azevedo, Sérgio S.; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A.; Alves, Clebert J.; Keid, Lara B.; Grasso, Lília M.P. S.; Mascolli, Roberta; Pinheiro, Sônia R.

2003-12-01

194

Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation  

Science.gov (United States)

A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

Rhia, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

2011-03-01

195

Capillary fracture of soft gels  

CERN Document Server

A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law $L\\propto t^{3/4}$. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid/solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an impo...

Bostwick, Joshua B

2013-01-01

196

Heterogeneous diffusion in a reversible gel  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce a microscopically realistic model of a physical gel and use computer simulations to study its static and dynamic properties at thermal equilibrium. The phase diagram comprises a sol phase, a coexistence region ending at a critical point, a gelation line determined by geometric percolation, and an equilibrium gel phase unrelated to phase separation. The global structure of the gel is homogeneous, but the stress is supported by a fractal network. The gel dynamics is highly heterogeneous and we propose a theoretical model to quantitatively describe dynamic heterogeneity in gels. We elucidate several differences between the dynamics of gels and that of glass-formers.

Hurtado, P I; Kob, W; Hurtado, Pablo I.; Berthier, Ludovic; Kob, Walter

2007-01-01

197

Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions. The dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content. (C) 2004 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M

2004-01-01

198

Gel-type sunscreen composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A gel-type sunscreen composition is disclosed. The composition includes between about 1 and about 30 percent of a sunscreen agent, between about 5 and about 20 percent polyethylene, and between about 20 and about 94 percent of an benzoate ester. A method of forming this composition is also disclosed.

STROBRIDGE JOHN R

199

TOPICAL GEL COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF USE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Improved topical gel compositions, such as those containing brimonidine, for the treatment of skin disorders are described. The gel compositions contain carbomer and paraben, and are substantially free of paraben crystalline particles after an extended period of storage.

BUGE JEAN-CHRISTOPHE; NADAU-FOURCADE KARINE; MEUNIER CYRIL

200

Regenerative medicine: Noodle gels for cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Heating and cooling of peptide amphiphile suspensions converts disorganized nanofibres into liquid-crystalline nanofibre bundles that gel on addition of salts. The noodle-shaped strings of gel can entrap and align cells.

Deming, Timothy J.

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Yield stress determination of a physical gel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresses values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels.

Hvidt, SØren

2013-01-01

202

Rheology and molecular structure of HPG gels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) polymer solutions crosslinked with titanates (Ti) are used in hydraulic fracturing operations. The rheology of these gels arise from the complex interaction of polymer chemistry, metal ion chemistry, and flow history. The authors have employed several techniques (steady shear viscosity, dynamic oscillatory shear, Laser Doppler Anemometry, and freeze fracture electron microscopy) to develop a consistent picture of the factors controlling gel rheology. An impingement mixing technique has been developed to prepare uniform HPG gels and reproducible rheological data has bee obtained. Dynamic oscillatory rheological measurements have been used as diagnostic probes of gel structure, and are shown to be useful in understanding chemical effects on gel structure. Laser Doppler Anemometry, a non-invasive technique for measuring velocity distributions, has been used to measure velocity profiles for gels under flow. Classical wall slip is not observed, rather distortions of the velocity profiles are observed for gels that have gelled under quiescent conditions. For gels made with impingement mixing linear velocity profiles are observed. Freeze fracture electron microscopy has been used to image gel structure and the results show the fracture of gel structure by shear. These observations demonstrate the mechaism of temperature stabilization of the viscosity of cross-linked gels. Temperature stability measurements of gel viscosity have been made using a novel reciprocating capillary viscometer.

Kramer, J.; Chu, A.; Prud' homme, R.K.

1986-01-01

203

Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

204

Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus in dairy cattle in Argentina: comparison of sensitivity and specificity of different detection methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that induces a chronic infection in cattle, which develop in three possible pathological forms: asymptomatic course, persistent lymphocytosis (PL) and lymphosarcoma. Once infected, cattle remain virus carriers for life and start to show a serological reaction within a few weeks after infection. Eradication and control of the disease is based on early diagnostic and segregation of the carriers. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test has been the serological test of choice for routine diagnosis of serum samples. Nevertheless, in more recent years, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has replaced the AGID for large scale testing. Although Argentina has over 60 million cattle population, no nationwide studies have been conducted yet to determine the prevalence of the infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection in dairy cattle in Argentina, a survey for specific antibodies in >10,000 serum samples from animals over 18 months old, belonging to 363 different herds from the largest dairy production areas of the country, was carried out in our laboratory, along 1999. For this purpose, we developed an ELISA to detect serum antibodies against the BLV virus. The cut-off of the ELISA was established over 339 serum samples, using polymerase chain reaction and southern blot (PCR-SB) as confirmatory test. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was of 97.2 and 97.5%, respectively, while the local official AGID test showed a sensitivity of 79.7% and specificity of 99.0%. To know the seroprevalence of BLV on dairy herds, and also the incidence of the infection within the herd, the serological survey was based on individual serum samples. The results show that the prevalence of infected individuals is of 32.85%, while the percentage of infected herds, harboring one or more infected animals, is of 84%. These results indicate a medium level of seropositive animals when taken individually, but a high prevalence of infected farms, which has been notoriously increased in the last 15 years as shown when compared with previous data from particular geographic areas, indicating that BLV constitutes a serious sanitary problem for dairy producers in Argentina. They also indicate the poor sensitivity of the official AGID test used in the country.

Trono KG; Pérez-Filgueira DM; Duffy S; Borca MV; Carrillo C

2001-11-01

205

GEL POULTICE CLINGING TO FOOT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided are a poultice gel composition for feet which is excellent in elasticity and water content, and a method for preparing a gelled product by using the composition. The poultice gel composition comprises 6-12 wt% of a mixture which comprises dextrin, an acorn starch containing tannic acid and beeswax 3.5-6 wt% of an aromatherapy oil 2.5-8 wt% of a polymerization initiator and a preservative. Preferably the mixture comprises 1.5-3 wt% of dextrin 3-6 wt% of an acorn starch containing tannic acid 1.5-3 wt% of beeswax and 1-5 wt% of ammonium carbonate. Preferably the aromatherapy oil comprises 0.5-1 wt% of a basil oil 0.5-1 wt% of a rosemary camphor oil 0.5-1 wt% of a wintergreen oil and 1-3 wt% of a peppermint oil.

KIM YOUNG KOO

206

Biomedical solid gel electrodes prodn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process (A) for the prodn. of biomedical solid gel electrodes comprises; (Aa) feeding an adhesive-coated strip (I) with a siliconised paper cover which is cut through lengthwise at a distance of at least 5-25 mm from the edge, at regular intervals to a cutting device, with the adhesive side upwards; (Ab) cutting gaps in the strips corresp. to the above intervals and at least as big as the gel bodies to be formed; (Ac) covering the gaps underneath with adhesive film (II) so that the projecting parts of the film are firmly bonded to the strip; (Ad) making a hole in the middle of the strip, inserting the lug of an eyelet into the hole and pushing a stud up from below so that the film is clamped between eyelet and stud; (Ae) forming a cavity and filling it with a polymerisable mixt. (III); (Af) polymerising the mixt. to a gel by passing the strip with the mixt. through a UV irradiation section under normal conditions; (Ag) removing the siliconised paper and covering the sticky top of the strip and the gel with an anti-adhesive cover (IV); (Ah) punching out the finished electrode. In another process (B), stages (b-d) are as follows; other stages are as above; (Bb) cutting one or more circular gaps in the polymer strip to take the eyelet lug; (Bc) pulling off the paper cover at the place where the gel body is to be formed, and attaching the eyelet and stud as above; (Bd) heating the strip at this place to its distortion temp., positioning and fixing on a mobile deep-drawing mould, applying a vacuum and moving the mould back to original position. In a further version (C), stages (a), (f) and (g) are as above; other are as follows: (Cb) cutting circular holes in the strip to take an external connection for a sensor; (Cc) pulling of the paper where the gel is to be formed and placing the sensor over the gap; (Cd) placing a strip of non-woven textile on the adhesive coated surface; (Ce) saturating the fleece with mixt. (I) at the place where the gel is to be formed, then adding the same amt. of (I) again and distributing the mixt. to give a uniform liq. level with the required layer thickness; (Ch) cutting the electrode body out up to the antiadhesive cover, pulling off the remainder as a strip, cutting through the antiadhesive cover level with the attached electrodes and separating into sections depending on pack size. Also claimed are non-woven fabric electrodes, flat electrodes and mini-electrodes obtd. by process (A), transparent electrodes obtd. by process (B) and gel electrodes obtd. by process (C).

BARTH HEINZ-GUENTHER DIPL ING; KRUEGER RAINER DIPL ING; ANZ JOHANNES DIPL ING

207

Cumulative irritation potential among metronidazole gel 1%, metronidazole gel 0.75%, and azelaic acid gel 15%.  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical therapy for rosacea aims to reduce inflammatory lesions and decrease erythema but can carry side effects such as stinging, pruritus, and burning. Metronidazole and azelaic acid gel 15% are U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of rosacea. The current study was conducted to assess the cumulative irritation potential of 2 formulations of metronidazole 0.75% gel and 1% gel--and azelaic acid gel 15% over 21 days (N=36). Results of this study demonstrated a significantly greater poten tial for irritation from azelaic acid compared with metronidazole gel 0.75% (P < .0001), which had significantly greater potential for irritation compared with metronidazole gel 1% (P = .0054). Metronidazole gel 1% had a similar profile to white petrolatum. PMID:17500380

Colón, Luz E; Johnson, Lori A; Gottschalk, Ronald W

2007-04-01

208

Cumulative irritation potential among metronidazole gel 1%, metronidazole gel 0.75%, and azelaic acid gel 15%.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Topical therapy for rosacea aims to reduce inflammatory lesions and decrease erythema but can carry side effects such as stinging, pruritus, and burning. Metronidazole and azelaic acid gel 15% are U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of rosacea. The current study was conducted to assess the cumulative irritation potential of 2 formulations of metronidazole 0.75% gel and 1% gel--and azelaic acid gel 15% over 21 days (N=36). Results of this study demonstrated a significantly greater poten tial for irritation from azelaic acid compared with metronidazole gel 0.75% (P < .0001), which had significantly greater potential for irritation compared with metronidazole gel 1% (P = .0054). Metronidazole gel 1% had a similar profile to white petrolatum.

Colón LE; Johnson LA; Gottschalk RW

2007-04-01

209

Counting efficiency of scintillating gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scintillating gels that are suitable for the counting of insoluble radioact+ve samples, sometimes exhibit in addition a higher scintillation yield than the corresponding liquid scintillators. This property, observable when silica is added into dioxane liquid scintillators, is inherent in some primary solutes (PPO, PBD, butyl-PBD) while not obvious for others (CPO, PFD, BPO, ?NPO). Quenching properties of chlorinated compounds (CHCl3, CCl4) and energy transfer mechanisms are not changed by silica addition. On the other hand, PPO, PBD and butyl-PBD fluorescence quantum yields are markedly increased under these conditions, probably because of the higher viscosity of the samples. Another scintillating gel was prepared by the addition of HP55 (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate) into PPO-dioxane liquid scintillator; its scintillation yield is reduced without any change of transfer mechanisms and at the same time PPO fluorescence quantum yield is diminished. A static quenching process by HP55 is likely to occur, which screens the viscosity effect noticed in the presence of Cab-O-Sil. Thus, PPO, PBD and butyl-PBD seem to be the most efficient primary solutes among those studied since they provide gel scintillator giving improved counting efficiency compared to that of liquid scintillator. (author).

1980-03-14

210

Temperature sensitive gels as size selective absorbants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors used crosslinked polymer gels as extraction solvents for aqueous solutions. The gels swell to many times their dry weight by absorbing water and low molecular weight solutes, but excluding proteins and other high molecular weight solutes. The swollen gel is removed by filtration. When it is slightly warmed, it collapses, releasing most of the absorbed material. This sudden change of swelling with temperature occurs because the gel is near a critical point. After the gel is separated from the desorbed water by filtration, it is cooled and then can be reused.

Freitas, R.F.S.; Cussler, E.L.

1987-01-01

211

Anisotropic elasticity of magnetically ordered agarose gel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physical properties of agarose gel prepared under strong magnetic fields were investigated. The storage modulus was measured by the reflection method with an ultrasonic pulse. The measurement results of the gel's elasticity indicate that agarose gel has anisotropic properties. The elasticity and its anisotropy depend on the concentration of the gel and the magnetic field to which it is exposed. The experimental results indicate that the anisotropic network structure of the gel is induced by the exposure to the magnetic field during gelation. The gelation mechanism under a magnetic field is discussed

Isao Yamamoto et al

2008-01-01

212

Sol-gel processing using aminofunctional silanes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clear gels have been made from TEOS and the amino functional silane under acid-catalyzed conditions and light scattering of the gels has been related to pH and the concentration of fluoride ions in the sol as well as the amount of the amino silane used. The authors have succeeded in preparing a series of gels containing Ni{sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+} ions immobilized by chelation either before or after the gel formation. Aerogels made from these gels in particular, doped by the method of impregnation, have had a homogeneous microstructure on the scale of only a few nanometers.

Cao, W.; Hunt, A.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1994-12-31

213

Consolidation of Inorganic Precipitated Silica Gel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colloidal gels are possible intermediates in the generation of highly porous particle systems. In the production process the gels are fragmented after their formation. These gel fragments compact to particles whose application-technological properties are determined by their size and porosity. In the case of precipitated silica gels, this consolidation process depends on temperature and pH, among other parameters. It is shown that these dependencies can be characterized by oedometer measurements. Originally, the oedometer test (one-dimensional compression test) stemmed from soil mechanics. It has proven to be an interesting novel examination method for gels. Quantitative data of the time-dependent shrinkage of gel samples can be obtained. The consolidation of the gels shows a characteristic dependence on the above parameters.

Hussein Sahabi; Matthias Kind

2011-01-01

214

Symmetries and Elasticity of Nematic Gels  

CERN Multimedia

A nematic liquid-crystal gel is a macroscopically homogeneous elastic medium with the rotational symmetry of a nematic liquid crystal. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the study of these gels that incorporates all underlying symmetries. After reviewing traditional elasticity and clarifying the role of broken rotational symmetries in both the reference space of points in the undistorted medium and the target space into which these points are mapped, we explore the unusual properties of nematic gels from a number of perspectives. We show how symmetries of nematic gels formed via spontaneous symmetry breaking from an isotropic gel enforce soft elastic response characterized by the vanishing of a shear modulus and the vanishing of stress up to a critical value of strain along certain directions. We also study the phase transition from isotropic to nematic gels. In addition to being fully consistent with approaches to nematic gels based on rubber elasticity, our description has the important advanta...

Lubenskii, T C; Radzihovsky, L R; Xing, X; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan; Radzihovsky, Leo; Xing, Xiangjun

2002-01-01

215

Evaluation of standard reagents for radial-immunodiffusion assays. In vitro control of rabies vaccines/ Avaliação de reativos padrões para provas de Imunodifusão Radial. Controle in vitro de vacinas antirrábicas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A prova de Imunodifusão Radial (IDR) é um método in vitro conveniente para determinar a concentração de antígenos no produto final como um todo, de vacinas anti-rábicas para uso veterinário. Os reativos padrões candidatos para uso na prova IDR, proposta para o controle de processo de vacinas de cultivo celular, elaboradas na América Latina e Caribe, foram produzidos e padronizados no Instituto Panamericano de Proteção de Alimentos e Zoonoses (INPPAZ). A valida (more) ção dos padrões e o controle de qualidade de 28 lotes de vacinas anti-rábicas, de diferentes procedências, foram realizados na Faculdade de Ciências Veterinárias da Universidade de La Plata, Argentina (UNLP). Todas as vacinas foram elaboradas com virus rábico cepa Pasteur (PV) em células BHK e sua atividade foi determinada através de provas in vivo (NIH) e in vitro (IDR). Os resultados dos reativos, candidatos para as provas de padronização, demonstraram estabilidade, sensibilidade e reprodutibilidade. Por análise de variância e de regressão foi estimada a potência relativa de 1.2 entre as vacinas problemas e a vacina de referência. Os resultados deste estudo de validação indicam que o INPPAZ, está em condições de elaborar e distribuir os reativos padrões acima mencionados e apoiar a adoção da técnica de IDR (sensível, rápida, econômica) pelos laboratórios de produção de vacinas anti-rábicas da América Latina e Caribe. Abstract in english The RID assay is one of the in vitro methods used for in-process control in the production of rabies vaccines for veterinary use. It has been shown to be very useful for determining antigen concentration in the final bulk product. The work presented in this paper, including the production and standardization of candidate standard reagents for use in the Radial Immunodiffusion Assay (RID) was carried out at the Pan American Institute for Food Protection and Zoonoses (INPPA (more) Z/PAHO/WHO). The study was completed with the cooperation of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, National University of La Plata (NULP), Argentina, where the validation of the proposed standards and the quality control of samples from 28 different batches of rabies vaccines produced with Pasteur strain rabies virus (PV) in BHK cells were performed. The activity of the vaccines was determined by in vivo (NIH) and in vitro (RID)assays. The results of the candidate reagents for the reagent standardization tests showed stability, sensitivity and reproducibility. The Relative Potency the 1.2 between the problem vaccines and the reference vaccine was estimated by variance and regression analysis. The results of our validation study show that the INPPAZ (PAHO/WHO) is capable of producing and distributing the above-mentioned standard reagents, as well as of providing support for the incorporation of the RID technique (sensitive, rapid and inexpensive) to the laboratories that manufacture rabies vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean.

MICELI, Graciela S.; TORROBA, Jorge; TORRES, Walter; ESTEVES MADERO, Jorge; DÍAZ, Ana Maria

2000-06-01

216

Evaluation of standard reagents for radial-immunodiffusion assays. In vitro control of rabies vaccines Avaliação de reativos padrões para provas de Imunodifusão Radial. Controle in vitro de vacinas antirrábicas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The RID assay is one of the in vitro methods used for in-process control in the production of rabies vaccines for veterinary use. It has been shown to be very useful for determining antigen concentration in the final bulk product. The work presented in this paper, including the production and standardization of candidate standard reagents for use in the Radial Immunodiffusion Assay (RID) was carried out at the Pan American Institute for Food Protection and Zoonoses (INPPAZ/PAHO/WHO). The study was completed with the cooperation of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, National University of La Plata (NULP), Argentina, where the validation of the proposed standards and the quality control of samples from 28 different batches of rabies vaccines produced with Pasteur strain rabies virus (PV) in BHK cells were performed. The activity of the vaccines was determined by in vivo (NIH) and in vitro (RID)assays. The results of the candidate reagents for the reagent standardization tests showed stability, sensitivity and reproducibility. The Relative Potency the 1.2 between the problem vaccines and the reference vaccine was estimated by variance and regression analysis. The results of our validation study show that the INPPAZ (PAHO/WHO) is capable of producing and distributing the above-mentioned standard reagents, as well as of providing support for the incorporation of the RID technique (sensitive, rapid and inexpensive) to the laboratories that manufacture rabies vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean.A prova de Imunodifusão Radial (IDR) é um método in vitro conveniente para determinar a concentração de antígenos no produto final como um todo, de vacinas anti-rábicas para uso veterinário. Os reativos padrões candidatos para uso na prova IDR, proposta para o controle de processo de vacinas de cultivo celular, elaboradas na América Latina e Caribe, foram produzidos e padronizados no Instituto Panamericano de Proteção de Alimentos e Zoonoses (INPPAZ). A validação dos padrões e o controle de qualidade de 28 lotes de vacinas anti-rábicas, de diferentes procedências, foram realizados na Faculdade de Ciências Veterinárias da Universidade de La Plata, Argentina (UNLP). Todas as vacinas foram elaboradas com virus rábico cepa Pasteur (PV) em células BHK e sua atividade foi determinada através de provas in vivo (NIH) e in vitro (IDR). Os resultados dos reativos, candidatos para as provas de padronização, demonstraram estabilidade, sensibilidade e reprodutibilidade. Por análise de variância e de regressão foi estimada a potência relativa de 1.2 entre as vacinas problemas e a vacina de referência. Os resultados deste estudo de validação indicam que o INPPAZ, está em condições de elaborar e distribuir os reativos padrões acima mencionados e apoiar a adoção da técnica de IDR (sensível, rápida, econômica) pelos laboratórios de produção de vacinas anti-rábicas da América Latina e Caribe.

Graciela S. MICELI; Jorge TORROBA; Walter TORRES; Jorge ESTEVES MADERO; Ana Maria DÍAZ

2000-01-01

217

Gadolinium ferromagnetic mesoparticles from gels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gadolinium/silica composites have been obtained by the sol-gel method. Ultrasound energy was employed for hydrolysis and polycondensation silica alkoxyde activation. Composites magnetic behavior has been studied by a Faraday magnetometer. Low temperature magnetization has been followed by a SQUID magnetometer working at 2K. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used for samples characterization. Results show that there are ferromagnetic gadolinium mesoparticles (<50 nm) embedded in a diamagnetic silica matrix. The magnetization of this composite upon external magnetic field after zero field cooling (ZFC) down to the liquid He temperature shows the characteristic behavior of a dispersed meso-scale ferromagnet.

Blanco, E.; Esquivias, L.; Dominguez, M. [Univ. de Cadiz (Spain)

1995-12-31

218

Principles of Gel Permeation Chromatography  

Science.gov (United States)

Principles of Gel Permeation Chromatography presents the principles of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for students in introductory undergraduate courses of chemistry and biochemistry. These principles are presented in four sections: Introduction, Real Lab, Virtual Lab, and Microscopic Model. The Introduction and Real Lab sections present a brief view of the basic experimental apparatus typically used in laboratory GPC in order to provide a concrete connection of the real process of separation. The basic elements of column chromatography, emphasizing the stationary and mobile phases, are presented in the Introduction, followed by a sequence of pictures and texts describing major steps in GPC analysis in the Real Lab section. The Virtual Lab section is a simulator. Three samples are available for a virtual GPC experiment: sample 1, containing hemoglobin; sample 2, containing methylene blue; and sample 3, containing both methylene blue and hemoglobin. Each sample undergoes a virtual separation run, which is dynamically represented in three ways in the software: a virtual column, the collected fractions, and a virtual chromatogram. This threefold representation allows the simultaneous view of key aspects of the process to demonstrate the correlation between the experimental procedure and the resulting chromatogram.

