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1

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effective action for fermions moving in external gravitational and gauge fields is analyzed in terms of the corresponding external field propagator. The central object in our approach is the covariant energy-momentum tensor which is extracted from the regular part of the propagator at short distances. It is shown that the Lorentz anomaly, the conformal anomaly and the gauge anomaly can be expressed in terms of the local polynomials which determine the singular part of the propagator. (There are no coordinate anomalies). Except for the conformal anomaly, for which we give explicit representations only in d?4, we consider an arbitrary number of dimensions. (orig.)

2

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete) in d space-time dimensions. We show a very close relation between gauge anomalies for gauge group G and symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) orders (also known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders) with symmetry group G in one-higher dimension. The SPT phases are classified by group cohomology class H[superscript d+1](G,R/Z...

Wen, Xiao-gang

2013-01-01

3

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that in certain parity-violating theories in 4?+2 dimensions, general covariance is spoiled by anomalies at the one-loop level. This occurs when Weyl fermions of spin-1/2 or -3/2 or self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields are coupled to gravity. (For Dirac fermions there is no trouble.) The conditions for anomaly cancellation between fields of different spin is investigated. In six dimensions this occurs in certain theories with a fairly elaborate field content. In ten dimensions there is a unique theory with anomaly cancellation between fields of different spin. It is the chiral eta = 2 supergravity theory, which is the low-energy limit of one of the superstring theories. Beyond ten dimensions there is no way to cancel anomalies between fields of different spin

4

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that in certain parity-violating theories in 4k+2 dimensions, general covariance is spoiled by anomalies at the one-loop level. This occurs when Weyl fermions of spin-1/2 or -3/2 or self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields are coupled to gravity. (For Dirac fermions there is no trouble.) The conditions for anomaly cancellation between fields of different spin is investigated. In six dimensions this occurs in certain theories with a fairly elaborate field content. In ten dimensions there is a unique theory with anomaly cancellation between fields of different spin. It is the chiral n=2 supergravity theory, which is the low-energy limit of one of the superstring theories. Beyond ten dimensions there is no way to cancel anomalies between fields of different spin. (orig.)

5

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that in certain parity-violating theories in 4K + 2 dimensions, general covariance is spoiled by anomalies at the one-loop level. This occurs when Weyl fermions of spin -1/2 or -3/2 or self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields are coupled to gravity. For dirac fermions there is no trouble. The conditions for anomaly cancellation between fields of different spin is investigated. In six dimensions this occurs in certain theories with a fairly elaborate field content. In ten dimensions there is a unique theory with anomaly cancellation between fields of different spin. It is the chiral n = 2 supergravity theory, which is the low-energy limit of one of the superstring theories. Beyond ten dimensions there is no way to cancel anomalies between fields of different spin

6

Classical gauge gravitation theory

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Classical gravitation theory is formulated as gauge theory on natural bundles where gauge symmetries are general covariant transformations and a gravitational field is a Higgs field responsible for their spontaneous symmetry breaking.

Sardanashvily, G.

2011-01-01

7

Gauge anomaly cancellation in chiral gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider chiral fermions interacting minimally with abelian and non-abelian gauge fields. Using a path integral approach and exploring the consequences of a mechanism of symmetry restoration, we show that the gauge anomaly has null expectation value in the vacuum for both cases (abelian and non-abelian). We argue that the same mechanism has no possibility to cancel the chiral anomaly, what eliminates competition between chiral and gauge symmetry at full quantum level. We also show that the insertion of the gauge anomaly in arbitrary gauge invariant correlators gives a null result, which points towards anomaly cancellation in the subspace of physical state vectors. - Highlights: ? Null vacuum expectation value of the gauge anomaly operator in chiral gauge theories. ? Emphasis on gauge invariance of bosonic measure in functional integral approach. ? Vanishing of insertion of the anomaly operator in gauge invariant correlation functions. ? Non-cancellation of the chiral anomaly operator. ? Different cancellation mechanisms in abelian and non-abelian cases.

8

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-01-01

9

Fivebrane Gravitational Anomalies

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Freed, Harvey, Minasian and Moore have proposed a mechanism to cancel the gravitational anomaly of the M-theory fivebrane coming from diffeomorphisms acting on the normal bundle. This procedure is based on a modification of the conventional M-theory Chern-Simons term. We compactify this space-time interaction to the ten-dimensional type IIA theory. We then analyze the relation to the anomaly cancellation mechanism for the type IIA fivebrane proposed by Witten.

Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie

1999-01-01

10

Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Second Order Transport and Gravitational Anomaly*,**

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We study the transport properties of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies. The computation is performed in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence for a 5 dim holographic model with Chern-Simons terms in the action. We find new anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients, as well as new contributions to the existing ones coming from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. Consequences for the shear waves dispersion relation are analyzed.

Megías Eugenio

2014-03-01

11

Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Second Order Transport and Gravitational Anomaly

We study the transport properties of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies. The computation is performed in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence for a 5 dim holographic model with Chern-Simons terms in the action. We find new anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients, as well as new contributions to the existing ones coming from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. Consequences for the shear waves dispersion relation are analyzed.

Megias, Eugenio

2013-01-01

12

Geometric phases and gravitational anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis is made of the motion of a quantum particle in a gravitational field, and it is shown that a geometric phase arises under certain conditions. The connection of this results with the emergence of gravitational anomalies is described. (author)

13

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We give an overview of the first integrals of motion of particles in the presence of external gauge fields in a covariant Hamiltonian approach. The special role of Stäckel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. Some nontrivial examples involving Runge-Lenz type conserved quantities are explicitly worked out. A condition of the electromagnetic field to maintain the hidden symmetry of the system is stated. A concrete realization of this condition is given by the Killing-Maxwell system and exemplified with the Kerr metric. Quantum symmetry operators for the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are constructed from Killing tensors. The transfer of the classical conserved quantities to the quantum mechanical level is analyzed in connection with quantum anomalies.

Mihai Visinescu

2011-04-01

14

Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-07-01

15

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

16

Kahn's anomaly approach to gravitational F-terms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study gravitational corrections to the effective superpotential in theories with a single adjoint chiral multiplet, using the generalized Konishi anomaly and the gravitationally deformed chiral ring. We show that the genus one correction to the loop equation in the corresponding matrix model agrees with the gravitational corrected anomaly equations in the gauge theory. An important ingredient in the proof is the lack of factorization of chiral gauge invariant operators in presence of a supergravity background. We also find a genus zero gravitational correction to the superpotential, which can be removed by a field redefinition. (author)

17

Konishi anomaly approach to gravitational F-terms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study gravitational corrections to the effective superpotential in theories with a single adjoint chiral multiplet, using the generalized Konishi anomaly and the gravitationally deformed chiral ring. We show that the genus one correction to the loop equation in the corresponding matrix model agrees with the gravitational corrected anomaly equations in the gauge theory. An important ingredient in the proof is the lack of factorization of chiral gauge invariant operators in presence of a supergravity background. We also find a genus zero gravitational correction to the superpotential, which can be removed by a field redefinition. (author)

18

Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficie...

Landsteiner, Karl

2011-01-01

19

Holographic Gravitational Anomaly and Chiral Vortical Effect

We analyze a holographic model with a pure gauge and a mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term in the action. These are the holographic implementations of the usual chiral and the mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies in four dimensional field theories with chiral fermions. We discuss the holographic renormalization and show that the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term does not induce new divergences. In order to cancel contributions from the extrinsic curvature at a boundary at finite distance a new type of counterterm has to be added however. This counterterm can also serve to make the Dirichlet problem well defined in case the gauge field strength vanishes on the boundary. A charged asymptotically AdS black hole is a solution to the theory and as an application we compute the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical conductivities via Kubo formulas. We find that the characteristic term proportional to T^2 is present also at strong coupling and that its numerical value is not renormalized compared to the wea...

Landsteiner, Karl; Melgar, Luis; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-01-01

20

Review on possible gravitational anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15)

21

Dynamical supersymmetry breaking and gauge anomalies

Some aspects of supersymmetric gauge theories and discussed. It is shown that dynamical supersymmetry breaking does not occur in supersymmetric QED in higher dimensions. The cancellation of both local (perturbative) and global (non-perturbative) gauge anomalies are also discussed in supersymmetric gauge theories. We argue that there is no dynamical supersymmetry breaking in higher dimensions in any supersymmetric gauge theories free of gauge anomalies. It is also shown that for supersymmetric gauge theories in higher dimensions with a compact connected simple gauge group, when the local anomaly-free condition is satisfied, there can be at most a possible Z 2 global gauge anomaly in extended supersymmetric SO(10) (or spin (10)) gauge theories in D=10 dimensions containing additional Weyl fermions in a spinor representation of SO(10) (or spin (10)). In four dimensions with local anomaly-free condition satisfied, the only possible global gauge anomalies in supersymmetric gauge theories are Z 2 global gauge anomalies for extended supersymmetric SP(2 N) ( N=rank) gauge theories containing additional Weyl fermions in a representation of SP(2 N) with an odd 2nd-order Dynkin index.

Zhang, H.

1991-09-01

22

Dynamical supersymmetry breaking and gauge anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of supersymmetric gauge theories are discussed. It is shown that dynamical supersymmetry breaking does not occur in supersymmetric QED in higher dimensions. The cancellation of both local (perturbative) and global (non-perturbative) gauge anomalies are also discussed in supersymmetric gauge theories. We argue that there is no dynamical supersymmetry breaking in higher dimensions in any supersymmetric gauge theories free of gauge anomalies. It is also shown that for supersymmetric gauge theories in higher dimensions with a compact connected simple gauge group, when the local anomaly-free condition is satisfied, there can be at most a possible Z2 global gauge anomaly in extended supersymmetric SO(10) (or spin (10)) gauge theories in D=10 dimensions containing additional Weyl fermions in a spinor representation of SO(10) (or spin (10)). In four dimensions with local anomaly-free condition satisfied, the only possible global gauge anomalies in supersymmetric gauge theories are Z2 global gauge anomalies for extended supersymmetric SP(2N) (N=rank) gauge theories containing additional Weyl fermions in a representation of SP(2N) with an odd 2nd-order Dynkin index. (orig.)

23

Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The book concludes with thirteen appendices, covering mainly technical issues but also including Ashtekhar variables and Chern-Simons theory. Irritatingly, there is a separate bibliography for each chapter (which leads to much duplication) but commendably, the author highlights selected sources for suitable further reading. Also to be welcomed wholeheartedly are well-chosen worked examples and exercises, ranging from easy to fairly challenging, in each chapter. This is aly challenging, in each chapter. This is a properly bound paperback, hardly inexpensive, but well up to IOP's impeccable production standards. Could this be the ideal textbook for a research student or even an established researcher from another field to pick up the latest developments in field theory? Unfortunately this is not the whole story. The back cover also asserts, while talking about gauge invariance, that 'It is less known that the principle of equivalence, one of the basic dynamical properties of the gravitational interaction, can be expressed as a (spacetime) gauge symmetry'. On page 10 this is qualified to be a local symmetry. On pages 62-3 this hidden result is revealed. As every relativist knows, the principle of equivalence implies that for each spacetime point p a chart (normal coordinates at p) can be chosen so that the metric tensor takes its Minkowski value and its (partial) derivatives vanish at p. In other words every (pseudo-)Riemannian manifold is locally flat, the 'less known' result. So what else can the author tell us about gravity? There is little to fault in the first two sections of the book, trying to express gravity as a nonlinear spin-2 theory on Minkowski spacetime, apart from the obvious objection. A well-known and highly-recommendable textbook by S Weinberg 1972 Gravitation and Cosmology (New York: Wiley), carries out, at a more elementary level, a similar programme with the same defect. Such local theories cannot predict global changes whereby spacetime has a different topology to the Minkowski one. (The unconvinced reader should investigate references to black holes in Weinberg's text.) As speaker after speaker at the S W Hawking 60th Birthday Conference last week emphasized, when trying to unify gravity with quantum theory, it is perilous to neglect geometry. Because the later chapters on supersymmetry, supergravity, Kaluza-Klein and string theories are more fashionable, I need to point out an important caveat. Excluding textbooks and conference volumes, all (English language) citations in the supersymmetry/supergravity chapter are at least 16 years old. Apart from one 2000 article (on teleparallel theory) this age gap drops by three years for the chapter on Kaluza-Klein theory, and it does not change any further for the string theory chapter. There have been more recent significant advances in our understanding and interpretation of these theories but, alas, they are not chronicled here. I raised a question as to the value of this book at the end of the first paragraph, and I want to answer it within the context of the

24

Gravitational F-terms of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories in a supergravity background. We use generalized Konishi anomaly equations and R-symmetry anomaly to compute the exact perturbative and non-perturbative gravitational F-terms. We study two types of theories: The first model breaks supersymmetry dynamically, and the second is based on a G2 gauge group. The results are compared with the corresponding vector models. We discuss the diagrammatic expansion of the G2 theory. (author)

25

Anomaly cancellation condition in lattice gauge theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that, to all orders of powers of the gauge potential, a gauge anomaly ? defined on 4-dimensional infinite lattice can always be removed by a local counterterm, provided that ? depends smoothly and locally on the gauge potential and that ? reproduces the gauge anomaly in the continuum theory in the classical continuum limit: The unique exception is proportional to the anomaly in the continuum theory. This follows from an analysis of nontrivial local solutions to the Wess-Zumino consistency condition in lattice gauge theory. Our result is applicable to the lattice chiral gauge theory based on the Ginsparg-Wilson Dirac operator, when the gauge field is sufficiently weak parallel-U(n,?) - 1-parallel < ?', where U(n,?) is the link variable and ?' a certain small positive constant. (author)

26

Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries

The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...

