Wen, Xiao-Gang
2013-08-01
In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete) in d space-time dimensions. We show a very close relation between gauge anomalies for gauge group G and symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) orders (also known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders) with symmetry group G in one-higher dimension. The SPT phases are classified by group cohomology class Hd+1(G,R/Z). Through a more careful consideration, we argue that the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]⊕Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of Hd+1(G,R/Z) (denoted as Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]). We refer to other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as non-ABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomalies. We introduce a notion of π-cohomology group, Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[Hd+1(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group Hd+1(BG,R/Z) as subgroups. We argue that Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic non-ABJ gauge anomalies and partially classifies fermionic non-ABJ anomalies. Using the same approach that shows gauge anomalies to be connected to SPT phases, we can also show that gravitational anomalies are connected to topological orders (i.e., patterns of long-range entanglement) in one-higher dimension.
Relative Entropy, Mixed Gauge-Gravitational Anomaly and Causality
Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Hung, Ling-Yan
2016-01-01
In this note we explored the holographic relative entropy in the presence of the 5d Chern-Simons term, which introduces a mixed gauge-gravity anomaly to the dual CFT. The theory trivially satisfies an entanglement first law. However, to quadratic order in perturbations of the stress tensor $T$ and current density $J$, there is a mixed contribution to the relative entropy bi-linear in $T$ and $J$, signalling a potential violation of the positivity of the relative entropy. Miraculously, the term vanishes up to linear order in a derivative expansion. This prompted a closer inspection on a different consistency check, that involves time-delay of a graviton propagating in a charged background, scattered via a coupling supplied by the Chern-Simons term. The analysis suggests that the time-delay can take either sign, potentially violating causality for any finite value of the CS coupling.
Blagojević, Milutin
2012-01-01
During the last five decades, gravity, as one of the fundamental forces of nature, has been formulated as a gauge field theory of the Weyl-Cartan-Yang-Mills type. The resulting theory, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity, encompasses Einstein's gravitational theory as well as the teleparallel theory of gravity as subcases. In general, the spacetime structure is enriched by Cartan's torsion and the new theory can accommodate fermionic matter and its spin in a perfectly natural way. The present reprint volume contains articles from the most prominent proponents of the theory and is supplemented by detailed commentaries of the editors. This guided tour starts from special relativity and leads, in its first part, to general relativity and its gauge type extensions a la Weyl and Cartan. Subsequent stopping points are the theories of Yang-Mills and Utiyama and, as a particular vantage point, the theory of Sciama and Kibble. Later, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory and its generalizations are explored and specific topi...
Gravitational Wave - Gauge Field Oscillations
Caldwell, R R; Maksimova, N A
2016-01-01
Gravitational waves propagating through a stationary gauge field transform into gauge field waves and back again. When multiple families of flavor-space locked gauge fields are present, the gravitational and gauge field waves exhibit novel dynamics. At high frequencies, the system behaves like coupled oscillators in which the gravitational wave is the central pacemaker. Due to energy conservation and exchange among the oscillators, the wave amplitudes lie on a multi-dimensional sphere, reminiscent of neutrino flavor oscillations. This phenomenon has implications for cosmological scenarios based on flavor-space locked gauge fields.
Holographic Gravitational Anomaly in First and Second Order Hydrodynamics
Megias, Eugenio
2013-01-01
We compute, in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence, the transport coefficients of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies, including external electromagnetic fields. The computation is performed at first and second order in the hydrodynamical expansion. We use a 5-dim holographic model with pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons terms in the action. We reproduce at first order previous results on the anomaly induced current of a magnetic field and a vortex in a relativistic fluid, and compute at second order the anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients by using a Weyl covariant formalism. We find a dissipative and anomalous correction to the chiral magnetic conductivity due to the time dependence of the magnetic field. We also find a new contribution from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly to the shear waves dispersion relation. The role played by the chiral and gravitational anomalies in other transport coefficients is discussed.
Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Second Order Transport and Gravitational Anomaly*,**
Megías Eugenio
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We study the transport properties of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies. The computation is performed in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence for a 5 dim holographic model with Chern-Simons terms in the action. We find new anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients, as well as new contributions to the existing ones coming from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. Consequences for the shear waves dispersion relation are analyzed.
Konishi anomaly approach to gravitational F-terms
David, J R; Narain, K S; David, Justin R.; Gava, Edi
2003-01-01
We study gravitational corrections to the effective superpotential in theories with a single adjoint chiral multiplet, using the generalized Konishi anomaly and the gravitationally deformed chiral ring. We show that the genus one correction to the loop equation in the corresponding matrix model agrees with the gravitational corrected anomaly equations in the gauge theory. An important ingrediant in the proof is the lack of factorization of chiral gauge invariant operators in presence of a supergravity background. We also find a genus zero gravitational correction to the superpotential, which can be removed by a field redefinition.
Kahn's anomaly approach to gravitational F-terms
We study gravitational corrections to the effective superpotential in theories with a single adjoint chiral multiplet, using the generalized Konishi anomaly and the gravitationally deformed chiral ring. We show that the genus one correction to the loop equation in the corresponding matrix model agrees with the gravitational corrected anomaly equations in the gauge theory. An important ingredient in the proof is the lack of factorization of chiral gauge invariant operators in presence of a supergravity background. We also find a genus zero gravitational correction to the superpotential, which can be removed by a field redefinition. (author)
Konishi anomaly approach to gravitational F-terms
We study gravitational corrections to the effective superpotential in theories with a single adjoint chiral multiplet, using the generalized Konishi anomaly and the gravitationally deformed chiral ring. We show that the genus one correction to the loop equation in the corresponding matrix model agrees with the gravitational corrected anomaly equations in the gauge theory. An important ingredient in the proof is the lack of factorization of chiral gauge invariant operators in presence of a supergravity background. We also find a genus zero gravitational correction to the superpotential, which can be removed by a field redefinition. (author)
Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena
Landsteiner, Karl; Megías Fernández, Eugenio; Pena-Benítez, Francisco
2011-01-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficie...
Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries
Stewart, J
2002-01-01
The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...
Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Scalar Field
WUNing
2003-01-01
Quantum gauge theory of gravity is formulated based on gauge principle. Because the Lagrangian has strict local gravitational gauge symmetry, gravitational gauge theory is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum theory. Gravitational gauge interactions of scalar field are studied in this paper. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, scalar field minimal couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Comparing the Lagrangian for scalar field in quantum gauge theory of gravity with the corresponding Lagrangian in quantum fields in curved space-time, the definition for metric in curved space-time in geometry picture of gravity can be obtained, which is expressed by gravitational gauge field. In classical level, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches are also discussed.
Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Scalar Field
WU Ning
2003-01-01
Quantum gauge theory of gravity is formulated based on gauge principle. Because the Lagrangian hasstrict local gravitational gauge symmetry, gravitational gauge theory is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum theory.Gravitational gauge interactions of scalar field are studied in this paper. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, scalar fieldminimal couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Comparing the Lagrangian forscalar field in quantum gauge theory of gravity with the corresponding Lagrangian in quantum fields in curved space-time, the definition for metric in curved space-time in geometry picture of gravity can be obtained, which is expressedby gravitational gauge field. In classical level, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches are also discussed.
Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Dirac Field
WU Ning
2004-01-01
Gravitational interactions of Dirac field are studied in this paper. Based on gauge principle, quantum gauge theory of gravity, which is perturbatively renormalizable, is formulated in the Minkowski space-time. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, gravity is treated as a kind of fundamental interactions, which is transmitted by gravitational gauge tield, and Dirac field couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Based on this theory, we can easily explain gravitational phase effect, which has already been detected by COW experiment.
We present gauge theories of gravitation based, respectively, on the general linear group GL(n, R) and its inhomogeneous extension IGL(n, R). [SO(n-1,1) and ISO(n-1,1) for torsion-free manifolds]. Noting that the geometry of the conventional gauge theories can be described in terms of a principal fiber bundle, and that their action is a scalar in such a superspace, we construct principal fiber bundles based on the above gauge groups and propose to describe gravitation in terms of their corresponding scalar curvatures. To ensure that these manifolds do indeed have close ties with the space-time of general relativity, we make use of the notion of the parallel transport of vector fields in space-time to uniquely relate the connections in space-time to the gauge potentials in fiber bundles. The relations turn out to be similar to that suggested earlier by Yang. The actions we obtain are related to those of Einstein and Yang but are distinct from both and have an Einstein limit. The inclusion of internal symmetry leads to the analogs of Einstein-Yang-Mills equations. A number of variations and less attractive alternatives based on the subgroups of the above groups are also discussed
Unification of Gravitation and Gauge Fields
Huang, Xin-Bing
2004-01-01
In this letter, I indicate that complex daor field should also have spinor suffixes. The gravitation and gauge fields are unified under the framework of daor field. I acquire the elegant coupling equation of gravitation and gauge fields, from which Einstein's gravitational equation can be deduced.
Global gravitational anomalies and transport
Chowdhury, Subham Dutta
2016-01-01
We investigate the constraints imposed by global gravitational anomalies on parity odd induced transport coefficients in even dimensions for theories with chiral fermions, gravitinos and self dual tensors. The $\\eta$-invariant for the large diffeomorphism corresponding to the $T$ transformation on a torus constraints the coefficients in the thermal effective action up to mod 2. We show that the result obtained for the parity odd transport for gravitinos using global anomaly matching is consistent with the direct perturbative calculation. In $d=6$ we see that the second Pontryagin class in the anomaly polynomial does not contribute to the $\\eta$-invariant which provides a topological explanation of this observation in the `replacement rule'. We then perform a direct perturbative calculation for the contribution of the self dual tensor in $d=6$ to the parity odd transport coefficient using the Feynman rules proposed by Gaum\\'{e} and Witten. The result for the transport coefficient agrees with that obtained usin...
Anomaly cancellation condition in lattice gauge theory
We show that, to all orders of powers of the gauge potential, a gauge anomaly Α defined on 4-dimensional infinite lattice can always be removed by a local counterterm, provided that Α depends smoothly and locally on the gauge potential and that Α reproduces the gauge anomaly in the continuum theory in the classical continuum limit: The unique exception is proportional to the anomaly in the continuum theory. This follows from an analysis of nontrivial local solutions to the Wess-Zumino consistency condition in lattice gauge theory. Our result is applicable to the lattice chiral gauge theory based on the Ginsparg-Wilson Dirac operator, when the gauge field is sufficiently weak parallel-U(n,μ) - 1-parallel < ε', where U(n,μ) is the link variable and ε' a certain small positive constant. (author)
Gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED
Santos, Tiago R S
2016-01-01
In this work we study the issue of gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED. To do so, we opt to use the BRST formalism within of the algebraic renormalization approach, reducing our study to a cohomology problem. Since that this approach is independent of the renormalization scheme, the results here obtained are expected to be general. We find that the Lorentz-violating QED is free of gauge anomalies to all orders in perturbation theory.
Singlet deflected anomaly/gauge mediation
de Blas, J.; Delgado, A
2011-01-01
We study an extension of the standard anomaly/gauge mediation scenario where the messenger fields have direct interactions with an extra gauge singlet. This realizes a phenomenologically viable NMSSM-like scenario free of the mu-b_mu problem. Current cosmological constraints imply a small size for the anomaly-mediation contributions, unless some source of R-parity violation is permitted. In the latter case the allowed regions in the parameter space can be substantially larger than in the corr...
Singlet deflected anomaly/gauge mediation
We study an extension of the standard anomaly/gauge mediation scenario where the messenger fields have direct interactions with an extra gauge singlet. This realizes a phenomenologically viable NMSSM-like scenario free of the μ-bμ problem. Current cosmological constraints imply a small size for the anomaly-mediation contributions, unless some source of R-parity violation is permitted. In the latter case the allowed regions in the parameter space can be substantially larger than in the corresponding gauge-mediation scenario.
Gravitation as Gauge theory of Poincare Group
The geometrical approach to gauge theories, based on fiber-bundles, is shown in detail. Several gauge formalisms for gravitation are examined. In particular, it is shown how to build gauge theories for non-semisimple groups. A gravitational theory for the Poincare group, with all the essential characteristics of a Yang-Mills theory is proposed. Inonu-Wigner contractions of gauge theories are introduced, which provide a Lagrangian formalism, equivalent to a Lagrangian de Sitter theory supplemented by weak constraints. Yang and Einstein theories for gravitation become particular cases of a Yang-Mills theory. The classical limit of the proposed formalism leads to the Poisson equation, for the static case. (Author)
Gravitational anomaly and hydrodynamics in AdS/CFT
Using a holographic model with a pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons terms in the action, we analyze the anomalous induced current of a vortex in the relativistic fluid via the chiral vortical effect, which is analogous to the anomalous current induced by a magnetic field via the chiral magnetic effect. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid characterized by a term proportional to T2. The numerical value of this term is not renormalized compared to the weak coupling result [1]. We also address on a general formalism to unify the two inequivalent implementations to the chemical potential for an anomalous symmetry presented in [2]. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Realistic anomaly mediation with bulk gauge fields
We present a simple general framework for realistic models of supersymmetry breaking driven by anomaly mediation. We consider a 5-dimensional 'brane universe' where the visible and hidden sectors are localized on different branes, and the standard model gauge bosons propagate in the bulk. In this framework there can be charged scalar messengers that have contact interactions with the hidden sector, either localized in the hidden sector or in the bulk. These scalars obtain soft masses that feed into visible sector scalar masses at two loop order via bulk gauge interactions. This contribution is automatically flavor-blind, and can be naturally positive. If the messengers are in the bulk this contribution is automatically the same order of magnitude as the anomaly mediated contribution, independent of the brane spacing. If the messengers are localized to a brane the two effects are of the same order for relatively small brane spacings. The gaugino masses and A terms are determined completely by anomaly mediation. In order for anomaly mediation to dominate over radion mediation the radion must be is stabilized in a manner that preserves supersymmetry, with supergravity effects included. We show that this occurs in simple models. We also show that the mu problem can be solved by the vacuum expectation value of a singlet in this framework. (author)
Gauge Anomalies and Neutrino Seesaw Models
Neves Cebola, Luis Manuel
Despite the success of the Standard Model concerning theoretical predictions, there are several experimental results that cannot be explained and there are reasons to believe that there exists new physics beyond it. Neutrino oscillations, and hence their masses, are examples of this. Experimentally it is known that neutrinos masses are quite small, when compared to all Standard Model particle masses. Among the theoretical possibilities to explain these tiny masses, the seesaw mechanism is a simple and well-motivated framework. In its minimal version, heavy particles are introduced that decouple from the theory in the early universe. To build consistent theories, classical symmetries need to be preserved at quantum level, so that there are no anomalies. The cancellation of these anomalies leads to constraints in the parameters of the theory. One attractive solution is to realize the anomaly cancellation through the modication of the gauge symmetry. In this thesis we present a short review of some features of t...
Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies
Castro, Alejandra; Iqbal, Nabil; Perlmutter, Eric
2014-01-01
We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal worldline into a ribbon, and that the anomalous contribution to the CFT entanglement entropy is given by the twist in this ribbon. The entanglement functional may also be interpreted as the worldline action for a spinning particle -- that is, an anyon -- in three-dimensional curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the minimization of this action results in the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations of motion for a spinning particle in three dimensions. We work out several simple examples and demonstrate agreement with CFT calculations.
Gauge Symmetries and Holographic Anomalies of Chern-Simons and Transgression AdS Gravity
Mora, Pablo
2014-01-01
We review the issue of gauge and gravitational anomalies with backgrounds, maybe offering a new outlook on some aspects of these questions. We compute the holographic anomalies of hypothetical theories dual, in the sense of the AdS-CFT correspondence, to Chern-Simons AdS gravities. Those anomalies are either gauge anomalies associated to the AdS gauge group of the theory or diffeomorphism anomalies, with each kind related to the other. As a result of using suitable action principles por Chern-Simons AdS gravities, coming from Transgression forms, we obtain finite results without the need for further regularization. Our results are of potential interest for Lovelock gravity theories, as it has been shown that the boundary terms dictated by the transgressions for Chern-Simons gravities are also suitable to regularize Lovelock theories. The Wess-Zumino consistency condition ensures that anomalies of the generic form computed here should appear for these and other theories.
Gravitational Goldstone fields from affine gauge theory
Tresguerres, R
2000-01-01
In order to facilitate the application of standard renormalization techniques, gravitation should be decribed, if possible, in pure connection formalism, as a Yang-Mills theory of a certain spacetime group, say the Poincare or the affine group. This embodies the translational as well as the linear connection. However, the coframe is not the standard Yang-Mills type gauge field of the translations, since it lacks the inhomogeneous gradient term in the gauge transformations. By explicitly restoring the "hidden" piece responsible for this behavior within the framework of nonlinear realizations, the usual geometrical interpretation of the dynamical theory becomes possible, and in addition one can avoid the metric or coframe degeneracy which would otherwise interfere with the integrations within the path integral. We claim that nonlinear realizations provide a general mathematical scheme clarifying the foundations of gauge theories of spacetime symmetries. When applied to construct the Yang-Mills theory of the aff...
Spinning black holes in a gauge theory of gravitation
BabeÅ£i (Pretorian), Simona
2013-11-01
Spinning black holes are presented in terms of gauge fields in a commutative gauge theory of gravitation. The field strength tensor comes as a consequence of the particular ansatz for gauge fields. In order to obtain spinning black holes in a noncommutative gauge theory of gravitation is used an analytical procedure conceived in GRTensorII. To calculate the leading noncommutative corrections and to choose an appropriate noncommutative parameter are used recursive relations. The gauge fields and the field strength tensor for a spinning mass preserves some features of other cosmological solutions in the gauge theory of gravitation and the noncommutative corrections are expected to provide some important physical insights.
Adler-bell-jackiw anomaly in lattice gauge theory
The axial anomaly in lattice gauge theory with Wilson fermion is discussed. Under weak coupling approximation, we calculate the anomaly term systematically by path integral method. The result agrees with that obtained in continuum theory
Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly in lattice gauge theory
The axial anomaly in lattice gauge theory with Wilson fermion is discussed. Under the weak coupling approximation, we calculate the anomaly term systematically by the path-integral method. The result agrees with that obtained in continuum theory
Quantum gravitational anomaly as a dark matter
Kazinski, P O
2015-01-01
The general properties of a perfect relativistic fluid resulting from the quantum gravitational anomaly are investigated. It is found that, in the limit of a weak gravitational field, this fluid possesses a polytropic equation of state characterized by two universal constants: the polytropic constant and the natural polytropic index. Based on the astrophysical data, the estimates for the polytropic constant are given. It is shown that this fluid can describe a considerable part of the cold dark matter. The quantum theory of such a fluid is constructed in the framework of the background field method. The Ward identities associated with the entropy and vorticity conservation laws are derived. The leading gradient corrections to the pressure of the perfect fluid are found and the restrictions on their form are obtained. These restrictions guarantee, in particular, the absence of ghosts in the model. The second order nonlinear corrections to the equations of motion of a perfect relativistic fluid are analyzed and...
Classifying gauge anomalies through SPT orders and classifying anomalies through topological orders
Wen, Xiao-Gang
2013-01-01
In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete). We argue that, in d space-time dimensions, the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[H^{d+1}(G,R/Z)]\\oplus H_\\pi^{d+1}(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of the group cohomology class H^{d+1}(G,R/Z) of the gauge group G (denoted as Free[H^{d+1}(G,\\R/\\Z)]). We refer other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as nonABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomaly. We introduce a notion of \\pi-cohomology group, H_\\pi^{d+1}(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[H^{d+1}(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group H^{d+1}(BG,\\R/\\Z) as subgroups. We argue that H_\\pi^{d+1}(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic nonABJ gauge anomalies, and partially classifies fermionic nonABJ anomalies. We also show a very close rel...
Removal of chiral anomalies in abelian gauge theories
It is shown that chiral anomalies can be removed in abelian gauge theories. After a discussion of the two dimensional case where exact solutions are available we study the four dimensional theory. We use perturbation theory, i.e. analyse the triangle Feynman integrals, and determine the general subtraction structure of the gauge current. Then we show that gauges exist for which current conservation holds and the theory is gauge invariant. As far as the generating functional is concerned the anomaly is employed first as gauge fixing condition. After rewriting the interaction in a gauge invariant form the gauge fixing condition can be imposed as usual. In our approach the integration over the gauge group remains trivial. (author)
Gauge Gravitational Field in a Fractal Space-Time
M. Agop; Camelia Popa; Anca Harabagiu
2008-01-01
Considering the fractal structure of space-time, the scale relativity theory in the topological dimension DT=2 is built. In such a conjecture, the geodesics of this space-time imply the hydrodynamic model of the quantum mechanics. Subsequently, the gauge gravitational field on a fractal space-time is given. Then, the gauge group, the gauge-covariant derivative, the strength tensor of the gauge field, the gauge-invariant Lagrangean, the field equations of the gauge potentials and the gauge energy-momentum tensor are determined. Finally, using this model, a Reissner Nordstrom type metric is obtained.
Gravitational Shielding Effect in Gauge Theory of Gravity
WU Ning
2004-01-01
In 1992,E.E.Podkletnov and R.Nieminen found that under certain conditions,ceramic superconductor with composite structure reveals weak shielding properties against gravitational force.In classical Newton's theory of gravity and even in Einstein's general theory of gravity,there are no grounds of gravitational shielding effects.But in quantum gauge theory of gravity,the gravitational shielding effects can be explained in a simple and natural way.In quantum gauge theory of gravity,gravitational gauge interactions of complex scalar field can be formulated based on gauge principle.After spontaneous symmetry breaking,if the vacuum of the complex scalar field is not stable and uniform,there will be a mass term of gravitational gauge field.When gravitational gauge field propagates in this unstable vacuum of the complex scalar field,it will decays exponentially,which is the nature of gravitational shielding effects.The mechanism of gravitational shielding effects is studied in this paper,and some main properties of gravitational shielding effects are discussed.
Gauge Symmetry of the Heat-Kernel and Anomaly Formulas
Ichinose, S; Ichinose, Shoichi; Ikeda, Noriaki
1996-01-01
We consider a gauge symmetry in a quantum Hilbert space. The symmetry leads to that of the heat-kernel and of the anomaly formulae which were previously obtained by the authors. This greatly simplifies and clarifies the structure of the formulae. We explicitly obtain the anomaly formulae in two and four dimensions, which ``unify'' all kinds of anomaly. The symmetry corresponds to that of the counterterm formulae in the background field method. As an example, the non-abelian anomaly is considered.
Regularized path integrals and anomalies -- U(1) chiral gauge theory
Kopper, Christoph; Lévêque, Benjamin
2011-01-01
We analyse the origin of the Adler anomaly of chiral U(1) gauge theory within the framework of regularized path integrals. Momentum or position space regulators allow for mathematically well-defined path integrals but violate local gauge symmetry. It is known how (nonanomalous) gauge symmetry can be recovered in the renormalized theory in this case [1]. Here we analyse U(1) chiral gauge theory to show how the appearance of anomalies manifests itself in such a context. We show that the three-p...
Gauge Approach to Gravitation and Regular Big Bang Theory
Minkevich, A. V.
2005-01-01
Field theoretical scheme of regular Big Bang in 4-dimensional physical space-time, built in the framework of gauge approach to gravitation, is discussed. Regular bouncing character of homogeneous isotropic cosmological models is ensured by gravitational repulsion effect at extreme conditions without quantum gravitational corrections. The most general properties of regular inflationary cosmological models are examined. Developing theory is valid, if energy density of gravitating matter is posi...
Maps for currents and anomalies in noncommutative gauge theories
Banerjee, Rabin; Kumar, Kuldeep
2004-01-01
We derive maps relating currents and their divergences in non-abelian U(N) noncommutative gauge theory with the corresponding expressions in the ordinary (commutative) description. For the U(1) theory, in the slowly-varying-field approximation, these maps are also seen to connect the star-gauge-covariant anomaly in the noncommutative theory with the standard Adler--Bell--Jackiw anomaly in the commutative version. For arbitrary fields, derivative corrections to the maps are explicitly computed...
A new anomaly-free gauged supergravity in six dimensions
We present a new anomaly-free gauged N = 1 supergravity model in six dimensions. The gauge group is E7 - G2 x U(1)R, with all hyperinos transforming in the product representation (56, 14). The theory admits monopole compactifications to R4 x S2, leading to D = 4 effective theories with broken supersymmetry and massless fermions. (author)
A New Anomaly-Free Gauged Supergravity in Six Dimensions
Avramis, S D; Randjbar-Daemi, S; Avramis, Spyros D.; Kehagias, Alex
2005-01-01
We present a new anomaly-free gauged N=1 supergravity model in six dimensions. The gauge group is $E_7 \\times G_2 \\times U(1)_R$, with all hyperinos transforming in the product representation {56,14). The theory admits monopole compactifications to $R^4 \\times S^2$, leading to D=4 effective theories with broken supersymmetry and massless fermions.
Gravitation, gauge theories and differential geometry
The purpose of this article is to outline various mathematical ideas, methods, and results, primarily from differential geometry and topology, and to show where they can be applied to Yang-Mills gauge theories and Einstein's theory of gravitation.We have several goals in mind. The first is to convey to physicists the bases for many mathematical concepts by using intuitive arguments while avoiding the detailed formality of most textbooks. Although a variety of mathematical theorems will be stated, we will generally give simple examples motivating the results instead of presenting abstract proofs. Another goal is to list a wide variety of mathematical terminology and results in a format which allows easy reference. The reader then has the option of supplementing the descriptions given here by consulting standard mathematical references and articles such as those listed in the bibliography. Finally, we intend this article to serve the dual purpose of acquainting mathematicians with some basic physical concepts which have mathematical ramifications; physical problems have often stimuladed new directions in mathematical thought. (orig./WL)
Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?
Iorio, Lorenzo
2014-01-01
Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gra...
Spherically-symmetric gravitational fields in the metric-affine gauge theory of gravitation
Minkevich, A. V.; Vasilevski, Yu. G.
2003-01-01
Geometric structure of spherically-symmetric space-time in metric-affine gauge theory of gravity is studied. Restrictions on curvature tensor and Bianchi identities are obtained. By using certain simple gravitational Lagrangian the solution of gravitational equations for vacuum spherically-symmetric gravitational field is obtained.
Wu, Ning; Zhang, Dahua
2005-01-01
A systematic method is developed to study classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, the formulation of gauge theory of gravity in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates is given. Then in spherical coordinates system, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the Schwarzschild solution. In gauge theory of gravity, the equation of motion of a classical mass point in gravitational gauge field is given by Ne...
Regularized path integrals and anomalies -- U(1) axial gauge theory
Kopper, Christoph
2011-01-01
We analyse the origin of the Adler anomaly of axial U(1) gauge theory within the framework of regularized path integrals. Momentum or position space regulators allow for mathematically well-defined path integrals but violate local gauge symmetry. It is known how (nonanomalous) gauge symmetry can be recovered in the renormalized theory in this case [1]. Here we analyse U(1) axial gauge theory to show how the appearance of anomalies manifests itself in such a context. We show that the three-photon amplitude leads to a violation of the Slavnov-Taylor-Identities which cannot be restored on taking the UV limit in the renormalized theory. We point out that this fact is related to the nonanalyticity of this amplitude in the infrared region.
Regularized path integrals and anomalies: U(1) chiral gauge theory
We analyze the origin of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly of chiral U(1) gauge theory within the framework of regularized path integrals. Momentum or position space regulators allow for mathematically well-defined path integrals but violate local gauge symmetry. It is known how (nonanomalous) gauge symmetry can be recovered in the renormalized theory in this case [Kopper, C. and Mueller, V. F., 'Renormalization of spontaneously broken SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with flow equations', Rev. Math. Phys. 21, 781 (2009)]. Here we analyze U(1) chiral gauge theory to show how the appearance of anomalies manifests itself in such a context. We show that the three-photon amplitude leads to a violation of the Slavnov-Taylor identities which cannot be restored on taking the UV limit in the renormalized theory. We point out that this fact is related to the nonanalyticity of this amplitude in the infrared region.
Functorial QFT, Gauge Anomalies and the Dirac Determinant Bundle
Mickelsson, J; Mickelsson, Jouko; Scott, Simon
1999-01-01
Using properties of the determinant line bundle for a family of elliptic boundary value problems, we explain how the Fock space functor defines an axiomatic quantum field theory which formally models the Fermionic path integral. The 'sewing axiom' of the theory arises as an algebraic pasting law for the determinant of the Dirac operator. We show how representations of the boundary gauge group fit into this description and that this leads to a Fock functor description of certain gauge anomalies.
The physical observer II: Gauge and diff anomalies
Larsson, T. A.
2008-01-01
In a companion paper we studied field theory in the presence of a physical observer with quantum dynamics. Here we describe the most striking consequence of this assumption: new gauge and diff anomalies arise. The relevant cocycles depend on the observer's spacetime trajectory and can hence not appear in QFT, where this quantity is never introduced. Diff anomalies necessarily arise in every locally nontrivial, non-holographic theory of quantum gravity. Cancellation of the divergent parts of t...
Global gauge anomaly of classical groups in even dimension
Explicit expression of global gauge anomaly coefficients A(ω) of locally anomaly-free representation ω of classical groups SU(N), Sp(2N) and SO(N) have been calculated in even dimensional space-time by uses of group theory and homotopy theory. As a by-product, we will prove some modular relations involving the n-th Kynkin indices Q/sub n/(ω) of these groups. 11 refs
Gauge Theory Amplitudes In Twistor Space And Holomorphic Anomaly
Cachazo, Freddy; Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward
2004-01-01
We show that, in analyzing differential equations obeyed by one-loop gauge theory amplitudes, one must take into account a certain holomorphic anomaly. When this is done, the results are consistent with the simplest twistor-space picture of the available one-loop amplitudes.
Gauge-covariant bimetric theory of gravitation and electromagnetism
Israelit, M.; Rosen, N.
1983-10-01
The Weyl theory of gravitation and electromagnetism, as modified by Dirac, contains a gauge-covariant scalar ..beta.. which has no geometric significance. This is a flaw if one is looking for a geometric description of gravitation and electromagnetism. A bimetric formalism is therefore introduced which enables one to replace ..beta.. by a geometric quantity. The formalism can be simplified by the use of a gauge-invariant physical metric. The resulting theory agrees with the general relativity for phenomena in the solar system.
Non-abelian gauge extensions for B-decay anomalies
Boucenna, Sofiane M; Fuentes-Martin, Javier; Vicente, Avelino; Virto, Javier
2016-01-01
We study the generic features of minimal gauge extensions of the Standard Model in view of recent hints of lepton-flavor non-universality in $B$-decays. We classify the posible models according to the symmetry-breaking pattern and the source of flavor non-universality. We find that in viable models the $\\mathrm{SU(2)}_L$ factor is embedded non-trivially in the extended gauge group, and that gauge couplings should be universal, hinting to the presence of new degrees of freedom sourcing non-universality. We construct an explicit model satisfying our criteria, and discuss the role of gauge mixing and its phenomenological relevance in the context of the anomalies.
On Gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation near weakly isolated horizon
Wu, Xiaoning; Sun, Jia-Rui
2008-01-01
Based on the idea of the work by Wilczek and his collaborators, we consider the gravitational anomaly near weekly isolated horizon. We find that there exists a universal choice of tortoise coordinate for any weakly isolated horizon. Under this coordinate, the leading behavior of a quite arbitrary scalar field near horizon is a 2-dimensional chiral scalar field. This means we can extend the idea of Wilczek and his collaborators to more general cases and show the relation between gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation is a universal property of black hole horizon.
Gravitational Leptogenesis in the Axion Inflation with an SU(2) gauge field
Maleknejad, Azadeh
2016-01-01
We present a natural leptogenesis mechanism in models of axion inflation with a classical SU(2) gauge field. The gauge field is coupled to the axion with a Chern-Simons interaction and comprises a tiny fraction of the total energy, $\\frac{\\rho_{_{\\rm YM}}}{\\rho_{_{\\rm tot}}}\\lesssim\\epsilon^2$. However, it has spin-2 fluctuations which break the parity and leads to the generation of chiral gravitational waves during inflation. By the gravitational anomaly in SM, it naturally creates a net lepton number density, sufficient to explain the matter asymmetry. We show that this mechanism can generate the observed value of baryon to photon number density in a natural range of parameters and yet has a small chiral tensor power spectrum on large scales.
Gravitational anomalies, gerbes, and hamiltonian quantization
Ekstrand, C.; Mickelsson, J.
1999-01-01
In [Carey, A.L., J. Mickelsson, and M. K. Murray: Comm. Math. Phys. 183, 707 (1997)] Schwinger terms in hamiltonian quantization of chiral fermions coupled to vector potentials were computed, using some ideas from the theory of gerbes, with the help of the family index theorem for a manifold with boundary. Here, we generalize this method to include gravitational Schwinger terms.
Gravitational anomalies, gerbes and hamiltonian quantization
Ekstrand, C
2000-01-01
In [Carey, A.L., J. Mickelsson, and M. K. Murray: Comm. Math. Phys. 183, 707 (1997)] Schwinger terms in hamiltonian quantization of chiral fermions coupled to vector potentials were computed, using some ideas from the theory of gerbes, with the help of the family index theorem for a manifold with boundary. Here, we generalize this method to include gravitational Schwinger terms.
Muon g-2 Anomaly and Dark Leptonic Gauge Boson
Lee, Hye-Sung [W& M
2014-11-01
One of the major motivations to search for a dark gauge boson of MeV-GeV scale is the long-standing muon g-2 anomaly. Because of active searches such as fixed target experiments and rare meson decays, the muon g-2 favored parameter region has been rapidly reduced. With the most recent data, it is practically excluded now in the popular dark photon model. We overview the issue and investigate a potentially alternative model based on the gauged lepton number or U(1)_L, which is under different experimental constraints.
Gravitational F-terms through anomaly equations and deformed chiral rings
We study effective gravitational F-terms, obtained by integrating an U(N) adjoint chiral superfield Φ coupled to the N = 1 gauge chiral superfield Wα and supergravity, to arbitrary orders in the gravitational background. The latter includes in addition to the N = 1 Weyl superfield Gα β γ, the self-dual graviphoton field strength Fαβ of the parent, broken N = 2 theory. We first study the chiral ring relations resulting from the above non-standard gravitational background and find agreement, for gauge invariant operators, with those obtained from the dual closed string side via Bianchi identities for Ν = 2 supergravity coupled to vector multiplets. We then derive generalized anomaly equations for connected correlators on the gauge theory side, which allow us to solve for the basic one-point function 2/(z-Φ) > to all orders in F2. By generalizing the matrix model loop equation to the generating functional of connected correlators of resolvents, we prove that the gauge theory result coincides with the genus expansion of the associated matrix model, after identifying the expansion parameters on the two sides. (author)
Gravitational F-terms through anomaly equations and deformed chiral rings
We study effective gravitational F-terms, obtained by integrating an U(N) adjoint chiral superfield Φ coupled to the N = 1 gauge chiral superfield Wα and supergravity, to arbitrary orders in the gravitational background. The latter includes in addition to the N = 1 Weyl superfield Gαβγ, the self-dual graviphoton field strength Fαβ of the parent, broken N = 2 theory. We first study the chiral ring relations resulting from the above non-standard gravitational background and find agreement, for gauge invariant operators, with those obtained from the dual closed string side via Bianchi identities for N = 2 supergravity coupled to vector multiplets. We then derive generalized anomaly equations for connected correlators on the gauge theory side, which allow us to solve for the basic one-point function 2/(z - Φ)> to all orders in F2. By generalizing the matrix model loop equation to the generating functional of connected correlators of resolvents, we prove that the gauge theory result coincides with the genus expansion of the associated matrix model, after identifying the expansion parameters on the two sides. (author)
Chiral rings and anomalies in supersymmetric gauge theory
Motivated by recent work of Dijkgraaf and Vafa, we study anomalies and the chiral ring structure in a supersymmetric U(N) gauge theory with an adjoint chiral superfield and an arbitrary superpotential. A certain generalization of the Konishi anomaly leads to an equation which is identical to the loop equation of a bosonic matrix model. This allows us to solve for the expectation values of the chiral operators as functions of a finite number of 'integration constants'. From this, we can derive the Dijkgraaf-Vafa relation of the effective superpotential to a matrix model. Some of our results are applicable to more general theories. For example, we determine the classical relations and quantum deformations of the chiral ring of N=1 super Yang-Mills theory with SU(N) gauge group, showing, as one consequence, that all supersymmetric vacua of this theory have a nonzero chiral condensate. (author)
Anomaly of discrete family symmetries and gauge coupling unification
Anomaly of a discrete symmetry is defined as the Jacobian of the path-integral measure. Assuming that anomaly at low energy is cancelled by the Green–Schwarz (GS) mechanism at a fundamental scale, we investigate possible Kac–Moody levels for anomalous discrete family symmetries. As the first example we consider discrete abelian Baryon number and Lepton number symmetries in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with see-saw mechanism, and find that the ordinary unification of gauge couplings is not consistent with the GS conditions, indicating a possible existence of further Higgs doublets. Next we consider the recently proposed supersymmetric model with Q6 family symmetry. In this model, the GS conditions are such that the gauge coupling unification appears close to the Planck scale. (author)
Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies: Pt. 2
Using the spectral sequencies technique, it is studied the local polynomial cohomology space of the operator S deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(x)deltasub(lambda) -deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x), which is isomorphic to the local functional cohomology of the operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time. In the Faddeev-Popov (PHI II) charge-one sector, it is found that all the anomalies have the form Δ(x) deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x)Δ-circumflex(x), where Csup(lambda)(x) is the ghost field, and Δ-circumflex(x) is a PHI II charge-zero anomaly
Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)
Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory
Schmidt, Torsten
2009-05-13
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)
Regularized path integrals and anomalies: U(1) chiral gauge theory
Kopper, Christoph; Lévêque, Benjamin
2012-02-01
We analyze the origin of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly of chiral U(1) gauge theory within the framework of regularized path integrals. Momentum or position space regulators allow for mathematically well-defined path integrals but violate local gauge symmetry. It is known how (nonanomalous) gauge symmetry can be recovered in the renormalized theory in this case [Kopper, C. and Müller, V. F., "Renormalization of spontaneously broken SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with flow equations," Rev. Math. Phys. 21, 781 (2009)], 10.1142/S0129055X0900375X. Here we analyze U(1) chiral gauge theory to show how the appearance of anomalies manifests itself in such a context. We show that the three-photon amplitude leads to a violation of the Slavnov-Taylor identities which cannot be restored on taking the UV limit in the renormalized theory. We point out that this fact is related to the nonanalyticity of this amplitude in the infrared region.