219

Microwave densification of porous silica gel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultrahigh optical quality silica glass can be fabricated using the sol-gel method. However, long processing times with chlorination are required for the gel to undergo dehydration and densification at high temperature. In this work, microwave hybrid heating (2.45GHz) was used to produce dense, gel-derived silica glasses. A heating schedule was established based on BET analysis and the pore texture evolution of the gel. Using microwave energy, dehydration and densification of the gel were achieved within a few hours with no cracking or foaming. In this presentation, the microwave-processed and conventionally sintered silica gels will be evaluated with respect to bulk density, microhardness, FTIR and UV-VIS-NIR spectra. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

1993-01-01

220

Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility  

CERN Document Server

We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

Callan-Jones, A C

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effect of iron gel on dentin permeability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou avaliar in vitro o efeito do gel experimental contendo ferro na redução da condutividade hidráulica na dentina. Trinta e seis discos de dentina humana de 1 mm de espessura, foram obtidos de terceiros molares extraídos divididos em 3 grupos de 10 espécimes cada. Os grupos foram divididos nos seguintes grupos experimentais: F- flúor gel a 1,23%, pH 4,1; O- gel de oxalato de potássio a 3%, pH 4,1; I- gel de sulfato ferroso FeSO4 a 10 mmol/L, pH 4 (more) ,1. Os géis foram aplicados na dentina sob as diferentes condições: após o ácido fosfórico a 37% a antes do ácido cítrico a 6%. Os resultados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey, com nível de significância de 5%. Todos os grupos (gel de flúor, oxalato de potássio e gel de ferro) não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si para todas as condições testadas, exceto na presença da smear layer (p Abstract in english This study evaluated in vitro the effect of an experimental gel containing iron on the reduction of hydraulic conductance of dentin. Thirty-six 1-mm-thick dentin discs obtained from extracted human third molars were divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each. The groups corresponded to the following experimental materials: 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel, pH 4.1; 3% potassium oxalate gel, pH 4.1 (Oxa-Gel®); and iron sulfate gel (10 mmol/L FeSO4), pH 4.1. The gels (more) were applied to dentin under the following conditions: after 37% phosphoric acid and before 6% citric acid. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no significant differences (p

Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho; Reinato, João Victor Donazan; Sales-Peres, André de Carvalho; Marsicano, Juliane Avansini

2011-01-01

222

Tridimensional dosimetry using MAGIC gel with formaldehyde  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the application of MAGIC gel with formaldehyde (MAGIC-f) in the tri dimensional dose distribution measurement of an IMRT planning. A high similarity was found between the dose distributions measured by the gel dosimeter and the dose distributions expected by the treatment planning system (TPS) in all of the irradiated volume, this was proved by the direct overlapping of these isodoses. These results show that MAGIC-f gel is feasible for tridimensional dose distribution measurements. (author)

2010-01-01

223

Differential analysis of 2D gel images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two-dimensional polyacrylomide gel electrophoresis remains a popular and powerful tool for identifying proteins that are differentially expressed across treatment conditions. Due to the overwhelming number of proteins and the tremendous variation shown in gel images, the differential analysis of 2D gel images is challenging. While commercial software packages are available for such analysis, they require considerable human intervention for spot detection and matching. Moreover, the quantitative comparison across groups of gels is based on simple classical tests that often do not fully account for the experimental design. We developed software with a graphical user interface, RegStatGel, which implements a novel statistical algorithm for identifying differentially expressed proteins. Unlike current commercial software packages, it is free, open-source, easy to use and almost fully automated. It also provides more advanced statistical tools. More importantly, by using a master watershed map, RegStatGel bypasses the spot-matching procedure, which is a time-consuming bottleneck in gel image analysis. The software is freely available for academic use and has been tested in Matlab 7.01 under Windows XP. Detailed instructions on how to use RegStatGel to analyze 2D gel images are provided.

Li F; Seillier-Moiseiwitsch F

2011-01-01

224

Differential analysis of 2D gel images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-dimensional polyacrylomide gel electrophoresis remains a popular and powerful tool for identifying proteins that are differentially expressed across treatment conditions. Due to the overwhelming number of proteins and the tremendous variation shown in gel images, the differential analysis of 2D gel images is challenging. While commercial software packages are available for such analysis, they require considerable human intervention for spot detection and matching. Moreover, the quantitative comparison across groups of gels is based on simple classical tests that often do not fully account for the experimental design. We developed software with a graphical user interface, RegStatGel, which implements a novel statistical algorithm for identifying differentially expressed proteins. Unlike current commercial software packages, it is free, open-source, easy to use and almost fully automated. It also provides more advanced statistical tools. More importantly, by using a master watershed map, RegStatGel bypasses the spot-matching procedure, which is a time-consuming bottleneck in gel image analysis. The software is freely available for academic use and has been tested in Matlab 7.01 under Windows XP. Detailed instructions on how to use RegStatGel to analyze 2D gel images are provided. PMID:21187240

Li, Feng; Seillier-Moiseiwitsch, Françoise

2011-01-01

225

Antidandruff shampoo based on a gel network  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hair shampoo composition comprising: A. a cleaning phase, B. an azole antidandruff agent, C. and an aqueous conditioning gel network, the gel network comprising: (a) fatty material (b) a gel network anionic surfactant comprising an alkyl group with from 16 to 30 carbons (c) optionally a cationic surfactant wherein the conditioning gel network has no overall charge or is anionic and wherein the cleansing phase comprises a cleansing anionic surfactant which comprises an alkyl group with from 8 to 14 carbons, D. an aqueous carrier.

MALCOLM MURRAY ANDREW; THUY-ANH PHAM

226

ANTIDANDRUFF SHAMPOO BASED ON A GEL NETWORK  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hair shampoo composition comprising: A. a cleaning phase, B. an azole antidandruff agent, C. and an aqueous conditioning gel network, the gel network comprising: (a) fatty material (b) a gel network anionic surfactant comprising an alkyl group with from 16 to 30 carbons (c) optionally a cationic surfactant wherein the conditioning gel network has no overall charge or is anionic and wherein the cleansing phase comprises a cleansing anionic surfactant which comprises an alkyl group with from 8 to 14 carbons, D. an aqueous carrier.

MURRAY ANDREW MALCOLM; PHAM THUY-ANH

227

SOL-GEL processes and their applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SOL-GEL process was invented at the end of sixties for the preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel. The history of its development, with special stress upon the contribution from Italian scientists, is discussed. Basic principles of SOL-GEL processes, not only the classical but also the recent ones, starting from metallorganic compounds (generally alkoxides) are described. Practical realizations of the SOL-GEL processes are presented. All known methods of starting preparation i.e. sols or broths, especially those concerning the Italian liquid-liquid extraction method, are described. A list of the materials obtained by the SOL-GEL processes and their field of application is also reported.

Deptula, A.; Majani, C.

1986-09-01

228

Bitongning gel and its preparing method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a Bitongning gel and a preparation method thereof, the drug ingredients are small centipeda herb and biond magnolia flower wet distillation aromatic water, the gel matrix is carbomer, the solvent is propylene glycol and polysorbate 80, the antibacterial agent is ethyl hydroxybenzoate, the stabilizer is ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt and the pH regulator is triethanolamine. The Bitongning gel has transparent gel, good dispersion and storage resistance, can prolong the contact time of drug with nasal mucosa and be conductive to improving the bioavailability and the efficacy.

YUXIN TONG

229

Stacking gels: A method for maximising output for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the gold standard of molecular typing methods, has a major disadvantage of an unusually long electrophoretic time. From the original protocol of 6 days, it was modified to 3 days and subsequently to a single day. We describe the procedure of stacking five to six gels one on top of another in order to increase and maximize the output in a shorter time without compromising the resolution and reproducibility. All the variables that affect pulsed field gels during electrophoresis were taken into consideration. We firstly optimized the parameters to be used and secondly determined whether stacking of five to six gels had any effect on the molecular separation during electrophoresis in comparison with a single gel run. DNA preparation, restriction, electrophoresis, staining and gel documentation was carried out based on previously published methods. Gels were analysed using BioNumerics and dice coefficient and unweighted pair group methods were used to generate dendrograms based on 1.5% tolerance values. Identical band profiles and band resolution-separation were seen in the PFGE patterns with single gel and multiple stacking gels. Cluster analysis further strengthened the fact that results from stacking gels were reproducible and comparable with a single gel run. This method of stacking gels saves time and maximizes the output at the same time. The run time for a single gel was about 28 hours, but with six stacked gels the run time was 54 hours compared with 28 x 6 = 168 hours if they were run separately as single gels thus saving time of 67.86%. Beside the big factor of saving time, stacking gels save resources (electricity, reagents, water, chemicals and working time) by increasing the sample throughput in a shorter time without compromising on quality of data. But optimization of working parameters is vital depending on the PFGE system used.

Heng See; Heng Chua; Puthucheary S

2009-01-01

230

Gel-eletroforese no diagnóstico da varíola Gel-electrophoresis in the smallpox diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O emprego de gel-eletroforese no diagnóstico da varíola, demonstrou ser ao menos trinta vezes (30X) mais sensível que o teste de agar-gel, nas condições descritas (tabela I). Doze (12) espécimes, cujos testes convencionais de inoculação em ovos embrionados e de agar-gel resultaram positivos, foram testados em suas diluições originais congeladas por mais de um ano, sendo seis deles revelados por gel-eletroforese enquanto nenhum o foi por agar-gel (tabela II). Trinta e três (33) amostras isoladas no laboratório, foram testadas com material colhido de membrana cório-alantóica da primeira inoculação para o diagnóstico, conservado em glicerina 50%, resultando 15 positivas em gel-eletroforese e apenas 3 em agar-gel (tabela II). Os últimos 60 espécimes recebidos para diagnóstico, através a Campanha de Erradicação da Varíola, também resultaram negativos em gel-eletroforese, que não mostrou falsos-positivos nas condições descritas.The test of gel-electrophoresis applied to the pox virus group showed to be at least thirth times (30X) more sensitive than agar-gel test on the described conditions (Table I). Twelve specimens, which were positives form Smallpox in the conventional tests of egg inoculation and agar-gel difusion test, have been screened in their original dilutions frozen for more than 1 year and six of them were still detectable by gel-eletrophoresis, while by agar-gel test any of them was positive (Table II). Thirty three Smallpox isolates have been tested with material from first egg inoculation (chorioallantoic membranes) which have been stored in glycerin 50%, at - 15ºC. Fifteen of them were still positive by gel-electrophoresis and only 3 by agar-gel (Table II). The last 60 specimens received for diagnosis from Smallpox Erradication Campaign (CEV), were negatives by both tests. The gel-electrophoresis, did not show false-positives on described conditions.

Julio A. Mesquita; Akira Homma; Hermann G. Schatzmayr

1972-01-01

231

Cookies comprising dietary fiber gel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to the present invention, fat and caloric content of cookies can be reduced by the replacement of a portion fat content normally found in cookies with an equal amount of dietary fiber. The result is that fat and caloric content of cookies can be manipulated with minimal effect on taste and texture. Furthermore, the cookies can further comprise functional foods that increase health and nutritional benefits of the cookies. The functional foods can be added individually, and in any combination thereof. Hence, in addition to reducing fat and caloric content of cookies by replacing a portion of fat with dietary fiber gel, additional health benefits can be achieved with compositions that include functional foods.

SHUKLA TRIVENI P; HALPERN GREGORY J

232

COOKIES COMPRISING DIETARY FIBER GEL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to the present invention, fat and caloric content of cookies can be reduced by the replacement of a portion fat content normally found in cookies with an amount of dietary fiber. The result is that fat and caloric content of cookies can be manipulated with minimal effect on taste and texture. Furthermore, the cookies can further comprise functional foods that increase health and nutritional benefits of the cookies. The functional foods can be added individually, and in any combination thereof. Hence, in addition to reducing fat and caloric content of cookies by replacing a portion of fat with dietary fiber gel, additional health benefits can be achieved with compositions that include functional foods.

SHUKLA Triveni P.; HALPERN Gregory J.

233

Cookies comprising dietary fiber gel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to the present invention, fat and caloric content of cookies can be reduced by the replacement of a portion fat content normally found in cookies with an amount of dietary fiber. The result is that fat and caloric content of cookies can be manipulated with minimal effect on taste and texture. Furthermore, the cookies can further comprise functional foods that increase health and nutritional benefits of the cookies. The functional foods can be added individually, and in any combination thereof. Hence, in addition to reducing fat and caloric content of cookies by replacing a portion of fat with dietary fiber gel, additional health benefits can be achieved with compositions that include functional foods.

SHUKLA TRIVENI P; HALPERN GREGORY J

234

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

235

Radiation sensitive polymer gel dosimeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiation sensitive gels are studied for their potential to retain a permanent 3D dose distribution for applications in radiotherapy. Co-monomers dissolved in a tissue-equivalent hydrogel undergo a polymerization reaction upon absorption of ionizing radiation. The polymer formed influences the local spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of the dosimeter that can be determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The relationship between T2 and the absorbed dose was studied for different initial chemical compositions. The aim was to find a model linking the changes in T2 with absorbed dose to the initial composition of the dosimeter. It is believed this will help designing new gel dosimeters having desired properties to minimize the uncertainty in the determination of the dose distribution. 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and FT-Raman spectroscopy were used to quantify the amount of monomers still remaining after the absorption of a given dose of radiation. This data is used to model the changes of T2 as a function of the absorbed dose. A model of fast exchange of magnetization between three proton pools was used, where the fraction of protons (fxH ) in the xth pool is obtained from the chemical composition of the dosimeter and the apparent T2 of each pool is determined for a given composition. Initially, the protons are contained in two pools; a mobile (mob), which contains the water protons and the monomers protons, and a gelatin (gela) proton pool. The mobile pool is partially depleted as polymer is formed, the protons are transferred into the polymer (pol) pool. In the figure, the experimental data along with the calculated values are plotted for three different monomer concentrations, with the gelatin concentration fixed. The model is seen to provide a good fit to the experimental data

2000-01-01

236

Terpolymer smart gels: synthesis and characterizations  

Science.gov (United States)

Two smart terpolymer gels, MS-1 and MS-2, were synthesized such that the same gel can respond to more than one external environmental condition, such as pH, temperature, solvent composition, electric field. So two terpolymers gels of vinyl monomers such as sodium acrylate, acrylamide and N-isopropyl acrylamide were synthesized by using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl ethylene diamine (TMEDA) as an accelerator and methylene bisacrylamide as a cross-linker. These terpolymers were characterized by elemental and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The swelling behavior of these terpolymer smart gels was evaluated by changing the pH, temperature and solvent composition. The variation of the swelling behavior with time was evaluated in an aqueous medium at room temperature. The time taken for maximum swelling (tm) was about 20 min for the gel MS-2. However the tm value for the gel MS-1 is higher than that of MS-2. The swelling behavior remains almost unchanged over a temperature range of 22-50 °C for both the gels. The discontinuous volume transitions were observed at pH 7.6 and 8.2 for the two gels, MS-1 and MS-2, respectively. The gel MS-1 suddenly shrinks below and swells above pH 7.6. Correspondingly, the pH is 8.2 for the case of MS-2. Volume transitions in an acetone-water mixture were also observed for these gels. The swelling behaviors of these two smart gels are almost parallel above the 40% acetone concentration.

Bag, Dibyendu S.; Alam, Sarfaraz; Mathur, G. N.

2004-10-01

237

The relationship of agarose gel structure to the sieving of spheres during agarose gel electrophoresis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand the organization of fibers in an agarose gel, digitized electron micrographs are used here to determine the frequency distribution of interfiber distance (2Pc) in thin sections of agarose gels. For a preparation of underivatized agarose, a 1.5% gel has a Pc distribution that is indisti...

Griess, G A; Guiseley, K B; Serwer, P

238

Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan g...

Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, F., van de

239

FLURBIPROFEN AND MUSCLE RELAXANT GEL COMBINATIONS THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A topical pharmaceutical gel includes flurbiprofen or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of flurbiprofen, thiocolchicoside or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of thiocolchicoside, and menthol. Pharmaceutical combinations of flurbiprofen, thiocolchicoside, and menthol in the form of topical gels with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and myorelaxant activities are described.

CAKIR FATIH; TURKYILMAZ ALI; CIFTER UMIT

240

Fluorescence detection for gel and capillary electrophoresis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First, an indirect fluorescence detection system for the separation of proteins via gel electrophoresis. Quantities as low as 50 nanograms of bovine serum albumin and soybean trypsin inhibitor are separated and detected visually without the need for staining of the analytes. This is very similar to levels of protein commonly separated with gel electrophoresis.

Hogan, B.

1992-07-21

 
 
 
 
241

21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin gel. 520.1452 Section 520.1452...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1452 Moxidectin gel. (a) Specifications . Each...contains 20 milligrams (2 percent) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor . See No....

2010-04-01

242

Spreading of liquid drops on Agar gels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the spreading of pure water drops or water drops with surfactine (surfactant produced by bacteria Bacillus Subtilis) on gels (Agar/Water gel). We find that, surprisingly, the drops do not spread indefinitely, but remain in a state of partial wetting. Eventually the liquid diffuses into the ...

Banaha, Mehdi; Daerr, Adrian; Limat, Laurent

243

Halogen-bonding-triggered supramolecular gel formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Supramolecular gels are topical soft materials involving the reversible formation of fibrous aggregates using non-covalent interactions. There is significant interest in controlling the properties of such materials by the formation of multicomponent systems, which exhibit non-additive properties emerging from interaction of the components. The use of hydrogen bonding to assemble supramolecular gels in organic solvents is well established. In contrast, the use of halogen bonding to trigger supramolecular gel formation in a two-component gel ('co-gel') is essentially unexplored, and forms the basis for this study. Here, we show that halogen bonding between a pyridyl substituent in a bis(pyridyl urea) and 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene brings about gelation, even in polar media such as aqueous methanol and aqueous dimethylsulfoxide. This demonstrates that halogen bonding is sufficiently strong to interfere with competing gel-inhibitory interactions and create a 'tipping point' in gel assembly. Using this concept, we have prepared a halogen bond donor bis(urea) gelator that forms co-gels with halogen bond acceptors.

Meazza L; Foster JA; Fucke K; Metrangolo P; Resnati G; Steed JW

2013-01-01

244

Process for Production of Silica Gel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silica gel is produced by the Si alkoxide hydrolysis method, using a new technique in which evaporation is effected when the Si alkoxide concentration is above 40 mole percent, thus drying the liquid sol or gel before the Si alkoxide is completely decompo...

I. Yoshida

1988-01-01

245

Effect of iron gel on dentin permeability.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated in vitro the effect of an experimental gel containing iron on the reduction of hydraulic conductance of dentin. Thirty-six 1-mm-thick dentin discs obtained from extracted human third molars were divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each. The groups corresponded to the following experimental materials: 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel, pH 4.1; 3% potassium oxalate gel, pH 4.1 (Oxa-Gel®); and iron sulfate gel (10 mmol/L FeSO4), pH 4.1. The gels were applied to dentin under the following conditions: after 37% phosphoric acid and before 6% citric acid. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no significant differences (p0.05) among the gels. This study suggests that the iron gel promoted reduction in dentin permeability comparable to that of the other agents and thus may be considered a good clinical alternative for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. PMID:21915516

Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho; Reinato, João Victor Donazan; Sales-Peres, André de Carvalho; Marsicano, Juliane Avansini

2011-01-01

246

Effect of iron gel on dentin permeability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluated in vitro the effect of an experimental gel containing iron on the reduction of hydraulic conductance of dentin. Thirty-six 1-mm-thick dentin discs obtained from extracted human third molars were divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each. The groups corresponded to the following experimental materials: 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel, pH 4.1; 3% potassium oxalate gel, pH 4.1 (Oxa-Gel®); and iron sulfate gel (10 mmol/L FeSO4), pH 4.1. The gels were applied to dentin under the following conditions: after 37% phosphoric acid and before 6% citric acid. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no significant differences (p<0.05) among the groups in any of the conditions for hydraulic conductance reduction, except for smear layer presence. The active agents reduced dentin permeability, but they produced significantly lower (p<0.05) reduction in hydraulic conductance when compared to presence of smear layer. The effectiveness in reducing dentin permeability was not significantly different (p>0.05) among the gels. This study suggests that the iron gel promoted reduction in dentin permeability comparable to that of the other agents and thus may be considered a good clinical alternative for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

Sales-Peres SH; Reinato JV; Sales-Peres Ade C; Marsicano JA

2011-01-01

247

Catalytic control over supramolecular gel formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low-molecular-weight gels show great potential for application in fields ranging from the petrochemical industry to healthcare and tissue engineering. These supramolecular gels are often metastable materials, which implies that their properties are, at least partially, kinetically controlled. Here we show how the mechanical properties and structure of these materials can be controlled directly by catalytic action. We show how in situ catalysis of the formation of gelator molecules can be used to accelerate the formation of supramolecular hydrogels, which drastically enhances their resulting mechanical properties. Using acid or nucleophilic aniline catalysis, it is possible to make supramolecular hydrogels with tunable gel-strength in a matter of minutes, under ambient conditions, starting from simple soluble building blocks. By changing the rate of formation of the gelator molecules using a catalyst, the overall rate of gelation and the resulting gel morphology are affected, which provides access to metastable gel states with improved mechanical strength and appearance despite an identical gelator composition.

Boekhoven J; Poolman JM; Maity C; Li F; van der Mee L; Minkenberg CB; Mendes E; van Esch JH; Eelkema R

2013-05-01

248

On shear rheology of gel propellants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Selected fuel, oxidizer and simulant gels were prepared and rheologically characterized using a rotational rheometer. For fuel gelation both organic and inorganic gellants were utilized, whereas oxidizers and simulants were gelled with addition of silica and polysaccharides, respectively. The generalized Herschel-Bulkley constitutive model was found to most adequately represent the gels studied. Hydrazine-based fuels, gelled with polysaccharides, were characterized as shear-thinning pseudoplastic fluids with low shear yield stress, whereas inhibited red-fuming nitric acid (IRFNA) and hydrogen peroxide oxidizers, gelled with silica, were characterized as yield thixotropic fluids with significant shear yield stress. Creep tests were conducted on two rheological types of gels with different gellant content and the results were fitted by Burgers-Kelvin viscoelastic constitutive model. The effect of temperature on the rheological properties of gel propellant simulants was also investigated. A general rheological classification of gel propellants and simulants is proposed. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Rahimi, Shai; Peretz, Arie [RAFAEL, MANOR Propulsion and Explosive Systems Division, Haifa (Israel); Natan, Benveniste [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

2007-04-15

249

Phacolysin eye in-situ gel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a phacoline eye gel and a preparation method thereof. The phacoline eye gel contains the following components (per 1,000 mL) phacoline 50-150 mg, antiseptic 0.05-1 g, osmotic pressure regulator 1.0-7.5 g, gel matrix 30-150 g, and acid/base buffer and water for injection in balancing amount. The inventive phacoline eye gel optimizes adjuvants and improves production process, so as to enrich the phacoline dosage forms, remarkably prolong the retention time of the phacoline in eyes, improve the therapeutic effect, reduce eye drop frequency, and prevent the occurrence of cataract and glaucoma. In addition, the eye gel has reduced fluidity and can reduce the drug absorption in lacrimal passage and nasopharyngeal mucosa, so as reduce systematic side effects.