Stewart, J

2002-01-01

27

Chiral Schwinger models without gauge anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We find a large class of quantum gauge models with massless fermions where the coupling to the gauge fields is not chirally symmetric and which nevertheless do not suffer from gauge anomalies. To be specific we study two dimensional Abelian models in the Hamiltonian framework which can be constructed and solved by standard techniques. The general model describes NP photon fields and NF flavors of Dirac fermions with 2NFNP different coupling constants, i.e., the chiral component of each fermion can be coupled to the gauge fields differently. We construct these models and find conditions so that no gauge anomaly appears. If these conditions hold it is possible to construct and solve the model explicitly, so that gauge- and Lorentz invariance are manifest

28

Singlet deflected anomaly/gauge mediation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study an extension of the standard anomaly/gauge mediation scenario where the messenger fields have direct interactions with an extra gauge singlet. This realizes a phenomenologically viable NMSSM-like scenario free of the ?-b? problem. Current cosmological constraints imply a small size for the anomaly-mediation contributions, unless some source of R-parity violation is permitted. In the latter case the allowed regions in the parameter space can be substantially larger than in the corresponding gauge-mediation scenario.

29

The Schwinger terms and the gravitational anomaly

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of Schwinger term appearing in commutators of energy-momentum tensors is shown for chiral fermions in two-dimensional flat Minkowski space-time. Preserving the Jacobi identity, the Schwinger terms which correspond to gravitational anomalies appear in places different from the conformal anomaly. A relation to Faddeev's argument is also discussed. (orig.)

30

Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Second Order Transport and Gravitational Anomaly***

We study the transport properties of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies. The computation is performed in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence for a 5 dim holographic model with Chern-Simons terms in the action. We find new anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients, as well as new contributions to the existing ones coming from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. Consequences for the shear waves dispersion relation are analyzed. Talk given by E. Megías at the International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC 2013, 2-7 June 2013, Firenze, Italy.Supported by Plan Nacional de Altas Energías (FPA2009-07908, FPA2011-25948), Spanish MICINN Consolider-Ingenio 2010 Programme CPAN (CSD2007-00042), Comunidad de Madrid HEP-HACOS S2009/ESP-1473, Spanish MINECO's Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa Program (SEV-2012-0234, SEV-2012-0249), and the Juan de la Cierva Program.

Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2014-03-01

31

Global gravitational anomaly cancellation for five-branes

We show that the global mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly of the worldvolume theory of the M5-brane vanishes, when the anomaly inflow from the bulk is taken into account. This result extends to the type IIA and heterotic E8 x E8 five-branes. As a by-product, we provide a definition of the chiral fermionic fields for generic non-spin M5-brane worldvolume and determine the coupling between the self-dual field and the M-theory C-field.

Monnier, Samuel

2013-01-01

32

Gravitational F-terms of N=1 supersymmetric SU(N) gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use the generalized Konishi anomaly equations and R-symmetry anomaly to compute the exact perturbative and non-perturbative gravitational F-terms of four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. We formulate the general procedure for computation and consider chiral and non-chiral SU(N) gauge theories. (author)

33

Interpretation of Venus gravitational anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Venus gravity field anomalies are interpreted from three harmonics of potential expansion. Masses and depths of the anomaly centers in three regions: the Aphrodita land, the Ishtar land and in the South of the planet, are defined from the Venus geoid height, pure anomaly of attractive force, and plumb deviation. These depths are determined to be 930-1140 km. Analogous Earth anomalies in the field smoothing from 16 to 3 harmonics are characterized by depth overestimation. 1.4-times. Because of this, depths of the Venus anomaly sources reduced to 16 harmonics lie approximately in the range of 700-800 km, that is they correspond to the depth of bedding of the Venus mantle second phase boundary

34

Consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exact consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons in two dimensions are treated both with the Schwinger-DeWitt regularization and independently through a cohomological procedure. The diffeomorphism transformations are described by a single ghost which allows to climb the cohomological chain in a unique way.

Giaccari, Stefano; Menotti, Pietro

2008-01-01

35

Gravitational anomaly and hydrodynamics in AdS/CFT

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a holographic model with a pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons terms in the action, we analyze the anomalous induced current of a vortex in the relativistic fluid via the chiral vortical effect, which is analogous to the anomalous current induced by a magnetic field via the chiral magnetic effect. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid characterized by a term proportional to T2. The numerical value of this term is not renormalized compared to the weak coupling result [1]. We also address on a general formalism to unify the two inequivalent implementations to the chemical potential for an anomalous symmetry presented in [2]. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

36

Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies

We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal worldline into a ribbon, and that the anomalous contribution to the CFT entanglement entropy is given by the twist in this ribbon. The entanglement functional may also be interpreted as the worldline action for a spinning particle — that is, an anyon — in three-dimensional curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the minimization of this action results in the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations of motion for a spinning particle in three dimensions. We work out several simple examples and demonstrate agreement with CFT calculations.

Castro, Alejandra; Detournay, Stephane; Iqbal, Nabil; Perlmutter, Eric

2014-07-01

37

Gauge Symmetries and Holographic Anomalies of Chern-Simons and Transgression AdS Gravity

We review the issue of gauge and gravitational anomalies with backgrounds, maybe offering a new outlook on some aspects of these questions. We compute the holographic anomalies of hypothetical theories dual, in the sense of the AdS-CFT correspondence, to Chern-Simons AdS gravities. Those anomalies are either gauge anomalies associated to the AdS gauge group of the theory or diffeomorphism anomalies, with each kind related to the other. As a result of using suitable action principles por Chern-Simons AdS gravities, coming from Transgression forms, we obtain finite results without the need for further regularization. Our results are of potential interest for Lovelock gravity theories, as it has been shown that the boundary terms dictated by the transgressions for Chern-Simons gravities are also suitable to regularize Lovelock theories. The Wess-Zumino consistency condition ensures that anomalies of the generic form computed here should appear for these and other theories.

Mora, Pablo

2014-01-01

38

Anomaly Nucleation Constrains SU(2) Gauge Theories

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We argue for the existence of additional constraints on SU(2) gauge theories in four dimensions when realized in ultraviolet completions admitting an analog of D-brane nucleation. In type II string compactifications these constraints are necessary and sufficient for the absence of cubic non-abelian anomalies in certain nucleated SU(N>2) theories. It is argued that they appear quite broadly in the string landscape. Implications for particle physics are discussed; most realiza...

Halverson, James

2013-01-01

39

Gauge Anomalies and Neutrino Seesaw Models

Despite the success of the Standard Model concerning theoretical predictions, there are several experimental results that cannot be explained and there are reasons to believe that there exists new physics beyond it. Neutrino oscillations, and hence their masses, are examples of this. Experimentally it is known that neutrinos masses are quite small, when compared to all Standard Model particle masses. Among the theoretical possibilities to explain these tiny masses, the seesaw mechanism is a simple and well-motivated framework. In its minimal version, heavy particles are introduced that decouple from the theory in the early universe. To build consistent theories, classical symmetries need to be preserved at quantum level, so that there are no anomalies. The cancellation of these anomalies leads to constraints in the parameters of the theory. One attractive solution is to realize the anomaly cancellation through the modication of the gauge symmetry. In this thesis we present a short review of some features of t...

Neves Cebola, Luis Manuel

40

Realistic anomaly mediation with bulk gauge fields

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a simple general framework for realistic models of supersymmetry breaking driven by anomaly mediation. We consider a 5-dimensional 'brane universe' where the visible and hidden sectors are localized on different branes, and the standard model gauge bosons propagate in the bulk. In this framework there can be charged scalar messengers that have contact interactions with the hidden sector, either localized in the hidden sector or in the bulk. These scalars obtain soft masses that feed into visible sector scalar masses at two loop order via bulk gauge interactions. This contribution is automatically flavor-blind, and can be naturally positive. If the messengers are in the bulk this contribution is automatically the same order of magnitude as the anomaly mediated contribution, independent of the brane spacing. If the messengers are localized to a brane the two effects are of the same order for relatively small brane spacings. The gaugino masses and A terms are determined completely by anomaly mediation. In order for anomaly mediation to dominate over radion mediation the radion must be is stabilized in a manner that preserves supersymmetry, with supergravity effects included. We show that this occurs in simple models. We also show that the mu problem can be solved by the vacuum expectation value of a singlet in this framework. (author)

41

Noncommutative chiral gravitational anomalies in two dimensions

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se examinan las anomalías gravitacionales en un espacio no conmutativo. El análisis es general e independiente de alguna teoría de gravedad no conmutativa específica y depende sólo de cómo la gravedad se acople a los fermiones quirales. El cálculo de Delbourgo-Salam de la correccción gravitacional a [...] la anomalía axial ABJ se estudia en detalle en este contexto. Finalmente se muestra que la anomalía gravitacional en dos dimensiones no admite correcciones no conmutativas en el parámetro ?. Abstract in english Gravitational anomalies in a noncommutative space are examined. The analysis is generic and independent of a particular noncommutative theory of gravity, and it depends only on how gravity is noncommutatively coupled to chiral fermions. Delbourgo-Salam computation of the gravitational correction of [...] the axial ABJ-anomaly is studied in detail in this context. Finally, we show that the two-dimensional gravitational anomaly does not permit noncommutative corrections in the parameter ?.

H, García-Compeán; C, Soto-Campos.

2007-02-01

42

Gravitation as Gauge theory of Poincare Group

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geometrical approach to gauge theories, based on fiber-bundles, is shown in detail. Several gauge formalisms for gravitation are examined. In particular, it is shown how to build gauge theories for non-semisimple groups. A gravitational theory for the Poincare group, with all the essential characteristics of a Yang-Mills theory is proposed. Inonu-Wigner contractions of gauge theories are introduced, which provide a Lagrangian formalism, equivalent to a Lagrangian de Sitter theory supplemented by weak constraints. Yang and Einstein theories for gravitation become particular cases of a Yang-Mills theory. The classical limit of the proposed formalism leads to the Poisson equation, for the static case. (Author)

43

Quantum gravitational anomaly as a dark matter

The general properties of a perfect relativistic fluid resulting from the quantum gravitational anomaly are investigated. It is found that, in the limit of a weak gravitational field, this fluid possesses a polytropic equation of state characterized by two universal constants: the polytropic constant and the natural polytropic index. Based on the astrophysical data, the estimates for the polytropic constant are given. It is shown that this fluid can describe a considerable part of the cold dark matter. The quantum theory of such a fluid is constructed in the framework of the background field method. The Ward identities associated with the entropy and vorticity conservation laws are derived. The leading gradient corrections to the pressure of the perfect fluid are found and the restrictions on their form are obtained. These restrictions guarantee, in particular, the absence of ghosts in the model. The second order nonlinear corrections to the equations of motion of a perfect relativistic fluid are analyzed and...

Kazinski, P O

2015-01-01

44

Background Geometry in Gauge Gravitation Theory

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dirac fermion fields are responsible for spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge gravitation theory because the spin structure associated with a tetrad field is not preserved under general covariant transformations. Two solutions of this problem can be suggested. (i) There exists the universal spin structure $S\\to X$ such that any spin structure $S^h\\to X$ associated with a tetrad field $h$ is a subbundle of the bundle $S\\to X$. In this model, gravitational fields correspond ...

Sardanashvily, G.

1997-01-01

45

Gravitational self force and gauge transformations

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We explore how the gravitational self force (or ``radiation reaction'' force), acting on a pointlike test particle in curved spacetime, is modified in a gauge transformation. We derive the general transformation law, describing the change in the self force in terms of the infinitesimal displacement vector associated with the gauge transformation. Based on this transformation law, we extend the regularization prescription by Mino et al. and Quinn and Wald (originally formulat...