Gravitational self-force from radiation-gauge metric perturbations
Pound, Adam; Barack, Leor
2014-01-01
Calculations of the gravitational self-force (GSF) in curved spacetime require as input the metric perturbation in a sufficiently regular gauge. A basic challenge in the program to compute the GSF for orbits around a Kerr black hole is that the standard procedure for reconstructing the perturbation is formulated in a class of radiation gauges, in which the particle singularity is non-isotropic and extends away from the particle's location. Here we present two practical schemes for calculating the GSF using a radiation-gauge reconstructed metric as input. The schemes are based on a detailed analysis of the local structure of the particle singularity in the radiation gauges. We identify 3 types of radiation gauges: two containing a radial string-like singularity emanating from the particle, either in one direction ("half-string" gauges) or both directions ("full-string" gauges); and a third type containing no strings but with a jump discontinuity across a surface intersecting the particle. Based on a flat-space...
Could the Pioneer anomaly have a gravitational origin?
If the Pioneer anomaly has a gravitational origin, it would, according to the equivalence principle, distort the motions of the planets in the Solar System. Since no anomalous motion of the planets has been detected, it is generally believed that the Pioneer anomaly can not originate from a gravitational source in the Solar System. However, this conclusion becomes less obvious when considering models that either imply modifications to gravity over long distances or gravitational sources localized to the outer Solar System, given the uncertainty in the orbital parameters of the outer planets. Following the general assumption that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a spherically symmetric space-time metric, we derive the metric disturbance that is needed in order to account for the Pioneer anomaly. We then analyze the residual effects on the astronomical observables of the three outer planets that would arise from this metric disturbance, given an arbitrary metric theory of gravity. Providing a method for comparing the computed residuals with actual residuals, our results imply that the presence of a perturbation to the gravitational field necessary to induce the Pioneer anomaly is in conflict with available data for the planets Uranus and Pluto, but not for Neptune. We therefore conclude that the motion of the Pioneer spacecraft must be nongeodesic. Since our results are model-independent within the class of metric theories of gravity, they can be applied to rule out any model of the Pioneer anomaly that implies that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a perturbed space-time metric, regardless of the origin of this metric disturbance
Shen, Jian Qi
2016-05-01
A gravitational gauge theory with a spin-affine connection (Lorentz connection) as a rotational gauge potential (fundamental dynamical variable) is suggested for reformulating the theory of Stephenson-Kilmister-Yang gravity, in which the Einstein field equation of gravity is a first-integral solution of a spin-connection gravitational gauge field equation. A heavy intermediate field φ that accompanies a matter field \\varphi is introduced in order to remove the conventional dimensionful gravitational coupling. Such a \\varphi -φ coupling can lead to dimensionless gravitational coupling (i.e., the gravitational constant is dimensionless) in the present gravitational gauge field theory. A low-energy effective Lagrangian density for the matter field can be obtained by integrating out the accompanying heavy field in generating functional of path integral formalism, and therefore, a dimensionful gravitational coupling coefficient (Einstein gravitational constant) emerges. Such a dimensionless coupling of gravity, where the dimensionful coupling is emergent at low energies, is considered for scalar and spinor fields, which serve as gravitating matter fields (gravitational source). Though there are higher derivatives (e.g., third- and fourth-order partial derivatives) of the scalar and spinor fields in the low-energy effective Lagrangian densities, the ordinary equations of motion of the scalar and spinor fields can also be emergent from the present gravitational gauge theory. Therefore, the Einstein gravity can be recovered from the present gravitational gauge theory. In addition to the gravitational Lagrangian of the spacetime-rotational gauge potential (i.e., spin-affine connection), the Lagrangian of a spacetime-translational gauge potential (i.e., vierbein) is also constructed. Thus, the present dimensionless gravitational gauge coupling preserves local rotational and translational gauge symmetries. Since the spin-connection gravitational gauge field equation is a
On the gravitational origin of the Pioneer Anomaly
Siutsou, I. A.; Tomilchik, L. M.
2009-01-01
From Doppler tracking data and data on circular motion of astronomical objects we obtain a metric of the Pioneer Anomaly. The metric resolves the issue of manifest absence of anomaly acceleration in orbits of the outer planets and extra-Pluto objects of the Solar system. However, it turns out that the energy-momentum tensor of matter, which generates such a gravitational field in GR, violates energy dominance conditions. At the same time the equation of state derived from the energy-momentum ...
Gauge field, strings, solitons, anomalies and the speed of life
Niemi, Antti J
2014-01-01
It's been said that "mathematics is biology's next microscope, only better; biology is mathematics' next physics, only better". Here we aim for something even better. We try to combine mathematical physics and biology into a picoscope of life. For this we merge techniques which have been introduced and developed in modern mathematical physics, largely by Ludvig Faddeev to describe objects such as solitons and Higgs and to explain phenomena such as anomalies in gauge fields. We propose a synthesis that can help to resolve the protein folding problem, one of the most important conundrums in all of science. We apply the concept of gauge invariance to scrutinize the extrinsic geometry of strings in three dimensional space. We evoke general principles of symmetry in combination with Wilsonian universality and derive an essentially unique Landau-Ginzburg energy that describes the dynamics of a generic string-like configuration in the far infrared. We observe that the energy supports topological solitons, that perta...
Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan, E-mail: bibhas.majhi@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 781039, Guwahati, Assam (India)
2015-12-08
It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole’s entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S{sup .}) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S{sup .} on the power is S{sup .} ∝P{sup 1/2}, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry’s formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases.
Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Department of Physics, Guwahati, Assam (India)
2015-12-15
It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S on the power is S ∝ P{sup 1/2}, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases. (orig.)
Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes
It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole’s entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S.) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S. on the power is S. ∝P1/2, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry’s formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases
Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes
It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S on the power is S ∝ P1/2, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases. (orig.)
A Gauge-theoretical Treatment of the Gravitational Field: Classical
Gomes, Henrique
2008-01-01
In the geometrodynamical setting of general relativity one is concerned mainly with Riemannian metrics over a manifold $M$. We show that for the space Riem$(M)$, we have a natural principal fiber bundle (PFB) structure. This construction makes the gravitational field amenable to exactly the same gauge-theoretic treatment given in [Littlejohn] where it is used to separate rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of $n$-particle systems, both classically and quantum mechanically. Furthermore, we show how the gauge connection in this PFB setting can be seen as a realization of Mach's Principle of Relative Motion, in accordance with Barbour's et al work on timeless gravitational theories. We show Barbour's reconstruction of GR is obtained by requiring the connection to be the one induced by the deWitt metric in Riem$(M)$. As a simple application of the gauge theory, we put the ADM lagrangian in a Kaluza-Klein context, and from conservation of charge we derive an interesting condition on the three-dimensional...
Unified spin gauge theory of electroweak and gravitational interactions
A spin guage theory describing fundamental fermions and their electroweak and gravitational interactions is proposed. It is modelled on an eight-dimensional curved manifold M and uses its associated Clifford algebra. The elements of the algebra are represented by 16 x 16 matrices and the fermions are represented by sixteen-component column vectors. The frame field is introduced as a result of factorising the fermion mass term in the Lagrangian density and is included in an extended covariant derivative. The usual gauge theoretic technique of defining free bosonic Lagrangians from the fermion covariant derivative, when applied to the extended covariant derivative, gives the correct mass matrix for the photon, W and Z bosons, together with the Einstein-Hilbert gravitational Lagrangian density modified at short distances by a term quadratic in the curvature coefficients. Transformation of the Lagrangian by an inner automorphism of the Clifford algebra gives the correct mass and interaction terms for the up and down quarks. (author)
Tang, Yong
2011-01-01
We perform an explicit one-loop calculation for the gravitational contributions to the two-, three- and four-point gauge Green's functions with paying attention to the quadratic divergences. It is shown for the first time in the diagrammatic calculation that the Slavnov-Taylor identities are preserved even if the quantum graviton effects are included at one-loop level, such a conclusion is independent of the choice of regularization schemes. We also present a regularization scheme independent calculation based on the gauge condition independent background field framework of Vilkovisky-DeWitt's effective action with focusing on both the quadratic divergence and quartic divergence that is not discussed before. With the harmonic gauge condition, the results computed by using the traditional background field method can consistently be recovered from the Vilkovisky-DeWitt's effective action approach by simply taking a limiting case, and are found to be the same as the ones yielded by the diagrammatic calculation. ...
Trace anomaly, massless scalars, and the gravitational coupling of QCD
Armillis, Roberta; Corianò, Claudio; Delle Rose, Luigi
2010-09-01
The anomalous effective action describing the coupling of gravity to a non-Abelian gauge theory can be determined by a variational solution of the anomaly equation, as shown by Riegert long ago. It is given by a nonlocal expression, with the nonlocal interaction determined by the Green’s function of a conformally covariant operator of fourth order. In recent works it has been shown that this interaction is mediated by a simple pole in an expansion around a Minkowski background, coupled in the infrared in the massless fermion limit. This result relies on the local formulation of the original action in terms of two auxiliary fields, one physical scalar and one ghost, which take the role of massless composite degrees of freedom. In the gravity case, the two scalars have provided ground in favor of some recent proposals of an infrared approach to the solution of the dark energy problem, entirely based on the behavior of the vacuum energy at the QCD phase transition. As a test of this general result, we perform a complete one-loop computation of the effective action describing the coupling of a non-Abelian gauge theory to gravity. We confirm the appearance of an anomaly pole which contributes to the trace part of the TJJ correlator and of extra poles in its trace-free part, in the quark and gluon sectors, describing the coupling of the energy-momentum tensor (T) to two non-Abelian gauge currents (J).
Trace anomaly, massless scalars, and the gravitational coupling of QCD
The anomalous effective action describing the coupling of gravity to a non-Abelian gauge theory can be determined by a variational solution of the anomaly equation, as shown by Riegert long ago. It is given by a nonlocal expression, with the nonlocal interaction determined by the Green's function of a conformally covariant operator of fourth order. In recent works it has been shown that this interaction is mediated by a simple pole in an expansion around a Minkowski background, coupled in the infrared in the massless fermion limit. This result relies on the local formulation of the original action in terms of two auxiliary fields, one physical scalar and one ghost, which take the role of massless composite degrees of freedom. In the gravity case, the two scalars have provided ground in favor of some recent proposals of an infrared approach to the solution of the dark energy problem, entirely based on the behavior of the vacuum energy at the QCD phase transition. As a test of this general result, we perform a complete one-loop computation of the effective action describing the coupling of a non-Abelian gauge theory to gravity. We confirm the appearance of an anomaly pole which contributes to the trace part of the TJJ correlator and of extra poles in its trace-free part, in the quark and gluon sectors, describing the coupling of the energy-momentum tensor (T) to two non-Abelian gauge currents (J).
Primordial Gravitational Waves from Axion-Gauge Fields Dynamics
Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Fujita, Tomohiro
2016-01-01
Inspired by the chromo-natural inflation model of Adshead&Wyman, we reshape its scalar content to relax the tension with current observational bounds. Besides an inflaton, the setup includes a spectator sector in which an axion and SU(2) gauge fields are coupled via a Chern-Simons-type term. The result is a viable theory endowed with an alternative production mechanism for gravitational waves during inflation. The gravitational wave signal sourced by the spectator fields can be much larger than the contribution from standard vacuum fluctuations, it is distinguishable from the latter on the basis of its chirality and, depending on the theory parameters values, also its tilt. This production process breaks the well-known relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the energy scale of inflation. As a result, even if the Hubble rate is itself too small for the vacuum to generate a tensor amplitude detectable by upcoming experiments, this model still supports observable gravitational waves.
Gravitational Self-force in a Radiation Gauge
Keidl, Tobias S; Friedman, John L; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Price, Larry R
2010-01-01
In this, the first of two companion papers, we present a method for finding the gravitational self-force in a radiation gauge for a particle moving on a geodesic in a Schwarzschild or Kerr spacetime. The method involves a mode-sum renormalization of a spin-weight $\\pm 2$ perturbed Weyl scalar and the subsequent reconstruction from a Hertz potential of the renormalized perturbed metric. We show that the Hertz potential is uniquely specified by the requirement that it have no angular harmonics with $\\ell\\leq 2$. The resulting perturbed metric is singular only at the position of the particle: It is smooth on the axis of symmetry. An extension of an earlier result by Wald is needed to show that the perturbed metric is determined up to a gauge transformation and an infinitesimal change in the black hole mass and spin. We show that the singular behavior of the metric and self-force has the same power-law behavior in $L=\\ell+1/2$ as in a Lorenz gauge (with different coefficients). We compute the singular Weyl scalar...
Electric/magnetic duality for chiral gauge theories with anomaly cancellation
De Rydt, Jan; Schmidt, Torsten T.; Trigiante, Mario; Proeyen, Antoine; Zagermann, Marco
2008-01-01
We show that 4D gauge theories with Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation and possible generalized Chern-Simons terms admit a formulation that is manifestly covariant with respect to electric/magnetic duality transformations. This generalizes previous work on the symplectically covariant formulation of anomaly-free gauge theories as they typically occur in extended supergravity, and now also includes general theories with (pseudo-)anomalous gauge interactions as they may occur in global or local...
Massive to gauge field reduction and gravitational wave zone information
Deser, S
2016-01-01
We show explicitly that massive, Abelian, vector, just like (properly defined) massive tensor, fields limit smoothly to their massless, gauge, versions: they emit only maximal helicity radiation and mediate Coulomb and (special relativistic) Newtonian, forces between their (conserved) sources. Our main motivation, though, is to show that the recent gravitational wave detection probably cannot directly rule out very long-range gravity: Even though the waves were emitted in a strong field regime, their being detected in the weak field wave zone means the above equivalences apply. There remains the, not unlikely, possibility that no strong field generation of radiation in massive models can reproduce the observed ring-down patterns. Separately, the smooth linear limiting behaviors show that the discontinuity lies not in the mass alone, but rather in Abelian versus non-Abelian, Yang-Mills and General Relativity, regimes, whose respective massive versions are known to be non-physical.
Chiral Imprint of a Cosmic Gauge Field on Primordial Gravitational Waves
Bielefeld, Jannis
2014-01-01
A cosmological gauge field with isotropic stress-energy introduces parity violation into the behavior of gravitational waves. We show that a primordial spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves develops a preferred handedness, left- or right-circularly polarized, depending on the abundance and coupling of the gauge field during the radiation era. A modest abundance of the gauge field would induce parity-violating correlations of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization patterns that could be detected by current and future experiments.
Gravitational Waves in Bouncing Cosmologies from Gauge Field Production
Ben-Dayan, Ido
2016-01-01
We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to $F \\tilde F$ term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, ${\\cal P}^s_T\\sim ({\\cal P}^v_T)^2$, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to $F^2$ term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), $n_T\\gtrsim 0$, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a...
Stochastic quantization and gauge-fixing of the linearized gravitational field
Due to the indefiniteness of the Euclidean gravitational action the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme fails in the case of the gravitational field. Therefore we apply a recently proposed modification of stochastic quantization that works in Minkowski space and preserves all the advantages of the original Parisi-Wu method; in particular no gauge-fixing is required. Additionally stochastic gauge-fixing may be introduced and is also studied in detail. The graviton propagators obtained with and without stochastic gauge-fixing all exhibit a noncausal contribution, but apart from this effect the gauge-invariant quantities are the same as those of standard quantization. (Author)
Resolution of axial anomaly problem in supersymmetric gauge theories
The explicit form of transformation is found which converters the operators, involved in axial anomaly, from the renormalization scheme obeying the Adler-BaAdeen theorem to a supersymmetric one. It is shown that there is no contradiction between axial current and superconformal anomalies. In supersymmetric scheme the axial current and its anomaly belong to the corresponding supermultiplets
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-05-01
We prove the Adler-Bardeen theorem in a large class of general gauge theories, including nonrenormalizable ones. We assume that the gauge symmetries are general covariance, local Lorentz symmetry, and Abelian and non-Abelian Yang-Mills symmetries, and that the local functionals of vanishing ghost numbers satisfy a variant of the Kluberg-Stern-Zuber conjecture. We show that if the gauge anomalies are trivial at one loop, for every truncation of the theory there exists a subtraction scheme where they manifestly vanish to all orders, within the truncation. Outside the truncation the cancellation of gauge anomalies can be enforced by fine-tuning local counterterms. The framework of the proof is worked out by combining a recently formulated chiral dimensional regularization with a gauge invariant higher-derivative regularization. If the higher-derivative regularizing terms are placed well beyond the truncation, and the energy scale Λ associated with them is kept fixed, the theory is superrenormalizable and has the property that, once the gauge anomalies are canceled at one loop, they manifestly vanish from two loops onwards by simple power counting. When the Λ divergences are subtracted away and Λ is sent to infinity, the anomaly cancellation survives in a manifest form within the truncation and in a nonmanifest form outside. The standard model coupled to quantum gravity satisfies all the assumptions, so it is free of gauge anomalies to all orders.
Universal bundle for gravity, local index theorem, and covariant gravitational anomalies
Kelnhofer, G
1994-01-01
Consistent and covariant Lorentz and diffeomorphism anomalies are investigated in terms of the geometry of the universal bundle for gravity. This bundle is explicitly constructed and its geometrical structure will be studied. By means of the local index theorem for families of Bismut and Freed the consistent gravitational anomalies are calculated. Covariant gravitational anomalies are shown to be related with secondary characteristic classes of the universal bundle and a new set of descent equations which also contains the covariant Schwinger terms is derived. The relation between consistent and covariant anomalies is studied. Finally a geometrical realization of the gravitational BRS, anti-BRS transformations is presented which enables the formulation of a kind of covariance condition for covariant gravitational anomalies.
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-01-01
We prove the Adler-Bardeen theorem in a large class of general gauge theories, including nonrenormalizable ones. We assume that the gauge symmetries are general covariance, local Lorentz symmetry and Abelian and non-Abelian Yang-Mills symmetries, and that the local functionals of vanishing ghost number satisfy a variant of the Kluberg-Stern--Zuber conjecture. We show that if the gauge anomalies are trivial at one loop, for every truncation of the theory there exists a subtraction scheme where...
Mathematical Derivation of Chiral Anomaly in Lattice Gauge Theory with Wilson's Action
Hattori, T G; Hattori, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hiroshi
1998-01-01
Chiral U(1) anomaly is derived with mathematical rigor for a Euclidean fermion coupled to a smooth external U(1) gauge field on an even dimensional torus as a continuum limit of lattice regularized fermion field theory with the Wilson term in the action. The present work rigorously proves for the first time that the Wilson term correctly reproduces the chiral anomaly.
Gravitational anomalies in higher dimensional Riemann-Cartan space
By applying the covariant Taylor expansion method of the heat kernel, the covariant Einstein anomalies associated with a Weyl fermion of spin 1/2 in four-, six- and eight-dimensional Riemann-Cartan space are manifestly given. Many unknown terms with torsion tensors appear in these anomalies. The Lorentz anomaly is intimately related to the Einstein anomaly even in Riemann-Cartan space. The explicit form of the Lorentz anomaly corresponding to the Einstein anomaly is also obtained
One-loop anomalies and Wess-Zumino terms for general gauge theories
One-loop anomalies and their dependence on antifields for general gauge theories are investigated within a Pauli-Villars regularization scheme. For on-shell theories i.e. with open algebras or on-shell reducible theories, the antifield dependence is cohomologically non-trivial. The associated Wess-Zumino term depends also on antifields. In the classical basis the antifield-independent part of the WZ term is expressed in terms of the anomaly and finite gauge transformations by introducing gauge degrees of freedom as the extra dynamical variables. The complete WZ term is reconstructed from the antifield-independent part. (orig.)
Parity anomaly in D=3 Chern-Simons gauge theory
Ultraviolet divergences are calcelled in the effective action of the D=3 Chern-Simons gauge theory but regularization is needed. It is impossible to introduce gauge invariant regularization and conserve the parity of the classical action. As a result, in the limit when regularization is moved the finite contribution to the effective action induced by parity violating regulators remains. 18 refs
Space-time dependent couplings In N = 1 SUSY gauge theories: Anomalies and central functions
We consider N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories in which the couplings are allowed to be space-time dependent functions. Both the gauge and the superpotential couplings become chiral superfields. As has recently been shown, a new topological anomaly appears in models with space-time dependent gauge coupling. Here we show how this anomaly may be used to derive the NSVZ β-function in a particular, well-determined renormalisation scheme, both without and with chiral matter. Moreover we extend the topological anomaly analysis to theories coupled to a classical curved superspace background, and use it to derive an all-order expression for the central charge c, the coefficient of the Weyl tensor squared contribution to the conformal anomaly. We also comment on the implications of our results for the central charge a expected to be of relevance for a four-dimensional C-theorem. (author)
Anomaly-free U(1) gauge symmetries in neutrino seesaw flavor models
Cebola, Luis M; Felipe, Ricardo Gonzalez
2013-01-01
Adding right-handed neutrino singlets and/or fermion triplets to the particle content of the Standard Model allows for the implementation of the seesaw mechanism to give mass to neutrinos and, simultaneously, for the construction of anomaly-free gauge group extensions of the theory. We consider Abelian extensions based on an extra U(1)_X gauge symmetry, where X is an arbitrary linear combination of the baryon number B and the individual lepton numbers L_{e,mu,tau}. By requiring cancellation of gauge anomalies, we perform a detailed analysis in order to identify the charge assignments under the new gauge symmetry that lead to neutrino phenomenology compatible with current experiments. In particular, we study how the new symmetry can constrain the flavor structure of the Majorana neutrino mass matrix, leading to two-zero textures with a minimal extra fermion and scalar content. The possibility of distinguishing different gauge symmetries and seesaw realizations at colliders is also briefly discussed.
On the problem of axial anomaly in supersymmetric gauge theories
The explicit relation is found between the axial current obeying the Adler-Bardeen theorem and the supersymmetric one belonging to a supermultiplet. It is shown that the axial and superconformal anomalies are consistent in all orders of perturbation theory
Distinguishing anomaly-mediation from gauge-mediation with a Wino NLSP
Kribs, G D
2000-01-01
A striking consequence of supersymmetry breaking communicated purely via the superconformal anomaly is that the gaugino masses are proportional to the gauge beta functions. This result, however, is not unique to anomaly-mediation. We present examples of ``generalized'' gauge-mediated models with messengers in standard model representations that give nearly identical predictions for the gaugino masses, but positive (mass)^2 for all sleptons. There are remarkable similarities between an anomaly-mediated model with a small additional universal mass added to all scalars and the gauge-mediated models with a long-lived Wino next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), leading to only a small set of observables that provide robust distinguishing criteria. These include ratios of the heaviest to lightest selectrons, smuons, and stops. The sign of the gluino soft mass an unambiguous distinction, but requires measuring a difficult class of one-loop radiative corrections to sparticle interactions. A high precision m...
On gravitational dressing of 2D field theories in chiral gauge
After giving a pedagogical review of the chiral gauge approach to 2D gravity, with particular emphasis on the derivation of the gravitational Ward identities, we discuss in some detail the interpretation of matter correlation functions coupled to gravity in chiral gauge. We argue that in chiral gauge no explicit gravitational dressing factor, analogue to the Liouville exponential in conformal gauge, is necessary for left-right symmetric matter operators. In particular, we examine the gravitationally dressed four-point correlation function of products of left and right fermions. We solve the corresponding gravitational Ward identity exactly: in the presence of gravity this four-point function exhibits a logarithmic short-distance singularity, instead of the power-law singularity in the absence of gravity. This rather surprising effect is non-perturbative in the gravitational coupling and is a sign for logarithms in the gravitationally dressed operator product expansions. We also discuss some perturbative evidence that the chiral Gross-Neveu model may remain integrable when coupled to gravity. (orig.)
Chiral anomalies in higher-derivative supersymmetric 6D gauge theories
We show that the recently constructed higher-derivative 6D SYM theory involves internal chiral anomaly breaking gauge invariance. The anomaly is cancelled when adding to the theory an adjoint matter hyper-multiplet. One shows that as the effective charge grows at high energies, the theories are not consistently defined nonperturbatively. Constructing a nontrivial 6D theory that would be internally consistent both perturbatively and nonperturbatively remains a major challenge. (author)
Axial anomaly in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm gauge field
The axial anomaly for Euclidean Dirac fermions in the presence of a background Aharonov-Bohm gauge potential was computed. The non-perturbative result depends on the self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac operator. The role of the quantum mechanical parameters involved in the expression for the axial anomaly is discussed. A derivation of the effective action by means of the stereographic projection is also considered. (authors). 14 refs
Overconnections and the energy-tensors of gauge and gravitational fields
Canarutto, Daniel
2015-01-01
A geometric construction for obtaining a prolongation of a connection to a connection of a bundle of connections is presented. This determines a natural extension of the notion of canonical energy-tensor which suits gauge and gravitational fields, and shares the main properties of the energy-tensor of a matter field in the jet space formulation of Lagrangian field theory, in particular with regards to symmetries of the Poincar\\'e-Cartan form. Accordingly, the joint energy-tensor for interacting matter and gauge fields turns out to be a natural geometric object, whose definition needs no auxuliary structures. Various topics related to energy-tensors, symmetries and the Einstein equations in a theory with interacting matter, gauge and gravitational fields can be viewed under a clarifying light. Finally, the symmetry determined by the "Komar super potential" is expressed as a symmetry of the gravitational Poincar\\'e-Cartan form.
Gauged WZW models for space-time groups and gravitational actions
Mora, Pablo; Pais, Pablo(Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia, Chile); Willison, Steven
2011-01-01
In this paper we investigate gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten models for space-time groups as gravitational theories, following the trend of recent work by Anabalon, Willison and Zanelli. We discuss the field equations in any dimension and study in detail the simplest case of two space-time dimensions and gauge group SO(2,1). For this model we study black hole solutions and we calculate their mass and entropy which resulted in a null value for both.
Perturbative analysis of the Gauss-law anomaly in chiral gauge theories
We discuss the Gauss-law constraint in chiral gauge theories. A unitarity condition for the Gauss constraint is introduced and shown to be equivalent to the diagrammatic form of the Ward identities. We give a simple derivation of the chiral anomaly and relate it to the breakdown of the unitarity condition
Gauge theories of gravitation a reader with commentaries
Blagojevic, Milutin
2013-01-01
In the last five decades, the gauge approach to gravity has represented a research area of increasing importance for our understanding of the physics of fundamental interactions. A full clarification of the gauge dynamics of gravity is expected to be the last missing link to the hidden structure of a consistent unification of all the fundamental interactions, based on the gauge principle. The aim of the present reprint volume, with commentaries by Milutin Blagojevi & 263; and Friedrich W Hehl, is to introduce graduate and advanced undergraduate students of theoretical or mathematical physics, or any other interested researcher, to the field of classical gauge theories of gravity. This is not just an ordinary reprint volume; it is a guide to the literature on gauge theories of gravity. The reader is encouraged first to study the introductory commentaries and to become familiar with the basic content of the reprints and related ideas, then he/she can choose to read a specific reprint or reprints, and after ...
Adler-Bardeen theorem and manifest anomaly cancellation to all orders in gauge theories
Anselmi, Damiano
2014-01-01
We reconsider the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the cancellation of gauge anomalies to all orders, when they vanish at one loop. Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism and combining the dimensional-regularization technique with the higher-derivative gauge-invariant regularization, we prove the theorem in the most general perturbatively unitary renormalizable gauge theories coupled to matter in four dimensions, and identify the subtraction scheme where anomaly cancellation to all orders is manifest, namely no subtractions of finite local counterterms are required from two loops onwards. Our approach is based on an order-by-order analysis of renormalization, and, differently from most derivations existing in the literature, does not make use of arguments based on the properties of the renormalization group. As a consequence, the proof we give also applies to conformal field theories and finite theories.
Adler-Bardeen theorem and manifest anomaly cancellation to all orders in gauge theories
Anselmi, Damiano
2014-10-01
We reconsider the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the cancellation of gauge anomalies to all orders, when they vanish at one loop. Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism and combining the dimensional-regularization technique with the higher-derivative gauge invariant regularization, we prove the theorem in the most general perturbatively unitary renormalizable gauge theories coupled to matter in four dimensions, and identify the subtraction scheme where anomaly cancellation to all orders is manifest, namely no subtractions of finite local counterterms are required from two loops onwards. Our approach is based on an order-by-order analysis of renormalization, and, differently from most derivations existing in the literature, does not make use of arguments based on the properties of the renormalization group. As a consequence, the proof we give also applies to conformal field theories and finite theories.
Adler-Bardeen theorem and manifest anomaly cancellation to all orders in gauge theories
Anselmi, Damiano [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica ' ' Enrico Fermi' '
2014-10-15
We reconsider the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the cancellation of gauge anomalies to all orders, when they vanish at one loop. Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism and combining the dimensional-regularization technique with the higher-derivative gauge invariant regularization, we prove the theorem in the most general perturbatively unitary renormalizable gauge theories coupled to matter in four dimensions, and we identify the subtraction scheme where anomaly cancellation to all orders is manifest, namely no subtractions of finite local counterterms are required from two loops onwards. Our approach is based on an order-by-order analysis of renormalization, and, differently from most derivations existing in the literature, does not make use of arguments based on the properties of the renormalization group. As a consequence, the proof we give also applies to conformal field theories and finite theories. (orig.)
Adler-Bardeen theorem and manifest anomaly cancellation to all orders in gauge theories
We reconsider the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the cancellation of gauge anomalies to all orders, when they vanish at one loop. Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism and combining the dimensional-regularization technique with the higher-derivative gauge invariant regularization, we prove the theorem in the most general perturbatively unitary renormalizable gauge theories coupled to matter in four dimensions, and we identify the subtraction scheme where anomaly cancellation to all orders is manifest, namely no subtractions of finite local counterterms are required from two loops onwards. Our approach is based on an order-by-order analysis of renormalization, and, differently from most derivations existing in the literature, does not make use of arguments based on the properties of the renormalization group. As a consequence, the proof we give also applies to conformal field theories and finite theories. (orig.)
Gauge theory duals of black hole – black string transitions of gravitational theories on a circle
We study the black hole – black string phase transitions of gravitational theories compactified on a circle using the holographic duality conjecture. The gauge theory duals of these theories are maximally supersymmetric and strongly coupled 1 + 1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theories compactified on a circle, in the large N limit. We perform the strongly coupled finite temperature gauge theory calculations on a lattice, using the recently developed exact lattice supersymmetry methods based on topological twisting and orbifolding. The spatial Polyakov line serves as relevant order parameter of the confinement – deconfinement phase transitions in the gauge theory duals
Gravitational and gauge couplings in Chern-Simons fractional spin gravity
Boulanger, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Mauricio
2015-01-01
We propose an extension of Vasiliev's supertrace operation for the enveloping algebra of Wigner's deformed oscillator algebra to the fractional spin algebra given in arXiv:1312.5700. The resulting three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory unifies the Blencowe-Vasiliev higher spin gravity with fractional spin fields and internal gauge potentials. For integer or half-integer fractional spins, infinite dimensional ideals arise and decouple, leaving finite dimensional gauge algebras gl(2l+1) or gl(l|l+1) and various real forms thereof. We derive the relation between gravitational and internal gauge couplings.
Minkowski, Peter
2012-01-01
The regularities at large distances of complete gauge invariance in QCD are shown to bear nontrivial consequences for the selection among inequivalent representations of canonical commutation (anticommutation) rules for gauge boson (quark) fields. The trace anomaly forces a modification of the gauge boson Lagrangean and by this of the entire associated canonical structure.
We show that ghosts in gauge theories can be interpreted as Maurer-Cartan forms in the infinite dimensional group G of gauge transformations. We examine the cohomology of the Lie algebra of G and identify the coboundary opeator with the BRS operator. We describe the anomalous terms encountered in the renormalization of gauge theories (triangle anomalies) as elements of these cohomology groups. (orig.)
Conservation laws in the SLsub(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation
A one-parameter family of new Lagrangian densities for the SLsub(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation is proposed. The relation between the laws of conservation and the SLsub(2,C) symmetry of general relativity through the Noether theorem is investigated
Hawking radiation from gravity's rainbow via gravitational anomaly
Zeng Xiao-Xiong; Yang Shu-Zheng; Chen De-You
2008-01-01
Based on the anomaly cancellation method,initiated by Robinson and Wilczek,we investigates Hawking radiation from the modified Schwarzschild black hole from gravity's rainbow from the anomaly point of view.Unlike the general Schwarzschild space-time,the metric of this black hole depends on the energies of probes.The obtained result shows to restore the underlying general covariance at the quantum level in the effective field,the covariant compensating flux of energy-momentum tensor,which is related to the energies of the probes,should precisely equal to that of a (1+1)-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature.
Higgs and gravitational scalar fields together induce Weyl gauge
Scholz, Erhard
2014-01-01
A common biquadratic potential for the Higgs field $h$ and an additional scalar field $\\phi$, non minimally coupled to gravity, is considered in locally scale symmetric approaches to standard model fields in curved spacetime. A common ground state of the two scalar fields exists and couples both fields to gravity, more precisely to scalar curvature $R$. In Einstein gauge ($\\phi = const$, often called "Einstein frame"), also $R$ is scaled to a constant. This condition makes perfect sense, even in the general case, in the Weyl geometric approach. There it has been called {\\em Weyl gauge}, because it was first considered by Weyl in the different context of his original scale geometric theory of gravity of 1918. Now it seems to get new meaning as a combined effect of electroweak theory and gravity, and their common influence on atomic frequencies.
Higgs and gravitational scalar fields together induce Weyl gauge
Scholz, Erhard
2014-01-01
A common biquadratic potential for the Higgs field $h$ and an additional scalar field $\\phi$, non minimally coupled to gravity, is considered in locally scale symmetric approaches to standard model fields in curved spacetime. A common ground state of the two scalar fields exists and couples both fields to gravity, more precisely to scalar curvature $R$. In Einstein gauge ($\\phi = const$, often called "Einstein frame"), also $R$ is scaled to a constant. This condition makes perfect sense, even...
Gauge Coupling Field, Currents, Anomalies and N=1 Super-Yang-Mills Effective Actions
Ambrosetti, Nicola; Derendinger, Jean-Pierre; Hartog, Jelle
2016-01-01
Working with a gauge coupling field in a linear superfield, we construct effective Lagrangians for N=1 super-Yang-Mills theory fully compatible with the expected all-order behaviour or physical quantities. Using the one-loop dependence on its ultraviolet cutoff and anomaly matching or cancellation of R and dilatation anomalies, we obtain the Wilsonian effective Lagrangian. With similar anomaly matching or cancellation methods, we derive the effective action for gaugino condensates, as a function of the real coupling field. Both effective actions lead to a derivation of the NSVZ beta function from algebraic arguments only. The extension of results to N=2 theories or to matter systems is briefly considered. The main tool for the discussion of anomalies is a generic supercurrent structure with 16_B+16_F operators (the S multiplet), which we derive using superspace identities and field equations for a fully general gauge theory Lagrangian with the linear gauge coupling superfield, and with various U(1)_R currents...
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-01-01
We prove the Adler-Bardeen theorem in a large class of general gauge theories, including nonrenormalizable ones. We assume that the gauge symmetries are general covariance, local Lorentz symmetry and Abelian and non-Abelian Yang-Mills symmetries, and that the local functionals of vanishing ghost number satisfy a variant of the Kluberg-Stern--Zuber conjecture. We show that if the gauge anomalies are trivial at one loop, for every truncation of the theory there exists a subtraction scheme where they manifestly vanish to all orders, within the truncation. Outside the truncation the cancellation of gauge anomalies can be enforced by fine-tuning local counterterms. The framework of the proof is worked out by combining a recently formulated chiral dimensional regularization with a gauge invariant higher-derivative regularization. If the higher-derivative regularizing terms are placed well beyond the truncation, and the energy scale $\\Lambda$ associated with them is kept fixed, the theory is super-renormalizable and...
Anomalies and entanglement entropy
Nishioka, Tatsuma; Yarom, Amos(Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa, 32000, Israel)
2016-01-01
We initiate a systematic study of entanglement and Renyi entropies in the presence of gauge and gravitational anomalies in even-dimensional quantum field theories. We argue that the mixed and gravitational anomalies are sensitive to boosts and obtain a closed form expression for their behavior under such transformations. Explicit constructions exhibiting the dependence of entanglement entropy on boosts is provided for theories on spacetimes with non-trivial magnetic fluxes and (or) non-vanish...