ZHENGLIAN XIAO

250

FTIR thermal analysis on organofunctionalized silica gel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Silica gel modified with organic groups is widely used as a stationary phase for liquid chromatography. Grafting synthesis can be used to obtain stable modified silica gel surfaces. In this work, silica gel (10 nm of pore diameter and surface area of 320 m² g-1) was chemically modified with 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane or 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and reacted with aniline, p-anisidine, benzylamine and 3-phenylpropylchloride in order to yield aromatic groups immobilized on the silica gel surface. Infrared spectroscopy was utilized for characterization of the aromatic groups grafted on the silica gel surface, using a quartz cell. The solids were heated at several temperatures in high vacuum and the infrared band areas of the organic groups were used to evaluate the thermal stability.

Foschiera José L.; Pizzolato Tania M.; Benvenutti Edilson V.

2001-01-01

251

Radiological properties of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological properties of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeters MAGIC, MAGAS, and MAGAT [methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper; methacrylic acid gelatine gel with ascorbic acid; and methacrylic acid gelatine and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride, respectively] have been investigated. The radiological water equivalence was determined by comparing the polymer gel macroscopic photon and electron interaction cross sections over the energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV and by Monte Carlo modeling of depth doses. Normoxic polymer gel dosimeters have a high gelatine and monomer concentration and therefore mass density (kg m-3) up to 3.8% higher than water. This results in differences between the cross-section ratios of the normoxic polymer gels and water of up to 3% for the attenuation, energy absorption, and collision stopping power coefficient ratios through the Compton dominant energy range. The mass cross-section ratios were within 2% of water except for the mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients ratios, which showed differences with water of up to 6% for energies less than 100 keV. Monte Carlo modeling was undertaken for the polymer gel dosimeters to model the electron and photon transport resulting from a 6 MV photon beam. The absolute percentage differences between gel and water were within 1% and the relative percentage differences were within 3.5%. The results show that the MAGAT gel formulation is the most radiological water equivalent of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeters investigated due to its lower mass density measurement compared with MAGAS and MAGIC gels.

2005-01-01

252

Comparative study of haemagglutination inhibition, Agar gel precipitation test, Serum neutralization and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection to avian influenza viruses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the serological tests for detection of avian in-fluenza viruses were carried-out by using Ham- agglutination inhibition (HI), Agar gel precipita-tion test (AGPT), and Enzyme linked immu-nosorbent assay (ELISA) and Serum neutraliza-tion test. The geometric mean titre (GMT) of hae- magglutination inhibition antibodies recor- ded as log2 indicated that the post vaccination titres in the field were on higher side i.e., 7.9 for H7 and 5.9 for H9. The correlation between HI titre and AGPT affirmed that for the AGPT test need high antibody titre for positive reaction. The pooled sera were also used to correlate the se-rum neutralization test and enzyme linked im- muno-sorbent assay. The serial two fold dilute- ons were tested for the serum neutralization ac- tivity and concluded that the HI titre log2 4 pro-vided 100% protection, than 52% and 45% pro-tection in 1:2 and 1:4 dilution was recorded, respectively. Similarly, the ELISA test showed positive results up to 1:16 HI titre, i.e. log2 4 and confirmed the linear relation between these two serological tests. In HI test, the concentration of antigen can influence the result. It also needs careful preparation of concentration of eryth-rocyte suspension. Agar Gel immuno-diffusion is basically a qualitative test as it can not de-termine the quantity of antigen or antibody with the help of this test. It lacks the level of sensi-tivity as offered by other test. If serum neutrali-zation test is performed on a pooled serum sam- ples, then it could lead to a false conclusion on antibodies status. ELISA is most sensitive, spe-cific and accurate as compare to all other sero-logical tests.

Shahid Faraz; Muhammad Abubakar; Mohammad Farooque; Sarfaraz Ali Fazlani; Ghluam Hussain Jaffar

2010-01-01

253

Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sol-gel bonds have been produced between smooth, clean silicon substrates by spin-coating solutions containing partially hydrolysed silicon alkoxides. The two coated substrates were assembled and the resulting sandwich fired at temperatures ranging from 60 to 600 deg. C. The sol-gel coatings were characterised using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy, while the corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were characterised using both microindentation and tensile testing. Bonding of silicon wafers has been successfully achieved at temperatures as low as 60 deg. C. At 300 deg. C, the interfacial fracture energy was 1.55 J/m2. At 600 deg. C, sol-gel bonding provided superior interfacial fracture energy over classical hydrophilic bonding (3.4 J/m2 vs. 1.5 J/m2). The increase in the interfacial fracture energy is related to the increase in film density due to the sintering of the sol-gel interface with increasing temperature. The superior interfacial fracture energy obtained by sol-gel bonding at low temperature is due to the formation of an interfacial layer, which chemically bonds the two sol-gel coatings on each wafer. Application of a tensile stress on the resulting bond leads to fracture of the samples at the silicon/sol-gel interface

2005-09-22

254

Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Swansiger, Rosalind W. (Livermore, CA); Fox, Glenn A. (Livermore, CA)

2005-05-17

255

FTIR thermal analysis on organofunctionalized silica gel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Sílica gel modificada com grupos orgânicos tem sido muito utilizada como fase estacionária para cromatografia líquida. Reações de enxerto podem ser usadas na obtenção de superfícies modificadas estáveis de sílica gel. Neste trabalho a sílica gel (10 nm de diâmetro de poro e 320 m² g-1 de área superficial) foi modificada quimicamente com 3-cloropropiltrimetoxisilano ou com 3-aminopropiltrimetoxisilano e posteriormente com anilina, p-anisidina, benzilamina e (more) 3-fenilpropilcloreto a fim de se obter grupos aromáticos imobilizados na superfície de sílica gel. A espectroscopia no infravermelho foi utilizada para a caracterização dos grupos aromáticos enxertados, usando-se uma cela de quartzo. Os sólidos foram aquecidos a várias temperaturas em alto vácuo sendo que as áreas sob as bandas dos grupos orgânicos obtidas no infravermelho foram usadas para estimar a estabilidade térmica. Abstract in english Silica gel modified with organic groups is widely used as a stationary phase for liquid chromatography. Grafting synthesis can be used to obtain stable modified silica gel surfaces. In this work, silica gel (10 nm of pore diameter and surface area of 320 m² g-1) was chemically modified with 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane or 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and reacted with aniline, p-anisidine, benzylamine and 3-phenylpropylchloride in order to yield aromatic groups immobil (more) ized on the silica gel surface. Infrared spectroscopy was utilized for characterization of the aromatic groups grafted on the silica gel surface, using a quartz cell. The solids were heated at several temperatures in high vacuum and the infrared band areas of the organic groups were used to evaluate the thermal stability.

Foschiera, José L.; Pizzolato, Tania M.; Benvenutti, Edilson V.

2001-04-01

256

Evaluation of a new antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine leukemia virus infection in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to validate a new blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (designated M108 for milk and S108 for serum samples) for detecting bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle. Milk, serum, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-blood samples were collected from 524 adult Holstein cows originating from 6 dairy herds in Central Argentina. The M108 and S108 were compared with agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), polymerase chain reaction and a commercial ELISA. Because there is currently no reference test capable of serving as a gold standard, the test sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) were evaluated by the use of a latent class model. Statistical inference was performed by classical maximum likelihood and by Bayesian techniques. The maximum-likelihood analysis was performed assuming conditional independence of tests, whereas the Bayesian approach allowed for conditional dependence. No clear conclusion could be drawn about conditional dependence of tests. Results with maximum likelihood (under conditional independence) and posterior Bayes (under conditional dependence) were practically the same. Conservative estimates of SE and SP (with 95% confidence intervals) for M108 were 98.6 (96.7; 99.6) and 96.7 (92.9; 98.8) and for S108 99.5 (98.2; 99.9) and 95.4 (90.9; 98.1), respectively. The ELISA 108 using either milk or serum to detect BLV-infected animals had comparable SE and SP with the official AGID and a commercial ELISA test, which are currently the most widely accepted tests for the serological diagnosis of BLV infection. Therefore, ELISA 108 can be used as an alternative test in monitoring and control programs.

Monti GE; Frankena K; Engel B; Buist W; Tarabla HD; de Jong MC

2005-09-01

257

Comparison of ovine lentivirus detection by conventional and recombinant serological methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recombinant (r) transmembrane protein (TM), major capsid protein P25, and matrix protein P16 of ovine lentivirus (OLV) were used as solid phase antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific antibodies against OLV in sheep sera. Sensitivity, specificity, and agreement of these three recombinant assays were compared with each other and with two currently available conventional OLV serological assays, the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and a whole-virus (WV) ELISA. Field sera from a total of 412 Midwestern United States sheep were tested and compared by the five OLV detection methods, including visibly healthy sheep selected for public sale (Group A, n = 171), samples from a breeding flock of Finnsheep and Finn-cross ewes (Group B, n = 184) and moribund sheep with clinical signs associated with OLV (Group C, n = 57). The rTM ELISA was the most sensitive OLV detection assay, both overall and within each group. Sera from 48.1% (198/412) of field samples were rTM ELISA positive. By contrast, positive rates for the rP25, rP16, and WV ELISAs and AGID test were 34.2%, 32.3%, 36.9%, and 26.9%, respectively. The rTM ELISA reactivity was 36.8% for Group A sera, 50.0% for Group B sera, and 75.4% for Group C sera. Among the 21 Group C sheep possessing OLV lung lesions at necropsy, 20 (95.2%) were rTM ELISA positive. The greatest test agreement occurred between the rP25 and the rP16 ELISAs. The data suggest that the recombinant TM immunoassay is the most accurate and sensitive of the five methods evaluated for the detection of serum anti-OLV antibodies in sheep, both at the subclinical infection and overt clinical disease stages.

Keen J; Kwang J; Rosati S

1995-08-01

258

Design and validation of an ELISA for equine infectious anemia (EIA) diagnosis using synthetic peptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three peptides derived from the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) surface proteins were synthesized to design and validate an ELISA for EIA diagnosis. Peptides identified as gp90-I and gp90-II correspond to the N- and C-terminal part of the surface glycoprotein gp90. Peptide gp45-1 overlaps the immunodominant epitope CIERTHVFC of the transmembrane glycoprotein gp45, and includes a hydrophilic chain close to the N-terminal end of this nonapeptide loop. Serum samples from 140 naturally infected horses with EIAV and a panel of 167 non-immune equine sera obtained from non-infected animals were used. Differences in reactivity between positive and negative serum samples were clearly distinguished. Samples considered weak positive to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test were "true" positive in the ELISA. These results are consistent with the improved sensitivity of the ELISA in comparison with the AGID test. The cyclic peptide that mimics the immunodominant sequence of gp45 showed excellent reactivity, thus suggesting that its functional activity depends significantly on its conformation, since very low reactivity was observed in the linear form of the peptide. The detectability indices of positive and negative sera reached 98% when gp90-II and gp45-I synthetic peptides were used in the same assay, illustrating the high specificity and sensitivity of the assay. Our study represents a first approach for the design of a diagnostic kit, which would allow the rapid analysis of a large numbers of serum samples from horses, and could be applied in endemic areas with different prevalence of infection.

Soutullo A; Verwimp V; Riveros M; Pauli R; Tonarelli G

2001-03-01

259

Acoustic evaluation of polymer gel dosimeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Advances in radiotherapy treatment techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy are placing increasing demands on radiation dosimetry for verification of dose distributions in 3D. In response, polymer gel dosimeters that are capable of recording dose distributions in 3D are currently being developed. Recently, a new technique for evaluation of absorbed dose distributions in these dosimeters using ultrasound was introduced. The current work aims to demonstrate the potential of ultrasound as an evaluation technique for polymer gel dosimeters and to investigate the ultrasound properties of two different dosimeter formulations, PAG and MAGIC gels

2002-01-01

260

Advances in sol-gel coating technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sol-gel coatings are thin, oxide layers applied from aqueous and non-aqueous media. In a dipping operation, the layer is typically less than one micron thick. This approach to depositing oxide layers has been used primarily in optical and electronic applications. Uses of these coatings in areas of wear and corrosion are known only in a few cases, such as semiconductor passivation layers or infiltrated fiber composites. The prospects for using sol-gel coatings for wear and corrosion are improving with new studies of electrochemical infiltration of gel layers and organic/inorganic hybrid layers. 57 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Klein, L.C. [Rutgers-The State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Ceramics Dept.; Sheppard, K. [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
261

Wet nanogranular materials: colloidal glass and gel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Partially wet granular medium is a mouldable material due to capillary cohesion and its behavior plays key roles in geophysics. However, completely wet nanogranules may also demonstrate mouldable properties via van der Waals attraction and they exhibit colloidal glass or gel characteristics, depending on the solvent. As solvent-enhanced attractions prevail, phase separation is observed and nanogranular gel can be obtained. In contrast, as cage effects dominate, the stable slurry is seen and the nanogranular glass can be prepared. Upon surfactant addition, however, the arrested glass state changes into colloidal gel due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between nanogranules.

Yuan CN; Li YF; Sheng YJ; Tsao HK

2011-11-01

262

Spreading of liquid drops on Agar gels  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the spreading of pure water drops or water drops with surfactine (surfactant produced by bacteria Bacillus Subtilis) on gels (Agar/Water gel). We find that, surprisingly, the drops do not spread indefinitely, but remain in a state of partial wetting. Eventually the liquid diffuses into the gel on a time scale short with respect to evaporation times. The drops containing surfactant show a complex dynamics: at first the spreading velocity decreases, until the front stops and starts receding at about constant velocity. Concurrently, a second front detaches from the rim of the drop if the agar concentration is sufficiently low, and continues to move outwards.

Banaha, M.; Daerr, A.; Limat, L.

2009-01-01

263

Pulsed field gel electrophoresis a practical guide  

CERN Multimedia

Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis: A Practical Guide is the first laboratory manual to describe the theory and practice of this technique. Based on the authors' experience developing pulsed field gel instruments and teaching procedures, this book provides everything a researcher or student needs to know in order to understand and carry out pulsed field gel experiments. Clear, well-tested protocols assume only that users have a basic familiarity with molecular biology. Thorough coverage of useful data, theory, and applications ensures that this book is also a lasting resource for more adv

Birren, Bruce

2012-01-01

264

Nucleation and growth of thermoreversible polymer gels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study the spatiotemporal low-frequency microrheology of a gelatin gel during the sol-gel transition after a fast temperature quench by tracking the motion of embedded colloidal particles. From the particle dynamics two different mechanisms responsible for the gelation of the sol phase can be identified: a fast process associated to the local nucleation of triple helices and a slow fiber growth triggered by presence of an intact network. We associate the latter to a gelation front propagating into the sol phase whose speed depends linearly on the quench depth and which accelerates the local rate of the sol-gel transition.

Gomez-Solano JR; Blickle V; Bechinger C

2013-01-01

265

Evaluation of radiochromic gel dosimetry and polymer gel dosimetry in a clinical dose verification.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative comparison of two full three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry techniques was assessed in a clinical setting: radiochromic gel dosimetry with an in-house developed optical laser CT scanner and polymer gel dosimetry with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To benchmark both gel dosimeters, they were exposed to a 6 MV photon beam and the depth dose was compared against a diamond detector measurement that served as golden standard. Both gel dosimeters were found accurate within 4% accuracy. In the 3D dose matrix of the radiochromic gel, hotspot dose deviations up to 8% were observed which are attributed to the fabrication procedure. The polymer gel readout was shown to be sensitive to B0 field and B1 field non-uniformities as well as temperature variations during scanning. The performance of the two gel dosimeters was also evaluated for a brain tumour IMRT treatment. Both gel measured dose distributions were compared against treatment planning system predicted dose maps which were validated independently with ion chamber measurements and portal dosimetry. In the radiochromic gel measurement, two sources of deviations could be identified. Firstly, the dose in a cluster of voxels near the edge of the phantom deviated from the planned dose. Secondly, the presence of dose hotspots in the order of 10% related to inhomogeneities in the gel limit the clinical acceptance of this dosimetry technique. Based on the results of the micelle gel dosimeter prototype presented here, chemical optimization will be subject of future work. Polymer gel dosimetry is capable of measuring the absolute dose in the whole 3D volume within 5% accuracy. A temperature stabilization technique is incorporated to increase the accuracy during short measurements, however keeping the temperature stable during long measurement times in both calibration phantoms and the volumetric phantom is more challenging. The sensitivity of MRI readout to minimal temperature fluctuations is demonstrated which proves the need for adequate compensation strategies. PMID:23965800

Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

2013-08-22

266

Evaluation of radiochromic gel dosimetry and polymer gel dosimetry in a clinical dose verification  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative comparison of two full three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry techniques was assessed in a clinical setting: radiochromic gel dosimetry with an in-house developed optical laser CT scanner and polymer gel dosimetry with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To benchmark both gel dosimeters, they were exposed to a 6 MV photon beam and the depth dose was compared against a diamond detector measurement that served as golden standard. Both gel dosimeters were found accurate within 4% accuracy. In the 3D dose matrix of the radiochromic gel, hotspot dose deviations up to 8% were observed which are attributed to the fabrication procedure. The polymer gel readout was shown to be sensitive to B0 field and B1 field non-uniformities as well as temperature variations during scanning. The performance of the two gel dosimeters was also evaluated for a brain tumour IMRT treatment. Both gel measured dose distributions were compared against treatment planning system predicted dose maps which were validated independently with ion chamber measurements and portal dosimetry. In the radiochromic gel measurement, two sources of deviations could be identified. Firstly, the dose in a cluster of voxels near the edge of the phantom deviated from the planned dose. Secondly, the presence of dose hotspots in the order of 10% related to inhomogeneities in the gel limit the clinical acceptance of this dosimetry technique. Based on the results of the micelle gel dosimeter prototype presented here, chemical optimization will be subject of future work. Polymer gel dosimetry is capable of measuring the absolute dose in the whole 3D volume within 5% accuracy. A temperature stabilization technique is incorporated to increase the accuracy during short measurements, however keeping the temperature stable during long measurement times in both calibration phantoms and the volumetric phantom is more challenging. The sensitivity of MRI readout to minimal temperature fluctuations is demonstrated which proves the need for adequate compensation strategies.

Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

2013-09-01

267

Prevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in sheep from Distrito Federal, BrazilPrevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da língua azul em ovinos do Distrito Federal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in sheep from Distrito Federal. Sera from 606 sheep of 18 herds were submitted to the agar-gel immunodiffusion for bluetongue virus antibodies. The prevalences of bluetongue infection found in Distrito Federal were 100% (CI 95%: 84.67 to 100.00) for flocks and 52.37% (389/606) (CI 95%: 35.76 to 68.98) for animals. Thus, data from the present study showed that infection by bluetongue virus is highly widespread in sheep flocks in the Distrito Federal, which intensifies the need for assessments on the impact of this disease in Brazil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da língua azul (BTV) em rebanhos ovinos do Distrito Federal. Soros de 606 ovinos, pertencentes a 18 propriedades, foram analisados pela técnica de imunodifusão em ágar gel (AGID), para pesquisa de anticorpos contra o BTV. As prevalências de rebanhos e de animais infectados pelo vírus da língua azul no Distrito Federal foram respectivamente de 100% (IC 95%: 84,67% a 100%) e de 52,37% (389/606) (IC 95%: 35,76% a 68,98%). Assim, o presente estudo permite concluir que o vírus da língua azul está amplamente disseminada no rebanho ovino do Distrito Federal.

Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles; Fernanda Coura Morcatti; Alessandro de Sá Guimarães; Zélia Inês Portela Lobato; Andrey Pereira Lage; Vitor Salvador Picão Gonçalves; Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia; Marcos Bryan Heinemann

2012-01-01

268

Epidemiologia da infecção pelo vírus da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (LEB)/ Epidemiology of Enzootic Bovine Leukemia (BLV) virus infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho investigar a presença de anticorpos anti-vírus da leucose enzoótica além de identificar a associação entre variáveis de manejo e soropositividade para essa infecção em bovinos no Estado de Alagoas, Brasil. Foram examinados 17 rebanhos, perfazendo um total de 341 animais, distribuídos em oito municípios. A pesquisa de anticorpos foi efetuada pela técnica de Imunodifusão em Gel de Ágar (IDGA), utilizando-se o antígeno constituí (more) do por lipopolissacarídeos e proteínas do vírus da leucose bovina. Das 341 amostras analisadas, 95 (27,8%) foram positivas e o número de focos constatados foi de 12 (70,6%). Foram observadas diferenças significativas para as variáveis: assistência técnica (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of anti-enzootic leucosis virus antibodies and also to identify the association between seropositivity and management variables for this infection in cattle in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. A total of 17 herds were examined, totaling 341 animals, distributed in eight counties. The antibody detection was performed by the technique of agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), using the antigen constituted of lipids and protei (more) ns from bovine leukosis virus. From the 341 samples analyzed, 95 (27.8%) were positive and the number of outbreaks was 12 (70.6%). Significant differences were observed for the variables: technical assistance (p

Pinheiro Junior, José Wilton; Souza, Maria Evódia de; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Lira, Nair Silva Cavalcanti; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

2013-06-01

269

Gel electrolyte candidates for electrochromic devices (ECDs)  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison of key parameters of seven different gel electrolytes for use in electrochromic devices (ECD) is reported. The ionic conductivity, transmittance, and stability of the gel electrolytes are important considerations for smart window applications. The gel electrolytes were prepared by combining polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with a salt and a solvent combination. Two different salts, lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and trifluorosulfonimide (LiN(CF3SO2)2), and three solvent combinations, acetonitrile and propylene carbonate (ACN and PC), ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate (EC and PC), and Gamma-butyrolactone and propylene carbonate (GBL and PC) were investigated. Results show that gel electrolytes composed of a LiClO4 and GBL+PC combination and a LiClO4 and EC+PC combination are the best candidates for a smart window device based on its high conductivity over time and various temperatures, as well as its electrochemical stability and high transmittance.

Legenski, Susan E.; Xu, Chunye; Liu, Lu; Le Guilly, Marie O.; Taya, Minoru

2004-07-01

270

Prepartially crosslinked gel for retarding fluid flow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a subterranean formation having channels which have a high permeability to the flow of fluids. A process for retarding fluid flow in the channels comprises: providing a gel-forming composition which when substantially completely gelled in the high permeability channels is operable for retarding fluid flow therein. The gel-forming composition comprises: an aqueous solution comprising a first substance selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, a polyvinyl alcohol copolymer, and mixtures thereof, and an effective amount of a second substance selected from the group consisting of aldehydes, aldehyde generating substances, acetals, acetal generating substances, and mixtures thereof capable of crosslinking with the first substance through the formation of acetal crosslinkages. The second substance is operable for forming a gel with the aqueous solution when the gel-forming composition is acidic.

Sandiford, B.B.; Chiou, C.S.

1987-05-19

271

Oxygen-17 relaxation in aqueous agarose gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear magnetic relaxation of oxygen-17 in H2 17O enriched agarose gels shows that existing explanations of water behaviour are oversimplified. Satisfactory models must include at least three proton phases, two of which involve water molecules. (Auth.)