Barack, Leor; Ori, Amos

2001-01-01

46

Classifying gauge anomalies through SPT orders and classifying anomalies through topological orders

In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete). We argue that, in d space-time dimensions, the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[H^{d+1}(G,R/Z)]\\oplus H_\\pi^{d+1}(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of the group cohomology class H^{d+1}(G,R/Z) of the gauge group G (denoted as Free[H^{d+1}(G,\\R/\\Z)]). We refer other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as nonABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomaly. We introduce a notion of \\pi-cohomology group, H_\\pi^{d+1}(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[H^{d+1}(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group H^{d+1}(BG,\\R/\\Z) as subgroups. We argue that H_\\pi^{d+1}(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic nonABJ gauge anomalies, and partially classifies fermionic nonABJ anomalies. We also show a very close rel...

Wen, Xiao-Gang

2013-01-01

47

Wilson renormalization group for supersymmetric gauge theories and gauge anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We extend the Wilson renormalization group (RG) to supersymmetric theories. As this regularization scheme preserves supersymmetry, we exploit the superspace technique. To set up the formalism we first derive the RG flow for the massless Wess-Zumino model and deduce its perturbative expansion. We then consider N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills and show that the local gauge symmetry - broken by the regularization - can be recovered by a suitable choice of the RG flow boundary conditions. We restrict our analysis to the first loop, the generalization to higher loops presenting no difficulty due to the iterative nature of the procedure. Furthermore, adding matter fields, we reproduce the one-loop supersymmetric chiral anomaly to the second order in the vector field. (orig.)

48

Wilson renormalization group for supersymmetric gauge theories and gauge anomalies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We extend the Wilson renormalization group (RG) to supersymmetric theories. As this regularization scheme preserves supersymmetry, we exploit the superspace technique. To set up the formalism we first derive the RG flow for the massless Wess-Zumino model and deduce its perturbative expansion. We then consider N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills and show that the local gauge symmetry - broken by the regularization - can be recovered by a suitable choice of the RG flow boundary conditions. We restrict our analysis to the first loop, the generalization to higher loops presenting no difficulty due to the iterative nature of the procedure. Furthermore, adding matter fields, we reproduce the one-loop supersymmetric chiral anomaly to the second order in the vector field. (orig.) 30 refs.

Bonini, M.; Vian, F. [Parma Univ. (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Parma (Italy)

1998-11-02

49

Wilson Renormalization Group for Supersymmetric Gauge Theories and Gauge Anomalies

We extend the Wilson renormalization group (RG) to supersymmetric theories. As this regularization scheme preserves supersymmetry, we exploit the superspace technique. To set up the formalism we first derive the RG flow for the massless Wess-Zumino model and deduce its perturbative expansion. We then consider N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills and show that the local gauge symmetry -broken by the regularization- can be recovered by a suitable choice of the RG flow boundary conditions. We restrict our analysis to the first loop, the generalization to higher loops presenting no difficulty due to the iterative nature of the procedure. Furthermore, adding matter fields, we reproduce the one-loop supersymmetric chiral anomaly to the second order in the vector field.

Bonini, M

1998-01-01

50

Parity anomalies in gauge theories in 2 + 1 dimensions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the introduction of massless fermions in an abelian gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions does not lead to any parity anomaly despite a non-commutativity of limits in the structure function of the odd part of the vacuum polarization tensor. However, parity anomaly does exist in non-abelian theories due to a conflict between gauge invariance under large gauge transformations and the parity symmetry. 6 refs

51

Could the Pioneer anomaly have a gravitational origin?

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

If the Pioneer anomaly has a gravitational origin, it would, according to the equivalence principle, distort the motions of the planets in the Solar System. Since no anomalous motion of the planets has been detected, it is generally believed that the Pioneer anomaly can not originate from a gravitational source in the Solar System. However, this conclusion becomes less obvious when considering models that either imply modifications to gravity at long range or gravitational s...

Tangen, Kjell

2006-01-01

52

Trace anomaly for gauge theories in a conformally flat space

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor for gauge theories coupled to massless fermions in the context of a self-consistent cooperative phenomenon for the creation of the universe. (orig.)

53

A Classical Version of the Non-Abelian Gauge Anomaly

We show that a version of the covariant gauge anomaly for a 3+1 dimensional chiral fermion interacting with a non-Abelian gauge field can be obtained from the classical Hamiltonian flow of its probability distribution in phase space. The only quantum input needed is the Berry phase that arises from the direction of the spin being slaved to the particle's momentum.

Stone, Michael

2013-01-01

54

Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gra...

Iorio, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

55

Ghost number anomaly in the Polyakov's light-cone gauge

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conformal (Weyl) anomaly of the ghost-anti-ghost system in the two-dimentional quantum gravity is calculated. A background covariant formalism allows us to treat the Polyakov's light-cone gauge in a systematic way. The anomaly gives a contribution to the central charge, -28, which agrees with the result of Kniznik, Polyakov and Zamolodchikov. The ghost number anomaly is also calculated, and the metric corrections to the naive ghost number current are given. It is suggested that a general scalar density in the light-cone gauge carries a screening ghost number. (author)

56

Gravitational quantum foam and supersymmetric gauge theories

We study Kähler gravity on local SU(N) geometry and describe precise correspondence with certain supersymmetric gauge theories and random plane partitions. The local geometry is discretized, via the geometric quantization, to a foam of an infinite number of gravitational quanta. We count these quanta in a relative manner by measuring a deviation of the local geometry from a singular Calabi-Yau threefold, that is a A singularity fibred over P. With such a regularization prescription, the number of the gravitational quanta becomes finite and turns to be the perturbative prepotential for five-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills. These quanta are labelled by lattice points in a certain convex polyhedron on R. The polyhedron becomes obtainable from a plane partition which is the ground state of a statistical model of random plane partition that describes the exact partition function for the gauge theory. Each gravitational quantum of the local geometry is shown to consist of N unit cubes of plane partitions.

Maeda, Takashi; Nakatsu, Toshio; Noma, Yui; Tamakoshi, Takeshi

2006-02-01

57

Gravitational Quantum Foam and Supersymmetric Gauge Theories

We study K\\"{a}hler gravity on local SU(N) geometry and describe precise correspondence with certain supersymmetric gauge theories and random plane partitions. The local geometry is discretized, via the geometric quantization, to a foam of an infinite number of gravitational quanta. We count these quanta in a relative manner by measuring a deviation of the local geometry from a singular Calabi-Yau threefold, that is a A_{N-1} singularity fibred over \\mathbb{P}^1. With such a regularization prescription, the number of the gravitational quanta becomes finite and turns to be the perturbative prepotential for five-dimensional \\mathcal{N}=1 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills. These quanta are labelled by lattice points in a certain convex polyhedron on \\mathbb{R}^3. The polyhedron becomes obtainable from a plane partition which is the ground state of a statistical model of random plane partition that describes the exact partition function for the gauge theory. Each gravitational quantum of the local geometry is shown...

Maeda, T; Noma, Y; Tamakoshi, T; Maeda, Takashi; Nakatsu, Toshio; Noma, Yui; Tamakoshi, Takeshi

2005-01-01

58

Gravitational quantum foam and supersymmetric gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study Kahler gravity on local SU(N) geometry and describe precise correspondence with certain supersymmetric gauge theories and random plane partitions. The local geometry is discretized, via the geometric quantization, to a foam of an infinite number of gravitational quanta. We count these quanta in a relative manner by measuring a deviation of the local geometry from a singular Calabi-Yau threefold, that is a AN-1 singularity fibred over P1. With such a regularization prescription, the number of the gravitational quanta becomes finite and turns to be the perturbative prepotential for five-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills. These quanta are labelled by lattice points in a certain convex polyhedron on R3. The polyhedron becomes obtainable from a plane partition which is the ground state of a statistical model of random plane partition that describes the exact partition function for the gauge theory. Each gravitational quantum of the local geometry is shown to consist of N unit cubes of plane partitions

59

Global gauge anomalies for simple Lie algebras

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We generalize the formula by Elitzur and Nair on the global-anomaly coefficients in even (D = 2n)-dimensional space and analyze global anomalies for Sp(2N), SO(N), and SU(N) groups. In particular, we show that any irreducible representation of any Sp(N) and SU(2) group has no global anomalies in D = 8k dimensions. In D = 8k+4 dimensions, SU(2) has Z2-type global anomalies only if the spin J of an irreducible representation has the form J = (12(1+4l) = 1)2, (52,9)2,... For any SU(N) group in D = 2n, the global-anomaly coefficients can be expressed in terms of so-called unstable James numbers of Stiefel manifold SU(n+1)SU(n-k) and generalized Dynkin indices Q/sub n/?1(?) for SU

60

Gravitational Quantum Foam and Supersymmetric Gauge Theories

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study K\\"{a}hler gravity on local SU(N) geometry and describe precise correspondence with certain supersymmetric gauge theories and random plane partitions. The local geometry is discretized, via the geometric quantization, to a foam of an infinite number of gravitational quanta. We count these quanta in a relative manner by measuring a deviation of the local geometry from a singular Calabi-Yau threefold, that is a A_{N-1} singularity fibred over \\mathbb{P}^1. With such a...

Maeda, Takashi; Nakatsu, Toshio; Noma, Yui; Tamakoshi, Takeshi

2005-01-01

61

Anomaly-Free Gauged $U(1)'$ in Local Supersymmetry and Baryon-Number Violation

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The supersymmetric extension of the standard model suffers from a problem of baryon-number violation. Discrete (and global) symmetries introduced to protect the proton are unstable under gravitational effects. We add a gauged $U(1)_X$ to the standard model gauge group $G_{SM}$ and require it to be anomaly-free. As new (chiral) superfields we only allow $G_{SM}$-singlets in order to maintain the good unification predictions. We find the most general set of solutions for the r...

Chamseddine, A. H.; Dreiner, Herbi

1995-01-01

62

Harada–Tsutsui gauge recovery procedure: From Abelian gauge anomalies to the Stueckelberg mechanism

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Revisiting a path-integral procedure developed by Harada and Tsutsui for recovering gauge invariance from anomalous effective actions, it is shown that there are two ways to achieve gauge symmetry: one already presented by the authors, which is shown to preserve the anomaly in the sense of standard current conservation law, and another one which is anomaly-free, preserving current conservation. It is also shown that the application of the Harada–Tsutsui technique to other models which are not anomalous but do not exhibit gauge invariance allows the identification of the gauge invariant formulation of the Proca model, also done by the referred authors, with the Stueckelberg model, leading to the interpretation of the gauge invariant map as a generalization of the Stueckelberg mechanism. -- Highlights: • A gauge restoration technique from Abelian anomalous models is discussed. • It is shown that there is another way that leads to gauge symmetry restoration from such technique. • It is shown that the first gauge restoration preserves the anomaly, while the proposed second one is free from anomalies. • It is shown that the proposed gauge symmetry restoration can be identified with the Stueckelberg mechanism

63

Harada–Tsutsui gauge recovery procedure: From Abelian gauge anomalies to the Stueckelberg mechanism

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Revisiting a path-integral procedure developed by Harada and Tsutsui for recovering gauge invariance from anomalous effective actions, it is shown that there are two ways to achieve gauge symmetry: one already presented by the authors, which is shown to preserve the anomaly in the sense of standard current conservation law, and another one which is anomaly-free, preserving current conservation. It is also shown that the application of the Harada–Tsutsui technique to other models which are not anomalous but do not exhibit gauge invariance allows the identification of the gauge invariant formulation of the Proca model, also done by the referred authors, with the Stueckelberg model, leading to the interpretation of the gauge invariant map as a generalization of the Stueckelberg mechanism. -- Highlights: • A gauge restoration technique from Abelian anomalous models is discussed. • It is shown that there is another way that leads to gauge symmetry restoration from such technique. • It is shown that the first gauge restoration preserves the anomaly, while the proposed second one is free from anomalies. • It is shown that the proposed gauge symmetry restoration can be identified with the Stueckelberg mechanism.

Lima, Gabriel Di Lemos Santiago, E-mail: gabriellemos3@hotmail.com

2014-02-15

64

The hexagon gauge anomaly in Type 1 superstring theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hexagon diagrams with external on-mass-shell Yang-Mills gauge particles are investigated in Type I superstring theory. Both the annulus and the Mobius-strip diagrams are shown to give anomalies, implying that spurious longitudinal modes cannot be consistently decoupled. However, the anomalies cancel when the two diagrams are added together if the gauge group is chosen to be SO(32). In carrying out the analysis, two different regulators are considered, but the same conclusions emerge in both cases. The authors point out where various terms in the low-energy effective action originate in superstring diagrams

65

Regularized path integrals and anomalies: U(1) chiral gauge theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyze the origin of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly of chiral U(1) gauge theory within the framework of regularized path integrals. Momentum or position space regulators allow for mathematically well-defined path integrals but violate local gauge symmetry. It is known how (nonanomalous) gauge symmetry can be recovered in the renormalized theory in this case [Kopper, C. and Mueller, V. F., 'Renormalization of spontaneously broken SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with flow equations', Rev. Math. Phys. 21, 781 (2009)]. Here we analyze U(1) chiral gauge theory to show how the appearance of anomalies manifests itself in such a context. We show that the three-photon amplitude leads to a violation of the Slavnov-Taylor identities which cannot be restored on taking the UV limit in the renormalized theory. We point out that this fact is related to the nonanalyticity of this amplitude in the infrared region.