Anomalies and Entanglement Entropy
Nishioka, Tatsuma
2015-01-01
We initiate a systematic study of entanglement and Renyi entropies in the presence of gauge and gravitational anomalies in even-dimensional quantum field theories. We argue that the mixed and gravitational anomalies are sensitive to boosts and obtain a closed form expression for their behavior under such transformations. Explicit constructions exhibiting the dependence of entanglement entropy on boosts is provided for theories on spacetimes with non-trivial magnetic fluxes and (or) non-vanishing Pontryagin classes.
A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, by using Mathematica, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution. Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion, the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced. Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field, we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity, including the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun. It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.
Datta, A; Datta, Anindya; Huitu, Katri
2003-01-01
We point out that slepton pairs produced via gauge boson fusion in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model have very characteristic and almost clean signal at the Large Hadron Collider. In this letter, we discuss how one lepton associated with missing energy and produced in between two high-$p_T$ and high-mass forward jets can explore quite heavy sleptons in this scenario.
Massive to gauge field reduction and gravitational wave zone information
Deser, S.
2016-07-01
I analyze the possible relevance of LIGO's gravitational wave detection to the viability of massive gravity models. In GR, a wave zone, where the linearized approximation holds, is guaranteed to exist and the observed wave's amplitude profile can be sufficiently related to the emitting strong field interior to verify that, in this case, it was due to an inspiraling black hole merger. After an excursion to massive spin 1's massless limit, linear massive tensor theory is shown explicitly to propagate only (retarded) maximal, helicity 2, modes to O( m) as m→ 0; however, we don't know if the full theory has a similar "wave zone" governed by the linear model. Even if it does, a much more serious obstacle for massive gravity is to construct a time-varying strong field event to compare with the strong field footprint of LIGO's observed signals.
String theory applications in gravitational problems and gauge theories
Siampos, Konstadinos
2010-01-01
In this dissertation, we review the study of quark and monopole bound-state potentials within the gauge/gravity correspondence. Their behaviors often differ from what is expected on general physical grounds and field-theory considerations. We identify the configurations of physical interest by examining the stability of the string (brane) solutions dual to the flux tubes between the bound states. In particular, we formulate and prove several general statements concerning the perturbative stability of such string (brane) solutions, relevant for these configurations in a general class of backgrounds. We apply the results to N = 4 SYM and N = 1 at finite temperature and at generic points of the Coulomb branch. In all cases, the problematic regions are found to be unstable and hence physically irrelevant.
Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model confronts the LHC 750 GeV diphoton anomaly
Huang, Wei-Chih; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2016-08-01
In light of the recent 750 GeV diphoton anomaly observed at the LHC, we study the possibility of accommodating the deviation from the standard model prediction based on the recently proposed Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model. The model embeds two Higgs doublets into a doublet of a non-abelian gauge group SU(2)H, while the standard model SU(2)L right-handed fermion singlets are paired up with new heavy fermions to form SU(2)H doublets, and SU(2)L left-handed fermion doublets are singlets under SU(2)H. An SU(2)H scalar doublet, which provides masses to the new heavy fermions as well as the SU(2)H gauge bosons, can be produced via gluon fusion and subsequently decays into two photons with the new fermions circulating the triangle loops to account for the deviation from the standard model prediction.
Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model confronts the LHC 750 GeV di-photon anomaly
Huang, Wei-Chih; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2015-01-01
In light of the recent 750 GeV di-photon anomaly observed at the LHC, we check the possibility of accommodating the deviation from the Standard Model~(SM) prediction based on the Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model, which has been proposed lately. The model embeds two Higgs doublets into a doublet of a non-abelian gauge group $SU(2)_H$, while the SM $SU(2)_L$ right-handed fermion singlets are paired up with new heavy fermions to form $SU(2)_H$ doublets, and $SU(2)_L$ left-handed fermion doublets are singlets under $SU(2)_H$. An $SU(2)_H$ scalar doublet, which provides a mass to the new heavy fermions as well as the $SU(2)_H$ gauge bosons, can be produced via gluon fusion and subsequently decays into two photons with the help of the new fermions to account for the deviation from the SM prediction.
Gauge theory and gravitation: an approach to a fiber bundle formalism
The thesis is composed of two different parts. A formal complete and rigorous mathematical part-of topics of differential manilfolds, exterior calculus, riemannian geometry, principal fiber bundle (p.f.) with connections and linear connections and a second part of application of this mathematical formalism concerning physical theories, particularly the Maxwell eletromagnetism (EM), gauge theory of Yang-Mills (Y-M), the GRT, and the gravitation theory of Einstein-Cartan. (E.C.)
Gauge-invariant gravitational wave modes in pre-big bang cosmology
The t<0 branch of pre-big bang cosmological scenarios is subject to a gravitational wave instability. The unstable behaviour of tensor perturbations is derived in a very simple way in Hwang's covariant and gauge-invariant formalism developed for extended theories of gravity. A simple interpretation of this instability as the effect of an ''antifriction'' is given, and it is argued that a universe must eventually enter the expanding phase. (orig.)
Post-Newtonian effects in the quadratic Poincaré gauge theory of gravitation
Gladchenko, M. S.; Zhytnikov, V. V.
1994-10-01
The post-Newtonian approximation of the Poincaré gauge theory (PGT) of gravitation with an arbitrary Lagrangian is calculated. The constraints on the parameters of the PGT which follow from light deflection and retardation experiments and composition-independent fifth-force data are obtained. It is shown that modern experimental data cannot rule out the existence of massive torsion particles with both large and very small masses.
Geometrodynamics of gauge fields on the geometry of Yang-Mills and gravitational gauge theories
Mielke, Eckehard W
2016-01-01
This monograph aims to provide a unified, geometrical foundation of gauge theories of elementary particle physics. The underlying geometrical structure is unfolded in a coordinate-free manner via the modern mathematical notions of fibre bundles and exterior forms. Topics such as the dynamics of Yang-Mills theories, instanton solutions and topological invariants are included. By transferring these concepts to local space-time symmetries, generalizations of Einstein's theory of gravity arise in a Riemann-Cartan space with curvature and torsion. It provides the framework in which the (broken) Poincaré gauge theory, the Rainich geometrization of the Einstein-Maxwell system, and higher-dimensional, non-abelian Kaluza-Klein theories are developed. Since the discovery of the Higgs boson, concepts of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gravity have come again into focus, and, in this revised edition, these will be exposed in geometric terms. Quantizing gravity remains an open issue: formulating it as a de Sitter t...
Gravitational and gauge couplings in Chern-Simons fractional spin gravity
Boulanger, Nicolas; Sundell, Per; Valenzuela, Mauricio
2016-01-01
We propose an extension of Vasiliev's supertrace operation for the enveloping algebra of Wigner's deformed oscillator algebra to the fractional spin algebra given in arXiv:1312.5700. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the consistency of the supertrace, through the existence of a certain ground state projector. We build this projector and check its properties to the first two orders in the number operator and to all orders in the deformation parameter. We then find the relation between the gravitational and internal gauge couplings in the resulting unified three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory for Blencowe-Vasiliev higher spin gravity coupled to fractional spin fields and internal gauge potentials. We also examine the model for integer or half-integer fractional spins, where infinite dimensional ideals arise and decouple, leaving finite dimensional gauge algebras gl(2 ℓ + 1) or gl( ℓ| ℓ + 1) and various real forms thereof.
Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models
Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free ZN symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z6 symmetry, proton hexality P6, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LHuLHu. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1)X FN models in which the Z3 symmetry baryon triality, B3, arises from U(1)X breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B3-conserving FN models. (orig.)
Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models
Luhn, C.
2006-05-15
Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free Z{sub N} symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z{sub 6} symmetry, proton hexality P{sub 6}, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LH{sub u}LH{sub u}. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1){sub X} FN models in which the Z{sub 3} symmetry baryon triality, B{sub 3}, arises from U(1){sub X} breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B{sub 3}-conserving FN models. (orig.)
The Adler-Bardeen theorem for the axial U(1) anomaly in a general non-Abelian gauge theory
A general, regularization-scheme-independent proof of the nonrenormalization theorem for the anomaly of a U(1) axial current in a renormalizable gauge theory is presented. The gauge group may be an arbitrary compact Lie group. The validity of the theorem is traced back to some finiteness properties allowing for a well defined but particular choice of the anomaly operators. Whereas in the case of a purely Abelian gauge group this choice amounts to a physically reasonable normalization at zero energy, the general non-Abelian case awaits a deeper understanding
Minimal anomaly-free chiral fermion sets and gauge coupling unification
Cebola, Luis M; Felipe, R Gonzalez; Simoes, C
2014-01-01
We look for minimal chiral sets of fermions beyond the Standard Model that are anomaly-free and, simultaneously, vector-like particles with respect to colour SU(3) and electromagnetic U(1). We then study whether the addition of such particles to the Standard Model particle content allows for the unification of gauge couplings at a high energy scale, above $5.0 \\times 10^{15}$ GeV so as to be safely consistent with proton decay bounds. The possibility to have unification at the string scale is also considered. Inspired in grand unified theories, we also search for minimal chiral fermion sets that belong to SU(5) multiplets. Restricting to representations up to dimension 50, we show that some of these sets can lead to gauge unification at the GUT and/or string scales.
Neveu-Schwarz 5-branes in type-IIA supergravity and gravitational anomalies
We construct a gravitational-anomaly-free effective action for the coupled system of type-IIA D=10 dynamical supergravity interacting with a NS5-brane. The NS5-brane is considered as elementary in that the associated current is a δ function supported on its world volume. Our approach is based on a Chern kernel which encodes the singularities of the three-form field strength near the brane in an SO(4)-invariant way and provides a solution for its Bianchi identity in terms of a two-form potential. A dimensional reduction of the recently constructed anomaly-free effective action for an elementary M5-brane in D=11 is seen to reproduce our ten-dimensional action. The Chern-kernel approach provides in particular a concrete realization of the anomaly cancellation mechanism envisaged by Witten
Global anomalies in six dimensions
Applying Witten's formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies to six dimensional supergravities, we find: (a) The perturbatively anomaly free N=4 chiral supergravity coupled to 21 tensor multiplets is global anomaly free for any choice of space-time manifold with vanishing third Betti number (b3). (b) The perturbatively anomaly free matter coupled N=2 chiral supergravities with arbitrary number of tensor multiplets, whose Yang-Mills gauge groups do not include G2, SU(2), or SU(3) are free of global anomalies if the theory is formulated on S6. In the case of 9 tensor multiplets coupled to supergravity this result holds for any spacetime with vanishing b3. (c) The N=6 chiral supergravity has perturbative gravitational anomalies, and therefore the global anomalies need not be considered in this case. (author)
Hypercharge Flux in IIB and F-theory: Anomalies and Gauge Coupling Unification
Mayrhofer, Christoph; Weigand, Timo
2013-01-01
We analyse hypercharge flux GUT breaking in F-theory/Type IIB GUT models with regards to its implications for anomaly cancellation and gauge coupling unification. To this aim we exploit the Type IIB limit and consider 7-brane configurations that for the first time are guaranteed to exhibit net hypercharge flux restriction to matter curves. We show that local F-theory models with anomalies of type U(1)_Y-U(1)^2 in the massless spectrum can be consistent only if such additional U(1)s are globally geometrically massive (in the sense that they arise from non-Kahler deformations of the Calabi-Yau four-fold). We also show that the known hypercharge flux induced splitting of the gauge couplings in IIB models at tree-level can be reduced by a factor of 5 by employing a more F-theoretic twisting of U(1) flux by hypercharge flux bringing it to well within MSSM 2-loop results. In the case of net restriction of hypercharge flux to matter curves this tree-level splitting becomes more involved, is tied to the vacuum expect...
Gravitational Waves from the Phase Transition of a Non-linearly Realised Electroweak Gauge Symmetry
Kobakhidze, Archil; Yue, Jason
2016-01-01
Within the Standard Model with non-linearly realised electroweak symmetry, the LHC Higgs boson may reside in a singlet representation of the gauge group. Several new interactions are then allowed, including anomalous Higgs self-couplings, which may drive the electroweak phase transition to be strongly first-order. In this paper we investigate the cosmological electroweak phase transition in a simplified model with an anomalous Higgs cubic self- coupling. We look at the feasibility of detecting gravitational waves produced during such a transition in the early universe by future space-based experiments. We find that for the range of relatively large cubic couplings, $111~{\\rm GeV}~ \\lesssim |\\kappa| \\lesssim 118~{\\rm GeV}$, $\\sim $mHz frequency gravitational waves can be observed by eLISA, while BBO will potentially be able to detect waves in a wider frequency range, $0.1-10~$mHz.
Ultrashort Optical Pulses in a Fermi Liquid and Duality of Gauge Gravitation
Konobeeva, N. N.; Belonenko, M. B.
2016-07-01
The problem of the propagation of ultrashort pulses, including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional pulses, in a Fermi liquid is considered with the help of representations of the duality of gauge gravitation. The electromagnetic field is considered classically on the basis of the Maxwell equations. The effective equation so obtained is analyzed numerically and the dynamics of the state of the electromagnetic field are elucidated in the planar case, and also when it is localized in two/three spatial dimensions.
Membrane Paradigm, Gravitational $\\Theta$-Term and Gauge/Gravity Duality
Fischler, Willy
2015-01-01
Following the membrane paradigm, we explore the effect of the gravitational $\\Theta$-term on the behavior of the stretched horizon of a black hole in (3+1)-dimensions. We reformulate the membrane paradigm from a quantum path-integral point of view where we interpret the macroscopic properties of the horizon as effects of integrating out the region inside the horizon. The gravitational $\\Theta$-term is a total derivative, however, using our framework we show that this term affects the transport properties of the horizon. In particular, the horizon acquires a third order parity violating, dimensionless transport coefficient which affects the way localized perturbations scramble on the horizon. Then we consider a large-N gauge theory in (2+1)-dimensions which is dual to an asymptotically AdS background in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime to show that the $\\Theta$-term induces a non-trivial contact term in the energy-momentum tensor of the dual theory. As a consequence, the dual gauge theory in the presence of the $\\T...
Full text: (author)The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard supersymmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra
Anomalies of Density, Stresses, and the Gravitational Field in the Interior of Mars
Chuikova, N A; Maksimova, T G; 10.3103/S0027134912020075
2012-01-01
We determined the possible compensation depths for relief harmonics of different degrees and orders. The relief is shown to be completely compensated within the depth range of 0 to 1400 km. The lateral distributions of compensation masses are determined at these depths and the maps are constructed. The possible nonisostatic vertical stresses in the crust and mantle of Mars are estimated to be 64 MPa in compression and 20 MPa in tension. The relief anomalies of the Tharsis volcanic plateau and symmetric feature in the eastern hemisphere could have arisen and been maintained dynamically due to two plumes in the mantle substance that are enriched with fluids. The plumes that originate at the core of Mars can arise and be maintained by the anomalies of the inner gravitational field achieving +800 mGal in the region of plume formation, - 1200 mGal above the lower mantle-core transition layer, and -1400 mGal at the crust.
Gravitational energy for GR and Poincaré gauge theories: A covariant Hamiltonian approach
Chen, Chiang-Mei; Nester, James M.; Tung, Roh-Suan
2015-08-01
Our topic concerns a long standing puzzle: The energy of gravitating systems. More precisely we want to consider, for gravitating systems, how to best describe energy-momentum and angular momentum/center-of-mass momentum (CoMM). It is known that these quantities cannot be given by a local density. The modern understanding is that (i) they are quasi-local (associated with a closed 2-surface), (ii) they have no unique formula, (iii) they have no reference frame independent description. In the first part of this work, we review some early history, much of it not so well known, on the subject of gravitational energy in Einstein's general relativity (GR), noting especially Noether's contribution. In the second part, we review (including some new results) much of our covariant Hamiltonian formalism and apply it to Poincaré gauge theories of gravity (PG), with GR as a special case. The key point is that the Hamiltonian boundary term has two roles, it determines the quasi-local quantities, and furthermore, it determines the boundary conditions for the dynamical variables. Energy-momentum and angular momentum/CoMM are associated with the geometric symmetries under Poincaré transformations. They are best described in a local Poincaré gauge theory. The type of spacetime that naturally has this symmetry is Riemann-Cartan spacetime, with a metric compatible connection having, in general, both curvature and torsion. Thus our expression for the energy-momentum of physical systems is obtained via our covariant Hamiltonian formulation applied to the PG.
Gravitational Energy for GR and Poincare Gauge Theories: a Covariant Hamiltonian Approach
Chen, Chiang-Mei; Tung, Roh-Suan
2015-01-01
Our topic concerns a long standing puzzle: the energy of gravitating systems. More precisely we want to consider, for gravitating systems, how to best describe energy-momentum and angular momentum/center-of-mass momentum (CoMM). It is known that these quantities cannot be given by a local density. The modern understanding is that (i) they are quasi-local (associated with a closed 2-surface), (ii) they have no unique formula, (iii) they have no reference frame independent description. In the first part of this work we review some early history, much of it not so well known, on the subject of gravitational energy in Einstein's general relativity (GR), noting especially Noether's contribution. In the second part we review (including some new results) much of our covariant Hamiltonian formalism and apply it to Poincar\\'e gauge theories (GR is a special case). The key point is that the Hamiltonian boundary term has two roles, it determines the quasi-local quantities, and, furthermore it determines the boundary con...
WU Ning; ZHANG Da-Hua
2007-01-01
A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field.First,by using Mathematica,a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained,which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution.Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion,the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced.Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field,we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity,including the deflection of light by the sun,the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun.It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.
Wenzel, M.; Schroeter, J.
2009-04-01
Regional mean sea level anomalies (SLA) are estimated from tide gauge values directly using the neural network approach. A neural network is an artificial neural system, a computational model inspired by the notion of neurophysical processes. It consists of several processing elements called neurons, which are interconnected with each other exchanging information. In this presentation a backpropagation network (BPN) is used. In this type of network the neurons are ordered into layers: an input layer on the top, one or more hidden layers below and an output layer at the bottom. The connection strength between the neurons are estimated in a training phase, i.e. the BNP learns from given examples. For our purpose 56 tide gauges are selected from the PSMSL data set that comply with the following conditions: 1) there are more than 11 annual mean values given in [1993,2005] 2) more than 50 annual mean values are given in [1900,2007] and 3) the tide gauge is neighboured by at least one ocean point on a 1x1 degree grid. The selected tide gauges are GIA corrected using the Peltier ICE5G_VM4_L90 dataset available on the PSMSL web site. For each ocean region (trop. Indian, ... South Atlantic to Global Ocean) a separate BPN is trained that uses all tide gauges to compute the regional mean SLA's. To avoid possible problems with the local reference frame all computations are done in the space of temporal derivatives. Beyond that, this makes the data more suitable for the BPN because it better limits the possible range of the numerical values. Furthermore, known regional mean target values are needed to train the BPN. These are derived from gridded satellite altimetry data either processed by GFZ Potsdam (TOPEX/Poseidon data only) and/or the dataset available on the CSIRO sea level web side (combined TOPEX and Jason data). Although every tide gauge has more then 50 years of data, many values are missing, especially prior to 1950. To fill these data gaps at the input layer of the
Identification of the diagrams that can lead to gauge anomalies in the (minimal) Lorentz- and CPT-violating extension of quantum electrodynamics reveal these to be the electron self-energy and vertex correction (related to the Ward–Takahashi identity), the photon self-energy (related to the vacuum polarization tensor transversality) and the three-photon vertex diagrams. All but the latter were explicitly verified to be free of anomalies to first order in loop expansion. Here we provide this remaining evaluation and verify the absence of anomalies in this process. (paper)
Classical field theory on electrodynamics, non-Abelian gauge theories and gravitation
Scheck, Florian
2012-01-01
The book describes Maxwell's equations first in their integral, directly testable form, then moves on to their local formulation. The first two chapters cover all essential properties of Maxwell's equations, including their symmetries and their covariance in a modern notation. Chapter 3 is devoted to Maxwell theory as a classical field theory and to solutions of the wave equation. Chapter 4 deals with important applications of Maxwell theory. It includes topical subjects such as metamaterials with negative refraction index and solutions of Helmholtz' equation in paraxial approximation relevant for the description of laser beams. Chapter 5 describes non-Abelian gauge theories from a classical, geometric point of view, in analogy to Maxwell theory as a prototype, and culminates in an application to the U(2) theory relevant for electroweak interactions. The last chapter 6 gives a concise summary of semi-Riemannian geometry as the framework for the classical field theory of gravitation. The chapter concludes wit...
Bashinsky, Sergei
2015-01-01
We study a finite basic structure that possibly underlies the observed elementary quantum fields with gauge and gravitational interactions. Realistic wave functions of locally interacting quantum fields emerge naturally as fitting functions for the generic distribution of many quantifiable properties of arbitrary static objects. We prove that in any quantum theory with the superposition principle, evolution of a current state of fields unavoidably continues along alternate routes with every conceivable Hamiltonian for the fields. This applies to the emergent quantum fields too. Yet the Hamiltonian is unambiguous for isolated emergent systems with sufficient local symmetry. The other emergent systems, without specific physical laws, cannot be inhabitable. The acceptable systems are eternally inflating universes with reheated regions. We see how eternal inflation perpetually creates new short-scale physical degrees of freedom and why they are initially in the ground state. In the emergent quantum worlds probabi...
Anomaly-Free Supergravities in Six Dimensions
Avramis, S D
2006-01-01
This thesis reviews minimal N=2 chiral supergravities coupled to matter in six dimensions with emphasis on anomaly cancellation. In general, six-dimensional chiral supergravities suffer from gravitational, gauge and mixed anomalies which render the theories inconsistent at the quantum level. Consistency is restored if the anomalies of the theory cancel via the Green-Schwarz mechanism or generalizations thereof. The anomaly cancellation conditions translate into a certain set of constraints for the gauge group of the theory as well as on its matter content. For the case of ungauged theories these constraints admit numerous solutions but, in the case of gauged theories, the allowed solutions are remarkably few. In this thesis, we examine these anomaly cancellation conditions in detail and we present all solutions to these conditions under certain restrictions on the allowed gauge groups and representations, imposed for practical reasons. We also briefly examine anomaly cancellation in the context of Horava-Witt...
Small-scale structures of dark matter and flux anomalies in quasar gravitational lenses
Metcalf, R. Benton; Amara, Adam
2012-02-01
We investigate the statistics of flux anomalies in gravitationally lensed quasi-stellar objects as a function of dark matter halo properties such as substructure content and halo ellipticity. We do this by creating a very large number of simulated lenses with finite source sizes to compare with the data. After analysing these simulations, we conclude the following. (1) The finite size of the source is important. The point source approximation commonly used can cause biased results. (2) The widely used Rcusp statistic is sensitive to halo ellipticity as well as the lens' substructure content. (3) For compact substructure, we find new upper bounds on the amount of substructure from the fact that no simple single-galaxy lenses have been observed with a single source having more than four well separated images. (4) The frequency of image flux anomalies is largely dependent on the total surface mass density in substructures and the size-mass relation for the substructures, and not on the range of substructure masses. (5) Substructure models with the same size-mass relation produce similar numbers of flux anomalies even when their internal mass profiles are different. (6) The lack of high image multiplicity lenses puts a limit on a combination of the substructures' size-mass relation, surface density and mass. (7) Substructures with shallower mass profiles and/or larger sizes produce less extra images. (8) The constraints that we are able to measure here with current data are roughly consistent with Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations.
We show that certain one-loop corrections to superstring effective four-dimensional lagrangians, involving non-harmonic field-dependent renormalization of gauge couplings, can be consistently written in a standard N=1 supergravity form, preserving target-space duality. The preservation of target-space duality is due both to a four-dimensional Green-Schwarz mechanism and to local terms, coming from non-local chiral superfields, originated by mixed gauge-σ-model anomaly diagrams. In some models, the Green-Schwarz mechanism is sufficient to achieve complete anomaly cancellation. In more general models automorphic functions, generated by the integration over the heavy string modes, are required to preserve target-space duality. (orig.)
A striking consequence of supersymmetry breaking communicated purely via the superconformal anomaly is that the gaugino masses are proportional to the gauge β functions. This result, however, is not unique to anomaly mediation. We present examples of ''generalized'' gauge-mediated models with messengers in standard model representations that give nearly identical predictions for the gaugino masses, but positive (mass)2 for all sleptons. There are remarkable similarities between an anomaly-mediated model with a small additional universal mass added to all scalars and the gauge-mediated models with a long-lived W-ino next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, leading to only a small set of observables that provide robust distinguishing criteria. These include ratios of the heaviest to lightest selectrons, smuons, and top squarks. The sign of the gluino soft mass is an unambiguous distinction, but requires measuring a difficult class of one-loop radiative corrections to sparticle interactions. A high precision measurement of the Higgs-boson-b-b(bar sign) coupling is probably the most promising interaction from which this sign might be extracted. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Online-Offline, 1999
1999-01-01
This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…
Does the Neptunian system of satellites challenge a gravitational origin for the Pioneer anomaly?
Iorio, Lorenzo
2009-01-01
If the Pioneer Anomaly was a genuine dynamical effect of gravitational origin, it should also affect the orbital motions of the solar system's bodies moving in the space regions in which the PA manifested itself in its presently known form, i.e. as a constant and uniform acceleration approximately directed towards the Sun with a non-zero magnitude (8.74+/-1.33) x 10^-10 m s^-2 after 20 au from the Sun. We preliminarily investigate its effects on the orbital motions of the Neptunian satellites Triton, Nereid and Proteus, located at about 30 au from the Sun, both analytically and numerically. The analytical calculations show that the PA-induced radial and transverse perturbations of Triton are of the order of a few km yr^-1, those of Nereid are about 10+/-100 km yr^-1, while Proteus experiences radial and transverse shifts of the order of 0.1 km yr^-1. The out-of-plane perturbations are negligible, apart from that of Nereid which amounts to about 20 km yr^-1. The corresponding orbital uncertainties obtained fro...
Gauge theories, time-dependence of the gravitational constant and antigravity in the early universe
It is shown that the interaction of the gravitational field with matter leads to a strong modification of the effective gravitational constant in the early universe. In certain cases this leads even to the change of sign of the gravitational constant, i.e. to antigravity in the early universe. (orig.)
Hawking radiation from the dilaton-(anti) de Sitter black hole via covariant anomaly
Han Yi-Wen; Bao Zhi-Qing; Hong Yun
2009-01-01
Adopting the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and Wilczek recently, this paper discusses Hawking radiation from the dilaton-(anti) de Sitter black hole. To save the underlying gauge and general covariance, it introduces covariant fluxes of gauge and energy-momentum tensor to cancel the gauge and gravitational anomalies. The result shows that the introduced compensating fluxes are equivalent to those of a 2-dimensional blackbody radiation at Hawking temperature with appropriate chemical potential.
Hawking radiation from the dilaton—(anti) de Sitter black hole via covariant anomaly
Adopting the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and Wilczek recently, this paper discusses Hawking radiation from the dilaton—(anti) de Sitter black hole. To save the underlying gauge and general covariance, it introduces covariant fluxes of gauge and energy-momentum tensor to cancel the gauge and gravitational anomalies. The result shows that the introduced compensating fluxes are equivalent to those of a 2-dimensional blackbody radiation at Hawking temperature with appropriate chemical potential. (general)
We present new exact spherically symmetric solutions of the Wu-Yang-t'Hooft monopole and Julia-Zee dyon type of the SO(3)-Yang-Mills-(Higgs-)fields coupled to gravitation through a particular quadratic Poincare gauge field theory. The space-time metrics are of the Reissner-Nordstroem, DeSitter, and AntiDeSitter form with non-vanishing torsion always being present. Due to a free function occurring, the solutions given admit arbitrary vector torsion. We conclude that the local Cauchy-Kowalevski problem is not well posed even in the limit of vanishing Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. (author)
BRS cohomology and topological anomalies
The occurrence of non-abelian anomalies in gauge theories and gravitation, first discovered via perturbative techniques, is now completely explained from the mathematical point of view by means of the family index theorem of Atiyah and Singer. Here we make contact between this approach and BRS cohomology, by showing that they yield the same non-abelian anomalies, provided a certain restriction to ''local'' functionals is not introduced from the very beginning. In particular, this solves the ''unicity'' problem for this kind of anomalies. Local BRS cohomology is still relevant for the abelian case. (orig.)
Heineman Prize Lecture: Anomaly Cancellation: A Retrospective
Schwarz, John
2002-04-01
The mechanism by which gauge and gravitational anomalies cancel in certain string theories is reviewed. A few new tricks are introduced to make the derivation a little simpler, and the string-theoretic interpretation a little clearer, than in the original 1984 work.
Energy-momentum tensor and transformation properties of the gauge potentials in gravitation theory
Sukhov, Andrei M.
1991-04-01
It is shown that the transformation properties of the translational gauge potentials eαi(x), will be chosen in another way [compared with the exposition of Hehl et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 48, 393 (1976)]. The term containing the total (symmetric) energy-momentum tensor remains in the variation of the action. This approach allows us to change the transformation properties of the gauge potentials and the conservation laws of energy momentum.
AdS solutions in gauge supergravities and the global anomaly for the product of complex two-cycles
Cohomological methods are applied for the special set of solutions corresponding to rotating branes in arbitrary dimensions, AdS black holes (which can be embedded in ten or eleven dimensions), and gauge supergravities. A new class of solutions is proposed, the Hilbert modular varieties, which consist of the 2n-fold product of the two-spaces Hn /Γ (where Hn denotes the product of n upper half-planes, H 2, equipped with the co-compact action of Γ is contained in SL(2, R)n) and (H n)*/Γ (where (H 2)*=H 2Γ and Γ is a congruence subgroup of SL(2, R) n). The cohomology groups of the Hilbert variety, which inherit a Hodge structure (in the sense of Deligne), are analyzed, as well as bifiltered sequences, weight and Hodge filtrations, and it is argued that the torsion part of the cuspidal cohomology is involved in the global anomaly condition. Indeed, in the presence of the cuspidal part, all cohomology classes can be mapped to the boundary of the space and the cuspidal contribution can be involved in the global anomaly condition. (orig.)
Metcalf, R Benton
2010-01-01
We address the question of whether the LambdaCDM model produces enough substructure in galaxy scale dark matter halos to cause the observed image flux anomalies in lensed QSOs observed in the radio and mid-infrared. We create a very large number of simulated lenses with finite source sizes to compare with the data. After analysing these simulations, our conclusions are: 1) The finite size of the source is important. The point source approximation commonly used can cause large and biased results. 2) When we randomly select lens models that are distorted from a Singular Isothermal Ellipsoid in reasonable ways, but do not contain substructure, the flux anomalies are not reproduced. 3) We find new upper bounds on the amount of substructure from the constraint that no simple single-galaxy lenses have been observed with a single source having more than four well separated images. 4) The lower bound on the amount of substructure is set by the frequency of image flux anomalies and is largely a bound on the surface ma...
A Nonperturbative Regulator for Chiral Gauge Theories
Grabowska, Dorota M
2015-01-01
We propose a nonperturbative gauge invariant regulator for $d$-dimensional chiral gauge theories on the lattice. The method involves simulating domain wall fermions in $d+1$ dimensions with quantum gauge fields that reside on one $d$-dimensional surface and are extended into the bulk via gradient flow. The result is a theory of gauged fermions plus mirror fermions, where the mirror fermions couple to the gauge fields via a form factor that becomes exponentially soft with the separation between domain walls. The resultant theory has a local $d$-dimensional interpretation if and only if the chiral fermion representation is anomaly free. A physical realization of this construction leads to mirror fermions in the Standard Model with soft form factors for gauge fields and gravity. These mirror particles could evade detection except by sensitive probes at extremely low energy, and yet still affect vacuum topology, and could gravitate differently than conventional matter.
We show that the Implicit Regularization Technique is useful to display quantum symmetry breaking in a complete regularization independent fashion. Arbitrary parameters are expressed by finite differences between integrals of the same superficial degree of divergence whose value is fixed on physical grounds (symmetry requirements or phenomenology). We study Weyl fermions on a classical gravitational background in two dimensions and show that, assuming Lorentz symmetry, the Weyl and Einstein Ward identities reduce to a set of algebraic equations for the arbitrary parameters which allows us to study the Ward identities on equal footing. We conclude in a renormalization independent way that the axial part of the Einstein Ward identity is always violated. Moreover whereas we can preserve the pure tensor part of the Einstein Ward identity at the expense of violating the Weyl Ward identities we may as well violate the former and preserve the latter
Souza, L A M; Nemes, M C; Souza, Leonardo A. M.; Sampaio, Marcos
2006-01-01
We show that the Implicit Regularization Technique is useful to display quantum symmetry breaking in a complete regularization independent fashion. Arbitrary parameters are expressed by finite differences between integrals of the same superficial degree of divergence whose value is fixed on physical grounds (symmetry requirements or phenomenology). We study Weyl fermions on a classical gravitational background in two dimensions and show that, assuming Lorentz symmetry, the Weyl and Einstein Ward identities reduce to a set of algebraic equations for the arbitrary parameters which allows us to study the Ward identities on equal footing. We conclude in a renormalization independent way that the axial part of the Einstein Ward identity is always violated. Moreover whereas we can preserve the pure tensor part of the Einstein Ward identity at the expense of violating the Weyl Ward identities we may as well violate the former and preserve the latter.
Anomalies of the Entanglement Entropy in Chiral Theories
Iqbal, Nabil
2015-01-01
We study entanglement entropy in theories with gravitational or mixed U(1) gauge-gravitational anomalies in two, four and six dimensions. In such theories there is an anomaly in the entanglement entropy: it depends on the choice of reference frame in which the theory is regulated. We discuss subtleties regarding regulators and entanglement entropies in anomalous theories. We then study the entanglement entropy of free chiral fermions and self-dual bosons and show that in sufficiently symmetric situations this entanglement anomaly comes from an imbalance in the flux of modes flowing through the boundary, controlled by familiar index theorems. In two and four dimensions we use anomalous Ward identities to find general expressions for the transformation of the entanglement entropy under a diffeomorphism. (In the case of a mixed anomaly there is an alternative presentation of the theory in which the entanglement entropy is not invariant under a U(1) gauge transformation. The free-field manifestation of this pheno...
An anomaly-free model in six dimensions
We show that a gauged supergravity theory based on E6xE7xU(1) is free of gauge and gravitational anomalies in six dimensions. It compactifies to (Minkowski)4xS2 by the standard monopole mechanism. With a monopole of strength n in E6, the resulting four-dimensional theory exhibits chiral SO(10)xU(1) with 2|n| families (and no antifamilies). Supersymmetry is broken. (author)
Henningson, M; Henningson, Mans; Skenderis, Kostas
1998-01-01
We calculate the Weyl anomaly for conformal field theories that can be described via the adS/CFT correspondence. This entails regularizing the gravitational part of the corresponding supergravity action in a manner consistent with general covariance. Up to a constant, the anomaly only depends on the dimension d of the manifold on which the conformal field theory is defined. We present concrete expressions for the anomaly in the physically relevant cases d = 2, 4 and 6. In d = 2 we find for the central charge c = 3 l/ 2 G_N in agreement with considerations based on the asymptotic symmetry algebra of adS_3. In d = 4 the anomaly agrees precisely with that of the corresponding N = 4 superconformal SU(N) gauge theory. The result in d = 6 provides new information for the (0, 2) theory, since its Weyl anomaly has not been computed previously. The anomaly in this case grows as N^3, where N is the number of coincident M5 branes, and it vanishes for a Ricci-flat background.
Interpretation of a short-term anomaly in the gravitational microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486
A planetary microlensing signal is generally characterized by a short-term perturbation to the standard single lensing light curve. A subset of binary-source events can produce perturbations that mimic planetary signals, thereby introducing an ambiguity between the planetary and binary-source interpretations. In this paper, we present the analysis of the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486, for which the light curve exhibits a short-lived perturbation. Routine modeling not considering data taken in different passbands yields a best-fit planetary model that is slightly preferred over the best-fit binary-source model. However, when allowed for a change in the color during the perturbation, we find that the binary-source model yields a significantly better fit and thus the degeneracy is clearly resolved. This event not only signifies the importance of considering various interpretations of short-term anomalies, but also demonstrates the importance of multi-band data for checking the possibility of false-positive planetary signals.
Wyithe, S; Wyithe, Stuart; Loeb, Abraham
2002-01-01
Intensive monitoring campaigns have recently attempted to measure the time delays between multiple images of gravitational lenses. Some of the resulting light-curves show puzzling low-level, rapid variability which is unique to individual images, superimposed on top of (and concurrent with) longer time-scale intrinsic quasar variations which repeat in all images. We demonstrate that both the amplitude and variability time-scale of the rapid light-curve anomalies, as well as the correlation observed between intrinsic and microlensed variability, are naturally explained by stellar microlensing of a smooth accretion disk which is occulted by optically-thick broad-line clouds. The rapid time-scale is caused by the high velocities of the clouds (~5x10^3 km/s), and the low amplitude results from the large number of clouds covering the magnified or demagnified parts of the disk. The observed amplitudes of variations in specific lenses implies that the number of broad-line clouds that cover ~10% of the quasar sky is ...
Nonperturbative Regulator for Chiral Gauge Theories?