1977-08-15

272

Dip coating of sol-gels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dip coating is the primary means of depositing sol-gel films for precision optical coatings. Sols are typically multicomponent systems consisting of an inorganic phase dispersed in a solvent mixture, with each component differing in volatility and surface...

A. J. Hurd C. J. Brinker P. R. Schunk

1991-01-01

273

K-Basin gel formation studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a). This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates.

Beck, M.A.

1998-07-23

274

Buckling instability in liquid crystalline physical gels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a nematic gel we observe a low-energy buckling deformation arising from soft and semisoft elastic modes. We prepare the self-assembled gel by dissolving a coil-side-group liquid-crystalline polymer-coil copolymer in a nematic liquid crystal. The gel has long network strands and a precisely tailored structure, making it ideal for studying nematic rubber elasticity. Under polarized optical microscopy we observe a striped texture that forms when gels uniformly aligned at 35 degrees C are cooled to room temperature. We model the instability using the molecular theory of nematic rubber elasticity, and the theory correctly captures the change in pitch length with sample thickness and polymer concentration. This buckling instability is a clear example of a low-energy deformation that arises in materials where polymer network strains are coupled to the director orientation.

Verduzco R; Meng G; Kornfield JA; Meyer RB

2006-04-01

275

Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

276

Sol-gel deposited electrochromic coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrochromic devices have increasing application in display devices, switchable mirrors and smart windows. A variety of vacuum deposition technologies have been used to make electrochromic devices. The sol- gel process offers an alternative approach to the synthesis of optical quality and low cost electrochromic device layers. This study summarizes the developments in sol-gel deposited electrochromic films. The sol-gel process involves the formation of oxide networks upon hydrolysis-condensation of alkoxide precursors. In this study we cover the sol-gel deposited oxides of WO[sub 3], V[sub 2]O[sub 5], TiO[sub 2], Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5], and NiO[sub x].

Ozer, N.; Lampert, C.M.

1995-06-01

277

Ultraviolet absorption detection of DNA in gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method and apparatus for the detection and quantification of large fragments of unlabelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in agarose gels is presented. The technique is based on ultra-violet (UV) absorption by nucleotides. A deuterium lamp was used to illuminate regions of an electrophoresis gel. As DNA bands passed through the illuminated region of the gel the amount of UV light transmitted was reduced due to DNA absorption. Two detection systems were investigated. In the first system, synthetic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond strip detectors were used to locate regions of DNA in the gels by detecting the transmitted light. CVD diamond has a high indirect band gap of 5.45 eV and is therefore sensitive to UV photons of wavelengths

1998-01-01

278

Anticancer sustained-release gel injection  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an anticancer slow-release gel injection which contains slow-release microspheres containing an angiogenesis inhibitor, an amphiphilic block polymer, a solvent and a slow-release agent, wherein the composition of the amphiphilic block polymer and the non-organic solvent exhibit the property of temperature-sensitive gelation. After the in vivo injection, the injection turns into a stagnant and biodegradable water-insoluble gel and the gel slowly releases the drug contained therein for a plurality of weeks to a plurality of months. After the intratumoral or peritumoral injection, the anticancer slow-release gel injection can significantly reduce the general drug reactions and is used for treating tumors of different stages. The angiogenesis inhibitor is selected from SU5416, SU6668, bosutinib, sprycel, erlotinib, vandetanib, gefitnib, canertinib, lapatinib, lestaurtinib, masitinib, vatalanib, mubritinib, tandutinib, nilotinib, marimastat, nilotinib, pelitinib, telatinib, sunitinib, sorafenib, zarnestra, sirolimus, imatinfb, lenalidomide and thalidomide.

HAITING MAO; MINGHUA WANG

279

Optical analysis of gel dosimeters: Comparison of Fricke and normoxic polymer gels  

Science.gov (United States)

The dosimetry method based on optical analysis of gel layers has been experienced utilising both Fricke and polymer (normoxic) gels. The aim of the work was that of investigating the potentiality of a normoxic polymer gel and of performing a further verification of the reliability of Fricke gel dosimeters. Optical absorbance was measured, both with a spectrophotometer and by imaging light transmittance detected with a CCD camera. The results of the study of sensitivity, linearity of the response and reproducibility of the polymer gel dosimeter have shown acceptable performances, except for doses below 2 Gy. The linearity range extends up to 20 Gy. On the other side, dose images and profiles have shown noticeable differences when compared to those calculated or measured with ionisation chambers or Fricke gel dosimeters. Such Fricke dosimeters have given further confirmation of their reliability.

Gambarini, G.; Carrara, M.; Mariani, M.; Pirola, L.; Tomatis, S.; Valente, M.; Vanossi, E.

2007-10-01

280

N-Glycosylation of Gel1 or Gel2 is vital for cell wall ?-glucan synthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fungal cell wall is a dynamic structure that communicates with and protects the cell from outside stress. In Aspergillus fumigatus, the cell wall ?-glucans are mainly elongated by ?-1,3-glucanosyltransferases Gels, which consist of seven family members (Gel1-7) utilizing ?-1,3-glucan chains as substrates. Previously, we have shown that the mutant deficient of N-glycan processing displays a reduction in the cell wall ?-glucans, suggesting that N-glycosylation is required for the proper function of ?-1,3-glucanosyltransferase. To verify this hypothesis, in this study, the gene encoding ?-1,3-glucanosyltransferase Gel1 or Gel2 was deleted in the ?cwh41 mutant to construct a double-mutant ?gel1?cwh41 or ?gel2?cwh41. The growth phenotypes of both double mutants were similar to the single-mutant ?cwh41, suggesting that Gel1 and Gel2 are proteins that are mainly affected by deficient N-glycan processing in ?cwh41. Furthermore, the mutant ?gel1(Gel1-NM) or ?gel2(Gel2-NM), in which all potential N-glycosylation sites on Gel1 or Gel2 were removed by site-directed mutagenesis, showed phenotypes similar to the single-mutant ?gel1 or ?gel2. Biochemical analysis revealed that N-glycosylation was essential for the function of Gel1 or Gel2 and thus required for ?-glucan synthesis in A. fumigatus.

Zhao W; Lü Y; Ouyang H; Zhou H; Yan J; Du T; Jin C

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Elasticity of entangled polymer loops Olympic gels  

CERN Document Server

In this note we present a scaling theory for the elasticity of olympic gels, i.e., gels where the elasticity is a consequence of topology only. It is shown that two deformation regimes exist. The first is the non affine deformation regime where the free energy scales linear with the deformation. In the large (affine) deformation regime the free energy is shown to scale as $F \\propto Hookian stress - strain relation is predicted.

Vilgis, T A

1997-01-01

282

I-gel for Positive Pressure Ventilation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction: I-gel is a relatively new supra-glotitc airway device which is claimed to be superior to laryngeal mask airway. It can be used ingeneral anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation as well as with positive pressure ventilation.This study was designed to assess whether I-gel creates adequate laryngeal seal during positive pressure ventilation in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Methods: A prospective randomized study was made among the 60 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Airway was managed with either I-gel insertion or endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation in 30 patients each. Airway pressure, end-tidal CO2and oxygen saturation were monitored and compared between two groups. Inhaled and exhaled tidal volume, minute volume were recorded and leak volume and leak fraction was calculated and compared between two groups. Results: Oxygenation and ventilation (oxygen saturation and end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure) was within normal limit in both groups and comparable. Leak volume in tracheal tube group was 25.33±12.41 ml and in I-gel group it was 26.43±13.19 ml. Leak fraction was 0.0487±0.023 and 0.0417±0.022 in tracheal group and I-gel group respectively. The airway pressure during C02 pneumoperitoneumwas 20.55±3.25 cm H20 in tracheal tube group and 20.21± 3.97 cm H20 in I-gel group and there was no significant leak in either group. Statistically, there was no significant difference in leak volume, leak fraction and airway pressure between the two groups. Conclusions: I- gel may be an alternate to tracheal tube during general anesthesia with positive pressure ventilation in patients with normal airway pressure with acceptable leak, adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Keywords: I gel; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; positive pressure ventilation; tracheal intubation.

Maharjan SK

2013-01-01

283

A Practical Use for FXG Gel Dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In-phantom Fricke-xylenol orange-gelatin (FXG) gel dosimetry yields three dimensional (3D) dose data for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification within 18-24 hours from the point of request. The information obtained from a 3% dose difference, 3 mm distance-to-agreement gamma function comparison between treatment plan dose and gel-measured dose then provides a useful secondary 3D quality assurance check of the treatment plan prior to delivery.

Olding, T; Salomons, G; Darko, J; Schreiner, L J, E-mail: Tim.Olding@krcc.on.c

2010-11-01

284

Tridimensional dosimetry using MAGIC gel with formaldehyde; Dosimetria tridimensional usando gel MAGIC com formaldeido  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the application of MAGIC gel with formaldehyde (MAGIC-f) in the tri dimensional dose distribution measurement of an IMRT planning. A high similarity was found between the dose distributions measured by the gel dosimeter and the dose distributions expected by the treatment planning system (TPS) in all of the irradiated volume, this was proved by the direct overlapping of these isodoses. These results show that MAGIC-f gel is feasible for tridimensional dose distribution measurements. (author)

Pavoni, Juliana F.; Baffa, Oswaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica], e-mail: baffa@ffclrp.usp.br; Pike, Tina L.; Snow, Jessica; DeWerd, Larry A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics. Medical Radiation Research Center

2010-03-15

285

Preparative gel electrophoresis: detection, excision, and elution of protein bands from unstained gels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods are described for localizing proteins in unstained gels and accurately excising the regions containing them. A gel elutor, which is all glass with Lucite fittings, is also described. The elutor removes proteins from gels with a high yield and concentrates the protein in a small volume. The elutor is simple and very easy to use. A way is presented for avoiding the oxidation of methionine and cysteine during preparative electrophoresis.

Mardian JK; Isenberg I

1978-11-01

286

Study of nuclear glasses alteration gel and synthesis of some model gels; Etude du gel d`alteration des verres nucleaires et synthese de gels modeles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work deals with the general problem of alteration of the reference nuclear glass R7T7. Attention is paid particularly to the altered layer formed at the glass surface during alteration process. In opposition to previous works, related essentially to glass dissolution kinetics based on chemical analyses of lixiviated elements, this thesis deals with alteration problems through structural studies of the reference glass and derived gel. This approach allows the determination of mechanisms for the gel formation and a better understanding of the behaviour of glasses towards lixiviation. Both approaches appeared complementary. Based on several spectroscopic techniques, this work showed the particular role of cations such as calcium, zirconium and iron. Studies of silica-based synthetic gels showed the synergic effect of formers cation and of one highly coordinated cation. The variation of the wavenumber related to Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching vibration can be correlated to O/Si ratio for ternary systems Si/Na/Zr. On the contrary, the Si losses of the materials depend on the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms. In the perspective of long-term behaviour, the alteration gel presents better characteristics than initial glass. It is therefore a highly stable material in static conditions. In the same way, synthetic gels are materials with very low solubilities (much lower than the alteration gel) and could be used as confining matrices. (authors). refs., 71 figs., 37 tabs.

Ricol, S.

1995-10-05

287

Phase separation in calcium alginate gels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alginates are polysaccharides consisting of beta-D-mannuronate and alpha-L-guluronate units. In the presence of bivalent cations like calcium the guluronate blocks form physically cross-linked gels. The gelation properties of alginates play an important role in the stability of extracellular polymer substances and in the food industry. When stock solutions of Ca2+ ions and alginate are mixed, the gelation starts before the Ca2+ ions are evenly distributed, which leads to non-uniform gels. In this contribution, Ca alginate gels were prepared by in situ gelation using glucono-delta-lactone and CaCO3. In this way, uniform gels could be prepared directly in the measuring cell. Below a critical concentration, highly viscous solutions were obtained, which were below the critical point of gel formation. In these solutions at low rotational speeds a Schlieren peak arose, which became smaller and steeper with increasing time until a new meniscus could be detected. This behaviour is in contrast to the peak broadening due to diffusion after a synthetic boundary was formed. Evaluation of the data leads to negative diffusion coefficients. It has been shown by others that the mutual diffusion coefficient must be negative in the spinodal region. This phenomena is known as uphill diffusion and leads to phase separation of a binary system. The formation of the gel phase in this case is therefore discussed as uphill diffusion.

Straatmann A; Borchard W

2003-08-01

288

Phase separation in calcium alginate gels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alginates are polysaccharides consisting of beta-D-mannuronate and alpha-L-guluronate units. In the presence of bivalent cations like calcium the guluronate blocks form physically cross-linked gels. The gelation properties of alginates play an important role in the stability of extracellular polymer substances and in the food industry. When stock solutions of Ca2+ ions and alginate are mixed, the gelation starts before the Ca2+ ions are evenly distributed, which leads to non-uniform gels. In this contribution, Ca alginate gels were prepared by in situ gelation using glucono-delta-lactone and CaCO3. In this way, uniform gels could be prepared directly in the measuring cell. Below a critical concentration, highly viscous solutions were obtained, which were below the critical point of gel formation. In these solutions at low rotational speeds a Schlieren peak arose, which became smaller and steeper with increasing time until a new meniscus could be detected. This behaviour is in contrast to the peak broadening due to diffusion after a synthetic boundary was formed. Evaluation of the data leads to negative diffusion coefficients. It has been shown by others that the mutual diffusion coefficient must be negative in the spinodal region. This phenomena is known as uphill diffusion and leads to phase separation of a binary system. The formation of the gel phase in this case is therefore discussed as uphill diffusion. PMID:12692695

Straatmann, A; Borchard, W

2003-04-12

289

GelClust: a software tool for gel electrophoresis images analysis and dendrogram generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents GelClust, a new software that is designed for processing gel electrophoresis images and generating the corresponding phylogenetic trees. Unlike the most of commercial and non-commercial related softwares, we found that GelClust is very user-friendly and guides the user from image toward dendrogram through seven simple steps. Furthermore, the software, which is implemented in C# programming language under Windows operating system, is more accurate than similar software regarding image processing and is the only software able to detect and correct gel 'smile' effects completely automatically. These claims are supported with experiments. PMID:23727299

Khakabimamaghani, Sahand; Najafi, Ali; Ranjbar, Reza; Raam, Monireh

2013-05-30

290

Formulation and study of decontamination gels adhering to wall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this work is to establish relations between structure and rheological properties, adhesion and drying of a decontamination gel used for the cleansing of spent fuel reprocessing plants. Are successively described here: the formulation of the gels, the rheological behaviour, the relation existing between the drying and the efficiency of the gel, the adhesion of the gel. (O.M.)

2001-01-01

291

Natural gels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, USA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relict gels at Yucca Mountain include pore- and fracture-fillings of silica and zeolite related to diagenetic and hydrothermal alteration of vitric tuffs. Water-rich free gels in fractures at Rainier Mesa consist of smectite with or without silica-rich gel fragments. Gels are being studied for their potential role in transport of radionuclides from a nuclear-waste repository.

Levy, S.S.

1991-12-31

292

Brachytherapy polymer gel dosimetry with x CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Polymer gels are an emerging new class of dosimeters which are being applied to the challenges of modern radiotherapy modalities. Research on gel dosimetry involves several scientific domains, one of which is the imaging techniques with which dose data is extracted from the dosimeters. In the current work, we present our preliminary results of investigating capability of X-ray CT for extracting brachytherapy dose distributions from a normoxic gel dosimeter. Materials and Methods: A normoxic radiosensitive polymer gel was fabricated under normal atmospheric conditions and poured into three phantoms. Using Cs137 brachytherapy sources, the phantoms were irradiated with different dose distributions with a LDR Selectron remote after-loader. To improve SNR, 25 images were obtained of each slice for image averaging and an averaged background image of an un-irradiated gel phantom was then subtracted for artifact removal. To further improve the accuracy, a self-consistent normalized method was used for calibration of the dosimeters based on an assumption of a linear dose response between zero and maximum dose regions in the gel. Results Although results reveal very similar CT-number gradients to that of brachytherapy dose distributions, but the method does not fulfill brachytherapy dosimetry requirements. This might be due to the high prescribed doses in this study which in turn results in a large change in the CT numbers. This change in the CT numbers of the images can not be considered to have a linear relationship with dose which was the basic assumption of our calibration method, so the results are just qualitatively comparable. Conclusion : In this study, the results of using X-ray CT for brachytherapy polymer gel dosimetry is promising but not still satisfying. Improving a proper calibration method for correlating CT numbers to dose will be significantly helpful for performing measurements with CT. The main limitation for CT is still a low signal to noise ratio especially in lower dose areas.

2005-01-01

293

Recycling of superfine resolution agarose gel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic markers are now routinely used in a wide range of applications, from forensic DNA analysis to marker-assisted plant and animal breeding. The usual practice in such work is to extract the DNA, prime the markers of interest, and sift them out by electrically driving them through an appropriate matrix, usually a gel. The gels, made from polyacrylamide or agarose, are of high cost, limiting their greater applications in molecular marker work, especially in developing countries where such technology has great potential. Trials using superfine resolution (SFR) agarose for SSR marker screening showed that it is capable of resolving SSR loci and can be reused up to 14 times, thus greatly reducing the cost of each gel run. Furthermore, for certain applications, low concentrations of agarose sufficed and switching to lithium borate buffer, instead of the conventional Tris-borate-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer, will further save time and cost. The 2.5% gel was prepared following the Agarose SFR(TM) manual by adding 2.5 g agarose powder into 100 mL 1X lithium borate buffer in a 250-mL flask with rapid stirring. Two midigels (105 x 83 mm, 17 wells) or 4 minigels (50 x 83 mm, 8 wells), 4 mm thickness can be prepared from 100 mL gel solution. A total of 1680 PCR products amplified using 140 SSR markers from oil palm DNA samples were tested in this study using SFR recycled gel. As average, the gel can be recycled 8 times with good resolution, but can be recycled up to 14 times before the resolutions get blurred.

Seng TY; Singh R; Faridah QZ; Tan SG; Alwee SS

2013-01-01

294

Preparation and in vitro percutaneous penetration of simvastatin ethosome gel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To prepare ethosome gel containing simvastatin ethosome and investigate the permeation behavior of simvastatin from ethosome gel. Cumulative permeation quantity in unit area and intradermal retention were the indicators to evaluate the effects of simvastatin in vitro percutaneous permeation behavior. Cumulative permeation quantity in unit area of simvastatin ethosome gel was significantly higher than other agents (P < 0.05), the intradermal retention of simvastatin ethosome gel, simvastatin gel containing 1%, and 3% menthol were significantly higher than simvastatin gel (P < 0.05). Ethosome gel could enhance the skin permeation and accumulation in a depot of simvastatin.

An K; Sun Y; Wu Y; Yuan H; Cui Z; Xu L

2013-01-01

295

Formulation and study of decontamination gels adhering to wall; Formulation et etude de gels de decontamination adherant a la paroi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work is to establish relations between structure and rheological properties, adhesion and drying of a decontamination gel used for the cleansing of spent fuel reprocessing plants. Are successively described here: the formulation of the gels, the rheological behaviour, the relation existing between the drying and the efficiency of the gel, the adhesion of the gel. (O.M.)

Lallot, Y.; Fuentes, P.; Faure, S. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Dechets DED, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Charbit, G. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ., LEAPS Faculte de Jerome, 13 - Marseille (France)

2001-07-01

296

Characterization of schistosome antigens by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separation of polypeptides by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is based upon the relationship between the electrophoretic mobility of SDS-protein complexes and their molecular weights. Tegumental proteins extracted from Schistosoma mansoni have been analyzed by SDS-PAGE using slab gels by a number of investigators. Valuable information has also been obtained using tube gels to analyze radiolabeled proteins. The procedures for electrophoresis using tube gels and electrophoresis using gradient slab gels are described.

1986-01-01

297

[Antibacterial activity of nanostructured silver gel].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of L-cysteine silver gel against various species of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antibacterial activity of L-cysteine silvergel with silver concentration from 1.28 x 10(-3) to 3.75 x10(-3) mole/l was studied by using agar diffusion test. Reparation processes were determined experimentally in 102 male Wistar rats (150 g) by forming under ether anesthesia a 225 mm2 skin wound on the back surface of the body and by introducing virulent strain Staphylococcus aureus 236 24-hour suspension (10(6) CFU/ml) inside the wound. The rat wounds were treated with L-cysteine silver gel once per day for one week and proliferation processes were studied on day 7, 14 and 21. RESULTS: Antibacterial activity of L-cysteine silver gel was detected against test strains: S. aureus ATCC 25923; Bacillus subtilis 537; Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Shigella sonnei 1908; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853; Salmonella typhimurium 5715 and Candida albicans ATCC 885-653. Mean period of wound healing was reduced by 3 days when L-cysteine silver gel was used, index of healing acceleration was approximately 20%. CONCLUSION: L-cysteine silver gel has antibacterial and wound healing properties, it can be used for the creation of new medical preparations.

Chervinets VM; Bondarenko VM; Chervinets IuV; Ovchinnikov MM; Samoukina AM; Mikha?lova ES; Petrova MB; Kharitonova EA; Briantseva VM

2011-07-01

298

DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

2004-03-24

299

PRONIOSOMAL GEL OF FLURBIPROFEN: FORMULATION AND EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to design proniosomal gel drug delivery system of flurbiprofen in a trial to overcome the adverse effects associated with oral administration of the drug. This can be overcome by the use of vesicular drug delivery system. Encapsulation of a drug in vesicular structure can be predicted to prolong the existence of the drug in the systemic circulation and thus enhance penetration into target tissue and reduce toxicity. Proniosomal gels are generally present in transparent, translucent or white semisolid gel texture. Due to the limited solvent system present, the proniosomes formed were the mixture of many phases of liquid crystal, viz. lamellar, hexagonal and cubic phase liquid crystals. The potential of proniosomes as a transdermal drug delivery system for flurbiprofen was investigated by encapsulating the drug in various formulations of proniosomal gel composed of various ratios of sorbitan fatty acid esters, cholesterol, prepared by coacervation-phase separation method. The formulated systems were characterized in vitro for size, vesicle count, drug entrapment, drug release profiles and vesicular stability at different storage conditions. Stability studies for proniosomal gel were carried out for 4 weeks. The method of proniosome loading resulted in an encapsulation yield of 30.6 – 75.4%. Proniosomes were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. In vitro studies showed prolonged release of entrapped flurbiprofen. At refrigerated conditions, higher drug retention was observed. It is evident from this study that proniosomes are a promising prolonged delivery system for captopril and have reasonably good stability characteristics.