66

On the geometric foundation of classical gauge gravitation theory

A number of recent works in E-print arXiv have addressed the foundation of gauge gravitation theory again. As is well known, differential geometry of fibre bundles provides the adequate mathematical formulation of classical field theory, including gauge theory on principal bundles. Gauge gravitation theory is formulated on the natural bundles over a world manifold whose structure group is reducible to the Lorentz group. It is the metric-affine gravitation theory where a metric (tetrad) gravitational field is a Higgs field.

Sardanashvily, G

2002-01-01

67

Anomaly cancellation and conformality in quiver gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abelian quiver gauge theories provide non-supersymmetric candidates for the conformality approach to physics beyond the standard model. Written as N=0, U(N)n gauge theories, however, they have mixed U(1)pU(1)q2 and U(1)pSU(N)q2 triangle anomalies. It is shown how to construct explicitly a compensatory term ?Lcomp which restores gauge invariance of Leff=L+?Lcomp under U(N)n. It can lead to a negative contribution to the U(1)?-function and hence to one-loop conformality at high energy for all dimensionless couplings

68

A perturbative and gauge invariant treatment of gravitational wave memory

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a perturbative treatment of gravitational wave memory. The coordinate invariance of Einstein's equations leads to a type of gauge invariance in perturbation theory. As with any gauge invariant theory, results are more clear when expressed in terms of manifestly gauge invariant quantities. Therefore we derive all our results from the perturbed Weyl tensor rather than the perturbed metric. We derive gravitational wave memory for the Einstein equations coupled to a g...

Bieri, Lydia; Garfinkle, David

2013-01-01

69

On the gravitational origin of the Pioneer Anomaly

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From Doppler tracking data and data on circular motion of astronomical objects we obtain a metric of the Pioneer Anomaly. The metric resolves the issue of manifest absence of anomaly acceleration in orbits of the outer planets and extra-Pluto objects of the Solar system. However, it turns out that the energy-momentum tensor of matter, which generates such a gravitational field in GR, violates energy dominance conditions. At the same time the equation of state derived from th...

Siutsou, I. A.; Tomilchik, L. M.

2009-01-01

70

Gauge Gravitational Field in a Fractal Space-Time

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considering the fractal structure of space-time, the scale relativity theory in the topological dimension DT = 2 is built. In such a conjecture, the geodesics of this space-time imply the hydrodynamic model of the quantum mechanics. Subsequently, the gauge gravitational field on a fractal space-time is given. Then, the gauge group, the gauge-covariant derivative, the strength tensor of the gauge field, the gauge-invariant Lagrangean, the field equations of the gauge potentials and the gauge energy-momentum tensor are determined. Finally, using this model, a Reissner-Nordstroem type metric is obtained

71

Gauge anomaly-free constraints in neutrino seesaw models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of seesaw mechanisms to give mass to neutrinos in the presence of an anomaly-free U(1)X gauge symmetry is discussed in the context of minimal extensions of the standard model. It is shown that type-I and type-III seesaw mechanisms cannot be simultaneously implemented with an anomaly-free local U(1)X, unless the symmetry is a replica of the well-known hypercharge. For combined type-I/II or type-III/II seesaw models it is always possible to find nontrivial anomaly-free charge assignments, which are however tightly constrained, if the new neutral gauge boson is kinematically accessible at LHC. The discovery of the latter and the measurement of its decays into third-generation quarks, as well as its mixing with the standard Z boson, would allow one to discriminate among different seesaw realisations. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

72

Wilson Renormalization Group for Supersymmetric Gauge Theories and Gauge Anomalies

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We extend the Wilson renormalization group (RG) to supersymmetric theories. As this regularization scheme preserves supersymmetry, we exploit the superspace technique. To set up the formalism we first derive the RG flow for the massless Wess-Zumino model and deduce its perturbative expansion. We then consider N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills and show that the local gauge symmetry -broken by the regularization- can be recovered by a suitable choice of the RG flow boundary condit...

Bonini, M.; Vian, F.

1998-01-01

73

Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies: Pt. 2

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the spectral sequencies technique, it is studied the local polynomial cohomology space of the operator S deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(x)deltasub(lambda) -deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x), which is isomorphic to the local functional cohomology of the operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time. In the Faddeev-Popov (PHI II) charge-one sector, it is found that all the anomalies have the form ?(x) deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x)?-circumflex(x), where Csup(lambda)(x) is the ghost field, and ?-circumflex(x) is a PHI II charge-zero anomaly

74

Muon g-2 Anomaly and Dark Leptonic Gauge Boson

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the major motivations to search for a dark gauge boson of MeV-GeV scale is the long-standing muon g-2 anomaly. Because of active searches such as fixed target experiments and rare meson decays, the muon g-2 favored parameter region has been rapidly reduced. With the most recent data, it is practically excluded now in the popular dark photon model. We overview the issue and investigate a potentially alternative model based on the gauged lepton number or U(1)_L, which is under different experimental constraints.

Lee, Hye-Sung [W& M

2014-11-01

75

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hidden symmetries in a covariant Hamiltonian framework are investigated. The special role of the Stackel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. The covariant phase-space is extended to include external gauge fields and scalar potentials. We investigate the possibility for a higher-order symmetry to survive when the electromagnetic interactions are taken into account. Aconcrete realization of this possibility is given by the Killing-Maxwell system. The classical conserved quantities do not generally transfer to the quantized systems producing quantum gravitational anomalies. As a rule the conformal extension of the Killing vectors and tensors does not produce symmetry operators for the Klein-Gordon operator.

76

The Higgs sector of gravitational gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gravitational gauge theories with de Sitter, Poincare and affine symmetry group are investigated under the aspect of the breakdown of the initial symmetry group down to the Lorentz subgroup. As opposed to the nonlinear realization approach, in the dynamical symmetry breaking procedure, the structure subgroup is not chosen arbitrarily, but is dictated by the symmetry of the groundstate of a Higgs field. We review the theory of spontaneously broken de Sitter gravity by Stelle and West and apply a similar approach to the case of the Poincare and affine groups. We will find that the Poincare case is almost trivial. The translational Higgs field reveals itself as pure gauge, i.e., it is expressed entirely in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons and does not appear in the Lagrangian after the symmetry breaking. The same holds for the translational part of the affine group. The Higgs field provoking the breakdown of the general linear group leads to the determination of the Lorentzian signature of the metric in the groundstate. We show that the Higgs field remains in its groundstate, i.e., that the metric will have Lorentzian signature, unless we introduce matter fields that explicitely couple to the symmetric part of the connection. Furthermore, we present arguments that the Lorentzian signature is actually the only possible choice for physical spacetime, since the symmetry breaking mechanism works only if the stability subgroup is taken to be the Lorentz group. The other foaken to be the Lorentz group. The other four-dimensional rotation groups are therefore ruled out not only on physical, but also on theoretical grounds. Finally, we show that some features, like the necessity of the introduction of a dilaton field, that seem artificial in the context of the affine theory, appear most natural if the gauge group is taken to be the special linear group in five dimensions. We also present an alternative model which is based on the spinor representation of the Lorentz group and is especially adopted to the description of spinor fields in a general linear covariant way, without the use of the infinite dimensional representations which are usually considered to be unavoidable

77

The triangle anomaly in the light-cone gauge

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the triangle anomaly can be evaluated in the light-cone gauge and that the result obtained is consistent with the usual covariant one. We use two different procedures: (i) Eliminating the non-physical fields from the covariant anomalous Ward identity. (ii) Carrying out a chiral transformation on the light-cone lagrangian. The use of both dimensional and Pauli-Villars regularisations are discussed. (orig.)

78

Could the Pioneer anomaly have a gravitational origin?

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If the Pioneer anomaly has a gravitational origin, it would, according to the equivalence principle, distort the motions of the planets in the Solar System. Since no anomalous motion of the planets has been detected, it is generally believed that the Pioneer anomaly can not originate from a gravitational source in the Solar System. However, this conclusion becomes less obvious when considering models that either imply modifications to gravity over long distances or gravitational sources localized to the outer Solar System, given the uncertainty in the orbital parameters of the outer planets. Following the general assumption that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a spherically symmetric space-time metric, we derive the metric disturbance that is needed in order to account for the Pioneer anomaly. We then analyze the residual effects on the astronomical observables of the three outer planets that would arise from this metric disturbance, given an arbitrary metric theory of gravity. Providing a method for comparing the computed residuals with actual residuals, our results imply that the presence of a perturbation to the gravitational field necessary to induce the Pioneer anomaly is in conflict with available data for the planets Uranus and Pluto, but not for Neptune. We therefore conclude that the motion of the Pioneer spacecraft must be nongeodesic. Since our results are model-independent within the class of metric theories of gravity, they can be applied to rories of gravity, they can be applied to rule out any model of the Pioneer anomaly that implies that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a perturbed space-time metric, regardless of the origin of this metric disturbance

79

Freed-Witten anomaly and D-brane gauge theories

We discuss the different nature of the gauge theories on a D-brane or a stack of D-branes, in type II superstring theory, as follows from the Freed-Witten anomaly. Usually on a D-brane world-volume there is a standard gauge theory, described by the A-field thought of as a connection on a complex vector bundle. Actually, this is a particular case, even if it is the most common one. In order to get a complete picture, within the framework provided by the geometry of gerbes with connection, it is necessary to give a joint geometrical description of the A-field and the B-field, via the language of Cech hypercohomology. The Freed-Witten anomaly, which is a global world-sheet anomaly, imposes some constraints on such fields: we will show for each case what is the nature of the corresponding gauge theory on the D-brane or stack of D-branes.

Ruffino, Fabio Ferrari

2012-01-01

80

On the gravitational origin of the Pioneer Anomaly

From Doppler tracking data and data on circular motion of astronomical objects we obtain a metric of the Pioneer Anomaly. The metric resolves the issue of manifest absence of anomaly acceleration in orbits of the outer planets and extra-Pluto objects of the Solar system. However, it turns out that the energy-momentum tensor of matter, which generates such a gravitational field in GR, violates energy dominance conditions. At the same time the equation of state derived from the energy-momentum tensor is that of dark energy with $w=-1/3$. So the model proposed must be carefully studied by "Grand-Fit" investigations.

Siutsou, I A

2009-01-01

81

Non-Singular Cosmology and Gauge Theories of Gravitation

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The resolution of the problem of cosmological singularity in the framework of gauge theories of gravitation is discussed. Generalized cosmological Friedmann equations for homogeneous isotropic models filled by interacting scalar fields and usual gravitating matter are deduced. It is shown that generic feature of cosmological models of flat, open and closed type is their regular bouncing character.

Minkevich, Albert V.

2004-01-01

82

Gauge Approach to Gravitation and Regular Big Bang Theory

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field theoretical scheme of regular Big Bang in 4-dimensional physical space-time, built in the framework of gauge approach to gravitation, is discussed. Regular bouncing character of homogeneous isotropic cosmological models is ensured by gravitational repulsion effect at extreme conditions without quantum gravitational corrections. The most general properties of regular inflationary cosmological models are examined. Developing theory is valid, if energy density of gravitat...

Minkevich, A. V.

2005-01-01

83

Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)

84

Hamiltonian formulation for the gauge theory of the gravitational coupling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies the Hamiltonian mechanics of a relativistic particle interacting with a gravitational field considered as a gauge field of the Poincare group. We follow a general method developed by Sternberg for the case of internal symmetries, that describes the interaction by a suitable modification of the symplectic form. This approach is reviewed and the explicit examples of the electromagnetic and Yang--Mills gauge interactions are widely explained in local coordinates. The peculiar features of a gauge theory of the Poincare group are then discussed and the geometrical picture that emerges suggests the way of modifying the symplectic form for a correct description of the gravitational coupling

85

NS5-branes in IIA supergravity and gravitational anomalies

We construct a gravitational-anomaly-free effective action for the coupled system of IIA D=10 dynamical supergravity interacting with an NS5-brane. The NS5-brane is considered as elementary in that the associated current is a delta-function supported on its worldvolume. Our approach is based on a Chern-kernel which encodes the singularities of the three-form field strength near the brane in an SO(4)-invariant way and provides a solution for its Bianchi identity in terms of a two-form potential. A dimensional reduction of the recently constructed anomaly-free effective action for an elementary M5-brane in D=11 is seen to reproduce our ten-dimensional action. The Chern-kernel approach provides in particular a concrete realization of the anomaly cancellation mechanism envisaged by Witten.