Grabowska, Dorota M; Kaplan, David B
2016-05-27
We propose a nonperturbative gauge-invariant regulator for d-dimensional chiral gauge theories on the lattice. The method involves simulating domain wall fermions in d+1 dimensions with quantum gauge fields that reside on one d-dimensional surface and are extended into the bulk via gradient flow. The result is a theory of gauged fermions plus mirror fermions, where the mirror fermions couple to the gauge fields via a form factor that becomes exponentially soft with the separation between domain walls. The resultant theory has a local d-dimensional interpretation only if the chiral fermion representation is anomaly free. A physical realization of this construction would imply the existence of mirror fermions in the standard model that are invisible except for interactions induced by vacuum topology, and which could gravitate differently than conventional matter. PMID:27284646
Nonperturbative Regulator for Chiral Gauge Theories?
Grabowska, Dorota M.; Kaplan, David B.
2016-05-01
We propose a nonperturbative gauge-invariant regulator for d -dimensional chiral gauge theories on the lattice. The method involves simulating domain wall fermions in d +1 dimensions with quantum gauge fields that reside on one d -dimensional surface and are extended into the bulk via gradient flow. The result is a theory of gauged fermions plus mirror fermions, where the mirror fermions couple to the gauge fields via a form factor that becomes exponentially soft with the separation between domain walls. The resultant theory has a local d -dimensional interpretation only if the chiral fermion representation is anomaly free. A physical realization of this construction would imply the existence of mirror fermions in the standard model that are invisible except for interactions induced by vacuum topology, and which could gravitate differently than conventional matter.
Without gravity, you would float into space. Gravity pulls matter together: it holds us onto the Earth, it holds the Earth in orbit around the sun and it holds our solar system in orbit about the centre of the galaxy. Everything with mass feels the attraction of gravity. The strength of the attraction between 2 objects depends on their masses. Despite its omnipresence, gravity is the weakest of the 4 forces. It is insignificant at the scale of human beings: when a group of visitors walks past, gravity doesn't pull you towards them! At even smaller scales, the gravitational pull between the electron and the proton is about 1040 times weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them. Text for the interactive: Why does the same mass weigh more on the Earth than on the moon ?
Quantum Gauge General Relativity
WU Ning
2004-01-01
Based on gauge principle, a new model on quantum gravity is proposed in the frame work of quantum gauge theory of gravity. The model has local gravitational gauge symmetry, and the field equation of the gravitational gauge field is just the famous Einstein's field equation. Because of this reason, this model is called quantum gauge general relativity, which is the consistent unification of quantum theory and general relativity. The model proposed in this paper is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity, which is one of the most important advantage of the quantum gauge general relativity proposed in this paper. Another important advantage of the quantum gauge general relativity is that it can explain both classical tests of gravity and quantum effects of gravitational interactions, such as gravitational phase effects found in COW experiments and gravitational shielding effects found in Podkletnov experiments.
The lectures given cover the topological effects in gauge field theories, fermionic chiral anomalies, and some relationships between the two. Gauge field theories in three and four space-time dimensions are considered. Topological terms as external U(1) functional gauge potential connections in field space are discussed. Both the structure and physical impact of anomalies are described. 17 refs
Elsayed, Ahmed Mohammed Hussain El Kenawy
2015-05-01
Many arid and semi-arid regions have sparse precipitation observing networks, which limits the capacity for detailed hydrological modelling, water resources management and flood forecasting efforts. The objective of this work is to evaluate the utility of relatively high-spatial resolution rainfall products to reproduce observed multi-decadal rainfall characteristics such as climatologies, anomalies and trends over Saudi Arabia. Our study compares the statistical characteristics of rainfall from 53 observatories over the reference period 1965-2005, with rainfall data from six widely used gauge-based products, including APHRODITE, GPCC, PRINCETON, UDEL, CRU and PREC/L. In addition, the performance of three global climate models (GCMs), including CCSM4, EC-EARTH and MRI-I-CGCM3, integrated as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), was also evaluated. Results indicate that the gauge-based products were generally skillful in reproducing rainfall characteristics in Saudi Arabia. In most cases, the gauge-based products were also able to capture the annual cycle, anomalies and climatologies of observed data, although significant inter-product variability was observed, depending on the assessment metric being used. In comparison, the GCM-based products generally exhibited poor performance, with larger biases and very weak correlations, particularly during the summertime. Importantly, all products generally failed to reproduce the observed long-term seasonal and annual trends in the region, particularly during the dry seasons (summer and autumn). Overall, this work suggests that selected gauge-based products with daily (APHRODITE and PRINCETON) and monthly (GPCC and CRU) resolutions show superior performance relative to other products, implying that they may be the most appropriate data source from which multi-decadal variations of rainfall can be investigated at the regional scale over Saudi Arabia. Discriminating these skillful products is
Patra, Sudhanwa; Rao, Soumya; Sahoo, Nirakar; Sahu, Narendra
2016-01-01
Gauged $U(1)_{L_\\mu - L_\\tau}$ model has been advocated for a long time in light of muon $g-2$ anomaly, which is a more than $3\\sigma$ discrepancy between the experimental measurement and the standard model prediction. We augment this model with three right-handed neutrinos $(N_e, N_\\mu, N_\\tau)$ and a vector-like singlet fermion $(\\chi)$ to explain simultaneously the non-zero neutrino mass and dark matter content of the Universe, while satisfying anomalous muon $g-2$ constraints. It is shown...
Gauge Model with Massive Gravitons
WU Ning
2003-01-01
Gauge theory of gravity is formulated based on principle of local gauge invariance. Because the model hasstrict local gravitational gauge symmetry, and gauge theory of gravity is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum model.However, in the original model, all gauge gravitons are massless. We want to ask whether there exist massive gravitonsin Nature. In this paper, we will propose a gauge model with massive gravitons. The mass term of gravitational gaugefield is introduced into the theory without violating the strict local gravitational gauge symmetry. Massive gravitons canbe considered to be possible origin of dark energy and dark matter in the Universe.
Search at the Mainz Microtron for light massive gauge bosons relevant for the muon g-2 anomaly.
Merkel, H; Achenbach, P; Ayerbe Gayoso, C; Beranek, T; Beričič, J; Bernauer, J C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Correa, L; Debenjak, L; Denig, A; Distler, M O; Esser, A; Fonvieille, H; Friščić, I; Gómez Rodríguez de la Paz, M; Hoek, M; Kegel, S; Kohl, Y; Middleton, D G; Mihovilovič, M; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pochodzalla, J; Rohrbeck, M; Ron, G; Sánchez Majos, S; Schlimme, B S; Schoth, M; Schulz, F; Sfienti, C; Sirca, S; Thiel, M; Tyukin, A; Weber, A; Weinriefer, M
2014-06-01
A massive, but light, Abelian U(1) gauge boson is a well-motivated possible signature of physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. In this Letter, the search for the signal of such a U(1) gauge boson in electron-positron pair production at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron is described. Exclusion limits in the mass range of 40 MeV/c^{2} to 300 MeV/c^{2}, with a sensitivity in the squared mixing parameter of as little as ε^{2}=8×10^{-7} are presented. A large fraction of the parameter space has been excluded where the discrepancy of the measured anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with theory might be explained by an additional U(1) gauge boson. PMID:24949757
Search for light massive gauge bosons as an explanation of the $(g-2)_\\mu$ anomaly at MAMI
Merkel, H; Gayoso, C Ayerbe; Beranek, T; Beričič, J; Bernauer, J C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Correa, L; Debenjak, L; Denig, A; Distler, M O; Esser, A; Fonvieille, H; Friščić, I; de la Paz, M Gómez Rodríguez; Hoek, M; Kegel, S; Kohl, Y; Middleton, D G; Mihovilovič, M; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pochodzalla, J; Rohrbeck, M; Ron, G; Majos, S Sánchez; Schlimme, B S; Schoth, M; Schulz, F; Sfienti, C; Širca, S; Thiel, M; Tyukin, A; Weber, A; Weinriefer, M
2014-01-01
A massive, but light abelian U(1) gauge boson is a well motivated possible signature of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. In this paper, the search for the signal of such a U(1) gauge boson in electron-positron pair-production at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) is described. Exclusion limits in the mass range of 40 MeV up to 300 MeV with a sensitivity in the mixing parameter of down to $\\epsilon^2 = 8\\times 10^{-7}$ are presented. A large fraction of the parameter space has been excluded where the discrepancy of the measured anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with theory might be explained by an additional U(1) gauge boson.
Path integral quantization of gravitational interactions
Some of the local symmetry properties of quantum field theory in curved space-time and quantized gravitational interactions are discussed. We concentrate on local symmetry properties, and thus the asymptotically flat space-time is assumed, whenever necessary, in the hope that the precise boundary conditions will not modify the short distance structure in quantum theory. We adopt the DeWitt-Faddeev-Popov prescription of the Feynman path integral with a complete gauge fixing. The topics discussed include: (i) A brief review of the path integral derivation of chiral anomalies in flat space-time. (ii) The specification of the gravitational path integral measure, which avoids all the ''fake'' gravitational anomalies, and the applications of this path integral prescription to 1) effective potential in generalized Kaluza-Klein theory, 2) 4-dimensional conformal anomalies, 3) conformal symmetry in pure conformal gravity, 4) bosonic string theory as a gravitational theory in d = 2, 5) Virasoro condition and the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the path integral formalism, 6) gravitational anomalies and the definition of the energy-momentum tensor. (author)
Galilean Anomalies and Their Effect on Hydrodynamics
Jain, Akash
2015-01-01
We extend the null background construction of [arXiv:1505.05677,arXiv:1509.04718] to include torsion and a conserved spin current, and use it to study gauge and gravitational anomalies in Galilean theories coupled to torsional Newton-Cartan backgrounds. We establish that the relativistic anomaly inflow mechanism with an appropriately modified anomaly polynomial, can be used to generate these anomalies. Similar to relativistic case, we find that Galilean anomalies also survive only in even dimensions. Further, these anomalies only effect the gauge and rotational symmetries of a Galilean theory; in particular the Milne boost symmetry remains non-anomalous. We also extend the transgression machinery used in relativistic fluids to fluids on null backgrounds, and use it to determine how these anomalies affect the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid. Unrelated to Galilean fluids, we propose an analogue of the off-shell second law of thermodynamics for relativistic fluids introduced by [arXiv:1106.0277], to i...
Gravitational interaction of fermion antisymmetric tensor fields
The coupling is investigated of classical and quantum antisymmetric tensor fields describing fermions with the gauge gravitational field. It is shown that within the framework of the classical Einstein-Cartan theory the new generalized nonlinear fermion theory can be formulated, which turns out to be the correct microscopic description of the Weyssenhoff spinning fluid. The one-loop gravitational counterterms and the conformal stress tensor and the axial vector current anomalies are obtained. The differences between the antisymmetric tensor fermions and the usual Dirac spinor fields are discussed. (author)
da Rocha, Roldao; Rodrigues Jr, Waldyr A.
2008-01-01
In a previous paper we investigate a Lagrangian field theory for the gravitational field (which is there represented by a section g^a of the orthonormal coframe bundle over Minkowski spacetime. Such theory, under appropriate conditions, has been proved to be equivalent to a Lorentzian spacetime structure, where the metric tensor satisfies Einstein field equations. Here, we first recall that according to quantum field theory ideas gravitation is described by a Lagrangian theory of a possible m...
Patra, Sudhanwa; Sahoo, Nirakar; Sahu, Narendra
2016-01-01
Gauged $U(1)_{L_\\mu - L_\\tau}$ model has been advocated for a long time in light of muon $g-2$ anomaly, which is a more than $3\\sigma$ discrepancy between the experimental measurement and the standard model prediction. We augment this model with three right-handed neutrinos $(N_e, N_\\mu, N_\\tau)$ and a vector-like singlet fermion $(\\chi)$ to explain simultaneously the non-zero neutrino mass and dark matter content of the Universe, while satisfying anomalous muon $g-2$ constraints. It is shown that in a large parameter space of this model we can explain positron excess, observed at PAMELA, Fermi-LAT and AMS-02, through dark matter annihilation, while satisfying the relic density and direct detection constraints.
One-loop effective actions and 2D hydrodynamics with anomalies
We revisit the study of a 2D quantum field theory in the hydrodynamic regime and develop a formalism based on Euclidean one-loop partition functions that is suitable to analyze transport properties due to gauge and gravitational anomalies. To do so, we generalize the method of a modified Dirac operator developed for zero-temperature anomalies to finite temperature, chemical potentials and rotations
Gravitational cubic interactions for a simple mixed-symmetry gauge field in AdS and flat backgrounds
Boulanger, Nicolas [Service de Mecanique et Gravitation, Universite de Mons-UMONS, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Skvortsov, E D [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zinoviev, Yu M, E-mail: nicolas.boulanger@umons.ac.be, E-mail: skvortsov@lpi.ru, E-mail: Yurii.Zinoviev@ihep.ru [Institute for High Energy Physics Protvino, Moscow Region 142280 (Russian Federation)
2011-10-14
Cubic interactions between the simplest mixed-symmetry gauge field and gravity are constructed in anti-de Sitter (AdS) and flat backgrounds. Non-Abelian cubic interactions are obtained in AdS following various perturbative methods including the Fradkin-Vasiliev construction, with and without Stueckelberg fields. The action that features the maximal number of Stueckelberg fields can be considered in the flat limit without loss of physical degrees of freedom. The resulting interactions in flat space are compared with a classification of vertices obtained via the antifield cohomological perturbative method. It is shown that the gauge algebra becomes Abelian in the flat limit, in contrast to what happens for totally symmetric gauge fields in AdS. (paper)
Geometrical formulation of gauge theories
We review some basic aspects of the geometry of gauge theories. Particularly, we introduce the concepts gauge potential, field intensity, matter field, gauge groups and symmetry of a physical configuration and we discuss the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the gauge theories of gravitation. 26 refs
Unification of Electromagnetic Interactions and Gravitational Interactions
WU Ning
2002-01-01
Unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions is discussed in this paper.Based on gauge principle, electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions are formulated in the same mannerand are unified in a semi-direct product group of U(1) Abelian gauge group and gravitational gauge group.
Unification of Electromagnetic Interactions and Gravitational Interactions
WUNing
2002-01-01
Unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions is discussed in this paper.Based on gauge principle,electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions are formulated in the same manner and are unified in a semi-direct product group of U(1) Abelian gauge group and gravitational gauge group.
Unification of Electromagnetic Interactions and Gravitational Interactions
Wu, Ning
2002-01-01
Unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions is discussed in this paper. Based on gauge principle, electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions are formulated in the same manner and are unified in a semi-direct product group of U(1) Abel gauge group and gravitational gauge group.
Scheck, Florian [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik
2010-07-01
Stringent presentation of field theory, mediates the connection from the classicalelectrodynamics up to modern gauge theories. The compact presentation is ideal for the bachelor study. New chapter on general relativity theory. Deepens the learned by numerous application from laser physic, metamaterials and different more. Theoretical physics 3. Classical field theory. On electrodynamics, non-Abelian, and gravitation is the third of five volumes on theoretical physics by professor Scheck. The cycle theoretical physics comprehends: Volume 1: Mechanics. From Newtons law to the deterministic chaos. Volume 2: Nonrelativistic quantum theory. From the hydrogen atom to the many-particle systems. Volume 3: Classical field theory. From the electrodynamics to the gauge theories. Volume 5: From the laws of thermodynamics to the quantum statistics. This textbook mediates modern theoretical physics in string presentation illustrated by many examples. It contains numerous problems with solution hints ore exemplary, complete solutions. The third edition was revised in many single topics, especially the chapter on general relativity theory was supplemented by an extensive analysis of the Schwarzschild solution. [German] Stringente Darstellung der Feldtheorie, vermittelt den Zusammenhang von der klassischen Elektrodynamik bis zu modernen Eichtheorien. Die kompakte Darstellung ist ideal fuer das Bachelor-Studium. Neues Kapitel zur Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie. Vertieft das Erlernte durch zahlreiche Anwendungsbeispiele aus Laserphysik, Metamaterialien uvm. Theoretische Physik 3. Klassische Feldtheorie. Von Elektrodynamik, nicht-Abelschen Eichtheorien und Gravitation ist der dritte von fuenf Baenden zur Theoretischen Physik von Professor Scheck. Der Zyklus Theoretische Physik umfasst: Band 1: Mechanik. Von den Newtonschen Gesetzen zum deterministischen Chaos. Band 2: Nichtrelativistische Quantentheorie. Vom Wasserstoffatom zu den Vielteilchensystemen. Band 3: Klassische Feldtheorie
Mickelsson, J
1996-01-01
A calculation of the chiral anomaly on a finite lattice without fermion doubling is presented . The lattice gauge field is defined in the spirit of noncommutative geometry. Standard formulas for the continuum anomaly are obtained as a limit.
Current commutator anomalies and chiral anomalies in the canonical formalism
Without recourse to the Bjorken-Johnson-Low (BJL) method, current-current and current-electric-field commutator anomalies are evaluated in chiral gauge theories in two- and four-dimensional spacetime with the help of a gauge covariant regularization method. The results are consistent with previous analyses through the BJL method, and partially confirmed Faddeev's conjecture on the commutator anomalies of the Gauss law constraint operators within the canonical formalism. The chiral anomalies of the current divergence are derived from these commutator anomalies in the Weyl gauge where current-electric-field commutator anomalies play important roles
The conformal anomaly and the neutral currents sector of the Standard Model
We elaborate on the structure of the graviton-gauge-gauge vertex in the electroweak theory, obtained by the insertion of the complete energy-momentum tensor (T) on 2-point functions of neutral gauge currents (VV'). The vertex defines the leading contribution to the effective action which accounts for the conformal anomaly and related interaction between the Standard Model and gravity. The energy-momentum tensor is derived from the curved spacetime Lagrangian in the linearized gravitational limit, and with the inclusion of the term of improvement of a conformally coupled Higgs sector. As in the previous cases of QED and QCD, we find that the conformal anomaly induces an effective massless scalar interaction between gravity and the neutral currents in each gauge invariant component of the vertex. This is described by the exchange of an anomaly pole. We show that for a spontaneously broken theory the anomaly can be entirely attributed to the poles only for a conformally coupled Higgs scalar. In the exchange of a graviton, the trace part of the corresponding interaction can be interpreted as due to an effective dilaton, using a local version of the effective action. We discuss the implications of the anomalous Ward identity for the TVV' correlator for the structure of the gauge/gauge/effective dilaton vertex in the effective action. The analogy between these effective interactions and those related to the radion in theories with large extra dimensions is pointed out.
Mielke, E W
2006-01-01
Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j_5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four--form F^ F= dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed.
Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed
Cohomology and Topological Anomalies
Ekstrand, C
2001-01-01
The chiral anomaly can be considered as an object defined either on the space of gauge potentials or on the orbit space. We will discuss the relation between the two descriptions. We will also relate to the cohomology of the group of gauge transformations.
Cohomology and Topological Anomalies
Ekstrand, Christian
2000-01-01
The chiral anomaly can be considered as an object defined either on the space of gauge potentials or on the orbit space. We will discuss the relation between the two descriptions. We will also relate to the cohomology of the group of gauge transformations.
Analogue of the Witten effect in the Poincare gauge theory of gravity
The gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly is analysed in the framework of the Poincare gauge theory. It is shown that an additional CP-violating term 8*RR in the effective Lagrangian is equivalent to a shift in the mass of the Taub-NUT metric as felt by fermions. This analogue of the Witten effect is discussed in conjunction with the appearance of torsion in recently found exact solutions. (author)
Renormalizable Quantum Gauge Theory of Gravity
WU Ning
2002-01-01
The quantum gravity is formulated based on the principle of local gauge invariance. The model discussedin this paper has local gravitational gauge symmetry, and gravitational field is represented by gauge field. In the leading-order approximation, it gives out classical Newton's theory of gravity. In the first-order approximation and for vacuum,it gives out Einstein's general theory of relativity. This quantum gauge theory of gravity is a renormalizable quantumtheory.
Gravitation and electromagnetism
B. G. Sidharth
2002-01-01
Maxwell's equations comprise both electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The transverse part of the vector potential belongs to magnetism, the longitudinal one is concerned with gravitation. The Coulomb gauge indicates that longitudinal components of the fields propagate instantaneously. The delta-function singularity of the field of the divergence of the vector potential, referred to as the dilatation center, represents an elementary agent of gravitation. Viewing a particle as a source or...
The Holographic Supercurrent Anomaly
Chaichian, Masud
2004-01-01
The \\gamma-trace anomaly of supersymmetry current in a supersymmetric gauge theory shares a superconformal anomaly multiplet with the chiral R-symmetry anomaly and the Weyl anomaly, and its holographic reproduction is a valuable test to the AdS/CFT correspondence conjecture. We investigate how the \\gamma-trace anomaly of the supersymmetry current of {\\cal N}=1 four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theory in an {\\cal N}=1 conformal supergravity background can be extracted out from the ${\\cal N}=2$ gauged supergravity in five dimensions. It is shown that the reproduction of this super-Weyl anomaly originates from the following two facts: First the {\\cal N}=2 bulk supersymmetry transformation converts into {\\cal N}=1 superconformal transformation on the boundary, which consists of {\\cal N}=1 supersymmetry transformation and special conformal supersymmetry (or super-Weyl) transformation; second the supersymmetry variation of the bulk action of five-dimensional gauged supergravity is a total derivative. The non-co...
Testing local Lorentz invariance with gravitational waves
Kostelecký, V. Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2016-06-01
The effects of local Lorentz violation on dispersion and birefringence of gravitational waves are investigated. The covariant dispersion relation for gravitational waves involving gauge-invariant Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary mass dimension is constructed. The chirp signal from the gravitational-wave event GW150914 is used to place numerous first constraints on gravitational Lorentz violation.
Testing local Lorentz invariance with gravitational waves
Kostelecky, Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2016-01-01
The effects of local Lorentz violation on dispersion and birefringence of gravitational waves are investigated. The covariant dispersion relation for gravitational waves involving gauge-invariant Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary mass dimension is constructed. The chirp signal from the gravitational-wave event GW150914 is used to place numerous first constraints on gravitational Lorentz violation.
Anomaly Constraints on Monopoles and Dyons
Csaki, Csaba; Terning, John; Shirman, Yuri
2010-01-01
Fermions with magnetic charges can contribute to anomalies. We derive the axial anomaly and gauge anomalies for monopoles and dyons, and find eight new gauge anomaly cancelation conditions in a general theory with both electric and magnetic charges. As a byproduct we also extend the Zwanziger two-potential formalism to include the theta parameter, and elaborate on the condition for CP invariance in theories with fermionic dyons.
Ward identities and gauge independence in general chiral gauge theories
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-01-01
Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, we study the Ward identities and the equations of gauge dependence in potentially anomalous general gauge theories, renormalizable or not. A crucial new term, absent in manifestly nonanomalous theories, is responsible for interesting effects. We prove that gauge invariance always implies gauge independence, which in turn ensures perturbative unitarity. Precisely, we consider potentially anomalous theories that are actually free of gauge anomalies thanks to the Adler-Bardeen theorem. We show that when we make a canonical transformation on the tree-level action, it is always possible to re-renormalize the divergences and re-fine-tune the finite local counterterms, so that the renormalized $\\Gamma $ functional of the transformed theory is also free of gauge anomalies, and is related to the renormalized $\\Gamma $ functional of the starting theory by a canonical transformation. An unexpected consequence of our results is that the beta functions of the couplings may depend on...
Theory of gravitational interactions
Gasperini, Maurizio
2013-01-01
This reference textbook is an up-to-date and self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field. A second, advanced part then discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the gauge theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap which is present in the context of the traditional approach to general relativity, and which usually makes students puzzled about the role of gravity. The necessary notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, leaving more room for those aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational interactions of spinors, and the supersymmetric and higher-dimensional generalization of the Einstein equations. Theory of Gravitational Interactions will be o...
Gauge Model Based on Group G×SU(2)
ZET Gheorg-he; MANTA Vasile; POPA Camelia
2008-01-01
We present a model of gauge theory based on the symmetry group G×SU(2) where G is the gravitational gauge group and SU(2) is the internal group of symmetry.We employ the spacetime of four-dimensional Minkowski,endowed with spherical coordinates,and describe the gauge fields by gauge potentials.The corresponding strength field tensors are calculated and the field equations are written.A solution of these equations is obtained for the case that the gauge potentials have a particular form with spherical symmetry.The solution for the gravitational potentials induces a metric of Schwarzschild type on the gravitational gauge group space.
Black hole spectra in holography: Consequences for equilibration of dual gauge theories
Alex Buchel
2015-07-01
Full Text Available For a closed system to equilibrate from a given initial condition there must exist an equilibrium state with the energy equal to the initial one. Equilibrium states of a strongly coupled gauge theory with a gravitational holographic dual are represented by black holes. We study the spectrum of black holes in Pilch–Warner geometry. These black holes are holographically dual to equilibrium states of strongly coupled SU(N N=2⁎ gauge theory plasma on S3 in the planar limit. We find that there is no energy gap in the black hole spectrum. Thus, there is a priori no obstruction for equilibration of arbitrary low-energy states in the theory via a small black hole gravitational collapse. The latter is contrasted with phenomenological examples of holography with dual four-dimensional CFTs having non-equal central charges in the stress–energy tensor trace anomaly.
Anomalies and elliptic operators
The coefficients of asymptotic expansion Spexp(-tA) at t→0 are calculated for the quantum field theory operators. It is shown how to apply these results to the calculations of axial and conformal anomalies, the charge renormalization in gauge theory and effective action in twodimensional electrodynamics
Techniques employed in nuclear gauges for the measurement of level, thickness, density and moisture are described. The gauges include both transmission and backscatter gauges and utilize alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons or gamma radiation
How to test gravitation theories by means of gravitational-wave measurements
Thorne, K. S.
1974-01-01
Gravitational-wave experiments are a potentially powerful tool for testing gravitation theories. Most theories in the literature predict rather different polarization properties for gravitational waves than are predicted by general relativity; and many theories predict anomalies in the propagation speeds of gravitational waves.
Observational manifestations of anomaly inflow
Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail
2005-01-01
In theories with chiral couplings, one of the important consistency requirements is that of the cancellation of a gauge anomaly. In particular, this is one of the conditions imposed on the hypercharges in the standard model. However, anomaly cancellation condition of the standard model looks unnatural from the perspective of a theory with extra dimensions. Indeed, if our world were embedded into an odd-dimensional space, then the full theory would be automatically anomaly-free. In this paper ...
To theory of gravitational interaction
Minkevich, A. V.
2008-01-01
Some principal problems of general relativity theory and attempts of their solution are discussed. The Poincare gauge theory of gravity as natural generalization of Einsteinian gravitation theory is considered. The changes of gravitational interaction in the frame of this theory leading to the solution of principal problems of general relativity theory are analyzed.
Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space
Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen's monograph 'Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space' collects in one volume the results of the authors' 15-year research programme on anomalies that arise in Feynman diagrams of quantum field theories on curved manifolds. The programme was spurred by the path-integral techniques introduced in Alvarez-Gaume and Witten's renowned 1983 paper on gravitational anomalies which, together with the anomaly cancellation paper by Green and Schwarz, led to the string theory explosion of the 1980s. The authors have produced a tour de force, giving a comprehensive and pedagogical exposition of material that is central to current research. The first part of the book develops from scratch a formalism for defining and evaluating quantum mechanical path integrals in nonlinear sigma models, using time slicing regularization, mode regularization and dimensional regularization. The second part applies this formalism to quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1 and 3/2 and to self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields. The book concludes with a discussion of gravitational anomalies in 10-dimensional supergravities, for both classical and exceptional gauge groups. The target audience is researchers and graduate students in curved spacetime quantum field theory and string theory, and the aims, style and pedagogical level have been chosen with this audience in mind. Path integrals are treated as calculational tools, and the notation and terminology are throughout tailored to calculational convenience, rather than to mathematical rigour. The style is closer to that of an exceedingly thorough and self-contained review article than to that of a textbook. As the authors mention, the first part of the book can be used as an introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics, although in a classroom setting perhaps more likely as supplementary reading than a primary class text. Readers outside the core audience, including this reviewer, will gain from the book a
Local Poincaré Symmetry in Gauge Theory of Gravity
MA Jian-Feng; MA Yong-Ge
2009-01-01
It is well known that the Poincaré gauge theories of gravity do not have the structure of a standard gauge theory. Nevertheless, we show that a general form of action for the gravitational gauge fields in the gauge theory does possess local Poincaré invariance.
Gauge-invariance in one-loop quantum cosmology
Vasilevich, D V
1995-01-01
We study the problem of gauge-invariance and gauge-dependence in one-loop quantum cosmology. We formulate some requirements which should be satisfied by boundary conditions in order to give gauge-independent path integral. The case of QED is studied in some detail. We outline difficulties in gauge-invariant quantization of gravitational field in a bounded region.
Methods of Contemporary Gauge Theory
Makeenko, Yuri
2005-11-01
Preface; Part I. Path Integrals: 1. Operator calculus; 2. Second quantization; 3. Quantum anomalies from path integral; 4. Instantons in quantum mechanics; Part II. Lattice Gauge Theories: 5. Observables in gauge theories; 6. Gauge fields on a lattice; 7. Lattice methods; 8. Fermions on a lattice; 9. Finite temperatures; Part III. 1/N Expansion: 10. O(N) vector models; 11. Multicolor QCD; 12. QCD in loop space; 13. Matrix models; Part IV. Reduced Models: 14. Eguchi-Kawai model; 15. Twisted reduced models; 16. Non-commutative gauge theories.
Ward identities and gauge independence in general chiral gauge theories
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-07-01
Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, we study the Ward identities and the equations of gauge dependence in potentially anomalous general gauge theories, renormalizable or not. A crucial new term, absent in manifestly nonanomalous theories, is responsible for interesting effects. We prove that gauge invariance always implies gauge independence, which in turn ensures perturbative unitarity. Precisely, we consider potentially anomalous theories that are actually free of gauge anomalies thanks to the Adler-Bardeen theorem. We show that when we make a canonical transformation on the tree-level action, it is always possible to re-renormalize the divergences and re-fine-tune the finite local counterterms, so that the renormalized Γ functional of the transformed theory is also free of gauge anomalies, and is related to the renormalized Γ functional of the starting theory by a canonical transformation. An unexpected consequence of our results is that the beta functions of the couplings may depend on the gauge-fixing parameters, although the physical quantities remain gauge independent. We discuss nontrivial checks of high-order calculations based on gauge independence and determine how powerful they are.
Anomaly poles as common signatures of chiral and conformal anomalies
One feature of the chiral anomaly, analyzed in a perturbative framework, is the appearance of massless poles which account for it. They are identified by a spectral analysis of the anomaly graph and are usually interpreted as being of an infrared origin. Recent investigations show that their presence is not just confined in the infrared, but that they appear in the effective action under the most general kinematical conditions, even if they decouple in the infrared. Further studies reveal that they are responsible for the non-unitary behaviour of these theories in the ultraviolet (UV) region. We extend this analysis to the case of the conformal anomaly, showing that the effective action describing the interaction of gauge fields with gravity is characterized by anomaly poles that give the entire anomaly and are decoupled in the infrared (IR), in complete analogy with the chiral case. This complements a related analysis by Giannotti and Mottola on the trace anomaly in gravity, in which an anomaly pole has been identified in the corresponding correlator using dispersion theory in the IR. Our extension is based on an exact computation of the off-shell correlation function involving an energy-momentum tensor and two vector currents (the gauge-gauge-graviton vertex) which is responsible for the appearance of the anomaly.
Gravitational Model of the Three Elements Theory
Frederic Lassiaille
2012-01-01
The gravitational model of the three elements theory is an alternative theory to dark matter. It uses a modification of Newton’s law in order to explain gravitational mysteries. The results of this model are explanations for the dark matter mysteries, and the Pioneer anomaly. The disparity of the gravitational constant measurements might also be explained. Concerning the Earth flyby anomalies, the theoretical order of magnitude is the same as the experimental one. A very small change of the p...
Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.
Yilmaz, H.
Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.
Reissner-Nordstr(o)m-de-Sitter-type Solution by a Gauge Theory of Gravity
V. Enache; Camelia Popa; V. P(a)un; M. Agop
2008-01-01
We use the theory based on a gravitational gauge group (Wu's model) to obtain a spherical symmetric solution of the field equations for the gravitational potential on a Minkowski spacetime. The gauge group, the gauge covariant derivative, the strength tensor of the gauge field, the gauge invariant Lagrangean with the cosmological constant, the field equations of the gauge potentials with a gravitational energy-momentum tensor as well as with a tensor of the field of a point like source are determined. Finally, a Reissner-Nordstr(o)m-de Sitter-type metric on the gauge group space is obtained.
Energy-Momentum and Gauge Conservation Laws
Giachetta, G.; Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.
1998-01-01
We treat energy-momentum conservation laws as particular gauge conservation laws when generators of gauge transformations are horizontal vector fields on fibre bundles. In particular, the generators of general covariant transformations are the canonical horizontal prolongations of vector fields on a world manifold. This is the case of the energy-momentum conservation laws in gravitation theories. We find that, in main gravitational models, the corresponding energy-momentum flows reduce to the...
Anomalies, Becchi-Rouet-Stora cohomology, and effective theories
A survey is made of the known Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) cohomology and potential anomalies in ''nonrenormalizable'' effective gauge theories with and without supersymmetry. The probable existence of higher-dimension Abelian anomalies is mentioned. Supersymmetric theories have complicated BRS cohomology, but at least for N=1 and D=4, it appears that this does not give rise to corresponding anomalies so long as the gauge anomalies are eliminated
The "Parity" Anomaly On An Unorientable Manifold
Witten, Edward
2016-01-01
The "parity" anomaly -- more accurately described as an anomaly in time-reversal or reflection symmetry -- arises in certain theories of fermions coupled to gauge fields and/or gravity in a spacetime of odd dimension. The "parity" anomaly has traditionally been studied on orientable manifolds only, but recent developments involving topological superconductors have made it clear that one can get more information by asking what happens on an unorientable manifold. In this paper, we analyze the "parity" anomaly for fermions coupled to gauge fields and gravity in $2+1$ dimensions. We consider applications to gapped boundary states of a topological superconductor and to M2-branes in string/M-theory.
Gauge parameter dependence in gauge theories (revised: subsection 2.3)
Kraus, E; Sibold, K.
1994-01-01
Dependence on the gauge parameters is an important issue in gauge theories: physical quantities have to be independent. Extending BRS transformations by variation of the gauge parameter into a Grassmann variable one can control gauge parameter dependence algebraically. As application we discuss the anomaly coefficient in the Slavnov-Taylor identity, $S$-matrix elements, the vector two-point-function and the coefficients of renormalization group and Callan-Symanzik equation.
Gravity, Gauge Theories and Geometric Algebra
Lasenby, Anthony; Doran, Chris; Gull, Stephen
2004-01-01
A new gauge theory of gravity is presented. The theory is constructed in a flat background spacetime and employs gauge fields to ensure that all relations between physical quantities are independent of the positions and orientations of the matter fields. In this manner all properties of the background spacetime are removed from physics, and what remains are a set of `intrinsic' relations between physical fields. The properties of the gravitational gauge fields are derived from both classical ...
Anomalous transport due to scale anomaly
Chernodub, M.N.
2016-01-01
We show that the scale anomaly in field theories leads to new anomalous transport effects that emerge in external electromagnetic field in inhomogeneous gravitational background. In inflating geometry the QED scale anomaly generates electric current which flows in opposite direction with respect to background electric field. In static spatially inhomogeneous gravitational background the dissipationless electric current flows transversely both to the magnetic field axis and to the gradient of ...
Anomalous transport due to scale anomaly
Chernodub, M N
2016-01-01
We show that the scale anomaly in field theories leads to new anomalous transport effects that emerge in external electromagnetic field in inhomogeneous gravitational background. In inflating geometry the QED scale anomaly generates electric current which flows in opposite direction with respect to background electric field. In static spatially inhomogeneous gravitational background the dissipationless electric current flows transversely both to the magnetic field axis and to the gradient of the inhomogeneity. The anomalous currents are proportional to the beta function of the theory.
Mottola, Emil
2016-03-01
General Relativity receives quantum corrections relevant at macroscopic distance scales and near event horizons. These arise from the conformal scalar degree of freedom in the extended effective field theory (EFT) of gravity generated by the trace anomaly of massless quantum fields in curved space. Linearized around flat space this quantum scalar degree of freedom combines with the conformal part of the metric and predicts the existence of scalar spin-0 ``breather'' propagating gravitational waves in addition to the transverse tensor spin-2 waves of classical General Relativity. Estimates of the expected strength of scalar gravitational radiation from compact astrophysical sources are given.
Low-scale gauge mediation with a 100 TeV gravitino
Asano, Masaki; Nakai, Yuichiro; Yokozaki, Norimi
2016-03-01
We propose a new framework of low-scale gauge-mediated supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking with a gravitino mass of O(100 ) TeV . The usual 4D gauge mediation models predict a light gravitino and suffer from cosmological problems. In our framework, a heavy gravitino in gauge mediation is realized with a flat extra dimension, whose compactification scale is around the grand unified theory scale. Superparticle masses of the visible sector from gravity/anomaly mediation are suppressed, and they are purely generated by the usual gauge mediation on the visible brane. Importantly, the Higgs Bμ-term vanishes at the leading order, which enables us to obtain the suitable μ -Bμ relation for the electroweak symmetry breaking. We discuss such models considering two possibilities of the SUSY breaking source: (1) Scherk-Schwarz SUSY breaking which we call Scherk-Schwarz gauge mediation and (2) gravitational SUSY breaking localized on a hidden brane. In case (2), the cosmological moduli problem may be relaxed as well.