Sunil Kumar

2012-01-01

300

Structural Properties of Silk Electro-Gels  

Science.gov (United States)

The interest in Bombyx Mori silk emerges from its biocompatibility and its structural superiority to synthetic polymers. Our particular interest lies in understanding the capabilities of silk electro-gels because of their reversibility and tunable adhesion. We create an electro-gel by applying a DC electric potential across a reconstituted silk fibroin solution derived directly from Bombyx Mori cocoons. This process leads to the intermolecular self-assembly of fibroin proteins into a weak gel. In this talk we will present our results on the effects of applied shear on electro-gels. We quantify the structural properties while dynamically imaging shear induced fiber formation; known as fibrillogenesis. It is observed that the mechanical properties and microstructure of these materials are highly dependent on shear history. We will also discuss the role of surface modification, through micro-patterning, on the observed gel structure. Our results provide an understanding of both the viscoelastiticity and microstucture of reconstituted silks that are being utilized as tissue scaffolds.

Tabatabai, A. P.; Urbach, J. S.; Blair, D. L.; Kaplan, D. L.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Gel electrophoretic separation of globin chains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The globin chains of human embryonic, fetal, and adult hemoglobins can be separated by electrophoresis on gels containing polyacrylamide, acid, urea, and Triton X-100. Whole hemolysates are used, and only microgram quantities are required. The order of the major human erythrocyte proteins, from anode to cathode, is zeta, epsilon, carbonic anhydrase, A gamma, delta and G gamma together, beta, and alpha. Protein composition can be measured on Coomassie blue-stained disc gels, and protein synthesis on fluorograms of slab gels containing 3H-leucine-labelled material. These gels have been used to examine the ratio of G gamma to A gamma in blood from fetuses and newborn infants, and to suggest that the switch from A gamma to G gamma during ontogeny may not be linked to the switch from gamma to beta production. beta/gamma synthetic ratios were determined in fetuses at risk for thalassemia. Embryonic and fetal globin synthesis ratios were measured in hemin-induced human erythroleukemia cells K562 in tissue culture. Fetal globin synthesis and the proportion that was of the "fetal" type (G gamma approximately 70%) was studied in erythroid colonies grown in plasma clot cultures from adult, newborn, and 6 month infant specimens. The gels provide a rapid, simple, and inexpensive approach to many problems of globin composition and synthesis.

Alter BP

1981-01-01

302

Low-Reynolds number swimming in gels  

CERN Multimedia

Many microorganisms swim through gels, materials with nonzero zero-frequency elastic shear modulus, such as mucus. Biological gels are typically heterogeneous, containing both a structural scaffold (network) and a fluid solvent. We analyze the swimming of an infinite sheet undergoing transverse traveling wave deformations in the "two-fluid" model of a gel, which treats the network and solvent as two coupled elastic and viscous continuum phases. We show that geometric nonlinearities must be incorporated to obtain physically meaningful results. We identify a transition between regimes where the network deforms to follow solvent flows and where the network is stationary. Swimming speeds can be enhanced relative to Newtonian fluids when the network is stationary. Compressibility effects can also enhance swimming velocities. Finally, microscopic details of sheet-network interactions influence the boundary conditions between the sheet and network. The nature of these boundary conditions significantly impacts swimmi...

Fu, Henry C; Powers, Thomas R

2010-01-01

303

Dosimetric characterization of MAGIC gel with formaldehyde  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the dosimetric characterization of MAGIC gel with formaldehyde. The depth dose measurement is in accordance with the predicted by dose measurements by other methods results. The linearity of response was evaluated and was standardized at 15Gy, showing a saturation in response for higher doses. The dosimeter presented a good stability for a one month period. A decrease in its sensitivity was observed for an increase in the irradiation beam energy from Co-60 to 10MV. The integrity of dose distribution was confirmed for a 90 days period. The dose rate dependence was on the order of other experimental deviation, proving another advantage of the addition of formaldehyde to MAGIC gel. These results confirm the applicability of this type of gel in the tridimensional dose distribution measurement. (author)

2009-01-01

304

[Effect of propranolol gel on infantile hemangiomas].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and security of propranolol gel in treatment of Infantile hemangiomas. METHODS: 51 consecutive infants with hemangiomas from October 2010 to September 2011 in Department of General Surgery Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command were treated with propranolol hydrochloride 3% gel. Changes in hemangioma size, texture, color, tumor blood flow peak were recorded. RESULTS: The results were evaluated using Achauer system, responses of IHs to pranpronolol were considered scale I (poor) in 4 patient (17.24%), scale II (moderate) in 18 patients (24.14%), scale III (good) in 22 patients (44.83%) and scale IV (excellent) in 7 patients (13.79%). The response of superficial hemangiomas was significantly better than other hemangiomas (P < 0.05), and no significant differences in response among different primary sites (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Topical use of propranolol hydrochloride 3% gel is an effective option for superficial hemangiomas.

Zhai YN; Song HT; Chen SQ; Zhang MX; Li CJ; Xia Y; Wang L

2013-01-01

305

Sol gel process for nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sol-gel processes are alternate routes for the fabrication of Pu and 233U based fuels as they offer many advantages over the conventional powder pellet processes of fuel fabrication. The sol-gel processes are solution based routes and eliminate handling of radiotoxic powders and are highly amenable to remote handling. Internal gelation process one of the important sol gel routes has been developed at BARC to fabricate microspheres of controlled size and shape of variety fuel materials like UO2, ThO2, (U,Pu)O2, (U,Th)O2, UC,UN etc. The SGMP process has also been developed for the fabrication of pellets of UO2, ThO2, (U,Pu)O2, (U,Th)O2 using the respective oxide microspheres. (author)

2009-10-01

306

Gel composition and method of treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a method of treating at least one of formations intersected by a well bore. It comprises: introducing into one of the plurality of formations which has a permeability which differs from another of the formations a first aqueous solution comprising a polymeric material selected from a biopolymer or a synthetic polymer, a crosslinking agent comprising a chromic carboxylate complex, a solvent selected from water or brine and a gel breaker consisting essentially of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, the polymeric material crosslinking with the chromic carboxylate complex to form a gel impervious to fluid flow, the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid being present in amount sufficient to break the gel after a predetermined period of time to a predetermined degree whereby limited permeability is restored to the one of the plurality of formations, the limited permeability more closely matching the permeability of the another of the formations.

Falk, D.O.

1991-04-30

307

Intravaginal gels as drug delivery systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the design and application of different dosage forms via the vaginal route. Several studies have proven that the vagina is an effective route for drug administration intended mainly for local action, but systemic effects of some drugs also can be attained. The major advantages of this route include accessibility, good blood supply, the ability to bypass first-pass liver metabolism, and permeability to large molecular weight drugs, such as peptides and proteins. Among the delivery systems proposed for this route is the use of intravaginal gels, which have been found to be potential vaginal drug delivery systems. The bioadhesives used in the formulation of gels play a key role in the release of the drug through the attachment to the vaginal mucosa, where the drug diffuses from the gel to the mucus.

Justin-Temu M; Damian F; Kinget R; Van Den Mooter G

2004-09-01

308

Sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been established as the calcium phosphate based compound with most applications in the biological field. Among the numerous techniques for synthesis of HAp, the sol-gel processing route affords great control over purity and formed phases using low processing temperatures. In addition, the sol-gel approach offers an option for homogeneous HAp coating on metal substrates, as well as the ability to generate nanocrystalline powders. In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of HAp was investigated employing triethyl phosphate and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate as phosphorous and calcium precursors, respectively. The aging effect on phase composition and powder morphology of the final product was studied in terms of temperature and aging time. The powders were studied by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size distribution by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

2010-01-01

309

Charge screening effects in charged gel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structures of micro-phase separation are studied in the aqueous gel consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers with charged groups. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements are applied for nano-scale structures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) gel with Na+ pair ions and N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gel with H+ pair ions. Structural size in micro-phase separation in aqueous gel is presumed to be dependent of the difference of hydrophilicity between hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Since hydrophilicity of charged groups is changed by electrolytic dissociation of themselves, screening of charges of charged groups in gel causes the change of electrolytic dissociation and hydrophilicity. Attention is paid for the structural change resulted from above change of electrolytic dissociation and hydrophilicity. The screening of charged groups depends on pair ions. Correlation between difference of the pair ions and nano-scale structures is measured by SANS. Water evaporates initially from the vicinity of high hydrophobic NIPA and condenses around the vicinity of high hydrophilic carboxy groups (CG). As the result of this, a phase separation is caused in the gel at this stage. Further dehydration reduces water around the vicinity of CG. At this stage, CG in the case of the H+ pair ions does not dissociate and the structure of the micro-phase separation annihilates. On the other hand, in case of the Na+ pair ions CG dissociates and the structure of the micro-phase separation is observed in a fairly progressive stage of dehydration. (Y. Kazumata)

2004-01-01

310

Effective Management of FXG Gel Dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The details of a calibration basis for the Fricke-xylenol orange-gelatin (FXG) gel dosimeter combined with the fast, easily accessible readout tool of cone beam optical computed tomography (CT) are described in this report. With proper controls in place, the results from a test intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan evaluation indicate that greater than 95% Low's gamma function agreement between plan and gel-measured dose using 3% dose and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria is achievable.

2010-11-01

311

Nifuratel gel and process for preparing same  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a nifuratel gel and the related preparation method. The invention is made of nifuratel as the raw material, a gel substrate carbomer and other relative auxiliary materials and used to cure vulvar and vaginal infections and vaginal mixed infections caused by germs, trichomonads and candidas. The invention has the advantages of obvious curative effect, relative stable quality, and is convenient to carry and take, and is safe and sanitary. The invention is comprehensively improved in quality, and enriches the medication varieties after the formulation is changed, thus the invention has great significance for further meeting and guaranteeing the medication requirements of people.

XUEXIANG CHENG

312

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, J.M.

1993-04-20

313

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. the linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling. 3 figs.

Zeigler, J.M.

1990-02-13

314

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

315

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

316

Connectivity in sol-gel silica glasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work it is carried out a review on structural parameters related to the evaluation of pore connectivity of nanostructures. The work describes parameters and methods of evaluation of geometric parameters. The concepts of connectivity are applied to silica gels and glasses obtained from sol-gel process. The study of pores connectivity was carried out using a combination of geometric modeling and experimental evaluation of specific surface area and pore volume. The permeability of the pore structure is evaluated and a permeability geometric factor, Pg, is proposed.

Vasconcelos Wander L.

1998-01-01

317

Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

Hiller, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wallace, Steven A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

318

Cell viability in a wet silica gel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified two-step sol-gel route using silicon ethoxide (TEOS) has been used to synthesize amorphous sol-gel-derived silica, which has been successfully used as a cell encapsulation matrix for 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and CRL-2595 epithelial cells due to its non-toxicity. The sol-gel procedure comprised a first, low pH hydrolysis step, followed by a neutral condensation-gelation step. A high water-to-TEOS ratio and the addition of d-glucose as a porogen and source of nutrients were chosen to minimize silica dissolution and improve the biocompatibility of the process. Indeed, the cell integrity in the encapsulation process was preserved by alcohol removal from the starting solution. Cells were then added in a buffered medium, causing rapid gelation and entrapment of the cells within a randomly structured siloxane matrix in the shape of a monolith, which was maintained in the wet state. MTT and alamarBlue assays were used to check the cytotoxicity of the silica gels and the viability of entrapped cells at initial times in contact with silica. To improve cell attachment, cell clumping experiments - where groups of cells were formed - were designed, rendering improved viability. The obtained materials are therefore excellent candidates for designing tissue-culture scaffolds and implantable bioreactors for biomedical applications. PMID:19481618

Nieto, Alejandra; Areva, Sami; Wilson, Timothy; Viitala, Reeta; Vallet-Regi, Maria

2009-05-28

319

Drilling fluids based on aluminum hydrosalt gels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compositions, methods of production and properties of drilling fluids based on aluminum hydrosalt gels are examined. Results are presented from the first field tests and the expediency is shown of using aluminum sulfate as the structure-former of saline flushing fluids.

Konovalov, Y.A.; Beley, I.I.; Yankevich, V.F.

1981-01-01

320

Aqueous gel compositions derived from succinoglycan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Novel aqueous gel compositions, derived by crosslinking a microbially-synthesized polysaccharide of the succinoglycan or related type by means of a polyvalent metal cation, are useful as permeability control agents in secondary recovery operations in the recovery of petroleum from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formations.

Dasinger Bruce L.; McArthur Hamish A. I.

 
 
 
 
321

Development of Stable Restructured Mango Gel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Restructured mango gel was prepared by alginate texturization of mango pulp using sodium alginate, glucono-?-lactone and calcium hydrogen orthophosphate. The requisite quantities of the chemical additives were mixed, added together to the neutralized mango pulp in a mixer and allowed to set at 4°C f...

D.K. Das Gupta; N. Roopa; R.K. Leela

322

Non-diffusing radiochromic micelle gel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The addition of Laponite, a synthetic clay nanoparticle material to radiochromic leuco Malachite Green micelle hydrogel eliminates diffusion of the cationic dye by electrostatic binding. The clay nanoparticles also increased dose sensitivity ten-fold relative to the parent gel formulation. This material is a suitable 3D water equivalent dosimeter with optical CT readout.

2010-11-01

323

Drying and Rehydration of Calcium Alginate Gels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we study the rehydration properties of air-dried calcium alginate gel beads. Rehydration is shown to depend on alginate source (i.e. mannuronic to guluronic acid ratio) and the salt concentration in the rehydration medium. Rehydration curves are described adequately by the empirical W...

Vreeker, R.; Li, L.; Fang, Y.; Appelqvist, I.; Mendes, E.

324

Gels for the conservation of cultural heritage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gels are becoming one of the most important tools for the conservation of cultural heritage. They are very versatile systems and can be easily adapted to the cleaning and consolidation of works of art. This perspective reviews the major achievements in the field and suggests possible future developments.

Baglioni P; Dei L; Carretti E; Giorgi R

2009-08-01

325

Incoherent scattering near a sol gel transition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the self correlation function for one monomer in a gelating system near the sol gel transition. Our analysis is based on the Stauffer distribution function for cluster sizes, plus a scaling ansatz for the viscosity at different spatial scales. 1) In the sol phase, the intermediate scatte...

De Gennes, P.G.

326

Gel bead composition for metal adsorption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woodward, Charlene A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

327

The charge transport in polymeric gel electrolytes  

CERN Document Server

The aim of the present thesis consisted in the study of the charge transport in gel electrolytes, which were obtained by photopolymerization of oligo(ethylene glycol) sub n -dimethacrylates with n=3, 9, and 23, and the survey of structure and property relations for the optimization of the electrolyte composition. The pressure dependence of the electric conductivity was measured. (HSI)

Reiche, A

2001-01-01

328

Gel bead composition for metal adsorption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woodward, Charlene A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01

329

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a process for preparing a sol-gel like hybrid material. It comprises copolymerizing esters selected from the group consisting of orthosilicate esters and mixtures of orthosilicate and orthotitanate esters, with a polymer selected from the groups consisting of linear polysilanes, linear polygermanes, and linear silane-germane copolymers.

Zeigler, J.M.

1992-07-14

330

Preparing method of edible bacterial cellulose gel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to the processing field of edible bacterial cellulose gel, in particular to a method of preparing edible bacterial cellulose gel with second-grade molasses. Second-grade cane molasses is used as a main raw material for diluting, preparing, sterilizing at high temperature and preparing sugar degree then, dry activity yeast is vaccinated for prefermentation fermentable sugaris converted into alcohol then, processed molasses, white granulated sugar, glacial acetic acid, ammonium sulfate and magnesium sulfate are prepared and are in split charging and sealed according torequirements the mixture is vaccinated and fermented until receiving chankings finally, the product is rinsed by gel, cut and coated with molasses so as to obtain edible bacterial cellulose gel. Theinvention mainly takes waste molasses after sugarcane sugar refinery as raw material, so that the invention has stable and abundant supply of goods, solves the bottleneck of limited coconut water source of the original technology and solves the seasonal problem of industrial production. The invention has low cost, easy obtaining and convenient technical treatment and storage.

GUANGDONG ZHANG; JINRONG HUANG; DONGHUI YAN; HONGYANG LIU

331

MISCIBLE POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL-CITRIC ACID GELS  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and citric acid (CA) are crystalline solids at room temperature. The materials are opaque, hard, brittle materials. However, blending the PEG and CA shows that a clear, soft 'gel' is formed at certain concentrations. Rheology, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-...

332

New insight into agarose gel mechanical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study focuses on the effects of the molecular weight on the mechanical behavior of agarose gels. The small strain rheology and large strain deformation/failure behavior of three different molecular weight agarose gels have been examined, with the results expressed in term of molar concentration. For small deformation strains, the gelation temperature at low concentrations and the critical concentration for gel formation are strongly affected by the molecular weight. In addition, the elasticity of the network is also very sensitive to this parameter. It has been demonstrated that the experimental gelation cure curves can be superimposed on a universal gelation master curve, independent of the cure time. This would indicate self-similarity of the network at different scales, irrespective of concentration. A relationship between the elastic modulus and the molecular weight has been extracted from these results, where the molecular weight dependence exhibits a power law exponent of 2.42. For large deformation strains, the Poisson ratio has been estimated to be 0.5 for each of the agarose types examined, which indicates that these gels are incompressible. The strain at failure is largely dependent on the molecular weight, and is essentially independent of the biopolymer concentration. This result highlights the fact that the strain at failure is sensitive to the connectivity distances in the gel network. However, the failure stress and Young's modulus of agarose gels show a dependence on both concentration and molecular weight. The observations regarding Young's modulus are in good agreement with those found for small deformation strain rheology for the shear modulus. One of the primary advantages of using the lowest molecular weight agarose is that higher molar concentrations can be reached (more molecules per unit volume). However, the mechanical response of agarose gels is very sensitive to the molecular weight at fixed molar concentration, and if the present results are extrapolated to very low molecular weight, it can be suggested that below a limiting molecular weight a percolating network will not be formed, as suggested by the Cascade model (Carbohydr. Polym. 1994, 23, 247-251). This speculation is based on the influence of the "connectivity" at long distances, which influences the strain at failure (when the strain at failure is zero, the system is not connective). PMID:11710204

Normand, V; Lootens, D L; Amici, E; Plucknett, K P; Aymard, P

2000-01-01

333

Diffusion measurement in ferrous infused gel dosimeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Background: The compositions of Ferrous sulphate, Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Ferrous sulphate, Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye in solution of distilled water and sulphuric acid are two tissue-equivalent gel dosimeters. Ionizing radiation causes oxidation of Fe2+ ion to Fe3+ ions which diffuse through the gel matrix and blur the image of absorbed dose over a period of hours after irradiation. Materials and methods: 25 m M sulphuric acid, 0.4 mm ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.2 mm xylenol orange dye and 1% by weight agarose in distilled water named Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and 0.1 mm ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.1 mm xylenol orange dye, 50 mm sulphuric acid and 5% by weight gelatin in distilled water named Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye are used as two gel dosimeters. All chemicals were supplied by Sigma Ald ridge Company, Germany. The gels were poured in Perspex casts and were irradiated to a beam of X ray from linear accelerators or X ray machine. Results: In this study diffusion coefficients of Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters have been measured through a computer program for different temperature. The ferric ion diffusion coefficient (D) for the Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters were measured as (1.19.±0.03) x 10-2 cm2.hr -1 and (0.83±0.03) x 10-2 cm2.hr-1 respectively at room temperature. Conclusion: For both dosimeters the diffusion coefficients decreased with gel storage temperatures down to 6 digC. Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters have advantage of lower diffusion coefficient for a specified temperature

2003-01-01

334

Interaction Between Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines Commonly Used in Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was the aim of this study to determine the interaction between the Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines used to control these two important viral infections greatly affecting poultry industry worldwide. The commercially available vaccines in the Sudan were used. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests were employed to measure the Ab titres in chicks sera to ND and IBD respectively. Generally, IBD vaccine was reported to have adverse effect on the ND vaccine whereas the reverse was not true. The results obtained also revealed that better Ab responses against NDV were detected when ND vaccine was administered before IBD vaccine. The deleterious effect of IBD vaccine on Ab levels against NDV antigens was slightly (p<0.05) low when IBD vaccine is administered at two weeks as compared to three weeks of chicken age. No variations in the Ab titres when chicks were boostered with ND vaccine containing LaSota or Komorov strain of the virus at 4 weeks were observed. However, slightly (p<0.01) better Ab responses were noted for LaSota over Komorov strain. It was, therefore, concluded that vaccination of chicks with ND vaccine containing LaSota strain of the virus when they were 10 days followed by vaccination with IBD vaccine at two weeks and boostering with the same ND vaccine yielded better Ab responses but slightly lower protection levels.

A.S. Ali; M.O. Abdalla; M.E.H. Mohammed

2004-01-01

335

Prevalence of Gumboro disease in vaccinated and non-vaccinated village chickens in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to investigate the incidence of Gumboro disease virus (IBDV) in village poultry in Egypt, 3000 one-day-old Balady chicks were distributed to 60 householders keeping free- ranging chicken (traditional) with an average of 50 chicks/ household. These were put under observed from one-day-old until seventy days of age and visited once a week. On 30 of these household farms the one-day-old chicken were vaccinated before delivery with an intermediate IBDV strain while the chicken on the other 30 farms were not vaccinated. Fifteen of each vaccinated and unvaccinated householder farms had other avian species while the other fifteen of each vaccinated and unvaccinated householders had not. The clinical symptoms, post-mortem and serological results using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion test (AGID) revealed that Gumboro disease is one of the most important diseases in rural chicken. Mortality rates were very high (5-32%) and decreasing body weights due to IBDV infection were significant, especially in chicken reared with other avian species. Results from the survey showed the significant efficacy of IBDV classical vaccine in one day old chicken. It showed a decrease in mortality and an increase in body weight gain on vaccinated farms independent whether they were kept with other avian species. Vaccination programs to control Gumboro disease would be an advantage in traditional poultry farms. (author)

2006-01-01

336

An Epidemiological Situation of an Animal Brucellosis in Mongolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella spp., infects domestic and wild animals worldwide, as well as humans who have contact with infected animals or contaminated dairy products. In present-day epidemiological situation in Mongolia is not quiet, especially, zoonoses such us brucellosis have been broadly spreaded.Recently, we developed agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test with polysaccharide (Poly-B) antigen and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) using soluble antigen extracted from B. abortus 544 by n-lauroylsarcosine (sarcosine extracts) and these tests could be used to differentiate naturally infected animals from vaccinated and Y. enterocolitica O9-infected ones; this assay simply and specifically diagnoses brucellosis. To validate the method in the field and to test the effectiveness of the vaccination program in Mongolia, a serological survey of brucellosis in nomadic animal husbandry in Mongolia was performed in 2010 and 2011. In this study had been determined an animal brucellosis prevalence in Arkhangai and Khovd aimag. The result showed that 1.25% and 0.4% of cattle and 0.04 % and 0.01% of small ruminants were positive for brucellosis in Arkhangai and Khovd aimag respectively.These results showed that B.abortus 159 N5R can be used as an alternative vaccine against bovine brucellosis.