Cariglia, M; Cariglia, Marco; Lechner, Kurt

2002-01-01

86

Anomaly-free formulation of chiral gauge theory and quantum holonomy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the quantization of a fermion field coupled to external gauge fields. Defining the S-matrix carefully by means of the time-dependent Bogoliubov transformation, we show a possibility of an anomaly-free formulation of chiral gauge theories. In this formulation the gauge anomaly is canceled by the non-trivial quantum holonomy of the fermionic Fock vacuum. (author)

87

We show that the topological central charge of a topological phase can be directly accessed from the ground-state wavefunctions for a system on a surface as a Berry curvature produced by adiabatic variation of the metric on the surface, at least up to addition of another topological invariant that arises in some cases. For trial wavefunctions that are given by conformal blocks (chiral correlation functions) in a conformal field theory (CFT), we carry out this calculation analytically, using the hypothesis of generalized screening. The topological central charge is found to be that of the underlying CFT used in the construction, as expected. The calculation makes use of the gravitational anomaly in the chiral CFT. It is also shown that the Hall conductivity can be obtained in an analogous way from the U($1$) gauge anomaly.

Bradlyn, Barry

2015-01-01

88

Holomorphic Anomaly in Gauge Theory on ALE space

We consider four-dimensional Omega-deformed N=2 supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory on A1 space and its lift to five dimensions. We find that the partition functions can be reproduced via special geometry and the holomorphic anomaly equation. Schwinger type integral expressions for the boundary conditions at the monopole/dyon point in moduli space are inferred. The interpretation of the five-dimensional partition function as the partition function of a refined topological string on A1x(local P1xP1) is suggested.

Krefl, Daniel

2011-01-01

89

Axial anomalies in gauge theory by exact renormalization group method

The global chiral symmetry of a SU(2) gauge theory is studied in the framework of renormalization group (RG). The theory is defined by the RG flow equations in the infrared cutoff \\L and the boundary conditions for the relevant couplings. The physical theory is obtained at \\L=0. In our approach the symmetry is implemented by choosing the boundary conditions for the relevant couplings not at the ultraviolet point \\L=\\L_0\\to\\infty but at the physical value \\L=0. As an illustration, we compute the triangle axial anomalies.

Bonini, M; Marchesini, G

1994-01-01

90

Gauge field, strings, solitons, anomalies and the speed of life

It's been said that "mathematics is biology's next microscope, only better; biology is mathematics' next physics, only better". Here we aim for something even better. We try to combine mathematical physics and biology into a picoscope of life. For this we merge techniques which have been introduced and developed in modern mathematical physics, largely by Ludvig Faddeev to describe objects such as solitons and Higgs and to explain phenomena such as anomalies in gauge fields. We propose a synthesis that can help to resolve the protein folding problem, one of the most important conundrums in all of science. We apply the concept of gauge invariance to scrutinize the extrinsic geometry of strings in three dimensional space. We evoke general principles of symmetry in combination with Wilsonian universality and derive an essentially unique Landau-Ginzburg energy that describes the dynamics of a generic string-like configuration in the far infrared. We observe that the energy supports topological solitons, that perta...

Niemi, Antti J

2014-01-01

91

Overcoming the Gauge Problem for the Gravitational Self-Force

The gravitational waves emitted by binary systems with extreme-mass ratios carry unique astrophysical information that can only be detected by space-based detectors like eLISA. To that end, a very accurate modelling of the system is required. The gravitational self-force program, which has been fully developed in the Lorenz gauge, is the best approach we have so far. However, the computations required would be done more efficiently if we could work in other gauges, like the Regge-Wheeler (RW) one in the case of Schwarzschild black holes. In this letter we present a new scheme, based on the Particle-without-Particle formulation of the field equations, where the gravitational self-force can be obtained from just solving individual wave-type equations like the master equations of the RW gauge. This approach can help to tackle the yet unsolved Kerr case.

Canizares, Priscilla

2014-01-01

92

Gauge fields, strings, solitons, anomalies, and the speed of life

Joel Cohen proposed that "mathematics is biology's next microscope, only better; biology is mathematics' next physics, only better." Here, we aim for something even better. We try to combine mathematical physics and biology into a picoscope of life. For this, we merge techniques that were introduced and developed in modern mathematical physics, largely by Ludvig Faddeev, to describe objects such as solitons and Higgs and to explain phenomena such as anomalies in gauge fields. We propose a synthesis that can help to resolve the protein folding problem, one of the most important conundrums in all of science. We apply the concept of gauge invariance to scrutinize the extrinsic geometry of strings in three-dimensional space. We evoke general principles of symmetry in combination with Wilsonian universality and derive an essentially unique Landau-Ginzburg energy that describes the dynamics of a generic stringlike configuration in the far infrared. We observe that the energy supports topological solitons that relate to an anomaly similarly to how a string is framed around its inflection points. We explain how the solitons operate as modular building blocks from which folded proteins are composed. We describe crystallographic protein structures by multisolitons with experimental precision and investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of proteins under temperature variations. We simulate the folding process of a protein at in vivo speed and with close to picoscale accuracy using a standard laptop computer. With picobiology as next pursuit of mathematical physics, things can only get better.

Niemi, A. J.

2014-10-01

93

Aspects of nonlinear conform-affine gravitational gauge field theory

A local gauge theory of gravity based on the Conform-Affine (CA) group of symmetry transformations is proposed. Requiring tetrads be gauge fields on the same footing as gauge potentials, the representation of the CA group is nonlinearly realized over the quotient space CA(3, 1)/SO(3, 1). The transformation behavior of coset fields parameterizing this quotient space is determined. The gauge connections and fundamental vector field operators of the theory are obtained. A generalized gauge transformation law allowing for both spacetime-like and internal diffeomorphisms is employed. The nonlinear translational connection coefficient---transforming as a 4-covector under the Lorentz group---is identified as a coframe field. The tetrads together with the Lorentz group metric are used to induce a spacetime metric. Some connection coefficients serve as auxiliary dynamical fields (associated with spacetime-like dilation, shear and special conformal 4-boosts), while the remaining one serves as a gravitational gauge potential used to define nonlinear covariant derivatives accommodating minimal couplings of matter and gauge fields. The curvature forms of the theory, whose components represent interaction field strengths, are determined. Bulk topological invariants are constructed. They provide a means of "deriving" a prototype gravitational action. Fields belonging to a linear representation of the Lorentz group under the action of CA transformations are introduced as matter sources. The Bianchi identities, covariant field equations, frame and gauge currents are obtained. The Noether and Hilbert identities as well as their corresponding charges are deduced.

Ali, Saleem A.

94

Branes as solutions of gauge theories in gravitational field

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The idea of the Gauss map is unified with the concept of branes as hypersurfaces embedded into D-dimensional Minkowski space. The map introduces new generalized coordinates of branes alternative to their world vectors x and identified with the gauge and other massless fields. In these coordinates the Dirac p-branes realize extremals of the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion of a (p + 1)- dimensional SO(D-p-1) gauge-invariant action in a gravitational background. (orig.)

Zheltukhin, A.A. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine); KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

2014-09-15

95

Branes as solutions of gauge theories in gravitational field

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The idea of the Gauss map is unified with the concept of branes as hypersurfaces embedded into D-dimensional Minkowski space. The map introduces new generalized coordinates of branes alternative to their world vectors x and identified with the gauge and other massless fields. In these coordinates the Dirac p-branes realize extremals of the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion of a (p + 1)- dimensional SO(D-p-1) gauge-invariant action in a gravitational background. (orig.)

96

Covariant and consistent anomalies in even-dimensional chiral gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is devoted to various aspects of anomalies in even-dimensional chiral gauge theories. The difference between the covariant and consistent anomalies is carefully explained in terms of their different origins. The consistent current is defined in terms of a gauge-variant effective action constructed from the covariant current. An alternative scheme is set up where the covariant anomaly is unaltered but the consistent anomaly vanishes because the effective action is gauge-invariant. A discussion of theories with vector and axial currents separately gauged is included: here, apart from the covariant anomalies, two different ways of constructing gauge-variant effective actions are possible, giving rise to different structures of the consistent anomalies. (orig.)

97

Analysis of inflationary cosmological models in gauge theories of gravitation

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inflationary homogeneous isotropic cosmological models filled by scalar fields and ultrarelativistic matter are examined in the framework of gauge theories of gravitation. By using quadratic scalar field potential numerical analysis of flat, open and closed models is curried out. Properties of cosmological models are investigated in dependence on indefinite parameter of cosmological equations and initial conditions at a bounce. Fulfilled analysis demonstrates regular charact...

Minkevich, A. V.; Garkun, A. S.

2005-01-01

98

On the Poincar´e Gauge Theory of Gravitation

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a compact, self-contained review of the conventional gauge theoretical approach to gravitation based on the local Poincare group of symmetry transformations. The covariant field equations, Bianchi identities and conservation laws for angular momentum and energy-momentum are obtained.

Capozziello, Salvatore

2009-01-01

99

Anomaly-free gauged U(1)' in local supersymmetry and baryon-number violation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supersymmetric extension of the standard model suffers from a problem of baryon-number violation. Discrete (and global) symmetries introduced to protect the proton are unstable under gravitational effects. We add a gauged U(1)X to the standard model gauge group GSM and require it to be anomaly-free. As new (chiral) superfields we only allow GSM-singlets in order to maintain the good unification predictions. We find the most general set of solutions for the rational singlet charges. We embed our models in local supersymmetry and study the breaking of supersymmetry and U(1)X to determine MX. We determine the full non-renormalizable and gauge invariant Lagrangian for the different solutions. We expect any effective theory to contain baryon-and lepton-number violating terms of dimension four suppressed by powers of MX/MPl. The power is predicted by the U(1)X charges. We find consistency with the experimental bounds on the proton lifetime and on the neutrino masses. We also expect all supersymmetric models to have an unstable but longlived lightest supersymmetric particle. Consistency with underground experiments on upward going muons leads to stricter constraints than the proton decay experiments. These are barely satisfied. (orig.)

100

Analysis of inflationary cosmological models in gauge theories of gravitation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflationary homogeneous isotropic cosmological models filled by scalar fields and ultrarelativistic matter are examined in the framework of gauge theories of gravitation. By using a quadratic scalar field potential, a numerical analysis of flat, open and closed models is carried out. Properties of cosmological models are investigated in dependence on an indefinite parameter of cosmological equations and initial conditions at a bounce. A fulfilled analysis demonstrates the regular character of all cosmological models

101

Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the gauge gravitation theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The specificity of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the gauge theory of gravity is that Dirac fermion fields possess only exact Lorentz symmetries. As a consequence, different tetrad gravitational fields h and h' define nonisomorphic representations of cotangent vectors to a space-time manifold X4 by Dirac's ?-matrices on fermion fields. One needs these representations in order to construct the Dirac operator. Dirac fermion fields therefore must be considered only in a pair with a certain tetrad gravitational field. We describe the complex of such fermion-gravitational pairs by means of a spinor fibre bundle over the generalized coordinate space X4 x (GL+(4, R)/SO(3,1)). We show that gravitational fields h fail to form an affine space modelled after any vector space of deviations h-h' of some background field h. They therefore fail to be quantized in accordance with the familiar quantum field theory. However, one can consider nongravitational deviations ? of h such that h+? is not a gravitational field. These deviations form a vector space, i.e. they satisfy the superposition principle. Their Lagrangian, however, differs from familiar Lagrangians of gravitation theory. For instance, it contains mass-like terms. (author). 19 refs

102

Geometric structure of the translation gauge theory of gravitation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the translation gauge theory of gravitation, we give a general expression of the affine connexion coefficient satisfying the following conditions: (i) It is a function of the vierbein b sub(kappa)sup(?) and of its first derivative b sub(kappa)sup(?),sub(#betta#). (ii) It is linear in b sub(kappa)sup(?),sub(#betta#). (iii) It satisfies the metricity cond ition. Our expression includes both of the connexion coefficients of the Riemann and Weitzenboeck space-times as special ones, and hence, the space-time in the translation gauge theory is of Riemann-Cartan type. We fix the gravitational interaction of matter fields following Hayashi's method. The most general quadratic Lagrangian density of b sub(kappa)sup(?) is represented in terms of the curvature scalar and of the torsion tensor. In the case of electromagnetic field interacting with gravitational field, it is pointed out that the torsion tensor can give rise to observable effects if the field strength F sub(??) of the electromagnetic field is given by F sub(??) = nabla sub(?)A sub(#betta#) - nabla sub(#betta#)A sub(?). Besides the electric charge of the matter field there is a charge which is associated both with the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. In the case of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields produced by a spherically symmetric massive charged matter, the effects of the torsion tensor appear in the post-Newtonian term in the gravitational potential and in the ''post-Coulombian tl and in the ''post-Coulombian term'' in the electric field strength. We point out the available experimental data in the astronomy impose no restriction on the connexion coefficient. (author)

103

Spontaneous breakdown of the vacuum in the gauge-covariant theory of gravitation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of the gauge covariant theory of gravitation it is shown that, if one wishes to recover Einstein's equations to define the so-called gravitational units, there are, in the vacuum case, two possible gravitational gauges; nevertheless, they establish a different set of units, and, therefore, a degeneracy arises which has to be removed using physical assumptions. (author)

104

Resolution of axial anomaly problem in supersymmetric gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explicit form of transformation is found which converters the operators, involved in axial anomaly, from the renormalization scheme obeying the Adler-BaAdeen theorem to a supersymmetric one. It is shown that there is no contradiction between axial current and superconformal anomalies. In supersymmetric scheme the axial current and its anomaly belong to the corresponding supermultiplets

105

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs

106

Superspace analysis of local Lorentz and gauge anomalies in the heterotic string theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local Lorentz and gauge anomalies in the sigma model describing the propagation of the heterotic string in an arbitrary background field are discussed in the superspace formulation. An expression for these anomalies is written down in terms of the superfields, and is shown to cancel against an anomalous variation of the antisymmetric tensor field. World-sheet supersymmetry is manifest throughout this analysis. (orig.)