Low-Scale Gauge Mediation with a 100 TeV Gravitino
Asano, Masaki; Yokozaki, Norimi
2015-01-01
We propose a new framework of low-scale gauge-mediated supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking with a gravitino mass of O(100) TeV. The usual 4D gauge mediation models predict a light gravitino and suffer from cosmological problems. In our framework, a heavy gravitino in gauge mediation is realized with a flat extra-dimension, whose compactification scale is around the grand unified theory scale. Superparticle masses of the visible sector from gravity/anomaly mediation are suppressed, and they are purely generated by usual gauge mediation on the visible brane. Importantly, the Higgs Bmu-term vanishes at the leading order, which enables us to obtain the suitable mu-Bmu relation for the electroweak symmetry breaking. We discuss such models considering two possibilities of the SUSY breaking source: 1) Scherk-Schwarz SUSY breaking which we call Scherk-Schwarz Gauge Mediation and 2) gravitational SUSY breaking localized on a hidden brane. In the case 2), the cosmological moduli problem may be relaxed as well.
引力的Weyl—U（1）规范场理论及其宇宙%The WeyI-U（1） Gauge field theory of gravitation and it＇s universe
郭巍; 郭应焕; 郭振华
2012-01-01
By analyzing the general theory of relativity does not naturally given that the gravitational field （as substance） of the energy and momentum of these important physical quantities. Relativity system is underdetermined problem, since the system has no definite solution. It is the theory, and other forms of interaction more independent impede the unity of the four interactions. In order to overcome these difficulties, the Weyl-U（1）gauge field theory of gravity is given. In the same approximation gives consistent results and general relativity, and more concise expression , a model of the universe is gotten .there are some new ideas of space and time. These possible applications are discussed for some mysterious nature phenomena which are never explained.%通过分析认为广义相对论不能自然地给出引力场（作为物质）的能量、动量这些重要的物理量。广义相对论体系是欠定问题，在自系统无定解。它和其他相互作用的理论形式较独立，有碍四种相互作用的统一。为了克服这些困难，本文提出了引力的Weyl-U（1）规范场理论。在相同近似下给出的结果和广义相对论一致，而表达方式更简明。文中得到一个宇宙模型，对时空有一些新观点。还提出了本理论对自然界一些解释不了的神秘现象的可能应用。
Lattice regularization of chiral gauge theories to all orders of perturbation theory
Lüscher, Martin
2000-01-01
In the framework of perturbation theory, it is possible to put chiral gauge theories on the lattice without violating the gauge symmetry or other fundamental principles, provided the fermion representation of the gauge group is anomaly-free. The basic elements of this construction (which starts from the Ginsparg-Wilson relation) are briefly recalled and the exact cancellation of the gauge anomaly, at any fixed value of the lattice spacing and for any compact gauge group, is then proved rigoro...
Quaternion gauge theory of dyonic fields
Outlining the idea of quaternion non-Abelian gauge formalism and that of the structural symmetry between generalized fields of dyons and gravito-dyons, it is shown that this formulation characterizes the Abelian and non-Abelian structure of dyons in terms of pure real and imaginary unit quaternions. Extending this formalism to the case of gravito-dyons it has been shown that pure imaginary unit quaternions advocate the curvature in the theory of gravito-dyons and hence the SL(2,c) gauge group of gravitation plays the same role as that of SU(2) gauge group does in non-Abelian gauge theory. Furthermore, we have unified the theories of electromagnetism and gravitation in terms of single parameter α by means of quaternion-gauge formalism and the corresponding field equations have also been derived in a unique and consistent way. (author)
Quaternion gauge theory of dyonic fields
Bisht, P.S. (Kumaun Univ., Almora (India). Dept. of Physics); Negi, O.P.S.; Rajput, B.S.
1991-01-01
Outlining the idea of quaternion non-Abelian gauge formalism and that of the structural symmetry between generalized fields of dyons and gravito-dyons, it is shown that this formulation characterizes the Abelian and non-Abelian structure of dyons in terms of pure real and imaginary unit quaternions. Extending this formalism to the case of gravito-dyons it has been shown that pure imaginary unit quaternions advocate the curvature in the theory of gravito-dyons and hence the SL(2,c) gauge group of gravitation plays the same role as that of SU(2) gauge group does in non-Abelian gauge theory. Furthermore, we have unified the theories of electromagnetism and gravitation in terms of single parameter {alpha} by means of quaternion-gauge formalism and the corresponding field equations have also been derived in a unique and consistent way. (author).
Gauge and Einstein Gravity from Non-Abelian Gauge Models on Noncommutative Spaces
Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2000-01-01
Following the formalism of enveloping algebras and star product calculus we formulate and analyze a model of gauge gravity on noncommutative spaces and examine the conditions of its equivalence to general relativity. The corresponding Seiberg-Witten maps are established which allow the definition of respective dynamics for a finite number of gravitational gauge field components on noncommutative spaces.
Small neutrino masses from gravitational θ -term
Dvali, Gia; Funcke, Lena
2016-06-01
We present how a neutrino condensate and small neutrino masses emerge from a topological formulation of gravitational anomaly. We first recapitulate how a gravitational θ -term leads to the emergence of a new bound neutrino state analogous to the η' meson of QCD. Then we show the consequent formation of a neutrino vacuum condensate, which effectively generates small neutrino masses. Afterwards we outline numerous phenomenological consequences of our neutrino mass generation model. The cosmological neutrino mass bound vanishes since we predict the neutrinos to be massless until the phase transition in the late Universe, T ˜meV . Coherent radiation of new light particles in the neutrino sector can be detected in prospective precision experiments. Deviations from an equal flavor rate due to enhanced neutrino decays in extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes can be observed in future IceCube data. These neutrino decays may also necessitate modified analyses of the original neutrino spectra of the supernova SN 1987A. The current cosmological neutrino background only consists of the lightest neutrinos, which, due to enhanced neutrino-neutrino interactions, either bind up, form a superfluid, or completely annihilate into massless bosons. Strongly coupled relic neutrinos could provide a contribution to cold dark matter in the late Universe, together with the new proposed particles and topological defects, which may have formed during neutrino condensation. These enhanced interactions could also be a source of relic neutrino clustering in our Galaxy, which possibly makes the overdense cosmic neutrino background detectable in the KATRIN experiment. The neutrino condensate provides a mass for the hypothetical B -L gauge boson, leading to a gravity-competing force detectable in short-distance measurements. Prospective measurements of the polarization intensities of gravitational waves can falsify our neutrino mass generation model.
Anomaly-induced charges in baryons
Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji; Iida, Hideaki; Ishii, Takaaki; Maezawa, Yu
2011-01-01
We show that quantum chiral anomaly of QCD in magnetic backgrounds induces a novel structure of electric charge inside baryons. To illustrate the anomaly effect, we employ the Skyrme model for baryons, with the anomaly-induced gauged Wess-Zumino term (\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) E_i B_i. Due to this term, the Skyrmions giving a local pion condensation ((\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) \
Solution to the Cosmological Constant Problem by Gauge Theory of Gravity
WU Ning; Germano Resconi; ZHENG Zhi-Peng; XU Zhan; ZHANG Da-Hua; RUAN Tu-Nan
2003-01-01
Based on geometry picture of gravitational gauge theory, the cosmological constant is determined theoreti-cally. The cosmological constant is related to the average energy density of gravitational gauge field. Because the energydensity of gravitational gauge field is negative, the cosmological constant is positive, which generates repulsive force onstars to make the expansion rate of the Universe accelerated. A rough estimation of it gives out its magnitude of theorder of about 10-52m-2, which is well consistent with experimental results.
Spin and orbital angular momentum of the tensor gauge field
Chen, Xiang-Song; Zhu, Ben-Chao; Murchadha, Niall Ó
2011-01-01
Following the recent studies of the trickiness in spin and orbital angular momentum of the vector gauge fields, we perform here a parallel analysis for the tensor gauge field, which has certain relation to gravitation. Similarly to the vector case, we find a nice feature that after removing all gauge degrees of freedom the angular momentum of the tensor gauge field vanishes for a stationary system. This angular momentum also shows a one-parameter invariance over the infinitely many ways of co...
Entropy for gravitational Chern-Simons terms by squashed cone method
Guo, Wu-zhong
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the entropy of gravitational Chern-Simons terms for the horizon with non-vanishing extrinsic curvatures, or the holographic entanglement entropy for arbitrary entangling surface. In 3D we find no anomaly of entropy appears. But the squashed cone method can not be used directly to get the correct result. For higher dimensions the anomaly of entropy would appear, still, we can not use the squashed cone method directly. That is becasuse the Chern-Simons action is not gauge invariant. To get a reasonable result we suggest two methods. One is by adding a boundary term to recover the gauge invariance. This boundary term can be derived from the variation of the Chern-Simons action. The other one is by using the Chern-Simons relation $d\\bm{\\Omega_{4n-1}}=tr(\\bm{R}^{2n})$. We notice that the entropy of $tr(\\bm{R}^{2n})$ is a total derivative locally, i.e. $S=d s_{CS}$. We propose to identify $s_{CS}$ with the entropy of gravitational Chern-Simons terms $\\Omega_{4n-1}$. In the first method ...
The geometry and physics of Abelian gauge groups in F-theory
Keitel, Jan
2015-07-14
In this thesis we study the geometry and the low-energy effective physics associated with Abelian gauge groups in F-theory compactifications. To construct suitable torus-fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds, we employ the framework of toric geometry. By identifying appropriate building blocks of Calabi-Yau manifolds that can be studied independently, we devise a method to engineer large numbers of manifolds that give rise to a specified gauge group and achieve a partial classification of toric gauge groups. Extending our analysis from gauge groups to matter spectra, we prove that the matter content of the most commonly studied F-theory set-ups is rather constrained. To circumvent such limitations, we introduce an algorithm to analyze torus-fibrations defined as complete intersections and present several novel kinds of F-theory compactifications. Finally, we show how torus-fibrations without section are linked to fibrations with multiple sections through a network of successive geometric transitions. In order to investigate the low-energy effective physics resulting from our compactifications, we apply M- to F-theory duality. After determining the effective action of F-theory with Abelian gauge groups in six dimensions, we compare the loop-corrected Chern-Simons terms to topological quantities of the compactification manifold to read off the massless matter content. Under certain assumptions, we show that all gravitational and mixed anomalies are automatically canceled in F-theory. Furthermore, we compute the low-energy effective action of F-theory compactifications without section and suggest that the absence of a section signals the presence of an additional massive Abelian gauge field. Adjusting our analysis to four dimensions, we show that remnants of this massive gauge field survive as discrete symmetries that impose selection rules on the Yukawa couplings of the effective theory.
The geometry and physics of Abelian gauge groups in F-theory
In this thesis we study the geometry and the low-energy effective physics associated with Abelian gauge groups in F-theory compactifications. To construct suitable torus-fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds, we employ the framework of toric geometry. By identifying appropriate building blocks of Calabi-Yau manifolds that can be studied independently, we devise a method to engineer large numbers of manifolds that give rise to a specified gauge group and achieve a partial classification of toric gauge groups. Extending our analysis from gauge groups to matter spectra, we prove that the matter content of the most commonly studied F-theory set-ups is rather constrained. To circumvent such limitations, we introduce an algorithm to analyze torus-fibrations defined as complete intersections and present several novel kinds of F-theory compactifications. Finally, we show how torus-fibrations without section are linked to fibrations with multiple sections through a network of successive geometric transitions. In order to investigate the low-energy effective physics resulting from our compactifications, we apply M- to F-theory duality. After determining the effective action of F-theory with Abelian gauge groups in six dimensions, we compare the loop-corrected Chern-Simons terms to topological quantities of the compactification manifold to read off the massless matter content. Under certain assumptions, we show that all gravitational and mixed anomalies are automatically canceled in F-theory. Furthermore, we compute the low-energy effective action of F-theory compactifications without section and suggest that the absence of a section signals the presence of an additional massive Abelian gauge field. Adjusting our analysis to four dimensions, we show that remnants of this massive gauge field survive as discrete symmetries that impose selection rules on the Yukawa couplings of the effective theory.
Hofmann, Ralf; Hofmann, Ralf; Keil, Mathias Th.
2002-01-01
Based on thermal equilibrium between the vacuum and its relevant excitations a model for cosmic inflation is presented. Due to a vacuum dominating, U(1) gauged inflaton field an inflationary regime can be reached without explicitly imposing slow-roll conditions. Thereby, nontrivial euclidean BPS saturation of the inflaton bans gravity from the field equations and masquerades the gauge symmetry as a $Z_{N+1}$ symmetry at the point where thermal equilibrium breaks down. Solving the vacuum dynamics of the gauge field in the inflaton background in the spirit of a Born-Oppenheimer approximation, a temperature dependent cosmological constant $\\La=\\La(T)$ is obtained. The $T$ dependence of $\\La$ competes with the black body radiation of the (massive) gauge field during cosmic expansion. This leads to (initial condition independent) inflation at some critical value of the inflaton amplitude. The model allows for a closed, noncollapsing universe with Planckian initial density, and hence it resolves the flatness proble...
Chiral supergravity and anomalies
Mielke, E W; Macias, Alfredo; Mielke, Eckehard W.
1999-01-01
Similarily as in the Ashtekar approach, the translational Chern-Simons term is, as a generating function, instrumental for a chiral reformulation of simple (N=1) supergravity. After applying the algebraic Cartan relation between spin and torsion, the resulting canonical transformation induces not only decomposition of the gravitational fields into selfdual and antiselfdual modes, but also a splitting of the Rarita-Schwinger fields into their chiral parts in a natural way. In some detail, we also analyze the consequences for axial and chiral anomalies.
Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies: Pt. 1
The Faddeev-Popov charge-zero and charge-one sectors of the cohomology space of the differential operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time are studied. It will be used, with some modification, a technique introduced some years ago by Dixon. In this paper it is shown that the cohomology of the operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) on the local functional space is isomorphic to the cohomology of the operator S deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(x) deltasub(lambda) -deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x) on the domain of local polynomial functions
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse
New Kimberly C.B.
2002-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from the gravitational collapse of massive stars has been studied for more than three decades. Current state of the art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non--axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational colla...
Gravitational lensing by gravitational waves
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Tsupko, O. Yu.
2008-01-01
Gravitational lensing by gravitational wave is considered. We notice that although final and initial direction of photons coincide, displacement between final and initial trajectories occurs. This displacement is calculated analytically for the plane gravitational wave pulse. Estimations for observations are discussed.
Calculation of the commutator anomaly
It is well-known that, for the non-Abelian gauge theory coupled to the chiral fermions, which is described by a Lagrangian, the anomaly of the non-Abelian current is given by the descent form of the Chern-Simon five form; D*Ja = (-1/24π2)tr[d(AdA + 1/2A3)], where A = Aμdxμ = -itaAμadxμ. Recently, Faddeev argued that, for such an anomalous system, the gauge symmetry would be represented in a generalized sense of projective representation; V(g1)V(g2)Ψ(A) = exp[iα2(g1, g2; A)] X V(g1g2)Ψ(A), where Ψ(A) is the wave functional and the phase factor α2 depends on both the group elements and the gauge field configuration A. Here, it is convenient to consider the infinitesimal version of the above argument. The generator of infinitesimal gauge transformation in the temporal gauge A0 = 0 is given by Ga(x) = δiEia + gfabcAibEic - gΨ-barγ0taΨ, and the infinitesimal form of the previous product rule can be written as the equal time commutation relation; [Ga(x), Gb(y)] = ifabcGc(x)δ3(x-y) + ab(x,y,A), where is related to α2. In this equation, the first term is what is expected as the normal commutation relation of the generator, while the second term is an anomaly, which is designated here as the commutator anomaly. Then the present study concentrates on operations to determine the anomaly term. (Nogami, A.)
Gauge invariant composite operators of QED in the exact renormalization group formalism
Sonoda, Hidenori
2013-01-01
Using the exact renormalization group (ERG) formalism, we study the gauge invariant composite operators in QED. Gauge invariant composite operators are introduced as infinitesimal changes of the gauge invariant Wilson action. We examine the dependence on the gauge fixing parameter of both the Wilson action and gauge invariant composite operators. After defining ``gauge fixing parameter independence,'' we show that any gauge independent composite operators can be made ``gauge fixing parameter independent'' by appropriate normalization. As an application, we give a concise but careful proof of the Adler-Bardeen non-renormalization theorem for the axial anomaly in an arbitrary covariant gauge by extending the original proof by A. Zee.
Anomalies of discrete symmetries in various dimensions and group cohomology
Kapustin, Anton
2014-01-01
We study 't Hooft anomalies for discrete global symmetries in bosonic theories in 2, 3 and 4 dimensions. We show that such anomalies may arise in gauge theories with topological terms in the action, if the total symmetry group is a nontrivial extension of the global symmetry by the gauge symmetry. Sometimes the 't Hooft anomaly for a d-dimensional theory with a global symmetry G can be canceled by anomaly inflow from a (d+1)-dimensional topological gauge theory with gauge group G. Such d-dimensional theories can live on the surfaces of Symmetry Protected Topological Phases. We also give examples of theories with more severe 't Hooft anomalies which cannot be canceled in this way.
An introduction to the unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is given. The ingredients of gauge theories and symmetries and conservation laws lead to discussion of local gauge invariance and QED, followed by weak interactions and quantum flavor dynamics. The construction of the standard SU(2)xU(1) model precedes discussion of the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions and weak neutral current couplings in this model. Presentation of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous breaking of a local symmetry leads to a spontaneous breaking scheme for the standard SU(2)xU(1) model. Consideration of quarks, leptons, masses and the Cabibbo angles, of the four quark and six quark models and CP violation lead finally to grand unification, followed by discussion of mixing angles in the Georgi-Glashow model, the Higgses of the SU(5) model and proton/ neutron decay in SU(5). (JIW)
Schwarzschild-de-Sitter Solution in Quantum Gauge Theory of Gravity
Gheorghe Zet; Camelia Popa; Doina Partenie
2007-01-01
We use the theory based on the gravitational gauge group G to obtain a spherical symmetric solution of the field equations for the gravitational potentials on a Minkowski space-time. The gauge group G is defined and then we introduce the gauge-covariant derivative Dμ. The strength tensor of the gravitational gauge field is also obtained and a gauge-invariant Lagrangian including the cosmological constant is constructed. A model whose gravitational gauge potentials Aαμ (x) have spherical symmetry, depending only on the radial coordinate r is considered and an analytical solution of these equations, which induces the Schwarzschild-de-Sitter metric on the gauge group space, is then determined. All the calculations have been performed by GR Tensor Ⅱ computer algebra package, running on the Maple Ⅴplatform, along with several routines that we have written for our model.
Anomaly Poles as Common Signatures of Chiral and Conformal Anomalies
Armillis, Roberta; Rose, Luigi Delle
2009-01-01
One feature of the chiral anomaly, analyzed in a perturbative framework, is the appearance of massless poles which account for it. They are identified by a spectral analysis of the anomaly graph and are usually interpreted as being of an infrared origin. Recent investigations shown that their presence is not just confined in the infrared, but that they appear in the effective action under the most general kinematical conditions, even if they decouple in the infrared. Further studies reveal that they are responsible for the non-unitary behaviour of these theories in the ultraviolet (UV) region. We extend this analysis to the case of the conformal anomaly, showing that the effective action describing the interaction of gauge fields with gravity is characterized by anomaly poles that give the entire anomaly and are decoupled in the infrared (IR), in complete analogy with the chiral case. This complements a related analysis by Giannotti and Mottola on the trace anomaly in gravity, in which an anomaly pole has bee...
Batra, P; Spivak, D; Batra, Puneet; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Spivak, David
2006-01-01
We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the Standard Model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.
Batra, Puneet; /Argonne; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Spivak, David; /UC, Berkeley, Math. Dept.
2005-10-01
We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the Standard Model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.
Differential formalism aspects of the gauge classical theories
The classical aspects of the gauge theories are shown using differential geometry as fundamental tool. Somme comments are done about Maxwell Electro-dynamics, classical Yang-Mills and gravitation theories. (L.C.)
Gauge and Gravity Amplitude Relations
Carrasco, John Joseph M
2015-01-01
In these lectures I talk about simplifications and universalities found in scattering amplitudes for gauge and gravity theories. In contrast to Ward identities, which are understood to arise from familiar symmetries of the classical action, these structures are currently only understood in terms of graphical organizational principles, such as the gauge-theoretic color-kinematics duality and the gravitational double-copy structure, for local representations of multi-loop S-matrix elements. These graphical principles make manifest new relationships in and between gauge and gravity scattering amplitudes. My lectures will focus on arriving at such graphical organizations for generic theories with examples presented from maximal supersymmetry, and their use in unitarity-based multi-loop integrand construction.
Gravity: a gauge theory perspective
Nester, James M
2016-01-01
The evolution of a generally covariant theory is under-determined. One hundred years ago such dynamics had never before been considered; its ramifications were perplexing, its future important role for all the fundamental interactions under the name gauge principle could not be foreseen. We recount some history regarding Einstein, Hilbert, Klein and Noether and the novel features of gravitational energy that led to Noether's two theorems. Under-determined evolution is best revealed in the Hamiltonian formulation. We developed a covariant Hamiltonian formulation. The Hamiltonian boundary term gives covariant expressions for the quasi-local energy, momentum and angular momentum. Gravity can be considered as a gauge theory of the local Poincar\\'e group. The dynamical potentials of the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity are the frame and the connection. The spacetime geometry has in general both curvature and torsion. Torsion naturally couples to spin; it could have a significant magnitude and yet not be noticed,...
S-matrix theory for gravitational field
Major results of the investigation conducted on the quantum theory of the gravitational field and reported to the conference are summarized. The S matrix has been constructed in the most general class of gauges including relativistic ones. The causes of the failure to apply the proper-time regularization technique to gravitational interaction are considered. The corrected and improved proper-time method makes it possible to obtain the universal expression for one-loop divergences in and arbitrary system of gravitational fields. Under the assumption of mass-shell renormalizability the quantum theory of the gravitational field is asymptotically free
Probing Gravitational Dark Matter
Ren, Jing
2015-01-01
So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) acts as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle $\\chi_s$. It is a $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, $\\xi_s\\chi_s^2{\\cal R}$, where $\\xi_s$ is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction $\\xi_s\\chi_s^2{\\cal R}$, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term $\\xi_h H^\\dag H {\\cal R}$, induces effective couplings between $\\chi_s^2$ and SM fields which can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihila...
Differential renormalization of gauge theories
Aguila, F. del; Perez-Victoria, M. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)
1998-10-01
The scope of constrained differential renormalization is to provide renormalized expressions for Feynman graphs, preserving at the same time the Ward identities of the theory. It has been shown recently that this can be done consistently at least to one loop for Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories. We briefly review these results, evaluate as an example the gluon self energy in both coordinate and momentum space, and comment on anomalies. (author) 9 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab
Primordial Gravitational Waves Induced by Magnetic Fields in Ekpyrotic Scenario
Ito, Asuka
2016-01-01
Both inflationary and ekpyrotic scenarios can account for the origin of the large scale structure of the universe. It is often said that detecting primordial gravitational waves is the key to distinguish both scenarios. We show that this is not true if the gauge kinetic function is present in the ekpyrotic scenario. In fact, primordial gravitational waves sourced by the gauge field can be produced in an ekpyrotic universe. We also study scalar fluctuations sourced by the gauge field and show that it is negligible compared to primordial gravitational waves. This comes from the fact that the fast roll condition holds in ekpyrotic models.
Galilean anomalies and their effect on hydrodynamics
Jain, Akash
2016-03-01
We study flavor and gravitational anomalies in Galilean theories coupled to torsional Newton-Cartan backgrounds. We establish that the relativistic anomaly inflow mechanism with an appropriately modified anomaly polynomial can be used to generate these anomalies. Similar to the relativistic case, we find that Galilean anomalies also survive only in even dimensions. Further, these anomalies only effect the flavor and rotational symmetries of a Galilean theory; in particular, the Milne boost symmetry remains nonanomalous. We also extend the transgression machinery used in relativistic fluids to Galilean fluids, and use it to determine how these anomalies affect the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid. Unrelated to the Galilean fluids, we propose an analogue of the off-shell second law of thermodynamics for relativistic fluids, to include torsion and a conserved spin current in the vielbein formalism. Interestingly, we find that even in the absence of spin current and torsion the entropy currents in the two formalisms are different: while the usual entropy current gets a contribution from the gravitational anomaly, the entropy current in the vielbein formalism does not have any anomaly-induced part.
Target Spaces from Chiral Gauge Theories
Melnikov, Ilarion V; Sethi, Savdeep; Stern, Mark
2012-01-01
Chiral gauge theories in two dimensions with (0,2) supersymmetry are central in the study of string compactifications. Remarkably little is known about generic (0,2) theories. We consider theories with branches on which multiplets with a net gauge anomaly become massive. The simplest example is a relevant perturbation of the gauge theory that flows to the CP(n) model. To compute the effective action, we derive a useful set of Feynman rules for (0,2) supergraphs. From the effective action, we see that the infra-red geometry reflects the gauge anomaly by the presence of a boundary at finite distance. In generic examples, there are boundaries, fluxes and branes; the resulting spaces are non-Kahler.
Turyshev, Slava G
2010-01-01
Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 x 10^{-9} Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of a_P = (8.74 +/- 1.33) x 10^{-10} m/s^2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse-square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the discovered effect and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extend...
Anomaly mediation in local effective theories
The phenomenon known as “anomaly mediation” can be understood in a variety of ways. Rather than an anomaly, certain gaugino bilinear terms are required by local supersymmetry and gauge invariance (the derivation of these terms is in some cases related to anomalies in scale invariance or R symmetries). We explain why the gaugino bilinear is required in supersymmetric gauge theories with varying number of colors and flavors. By working in the Higgs phase, gauging a flavor group, or working below the scale of gaugino condensation, each of these theories has a local effective description in which we can identify the bilinear term, establishing its necessity in the microscopic theory. For example, in theories that exhibit gaugino condensation, the potential in the very low energy theory is supersymmetric precisely due to the relation between the nonperturbative superpotential and the gaugino bilinear terms. Similarly, the gravitino mass appears from its coupling to the gaugino bilinear
Gauged WZW Models via Equivariant Cohomology
García-Compeán, Hugo; Paniagua, Pablo
The problem of finding a systematic computation of the gauge-invariant extension of WZW term by using equivariant cohomology is addressed. Witten's analysis for the two-dimensional case is extended to higher dimensions, in particular to four dimensions. It is shown that Cartan's model is used to find the anomaly cancellation condition while Weil's model is more appropriated to express the gauge-invariant extension of the WZW term. In the process we point out that both models are also useful to emphasize some nice relations with the Abelian anomaly.
Weiss, R.; Muehlner, D. J.; Benford, R. L.; Owens, D. K.; Pierre, N. A.; Rosenbluh, M.
1972-01-01
Balloon measurements were made of the far infrared background radiation. The radiometer used and its calibration are discussed. An electromagnetically coupled broadband gravitational antenna is also considered. The proposed antenna design and noise sources in the antenna are reviewed. A comparison is made between interferometric broadband and resonant bar antennas for the detection of gravitational wave pulses.
Schutz, Bernard F.
1990-01-01
In 1989 four groups around the world proposed the construction of large-scale laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The author reviews the design of these detectors, the problems of analysing their data, and the theory of the sources of the gravitational waves that they are designed to detect.
Two potentials, one gauge group: A possible geometrical motivation
By studying the purely gravitational sector of a higher dimensional matter-gravity coupled theory, one can see that in the case of non-vanishing torsion the effective 4-dimensional theory exhibits two gauge potentials that transform under the action of a single gauge group. (Author)
Two potentials, one gauge group: a possible geometrical motivation
By studying the purely gravitational sector of a higher-dimensional matter-gravity coupled theory, one can see that in the case of nonvanishing torsion the effective 4-dimensional theory exhibits two gauge potentials that transform under the action of a single gauge group
General Form of Dilaton Gravity and Nonlinear Gauge Theory
Ikeda, Noriaki; -I, Izawa K.
1993-01-01
We construct a gauge theory based on general nonlinear Lie algebras. The generic form of `dilaton' gravity is derived from nonlinear Poincar{\\' e} algebra, which exhibits a gauge-theoretical origin of the non-geometric scalar field in two-dimensional gravitation theory.
Improved Moving Puncture Gauge Conditions for Compact Binary Evolutions
Etienne, Zachariah B; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Kelly, Bernard J; Shapiro, Stuart L
2014-01-01
Robust gauge conditions are critically important to the stability and accuracy of numerical relativity (NR) simulations involving compact objects. Most of the NR community use the highly robust---though decade-old---moving-puncture (MP) gauge conditions for such simulations. It has been argued that in binary black hole (BBH) evolutions adopting this gauge, noise generated near adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) boundaries does not converge away cleanly with increasing resolution, severely limiting gravitational waveform accuracy at computationally feasible resolutions. We link this noise to a sharp, initial outgoing gauge wave crossing into progressively lower resolution AMR grids, and present improvements to the standard MP gauge conditions that focus on stretching, smoothing, and more rapidly settling this outgoing wave. Our best gauge choice greatly reduces gravitational waveform noise, yielding more cleanly convergent waveforms and $\\sim 40%$ lower waveform phase and amplitude errors during inspiral at typica...
The SU(2) Skyrme model and anomaly
Abreu, Everton M C; Oliveira, W; Abreu, Everton M C; Neto, Jorge Ananias; Oliveira, Wilson
2000-01-01
The SU(2) Skyrme model,expanding in the collective coordinates variables, gives rise to second-class constraints. Recently this system was embedded in a more general Abelian gauge theory using the BFFT Hamiltonian method. In this work we quantize this gauge theory computing the Noether current anomaly using for this two different methods: an operatorial Dirac first class formalism and the non-local BV quantization coupled with the Fujikawa regularization procedure.
The g - 2 muon anomaly in di-muon production with the torsion in LHC
Syromyatnikov, A. G.
2016-06-01
It was considered within the framework of the conformal gauge gravitational theory CGTG coupling of the standard model fermions to the axial torsion and preliminary discusses the impact of extra dimensions, in particular, in a five-dimensional space-time with Randall-Sundrum metric, where the fifth dimension is compactified on an S1/Z 2 orbifold, which as it turns out is conformally to the fifth dimension flat Euclidean space with permanent trace of torsion, with a compactification radius R in terms of the radius of a CGTG gravitational screening, through torsion in a process Z → μ+μ‑ and LHC data. In general, have come to the correct set of the conformal calibration curvature the Faddeev-Popov diagram technique type, that follows directly from dynamics. This leads to the effect of restrictions on neutral spin currents of gauge fields by helicity and the Regge’s form theory. The diagrams reveals the fact of opening of the fine spacetime structure in a process pp → γ/Z/T → μ+μ‑ with a center-of-mass energy of 14TeV, indicated by dotted lines and texture columns, as a result of p-p collision on 1.3 ṡ 10‑18cm scales from geometric shell gauge bosons of the SM continued by the heavy axial torsion resonance, and even by emerging from the inside into the outside of the ultra-light (freely-frozen in muon’s spin) axial torsion. We then evaluate the contribution of the torsion to the muon anomaly to derive new constraints on the torsion parameters. It was obtained that on the πN scattering through the exchange of axial torsion accounting, the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment in the eikonal phase leads to additive additives which is responsible for the spin-flip in the scattering process, the scattering amplitude is classical and characterized by a strong the torsion coupling ηT≅1. So the scattering of particles, occurs as on the Coulomb center with the charge fT This is the base model which is the g‑2 muon anomaly. The muon anomaly contribution
A simple example of a classical gauge transformation
Whitten, R. C.
1983-01-01
Attention is given to the manner in which the interaction of a gravitational field with a diffusing gas is induced by a gauge transformation. Since the gas can be thought of as a field, the diffusion process may be represented by a Lagrangian density with the symmetry property of invariance under translation. While this property is lost when the field interacts with a static gravitational field, it is formally restored when an appropriate gauge transformation is performed. This ascription of field properties to a gas offers an illuminating illustration of the coupling of matter to a gauge field within the context of classical mechanics.
Mansouri-Chang gravitation theory
Pavelle, R.
1978-01-01
The gauge theory of gravitation introduced by Mansouri and Chang (1976) is investigated; a symbolic manipulation computer system generates the Mansouri-Chang field equations in various coordinate systems. It is found that all vacuum Einstein spaces are vacuum Mansouri-Chang spaces in four dimensions, though for higher dimensions an Einstein vacuum space is not generally a Mansouri-Chang solution. The possibility that no solutions of the Mansouri-Chang equations are not Einstein vacuum spaces is discussed.
Konishi Anomalies and N=1 Curves
Landsteiner, K
2004-01-01
We present a brief summary of exact results on the non-perturbative effective superpotential of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories based on generalized Konishi anomaly equations. In particular we consider theories with classical gauge groups and chiral matter in two-index tensor representations. All these theories can be embedded into theories with unitary gauge group and adjoint matter. This embedding can be used to derive expressions for the exact non-perturbative superpotential in terms of the 1/N expansion of the free energy of the related matrix models.
Shnir, Ya. M., E-mail: shnir@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
We construct solutions of the 3 + 1 dimensional Faddeev–Skyrme model coupled to Einstein gravity. The solutions are static and asymptotically flat. They are characterized by a topological Hopf number. We investigate the dependence of the ADM masses of gravitating Hopfions on the gravitational coupling. When gravity is coupled to flat space solutions, a branch of gravitating Hopfion solutions arises and merges at a maximal value of the coupling constant with a second branch of solutions. This upper branch has no flat space limit. Instead, in the limit of a vanishing coupling constant, it connects to either the Bartnik–McKinnon or a generalized Bartnik–McKinnon solution. We further find that in the strong-coupling limit, there is no difference between the gravitating solitons of the Skyrme model and the Faddeev–Skyrme model.
As predicted by general relativity, gravitation curves light rays, an effect which produces actual gravitational mirages: the image of a distant source is distorted, amplified, and multiplied by the mass of a galaxy close to the path of the rays. Astronomers have already detected several such configurations in the form of 'double' or 'multiple' quasars. They are using these to gain access to a range of information on galaxies, quasars and even the geometry of the Universe. (author)
Connections between Schwinger terms and anomalies
We present examples of a new type of Schwinger terms appearing in commutators of energy-momentum tensor. We demonstrate them in two-dimensional flat Minkowski space. The Schwinger terms which correspond to gravitational anomaly appear in different places from those of conformal anomaly. Nevertheless, they still preserve the Jacobi identity. We also discuss the relation between anomalies and the Schwinger terms. In any-dimensional curved space-time Faddeev's cohomological technique works well. Therefore we can derive the Schwinger terms in curved space-time. (author)
On SU(2) anomaly and Majorana fermions
Patrascu, Andrei
2015-01-01
In this paper a loophole in the SU(2) gauge anomaly is presented. It is shown that using several topological tools a theory can be designed that implements the quantization of a single Weyl doublet anomaly free while keeping the non-abelian character of the particle in the theory. This opens the perspective for non-Abelian statistics of deconfined particle like objects in 3+1 dimensions and for applications in Quantum Computing. Moreover, if this loophole cannot be closed, old arguments related to anomaly cancelations must be reviewed.
Gravitational Model of the Three Elements Theory
Frederic Lassiaille
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The gravitational model of the three elements theory is an alternative theory to dark matter. It uses a modification of Newton’s law in order to explain gravitational mysteries. The results of this model are explanations for the dark matter mysteries, and the Pioneer anomaly. The disparity of the gravitational constant measurements might also be explained. Concerning the Earth flyby anomalies, the theoretical order of magnitude is the same as the experimental one. A very small change of the perihelion advance of the planet orbits is calculated by this model. Meanwhile, this gravitational model is perfectly compatible with restricted relativity and general relativity, and is part of the three element theory, a unifying theory.
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse
Chris L. Fryer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse
Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
On the overlap formulation of chiral gauge theory
The overlap formula proposed by Narayanan and Neuberger in chiral gauge theories is examined. The free chiral and Dirac Green's functions are constructed in this formalism. Four dimensional anomalies are calculated and the usual anomaly cancellation for one standard family of quarks and leptons is verified. (author). 4 refs
Quiver Gauge Theory and Conformality at the Large Hadron Collider
Frampton, Paul H
2007-01-01
This review describes the conformality approach to extending the standard model of particle phenomenology using an assumption of no conformal anomaly at high energy. Topics include quiver gauge theory, the conformality approach to phenomenology, strong-electroweak unification at 4 TeV, cancellation of quadratic divergences, cancellation of U(1) anomalies, and a dark matter candidate.
A systematic search for anomaly-free supergravities in six dimensions
Avramis, S D
2005-01-01
We conduct a systematic search for anomaly-free six-dimensional N=1 chiral supergravity theories. Under a certain set of restrictions on the allowed gauge groups and the representations of the hypermultiplets, we enumerate all possible Poincare and gauged supergravities with one tensor multiplet satisfying the 6D anomaly cancellation criteria.
Introduction to gauge theories
In these lectures we present the key ingredients of theories with local gauge invariance. We introduce gauge invariance as a starting point for the construction of a certain class of field theories, both for abelian and nonabelian gauge groups. General implications of gauge invariance are discussed, and we outline in detail how gauge fields can acquire masses in a spontaneous fashion. (orig./HSI)
Gauging Geometry: A Didactic Lecture
Kannenberg, L
2016-01-01
Local inertial frame invariance is taken as the fundamental principle of physical geometry, where a local inertial frame is represented by a verbein. Invariance of the vierbein with respect to local Lorentz transformations then expresses local inertial frame invariance. The dynamics of physical geometry develops as a gauge theory of the verbein that is closely analogous to the Yang-Mills field provided the verbein connection and curvature correspond to the geometric potential and field respectively. The resulting theory is shown to be equivalent to Einstein's tensor form of relativistic gravitation.