S. Nyamdorj; V. Batbaatar; J. Erdenebaatar; Yang Zheng Qi

2012-01-01

337

Infection of cattle in Queensland with bluetongue viruses: II. Distribution of antibodies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of the distribution of serum antibodies to bluetongue viruses in Queensland cattle herds was conducted in 1989. A total of 410 herds were selected in which sera from 20 or more cattle had been tested with the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Estimates of prevalence were standardised for age of cattle and adjusted using results from serum neutralisation (SN) tests. Spatial statistical methods were used to investigate the distribution of these selected herds with respect to the prevalence of serum antibodies to bluetongue viruses. The mean herd prevalence was 5.2% (95% confidence interval 4.5 to 5.9) and the median herd prevalence was 3.5% (95% CI 2.8 to 4.2). Prevalence was highest in far north Queensland (17.3%) and lowest in south-west Queensland (0.3%). Significant (P < 0.01) clustering of selected herds with respect to prevalence of serum antibodies was found. Herds with prevalence of serum antibodies to bluetongue viruses above the overall mean herd prevalence were significantly (P < 0.05) clustered in the north-west, far north and northern and southern coastal regions of Queensland. Clustering within the north-west and southern coastal regions of Queensland was more pronounced than the clustering detected in the northern coastal and far north regions.

Ward MP; Carpenter TE

1995-06-01

338

A field evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction procedure for the detection of bovine leukaemia virus proviral DNA in cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure that detects proviral bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA was evaluated. Blood samples from all animals (164) in a commercial dairy herd with a 30% prevalence of BLV infection, and from 194 animals from BLV free herds were tested. The absence of any positive PCR results in animals from BLV free herds confirmed the specificity of the assay. Initial testing of the infected herd using a single amplification PCR (SA-PCR), detected BLV infection in 62 of 72 adult animals that were seropositive by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and in one persistently seronegative cow. Infection in this cow was confirmed by sheep bioassay. Subsequent testing of the SA-PCR negative, seropositive animals using a double amplification PCR (DA-PCR) detected proviral BLV in eight of nine animals that were available for retesting. The PCR assay was also able to distinguish BLV infected calves from uninfected calves that were serologically positive because of the presence of colostral antibody. Lymphocytes from all seropositive animals were cultured for determination of BLV antigen expression. Cultures from 37 of 62 SA-PCR positive animals produced detectable quantities of viral antigens. However, antigen expression was not detected in cultures from seropositive animals that were negative in the SA-PCR. In addition, in experimental transmission tests, inoculation of more than 10(6) lymphocytes from these cows was required for sheep to become seropositive to BLV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Eaves FW; Molloy JB; Dimmock CK; Eaves LE

1994-04-01

339

Simultaneous screening of bovine sera for antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) is described for simultaneous screening of bovine sera for detection of antibodies to bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer (EHD) viruses (V). Optimal dilutions of BTV and EHDV antigens were combined and allowed to absorb on to the wells of microtiter plates. Appropriately diluted (1:100) bovine sera were allowed to incubate and the bound antibodies were detected by a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) to bovine immunoglobulin (H-Chain) conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. The performance of the combined (C) I-ELISA in detecting antibodies to BTV and EHDV in sequential serum samples from calves experimentally inoculated with BTV, serotype 10, EHDV, serotype 1 (New Jersey) or EHDV serotype 2 (Alberta) was evaluated. Comparable antibody profiles were demonstrable by the CI-ELISA and separate I-ELISAs using either BTV or EHDV antigens. The results suggest that the CI-ELISA offers many advantages over the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and has potential application as a rapid, sensitive, inter-group-specific and inexpensive test for simultaneous screening of bovine sera for antibodies to BTV and/or EHDV.

Afshar A; Shakarchi NH; Wright PF; Bossé J

1992-05-01

340

Development of sandwich elisa for the detection of fowl adenovirus 4 associated with hydropericardium syndrome in experimentally infected chicken.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A sandwich ELISA was standardized to detect fowl adenovirus (FAV) group I antigen in various tissues, namely liver, spleen, bursa, thymus and kidneys of chicks experimentally infected with fowl adenovirus 4 (FAV-4) isolated from cases of inclusion body hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (IBH-HPS). The assay was found to be more sensitive and more specific in comparison to an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, as it could detect FAV antigen below the titer of 20,000 TCID50/ml and below 1.14 microg in 5% (w/v) suspensions of liver tissue. In 2-week-old experimentally infected chicks, the antigens were detectable by ELISA in liver from 3 to 15 days, in thymus from 3 to 7 days, and in kidneys, bursa and spleen from 3 to 10 days post infection (p.i.). Maximum antigen concentration in terms of ELISA absorbance values was detected in liver and kidneys, which could be used as tissues of choice for virus isolation or detection of viral antigens from IBH-HPS cases.

Balamurugan V; Katari JM; Tiwari AK; Verma KC; Toroghi R; Jadhao SJ

2001-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Bovine leucosis virus contamination of a vaccine produced in vivo against bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contamination of a batch of tick fever (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) vaccine with bovine leucosis virus (BLV) was detected when a herd, in the final stages of an enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) accreditation program, developed a large number of seropositive cattle following use of tick fever vaccine. Investigations incriminated a single calf used to produce Anaplasma centrale vaccine from which 13,959 doses were distributed. The failure of this calf to give a positive agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test before use was not fully explained. A total of 22,627 cattle from 111 herds receiving contaminated vaccine was tested to validate claims for compensation. Results showed infection rates of 62% and 51.8% in vaccinated dairy and beef cattle, respectively, compared with 6.1% and 1.5% in non-vaccinated cattle in the same herds. The results also indicated that infection did not spread from vaccinated to non-vaccinated in-contact cattle. Heavy reliance is now placed on purchase of calves for vaccine production from EBL accredited-free herds and on transmission tests from the calves to sheep to prevent a recurrence of contamination. The need for a BLV antigen detection test, with the sensitivity of the sheep transmission test but simpler and faster to perform, is evident.

Rogers RJ; Dimmock CK; de Vos AJ; Rodwell BJ

1988-09-01

342

EIAV Effectiveness Detection by Nested PCR Comparing two Different Samples: PBMCs and Bronchoalveolar Wash  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a chronic, relapsing infectious disease of horses caused by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV). The objective of this experiment was compared EIAV effectiveness detection in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) and Bronchoalveolar wash (BAW) from naturally infected horses. Approach: Fifty seven DNA samples isolated from PBMCs and BAW of naturally infected animals were used for a nested PCR amplifying a 408 bp gag gene fragment region. Equine Dermal cells (ED) infected and non infected by EIAV was used as nested PCR negative and positive control. Horses? blood samples were firstly tested as positive in Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Assay (AGID). Results: Results demonstrated 89% (51/57) of gag gene amplification in PBMCs samples and only 47% (27/57) of gag gene amplification in BAW samples. Conclusion: The nested PCR assay used in the present study detected more EIAV positive samples in PBMC than in BAW, indicating PBMCs as a reliable source for EIAV diagnosis.

Elizangela M.D. Santos; Pedro M.C. Motta; Marcos B. Heinemann; Rômulo C. Leite; Helen L.D. Puerto; Jenner K.P.D. Reis

2010-01-01

343

STABLE EMULSIFIABLE GEL MATRIX FOR FORMING GEL CONCENTRATE WITH AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL, AND AQUEOUS MACROEMULSION THEREFROM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

What is provided herein is a stable, emulsifiable gel matrix for an agriculturally active chemical, which matrix will form an emulsifiable gel concentrate upon addition of the agriculturally active chemical, and upon water dilution, a highly stable aqueous macroemulsion which avoids precipitation of the active ingredient on extended storage. In addition, the inventive emulsifiable gel concentrates may contain relatively high concentrations of the agriculturally active chemical, the concentration sometimes being referred to as "loading", making it advantageous from both the economic and handling viewpoints. In one embodiment, the emulsifiable gel matrix comprises a surfactant (nonylphenol ethoxylated phosphate ester), a solvent system (N-methylpyrrolidone + N-octylpyrrolidone), a thickening agent (hydroxypropyl cellulose), a high molecular weight polymer as a viscosity enhancer and/or disintegration aid (polyvinylpyrrolidone), and optionally a polyhydric alcohol (glycerol) and an organic diluent (naphtha and other aromatic oils).

NARAYANAN Kolazi S.

344

Polymer gel dosimetry system for radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: Recently developed treatment modalities such as stereotactic and conformal radiation therapy produce complex dose distributions which are difficult or impractical to measure with conventional dosimetry instrumentation. Three-dimensional treatment planning systems which purport to calculate these complex dose distributions should be compared to experimental results before being routinely applied to clinical problems. There is a need for a new class of tissue-equivalent dosimeters capable of providing accurate, high resolution, time-integrated and three dimensional dose distributions. The recently developed BANG polymer gel dosimetry system (MGS Research, Inc., Guilford, CT) is ideally suited for the task described above. Physico-chemical principles of the polymer gel dosimetry are presented, together with examples of its application to radiation therapy. Data analysis and display program, written for Macintosh computer, is demonstrated. Materials and Methods: Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic monomers, which are dispersed in tissue-equivalent gelatin, has been shown to be dependent on the dose, but independent of the dose rate or photon energy. Therefore, the spatial distribution of polymer in the gel is precisely representative of the dose distribution. As the polymeric microparticles reduce the water proton NMR relaxation times in the gel, the dose distribution can be measured with high resolution and accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging. Also, as these microparticles cannot diffuse through the gelatin matrix, their distribution is permanent. An improved formulation of the BANG dosimeter consists of 3% w/v acrylic acid, 3% N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide, 1% sodium hydroxide, 5% gelatin, and 88% water. MR images are transferred via a local network to a Macintosh computer, and R2 maps constructed on the basis of multiple TE images, using a non-linear least squares fit based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. A dose-to-R2 calibration function was created by fitting a polynomial to a set of dose and R2 data points. This calibration function is then applied to all other R2 maps, so that dose maps can be displayed, analysed and annotated. Isodose curves, beam profiles, and central axis depth dose curves may be created, and numerical values exported for comparison with corresponding data from treatment planning computer software. Results: Gels were irradiated by X rays in the 6-20 MV range and up to 20 MeV electron beams, using a range of field sizes and dose rates in the range 40-400 cGy/min, as well as by an unshielded high activity source of 192Ir. The results obtained from the polymer gels were compared to those calculated by a commercially available treatment planning system, and the agreement was found to be within the range of experimental error. Having established the ability of the polymer gel system to accurately determine well-established dose distributions, they were then applied to the more complex problems posed by the dynamic wedge, stereotactic radiosurgery, conformal therapy, and shielded sources. Wherever comparisons with standard methods were possible, the agreement was excellent. Conclusion: There is excellent agreement between the dose distributions predicted using standard treatment planning systems and those determined using the polymer gel method, and the clinical practical utility of MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry is thereby demonstrated.

1995-01-01

345

US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, TILT GEL FUNGICIDE, 04 ...  

Science.gov (United States)

... DIB'lB)'1 18 EPA R;~~\\~ni~~~~;7 ,. .:' Tilt Gel Fungicide ~ .. -: ... A stamped copy for each product, Tilt ~ ~~~~ Gel, is enclosed for your records. ...

2011-04-13

346

Gel-forming reagents and uses thereof for preparing microarrays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New gel-forming reagents including monomers and cross-linkers, which can be applied to gel-drop microarray manufacturing by using co-polymerization approaches are disclosed. Compositions for the preparation of co-polymerization mixtures with new gel-forming monomers and cross-linker reagents are described herein. New co-polymerization compositions and cross-linkers with variable length linker groups between unsaturated C.dbd.C bonds that participate in the formation of gel networks are disclosed.

Golova, Julia (Burr Ridge, IL); Chernov, Boris (Burr Ridge, IL); Perov, Alexander (Woodridge, IL)

2010-11-09

347

Electric field-induced deformation of polyelectrolyte gels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-swollen polyelectrolyte gels deform in an electric field. We observed that the sign and magnitude of the deformation is dependent on the nature of the salt bath in which the gel is immersed and electrocuted. These results are compatible with a deformation mechanism based upon creation of ion density gradients by the field which, in turn, creates osmotic pressure gradients within the gel. A consistent interpretation results only if gel mobility is allowed as well as free ion diffusion and migration.

Adolf, D.; Hance, B.G.

1995-08-01

348

Silicone-Organic Gels with Polyalkyloxylene Crosslinked Silicone Elastomers  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Silicone organic gels and gel paste compositions are disclosed containing a silicone organic elastomer in a carrier fluid. The silicone organic elastomer is a reaction product of a linear or branched organohydrogensiloxane, an [alpha], [omega]-unsaturated polyoxyalkylene, and a hydrosilylation catalyst. The silicone organic elastomer is particularly useful to ge! organic earner fluids, The gels and gels pastes also provide enhanced compatibility with many personal and health care actives.

KENNAN JOHN JOSEPH; MESSNER KATHRYN ELIZABETH

349

Metal-doped organic gels and method thereof  

Science.gov (United States)

Disclosed herein is a sol-gel polymerization process for synthesizing metal-doped organic gels. The process polymerizes metal salts of hydroxylated benzenes or hydroxylated benzene derivatives with alkyl or aryl aldehydes to form metal-doped, wet, organic gels. The gels can then be dried by supercritical solvent extraction to form metal-doped aerogels or by evaporation to form metal-doped xerogels. The aerogels and xerogels can then be pyrolyzed.

Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Baumann, Theodore F. (Tracy, CA)

2007-10-23

350

Improvements in or relating to the drying of gel materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is described for the drying of a gel material, comprising mixing together steam and gas in controlled amounts to form a mixture, feeding the mixture to a gel material to be dried thereby to contact the gel material with an atmosphere containing steam and gas in controlled amounts and thereby dry the gel material. One application of the process is in the production of ceramic particles for nuclear fuels. (author)

1981-01-01

351

Hydroxyapatite incorporated into collagen gels for mesenchymal stem cell culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Collagen gels could be used as carriers in tissue engineering to improve cell retention and distribution in the defect. In other respect hydroxyapatite could be added to gels to improve mechanical properties and regulate gel contraction. The aim of this work was to analyze the feasibility to incorporate hydroxyapatite into collagen gels and culture mesenchymal stem cells inside it. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-BM) were used in this study. Gels were prepared by mixing rat tail type I collagen, hydroxyapatite microparticles and MSCs. After polymerization gels were kept in culture while gel contraction and mechanical properties were studied. In parallel, cell viability and morphology were analyzed. Gels became free-floating gels contracted from day 3, only in the presence of cells. A linear rapid contraction phase was observed until day 7, then a very slow contraction phase took place. The incorporation of hydroxyapatite improved gel stability and mechanical properties. Cells were randomly distributed on the gel and a few dead cells were observed all over the experiment. This study shows the feasibility and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite supplemented collagen gels for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells that could be used as scaffolds for cell delivery in osteoarticular regenerative medicine.

Laydi F; Rahouadj R; Cauchois G; Stoltz JF; de Isla N

2013-01-01

352

Laser based on dye-activated silica gel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silica gel activated by a dye is used as a new laser medium. The lasin characteristics of rhodamine 6G in silica gel are reported. An important characteristic of the dye laser is its long service life, which is determined by the photostability of the dye in silic gel.(AIP)

Altshuler, G.B.; Bakhanov, V.A.; Dulneva, E.G.; Erofeev, A.V.; Mazurin, O.V.; Roskova, G.P.; Tsekhomskaya, T.S.

1987-06-01

353

Hydroxyapatite incorporated into collagen gels for mesenchymal stem cell culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collagen gels could be used as carriers in tissue engineering to improve cell retention and distribution in the defect. In other respect hydroxyapatite could be added to gels to improve mechanical properties and regulate gel contraction. The aim of this work was to analyze the feasibility to incorporate hydroxyapatite into collagen gels and culture mesenchymal stem cells inside it. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-BM) were used in this study. Gels were prepared by mixing rat tail type I collagen, hydroxyapatite microparticles and MSCs. After polymerization gels were kept in culture while gel contraction and mechanical properties were studied. In parallel, cell viability and morphology were analyzed. Gels became free-floating gels contracted from day 3, only in the presence of cells. A linear rapid contraction phase was observed until day 7, then a very slow contraction phase took place. The incorporation of hydroxyapatite improved gel stability and mechanical properties. Cells were randomly distributed on the gel and a few dead cells were observed all over the experiment. This study shows the feasibility and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite supplemented collagen gels for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells that could be used as scaffolds for cell delivery in osteoarticular regenerative medicine. PMID:23798652

Laydi, F; Rahouadj, R; Cauchois, G; Stoltz, J-F; de Isla, N

2013-01-01

354

Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

2013-05-07

355

Nanoscale Silicon Dioxide Prepared by Sol-Gel Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanoscale silicon dioxide has been prepared with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) by sol-gel process. The optimum process conditions have been obtained by investigating the effect of formulation, temperature, catalyst and etc. on its gel morphology, gel time, and particle size.

Hui Gao; Junling Yang

2010-01-01

356

Optical-CT scanning of polymer gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of optical-CT scanning to achieve accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry is a subject of current interest. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of past research and achievements in optical-CT polymer gel dosimetry, and to review current issues and challenges. The origins of optical-CT imaging of light-scattering polymer gels are reviewed. Techniques to characterize and optimize optical-CT performance are presented. Particular attention is given to studies of artifacts in optical-CT imaging, an important area that has not been well studied to date. The technique of optical-CT simulation by Monte-Carlo modeling is introduced as a tool to explore such artifacts. New simulation studies are presented and compared with experimental data.

2004-01-01

357

Super absorbent polymer gel and products thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A layer structure for insulating thermal source includes a gel layer having two opposite faces each sequentially having an absorbent layer and a non woven material layer applied thereon. The layer structure is crisscross stitched such that multiple stitch lines are crisscross formed on the outer periphery of the layer structure for enhancing the layer structure. The absorbent layer is made of super absorbent polymer (SAP). The SAP is white or primrose neutral particle without toxicity and smell. The absorbent principle of the SAP is different from that of the foam rubber, the absorbent cotton or the like. The absorbent ability of the SAP is related to a chemical reaction such that the SAP is hard to be dehydrated due to an external force when the SAP absorbs water and forms an expanded gel.

CHANG CHIN-CHU; WEN NAI-SUNG; WEN CHIN-SHU

358

Schiff base mediated sol-gel polymerization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formation of a Schiff base imine by reacting a primary amine with either an aldehyde or ketone was initiated by an aluminum compound acting as a Lewis acid catalyst. The water byproduct of the reaction then was used as an in situ reagent for subsequent hydrolysis and sol-gel condensation of the aluminum species. These reactions yielded a gel network containing the entrained Schiff base. Two examples of this synthetic approach are described with two different aluminum catalyst/reagents: a diethylaluminum diethylphosphate ester [(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}Al-O-P(O)(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 2}] and triethyl aluminum [Al(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}]. Anhydrous ammonia and acetone were used as the Schiff base precursors.

Lindquist, D.A.; Harrison, C.M.; Williams, B.; Morris, R.D. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-12-31

359

Sol-gel derived silicon nitride powders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sol-gel synthesis of silicon nitride powders has been studied. The precursor gels were prepared from a colloidal dispersion of silicon dioxide and sucrose, with mole ratios of reactants, C/SiO2, ranging from 2 to 4. The carboreduction and nitridation processes were performed at temperatures between 1400-1550 °C under a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere, with a 4 h hold. The optimum C/SiO2 ratio and temperature for preparation of the Si3N4 powders were selected. For the SiO2CN2 system examined, the boundary temperature between Si3N4 and SiC formation was established, in relation to the amount of carbon introduced.

LJILJANA CEROVIC; SLOBODAN K. MILONJIC; SLAVICA ZEC; DJAMILA BAHLOUL-HOURLIER

1999-01-01

360

Novel carboxy functionalized sol-gel precursors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel family of inorganic-organic copolymers (ORMOCER`s) derived from urethane- and thioether(meth)acrylate alkoxysilanes has been successfully exploited for a variety of diverse applications. In order to widen the range of applications an additional functionality (carboxy group) has been incorporated int his silane type. Conventional sol-gel processing facilitates the formation of an inorganic Si-O-Si-network via hydrolysis and polycondensation reactions of alkoxysilyl moieties and in addition, the (meth)acrylate groups are available for radically induced polymerization to obtain a complementary organic polymer structure. The presence of a carboxy group would appear to have great potential for a range of diverse areas of application, such as an internal catalyst for the sol-gel process, complexation of elements such as Zr and Ti, increasing the adhesion to various substrates and modification of solubility. A number of novel silanes and their syntheses will be described in this paper.

Wolter, H.; Storch, W.; Gellermann, C. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Silicatforschung, Wuerzburg (Germany)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
361

AQUEOUS GEL COMPOSITION OF DRUG VOLATILIZATION BODY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An aqueous gel composition of drug volatilization body comprising (A) an anionic oil dispersion polymer composition in which an anionic polymer is dispersed in an oil component, (B) a volatile drug such as a fragrance, a deodorant, an insect repellent, an insecticide, a bacteria eliminating agent and a repellent, (C) water and, if necessary, (D) other components such as solvents, colorants, antiseptic agents, salts, ultraviolet absorbers, surfactants, inorganic polymers, antioxidants, gelling agents, thickening agents, natural deodorants, synthetic deodorants, and stabilizers.

KAWANO TAKASHI; SUGIYAMA KAZUKI; YAMAZAKI SADAHIKO; HOSHINO KUNIHIDE

362

Ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of DNA sequencing gels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the three years of this grant we have: (1) Developed and applied a new theory for optimizing high-sensitivity fluorescence detection. (2) Developed and patented a new high-sensitivity confocal-fluorescence laser-excited gel-scanner. (3) Applied this scanner to the development of a new class of versatile and sensitive fluorescent dyes for DNA detection. (4) Developed methods for the detection of single fluorescent molecules by fluorescence burst detection. 11 refs., 10 figs.

Mathies, R.A.

1991-01-01

363

Activity staining of endoglucanases in polyacrylamide gels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endoglucanases of Penicillium funiculosum were analyzed for the presence of multiple forms using a modified version of the Congo red method. Postelectrophoretic slab gels were directly incubated in a solution of carboxymethylcellulose for a period as short as 15 min and then the activities were visualized by staining with Congo red. Ten distinct bands of clearances were obtained indicating the presence of at least as many multiple forms. PMID:1280921

Mathew, R; Rao, K K

1992-10-01

364

Activity staining of endoglucanases in polyacrylamide gels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The endoglucanases of Penicillium funiculosum were analyzed for the presence of multiple forms using a modified version of the Congo red method. Postelectrophoretic slab gels were directly incubated in a solution of carboxymethylcellulose for a period as short as 15 min and then the activities were visualized by staining with Congo red. Ten distinct bands of clearances were obtained indicating the presence of at least as many multiple forms.