107

A Note on Transverse Axial Vector and Vector Anomalies in U(1) Gauge Theories

We reexamine the problem of transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in four-dimensional U(1) gauge theories studied in [10] using perturbative method. It is found that there are no transverse anomalies for both axial vector and vector current. A comparison between our results and those of [10] is given.

Sun, W M; Chen, X S; Wang, F; Sun, Wei-Min; Zong, Hong-Shi; Chen, Xiang-Song; Wang, Fan

2003-01-01

108

A note on transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in U(1) gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in four-dimensional U(1) gauge theories studied in [Phys. Lett. B 507 (2001) 351] is reexamined by means of perturbative method. The absence of transverse anomalies for both axial vector and vector current is verified. We also show that the Pauli-Villars regularization and dimensional regularization gives the same result on the transverse anomaly of both axial vector and vector current

109

A Note on Transverse Axial Vector and Vector Anomalies in U(1) Gauge Theories

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in four-dimensional U(1) gauge theories studied in [10] is reexamined by means of perturbative methods. The absence of transverse anomalies for both axial vector and vector current is verified. We also show that the Pauli-Villars regularization and dimensional regularization give the same result on the transverse anomaly of both axial vector and vector current.

Sun, Wei-min; Zong, Hong-shi; Chen, Xiang-song; Wang, Fan

2003-01-01

110

Hawking Radiation from Black Holes of Constant Negative Curvature via Gravitational Anomalies

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I derive the Hawking flux from black holes of constant negative curvature and from a black hole of constant negative curvature conformally coupled to a scalar field, using the covariant gravitational anomalies method.

Skamagoulis, Petros

2010-01-01

111

The approximate solution with torsion for a charged particle in a gauge theory of gravitation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a method of finding an approximate solution of field equations in a gauge theory of gravitation is given by means of physical considerations. Using this method, an approximate solution of the field of a charged particle in a gauge theory of gravitation, a space-time metric and torsion tensors, is obtained. This method can also be used to solve field equations in other gauge theories of gravitation. (author)

112

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Homogeneous scaling of the group space of the Poincare group, P10, is shown to induce scalings of all geometric quantities associated with the local action of P10. The field equations for both the translation and the Lorentz rotation compensating fields reduce to O(1) equations if the scaling parameter is set equal to the general relativistic gravitational coupling constant 8?Gc-4. Standard expansions of all field variables in power series in the scaling parameter give the following results. The zeroth-order field equations are exactly the classical field equations for matter fields on Minkowski space subject to local action of an internal symmetry group (classical gauge theory). The expansion process is shown to break P10-gauge covariance of the theory, and hence solving the zeroth-order field equations imposes an implicit system of P10-gauge conditions. Explicit systems of field equations are obtained for the first- and higher-order approximations. The first-order translation field equations are driven by the momentum-energy tensor of the matter and internal compensating fields in the zeroth order (classical gauge theory), while the first-order Lorentz rotation field equations are driven by the spin currents of the same classical gauge theory. Field equations for the first-order gravitational corrections to the matter fields and the gauge fields for the internal symmetry group are obtained. Direct Poincare gauge theory is thus shown to satisfy the first two of the three-part acid test of any unified field theory. Satisfaction of the third part of the test, at least for finite neighborhoods, seems probable

113

Axial and gauge anomalies in the field-antifield quantization of the generalized Schwinger model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the generalized Schwinger model the vector and axial vector currents are linearly coupled, with arbitrary coefficients, to the gauge connection. Therefore it represents an interesting example of a theory where both gauge anomalies and anomalous divergences of global currents show up in general. We derive results for these two kinds of quantum corrections inside the field-antifield framework. (author)

114

On gravitational repulsion effect at extreme conditions in gauge theories of gravity

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Homogeneous isotropic gravitating models are discussed in the framework of gauge approach to gravitation. Generalized cosmological Friedmann equations without specific solutions are deduced for models filled by scalar fields and usual gravitating matter. Extreme conditions, by which gravitational repulsion effect takes place, are analyzed.

Minkevich, A. V.

2005-01-01

115

Space-time dependent couplings In N = 1 SUSY gauge theories: Anomalies and central functions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories in which the couplings are allowed to be space-time dependent functions. Both the gauge and the superpotential couplings become chiral superfields. As has recently been shown, a new topological anomaly appears in models with space-time dependent gauge coupling. Here we show how this anomaly may be used to derive the NSVZ ?-function in a particular, well-determined renormalisation scheme, both without and with chiral matter. Moreover we extend the topological anomaly analysis to theories coupled to a classical curved superspace background, and use it to derive an all-order expression for the central charge c, the coefficient of the Weyl tensor squared contribution to the conformal anomaly. We also comment on the implications of our results for the central charge a expected to be of relevance for a four-dimensional C-theorem. (author)

116

Anomaly term in the N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Schwinger slowly varying field approximation is used to compute the terms in the effective lagrangian that reproduce the anomalies of the underlying theory. This method has been applied to extract the anomaly term in the case of pure N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

Di Vecchia, P.; Musto, R.; Nicodemi, F.; Pettorino, R.

1985-04-15

117

The anomaly term in the N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Schwinger slowly varying field approximation is used to compute the terms in the effective lagrangian that reproduce the anomalies of the underlying theory. This method has been applied to extract the anomaly term in the case of pure N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. (orig.)

118

We develop a general method to compute correlation functions of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states on a curved space. In a curved space, local transformation properties of FQH states are examined through local geometric variations, which are essentially governed by the gravitational anomaly. Furthermore, we show that the electromagnetic response of FQH states is related to the gravitational response (a response to curvature). Thus, the gravitational anomaly is also seen in the structure factor and the Hall conductance in flat space. The method is based on an iteration of a Ward identity obtained for FQH states. PMID:25105643

Can, T; Laskin, M; Wiegmann, P

2014-07-25

119

Anomaly-free U(1) gauge symmetries in neutrino seesaw flavor models

Adding right-handed neutrino singlets and/or fermion triplets to the particle content of the Standard Model allows for the implementation of the seesaw mechanism to give mass to neutrinos and, simultaneously, for the construction of anomaly-free gauge group extensions of the theory. We consider Abelian extensions based on an extra U(1)_X gauge symmetry, where X is an arbitrary linear combination of the baryon number B and the individual lepton numbers L_{e,mu,tau}. By requiring cancellation of gauge anomalies, we perform a detailed analysis in order to identify the charge assignments under the new gauge symmetry that lead to neutrino phenomenology compatible with current experiments. In particular, we study how the new symmetry can constrain the flavor structure of the Majorana neutrino mass matrix, leading to two-zero textures with a minimal extra fermion and scalar content. The possibility of distinguishing different gauge symmetries and seesaw realizations at colliders is also briefly discussed.

Cebola, Luis M; Felipe, Ricardo Gonzalez

2013-01-01

120

On anomalies of E8 gauge theory on String manifolds

In this note we revisit the subject of anomaly cancelation in string theory and M-theory on manifolds with String structure and give three observations. First, that on String manifolds there is no E8 x E_8 global anomaly in heterotic string theory. Second, that the description of the anomaly in the phase of the M-theory partition function of Diaconescu-Moore-Witten extends from the Spin case to the String case. Third, that the cubic refinement law of Diaconescu-Freed-Moore for the phase of the M-theory partition function extends to String manifolds.

Sati, Hisham

2008-01-01

121

All proposed gravitational explanations of the Pioneer anomaly must crucially face the Equivalence Principle. Thus, if Pioneers 10 and 11 were influenced by anomalous gravitational effects in regions containing other Solar System bodies, then those bodies should likewise be influenced, irrespective of their shape, composition or mass. Although the lack of any observed influence upon planetary orbits severely constrains such explanations, here we aim to construct by computer modeling, hypothetical gravitating annuli having no gravitational impact on planetary orbits from Mercury to Neptune. One model has a central zone, free of radial gravitation in the annular plane, and an ‘onset’ beyond Saturn’s orbit, where sunward annular gravitation increases to match the Pioneer anomaly data. Sharp nulls are included so that Uranus and Neptune escape this influence. Such models can be proportionately reduced in mass: a 1 % contribution to the anomaly requires an annulus of approximately 1 Earth mass. It is thus possible to comply with the JPL assessment of newly recovered data attributing 80 %, or more, of the anomaly to spacecraft heat, which appears to allow small contributions from other causes. Following the possibility of an increasing Kuiper belt density at great ranges, another model makes an outward small anomalous gravitation in the TNO region, tallying with an observed slight indication of such an effect, suggesting that New Horizons may slightly accelerate in this region.

Moore, Guy S. M.; Moore, Richard E. M.

2013-10-01

122

On the problem of axial anomaly in supersymmetric gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explicit relation is found between the axial current obeying the Adler-Bardeen theorem and the supersymmetric one belonging to a supermultiplet. It is shown that the axial and superconformal anomalies are consistent in all orders of perturbation theory

123

Chiral Imprint of a Cosmic Gauge Field on Primordial Gravitational Waves

A cosmological gauge field with isotropic stress-energy introduces parity violation into the behavior of gravitational waves. We show that a primordial spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves develops a preferred handedness, left- or right-circularly polarized, depending on the abundance and coupling of the gauge field during the radiation era. A modest abundance of the gauge field would induce parity-violating correlations of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization patterns that could be detected by current and future experiments.

Bielefeld, Jannis

2014-01-01

124

Axial anomaly in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm gauge field

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The axial anomaly for Euclidean Dirac fermions in the presence of a background Aharonov-Bohm gauge potential was computed. The non-perturbative result depends on the self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac operator. The role of the quantum mechanical parameters involved in the expression for the axial anomaly is discussed. A derivation of the effective action by means of the stereographic projection is also considered. (authors). 14 refs

125

Application of the Lie-isotopic lifting of gauge theory to a system of gauge fields and gravitation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By making use of some results previously obtained in the Lie-isotopic lifting of conventional gauge theory, it will be derived a Lagrangian density for a modified gauge theory in a curved space-time, which is shown to resemble a generalized Kaluza-Klein Lagrangian density for a system of gauge fields and gravitation. It is also pointed out that the isotopic element for which it is adopted a scalar field in this case plays a fundamental role in our theory

126

Chiral gauge theories and anomalies in the Wilson renormalization group approach

We extend the Wilson renormalization group (RG) formulation to chiral gauge theories and show that local gauge symmetry can be implemented by a suitable choice of the RG flow boundary conditions. Since the space-time dimension is four, there is no ambiguity in handling the matrix $\\g_5$ and left and right fermions are not coupled. As a result the ultraviolet action contains all possible globally chiral invariant interactions. Nevertheless, the correct chiral anomaly is reproduced.

Bonini, M

1998-01-01

127

Chiral gauge theories and anomalies in the Wilson renormalization group approach

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We extend the Wilson renormalization group (RG) formulation to chiral gauge theories and show that local gauge symmetry can be implemented by a suitable choice of the RG flow boundary conditions. Since the space-time dimension is four, there is no ambiguity in handling the matrix ?5 and left and right fermions are not coupled. As a result, the ultraviolet action contains all possible globally chiral invariant interactions. Nevertheless, the correct chiral anomaly is reproduced. (orig.)

128

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The standard model $SU(2)_L\\times U(1)_Y$ gauging of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term requires a modified counterterm when background fields, needed to generate the full set of currents, are introduced. The modified counterterm plays an essential role in properly defining covariant global currents and their anomalies. For example, it is required in order to correctly derive the gauge invariant baryon number current and its anomalous divergence. The background fields can also be p...

Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Hill, Christopher T.; Hill, Richard J.

2007-01-01

129

Axial-vector anomaly in lattice gauge theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exact derivation of the anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities on a finite lattice is given. It is shown in a general way that the contribution from the fermion-degeneracy regularization in the limit leads to the continuum form of the anomaly term. Thus the interconnection is established independently of perturbation theory

130

The global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory

We derive a formula for the global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory on an arbitrary compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Along the way, we uncover interesting links between the theory of determinant line bundles of Dirac operators, Siegel theta functions and a functor constructed by Hopkins and Singer. We apply our result to type IIB supergravity and show that in the naive approximation where the Ramond-Ramond fields are treated as differential cohomology classes, the global gravitational anomaly vanishes on all 10-dimensional spin manifolds. We sketch a few other important physical applications.

Monnier, Samuel

2014-01-01

131

The Global Gravitational Anomaly of the Self-dual Field Theory

We derive a formula for the global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory on an arbitrary compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Along the way, we uncover interesting links between the theory of determinant line bundles of Dirac operators, Siegel theta functions and a functor constructed by Hopkins and Singer. We apply our result to type IIB supergravity and show that in the naive approximation where the Ramond-Ramond fields are treated as differential cohomology classes, the global gravitational anomaly vanishes on all 10-dimensional spin manifolds. We sketch a few other important physical applications.

Monnier, Samuel

2014-01-01

132

Odd Decays from Even Anomalies: Gauge Mediation Signatures Without SUSY

We analyze the theory and phenomenology of anomalous global chiral symmetries in the presence of an extra dimension. We propose a simple extension of the Standard Model in 5D whose signatures closely resemble those of supersymmetry with gauge mediation, and we suggest a novel scalar dark matter candidate.

Csaki, Csaba; Hubisz, Jay; Shirman, Yuri

2009-01-01

133

Gravitational solution to the Pioneer 10/11 anomaly

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A fully relativistic modified gravitational theory including a fifth force skew symmetric field is fitted to the Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration. The theory allows for a variation with distance scales of the gravitational constant G, the fifth force skew symmetric field coupling strength omega and the mass of the skew symmetric field mu=1/lambda. A fit to the available anomalous acceleration data for the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft is obtained for a phenomenological repres...

Brownstein, J. R.; Moffat, J. W.

2005-01-01

134

Adler-Bardeen theorem and manifest anomaly cancellation to all orders in gauge theories

We reconsider the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the cancellation of gauge anomalies to all orders, when they vanish at one loop. Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism and combining the dimensional-regularization technique with the higher-derivative gauge-invariant regularization, we prove the theorem in the most general perturbatively unitary renormalizable gauge theories coupled to matter in four dimensions, and identify the subtraction scheme where anomaly cancellation to all orders is manifest, namely no subtractions of finite local counterterms are required from two loops onwards. Our approach is based on an order-by-order analysis of renormalization, and, differently from most derivations existing in the literature, does not make use of arguments based on the properties of the renormalization group. As a consequence, the proof we give also applies to conformal field theories and finite theories.

Anselmi, Damiano

2014-01-01

135

Gauge anomaly cancellations in $SU(2)_{L} \\times U(1)_{Y}$ Electroweak theory on the lattice

We consider the cohomological classification of the 4+2-dimensional topological field, which is proposed by L\\"uscher, for SU(2)_L \\times U(1)_Y electroweak theory. The dependence on the admissible abelian gauge field of U(1)_Y is determined through topological argument, with SU(2)_L gauge field fixed as background. We then show the exact cancellation of the local gauge anomaly of the mixed type {SU(2)_L}^2 \\times U(1)_Y at finite lattice spacing, as well as {U(1)_Y}^3, using the pseudo reality of SU(2)_L and the anomaly cancellation conditions in the electroweak theory given in terms of the hyper-charges of U(1)_Y.

Kikukawa, Y; Kikukawa, Yoshio; Nakayama, Yoichi

2001-01-01

136

Adler-Bardeen theorem and manifest anomaly cancellation to all orders in gauge theories

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reconsider the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the cancellation of gauge anomalies to all orders, when they vanish at one loop. Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism and combining the dimensional-regularization technique with the higher-derivative gauge invariant regularization, we prove the theorem in the most general perturbatively unitary renormalizable gauge theories coupled to matter in four dimensions, and we identify the subtraction scheme where anomaly cancellation to all orders is manifest, namely no subtractions of finite local counterterms are required from two loops onwards. Our approach is based on an order-by-order analysis of renormalization, and, differently from most derivations existing in the literature, does not make use of arguments based on the properties of the renormalization group. As a consequence, the proof we give also applies to conformal field theories and finite theories. (orig.)

Anselmi, Damiano [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica ' ' Enrico Fermi' '

2014-10-15

137

Stochastic quantization and gauge-fixing of the linearized gravitational field

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the indefiniteness of the Euclidean gravitational action the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme fails in the case of the gravitational field. Therefore we apply a recently proposed modification of stochastic quantization that works in Minkowski space and preserves all the advantages of the original Parisi-Wu method; in particular no gauge-fixing is required. Additionally stochastic gauge-fixing may be introduced and is also studied in detail. The graviton propagators obtained with and without stochastic gauge-fixing all exhibit a noncausal contribution, but apart from this effect the gauge-invariant quantities are the same as those of standard quantization. (Author)

138

Pioneer anomaly? Gravitational pull due to the Kuiper belt

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we study the gravitational influence of the material extending from Uranus orbit to the Kuiper belt and beyond on objects moving within these regions. We conclude that a density distribution given by $\\rho(r)=\\frac{1}{r}$ (for $r\\geq 20 UA$) generates a constant acceleration towards the Sun on those objects, which, with the proper amount of mass, accounts for the blue shift detected on the Pioneers space crafts. We also discuss the effect of this gravitational p...

Diego, Jose A.; Nunez, Dario; Zavala, Jesus

2005-01-01

139

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that ghosts in gauge theories can be interpreted as Maurer-Cartan forms in the infinite dimensional group G of gauge transformations. We examine the cohomology of the Lie algebra of G and identify the coboundary opeator with the BRS operator. We describe the anomalous terms encountered in the renormalization of gauge theories (triangle anomalies) as elements of these cohomology groups. (orig.)

140

Exact results in two dimensional chiral hydrodynamics with gravitational anomalies

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An exact formulation of two dimensional chiral hydrodynamics with diffeomorphism and conformal anomalies is provided. The constitutive relation involving the stress tensor is computed. It reveals a one parameter class of solutions which is a new result. For a particular value of this parameter, the results found in the gradient expansion scheme are reproduced. Moreover, the constitutive relation is analogous to the corresponding relation for an ideal fluid, appropriately mod...

Banerjee, Rabin

2013-01-01

141

Gravitational solution to the Pioneer 10/11 anomaly

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fully relativistic modified gravitational theory including a fifth force skew-symmetric field is fitted to the Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration. The theory allows for a variation with distance scales of the gravitational constant G, the fifth force skew-symmetric field coupling strength ? and the mass of the skew-symmetric field ? = 1/?. A fit to the available anomalous acceleration data for the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft is obtained for a phenomenological representation of the 'running' constants and values of the associated parameters are shown to exist that are consistent with fifth force experimental bounds. The fit to the acceleration data is consistent with all current satellite, laser ranging and observations for the inner planets

142

Conformal anomalies in a general background metric

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using the dimensional regularization procedure, we explicitly calculate the coefficients of conformal anomalies in a general background metric due to scalar, spin 1/2 fermion, gauge and gravitation fields. (Auth.)

143

We prove the Adler-Bardeen theorem in a large class of general gauge theories, including nonrenormalizable ones. We assume that the gauge symmetries are general covariance, local Lorentz symmetry and Abelian and non-Abelian Yang-Mills symmetries, and that the local functionals of vanishing ghost number satisfy a variant of the Kluberg-Stern--Zuber conjecture. We show that if the gauge anomalies are trivial at one loop, for every truncation of the theory there exists a subtraction scheme where they manifestly vanish to all orders, within the truncation. Outside the truncation the cancellation of gauge anomalies can be enforced by fine-tuning local counterterms. The framework of the proof is worked out by combining a recently formulated chiral dimensional regularization with a gauge invariant higher-derivative regularization. If the higher-derivative regularizing terms are placed well beyond the truncation, and the energy scale $\\Lambda$ associated with them is kept fixed, the theory is super-renormalizable and...

Anselmi, Damiano

2015-01-01

144

Problem of Cosmological Singularity, Inflationary Cosmology and Gauge Theories of Gravitation

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem of cosmological singularity is discussed in the framework of gauge theories of gravitation. Generalizing cosmological Friedmann equations (GCFE) for homogeneous isotropic models including scalar fields and usual gravitating matter are introduced. It is shown that by certain restrictions on equation of state of gravitating matter and indefinite parameter of GCFE generic feature of inflationary cosmological models of flat, open and closed type is their regular bouncing...

Minkevich, A. V.

2003-01-01

145

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We point out that slepton pairs produced via gauge boson fusion in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model have very characteristic and almost clean signal at the Large Hadron Collider. In this article, we discuss how one lepton associated with missing energy and produced in between two high-$p_T$ and high-mass forward jets can explore quite heavy sleptons in this scenario.

Datta, Anindya; Huitu, Katri

2002-01-01

146

Currents and the anomalies in chiral gauge theories: Dynamical approach in higher dimensions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integral representation for the fermion effective action for chiral gauge theories in d = 2n space-time dimensions is given which is able to reproduce the mismatch, as suggested by differential geometric methods, between the covariant current and the consistent current. Both types of anomalies (i.e. covariant as well as consistent) can also be calculated without having to evaluate Feynman diagrams or to introduce any local counterterms. (orig.)

147

Gravitational anomalies signaling the breakdown of classical gravity

Recent observations for three types of astrophysical systems severely challenge the GR plus dark matter scenario, showing a phenomenology which is what modified gravity theories predict. Stellar kinematics in the outskirts of globular clusters show the appearance of MOND type dynamics on crossing the $a_{0}$ threshold. Analysis shows a ``Tully-Fisher'' relation in these systems, a scaling of dispersion velocities with the fourth root of their masses. Secondly, an anomaly has been found at the unexpected scales of wide binaries in the solar neighbourhood. Binary orbital velocities cease to fall along Keplerian expectations, and settle at a constant value, exactly on crossing the $a_{0}$ threshold. Finally, the inferred infall velocity of the bullet cluster is inconsistent with the standard cosmological scenario, where much smaller limit encounter velocities appear. This stems from the escape velocity limit present in standard gravity; the ``bullet'' should not hit the ``target'' at more than the escape velocit...

Hernandez, X; Allen, C

2014-01-01

148

Gravitational Waves from Abelian Gauge Fields and Cosmic Strings at Preheating

Primordial gravitational waves provide a very important stochastic background that could be detected soon with interferometric gravitational wave antennas or indirectly via the induced patterns in the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The detection of these waves will open a new window into the early Universe, and therefore it is important to characterize in detail all possible sources of primordial gravitational waves. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical methods to study the production of gravitational waves from out-of-equilibrium gauge fields at preheating. We then consider models of preheating after hybrid inflation, where the symmetry breaking field is charged under a local U(1) symmetry. We analyze in detail the dynamics of the system in both momentum and configuration space, and show that gauge fields leave specific imprints in the resulting gravitational wave spectra, mainly through the appearence of new peaks at characteristic frequencies that are related to...

Dufaux, Jean-Francois; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.083518

2010-01-01

149

Gravitational anomalies can be realized on the boundary of topologically ordered states in one higher dimension and are described by topological orders in one higher dimension. In this paper, we try to develop a general theory for both topological order and gravitational anomaly in any dimensions. (1) We introduce the notion of BF category to describe the braiding and fusion properties of topological excitations that can be point-like, string-like, etc. A subset of BF categories -- closed BF categories -- classify topological orders in any dimensions, while generic BF categories classify (potentially) anomalous topological orders that can appear at a boundary of a gapped quantum liquid in one higher dimension. (2) We introduce topological path integral based on tensor network to realize those topological orders. (3) Bosonic topological orders have an important topological invariant: the vector bundles of the degenerate ground states over the moduli spaces of closed spaces with different metrics. They may full...

Kong, Liang

2014-01-01

150

Gravitational Anomalies Signaling the Breakdown of Classical Gravity

Recent observations for three types of astrophysical systems severely challenge the GR plus dark matter scenario, showing a phenomenology which is what modified gravity theories predict. Stellar kinematics in the outskirts of globular clusters show the appearance of MOND type dynamics on crossing the a 0 threshold. Analysis shows a "Tully-Fisher" relation in these systems, a scaling of dispersion velocities with the fourth root of their masses. Secondly, an anomaly has been found at the unexpected scales of wide binaries in the solar neighbourhood. Binary orbital velocities cease to fall along Keplerian expectations, and settle at a constant value, exactly on crossing the a 0 threshold. Finally, the inferred infall velocity of the bullet cluster is inconsistent with the standard cosmological scenario, where much smaller limit encounter velocities appear. This stems from the escape velocity limit present in standard gravity; the "bullet" should not hit the "target" at more than the escape velocity of the joint system, as it very clearly did. These results are consistent with extended gravity, but would require rather contrived explanations under GR, each. Thus, observations now put us in a situation where modifications to gravity at low acceleration scales cease to be a matter of choice, to now become inevitable.