Fuji Electric has developed a pipe wall thinning detection device, which operates based on radiation gauge technology, for use in nuclear power plants and thermoelectric power plants. The radiation from the pipe wall thinning detection device, which can be used even during the plant operation, can penetrate heat insulation material. The device consists of detector and radiation source, and can detect the thickness of pipes (less than 500 mm in external diameter and less than 50 mm in thickness) with 2% reproducibility (with a measurement time of several minutes), based on the attenuation rate. Operation is easy and efficient since there is no need to remove the heat insulation and it is easy to mount the device, thus enabling more effective detection. (author)
On the renormalization of the theories with γ5-anomalies
We show that the introduction of the non-local counterterm for the theories with γ5-anomalies restores the gauge invariance at quantum level. As an example we consider the strictly soluble two-dimensional model with γ5-anomalies. (author)
Probing inflation models with gravitational waves
Domcke, Valerie
2016-01-01
A direct detection of primordial gravitational waves is the ultimate probe for any inflation model. While current CMB bounds predict the generic scale-invariant gravitational wave spectrum from slow-roll inflation to be below the reach of upcoming gravitational wave interferometers, this prospect may dramatically change if the inflaton is a pseudoscalar. In this case, a coupling to any abelian gauge field leads to a tachyonic instability for the latter and hence to a new source of gravitational waves, directly related to the dynamics of inflation. In this contribution we discuss how this setup enables the upcoming gravitational wave interferometers advanced LIGO/VIRGO and eLISA to probe the microphysics of inflation, distinguishing between different universality classes of single-field slow-roll inflation models. We find that the prime candidate for an early detection is a Starobinsky-like model.
On the fundamental principles of the relativistic theory of gravitation
This paper expounds consistently within the frames of the Special Relativity Theory the fundamental postulates of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (RTG) which make it possible to obtain the unique complete system of the equations for gravitational field. Major attention has been paid to the analysis of the gauge group and of the causality principle. Some results related to the evolution of the Friedmann Universe, to gravitational collapse, etc. being the consequences of the RTG equations are also presented. 7 refs
Transmission of Electromagnetic Waves and Deflection of Light in Gravitational Fields
潘鹏鹏; 陆惠卿
2003-01-01
The gauge invariance of the electromagnetic field in gravitational field is an important question. We prove d' Alembert equation in gravitational field with gauge invariance under the Lorentz condition. Using the kinematic equation of photon in normal static and spherically symmetric gravitational fields, we deduce the orbital equation of photon. As a spceiel example, we explicate the deduction and discussion about the deviation angular of light in Reissner-Nordslx6m space-time.
Cohen, Timothy; Knapen, Simon
2015-01-01
We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the $\\mu-b_\\mu$ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on $\\mu$ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small $a$-terms and small $\\tan \\beta$ -- the stop mass ranges from $10^5$ to $10^8 \\mbox{ GeV}$. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.
Non-minimal gauge mediation and moduli stabilization
In this Letter we consider U(1)A-gauged Polonyi model with two spurions coupled to a twisted closed string modulus. This offers a consistent setup for metastable SUSY breakdown which allows for moduli stabilization and naturally leads to gauge or hybrid gauge/gravitational mediation mechanism. Due to the presence of the second spurion one can arrange for a solution of the μ and Bμ problems in a version of modified Giudice-Masiero mechanism, which works both in the limit of pure gauge mediation and in the mixed regime of hybrid mediation.
Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models
The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.)
Anomalies in quantum field theory: Properties and characterization
Kraus, Elisabeth
2002-01-01
We consider the Adler-Bardeen anomaly of the U(1) axial current in abelian and non-abelian gauge theories and present its algebraic characterization as well as an explicit evaluation proving regularization scheme independence of the anomaly. By extending the gauge coupling to an external space-time dependent field we get a unique definition for the quantum corrections of the topological term. It also implies a simple proof of the non-renormalization theorem of the Adler-Bardeen anomaly. We co...
New insight into BRST anomalies in superstring theory
Based on the extended BRST formalism of Batalin, Fradkin and Vilkovisky, we perform a general algebraic analysis of the BRST anomalies in superstring theory of Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond. Consistency conditions on the BRST anomalies are completely solved. The genuine super-Virasoro anomaly is identified with the essentially unique solution to the consistency condition without any reference to a particular gauge for the 2D supergravity fields. In a configuration space where metric and gravitino fields are properly constructed, the general form of the super-Weyl anomaly is obtained from the super-Virasoro anomaly as its descendant. We give a novel local action of super-Liouville type, which plays a role of Wess-Zumino-Witten term shifting the super-Virasoro anomaly into the super-Weyl anomaly. These results reveal a hierarchical relationship in the BRST anomalies. ((orig.))
Using gravitational lenses to detect gravitational waves
Allen, B.
1990-01-01
Gravitational lenses could be used to detect gravitational waves, because a gravitational wave affects the travel-time of a light ray. In a gravitational lens, this effect produces time-delays between the different images. Thus the bending of light, which was the first experimental confirmation of Einstein's theory, can be used to search for gravitational waves, which are the most poorly confirmed aspect of that same theory. Applying this method to the gravitational lens 0957+561 gives new up...
Phases of chiral gauge theories
We discuss the behavior of two non-supersymmetric chiral SU(N) gauge theories, involving fermions in the symmetric and antisymmetric two-index tensor representations respectively. In addition to global anomaly matching, we employ a recently proposed inequality constraint on the number of effective low energy (massless) degrees of freedom of a theory, based on the thermodynamic free energy. Several possible zero temperature phases are consistent with the constraints. A simple picture for the phase structure emerges if these theories choose the phase, consistent with global anomaly matching, that minimizes the massless degree of freedom count defined through the free energy. This idea suggests that confinement with the preservation of the global symmetries through the formation of massless composite fermions is in general not preferred. While our discussion is restricted mainly to bilinear condensate formation, higher dimensional condensates are considered for one case. We conclude by commenting briefly on two related supersymmetric chiral theories. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms.
Goldman, N; Juzeliūnas, G; Öhberg, P; Spielman, I B
2014-12-01
Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our Universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle-the graviton-that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms 'feeling' laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials-both Abelian and non-Abelian-in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms. PMID:25422950
Pseudospectral method for gravitational wave collapse
Hilditch, David; Weyhausen, Andreas; Brügmann, Bernd
2016-03-01
We present a new pseudospectral code, bamps, for numerical relativity written with the evolution of collapsing gravitational waves in mind. We employ the first-order generalized harmonic gauge formulation. The relevant theory is reviewed, and the numerical method is critically examined and specialized for the task at hand. In particular, we investigate formulation parameters—gauge- and constraint-preserving boundary conditions well suited to nonvanishing gauge source functions. Different types of axisymmetric twist-free moment-of-time-symmetry gravitational wave initial data are discussed. A treatment of the axisymmetric apparent horizon condition is presented with careful attention to regularity on axis. Our apparent horizon finder is then evaluated in a number of test cases. Moving on to evolutions, we investigate modifications to the generalized harmonic gauge constraint damping scheme to improve conservation in the strong-field regime. We demonstrate strong-scaling of our pseudospectral penalty code. We employ the Cartoon method to efficiently evolve axisymmetric data in our 3 +1 -dimensional code. We perform test evolutions of the Schwarzschild spacetime perturbed by gravitational waves and by gauge pulses, both to demonstrate the use of our black-hole excision scheme and for comparison with earlier results. Finally, numerical evolutions of supercritical Brill waves are presented to demonstrate durability of the excision scheme for the dynamical formation of a black hole.
We propose a model for cosmic inflation which is based on an effective description of strongly interacting, nonsupersymmetric matter within the framework of dynamical Abelian projection and centerization. The underlying gauge symmetry is assumed to be SU(N+1) with N>>1. Appealing to a thermodynamical treatment, the ground-state structure of the model is classically determined by a potential for the inflaton field (dynamical monopole condensate) which allows for nontrivially BPS saturated and thereby stable solutions. For TP this leads to decoupling of gravity from the inflaton dynamics. The ground state dynamics implies a heat capacity for the vacuum leading to inflation for temperatures comparable to the mass scale M of the potential. The dynamics has an attractor property. In contrast with the usual slow-roll paradigm we have m>>H during inflation. As a consequence, density perturbations generated from the inflaton are irrelevant for the formation of large-scale structure, and the model has to be supplemented with an inflaton independent mechanism for the generation of spatial curvature perturbations. Within a small fraction of the Hubble time inflation is terminated by a transition of the theory to its center symmetric phase. The spontaneously broken ZN+1 symmetry stabilizes relic vector bosons in the epochs following inflation. These heavy relics contribute to the cold dark matter of the universe and potentially originate the UHECRs beyond the GZK bound
Introduction to gauge theories of electroweak interactions
Intended as a lecture for physicists who are not familiar with the sophisticated theoretical models in particle physics. Starting with the standard gauge model of electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions the recent developments of a unified gauge theory of electroweak interactions are shown. Shortcomings in the unitarity problem of the V-A fermi theory of charged intermediate vector bosons. Presented are the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics, the abelian higgs model as an example of a spontaneously broken gauge field theory, the minimal gauge group of electroweak interactions, the fermion mass generation. Further on the anomalies in quantum field theory are discussed and the radiative corrections to the vector boson masses are considered. (H.B.)
B. G. Sidharth
2004-01-01
We consider different deductions of the mysterious Weinberg formula and show that this leads us back to the model of fluctuational cosmology which correctly predicted in advance, dark energy driven, accelerating universe with a small cosmological constant. All this also provides us with an interpretation of Gravitation as the distributional effect of the residual energy of the universe.
6d strings from new chiral gauge theories
Kim, Hee-Cheol; Park, Jaemo
2016-01-01
We study the 6d $\\mathcal{N}=(1,0)$ superconformal field theory with smallest non-Higgsable gauge symmetry $SU(3)$. In particular, we propose new 2d gauge theory descriptions of its self-dual strings in the tensor branch. We use our gauge theories to compute the elliptic genera of the self-dual strings, which completely agree with the partial data known from topological strings. We further study the strings of the $(E_6,E_6)$ conformal matter by generalizing our 2d gauge theories. We also show that anomalies of all our gauge theories agree with the self-dual string anomalies computed by inflows from 6d.
Gaugino-Assisted Anomaly Mediation
We present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or ''hidden'') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, we consider this the simplest working model of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. We identify the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches. We also discuss mechanisms for generating the μ term and constraints on additional bulk fields. (author)
Gaugino-assisted anomaly mediation
I present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or 'hidden') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, this is among the simplest working models of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. Finally, the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches are identified. This talk is based on work [1] done in collaboration with David E. Kaplan
Wetterich, C
2016-01-01
We propose a gauge invariant flow equation for Yang-Mills theories and quantum gravity that only involves one macroscopic gauge field or metric. It is based on a projection on physical and gauge fluctuations, corresponding to a particular gauge fixing. The freedom in the precise choice of the macroscopic field can be exploited in order to keep the flow equation simple.
Loup, Fernando
2007-01-01
We use the 5D Extra Dimensional Force according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Formalisms to study the behaviour of the Chung-Freese Superluminal BraneWorld compared to the Alcubierre Warp Drive and we arrive at some interesting results from the point of view of the Alcubierre ansatz although we used a diferent Shape Function f(rs) with a behaviour similar to the Natario Warp Drive. We introduce here the Casimir Warp Drive. We also demonstrate that in flat 5D Minkowsky Spacetime or weak Gravitational Fields we cannot tell if we live in a 5D or a 4D Universe according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Dimensional Reduction but in the extreme conditions of Strong Gravitational Fields we demonstrate that the effects of the 5D Extra Dimension becomes visible and perhaps the study of the extreme conditions in Black Holes can tell if we live in a Higher Dimensional Universe. We use a 5D Maartens-Clarkson Schwarzschild Cosmic Black ...
Wu, Ning
1998-01-01
In this paper, we will construct a gauge field model, in which the masses of gauge fields are non-zero and the local gauge symmetry is strictly preserved. A SU(N) gauge field model is discussed in details in this paper. In the limit $\\alpha \\longrightarrow 0$ or $\\alpha \\longrightarrow \\infty$, the gauge field model discussed in this paper will return to Yang-Mills gauge field model. This theory could be regarded as theoretical development of Yang-Mills gauge field theory.
Cosmic strings in a product Abelian gauge field theory
It is shown that multiply distributed cosmic strings arise in the product Abelian gauge field theory of Tong and Wong where vortices generated from an extra gauge sector are used to realize magnetic impurities. It is seen that, in view of the fully coupled Einstein and gauge-matter equations, the presence of such cosmic strings in the form of topological defects is essential for gravitation. Asymptotic behavior of the string solutions can be precisely described to allow the derivation of a necessary and sufficient condition for the gravitational metric to be geodesically complete and an explicit calculation of the deficit angle proportional to the string tension, both stated in terms of string numbers, energy levels of broken symmetries, and the universal gravitational constant
Wiesendanger, C.
2011-01-01
Viewing gravitational energy-momentum $p_G^\\mu$ as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energy-momentum $p_I^\\mu$ naturally leads to the gauge theory of volume-preserving diffeormorphisms of an inner Minkowski space ${\\bf M}^{\\sl 4}$. To extract its physical content the full gauge group is reduced to its Poincar\\'e subgroup. The respective Poincar\\'e gauge fields, field strengths and Poincar\\'e-covariant field equations are obtained and point-particle source currents a...
Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P
2001-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.
Thorne, K S
1995-01-01
This article reviews current efforts and plans for gravitational-wave detection, the gravitational-wave sources that might be detected, and the information that the detectors might extract from the observed waves. Special attention is paid to (i) the LIGO/VIRGO network of earth-based, kilometer-scale laser interferometers, which is now under construction and will operate in the high-frequency band (1 to 10^4 Hz), and (ii) a proposed 5-million-kilometer-long Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), which would fly in heliocentric orbit and operate in the low-frequency band (10^{-4} to 1 Hz). LISA would extend the LIGO/VIRGO studies of stellar-mass (M\\sim2 to 300 M_\\odot) black holes into the domain of the massive black holes (M\\sim1000 to 10^8M_\\odot) that inhabit galactic nuclei and quasars.
Confining gauge theories without Goldstone bosons
We discuss the possibility that in the Wilson lattice definition of confining gauge theories without Goldstone bosons one may systematically adjust the lightest vector mass to zero while keeping the isosinglet scalar mass, which arises by the chiral anomaly, nontachyonic. We discuss a Weyl fermion theory and find the lightest vector particle to be an isoscalar (at least in strong coupling) so that there is no collision with known theorems. We discuss how an abelian gauge symmetry can arise as an infrared attractor and point out a difference between the Weyl fermion theory and one flavour QCD. Attention is also drawn to a physical motivation. (orig.)
Supersymmetric gauge theories from string theory
This thesis presents various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain sub-cycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. Even if the Calabi-Yau geometry is too complicated to evaluate the geometric integrals explicitly, one can then always use matrix model perturbation theory to calculate the effective superpotential. The second part of this work covers the generation of four-dimensional super-symmetric gauge theories, carrying several important characteristic features of the standard model, from compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity on G2-manifolds. If the latter contain conical singularities, chiral fermions are present in the four-dimensional gauge theory, which potentially lead to anomalies. We show that, locally at each singularity, these anomalies are cancelled by the non-invariance of the classical action through a mechanism called 'anomaly inflow'. Unfortunately, no explicit metric of a compact G2-manifold is known. Here we construct families of metrics on compact weak G2-manifolds, which contain two conical singularities. Weak G2-manifolds have properties that are similar to the ones of proper G2-manifolds, and hence the explicit examples might be useful to better understand the generic situation. Finally, we reconsider the relation between eleven-dimensional supergravity and the E8 x E8-heterotic string. This is done by carefully studying the anomalies that appear if the supergravity theory is formulated on a ten-manifold times the interval. Again we find that the anomalies cancel locally at the boundaries of the interval through anomaly inflow, provided one suitably modifies the classical action. (author)
Determination of covariant Schwinger terms in anomalous gauge theories
A functional integral method is used to determine equal time commutators between the covariant currents and the covariant Gauss-law operators in theories which are affected by an anomaly. By using a differential geometrical setup we show how the derivation of consistent- and covariant Schwinger terms can be understood on an equal footing. We find a modified consistency condition for the covariant anomaly. As a by-product the Bardeen-Zumino functional, which relates consistent and covariant anomalies, can be interpreted as connection on a certain line bundle over all gauge potentials. Finally the commutator anomalies are calculated for the two- and four dimensional case. (Author) 13 refs
Gauge field theories. I : Gauge fields, Goldstone theorem and Higgs phenomena
This lecture on gauge field theories is presented in six sections. In Section I, some general features of the gauge field theories are considered. The simple example of electrodynamics is studied in detail. The minimal electromagnetic interaction; one parameter gauge theory, the non-Abelian gauge groups; Yang-Mills fields and the Universality of gauge field couplings are discussed. In Section II, the various problems that arise in the dynamics of Yang-Mills fields at classical and quantum level are discussed. Included in the discussion are : Field equations and identities, Canonical formalism, Quantization, and Mass of the gauge field quanta. In Section III, spontaneous symmetry breaking is discussed in the context of field theory. Goldstone theorom is clearly stated, proved and illustrated by simple examples. Goldstone quanta are explained. In Section IV, the Higg's phenomenon concerning Goldstone bosons and massless particles is studied in detail in the Abelian and non-Abelian Gauge formalisms. The working of the Higgs-Kibble mechanism is illustrated with examples. In Section V, the Weinberg-Salam model on the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons, based on Higgs-Kibble mechanism is discussed in relation to electron type leptons. In the last Section VI, some aspects of spontaneously broken gauge theories connected with renormalizability are discussed. These include (a) high energy behaviour of tree graphs, (b) self-masses, (c) the anomaly problem, and (d) the safe algebra. (A.K.)
Notes on anomalies, baryons, and Seiberg duality
Corley, Steven
2003-01-01
We consider an N=1 SU(N_c) SUSY gauge theory with N_f \\geq N_c matter multiplets transforming in the fundamental and antifundamental representations of the gauge group. Using the Konishi anomaly and a non-anomalous conservation law, we derive a system of partial differential equations that determine the low energy effective superpotential as a function of the mesonic and baryonic vacuum expectation values. We apply the formalism to the cases of N_f = N_c and N_f = N_c +1 where the equations a...
Sparticle spectrum and constraints in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models
Huitu, K; Pandita, P N
2002-01-01
We study in detail the particle spectrum in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by super-Weyl anomaly. We investigate the minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models, gaugino assisted supersymmetry breaking models, as well as models with additional residual non-decoupling D-term contributions due to an extra U(1) gauge symmetry at high energy scale. We derive sum rules for the sparticle masses in these models which can help in differentiating between them. We also obtain the sparticle spectrum numerically, and compare and contrast the results so obtained for the different types of anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models.
Recent developments in the path integral approach to anomalies
After a brief summary of the path integral approach to anomalous identities, some of the recent developments in this approach are discussed. The topics discussed include (i) Construction of the effective action by means of the covariant current, (ii) Gauss law constraint in anomalous gauge theories, (iii) Path integral approach to anomalies in superconformal transformations, (iv) Conformal and ghost number anomalies in string theory in analogy with the instanton calculation, (v) Covariant local Lorentz anomaly and its connection with the mathematical construction of the consistent anomaly. (author)
Anomalies of discrete symmetries in three dimensions and group cohomology
Kapustin, Anton
2014-01-01
We study 't Hooft anomalies for a global discrete internal symmetry G. We construct examples of bosonic field theories in three dimensions with a non-vanishing 't Hooft anomaly for a discrete global symmetry. We also construct field theories in three dimensions with a global discrete internal symmetry G_1 x G_2 such that gauging G_1 necessarily breaks G_2 and vice versa. This is analogous to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw axial anomaly in four dimensions and parity anomaly in three dimensions.
Primordial perturbations from dilaton-induced gauge fields
Choi, Kiwoon; Choi, Ki-Young; Kim, Hyungjin; Shin, Chang Sub
2015-01-01
We study the primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in inflation scenario involving a spectator dilaton field. In our setup, the rolling spectator dilaton causes a tachyonic instability of gauge fields, leading to a copious production of gauge fields in the superhorizon regime, which generates additional scalar and tensor perturbations through gravitational interactions. Our prime concern is the possibility to enhance the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ relative to the standard result, while s...
Locally Anisotropic Supergravity and Gauge Gravity on Noncommutative Spaces
Vacaru, S. I.; Chiosa, I. A.; Vicol, Nadejda A.
2000-01-01
We outline the the geometry of locally anisotropic (la) superspaces and la-supergravity. The approach is backgrounded on the method of anholonomic superframes with associated nonlinear connection structure. Following the formalism of enveloping algebras and star product calculus we propose a model of gauge la-gravity on noncommutative spaces. The corresponding Seiberg-Witten maps are established which allow the definition of dynamics for a finite number of gravitational gauge field components...
The Hawking effect in abelian gauge theories
In an effort to compare and contrast gravity with other field theories an investigation is made into whether the Hawking effect is a peculiarly gravitational phenomenon. It is found that the effect exists for a particular background abelian gauge field configuration, as well as certain background gravitational field configurations. Specifically, pair production in a uniform electric field is shown to admit a thermal interpretation. In an effort to find out just what is singular about gravity it is found that the Hawking temperature characteristic of a particular gravitational field configuration is independent of the properties of the quantum fields propagating theorem, in direct contrast to the gauge field case. This implies that if the one loop approximation is to be valid the electric field must be ''cold'' relative to the energy scales set by the quantum fields. In gravity, however, because of the existence of a fundamental scale, the Planck length, the gravitational field can be ''hot'' or ''cold'' and a one loop approximation still remain valid. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc
Relativistic Transverse Gravitational Redshift
Mayer, A. F.
2012-12-01
The parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism is a tool for quantitative analysis of the weak gravitational field based on the field equations of general relativity. This formalism and its ten parameters provide the practical theoretical foundation for the evaluation of empirical data produced by space-based missions designed to map and better understand the gravitational field (e.g., GRAIL, GRACE, GOCE). Accordingly, mission data is interpreted in the context of the canonical PPN formalism; unexpected, anomalous data are explained as similarly unexpected but apparently real physical phenomena, which may be characterized as ``gravitational anomalies," or by various sources contributing to the total error budget. Another possibility, which is typically not considered, is a small modeling error in canonical general relativity. The concept of the idealized point-mass spherical equipotential surface, which originates with Newton's law of gravity, is preserved in Einstein's synthesis of special relativity with accelerated reference frames in the form of the field equations. It was not previously realized that the fundamental principles of relativity invalidate this concept and with it the idea that the gravitational field is conservative (i.e., zero net work is done on any closed path). The ideal radial free fall of a material body from arbitrarily-large range to a point on such an equipotential surface (S) determines a unique escape-velocity vector of magnitude v collinear to the acceleration vector of magnitude g at this point. For two such points on S separated by angle dφ , the Equivalence Principle implies distinct reference frames experiencing inertial acceleration of identical magnitude g in different directions in space. The complete equivalence of these inertially-accelerated frames to their analogous frames at rest on S requires evaluation at instantaneous velocity v relative to a local inertial observer. Because these velocity vectors are not parallel, a
Global Worldsheet Anomalies from M-Theory
Sparks, J
2004-01-01
We present an M-theory proof of the anomaly of Freed and Witten which in general shifts the quantisation law for the U(1) gauge field on a D6-brane. The derivation requires an understanding of how fields on the D6-brane lift to M-theory, together with a localisation formula which we prove using a U(1)-index theorem. We also show how the anomaly is related to the K-theory classification of Ramond-Ramond fields. In addition we discuss the M-theory origin of the D6-brane effective action, and illustrate the general arguments with a concrete example.
On SU(2) anomaly and Majorana fermions
Patrascu, Andrei
2014-01-01
In this paper a loophole in the SU(2) gauge anomaly is presented. It is shown that using several topological tools a theory can be designed that implements the quantization of a single Weyl doublet anomaly free while keeping the non-abelian character of the particle in the theory. This opens the perspective for non-Abelian statistics of deconfined particle like objects in 3+1 dimensions and for applications in Quantum Computing. Moreover, if this loophole cannot be closed, old arguments relat...
Metin SALTIK
1996-03-01
Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.
Six-dimensional regularization of chiral gauge theories
Fukaya, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Shota; Yamamura, Ryo
2016-01-01
We propose a non-perturbative regularization of four dimensional chiral gauge theories. In our formulation, we consider a Dirac fermion in six dimensions with two different mass terms having domain-wall profiles in the fifth and the sixth directions, respectively. A Weyl fermion appears as a localized mode at the junction of two different domain-walls. One domain-wall naturally exhibits the Stora-Zumino chain of the anomaly descent equations, starting from the axial U(1) anomaly in six-dimensions to the gauge anomaly in four-dimensions. Another domain-wall mediates a similar inflow of the global anomalies. The anomaly free condition is equivalent to requiring that the axial U(1) anomaly and the parity anomaly are canceled among the six-dimensional Dirac fermions. Since our formulation is a massive vector-like theory, a non-perturbative regularization is possible on a lattice. Putting the gauge field at the four-dimensional junction and extending it to the bulk using the Yang-Mills gradient flow, as recently p...
Pansart, Jean Pierre
2016-01-01
Gauge fields associated to the Dirac matrix algebra used with the standard quadratic gauge field Lagrangian lead to an extended gravitational Lagrangian which includes the Einstein-Hilbert one, plus quadratic, cosmological constant and torsion terms. This note looks at three cases : the static central symmetric field, the isotropic expanding universe, and the asymptotic field of a rotating body, and show that, in weak gravitational fields, there is no contradiction with General Relativity results.
Utilitarian Supersymmetric Gauge Model of Particle Interactions
Ma, Ernest
2010-01-01
A remarkable U(1) gauge extension of the supersymmetric standard model was proposed eight years ago. It is anomaly-free, has no mu term, and conserves baryon and lepton numbers automatically. The phenomenology of a specific version of this model is discussed. In particular, leptoquarks are predicted, with couplings to the heavy singlet neutrinos, the scalar partners of which may be components of dark matter. The Majorana neutrino mass matrix itself may have two zero subdeterminants.
Utilitarian supersymmetric gauge model of particle interactions
A remarkabale U(1) gauge extension of the supersymmetric standard model was proposed 8 years ago. It is anomaly free, has no μ term, and conserves baryon and lepton numbers automatically. The phenomenology of a specific version of this model is discussed. In particular, leptoquarks are predicted, with couplings to the heavy singlet neutrinos, the scalar partners of which may be components of dark matter. The Majorana neutrino mass matrix itself may have two zero subdeterminants.
Footprints of New Strong Dynamics via Anomaly
Nakai, Yuichiro; Tobioka, Kohsaku
2015-01-01
Chiral anomaly provides a smoking-gun evidence of a new confining gauge theory. Motivated by a reported event excess in diphoton invariant mass distribution at the LHC, we discuss a scenario that a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone (pNG) boson of a new QCD-like theory is produced by gluon fusion and decays into a pair of the standard model gauge bosons. Despite the strong dynamics, the production cross section and the decay widths are determined by anomaly matching condition. The excess can be explained by the pNG boson with mass of around 750 GeV. The model also predicts exotic hadrons such as a color octet scalar and baryons which are within the reach of the LHC experiment.
Electromagnetic duality anomaly in curved spacetimes
Agullo, I; Navarro-Salas, J
2016-01-01
The source-free Maxwell action is invariant under electric-magnetic duality rotations in arbitrary spacetimes. This leads to a conserved classical Noether charge. We show that this conservation law is broken at the quantum level in presence of a background classical gravitational field with a non-trivial Chern-Pontryagin invariant, in a parallel way to the chiral anomaly for massless Dirac fermions. Among the physical consequences, the net polarization of the quantum electromagnetic field is not conserved.
Renormalization of gauge theories without cohomology
Anselmi, Damiano
2013-07-01
We investigate the renormalization of gauge theories without assuming cohomological properties. We define a renormalization algorithm that preserves the Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation at each step and automatically extends the classical action till it contains sufficiently many independent parameters to reabsorb all divergences into parameter-redefinitions and canonical transformations. The construction is then generalized to the master functional and the field-covariant proper formalism for gauge theories. Our results hold in all manifestly anomaly-free gauge theories, power-counting renormalizable or not. The extension algorithm allows us to solve a quadratic problem, such as finding a sufficiently general solution of the master equation, even when it is not possible to reduce it to a linear (cohomological) problem.
Renormalization of gauge theories without cohomology
Anselmi, Damiano [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy)
2013-07-15
We investigate the renormalization of gauge theories without assuming cohomological properties. We define a renormalization algorithm that preserves the Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation at each step and automatically extends the classical action till it contains sufficiently many independent parameters to reabsorb all divergences into parameter-redefinitions and canonical transformations. The construction is then generalized to the master functional and the field-covariant proper formalism for gauge theories. Our results hold in all manifestly anomaly-free gauge theories, power-counting renormalizable or not. The extension algorithm allows us to solve a quadratic problem, such as finding a sufficiently general solution of the master equation, even when it is not possible to reduce it to a linear (cohomological) problem. (orig.)
Chiral anomalies and differential geometry
Zumino, B.
1983-10-01
Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)
Wodzicki residue and anomalies of current algebras
Mickelsson, J
1994-01-01
The commutator anomalies (Schwinger terms) of current algebras in 3+1 dimensions are computed in terms of the Wodzicki residue of pseudodifferential operators; the result can be written as a (twisted) Radul 2-cocycle for the Lie algebra of PSDOs. The construction of the (second quantized) current algebra is closely related to a geometric renormalization of the interaction Hamiltonian H_I=j_{\\mu} A^{\\mu} in gauge theory.
Massive graviton and determination of cosmological constant from gauge theory of gravity
The universe contains a lot more than the eye meets . Sophisticated experiments search diligently for this invisible dark matter. Here we will describe some theoretical implications of the gravitational gauge theory recently proposed by Ning Wu (hep-th/0112062), namely the possibility of the existence of massive gravitons which fill the intergalactic space. Dark matter is an important problem in cosmology. In gravitational gauge field theory, the following effects should be taken into account to solve this problem: 1) The existence of massive graviton will have some contribution to the dark matter; 2) If the gravitational magnetic field is strong inside a celestial system, the gravitational Lorentz force will provide additional centripetal force for circular motion of a celestial object; 3) The existence of a factor which violate inverse square law of classical gravity. Combining general relativity and gravitational gauge theory the cosmological constant is determined theoretically. The cosmological constant is related to the average vacuum energy of the gravitational gauge field. Because the vacuum energy of the gravitational gauge field is negative, the cosmological constant is positive what generates repulsive force on stars to make the expansion rate of the Universe accelerated. A rough estimation of it gives out its magnitude order 10-52 m-2, which is well consistent with experimental results. (authors)
McGarrie, Moritz
2011-01-01
Inspired by four dimensional (de)constructions, we use the framework of "General gauge mediation in five dimensions" to interpolate between gaugino and ordinary gauge mediation. In particular we emphasise that an intermediate hybrid regime of mediation may be obtained in these higher dimensional models as has been obtained in the quiver gauge models.
Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings and the gauge hierarchy
The gauge hierarchy problem is reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 39 refs
Nonperturbative Formulas for Central Functions of Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Anselmi, D.; Freedman, D. Z.; Grisaru, M. T.; Johansen, A. A.
1997-01-01
For quantum field theories that flow between ultraviolet and infrared fixed points, central functions, defined from two-point correlators of the stress tensor and conserved currents, interpolate between central charges of the UV and IR critical theories. We develop techniques that allow one to calculate the flows of the central charges and that of the Euler trace anomaly coefficient in a general N=1 supersymmetric gauge theory. Exact, explicit formulas for $SU(N_c)$ gauge theories in the conf...
Studies of gauge field theories in terms of local gauge-invariant quantities
In the framework of the functional-integral approach to quantum gauge field theories in the present thesis a quantization procedure in terms of gauge-invariant fields is proposed and realized on the example of two- and four-dimensional Abelian models (Thirring model and QED) as well as the one-flavour QCD. For this the algebra of from the gauge-dependent field configuration of the basing quantum field theory formed gauge-invariant Grassmann-algebra valued differential forms, which carries the structure of a Z2-graded differential algebra, is studied in more detail. Thereafter follows the implementation of a suitable chosen set of gauge-invariant fields as well as certain algebraic relations into the functional integral, by which the original gauge-dependent field configuration can be integrated out. This procedure called ''reduction of the functional integral'' leads finally to an effective bosonized (quantum) theory of interacting gauge-invariant and by this physical fields. The presented procedure can be considered as general bosonization scheme for quantum field theories in arbitrary space-time dimensions. The physical evaluation of the obtained effective theories is demonstrated on the example of the calculation of the chiral anomaly as well as certain vacuum expectation values in the framework of the studied Abelian models. As it is thereby shown one is confronted with a series of novel phenomena and problems, which allow at suitable treatment deeper insights in non-perturbative questions
Implications of a new light gauge boson for neutrino physics
Boehm, Celine
2004-01-01
We study the impact of light gauge bosons on neutrino physics. We show that they can explain the NuTeV anomaly and also escape the constraints from neutrino experiments if they are very weakly coupled and have a mass of a few GeV. Lighter gauge bosons with stronger couplings could explain both the NuTeV anomaly and the positive anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. However, in the simple model we consider in this paper (say a purely vectorial extra U(1) current), they appear to be in conflic...
Gravitational wave stress tensor from the linearised field equations
Balbus, Steven A
2016-01-01
A conserved stress energy tensor for weak field gravitational waves in standard general relativity is derived directly from the linearised wave equation alone, for an arbitrary gauge. The form of the tensor leads directly to the classical expression for the outgoing wave energy in any harmonic gauge. The method described here, however, is a much simpler, shorter, and more physically motivated approach than is the customary procedure, which involves a lengthy and cumbersome second-order (in wave-amplitude) calculation starting with the Einstein tensor. Our method has the added advantage of exhibiting the direct coupling between the outgoing energy flux in gravitational waves and the work done by the gravitational field on the sources. For nonharmonic gauges, the derived wave stress tensor has an index asymmetry. This coordinate artefact may be removed by techniques similar to those used in classical electrodynamics (where this issue also arises), but only by appeal to a more lengthy calculation. For any harmon...
Einstein's action and the harmonic gauge in terms of Newtonian fields
Kol, Barak; Smolkin, Michael
2010-01-01
The "Newtonian" or non-relativistic decomposition of Einstein's gravitational field is useful in the post-Newtonian approximation. We obtain the full non-quadratic Einstein-Hilbert action in terms of these fields as well as the harmonic gauge fixing term and find fairly simple expressions. We discuss alternatives to the harmonic gauge.
Anomalies in non-polynomial closed string field theory
Kaku, Michio (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (USA))
1990-11-01
The complete classical action for the non-polynomial closed string field theory was written down last year by the author and the Kyoto group. It successfully reproduces all closed string tree diagrams, but fails to reproduce modular invariant loop amplitudes. In this paper we show that the classical action is also riddled with gauge anomalies. Thus, the classical action is not really gauge invariant and fails as a quantum theory. The presence of gauge anomalies and the violation of modular invariance appear to be a disaster for the theory. Actually, this is a blessing in disguise. We show that by adding new non-polynomial terms to the action, we can simultaneously eliminate both the gauge anomalies and the modular-violating loop diagrams. We show this explicitly at the one loop level and also for an infinite class of p-puncture, genus-g amplitudes, making use of a series of non-trivial identities. The theory is thus an acceptable quantum theory. We comment on the origin of this strange link between local gauge anomalies and global modular invariance. (orig.).
Eliminating the chiral anomaly via symplectic embedding approach
Mendes, A C R; Oliveira, W
2009-01-01
The quantization of the chiral Schwinger model $(\\chi QED_{2})$ with one-parameter class Faddeevian regularization is hampered by the chiral anomaly, i.e., the Gauss law commutator exhibits Faddeev's anomaly. To overcome this kind of problem, we propose to eliminate this anomaly by embedding the theory through a new gauge-invariant formalism based on the enlargement of the phase space with the introduction of Wess-Zumino(WZ) fields and the symplectic approach. This process opens up a possibility to formulate different, but dynamically equivalent, gauge invariant versions for the model and also gives a geometrical interpretation to the arbitrariness presents on the BFFT and iterative conversion methods. Further, we observe that the elimination of the chiral anomaly imposes a condition on the chiral parameters present on the original model and on the WZ sector.
Gauge Gravity: a forward-looking introduction
Randono, Andrew
2010-01-01
This article is a review of modern approaches to gravity that treat the gravitational interaction as a type of gauge theory. The purpose of the article is twofold. First, it is written in a colloquial style and is intended to be a pedagogical introduction to the gauge approach to gravity. I begin with a review of the Einstein-Cartan formulation of gravity, move on to the Macdowell-Mansouri approach, then show how gravity can be viewed as the symmetry broken phase of an (A)dS-gauge theory. This covers roughly the first half of the article. Armed with these tools, the remainder of the article is geared toward new insights and new lines of research that can be gained by viewing gravity from this perspective. Drawing from familiar concepts from the symmetry broken gauge theories of the standard model, we show how the topological structure of the gauge group allows for an infinite class of new solutions to the Einstein-Cartan field equations that can be thought of as degenerate ground states of the theory. We argu...