Mathew R; Rao KK

1992-10-01

365

Maize Arabinoxylan Gels as Protein Delivery Matrices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The laccase induced gelation of maize bran arabinoxylans at 2.5% (w/v) in the presence of insulin or ?-lactoglobulin at 0.1% (w/v) was investigated. Insulin and ?-lacto-globulin did not modify either the gel elasticity (9 Pa) or the cross-links content (0.03 and 0.015 mg di- and triferulic acids/mg ...

Claudia M. Berlanga-Reyes; Elizabeth Carvajal-Millán; Jaime Lizardi-Mendoza; Agustin Rascón-Chu; Jorge A. Marquez-Escalante

366

Magnetization transfer imaging for polymer gel dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Off-resonance RF pre-saturation was used to obtain contrast in MRI images of polymer gel dosimeters irradiated to doses up to 50 Gy. Two different polymer gel dosimeters composed of 2-hydroxyethyl-acrylate or methacrylic acid monomers mixed with N, N'-methylene-bisacrylamide (BIS), dispersed in an aqueous gelatin matrix were evaluated. Radiation-induced polymerization of the co-monomers generates a fast-relaxing insoluble polymer. Saturation of the polymer using off-resonance Gaussian RF pulses prior to a spin-echo read-out with a short echo time leads to contrast that is dependent on the absorbed dose. This contrast is attributed to magnetization transfer (MT) between free water and the polymer, and direct saturation of water was found to be negligible under the prevailing experimental conditions. The usefulness of MT imaging was assessed by computing the dose resolution obtained with this technique. We found a low value of dose resolution over a wide range of doses could be obtained with a single experiment. This is an advantage over multiple spin echo (MSE) experiments using a single echo spacing where an optimal dose resolution is achieved over only very limited ranges of doses. The results suggest MT imaging protocols may be developed into a useful tool for polymer gel dosimetry. (author)

2002-06-07

367

PRONIOSOMAL GEL OF FLURBIPROFEN: FORMULATION AND EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to design proniosomal gel drug delivery system of flurbiprofen in a trial to overcome the adverse effects associated with oral administration of the drug. This can be overcome by the use of vesicular drug delivery system. Encapsulation of a drug in vesicular structure can be predicted to prolong the existence of the drug in the systemic circulation and thus enhance penetration into target tissue and reduce toxicity. Due to the limited solvent system present, the proniosomes formed were the mixture of many phases of liquid crystal, viz. lamellar, hexagonal and cubic phase liquid crystals. The potential of proniosomes as a transdermal drug delivery system of flurbiprofen was investigated by encapsulating the drug in various formulations of proniosomal gel composed of various ratios of sorbitan fatty acid esters, cholesterol, prepared by coacervation-phase separation method. The formulated systems were characterized in vitro for size, vesicle count, drug entrapment, drug release profiles and vesicular stability at different storage conditions. Stability studies for proniosomal gel were carried out for 4 weeks. The method of proniosome loading resulted in an encapsulation yield of 30.6 – 75.4%. Invitro studies showed prolonged release of entrapped flurbiprofen. At refrigerated conditions, higher drug retention was observed. It is evident from this study that proniosomes are a promising prolonged delivery system for flurbiprofen and have reasonably good stability characteristics.

Prajapati SK; Kumar S; Sahu VK; Prakash G

2012-01-01

368

Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Bhatia, Rimple (Albuquerque, NM); Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA)

2002-01-01

369

Development of Stable Restructured Mango Gel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Restructured mango gel was prepared by alginate texturization of mango pulp using sodium alginate, glucono-?-lactone and calcium hydrogen orthophosphate. The requisite quantities of the chemical additives were mixed, added together to the neutralized mango pulp in a mixer and allowed to set at 4°C for 16 h. The mango gel was cut into 1.5 cm cubes and stabilized by Hurdle Technology (HT) through adjustment of water activity to 0.89, pH 4.4 and pasteurization in polypropylene pouches. Storage studies were carried out in foil laminate packs at three different temperatures i.e. 4°C, RT (20-33°C) and 37°C and evaluated for chemical parameters, Hunter colour values as well as microbiological and organoleptic characteristics. Studies showed that HT preserved texturized mango gel could be kept in acceptable condition up to 12 months at RT and 6 months at 37°C. During storage a considerable reduction in sulphur dioxide, carotenoids and an increase in acidity were observed. Decrease in L, a, b values was also observed in all the samples stored under different temperatures. The product was also found to be microbiologically stable and safe up to 12 m.

D.K. Das Gupta; N. Roopa; R.K. Leela

2007-01-01

370

In vitro models of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in fibrin gel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In vitro models of endothelial assembly into microvessels are useful for the study of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. In addition, such models may be used to provide the microvasculature required to sustain engineered tissues. A large range of in vitro models of both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis have utilized fibrin gel as a scaffold. Although fibrin gel is conducive to endothelial assembly, its ultrastructure varies substantially based on the gel formulation and gelation conditions, making it challenging to compare between models. This work reviews existing models of endothelial assembly in fibrin gel and posits that differerences between models are partially caused by microstructural differences in fibrin gel.

Morin KT; Tranquillo RT

2013-10-01

371

Colloid molecular weight estimation by gel chromatography/acrylamide gel electrophoresis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Size or molecular weight (MW) estimation of radiolabeled collides in aqueous solutions has long been a problem. The authors have prepared several minimicroaggregated albumin colloids (m..mu..AA) by heat denaturation of stannous-containing HSA solutions at pH 7.0, 7.5, and 8.5). The resulting colloids were labeled with Tc-99m and compared with Au-198 colloid and Tc-99m-antimony sulfide colloid (Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S3) by gel chromatography and gel electrophoresis. Tc-99mm-m..mu..AA aggregated at pH 7.0 and the Au-198 colloid appeared in the external void volume of a BioRad A5.0 agarose column indicating an apparent MW of > 5 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. The pH7.5 Tc-99m-m..mu..AA, migrated within the filtration range of the column as did a small fraction of Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S/sub 3/, suggesting that the MW is between 6 x 10/sup 4/ - 5 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. The Tc-99m-m..mu..AA, aggregated at pH 8.5, had an apparent MW on gel filtration similar to that of untreated albumin, MW 6.6 x 10-/sup 4/ daltons. The mobilities of the colloids, on acrylamide disc gel electrophoresis, were consistent with the results on gel chromatography. The largest colloids, Au-198 colloid and pH 7.0 Tc-99m-m..mu..AA, barely entered the separating gel; intermediate sized colloids, a small fraction of Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S/sub 3/ and pH 7.5 Tc-99m-m..mu..AA migrated farther into the separating gel; while pH 8.5 Tc-99m-m..mu..AA had mobility approaching that of untreated albumin. Lymphoscintigraphy studies using these colloids in animals showed the predicted, particle size-related differences in migration and clearance. The authors conclude that gel chromatography and gel electrophoresis are useful methods for estimating the apparent size of the colloidal particles.

Liberatore, F.A.; Dearborn, C.; Nigam, S.; Poon, C.; Camin, L.; Liteplo, M.

1984-01-01

372

Gel encapsulation of glucose nanosensors for prolonged in vivo lifetime.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fluorescent glucose-sensitive nanosensors have previously been used in vivo to track glucose concentration changes in interstitial fluid. However, this technology was limited because of loss of fluorescence intensity due to particle diffusion from the injection site. In this study, we encapsulated the nanosensors into injectable gels to mitigate nanosensor migration in vivo. METHODS: Glucose-sensitive nanosensors were encapsulated in two different commercially available gelling agents: gel 1 and gel 2. Multiple formulations of each gel were assessed in vitro for their nanosensor encapsulation efficiency, permeability to glucose, and nanosensor retention over time. The optimal formulation for each gel, as determined from the in vitro assessment, was then tested in mice, and the lifetime of the encapsulated nanosensors was compared with controls of nanosensors without gel. RESULTS: Five gel formulations had encapsulation efficiencies of the nanosensors greater than 90%. Additionally, they retained up to 20% and 40% of the nanosensors over 24 h for gel 1 and gel 2, respectively. In vivo, both gels prevented diffusion of glucose nanosensors at least three times greater than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Encapsulating glucose nanosensors in two injectable gels prolonged nanosensor lifetime in vivo; however, the lifetime must still be increased further to be applicable for diabetes monitoring.

Balaconis MK; Clark HA

2013-01-01

373

RegStatGel: Proteomic software for identifying differentially expressed proteins based on 2D gel images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is a key step in proteomic workflow for identifying proteins that change under different experimental conditions. Since there are usually large amount of proteins and variations shown in the gel images, the use of software for analysis of 2D gel images is inevitable. We developed open-source software with graphical user interface for differential analysis of 2D gel images. The user-friendly software, RegStatGel, contains fully automated as well as interactive procedures. It was developed and has been tested under Matlab 7.01.

Feng Li; Françoise Seillier-Moiseiwitsch

2011-01-01

374

Predictive value of serologic tests in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis/ Valor predictivo de las pruebas serologicas para el diagnostico y seguimiento de la paracoccidoidomycosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Con el objeto de determinar el valor predictivo de las pruebas serológicas (F¡jación de Complemento, FC, e Inmunodifusión en Gel de Agar, IDGA), utilizadas regularmente en nuestro laboratorio para el diagnóstico y el seguimiento de la paracoccidioidomicosis, se analizaron los datos provenientes de 43 pacientes con la enfermedad. Tales pacientes fueron tratados en forma identica (Ketoconazol, 200 mg/dia por 6 meses); además ambas pruebas serológicas utilizaron un mi (more) smo lote de antigeno, eliminando asi posibles variables. Fuera de los sueros provenientes de los 43 pacientes con paracoccidioidomicosis (A), se estudiaron 50 sueros de pacientes con otras micosis profundas (B) y 92 sueros de personas sanas (C). Empleamos las fórmulas dadas por GALEN y GAMBINO6 y hallamos que la sensibilidad de ambas pruebas serológicas era comparable, sin diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre ellas (FC = 93%, IDGA - 88.4%). Dicha sesibilidad tendia a disminuir con el tratamiento, siendo más marcada su baja durante las observaciones post-terapia. Al analizar la especificidad se encontró que la IDGA era totalmente específica, no encontrandose falsos positivos en las poblaciones controles estudiadâs (B y C). La FC mostró un 96.7% de especificidad frente a la población C y un 82% frente a la B, siendo estadistisarnente significativa la diferencia entre ambas. Basados en los datos ariteriores, se buscó et valor predictivo, hallaridose que la IDGA da seguridad completa para el diagnóstiso en cualquiera de los períodos evaluados no asi la FC, la que mostró disminución de tales valores durante la terapia y la post-terapia. La curva respectiva mostró como a medida que pasaba el tiempo, disminuía la posibiildad de diferenciar la paracoccidioidomicosis (A) de otras micosis (B), manteniendose, sinembargo, la diferencia con los controles normales (C). Abstract in english A serologic study was undertaken in a group of 43 patients with active paracoccidioidomycosis who were treated in the same form (ketoconazole), for identical periods of time (6 months), and folio wed-up for various periods posttherapy. The tests employed were agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and complement fixation (FC). Also studied were 50 sera from patients with proven histoplasmosis and pulmonary aspergilloma, 30 patients with culturaly proven tuberculosis as well as 9 (more) 2 specimens from healthy individuals, residents in the endemic area for paracoccidioidomycosis. A single lot of yeast filtrate antigen was used throughout the study. The value of each test was measured according to GALEN and GAMBINO6. Both tests were highly sensitive, 89 and 93% respectively. Regarding their specificity, the AGID was totally specific while the CF exhibited 96.6% and 97% specificity in front of tuberculosis patients and healthy individuals respectively and 82% in comparison with patients with other mycoses. The concept of predictive value, that is, the certainty one has in accepting a positive test as diagnostic of paracoccidioidomycosis, favored the AGID procedure (100%) over the CF test. The latter could sort out with 93% certainty a patient with paracoccidioidomycosis among a group of healthy individuals and with 97.5% in the case of TB patients; when the group in question was composed by individuals with other deep mycoses, such certainty was lower (81%). The above results indicate that both the AGID and the CF tests furnish results of high confidence; one should not relay, however, in the CF alone as a means to establish the specific diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis.

Cano, Luz Elena; Restrepo, Angela

1987-10-01

375

Predictive value of serologic tests in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis Valor predictivo de las pruebas serologicas para el diagnostico y seguimiento de la paracoccidoidomycosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A serologic study was undertaken in a group of 43 patients with active paracoccidioidomycosis who were treated in the same form (ketoconazole), for identical periods of time (6 months), and folio wed-up for various periods posttherapy. The tests employed were agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and complement fixation (FC). Also studied were 50 sera from patients with proven histoplasmosis and pulmonary aspergilloma, 30 patients with culturaly proven tuberculosis as well as 92 specimens from healthy individuals, residents in the endemic area for paracoccidioidomycosis. A single lot of yeast filtrate antigen was used throughout the study. The value of each test was measured according to GALEN and GAMBINO6. Both tests were highly sensitive, 89 and 93% respectively. Regarding their specificity, the AGID was totally specific while the CF exhibited 96.6% and 97% specificity in front of tuberculosis patients and healthy individuals respectively and 82% in comparison with patients with other mycoses. The concept of predictive value, that is, the certainty one has in accepting a positive test as diagnostic of paracoccidioidomycosis, favored the AGID procedure (100%) over the CF test. The latter could sort out with 93% certainty a patient with paracoccidioidomycosis among a group of healthy individuals and with 97.5% in the case of TB patients; when the group in question was composed by individuals with other deep mycoses, such certainty was lower (81%). The above results indicate that both the AGID and the CF tests furnish results of high confidence; one should not relay, however, in the CF alone as a means to establish the specific diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis.Con el objeto de determinar el valor predictivo de las pruebas serológicas (F¡jación de Complemento, FC, e Inmunodifusión en Gel de Agar, IDGA), utilizadas regularmente en nuestro laboratorio para el diagnóstico y el seguimiento de la paracoccidioidomicosis, se analizaron los datos provenientes de 43 pacientes con la enfermedad. Tales pacientes fueron tratados en forma identica (Ketoconazol, 200 mg/dia por 6 meses); además ambas pruebas serológicas utilizaron un mismo lote de antigeno, eliminando asi posibles variables. Fuera de los sueros provenientes de los 43 pacientes con paracoccidioidomicosis (A), se estudiaron 50 sueros de pacientes con otras micosis profundas (B) y 92 sueros de personas sanas (C). Empleamos las fórmulas dadas por GALEN y GAMBINO6 y hallamos que la sensibilidad de ambas pruebas serológicas era comparable, sin diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre ellas (FC = 93%, IDGA - 88.4%). Dicha sesibilidad tendia a disminuir con el tratamiento, siendo más marcada su baja durante las observaciones post-terapia. Al analizar la especificidad se encontró que la IDGA era totalmente específica, no encontrandose falsos positivos en las poblaciones controles estudiadâs (B y C). La FC mostró un 96.7% de especificidad frente a la población C y un 82% frente a la B, siendo estadistisarnente significativa la diferencia entre ambas. Basados en los datos ariteriores, se buscó et valor predictivo, hallaridose que la IDGA da seguridad completa para el diagnóstiso en cualquiera de los períodos evaluados no asi la FC, la que mostró disminución de tales valores durante la terapia y la post-terapia. La curva respectiva mostró como a medida que pasaba el tiempo, disminuía la posibiildad de diferenciar la paracoccidioidomicosis (A) de otras micosis (B), manteniendose, sinembargo, la diferencia con los controles normales (C).

Luz Elena Cano; Angela Restrepo

1987-01-01

376

Lentivírus em caprinos leiteiros do semiárido paraibano: prevalência de anticorpos, fatores de risco e detecção molecular Lentivirus in dairy goats from the semiarid region of Paraiba state: seroprevalence, risk factors and molecular detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram determinar a prevalência de caprinos leiteiros soropositivos para a infecção por Lentivirus de pequenos ruminantes no semiárido do Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil, identificar fatores de risco associados à prevalência de rebanhos positivos, e realizar a detecção molecular do agente. Foram utilizadas 1047 cabras leiteiras de 110 propriedades selecionadas aleatoriamente no Município de Monteiro, Estado da Paraíba, no período de março de 2009 a dezembro de 2011. Para o diagnóstico da infecção por Lentivirus, foi utilizado o teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (AGID). Um ano após foi realizada nova sorologia, e PCR em tempo real foi aplicada em amostras de sangue e leite de 48 cabras procedentes de quatro propriedades com animais soropositivos. As prevalências de propriedades positivas e de animais soropositivos na AGID foram 44,6% (IC 95% = 35,1% - 54,3%) e 8,1% (IC 95% = 5,6% - 16,8%), respectivamente. Realizar corte e desinfecção de umbigo (odds ratio = 2,44; p = 0,048) e condições de aglomeração de animais (odds ratio = 3,45; p = 0,048) foram associadas com a prevalência de propriedades positivas. Um ano após a realização do inquérito sorológico, foi verificada a permanência de animais infectados, detectados por PCR em tempo real a partir de amostras de sangue e leite. A PCR em tempo real das amostras de leucócitos circulantes apresentou boa performance, com sensibilidade de 100%, especificidade de 92,86%, concordância de 93,75% e indicador Kappa de 0,765. Sugere-se que seja realizado um trabalho de educação sanitária junto aos produtores sobre medidas de prevenção com o objetivo de reduzir a disseminação da infecção nos rebanhos.The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of infection by ruminants Lentivirus in dairy goats in the semiarid of the Paraiba State, Northeastern Brazil, to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level prevalence and to perform molecular detection of the agent. A total of 1,047 dairy goats from 110 herds were randomly selected from the county of Monteiro, Paraiba State, and serum samples were collected from March 2009 to December 2011. For the diagnosis of Lentivirus infection, the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used. One year after that a new serology was performed and the real-time PCR assay was applied in blood and milk samples from 48 goats from four herds with seropositive animals. Prevalence of positive herds and seropositive animals at AGID were 44.6% (95% CI=35.1-54.3%) and 8.1% (95% CI =5.6-16.8%), respectively. Umbilical cord cutting and disinfection (odds ratio = 2.44; p = 0.048) and conditions of animal agglomeration (odds ratio=3.45; p=0.048) were associated with herd-level prevalence. One year after the serological profile, the permanence of infected animals detected by real-time PCR in blood and milk samples was verified. Real-time PCR using white blood cells had a good performance, with sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.86%, concordance of 93.75% and Kappa index of 0.765. It was suggested to teach sanitary measures to the herd owners in order to encourage them to adopt prevention measures aiming to reduce the spread of the infection in the herds.

Maria L.C.R. Silva; Roberto S. Castro; Rita C. Maia; Sergio A. Nascimento; Ana Lisa V. Gomes; Sérgio S. Azevedo

2013-01-01

377

Lentivírus em caprinos leiteiros do semiárido paraibano: prevalência de anticorpos, fatores de risco e detecção molecular/ Lentivirus in dairy goats from the semiarid region of Paraiba state: seroprevalence, risk factors and molecular detection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram determinar a prevalência de caprinos leiteiros soropositivos para a infecção por Lentivirus de pequenos ruminantes no semiárido do Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil, identificar fatores de risco associados à prevalência de rebanhos positivos, e realizar a detecção molecular do agente. Foram utilizadas 1047 cabras leiteiras de 110 propriedades selecionadas aleatoriamente no Município de Monteiro, Estado da Paraíba, no (more) período de março de 2009 a dezembro de 2011. Para o diagnóstico da infecção por Lentivirus, foi utilizado o teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (AGID). Um ano após foi realizada nova sorologia, e PCR em tempo real foi aplicada em amostras de sangue e leite de 48 cabras procedentes de quatro propriedades com animais soropositivos. As prevalências de propriedades positivas e de animais soropositivos na AGID foram 44,6% (IC 95% = 35,1% - 54,3%) e 8,1% (IC 95% = 5,6% - 16,8%), respectivamente. Realizar corte e desinfecção de umbigo (odds ratio = 2,44; p = 0,048) e condições de aglomeração de animais (odds ratio = 3,45; p = 0,048) foram associadas com a prevalência de propriedades positivas. Um ano após a realização do inquérito sorológico, foi verificada a permanência de animais infectados, detectados por PCR em tempo real a partir de amostras de sangue e leite. A PCR em tempo real das amostras de leucócitos circulantes apresentou boa performance, com sensibilidade de 100%, especificidade de 92,86%, concordância de 93,75% e indicador Kappa de 0,765. Sugere-se que seja realizado um trabalho de educação sanitária junto aos produtores sobre medidas de prevenção com o objetivo de reduzir a disseminação da infecção nos rebanhos. Abstract in english The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of infection by ruminants Lentivirus in dairy goats in the semiarid of the Paraiba State, Northeastern Brazil, to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level prevalence and to perform molecular detection of the agent. A total of 1,047 dairy goats from 110 herds were randomly selected from the county of Monteiro, Paraiba State, and serum samples were collected from March 2009 to December 2011. For the dia (more) gnosis of Lentivirus infection, the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used. One year after that a new serology was performed and the real-time PCR assay was applied in blood and milk samples from 48 goats from four herds with seropositive animals. Prevalence of positive herds and seropositive animals at AGID were 44.6% (95% CI=35.1-54.3%) and 8.1% (95% CI =5.6-16.8%), respectively. Umbilical cord cutting and disinfection (odds ratio = 2.44; p = 0.048) and conditions of animal agglomeration (odds ratio=3.45; p=0.048) were associated with herd-level prevalence. One year after the serological profile, the permanence of infected animals detected by real-time PCR in blood and milk samples was verified. Real-time PCR using white blood cells had a good performance, with sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.86%, concordance of 93.75% and Kappa index of 0.765. It was suggested to teach sanitary measures to the herd owners in order to encourage them to adopt prevention measures aiming to reduce the spread of the infection in the herds.

Silva, Maria L.C.R.; Castro, Roberto S.; Maia, Rita C.; Nascimento, Sergio A.; Gomes, Ana Lisa V.; Azevedo, Sérgio S.