Non-Relativistic Limit of Dirac Equations in Gravitational Field and Quantum Effects of Gravity
Wu, N
2006-01-01
Based on unified theory of electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions, the non-relativistic limit of the equation of motion of a charged Dirac particle in gravitational field is studied. From the Schrodinger equation obtained from this non-relativistic limit, we could see that the classical Newtonian gravitational potential appears as a part of the potential in the Schrodinger equation, which can explain the gravitational phase effects found in COW experiments. And because of this Newtonian gravitational potential, a quantum particle in earth's gravitational field may form a gravitationally bound quantized state, which had already been detected in experiments. Three different kinds of phase effects related to gravitational interactions are discussed in this paper, and these phase effects should be observable in some astrophysical processes. Besides, there exists direct coupling between gravitational gauge field and quantum spin, radiation caused by this coupling can be used to directly determ...
Effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments
We consider in detail the effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments. It is shown that in the presence of an intermediate-range non-gravitational force, the dominant contributions to both the sign and magnitude of the Eoetvoes anomaly may come from nearby masses and not from the earth as a whole. This observation has important implications in the design and interpretation of future experiments, and in the formulation of unified theories incorporating new intermediate-range forces
Effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments
Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.; Fischbach, E.
1986-05-26
We consider in detail the effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments. It is shown that in the presence of an intermediate-range non-gravitational force, the dominant contributions to both the sign and magnitude of the Eoetvoes anomaly may come from nearby masses and not from the earth as a whole. This observation has important implications in the design and interpretation of future experiments, and in the formulation of unified theories incorporating new intermediate-range forces.
Gauge theories, black hole evaporation and cosmic censorship
Recent work of Linde, which suggests that gauge theories modify the effective gravitational constant, are applied to the theory of black hole evaporation. Considerable modification of the late stages of evaporation are predicted. Contrary to expectations, the black hole never attains a sufficient temperature to enter the antigravity regime, which would represent a failure of cosmic censorship. (orig.)
Two-dimensional Chiral Anomaly in Differential Regularization
Chen, W F
1999-01-01
The two-dimensional chiral anomaly is calculated using differential regularization. It is shown that the anomaly emerges naturally in the vector and axial Ward identities on the same footing as the four-dimensional case. The vector gauge symmetry can be achieved by an appropriate choice of the mass scales without introducing the seagull term. The necessity of a short-distance expansion in the Fourier transform into momentum space is emphasized.
Fermion number anomaly with the fluffy mirror fermion
Okumura, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi
2016-01-01
Quite recently, Grabowska and Kaplan presented a 4-dimensional lattice formulation of chiral gauge theories based on the chiral overlap operator. We study this formulation from the perspective of the fermion number anomaly and possible associated phenomenology. A simple argument shows that the consistency of the formulation implies that the fermion with the opposite chirality to the physical one, the "fluffy mirror fermion" or "fluff", suffers from the fermion number anomaly in the same magni...
On the covariant gauge {alpha} of the linearized gravity in de Sitter spacetime
Cheong, Lee Yen [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)
2012-09-26
In previous work, we studied the linearized gravity with covariant gauge {beta}= 2/3 and {alpha}= 5/3. It was found that the sum of the source and initial contributions reproduces the correct field configuration over the whole de Sitter spacetime. In this paper, we extend this work to generalizing the linearized gravitational field in an arbitrary value of the gauge parameter {alpha} but the gauge parameter {beta} remains the same.
Gravitational and acoustic waves in an elastic medium
Relativistic equations governing perturbations of an elastic medium under the influence of gravitational waves are derived firstly in a gauge-independent way in terms of relative strains, and secondly in terms of gauge-dependent displacements. The derivations are based on the exact nonlinear theory of elasticity in conjunction with Einstein's theory of gravity, and hence are applicable to the solid crusts and cores of neutron stars. It is shown that in the approximately Minkowskian weak-field limit the equations reduce to those derived by previous workers for application in terrestrial contexts such as the detection of gravitational waves by a Weber bar
The reinterpretation of the BRS equations of Quantum Field Theory as the Maurer Cartan equation of a classical principal fiber bundle leads to a simple gauge invariant classification of the anomalies in Yang Mills theory and gravity
Chiral primordial gravitational waves from dilaton induced delayed chromonatural inflation
Obata, Ippei; Soda, Jiro; CLEO Collaboration
2016-06-01
We study inflation driven by a dilaton and an axion, both of which are coupled to a SU(2) gauge field. We find that the inflation driven by the dilaton occurs in the early stage of inflation during which the gauge field grows due to the gauge-kinetic function. When the energy density of magnetic fields catches up with that of electric fields, chromonatural inflation takes over in the late stage of inflation, which we call delayed chromonatural inflation. Thus, the delayed chromonatural inflation driven by the axion and the gauge field is induced by the dilaton. The interesting outcome of the model is the generation of chiral primordial gravitational waves on small scales. Since the gauge field is inert in the early stage of inflation, it is viable in contrast to the conventional chromonatural inflation. We find the parameter region where chiral gravitational waves are generated in a frequency range higher than nHz, which are potentially detectable in future gravitational wave interferometers and pulsar-timing arrays such as DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO), evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), and Square Kilometer Array (SKA).
Holographic conformal partial waves as gravitational open Wilson networks
Bhatta, Atanu; Raman, Prashanth; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.
2016-06-01
We propose a method to holographically compute the conformal partial waves in any decomposition of correlation functions of primary operators in conformal field theories using open Wilson network operators in the holographic gravitational dual. The Wilson operators are the gravitational ones where gravity is written as a gauge theory in the first order Hilbert-Palatini formalism. We apply this method to compute the global conformal blocks and partial waves in 2d CFTs reproducing many of the known results.
Holographic Conformal Partial Waves as Gravitational Open Wilson Networks
Bhatta, Atanu; Suryanarayana, Nemani V
2016-01-01
We propose a method to holographically compute the conformal partial waves in any decomposition of correlation functions of primary operators in conformal field theories using open Wilson network operators in the holographic gravitational dual. The Wilson operators are the gravitational ones where gravity is written as a gauge theory in the first order Hilbert-Palatini formalism. We apply this method to compute the global conformal blocks and partial waves in 2d CFTs reproducing many of the known results.
Reduced Description of Stellar Dynamics by Moments of Gravitation Field
Stupka, A. A.
2016-01-01
Because of absence of time derivatives from scalar potential as a generalized coordinate of gravitation field (GF) in action of nonrelativistic gravitating system, application of the Hamilton method for description of GF mechanics was impossible. In the paper a transformation of the generalized coordinate of GF, that is based on continuity equation and minimal action principle, is proposed. A potential vector is introduced that is similar to fixing of Hamilton gauge of the electromagnetic fie...
Gravitational Superenergy Tensor
Mashhoon, Bahram; McClune, James C.; Quevedo, Hernando
1996-01-01
We provide a physical basis for the local gravitational superenergy tensor. Furthermore, our gravitoelectromagnetic deduction of the Bel-Debever-Robinson superenergy tensor permits the identification of the gravitational stress-energy tensor. This {\\it local} gravitational analog of the Maxwell stress-energy tensor is illustrated for a plane gravitational wave.
Cosmological Model Based on Gauge Theory of Gravity
WU Ning
2005-01-01
A cosmological model based on gauge theory of gravity is proposed in this paper. Combining cosmological principle and field equation of gravitational gauge field, dynamical equations of the scale factor R(t) of our universe can be obtained. This set of equations has three different solutions. A prediction of the present model is that, if the energy density of the universe is not zero and the universe is expanding, the universe must be space-flat, the total energy density must be the critical density ρc of the universe. For space-flat case, this model gives the same solution as that of the Friedmann model. In other words, though they have different dynamics of gravitational interactions, general relativity and gauge theory of gravity give the same cosmological model.
Solution to the Cosmological Constant Problem by Gauge Theory of Gravity
WUNing; GermanoResconi; ZHENGZhi-Peng; XUZhan; ZHANGDa-Hua; RIJANTu-Nan
2003-01-01
Based on geometry picture of gravitational gauge theory, the cosmological constant is determined theoreti-cally. The cosmological constant is related to the average energy density of gravitational gauge field. Because the energy density of gravltatlona] gauge field is negative, the cosmological constant is positive, which generates repulasive force on stars to make the expansion rate of the Universe accelerated. A rough estimation of it gives out its magnitude of the order of about 1052m-2, which is well consistent with experimental results.
Quantum Gravitational Decoherence of Light and Matter
Oniga, Teodora
2015-01-01
Real world quantum systems are open to perpetual influence from the wider environment. Vacuum gravitational fluctuations provide a most fundamental source of the environmental influence through their universal interactions with all forms of energy and matter causing decoherence. This may have subtle implications on precision laboratory experiments and astronomical observations and could limit the ultimate capacities for quantum technologies prone to decoherence. To establish the essential physical mechanism of decoherence under weak spacetime fluctuations, we carry out a sequence of analytical steps utilizing the Dirac constraint quantization and gauge invariant influence functional techniques, resulting in a general master equation of a compact form, that describes an open quantum gravitational system with arbitrary bosonic fields. An initial application of the theory is illustrated by the implied quantum gravitational dissipation of light as well as (non)relativistic massive or massless scalar particles. Re...
Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies
Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)
2010-04-15
There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex
Gauge symmetry from decoupling
Wetterich, C
2016-01-01
Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang-Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.
Gravitating non-Abelian cosmic strings
Santo, Antônio de Padua
2015-01-01
In this paper we study regular cosmic string solutions of the non-Abelian Higgs model coupled with the Einstein gravity. In order to do that, we constructed a set of coupled differential ordinary equation. Because there is no closed solution for this set of equations, we solve it numerically. The solutions that we are interested in asymptote to a flat space-time with a planar angle deficit. This model under consideration present two bosonic sectors, besides the non-Abelian gauge one, coupled minimally with the gravitational fields. The two bosonic sectors may present a direct coupling, which plays an important role on the behavior of the matter and gauge fields and also on the behavior on the geometry of the spacetime. We explicitly analyze the behaviors of the energy density and planar angle deficit as function of the energy scale where the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken and the coupling interaction between the bosonic sectors.
Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.
2003-09-26
We study the phase structure of SU(2) gauge theories at zero and high temperature, with and without scalar matter fields, in terms of the symmetric/broken realization of the remnant gauge symmetry which exists after fixing to Coulomb gauge. The symmetric realization is associated with a linearly rising color Coulomb potential (which we compute numerically), and is a necessary but not sufficient condition for confinement.
Introduction to gauge theories
These lecture notes contain the text of five lectures and a Supplement. The lectures were given at the JINR-CERN School of Physics, Tabor, Czechoslovakia, 5-18 June 1983. The subgect of the lecinvariancetures: gauge of electromagnetic and weak interactions, higgs and supersymmetric particles. The Supplement contains reprints (or excerpts) of some classical papers on gauge invariance by V. Fock, F. London, O. Klein and H. Weyl, in which the concept of gauge invariance was introduced and developed
Supergravity from Gauge Theory
Berkowitz, Evan
2016-01-01
Gauge/gravity duality is the conjecture that string theories have dual descriptions as gauge theories. Weakly-coupled gravity is dual to strongly-coupled gauge theories, ideal for lattice calculations. I will show precision lattice calculations that confirm large-N continuum D0-brane quantum mechanics correctly reproduces the leading-order supergravity prediction for a black hole's internal energy---the first leading-order test of the duality---and constrains stringy corrections.
We study the phase structure of SU(2) gauge theories at zero and high temperature, with and without scalar matter fields, in terms of the symmetric/broken realization of the remnant gauge symmetry which exists after fixing to Coulomb gauge. The symmetric realization is associated with a linearly rising color Coulomb potential (which we compute numerically), and is a necessary but not sufficient condition for confinement.
Trace extensions, determinant bundles, and gauge group cocycles
Arnlind, J; Arnlind, Joakim; Mickelsson, Jouko
2002-01-01
We study the geometry of determinant line bundles associated to Dirac operators on compact odd dimensional manifolds. Physically, these arise as (local) vacuum line bundles in quantum gauge theory. We give a simplified derivation of the commutator anomaly formula using a construction based on noncyclic trace extensions and associated multiplicative renormalized determinants.
Tumbling and complementarity in a chiral gauge theory
We consider in detail a chiral SU(N) gauge theory which undergoes multiple tumbling. An extension of the notion of complementarity is used which allows us to deduce the set of massless fermions, in the confining phase of the theory, which we needed for anomaly matching. The liklehood of this confining phase ever being realized in practice is discussed. (orig.)
Gravitational analogue of the Witten effect
Foda, O. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))
1985-07-22
In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.
The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect
In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (orig.)
The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect
In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP-violation, the Witten effect [a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP-non-conservation] is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a theta R-tilde R term in the Lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (author)
Zero Modes and Conformal Anomaly in Liouville Vortices
Nardelli, G.; Peloso, M
1999-01-01
The partition function of a two dimensional Abelian gauge model reproducing magnetic vortices is discussed in the harmonic approximation. Classical solutions exhibit conformal invariance, that is broken by statistical fluctuations, apart from an exceptional case. The corresponding ``anomaly'' has been evaluated. Zero modes of the thermal fluctuation operator have been carefully discussed.
Non-analyticities in three-dimensional gauge theories
Asorey, M; López, J L
2004-01-01
Quantum fluctuations generate in three-dimensional gauge theories not only radiative corrections to the Chern-Simons coupling but also non-analytic terms in the effective action. We review the role of those terms in gauge theories with massless fermions and Chern-Simons theories. The explicit form of non-analytic terms turns out to be dependent on the regularization scheme and in consequence the very existence of phenomena like parity and framing anomalies becomes regularization dependent. In particular we find regularization regimes where both anomalies are absent. Due to the presence of non-analytic terms the effective action becomes not only discontinuous but also singular for some background gauge fields which include sphalerons. The appearence of this type of singularities is linked to the existence of nodal configurations in physical states and tunneling suppression at some classical field configurations. In the topological field theory the number of physical states may also become regularization depend...
Gravity, Gauge Theories and Geometric Algebra
Lasenby, A; Gull, S F; Lasenby, Anthony; Doran, Chris; Gull, Stephen
1998-01-01
A new gauge theory of gravity is presented. The theory is constructed in a flat background spacetime and employs gauge fields to ensure that all relations between physical quantities are independent of the positions and orientations of the matter fields. In this manner all properties of the background spacetime are removed from physics, and what remains are a set of `intrinsic' relations between physical fields. The properties of the gravitational gauge fields are derived from both classical and quantum viewpoints. Field equations are then derived from an action principle, and consistency with the minimal coupling procedure selects an action that is unique up to the possible inclusion of a cosmological constant. This in turn singles out a unique form of spin-torsion interaction. A new method for solving the field equations is outlined and applied to the case of a time-dependent, spherically-symmetric perfect fluid. A gauge is found which reduces the physics to a set of essentially Newtonian equations. These e...
Hamiltonian dynamics of gauge theories of gravity
We investigate the Hamiltonian structure of gauge theories of gravity based on arbitrary gravitational and matter field Lagrangians. The gauge group of the theory in question is the semisimple product of the local Lorentz group and the group of diffeomorphisms of spacetime (the local Poincare group). We derive formulas for the symplectic two-form Ω, the translational E, and the rotational J generators. The Hamilton equations expressed in terms of Ω, E, and J are equivalent to the variational Euler-Lagrange equations. The ten constraint equations of the theory are closely related both to properties of the symplectic two-form Ω and to an action of the gauge group in the space of solutions. The dynamical generators E and J can be expressed by the left-hand sides of the constraint equations, that is, the constraints generate the dynamics by means of the Hamilton equations for the functions E and J. On the other hand, the action of the gauge group in the set of initial data determines their ''time'' evolution. We show that this evolution is in a one-to-one correspondence with that generated by the Hamilton equations
Gravitational lenses as long-baseline gravitational-wave detectors
Allen, B.
1989-01-01
Gravitational waves produce a time delay between the different images of a gravitational lens. The measurements of the time delay in the gravitational lens 0957±561 put new limits on the amplitude of low-frequency gravitational waves h
Bartholomew, M. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-01-01
To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed rain gauges located near disdrometers (DISD and VDIS data streams). This handbook deals specifically with the rain gauges that make the observations for the RAIN data stream. Other precipitation observations are made by the surface meteorology instrument suite (i.e., MET data stream).
潘鹏鹏; 陆惠卿
2003-01-01
The gauge invariance of the electromagnetic field in gravitational field is an important question. We prove d' Alembert equation in gravitational field with gauge invariance under the Lorentz condition. Using the kinematic equation of photon in normal staticand spherically symmetric gravitational fields, we deduce the orbital equation of photon. As a spceial example, we explicate the deduction and discussion about the deviation angular of light in Reissner-Nordstrom space-time.
Quaternion gauge fields. Pseudocolor
A simplified Guenaydin-Guersey model, in which a Majorana field constructed using quaternions combines a lepton and a color quark, is considered. Formulation of the gauge principle directly in the quaternions leads to the appearance of two vector quaternion gauge fields, these corresponding to the decomposition SO(4) ∼ SO(3) x SO(3) of the invariance group. The diagonal subgroup SO(3) of automorphisms of the quarternions appears as a pseudocolor symmetry of the quarks, and the gauge field corresponding to it as the field of three color gluons. The other gauge field corresponds to lepton-quark transitions and in the presence of spontaneous breaking of the SO(4) gauge symmetry by the scalar quaternion field acquires a (large) finite mass
Quaternion gauge field. Pseudocolor
A simplified Guersay-Guenaydin model in which a lepton and a colour quark are united in the Majorana quaternion field is considered. Direct formulation of the gauge principle in the framework of quaternions leads to the appearance of two vector gauge quaternion fields corresponding to the decomposition of the invariance group SO(4)≅SO(3)xSO(3). The diagonal subgroup SO(3), the quaternion automorphism group, is considered as the quark pseudocolour symmetry and the corresponding gauge field is interpreted as the three-gluon-colour field. The other gauge field corresponds to lepton-quark transition and acquires a (large) finite mass under spontaneous breaking of SO(4) gauge symmetry due to the scalar quaternion field
Schon, J; Schon, Jonas; Weidner, Martin
2006-01-01
We present the complete gauged N=4 (half-maximal) supergravities in four and five spacetime dimensions coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. The gaugings are parameterized by a set of appropriately constrained constant tensors, which transform covariantly under the global symmetry groups SL(2) x SO(6,n) and SO(1,1) x SO(5,n), respectively. In terms of these tensors the universal Lagrangian and the Killing Spinor equations are given. The known gaugings, in particular those originating from flux compactifications, are incorporated in the formulation, but also new classes of gaugings are found. Finally, we present the embedding chain of the five dimensional into the four dimensional into the three dimensional gaugings, thereby showing how the deformation parameters organize under the respectively larger duality groups.
Quaternion gauge fields. Pseudocolor
Govorkov, A.B.
1987-03-01
A simplified Guenaydin-Guersey model, in which a Majorana field constructed using quaternions combines a lepton and a color quark, is considered. Formulation of the gauge principle directly in the quaternions leads to the appearance of two vector quaternion gauge fields, these corresponding to the decomposition SO(4) approx. SO(3) x SO(3) of the invariance group. The diagonal subgroup SO(3) of automorphisms of the quarternions appears as a pseudocolor symmetry of the quarks, and the gauge field corresponding to it as the field of three color gluons. The other gauge field corresponds to lepton-quark transitions and in the presence of spontaneous breaking of the SO(4) gauge symmetry by the scalar quaternion field acquires a (large) finite mass.
Canonical path integral quantization of Einstein's gravitational field
Muslih, Sami I.
2000-01-01
The connection between the canonical and the path integral formulations of Einstein's gravitational field is discussed using the Hamilton - Jacobi method. Unlike conventional methods, it is shown that our path integral method leads to obtain the measure of integration with no $\\delta$- functions, no need to fix any gauge and so no ambiguous deteminants will appear.
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein's theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein's field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, $R_{mu u} = 0$, violates his Principle of Equivalence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein's pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein's gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, R = 0 , violates his Principle of Equiv- alence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein’s pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein’s gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
On the gravitational scattering of gravitational waves
We discuss the scattering of weak gravitational waves from a slowly rotating gravitational source, having mass M and angular momentum J-vector . We start considering the dynamics of a massless spin-2 field ϕμν propagating in the weak gravitational field of the source, writing down the Fierz–Pauli in the presence of a slightly curved background. We adopt a semiclassical framework, where the gravitational background is described as a classical external field; meanwhile, the spin-2 field is treated quantum mechanically. In the weak-coupling limit, in which the typical wavelength of ϕμν satisfies λϕ≫Rs (where Rs is the Schwarzschild radius of the source), we obtain the cross-section for the scattering process in the Born approximation. We also discuss helicity asymmetry, showing its relationship with the spin-2 field coupling to the derivatives of the background metric. We finally consider the transition to the case of gravitational wave scattering, showing that—under reasonable assumptions—gravitational waves are expected to follow the same behavior. Our results partly agree with those presented through the years by various authors. The present analysis suggests that the scattering of weak gravitational waves in the field of a macroscopic gravitational source still represents an interesting open issue for further careful investigation. (paper)
Underdevelopment’s gravitation
Marin Dinu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The energy necessary to escape the gravitational pull of underdevelopment and to enter an evolutional trajectory dependent on the gravitational pull of development is unintelligible in economic terms.
Seiberg Witten Map and the Axial Anomaly in Noncommutative Field Theory
Banerjee, Rabin; Ghosh, Subir
2001-01-01
Using the point-splitting regularisation, we calculate the axial anomaly in an arbitrary even dimensional Non-Commutative (NC) field theory. Our result is (star) gauge invariant in its {\\it unintegrated} form, to the leading order in the NC parameter. Exploiting the Seiberg Witten map, this result gets transformed to the familiar Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly in ordinary space-time. Furthermore, using this map, we derive an expression for the unintegrated axial anomaly for constant fields in NC s...
Holonomy Attractor Connecting Spaces of Different Curvature Responsible for ``Anomalies''
Binder, Bernd
2009-03-01
In this lecture paper we derive Magic Angle Precession (MAP) from first geometric principles. MAP can arise in situations, where precession is multiply related to spin, linearly by time or distance (dynamic phase, rolling, Gauss law) and transcendentally by the holonomy loop path (geometric phase). With linear spin-precession coupling, gyroscopes can be spun up and down to very high frequencies via low frequency holonomy control induced by external accelerations, which provides for extreme coupling strengths or "anomalies" that can be tested by the powerball or gyrotwister device. Geometrically, a gyroscopic manifold with spherical metric is tangentially aligned to a precession wave channel with conic or hyperbolic metric (like the relativistic Thomas precession). Transporting triangular spin/precession vector relations across the tangential boundary of contact with SO(3) Lorentz symmetry, we get extreme vector currents near the attractor fixed points in precession phase space, where spin currents remain intact while crossing the contact boundaries between regions of different curvature signature (-1, 0, +1). The problem can be geometrically solved by considering a curvature invariant triangular condition, which holds on surfaces with different curvature that are in contact and locally parallel. In this case two out of three angles are identical, whereas the third angle is different due to holonomy. If we require that the side length ratio corresponding to these angles are invariant we get a geodesic chaotic attractor, which is a cosine map cos(x)˜Mx in parameter space providing for fixed points, limit cycle bifurcations, and singularities. The situation could be quite natural and common in the context of vector currents in curved spacetime and gauge theories. MAP could even be part of the electromagnetic interaction, where the electric charge is the geometric U(1) precession spin current and gauge potential with magnetic effects given by extra rotations under the
Moortgat, Joachim
2001-01-01
In the vicinity of merging neutron strar binaries or supernova remnants, gravitational waves can interact with the prevailing strong magnetic fields. The resulting partial conversion of gravitational waves into electromagnetic (radio) waves might prove to be an indirect way of detecting gravitational waves from such sources. Another interesting interaction considered in this article is the excitation of magnetosonic plasma waves by a gravitational wave passing through the surrounding plasma. ...
Quantum critical behavior of semisimple gauge theories
Esbensen, Jacob Kamuk; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco
2016-02-01
We study the perturbative phase diagram of semisimple fermionic gauge theories resembling the Standard Model. We investigate an S U (N ) gauge theory with M Dirac flavors where we gauge first an S U (M )L and then an S U (2 )L⊂S U (M )L of the original global symmetry S U (M )L×S U (M )R×U (1 ) of the theory. To avoid gauge anomalies we add leptonlike particles. At the two-loop level an intriguing phase diagram appears. We uncover phases in which one, two or three fixed points exist and discuss the associated flows of the coupling constants. We discover a phase featuring complete asymptotic freedom and simultaneously an interacting infrared fixed point in both couplings. The analysis further reveals special renormalization group trajectories along which one coupling displays asymptotic freedom and the other asymptotic safety, while both flowing in the infrared to an interacting fixed point. These are safety free trajectories. We briefly sketch out possible phenomenological implications, among which an independent way to generate near-conformal dynamics à la walking is investigated.
Revisiting the gauge fields of strained graphene
Iorio, Alfredo; Pais, Pablo
2015-12-01
We show that when graphene is only subject to strain, the spin connection gauge field that arises plays no measurable role, but when intrinsic curvature is present and strain is small, spin connection dictates most of the physics. We do so by showing that the Weyl field associated with strain is a pure gauge field and no constraint on the (2 +1 )-dimensional spacetime appears. On the other hand, for constant intrinsic curvature that also gives a pure gauge Weyl field, we find a classical manifestation of a quantum Weyl anomaly, descending from a constrained spacetime. We are in the position to do this because we find the equations that the conformal factor in (2 +1 ) dimensions has to satisfy, which is a nontrivial generalization to (2 +1 ) dimensions of the classic Liouville equation of the differential geometry of surfaces. Finally, we comment on the peculiarities of the only gauge field that can describe strain, the well-known pseudogauge field A1˜u11-u22 and A2˜u12 , and conclude by offering some scenarios in fundamental physics that this peculiar field could help to realize.
Gravitational Bohr's model with Newton's and Weber's potentials
Tiandho, Yuant; Triyanta
2015-09-01
Similarity between Newtonian gravitational force and Coulomb's force leads one to define gravitational electric and magnetic fields or gravito-electromagnetic fields. Also, one may define a gravitational Bohr's theory in analogy with the electromagnetic Bohr's theory for which the latter is quite successful in explaining some properties of hydrogen atom. Unlike to the Coulomb's force, the Newton`s force is believed to be an approximated theory of gravity as it is unable to explain the Mercury's orbit. This paper discusses the gravitational Bohr's theory by taking into account the Newton's potential and Weber's potential; the later is a modified Newton's gravitational potential that conforms, to some degrees, to the anomaly of the Mercury's orbit.
An elementary introduction to the Gauge theory approach to gravity. 23
Can all the forces be unified by a gauge group? Can we get a clue by studying gravity itself which is also a gauge theory by gauging the Poincare group?. The main problems have been in the understanding of the role of invariants of the Lie algebra of the group if one has general covariance. One is led to theories more general than general relativity in that, in addition to curvature, one also has torsion. These and other aspects of gravitation as a gauge theory are treated. (author). 11 refs.; 1 fig
The Energy-Momentum Tensor(s) in Classical Gauge Theories
Blaschke, Daniel N; Reboud, Meril; Schweda, Manfred
2016-01-01
We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy-momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space-time. For the canonical energy-momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy-momentum tensor. The relationship with the Einstein-Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.
Conformal Anomalies in Hydrodynamics
Eling, Christopher; Theisen, Stefan; Yankielowicz, Shimon
2013-01-01
We study the effect of conformal anomalies on the hydrodynamic description of conformal field theories in four spacetime dimensions. We consider equilibrium curved backgrounds characterized by a time-like Killing vector and construct a local low energy effective action that captures the conformal anomalies. Using as a special background the Rindler spacetime we derive a formula for the effect of the anomaly on the hydrodynamic pressure.
David, T J
1982-01-01
The Poland anomaly is usually a non-genetic malformation syndrome. This paper reports two second cousins who both had a typical left sided Poland anomaly, and this constitutes the first recorded case of this condition affecting more than one member of a family. Despite this, for the purposes of genetic counselling, the Poland anomaly can be regarded as a sporadic condition with an extremely low recurrence risk.
Gebhard, Gernot
2010-01-01
Computing tight WCET bounds in the presence of timing anomalies - found in almost any modern hardware architecture - is a major challenge of timing analysis. In this paper, we renew the discussion about timing anomalies, demonstrating that even simple hardware architectures are prone to timing anomalies. We furthermore complete the list of timing-anomalous cache replacement policies, proving that the most-recently-used replacement policy (MRU) also exhibits a domino effect.
Network Traffic Anomaly Detection
Huang, Hong; Al-Azzawi, Hussein; Brani, Hajar
2014-01-01
This paper presents a tutorial for network anomaly detection, focusing on non-signature-based approaches. Network traffic anomalies are unusual and significant changes in the traffic of a network. Networks play an important role in today's social and economic infrastructures. The security of the network becomes crucial, and network traffic anomaly detection constitutes an important part of network security. In this paper, we present three major approaches to non-signature-based network detect...
Ridgely, Charles T.
2011-01-01
When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…
Detection of gravitational radiation
In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI)
Detection of gravitational radiation
Holten, J.W. van [ed.
1994-12-31
In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI).
Gauge Theory by canonical Transformations
Koenigstein, Adrian; Stoecker, Horst; Struckmeier, Juergen; Vasak, David; Hanauske, Matthias
2016-01-01
Electromagnetism, the strong and the weak interaction are commonly formulated as gauge theories in a Lagrangian description. In this paper we present an alternative formal derivation of U(1)-gauge theory in a manifestly covariant Hamilton formalism. We make use of canonical transformations as our guiding tool to formalize the gauging procedure. The introduction of the gauge field, its transformation behaviour and a dynamical gauge field Lagrangian/Hamiltonian are unavoidable consequences of this formalism, whereas the form of the free gauge Lagrangian/Hamiltonian depends on the selection of the gauge dependence of the canonically conjugate gauge fields.
A numerical solution to the local cohomology problem in U(1) chiral gauge theories
Kadoh, Daisuke; Kikukawa, Yoshio
2005-01-01
We consider a numerical method to solve the local cohomology problem related to the gauge anomaly cancellation in U(1) chiral gauge theories. In the cohomological analysis of the chiral anomaly, it is required to carry out the differentiation and the integration of the anomaly with respect to the continuous parameter for the interpolation of the admissible gauge fields. In our numerical approach, the differentiation is evaluated explicitly through the rational approximation of the overlap Dirac operator with Zolotarev optimization. The integration is performed with a Gaussian Quadrature formula, which turns out to show rather good convergence. The Poincaré lemma is reformulated for the finite lattice and is implemented numerically. We compute the current associated with the cohomologically trivial part of the chiral anomaly in two-dimensions and check its locality properties.
A numerical solution to the local cohomology problem in U(1) chiral gauge theories
Kadoh, D; Kadoh, Daisuke; Kikukawa, Yoshio
2005-01-01
We consider a numerical method to solve the local cohomology problem related to the gauge anomaly cancellation in U(1) chiral gauge theories. In the cohomological analysis of the chiral anomaly, it is required to carry out the differentiation and the integration of the anomaly with respect to the continuous parameter for the interpolation of the admissible gauge fields. In our numerical approach, the differentiation is evaluated explicitly through the rational approximation of the overlap Dirac operator with Zolotarev optimization. The integration is performed with a Gaussian Quadrature formula, which turns out to show rather good convergence. The Poincare lemma is reformulated for the finite lattice and is implemented numerically. We compute the current associated with the cohomologically trivial part of the chiral anomaly in two-dimensions and check its locality properties.
A numerical solution to the local cohomology problem in U(1) chiral gauge theories
We consider a numerical method to solve the local cohomology problem related to the gauge anomaly cancellation in U(1) chiral gauge theories. In the cohomological analysis of the chiral anomaly, it is required to carry out the differentiation and the integration of the anomaly with respect to the continuous parameter for the interpolation of the admissible gauge fields. In our numerical approach, the differentiation is evaluated explicitly through the rational approximation of the overlap Dirac operator with Zolotarev optimization. The integration is performed with a Gaussian Quadrature formula, which turns out to show rather good convergence. The Poincare lemma is reformulated for the finite lattice and is implemented numerically. We compute the current associated with the cohomologically trivial part of the chiral anomaly in two-dimensions and check its locality properties. (author)
A numerical solution to the local cohomology problem in U(1) chiral gauge theories
Kadoh, Daisuke; Kikukawa, Yoshio [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)]. E-mail: kikukawa@eken.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp
2005-01-01
We consider a numerical method to solve the local cohomology problem related to the gauge anomaly cancellation in U(1) chiral gauge theories. In the cohomological analysis of the chiral anomaly, it is required to carry out the differentiation and the integration of the anomaly with respect to the continuous parameter for the interpolation of the admissible gauge fields. In our numerical approach, the differentiation is evaluated explicitly through the rational approximation of the overlap Dirac operator with Zolotarev optimization. The integration is performed with a Gaussian Quadrature formula, which turns out to show rather good convergence. The Poincare lemma is reformulated for the finite lattice and is implemented numerically. We compute the current associated with the cohomologically trivial part of the chiral anomaly in two-dimensions and check its locality properties. (author)
Vacuum stability bounds on higgs mass with gravitational contributions
We calculate the gravitational contributions to ϕ4 theory with general Rξ gauge-fixing choice and find that the result is gauge independent. Based on weak coupling expansion of gravity and ignoring the possible higher dimensional operators from “integrating out” the impact of gravity, we study the impacts of gravitational effects on vacuum stability. New contributions to the beta function of scalar quartic coupling λ by gravitational effects can modify the RGE running of λ near the Planck scale. Numerical calculations show that the lower bound of higgs mass requiring absolutely vacuum stability can be relaxed for almost 0.6 to 0.8 GeV depending on the choice of top quark mass
Scale-covariant theory of gravitation and astrophysical applications
Canuto, V.; Adams, P. J.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Tsiang, E.
1977-01-01
A scale-covariant theory of gravitation is presented which is characterized by a set of equations that are complete only after a choice of the scale function is made. Special attention is given to gauge conditions and units which allow gravitational phenomena to be described in atomic units. The generalized gravitational-field equations are derived by performing a direct scale transformation, by extending Riemannian geometry to Weyl geometry through the introduction of the notion of cotensors, and from a variation principle. Modified conservation laws are provided, a set of dynamical equations is obtained, and astrophysical consequences are considered. The theory is applied to examine certain homogeneous cosmological solutions, perihelion shifts, light deflections, secular variations of planetary orbital elements, stellar structure equations for a star in quasi-static equilibrium, and the past thermal history of earth. The possible relation of the scale-covariant theory to gauge field theories and their predictions of cosmological constants is discussed.
Entanglement and Thermal Entropy of Gauge Fields
Eling, Christopher; Theisen, Stefan
2013-01-01
We consider the universal logarithmic divergent term in the entanglement entropy of gauge fields in the Minkowski vacuum with an entangling sphere. Employing the mapping in arXiv:1102.0440, we analyze the corresponding thermal entropy on open Einstein universe and on the static patch of de Sitter. Using the heat kernel of the vector Laplacian we resolve a discrepancy between the free field calculation and the expected Euler conformal anomaly. The resolution suggests a modification of the well known formulas for the vacuum expectation value of the spin-1 energy-momentum tensor on conformally flat space-times.
Nonexotic Neutral Gauge Bosons
Appelquist, Thomas; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Hopper, Adam R.
2002-01-01
We study theoretical and experimental constraints on electroweak theories including a new color-singlet and electrically-neutral gauge boson. We first note that the electric charges of the observed fermions imply that any such Z' boson may be described by a gauge theory in which the Abelian gauge groups are the usual hypercharge along with another U(1) component in a kinetic-diagonal basis. Assuming that the observed quarks and leptons have generation-independent U(1) charges, and that no new...
Gravitational collapse of the continental crust: definition, regimes and modes
Rey, P.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Teyssier, C.
2001-12-01
"All geodynamic processes should be explained by the fundamental principle of the strive for gravitational equilibrium." [Ann. Soc. Geol. Belge Bull. 64 (1965) 95-123] The concept of gravitational collapse has fundamentally improved our understanding of orogenic processes. This concept has its roots in pioneers' works, such as those of Jeffreys, van Bemmelen, Bucher and Ramberg, who were among the first to recognise the importance of gravity in the evolution of mountain belts. The development of this concept slowed down during the late 1960s and the 1970s before reemerging in the 1980s. Gravitational collapse corresponds to the decay of lateral contrast in gravitational potential energy that builds up during lithospheric deformation. When the forces that support this anomaly (i.e., tectonic forces and the strength of both the deformed and surrounding lithosphere) decrease, the gravitational potential anomaly may relax. Depending on the sign of the anomaly, two fundamental regimes of gravitational collapse can be defined. During divergent gravitational collapse, an excess in gravitational potential energy drives crustal material away from the deformed lithosphere. Divergent collapse is the regime that may affect the thickened crust. In contrast, during convergent gravitational collapse, a deficit in gravitational potential energy drives crustal material towards the deformed lithosphere. This regime can be expected to occur following thinning of the continental crust. For each regime, two end-member modes of collapse with contrasted characteristics are defined depending on the behaviour of the lithosphere surrounding the deformed domain. When the surrounding lithosphere is fixed (fixed-boundary collapse), collapse occurs through a transfer of gravitational potential energy from the elevated regions towards the low lands. This transfer is accommodated by a combination of gravitational sliding of the brittle crust and horizontal spread of the lower crust. In orogenic
Gauge independence as a consequence of gauge covariance
Gauge independence of a physical S-matrix is proved without perturbation in a satisfactory gauge-field theory with gauge covariance. The proof goes through both for Abelian and non-Abelian cases, and the independence is a consequence of gauge covariance and asymptotic completeness. (auth.)