2013-04-01

378

SAXS study of silica sols, gels and glasses obtained by the sol gel process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Systematic SAXS studies have been performed at the LURE Synchrotron, Orsay, using an intense beam of point like cross-section to obtain information about the sol -> humid gel -> dried gel -> silica glass transformation. The intensity curves have been analysed in term of power law in log-log plots, whose exponent is related to mass and surface fractal dimensions of the structure. It was found that almost all phases present fractal structures and for the case of basic gels, is of hierarchical nature. The aerogels are formed by a dense matrix, with a smooth surface and exhibit a very narrow auto-similarity range that gives a mass fractal dimension. (author)

1988-01-01

379

Dosimetric characterization of MAGIC gel with formaldehyde;Caracterizacao dosimetrica do gel MAGIC com formaldeido  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents the dosimetric characterization of MAGIC gel with formaldehyde. The depth dose measurement is in accordance with the predicted by dose measurements by other methods results. The linearity of response was evaluated and was standardized at 15Gy, showing a saturation in response for higher doses. The dosimeter presented a good stability for a one month period. A decrease in its sensitivity was observed for an increase in the irradiation beam energy from Co-60 to 10MV. The integrity of dose distribution was confirmed for a 90 days period. The dose rate dependence was on the order of other experimental deviation, proving another advantage of the addition of formaldehyde to MAGIC gel. These results confirm the applicability of this type of gel in the tridimensional dose distribution measurement. (author)

Pavoni, Juliana F.; Baffa, Oswaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

2009-07-01

380

Sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite; Sintese de hidroxiapatita via sol-gel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been established as the calcium phosphate based compound with most applications in the biological field. Among the numerous techniques for synthesis of HAp, the sol-gel processing route affords great control over purity and formed phases using low processing temperatures. In addition, the sol-gel approach offers an option for homogeneous HAp coating on metal substrates, as well as the ability to generate nanocrystalline powders. In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of HAp was investigated employing triethyl phosphate and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate as phosphorous and calcium precursors, respectively. The aging effect on phase composition and powder morphology of the final product was studied in terms of temperature and aging time. The powders were studied by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size distribution by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

Zupanski, M.D.; Lucena, M.P.P.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: michelledunin@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Different Applications of Rheological Techniques in Studies of Physical Gels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical gels are of both great scientific and practical interest. The cytoplasm of cells, which consists of a complex physical gel of protein filaments, is important for most of the cellular processes including cell division and cell motility. Nature has developed this complex system of associating protein filaments with the characteristic function of individual filaments. The proteins enable the cell to regulate the mechanical properties of the cell by sol-gel transition and a variety of crosslinking reactions. In the food industry texture of products are regulated by addition of gel-forming biopolymers. Physical gels are also used in the paint industry to minimize sedimentation. Delayed and controlled drug release is of importance in the pharmaceutical industry, and one way to obtain this control is to hide active components in physical gels. Two excellent reviews cover many aspects of biopolymer and physical gels [1,2]. The nature of physical gels has been debated for many years. In contrast to chemicallycrosslinked gels physical gels are often thermoreversible and small changes in e.g. temperature, pH or ionic strength may shift the system from a gel state to a sol state. Ole Kramer [3] pointed out the importance of time scales for physical gels. According to him the characteristic property of a gel is the presence of two components and a constant elastic storage modulus on time scales of 1 s or frequencies of 1 rad/s. His definition of gels relies on their rheological properties. Rheological techniques are used extensively in studies of physical gels and gelation. In the lecture some of the common techniques used in studies of gels will be addressed. Small amplitude oscillatory measurements are the most common type of measurement performed, and such measurements allow a determination of the elastic storage modulus, G’, and loss modulus, G”, as a function of e.g. frequency, temperature, or time. Two other techniques, which can be very useful for studies of gels, are creep and relaxation measurements. These techniques, which allow determinations of the compliance and the relaxation modulus, respectively, are particularly useful for investigating slow motions in gels and long-time properties. An example of how these different techniques have been used to investigate the rheological properties of sputum [4] will be discussed. The results demonstrate that sputum is a viscoelastic material and that both nucleic acids and actin filaments contribute to the viscoelastic properties of sputum from cystic fibrosis patients. Many simple methods have been developed over the years in industry to characterize products. The SAG test is widely used in the food industry to grade pectin samples and their ability to form gels. The test, which consists of a SAG measurement due to gravity of gels with a very precisely defined shape, is highly reproducible. However, it does not give any information about fundamental rheological properties of the pectin gels. Our attempt to understand more fundamental aspects of this test combined creep and oscillatory measurements together with finite element simulation. The results show [5] that pectin gels can be modeled as nearly ideal incompressible elastic materials, and equations connecting SAG number and the elastic storage modulus have been obtained. Solutions of tri-block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide form micelles in water with increasing temperature due to the hydrophobic nature of poly(propylene oxide) at higher temperatures. At high concentration micelles pack in bcc structures and various other gel structures are also formed. The gel properties are dominated by repulsive interactions between micelles, and oscillatory measurements allow a determination of the repulsive potential between micelles. Oscillatory bulk modulus measurements have been used to determine the dynamics of unimer-micelle motions. The strain properties of physical gels are of major importance in many applications. When a gel is deformed with increasing strain or strain amplitudes most gels eventually

Hvidt, SØren

382

Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic profiles of the new testosterone topical gel formulation, Testim, compared to AndroGel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-period, randomized, complete crossover study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of Testim (AA2500), a new 1% testosterone topical gel formulation, compared to AndroGel, an already available 1% testosterone topical gel. Twenty-nine hypogonadal subjects received a single dose (50 mg testosterone) of each formulation seven days apart. C(max) estimates for total testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and free testosterone were greater (30, 19 and 38%, respectively) following the application of Testim compared to AndroGel. Similarly, AUC(0-24) estimates for total testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and free testosterone were greater (30, 11 and 47%, respectively) following the application of Testim compared to AndroGel. Confidence intervals for C(max) and AUC(0-24) were not wholly contained within the bioequivalence limits for testosterone, therefore Testim trade mark and AndroGel are not bioequivalent with Testim providing higher serum levels and greater bioavailability than AndroGel. PMID:12673669

Marbury, T; Hamill, E; Bachand, R; Sebree, T; Smith, T

2003-04-01

383

Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic profiles of the new testosterone topical gel formulation, Testim, compared to AndroGel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A two-period, randomized, complete crossover study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of Testim (AA2500), a new 1% testosterone topical gel formulation, compared to AndroGel, an already available 1% testosterone topical gel. Twenty-nine hypogonadal subjects received a single dose (50 mg testosterone) of each formulation seven days apart. C(max) estimates for total testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and free testosterone were greater (30, 19 and 38%, respectively) following the application of Testim compared to AndroGel. Similarly, AUC(0-24) estimates for total testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and free testosterone were greater (30, 11 and 47%, respectively) following the application of Testim compared to AndroGel. Confidence intervals for C(max) and AUC(0-24) were not wholly contained within the bioequivalence limits for testosterone, therefore Testim trade mark and AndroGel are not bioequivalent with Testim providing higher serum levels and greater bioavailability than AndroGel.

Marbury T; Hamill E; Bachand R; Sebree T; Smith T

2003-04-01

384

Continuous alumina gel fibers by sol-gel method using glycolic acid, aluminum nitrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Continuous alumina fibers were prepared by sol-gel method. The spinning sol was obtained by mixing aluminum nitrate, glycolic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone with a weight ratio of 10:3:1.5. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the properties of the gel and ceramic fibers. The fibers with a uniform diameter and smooth surface were obtained by sintering at 1473K, and its main phase was indentified as a-Al2O3.

Hongbin Tan; Jianhua Zhang; Haiwa Bo

2011-01-01

385

Thoria-urania gel characterisation for sol-gel microsphere pelletisation (SGMP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thorium is an important component of the nuclear power program. Fabrication of thorium-based fuels is associated with radiation exposure problems due to the presence of 232U. Sol-gel process which uses liquids or free flowing solids are amenable for automation and remote handling and hence ideally suited for manufacture of such fuel. Accordingly, the present investigation is aimed at development of a process flow sheet for obtaining dense ThO2 and (Th,U)O2 pellets via Sol Gel Microsphere Pelletisation (SGMP)

2004-01-01

386

Platelet gel: applications in dental regenerative surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Platelet growth factors obtained from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are used in prosthetic and periodontal regenerative therapy in dentistry. Increased microvascular proliferation in the first 20 days is followed by enhanced osteoblast activity and immature osteoid formation within 3-6 weeks, improving the quality and quantity of newly formed bone tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate, through three-dimensional X-ray monitoring, the amount of bone obtained after bone regeneration treatment with platelet gel from autologous PRP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients eligible for regenerative treatment of atrophic alveolar bone of the maxilla or mandible were studied. The patients' autologous whole blood was collected at the Department of Immunology and Transfusion of San Matteo Hospital for the preparation of platelet gel. The bone at the treated sites was analysed prior to and 4 months after the treatment using the three-dimensional X-ray system Galileos. RESULTS: Over a period of 6 years, 133 patients were treated: 304 implants were inserted and there were five cases of failure. The regenerated bone area consisted of histologically immature osteoid tissue composed of thin trabeculae of vital bone and nuclei of osteocytes, associated with fibro-connective tissue. DISCUSSION: This co-operative trial between the Transfusion Centre, for standardised production and validation of the platelet gel, and the Dental Surgery room for its application showed that the technique appears effective and safe. Although difficulties were encountered because of the small sample size and the inability to carry out long-term histological controls, the use of small amounts of PRP (5-10%) combined with autologous bone (15-20%) and alloplastic material appears to reduce the need for bone grafting.

Forni F; Marzagalli M; Tesei P; Grassi A

2013-01-01

387

Novel sol-gel processed photorefractive materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report the development and characterization of a new photorefractive multifunctional ormosil consisting of a second-order nonlinear optical chromophore and a charge transporting group covalently bound to a silicon atom. The sol-gel technique is used to process this ormosil into a homogeneous, single-phase material which exhibits electrooptic and charge transporting properties. When doped with a photocharge generation sensitizer, the material shows photorefractivity as evidenced by the electric field dependence of the four-wave mixing diffraction efficiency and that of the two-beam coupling gain.

Burzynski, R.; Ghosal, S.; Casstevens, M.K. [Laser Photonics Technology, Inc., Amherst, NY (United States); Zhang, Y. [ROI Technology, Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States). Optical Materials Div.

1996-12-31

388

Industrial applications of sol-gel technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper has been to provide a broad, rather than comprehensive view. We have presented a range of applications and only a selection of involved companies and researchers and have relied to a large extent on published information. Nevertheless, we are sure that our view of the importance of Sol-gel technology as an emerging technology, with enormous impact across a wide range of manufacturing, is demonstrated. Applications which are either in production or have been foreshadowed include four broad categories: coatings, fibres, powders and monoliths.

1991-07-11

389

Dynamical heterogeneities: from glasses to gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the challenges in soft and condensed matter over the last few years has been understanding the phenomena of glass and jamming transitions. A recent advance in the field is the idea that the dynamical heterogeneities play here the same role as the critical fluctuations in ordinary critical phenomena. This is due to the fact that the decay of density fluctuations in glasses and jammed systems takes place thanks to the dynamically correlated motions of groups of particles. In this paper, after a brief review of the properties of the dynamical heterogeneities in glasses we analyze the cases of chemical and colloidal gels, which are still intensely debated.

2008-12-10

390

Industrial applications of sol-gel technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this paper has been to provide a broad, rather than comprehensive view. We have presented a range of applications and only a selection of involved companies and researchers and have relied to a large extent on published information. Nevertheless, we are sure that our view of the importance of Sol-gel technology as an emerging technology, with enormous impact across a wide range of manufacturing, is demonstrated. Applications which are either in production or have been foreshadowed include four broad categories: coatings, fibres, powders and monoliths.

Tuloch, S.M.; Tulloch, G.E. [Silicon Technologies Australia Pty Ltd, Queanbeyan, NSW (Australia)

1995-12-31

391

Universal elasticity and fluctuations of nematic gels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study elasticity of spontaneously orientationally ordered amorphous solids, characterized by a vanishing transverse shear modulus, as realized by nematic elastomers and gels. We show that local heterogeneities and elastic nonlinearities conspire to lead to anomalous nonlocal universal elasticity controlled by a nontrivial infrared fixed point. Namely, such solids are characterized by universal shear and bending moduli that, respectively, vanish and diverge at long scales, are universally incompressible, and exhibit a universal negative Poisson ratio and a non-Hookean elasticity down to arbitrarily low strains. Based on expansion about five dimensions, we argue that the nematic order is stable to thermal fluctuation and local heterogeneities down to d(lc)<3.

Xing X; Radzihovsky L

2003-04-01

392

RNA purification by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a powerful tool for purifying RNA samples. Denaturing PAGE allows separation of nucleic acids that differ by a single nucleotide in length. It is commonly used to separate and purify RNA species after in vitro transcription, to purify naturally occurring RNA variants such as tRNAs, to remove degradation products, and to purify labeled RNA species. To preserve RNA integrity following purification, RNA is usually visualized by UV shadowing or stained with ethidium bromide or SYBR green dyes.

Petrov A; Wu T; Puglisi EV; Puglisi JD

2013-01-01

393

Design of tenofovir-UC781 combination microbicide vaginal gels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tenofovir (TFV) is a proven microbicide when administered topically as a vaginal gel. To improve its efficacy, TFV was combined with the nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor UC781 in a vaginal gel. Mixture design of experiments theory was used to define a range of gel compositions with varying rheological properties and to assess in vitro drug release and tissue retention. Experiments and computations led to the specification of three different gels referred to as a spreading gel (SG), an intermediate spreading gel (ISG), and a bolus gel (BG). These three gels, all containing 1.0% TFV and 0.1% micronized UC781, were evaluated for in vitro release, in vitro tissue retention and safety, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in the rabbit. There were some differences in in vitro release rates of UC781 (the higher the gel viscosity, the slower the release rate) across gels, while release of TFV was independent of gel type. In an organotypic human vaginal-ectocervical (VEC) tissue model, the amounts of tissue-associated TFV and UC781 were several orders of magnitude higher than their in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentration. There were no differences in VEC tissue concentrations of TFV or UC781 between the SG, ISG, and BG. All three gels were well tolerated in the VEC model as assessed by tissue viability, electrical resistance, histology, and cytokine (interleukin-8 and interleukin-1 beta) release. The local vaginal tissue concentrations in rabbits following a single dose or seven once-daily doses were variable and generally lower than those found in the VEC tissue model. The approach described herein provides a rational schema to design and evaluate vaginal gels for use as microbicides.

Kiser PF; Mahalingam A; Fabian J; Smith E; Damian FR; Peters JJ; Katz DF; Elgendy H; Clark MR; Friend DR

2012-05-01

394

Novel royal jelly proteins identified by gel-based and gel-free proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Royal jelly (RJ) plays an important role in caste determination of the honeybee; the genetically same female egg develops into either a queen or worker bee depending on the time and amount of RJ fed to the larvae. RJ also has numerous health-promoting properties for humans. Gel-based and gel-free proteomics approaches and high-performance liquid chromatography-chip quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry were applied to comprehensively investigate the protein components of RJ. Overall, 37 and 22 nonredundant proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and gel-free analysis, respectively, and 19 new proteins were found by these two proteomics approaches. Major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) were identified as the principal protein components of RJ, and proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism such as glucose oxidase, ?-glucosidase precursor, and glucose dehydrogenase were also successfully identified. Importantly, the 19 newly identified proteins were mainly classified into three functional categories: oxidation-reduction (ergic53 CG6822-PA isoform A isoform 1, Sec61 CG9539-PA, and ADP/ATP translocase), protein binding (regucalcin and translationally controlled tumor protein CG4800-PA isoform 1), and lipid transport (apolipophorin-III-like protein). These new findings not only significantly increase the RJ proteome coverage but also help to provide new knowledge of RJ for honeybee biology and potential use for human health promotion. PMID:21854061

Han, Bin; Li, Chenxi; Zhang, Lan; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

2011-09-01

395

Gel-Based and Gel-Free Quantitative Proteomics Approaches at a Glance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is widely applied and remains the method of choice in proteomics; however, pervasive 2-DE-related concerns undermine its prospects as a dominant separation technique in proteome research. Consequently, the state-of-the-art shotgun techniques are slowly taki...

Abdallah, Cosette; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane; Renaut, Jenny; Sergeant, Kjell

396

Novel royal jelly proteins identified by gel-based and gel-free proteomics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Royal jelly (RJ) plays an important role in caste determination of the honeybee; the genetically same female egg develops into either a queen or worker bee depending on the time and amount of RJ fed to the larvae. RJ also has numerous health-promoting properties for humans. Gel-based and gel-free proteomics approaches and high-performance liquid chromatography-chip quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry were applied to comprehensively investigate the protein components of RJ. Overall, 37 and 22 nonredundant proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and gel-free analysis, respectively, and 19 new proteins were found by these two proteomics approaches. Major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) were identified as the principal protein components of RJ, and proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism such as glucose oxidase, ?-glucosidase precursor, and glucose dehydrogenase were also successfully identified. Importantly, the 19 newly identified proteins were mainly classified into three functional categories: oxidation-reduction (ergic53 CG6822-PA isoform A isoform 1, Sec61 CG9539-PA, and ADP/ATP translocase), protein binding (regucalcin and translationally controlled tumor protein CG4800-PA isoform 1), and lipid transport (apolipophorin-III-like protein). These new findings not only significantly increase the RJ proteome coverage but also help to provide new knowledge of RJ for honeybee biology and potential use for human health promotion.

Han B; Li C; Zhang L; Fang Y; Feng M; Li J

2011-09-01

397

One step antiglare sol-gel coating for screens by sol-gel techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anti-reflection coatings on glass substrates were prepared by the application of sol-gel coatings of silica containing crystalline tin oxide particles. The sol was coated on commercially available float glass by dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. Increasing the surface roughness of the float g...

Schelle, Christian; Mennig, Martin; Krug, Herbert; Jonschker, Gerhard; Schmidt, Helmut K.

398

Preparation of a collagen/polymer hybrid gel for tissue membranes. Part II: in vitro and in vivo biological properties of the collagen gels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological properties of a collagen-phospholipid polymer hybrid gel (MiC30 gel) designed for use as a tissue membrane. The following four types of collagen gels were synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo: physically cross-linked collagen gel (Uc gel), N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide-cross-linked collagen gel (EN gel), MiC30 gel and glutaraldehyde-cross-linked collagen gel (G gel). The cell adhesivity and proliferation rate were observed to be lowest for the MiC30 gel and highest for the Uc gel, indicating that the phospholipid-polymer-covered surface of the collagen gel interacted weakly with cells. The collagen gel was implanted into rats subcutaneously and was observed 1, 2 and 8 weeks after implantation. The Uc gel and G gel were degraded and induced an inflammatory response. Granulation was not observed for 8 weeks after implantation and the formation of foreign body giant cells was observed around both the Uc and G gels. On the other hand, cell infiltration and degradation were not observed in the case of the EN and MiC30 gels. The formation of foreign body giant cells was suppressed and the healing process was accelerated. The MiC30 gel is suitable for use as a biomaterial that is stable in vivo because it suppresses the foreign body response and accelerates the healing process. PMID:19539060

Nam, Kwangwoo; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kishida, Akio

2009-06-16

399

Preparation of a collagen/polymer hybrid gel for tissue membranes. Part II: in vitro and in vivo biological properties of the collagen gels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological properties of a collagen-phospholipid polymer hybrid gel (MiC30 gel) designed for use as a tissue membrane. The following four types of collagen gels were synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo: physically cross-linked collagen gel (Uc gel), N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide-cross-linked collagen gel (EN gel), MiC30 gel and glutaraldehyde-cross-linked collagen gel (G gel). The cell adhesivity and proliferation rate were observed to be lowest for the MiC30 gel and highest for the Uc gel, indicating that the phospholipid-polymer-covered surface of the collagen gel interacted weakly with cells. The collagen gel was implanted into rats subcutaneously and was observed 1, 2 and 8 weeks after implantation. The Uc gel and G gel were degraded and induced an inflammatory response. Granulation was not observed for 8 weeks after implantation and the formation of foreign body giant cells was observed around both the Uc and G gels. On the other hand, cell infiltration and degradation were not observed in the case of the EN and MiC30 gels. The formation of foreign body giant cells was suppressed and the healing process was accelerated. The MiC30 gel is suitable for use as a biomaterial that is stable in vivo because it suppresses the foreign body response and accelerates the healing process.

Nam K; Kimura T; Funamoto S; Kishida A

2010-02-01

400

DEVELOPMENT OF MELOXICAM SODIUM TRANSDERMAL GEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High molecular weight water soluble homopolymer of carbapol 934P resins are reported to possess very high viscosity in low concentration, transparency and film forming properties useful for gels. The meloxicam sodium gels were prepared by varying the concentration of penetration enhancer’s ethanol, PEG 400, menthol and azone. Selection of optimized batch was done on the basis of results of rheological studies and in-vitro drug permeation. Formulation F19 with highest amount of menthol shows highest permeability of meloxicam sodium (89.96%) at the end of 12 hrs this indicates that menthol showed significant permeation enhancement effect. The permeation rate (flux) for F19 was 260.11 µg/cm2/h. Obtained R2 values for zero-order model suggests that the drug follows zero-order release kinetics. The rheological characterization of formulated systems showed that the systems exhibit non-Newtonian behavior and The optimized formulation C1 showed higher % cumulative permeation of meloxicam sodium (> 95.00%) and permeation rates (flux).

Dr. Shashikant D. Barhate

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Antalgic gel patch and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to an analgesic gel plaster and its preparation method, composed of 2%-100% of extract of traditional Chinese medicine and 98%-0% of medicinal adjuvant, wherein the enoxolone glycyrrhetinic acid crude product is extracted using repeat high-temperature digestion and extraction of glycyrrhiza the fat-soluble components of paeonia lactiflora and corydlis tuber are extracted using alcohol extraction method. The traditional Chinese medicine plaster is prepared by mixing the molecule gel with the hydrogel and the water-soluble medicine enters into the skin through a water-based channel and the fat-soluble medicine enters into the skin by a fat-soluble channel, thus the production technique prevents the separation of medicine and matrix, at the same time a certain repulsion force of oil-based matrix to the water-based medicine and a certain repulsion force of water-based matrix to the oil-based medicine can promote the medicine absorption and the medicine efficacy is increased.

HUIMING GAO; HAO FANG; YINGCHAO ZHOU; YANG LI

402

Catanionic Gels Based on Cholic Acid Derivatives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, the preparation and characterization of an anionic and a cationic surfactant obtained by chemical modifications of a natural bile acid (cholic acid) are reported. The bile acid was modified by introducing a diamine or a dicarboxylic aromatic residue on the lateral chain. The pure cationic surfactant self-assembles in a network of fibers with a cross-section gyration radius of about 15.1 Å, providing hydrogels with a pH-dependent compactness. On the other hand, the anionic molecule gives rise to prolate ellipsoid micelles. Homogeneous catanionic mixtures have also been obtained, with molar fraction of each surfactant ranging from 0.125 to 0.875. At total surfactant concentration of 0.05% (w/v), the mixtures form gels of fibrils partially arranged in secondary twisted superstructures. Comparison of this concentration with the minimum gelation concentration of the pure cationic derivative (0.16% w/v) suggests that, in the mixtures, the presence of the electrostatic component in self-assembly of the molecules allows the formation of gels starting from more dilute samples. In view of these achievements, this work suggests that catanionic mixtures can be exploited to enhance the efficiency of gelators.

di Gregorio MC; Pavel NV; Miragaya J; Jover A; Meijide F; Vázquez Tato J; Soto Tellini VH; Galantini L

2013-09-01

403

Il Gel Piastrinico in chirurgia orale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obiettivi: L’utilizzo topico di emocomponenti autologhi, il concentrato piastrinico (CP) ed il plasma povero di pias