Gauge coupling unification in gauge-Higgs grand unification
Yamatsu, Naoki
2016-04-01
We discuss renormalization group equations for gauge coupling constants in gauge-Higgs grand unification on five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum warped space. We show that all four-dimensional Standard Model gauge coupling constants are asymptotically free and are effectively unified in SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unified theories on 5D Randall-Sundrum warped space.
Gauge Coupling Unification in Gauge-Higgs Grand Unification
Yamatsu, Naoki
2015-01-01
We discuss renormalization group equations for gauge coupling constants in gauge-Higgs grand unification on five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum warped space. We show that all the four-dimensional Standard Model gauge coupling constants are asymptotically free and are effectively unified in $SO(11)$ gauge-Higgs grand unified theories on 5D Randall-Sundrum warped space.
Transformations of asymptotic gravitational-wave data
Boyle, Michael
2016-04-01
Gravitational-wave data is gauge dependent. While we can restrict the class of gauges in which such data may be expressed, there will still be an infinite-dimensional group of transformations allowed while remaining in this class, and almost as many different—though physically equivalent—waveforms as there are transformations. This paper presents a method for calculating the effects of the most important transformation group, the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group, consisting of rotations, boosts, and supertranslations (which include time and space translations as special cases). To a reasonable approximation, these transformations result in simple coupling between the modes in a spin-weighted spherical-harmonic decomposition of the waveform. It is shown that waveforms from simulated compact binaries in the publicly available SXS waveform catalog contain unmodeled effects due to displacement and drift of the center of mass, accounting for mode mixing at typical levels of 1%. However, these effects can be mitigated by measuring the average motion of the system's center of mass for a portion of the inspiral, and applying the opposite transformation to the waveform data. More generally, controlling the BMS transformations will be necessary to eliminate the gauge ambiguity inherent in gravitational-wave data for both numerical and analytical waveforms. Open-source code implementing BMS transformations of waveforms is supplied along with this paper in the supplemental materials.
Field theory limit of branes and gauged supergravities
Skenderis, K
2000-01-01
We discuss the field theory limit of Dp-branes. In this limit, the black Dp-brane solution approaches a solution which is conformal to adS_{p+2} \\times S^{8-p}. We argue that the frame in which the conformal factor is equal to one, the dual frame, is a `holographic' frame. The radial coordinate of adS_{p+2} provides a UV/IR connection as in the case of the D3 brane. The gravitational description involves gauged supergravities, typically with non-compact gauge groups. The near-horizon Dp-brane solution becomes a domain-wall solution of the latter.
Fermion number anomaly with fluffy mirror fermion
Okumura, Ken-ichi
2016-01-01
Quite recently, Grabowska and Kaplan presented a 4-dimensional lattice formulation of chiral gauge theories based on the chiral overlap operator. We study this formulation from the perspective of the fermion number anomaly and possible associated phenomenology. A simple argument shows that the consistency of the formulation implies that the fermion with the opposite chirality to the physical one, the "fluffy mirror fermion" or "fluff", suffers from the fermion number anomaly in the same magnitude (with the opposite sign) as the physical fermion. This immediately shows that if at least one of the fluff quarks is massless, the formulation provides a simple viable solution to the strong CP problem. Also, if the fluff interacts with gravity essentially in the same way as the physical fermion, the formulation can naturally realizes the asymmetric dark matter scenario.
Axial Vector $Z'$ and Anomaly Cancellation
Ismail, Ahmed; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James
2016-01-01
Whilst the prospect of new $Z'$ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that the masses of these new states must generally be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cog-Gauge is a portable hand-held game that can be used by astronauts and crew members during space exploration missions to assess their cognitive workload...
Digital lattice gauge theories
Zohar, Erez; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J Ignacio
2016-01-01
We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with $2+1$ dimensions and higher, are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through pertubative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a $\\mathbb{Z}_{3}$ lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in $2+1$ dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms...
Maas, Axel
2012-01-01
QCD can be formulated using any gauge group. One particular interesting choice is to replace SU(3) by the exceptional group G2. Conceptually, this group is the simplest group with a trivial center. It thus permits to study the conjectured relevance of center degrees of freedom for QCD. Practically, since all its representation are real, it is possible to perform lattice simulations for this theory also at finite baryon densities. It is thus an excellent environment to test methods and to investigate general properties of gauge theories at finite densities. We review the status of our understanding of gauge theories with the gauge group G2, including Yang-Mills theory, Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, and QCD both in the vacuum and in the phase diagram.
This chapter attempts to present some of the fundamental geometrical ideas at the basis of gauge theories. Describes Dirac Monopoles and discusses those ideas that are not usually found in more ''utilitarian'' presentations which concentrate on QCD or on the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model. This topic was chosen because of the announcement of the possible detection of a Dirac monopole. The existence of monopoles depends on topological features of gauge theories (i.e., on global properties of field configurations which are unique to gauge theories). Discusses global symmetry-local symmetry; the connection; path dependence and the gauge fields; topology and monopoles; the case of SU(3) x U(1); and the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole
Chung, Daniel J H
2016-01-01
We reformulate gauge theories in analogy with the vierbein formalism of general relativity. More specifically, we reformulate gauge theories such that their gauge dynamical degrees of freedom are local fields that transform linearly under the dual representation of the charged matter field. These local fields, which naively have the interpretation of non-local operators similar to Wilson lines, satisfy constraint equations. A set of basis tensor fields are used to solve these constraint equations, and their field theory is constructed. A new local symmetry in terms of the basis tensor fields is used to make this field theory local and maintain a Hamiltonian that is bounded from below. The field theory of the basis tensor fields is what we call the basis tensor gauge theory.
Competing Orders and Anomalies
Moon, Eun-Gook
2016-08-01
A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.
Ospina, J F
2001-01-01
Two forms of anomalies for chiral spinors living on submanifolds of the spacetime are obtained from the integrality theorem for immersions. The first form of the chiral anomaly is the usual for chiral spinors living on D-brane and O-plane intersections, the second form is exotic.
Iftime, M. D.
2006-01-01
One of the main features of covariant theories, in particular general relativity, is that the field equation possesses gauge freedom associated with global diffeomorphisms of the underlying manifold. I shall explain here how the hole argument is a reflection of this gauge freedom. Finally I shall point out some implications of the hole argument and extend the hole argument to the case of permutable theories. As covariant theories provides a general mathematical framework for classical physics...
Program Calibrates Strain Gauges
Okazaki, Gary D.
1991-01-01
Program dramatically reduces personnel and time requirements for acceptance tests of hardware. Data-acquisition system reads output from Wheatstone full-bridge strain-gauge circuit and calculates strain by use of shunt calibration technique. Program nearly instantaneously tabulates and plots strain data against load-cell outputs. Modified to acquire strain data for other specimens wherever full-bridge strain-gauge circuits used. Written in HP BASIC.
Assuming that a lattice gauge theory describes a fundamental attribute of Nature, it should be pointed out that such a theory in the form of a gauge glass is a weaker assumption than a regular lattice model in as much as it is not constrained by the imposition of translational invariance; translational invariance is, however, recovered approximately in the long wavelength or continuum limit. (orig./WL)
Gauging without initial symmetry
Kotov, Alexei; Strobl, Thomas
2016-01-01
The gauge principle is at the heart of a good part of fundamental physics: Starting with a group G of so-called rigid symmetries of a functional defined over space-time Σ, the original functional is extended appropriately by additional Lie(G) -valued 1-form gauge fields so as to lift the symmetry to Maps(Σ , G) . Physically relevant quantities are then to be obtained as the quotient of the solutions to the Euler-Lagrange equations by these gauge symmetries. In this article we show that one can construct a gauge theory for a standard sigma model in arbitrary space-time dimensions where the target metric is not invariant with respect to any rigid symmetry group, but satisfies a much weaker condition: It is sufficient to find a collection of vector fields va on the target M satisfying the extended Killing equationv a(i ; j) = 0 for some connection acting on the index a. For regular foliations this is equivalent to requiring the conormal bundle to the leaves with its induced metric to be invariant under leaf-preserving diffeomorphisms of M, which in turn generalizes Riemannian submersions to which the notion reduces for smooth leaf spaces M / ∼. The resulting gauge theory has the usual quotient effect with respect to the original ungauged theory: in this way, much more general orbits can be factored out than usually considered. In some cases these are orbits that do not correspond to an initial symmetry, but still can be generated by a finite-dimensional Lie group G. Then the presented gauging procedure leads to an ordinary gauge theory with Lie algebra valued 1-form gauge fields, but showing an unconventional transformation law. In general, however, one finds that the notion of an ordinary structural Lie group is too restrictive and should be replaced by the much more general notion of a structural Lie groupoid.
We present a unified framework to describe lattice gauge theories by means of tensor networks: this framework is efficient as it exploits the high local symmetry content native to these systems by describing only the gauge invariant subspace. Compared to a standard tensor network description, the gauge invariant model allows one to increase real and imaginary time evolution up to a factor that is square of the dimension of the link variable. The gauge invariant tensor network description is based on the quantum link formulation, a compact and intuitive formulation for gauge theories on the lattice, which is alternative to and can be combined with the global symmetric tensor network description. We present some paradigmatic examples that show how this architecture might be used to describe the physics of condensed matter and high-energy physics systems. Finally, we present a cellular automata analysis which estimates the gauge invariant Hilbert space dimension as a function of the number of lattice sites that might guide the search for effective simplified models of complex theories. (paper)
A Natural origin for the LHCb anomalies
Megias, Eugenio; Pujolas, Oriol; Quiros, Mariano
2016-01-01
The anomalies recently found by the LHCb collaboration in $B$-meson decays seem to point towards the existence of new physics coupled non-universally to muons and electrons. We show that a beyond-the-Standard-Model dynamics with these features naturally arises in models with a warped extra-dimension that aim to solve the electroweak Hierarchy Problem. The attractiveness of our set-up is the fact that the dynamics responsible for generating the flavor anomalies is automatically present, being provided by the massive Kaluza--Klein excitations of the electroweak gauge bosons. The flavor anomalies can be easily reproduced by assuming that the bottom and muon fields have a sizable amount of compositeness, while the electron is almost elementary. Interestingly enough, this framework correlates the flavor anomalies to a pattern of corrections in the electroweak observables and in flavor-changing processes. In particular the deviations in the bottom and muon couplings to the $Z$-boson and in $\\Delta F = 2$ flavor-cha...
Trace anomaly and counterterms in designer gravity
Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David; Martínez, Cristián
2016-03-01
We construct concrete counterterms of the Balasubramanian-Kraus type for Einstein-scalar theories with designer gravity boundary conditions in AdS4, so that the total action is finite on-shell and satisfy a well defined variational principle. We focus on scalar fields with the conformal mass m 2 = -2 l -2 and show that the holographic mass matches the Hamiltonian mass for any boundary conditions. We compute the trace anomaly of the dual field theory in the generic case, as well as when there exist logarithmic branches of non-linear origin. As expected, the anomaly vanishes for the boundary conditions that are AdS invariant. When the anomaly does not vanish, the dual stress tensor describes a thermal gas with an equation of state related to the boundary conditions of the scalar field. In the case of a vanishing anomaly, we recover the dual theory of a massless thermal gas. As an application of the formalism, we consider a general family of exact hairy black hole solutions that, for some particular values of the parameters in the moduli potential, contains solutions of four-dimensional gauged {N}=8 supergravity and its ω-deformation. Using the AdS/CFT duality dictionary, they correspond to triple trace deformations of the dual field theory.
Zheng, Sheng Ming
2012-10-01
In the natural world, people have discovered four kinds of forces: electromagnetic force, gravitation, weak force, and strong force. Although the gravitation has been discovered more than three hundred years, its mechanism of origin is unclear until today. While investigating the origin of gravitation, I do some experiments discover the moving photons produce gravitation. This discovery shows the origin of gravitation. Meanwhile I do some experiments discover the light interference fringes are produced by the gravitation: my discovery demonstrate light is a particle, but is not a wave-particle duality. Furthermore, applications of this discovery to other moving particles show a similar effect. In a word: the micro particle moving produce gravitation and electromagnetic force. Then I do quantity experiment get a general formula: Reveal the essence of gravitational mass and the essence of electric charge; reveal the origin of gravitation and the essence of matter wave. Along this way, I unify the gravitation and electromagnetic force. Namely I find a natural law that from atomic world to star world play in moving track. See website: https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details/store/gb/book/978-3-8473-2658-8/mechanism-of-interaction-in-moving-matter
Hsu, Jong-Ping
2013-01-01
Gravitational field is the manifestation of space-time translational ($T_4$) gauge symmetry, which enables gravitational interaction to be unified with the strong and the electroweak interactions. Such a total-unified model is based on a generalized Yang-Mills framework in flat space-time. Following the idea of Glashow-Salam-Ward-Weinberg, we gauge the groups $T_4 \\times (SU_3)_{color} \\times SU_2 \\times U_1\\times U_{1b}$ on equal-footing, so that we have the total-unified gauge covariant derivative ${\\bf \\d}_{\\mu} = \\p_{\\mu} - ig\\phi_{\\mu}^{\
One of the most fundamental questions we can ask about a given gauge theory is its phase diagram. In the Standard Model, we observe three fundamentally different types of behavior: QCD is in a confined phase at zero temperature, while the electroweak sector of the Standard Model combines Coulomb and Higgs phases. Our current understanding of the phase structure of gauge theories owes much to the modern theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, but has developed into a subject of extensive study. After reviewing some fundamental concepts of phase transitions and finite-temperature gauge theories, we discuss some recent work that broadly extends our knowledge of the mechanisms that determine the phase structure of gauge theories. A new class of models with a rich phase structure has been discovered, generalizing our understanding of the confinement–deconfinement transition in finite-temperature gauge theories. Models in this class have spacetime topologies with one or more compact directions. On R3 × S1, the addition of double-trace deformations or periodic adjoint fermions to a gauge theory can yield a confined phase in the region where the S1 circumference L is small, so that the coupling constant is small, and semiclassical methods are applicable. In this region, Euclidean monopole solutions, which are constituents of finite-temperature instantons, play a crucial role in the calculation of a non-perturbative string tension. We review the techniques used to analyze this new class of models and the results obtained so far, as well as their application to finite-temperature phase structure, conformal phases of gauge theories and the large-N limit. (topical review)
Gauge fields in a torsion field
In this paper we analyse the motion and the field equations in a non-null curvature and torsion space. In this 4-n dimensional space, the connection coefficients are γbca = 1/2Sbca + 1/2Tbca, where Sbca is the symmetrical part and Tbca are the components of the torsion tensor. We will consider that all the fields depend on x = xα, α = 1,2,3,4 and do not depend on y = yk, k=1,2,...,n. The factor Sbca depends on the components of the metric tensor gαβ(x) and on the gauge fields Aνs0(x) and the components of the torsion depend only on the gauge fields Aνs0(x). We take into consideration the particular case for which the geodesic equations coincide with the motion equations in the presence of the gravitational and the gauge fields. In this case the field equations are Einstein equations in a 4-n dimensional space. We show that both the geodesic equations and the field equations can be obtained from a variational principle. (author)
Studies in higher-derivative gravitation
In this work two formulations of gravitation in which the action includes the second-derivatives of the metric in a non-trivial fashion are investigated. In the first part, the gauge theory of gravitation proposed by Yang in 1974 is investigated. The implications of coupling the pure space equations to matter sources via the action principle proposed by Yang is studied. It is shown that this action principle does not couple to matter sources in a satisfactory fashion. An earlier study by Fairchild along similar lines is critically examined. It is argued that Fairchild's action functional, and his objections to Yang's gauge approach to gravitation, arise from a not very meaningful analogy with the case of a general gauge field. Also, a conjecture originated in that work is refuted. A modification of Yang's action functional is provided which leads to both the Einstein and Yang field-equations. This system is shown to have non-trivial solutions in the presence of matter. An additional advantage is that the unphysical solutions of the pure space equations can be ruled out. It is shown that the joint system of Einstein and Yang field-equations leads to a physically viable cosmological model based on the Robertson-Walker metric, which satisfies both sets of field-equations. In the second part of this work, the Hamiltonian for pure gravity in Einstein's theory is obtained directly from the Hilbert Lagrangian. Since the Lagrangian depends upon the second-derivatives of the metric tensor, first the Hamiltonian formulation for a Lagrangian which may, in general depend upon the Nth-order time derivatives of the dynamical variables is developed
A little more Gauge Mediation and the light Higgs mass
Mummidi, V Suryanarayana
2013-01-01
We consider minimal models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with an extra $U(1)$ factor in addition to the Standard Model gauge group. A $U(1)$ charged, Standard Model singlet is assumed to be present which allows for an additional NMSSM like coupling, $\\lambda H_u H_d S$. The U(1) is assumed to be flavour universal. Anomaly cancellation in the MSSM sector requires additional coloured degrees of freedom. The $S$ field can get a large vacuum expectation value along with consistent electroweak symmetry breaking. It is shown that the lightest CP even Higgs boson can attain mass of the order of 125 GeV.
A little more gauge mediation and the light Higgs mass
Suryanarayana Mummidi, V., E-mail: soori9@cts.iisc.ernet.in; Vempati, Sudhir K., E-mail: vempati@cts.iisc.ernet.in
2014-04-15
We consider minimal models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with an extra U(1) factor in addition to the Standard Model gauge group. A U(1) charged, Standard Model singlet is assumed to be present which allows for an additional NMSSM like coupling, λH{sub u}H{sub d}S. The U(1) is assumed to be flavour universal. Anomaly cancellation in the MSSM sector requires additional coloured degrees of freedom. The S field can get a large vacuum expectation value along with consistent electroweak symmetry breaking. It is shown that the lightest CP even Higgs boson can attain mass of the order of 125 GeV.
Supersymmetric gauge theories with a free algebra of invariants
Dotti, Gustavo; Manohar, Aneesh V.(Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, United States); Skiba, Witold
1998-01-01
We study the low-energy dynamics of all N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories whose basic gauge invariant fields are unconstrained. This set includes all theories whose matter Dynkin index is less than the index of the adjoint representation. We study the dynamically generated superpotential in these theories, and show that there is a W=0 branch if and only if anomaly matching is satisfied at the origin. An interesting example studied in detail is SO(13) with a spinor, a theory with a dynamically...
Extraction of Gravitational Waves in Numerical Relativity
Bishop, Nigel T
2016-01-01
A numerical-relativity calculation yields in general a solution of the Einstein equations including also a radiative part, which is in practice computed in a region of finite extent. Since gravitational radiation is properly defined only at null infinity and in an appropriate coordinate system, the accurate estimation of the emitted gravitational waves represents an old and non-trivial problem in numerical relativity. A number of methods have been developed over the years to "extract" the radiative part of the solution from a numerical simulation and these include: quadrupole formulas, gauge-invariant metric perturbations, Weyl scalars, and characteristic extraction. We review and discuss each method, in terms of both its theoretical background as well as its implementation. Finally, we provide a brief comparison of the various methods in terms of their inherent advantages and disadvantages.
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard
2001-03-16
We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.
Gravitational Chern-Simons Lagrangian terms and spherically symmetric spacetimes
We show that for general spherically symmetric configurations, contributions of broad class of gravitational and mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons (CS) terms to the equations of motion vanish identically in D > 3 dimensions. This implies that such terms in the action do not affect Birkhoff's theorem or any previously known spherically symmetric solutions. Furthermore, we investigate the thermodynamical properties using the procedure described in an accompanying paper. We find that in the D > 3 static spherically symmetric case, CS terms do not contribute to the entropy either. Moreover, if one requires only for the metric tensor to be spherically symmetric, letting other fields be unrestricted, the results extend almost completely, with only one possible exception-CS Lagrangian terms in which the gravitational part is just the n = 2 irreducible gravitational CS term.
The λ transformation and gravitational copies
An Abelian symmetry already considered by Einstein with respect to his asymmetrical field theories is related to the gravitational and gauge field copy phenomenon. It is shown that gauge field copies arise out of a straightforward generalization of the λ - map. The connection between Einstein's work on the λ-transformation and the copy phenomenon is obtained with the help of the Frobenius Theorem on the existence of foliations on a differentiable manifold. A problem like the one above is usually treated within the language of (intrinsic) Differential Geometry; General Relativity and classical unified field theories are traditionally developed in a classical style, that gap, a long introduction is prepared where the same structures are studied from the traditional and from the more recent point of view. (author)
Transformations of asymptotic gravitational-wave data
Boyle, Michael
2015-01-01
Gravitational-wave data is gauge dependent. While we can restrict the class of gauges in which such data may be expressed, there will still be an infinite-dimensional group of transformations allowed while remaining in this class, and almost as many different---though physically equivalent---waveforms as there are transformations. This paper presents a method for calculating the effects of the most important transformation group, the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group, consisting of rotations, boosts, and supertranslations (which include time and space translations as special cases). To a reasonable approximation, these transformations result in simple coupling between the modes in a spin-weighted spherical-harmonic decomposition of the waveform. It is shown that waveforms from simulated compact binaries in the publicly available SXS waveform catalog contain unmodeled effects due to displacement and drift of the center of mass, accounting for mode-mixing at typical levels of 1%. However, these effects can be mit...
Dark Matter Gravitational Interactions
Tucker, R W
1998-01-01
We argue that the conjectured dark mater in the Universe may be endowed with a new kind of gravitational charge that couples to a short range gravitational interaction mediated by a massive vector field. A model is constructed that assimilates this concept into ideas of current inflationary cosmology. The model is also consistent with the observed behaviour of galactic rotation curves according to Newtonian dynamics. The essential idea is that stars composed of ordinary (as opposed to dark matter) experience Newtonian forces due to the presence of an all pervading background of massive gravitationally charged cold dark matter. The novel gravitational interactions are predicted to have a significant influence on pre-inflationary cosmology. The precise details depend on the nature of a gravitational Proca interaction and the description of matter. A gravitational Proca field configuration that gives rise to attractive forces between dark matter charges of like polarity exhibits homogeneous isotropic eternal cos...
Gravitational waves from inflation
Guzzetti, Maria Chiara; Liguori, Michele; Matarrese, Sabino
2016-01-01
The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power-spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between t...
Bais, F A
1995-01-01
In these lecture notes, we present a self-contained discussion of planar gauge theories broken down to some finite residual gauge group H via the Higgs mechanism. The main focus is on the discrete H gauge theory describing the long distance physics of such a model. The spectrum features global H charges, magnetic vortices and dyonic combinations. Due to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, these particles exhibit topological interactions. Among other things, we review the Hopf algebra related to this discrete H gauge theory, which provides an unified description of the spin, braid and fusion properties of the particles in this model. Exotic phenomena such as flux metamorphosis, Alice fluxes, Cheshire charge, (non)abelian braid statistics, the generalized spin-statistics connection and nonabelian Aharonov-Bohm scattering are explained and illustrated by representative examples. Preface: Broken symmetry revisited, 1 Basics: 1.1 Introduction, 1.2 Braid groups, 1.3 Z_N gauge theory, 1.3.1 Coulomb screening, 1.3.2 Survival o...
A consistent framework has been put forward to quantize the isentropic, compressible and inviscid fluid model in the Hamiltonian framework using the Clebsch parametrization. The naive quantization is hampered by the non-canonical (in particular, field dependent) Poisson bracket algebra. To overcome this problem, the Batalin-Tyutin (1992 Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 6 3255) quantization formalism is adopted in which the original system is converted to a local gauge theory and is embedded in a canonical extended phase space. In a different reduced phase-space scheme (Mitra P and Rajaraman R 1990 Ann. Phys., NY 203 157, Anishetty R and Vytheeswaran A S 1993 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 26 5613) also, the original model is converted to a gauge theory and subsequently the two distinct gauge invariant formulations of the fluid model are related explicitly. This strengthens the equivalence between the relativistic membrane (where a gauge invariance is manifest) and the fluid (where the gauge symmetry is hidden). Relativistic generalizations of the extended model are also touched upon
Poincare gauge in electrodynamics
The gauge presented here, which we call the Poincare gauge, is a generalization of the well-known expressions phi = -rxE0 and A = 1/2 B0 x r for the scalar and vector potentials which describe static, uniform electric and magnetic fields. This gauge provides a direct method for calculating a vector potential for any given static or dynamic magnetic field. After we establish the validity and generality of this gauge, we use it to produce a simple and unambiguous method of computing the flux linking an arbitrary knotted and twisted closed circuit. The magnetic flux linking the curve bounding a Moebius band is computed as a simple example. Arguments are then presented that physics students should have the opportunity of learning early in their curriculum modern geometric approaches to physics. (The language of exterior calculus may be as important to future physics as vector calculus was to the past.) Finally, an appendix illustrates how the Poincare gauge (and others) may be derived from Poincare's lemma relating exact and closed exterior differential forms
Numerical Methods for Finding Stationary Gravitational Solutions
Dias, Oscar J C; Way, Benson
2015-01-01
The wide applications of higher dimensional gravity and gauge/gravity duality have fuelled the search for new stationary solutions of the Einstein equation (possibly coupled to matter). In this topical review, we explain the mathematical foundations and give a practical guide for the numerical solution of gravitational boundary value problems. We present these methods by way of example: resolving asymptotically flat black rings, singly-spinning lumpy black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS), and the Gregory-Laflamme zero modes of small rotating black holes in AdS$_5\\times S^5$. We also include several tools and tricks that have been useful throughout the literature.
Gravitational Waves in Open de Sitter Space
Hawking, Stephen William; Turok, N G; Hertog, Thomas; Turok, Neil
2000-01-01
We compute the spectrum of primordial gravitational wave perturbations inopen de Sitter spacetime. The background spacetime is taken to be thecontinuation of an O(5) symmetric instanton saddle point of the Euclidean noboundary path integral. The two-point tensor fluctuations are computed directlyfrom the Euclidean path integral. The Euclidean correlator is then analyticallycontinued into the Lorentzian region where it describes the quantum mechanicalvacuum fluctuations of the graviton field. Unlike the results of earlier work,the correlator is shown to be unique and well behaved in the infrared. We showthat the infrared divergence found in previous calculations is due to thecontribution of a discrete gauge mode inadvertently included in the spectrum.
Numerical methods for finding stationary gravitational solutions
Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson
2016-07-01
The wide applications of higher dimensional gravity and gauge/gravity duality have fuelled the search for new stationary solutions of the Einstein equation (possibly coupled to matter). In this topical review, we explain the mathematical foundations and give a practical guide for the numerical solution of gravitational boundary value problems. We present these methods by way of example: resolving asymptotically flat black rings, singly spinning lumpy black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS), and the Gregory–Laflamme zero modes of small rotating black holes in AdS{}5× {S}5. We also include several tools and tricks that have been useful throughout the literature.
Theoretically Optimal Distributed Anomaly Detection
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel general framework for distributed anomaly detection with theoretical performance guarantees is proposed. Our algorithmic approach combines existing anomaly...
Pulsars and Gravitational Waves
Lee, K J; Qiao, G J
2011-01-01
The relationship between pulsar-like compact stars and gravitational waves is briefly reviewed. Due to regular spins, pulsars could be useful tools for us to detect ~nano-Hz low-frequency gravitational waves by pulsar-timing array technique; besides, they would also be ~kilo-Hz high-frequency gravitational wave radiators because of their compactness. The wave strain of an isolate pulsar depends on the equation state of cold matter at supra-nuclear densities. Therefore, a real detection of gravitational wave should be very meaningful in gravity physics, micro-theory of elementary strong interaction, and astronomy.
When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium is herein derived on the basis of classical, Newtonian gravitational theory and by a general relativistic use of Archimedes' principle. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate students and those undergraduate students having prior experience with vector analysis and potential theory.
... performed too early, while the individual is growing, asymmetry can result or be made greater than before. ... Anomaly About.com- Poland Syndrome [rarediseases.about.com] Information about Poland syndrome produced by Mary Kugler, M.S. ...
We show that massless RR tadpoles in vacuum configurations with open and unoriented strings are always related to anomalies. RR tadpoles arising from sectors of the internal SCFT with non-vanishing Witten index are in one-to-one correspondence with conventional irreducible anomalies. The anomalous content of the remaining RR tadpoles can be disclosed by considering anomalous amplitudes with higher numbers of external legs. We then provide an explicit parametrization of the anomaly polynomial in terms of the boundary reflection coefficients, i.e. one-point functions of massless RR fields on the disk. After factorization of the reducible anomaly, we extract the relevant WZ couplings in the effective lagrangians. (author)
Anomaly Detection in Sequences
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...
The author summarizes the works presented at the meeting on skyrmions and anomalies. He divides the principal issues of this workshop into five categories: QCD effective lagrangians, chiral bags and the Cheshire cat principle, strangeness problem, phenomenology, mathematical structure
Neutrino anomalies without oscillations
Sandip Pakvasa
2000-01-01
I review explanations for the three neutrino anomalies (solar, atmospheric and LSND) which go beyond the `conventional' neutrino oscillations induced by mass-mixing. Several of these require non-zero neutrino masses as well.
In the last few years lattice gauge theory has become the primary tool for the study of nonperturbative phenomena in gauge theories. The lattice serves as an ultraviolet cutoff, rendering the theory well defined and amenable to numerical and analytical work. Of course, as with any cutoff, at the end of a calculation one must consider the limit of vanishing lattice spacing in order to draw conclusions on the physical continuum limit theory. The lattice has the advantage over other regulators that it is not tied to the Feynman expansion. This opens the possibility of other approximation schemes than conventional perturbation theory. Thus Wilson used a high temperature expansion to demonstrate confinement in the strong coupling limit. Monte Carlo simulations have dominated the research in lattice gauge theory for the last four years, giving first principle calculations of nonperturbative parameters characterizing the continuum limit. Some of the recent results with lattice calculations are reviewed
Relativistic gauge invariant potentials
A global method characterizing the invariant connections on an abelian principal bundle under a group of transformations is applied in order to get gauge invariant electromagnetic (elm.) potentials in a systematic way. So, we have classified all the elm. gauge invariant potentials under the Poincare subgroups of dimensions 4, 5, and 6, up to conjugation. It is paid attention in particular to the situation where these subgroups do not act transitively on the space-time manifold. We have used the same procedure for some galilean subgroups to get nonrelativistic potentials and study the way they are related to their relativistic partners by means of contractions. Some conformal gauge invariant potentials have also been derived and considered when they are seen as consequence of an enlargement of the Poincare symmetries. (orig.)
An Anomaly Associated with Ward—Takahashi Identity for Pseudo-Tensor Current in QED
We study the quantum anomaly for the transverse Ward—Takahashi relations in the four-dimensional gauge theory QED by using Fujikawa's method in which the anomaly is fundamentally a variation of the functional integral measure under transformation. A regulator which leads to a finite result for the anomaly is proposed. It is shown that a novel anomaly associated with transverse Ward—Takahashi identity of pseudo-tensor current is derived due to a set of infinitesimal transverse transformation of field variables
Congenital laryngeal anomalies,
Rutter, Michael J.
2014-01-01
Introduction: It is essential for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to be cognizant of the fact that infants with congenital laryngeal anomalies are at particular risk for an unstable airway. Objectives: To familiarize clinicians with issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to present a succinct description of the diagnosis and management of an array of congenital laryngeal anomalies. Methods: Revision article, in which the ma...
de Diego, Jose A
2008-01-01
Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.
Volume anomaly in ferrimagnetism
Pascard, H.; Globus, A.
1981-01-01
The volume anomaly ΔV/V due to the magnetic energy corresponding to the exchange interactions is experimentally determined for YIG. The experimental values (from 77 K to Tc) agree with the values deduced from the theoretical expression based on the Néel's theories of volume anomaly and of ferrimagnetism. These results are compared with those obtained by other authors on ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials with localized magnetic moments : a reduced curve is obtained.
On gauged Baryon and Lepton numbers
The observation that Baryon number and Lepton number are conserved in nature provides strong motivation for associating gauge symmetries to these conserved numbers. This endeavor requires that the gauge group of electroweak interactions be extended from SU(2)L X U(1)Y to SU(2)L X U(1)R X U(1)Lepton where U(1)R couples only to the right-handed quarks and leptons. If it furthur postulated that right-handed currents exist on par with the left-handed ones, then the full electroweak symmetry is SU(2)L X SU(2)R X U(1)Baryon X U(1)Lepton. The SU(2)L X SU(2)R X U(1)Baryon X U(1)Lepton model is described in some detail. The triangle anomalies of the three families of quarks and leptons in the model are cancelled invoking leptoquark matter which is new fermionic matter that carries baryon as well as lepton numbers. In addition to the standard neutral boson (Z degree), the theory predicts two neutral gauge bosons with mass lower bounds of 120 GeV and 210 GeV which makes these particles prospective candidates for production at LEP, the TEVATRON and the SSC
An attempt is made to compare the solution of field equations, corresponding to quadratic equations for the fields (gμν, Γμνα) in gauge gravitation theory (GGT) with general relativity theory solutions. Without restrictions for a concrete type of metrics only solutions of equations, for which torsion turns to zero, are considered. Equivalence of vacuum equations of gauge quadratic theory of gravity and general relativity theory is proved using the Newman-Penrose formalism
A Unified Field Theory of Gravity, Electromagnetism, and the Yang-Mills Gauge Field
Suhendro I.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we attempt at constructing a comprehensive four-dimensional unified field theory of gravity, electromagnetism, and the non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and material spin fields are unified as intrinsic geometric objects of the space-time manifold S4 via the connection, with the general- ized non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field appearing in particular as a sub-field of the geometrized electromagnetic interaction.
On Adler-Bell-Jackiw Anomaly in 3-brane Scenario
Chen, W. F.; Mann, R. B.
2002-01-01
We investigate the ABJ anomaly in the framework of an effective field theory for a 3-brane scenario and show that the contribution from induced gravity on the brane depends on both the topological structure of the bulk space-time and the embedding of the brane in the bulk. This fact implies the existence of a non-trivial vacuum structure of bulk quantum gravity. Furthermore, we argue that this axial gravitational anomaly may not necessarily be cancelled by choosing the matter content on the b...
Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly in the 3-brane scenario
We investigate the ABJ anomaly in the framework of an effective field theory for a 3-brane scenario and show that the contribution from induced gravity on the brane depends on both the topological structure of the bulk space-time and the embedding of the brane in the bulk. This fact implies the existence of a nontrivial vacuum structure of bulk quantum gravity. Furthermore, we argue that this axial gravitational anomaly may not necessarily be canceled by choosing the matter content on the brane since it could be considered as a possible effect from bulk quantum gravity
Exploring general gauge mediation
We explore various aspects of General Gauge Mediation (GGM). We present a reformulation of the correlation functions used in GGM, and further elucidate their IR and UV properties. Additionally we clarify the issue of UV sensitivity in the calculation of the soft masses in the MSSM, highlighting the role of the supertrace over the messenger spectrum. Finally, we present weakly coupled messenger models which fully cover the parameter space of GGM. These examples demonstrate that the full parameter space of GGM is physical and realizable. Thus it should be considered a valid basis for future phenomenological explorations of gauge mediation.
Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Axenides, M.; Floratos, E. G.; Tetradis, N.
2001-12-01
We study Q balls associated with local U(1) symmetries. Such Q balls are expected to become unstable for large values of their charge because of the repulsion mediated by the gauge force. We consider the possibility that the repulsion is eliminated through the presence in the interior of the Q ball of fermions with charge opposite to that of the scalar condensate. Another possibility is that two scalar condensates of opposite charge form in the interior. We demonstrate that both these scenarios can lead to the existence of classically stable, large, gauged Q balls. We present numerical solutions, as well as an analytical treatment of the ``thin-wall'' limit.
An improved radiation gauge is described for measuring the thickness profile of strip. The system is such that the measurement is made more nearly across the width of the strip substantially at right angles to the direction of motion of the strip than is usual in such gauges. The system consists of an X-ray source on the side of the strip which produces a fan shaped beam, a number of detectors placed on the other side and data transmission and display devices. (UK)
Introduction to gauge theories
Maiani, Luciano
2016-01-01
Written by three of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model, including an award-winning former director general of CERN, this book provides a completely up-to-date account of gauge theories. Starting from Feynman’s path integrals, Feynman rules are derived, gauge fixing and Faddeev-Popov ghosts are discussed, and renormalization group equations are derived. Several important applications to quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are discussed, including the one-loop derivation of asymptotic freedom for QCD.
We investigate O'Raifeartaigh-type models for F-term supersymmetry breaking in gauge mediation scenarios in the presence of gravity. It is pointed out that the vacuum structure of those models is such that in metastable vacua gravity mediation contribution to scalar masses is always suppressed to the level below 1 percent, almost sufficient for avoiding FCNC problem. Close to that limit, gravitino mass can be in the range 10-100 GeV, opening several interesting possibilities for gauge mediation models, including Giudice-Masiero mechanism for μ and Bμ generation. Gravity sector can include stabilized moduli.
Moya, A. M.; Fernadez, V. V.; Rodrigues Jr., W. A.
2005-01-01
In this paper, the second in a series of eight we continue our development of the basic tools of the multivector and extensor calculus which are used in our formulation of the differential geometry of smooth manifolds of arbitrary topology . We introduce metric and gauge extensors, pseudo-orthogonal metric extensors, gauge bases, tetrad bases and prove the remarkable golden formula, which permit us to view any Clifford algebra Cl(V,G) as a deformation of the euclidean Clifford algebra Cl(V,G_...