Hernandez, X.; Jiménez, A.; Allen, C.

151

Hawking radiation from the Schwarzschild black hole with a global monopole via gravitational anomaly

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hawking flux from the Schwarzschild black hole with a global monopole is obtained by using Robinson and Wilczek's method. Adopting a dimension reduction technique, the effective quantum field in the (3+1)--dimensional global monopole background can be described by an infinite collection of the (1+1)--dimensional massless fields if neglecting the ingoing modes near the horizon, where the gravitational anomaly can be cancelled by the (1+1)--dimensional black body radiation at ...

Peng, Jun-jin; Wu, Shuang-qing

2007-01-01

152

Can the Pioneer anomaly be of gravitational origin? A phenomenological answer

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to satisfy the equivalence principle, any non-conventional mechanism proposed to gravitationally explain the Pioneer anomaly, in the form in which it is presently known from the so-far analyzed Pioneer 10/11 data, cannot leave out of consideration its impact on the motion of the planets of the Solar System as well, especially those orbiting in the regions in which the anomalous behavior of the Pioneer probes manifested itself. In this paper we, first, discuss the re...

Iorio, Lorenzo

2006-01-01

153

Stochastic quantization and gauge-fixing of the linearized gravitational field

Due to the indefiniteness of the euclidean gravitational action the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme fails in the case of the gavitational field. Therefore we apply a recently proposed modification of stochastic quantization that works in Minkowski space and preserves all the advantages of the original Parisi-Wu method; in particular no gauge-fixing is required. Additionally stochastic gauge-fixing may be introduced and is also studied in detail. The graviton propagators obtained with and without stochastic gauge-fixing all exhibit a noncausal contribution, but apart from this effect the gauge-invariant quantities are the same as those of standard quantization.

Hüffel, H.; Rumpf, H.

1985-06-01

154

The principal goal of the physics of the fundamental interactions is to provide a consistent description of the nature of the subnuclear forces, which manifest in our universe, together with the gravitational force, in a unified framework. This attempt, which is far from being complete, is characterized by two milestones, the Standard Model of the elementary particles and the Einstein's theory of General Relativity. The coupling of a quantum field theory, such as the Standard Model, to a weak gravitational background provides significant information concerning the coupling of matter to gravity and allows to study in a systematic way the origin of the conformal anomaly. For this reason, the computation of correlation functions in a weak gravitational background is of remarkable interest and the consequences of this analysis are also of phenomenological relevance. For instance, they concern the appearance in the spectrum of the theory of a composite state, the dilaton, which is identified, in perturbation theor...

Rose, Luigi Delle

2013-01-01

155

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nonsinglet axial anomaly is calculated by employing Schwinger's point-splitting regularization of the interaction between fermions and a non-Abelian gauge field. This method makes it possible to obtain a covariant expression for the anomaly directly from the effective action for the gauge field. Previously, the anomaly under study was calculated by many other methods. However, all calculations based on the point-splitting regularization (from the pioneering study of Bardeen in 1969) involve a number of intermediate steps and subtractions of specially chosen polynomials in the field

156

Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free Z{sub N} symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z{sub 6} symmetry, proton hexality P{sub 6}, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LH{sub u}LH{sub u}. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1){sub X} FN models in which the Z{sub 3} symmetry baryon triality, B{sub 3}, arises from U(1){sub X} breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B{sub 3}-conserving FN models. (orig.)

Luhn, C.

2006-05-15

157

Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free ZN symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z6 symmetry, proton hexality P6, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LHuLHu. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1)X FN models in which the Z3 symmetry baryon triality, B3, arises from U(1)X breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B3-conserving FN models. (orig.)

158

Generalized Formalism in Gauge-Invariant Gravitational Perturbations

By use of the gauge-invariant variables proposed by Kodama and Ishibashi, we obtain the most general perturbation equations in the $(m+n)$-dimensional spacetime with a warped product metric. These equations do not depend on the spectral expansions of the Laplace-type operators on the $n$-dimensional Einstein manifold. These equations enable us to have a complete gauge-invariant perturbation theory and a well-defined spectral expansion for all modes and the gauge invariance is kept for each mode. By studying perturbations of some projections of Weyl tensor in the case of $m=2$, we define three Teukolsky-like gauge-invariant variables and obtain the perturbation equations of these variables by considering perturbations of the Penrose wave equations in the $(2+n)$-dimensional Einstein spectime. In particular, we find the relations between the Teukolsky-like gauge-invariant variables and the Kodama-Ishibashi gauge-invariant variables. These relations imply that the Kodama-Ishibashi gauge-invariant variables all c...

Cai, Rong-Gen

2013-01-01

159

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using anomalous viewpoint, we study the Hawking radiation from a kind of topological Kerr Anti-de-Sitter (Kerr-AdS) black hole with one rotational parameter. We employ the covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies. The result supports the Robinson–Wilczek opinion and shows that the Hawking temperature can be correctly determined by cancelling covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies at the horizon

160

Anomaly, gauge and gaugino mediation in brane worlds with messenger matter

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theories in which supersymmetry is broken on another brane, which is separated from the minimal supersymmetry standard model (MSSM) matter fields in an extra dimension, are attractive because they may solve the supersymmetric flavor problem. We consider the effects in such theories of new messenger fields with standard model gauge charges and with direct couplings to the supersymmetry breaking sector. The effect on the masses of the MSSM superpartners can be dramatic. In particular, the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation and the stable slepton problem of gaugino mediation can be cured

161

From Gauge Anomalies to Gerbes and Gerbal Representations: Group Cocycles in Quantum Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I shall discuss the role of group cohomology in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. First, I recall how cocycles of degree 1 and 2 appear naturally in the context of gauge anomalies. Then we investigate how group cohomology of degree 3 comes from a prolongation problem for group extensions and we discuss its role in quantum field theory. Finally, we discuss a generalization to representation theory where a representation is replaced by a 1-cocycle or its prolongation by a circle, and point out how this type of situations come up in the quantization of Yang-Mills theory.

J. Mickelsson

2010-01-01

162

Chiral symmetry breaking and nonperturbative scale anomaly in gauge field theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nonperturbative dynamics of chiral and scale symmetry breaking in asymtotically free and non-asymptotically free (with an ultraviolet stable fixed point) vector-like gauge theories is investigated. In the two-loop approximation analytical expressions for the chiral and gluon condensates are obtained. The hypothesis about a soft behaviour at small distances of composite operators in non-asymptotically free gauge theories with a fixed point is put forward and substantiated. It is shown that in these theories the form of the scale anomaly depends on the type of the phase in coupling constant to which it relates. A new dilaton effective lagrangian for glueball and chiral fields is suggested. The mass relation for the single scalar fermion-antifermion bound state is obtained. The important ingredient of this approach is a large (d? 2) dynamical dimension of composite chiral fields. The application of this approach to QCD and technicolour models is discussed

163

Minimal anomaly-free chiral fermion sets and gauge coupling unification

We look for minimal chiral sets of fermions beyond the standard model that are anomaly free and, simultaneously, vectorlike particles with respect to color SU (3 ) and electromagnetic U (1 ). We then study whether the addition of such particles to the standard model particle content allows for the unification of gauge couplings at a high energy scale, above 5.0 ×1015 GeV so as to be safely consistent with proton decay bounds. The possibility to have unification at the string scale is also considered. Inspired in grand unified theories, we also search for minimal chiral fermion sets that belong to SU (5 ) multiplets, restricted to representations up to dimension 50. It is shown that, in various cases, it is possible to achieve gauge unification provided that some of the extra fermions decouple at relatively high intermediate scales.

Cebola, Luís M.; Emmanuel-Costa, D.; Felipe, R. González; Simões, C.

2014-12-01

164

All-loop gauge couplings from anomaly cancellation in string effective theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We derive, to all orders in perturbation theory, the E8 gauge coupling and the modified dilaton-axion Kaehler potential for the effective theories of a class of d=4, N=1 heterotic string models. The derivation relies on an extended version of the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism, and exploits target-space duality invariance. Although we deal with field-dependent effective gauge couplings and scales in a non-renormalizable supergravity theory, we derive for them a renormalization group equation as a relation among dynamical fields. When expectation values of these fields are considered, our results agree with those previously obtained in renormalizable theories with N=1 global supersymmetry. We finally comment on possible generalizations of the present results. (orig.)

165

Gauge theory duals of black hole - black string transitions of gravitational theories on a circle

We study the black hole - black string phase transitions of gravitational theories compactified on a circle using the holographic duality conjecture. The gauge theory duals of these theories are maximally supersymmetric and strongly coupled 1 + 1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theories compactified on a circle, in the large $N$ limit. We perform the strongly coupled finite temperature gauge theory calculations on a lattice, using the recently developed exact lattice supersymmetry methods based on topological twisting and orbifolding. The spatial Polyakov line serves as relevant order parameter of the confinement - deconfinement phase transitions in the gauge theory duals.

Catterall, Simon; Wiseman, Toby

2010-01-01

166

Anomalies of Density, Stresses, and the Gravitational Field in the Interior of Mars

We determined the possible compensation depths for relief harmonics of different degrees and orders. The relief is shown to be completely compensated within the depth range of 0 to 1400 km. The lateral distributions of compensation masses are determined at these depths and the maps are constructed. The possible nonisostatic vertical stresses in the crust and mantle of Mars are estimated to be 64 MPa in compression and 20 MPa in tension. The relief anomalies of the Tharsis volcanic plateau and symmetric feature in the eastern hemisphere could have arisen and been maintained dynamically due to two plumes in the mantle substance that are enriched with fluids. The plumes that originate at the core of Mars can arise and be maintained by the anomalies of the inner gravitational field achieving +800 mGal in the region of plume formation, - 1200 mGal above the lower mantle-core transition layer, and -1400 mGal at the crust.

Chuikova, N A; Maksimova, T G; 10.3103/S0027134912020075

2012-01-01

167

Gauged R-symmetry and its anomalies in 4D N=1 supergravity and phenomenological implications

We consider a class of models with gauged U(1)_R symmetry in 4D N=1 supergravity that have, at the classical level, a metastable ground state, an infinitesimally small (tunable) positive cosmological constant and a TeV gravitino mass. We analyse if these properties are maintained under the addition of visible sector (MSSM-like) and hidden sector state(s), where the latter may be needed for quantum consistency. We then discuss the anomaly cancellation conditions in supergravity as derived by Freedman, Elvang and K\\"ors and apply their results to the special case of a U(1)_R symmetry, in the presence of the Fayet-Iliopoulos term ($\\xi$) and Green-Schwarz mechanism(s). We investigate the relation of these anomaly cancellation conditions to the "naive" field theory approach in global SUSY, in which case U(1)_R cannot even be gauged. We show the two approaches give similar conditions. Their induced constraints at the phenomenological level, on the above models, remain strong even if one lifted the GUT-like conditi...

Antoniadis, I; Knoops, R

2014-01-01

168

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: (author)The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard supersymmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra

169

Does the Neptunian system of satellites challenge a gravitational origin for the Pioneer anomaly?

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

If the Pioneer Anomaly (PA) was a genuine dynamical effect of gravitational origin, it should also affect the orbital motions of the solar system's bodies moving in the space regions in which the PA manifested itself in its presently known form, i.e. as a constant and uniform acceleration approximately directed towards the Sun with a non-zero magnitude APio = (8.74 +/- 1.33) x 10^-10 m s^-2 after 20 au from the Sun. In this paper we preliminarily investigate its effects on t...

Iorio, Lorenzo

2009-01-01

170

Regular inflationary cosmology and gauge theories of gravitation

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cosmological equations for homogeneous isotropic models filled by scalar fields and ultrarelativistic matter are investigated in the framework of gauge theories of gravity. Regular inflationary cosmological models of flat, closed and open type with dominating ultrarelativistic matter at a bounce are discussed. It is shown that essential part of inflationary cosmological models has bouncing character.

Minkevich, A. V.

2003-01-01

171

"Quantum Topology" deals with the general quantum theory as the theory of the functional quantum space; space time and energy momentum forms form a connected manifold; a functional quantum space on the quantum level. The general quantum theory derives from the topology of the quantum space. "Quantum Topodynamics" derives from quantum topology, it deals with the set that underlies the assumed one structure of the topology, group and logic structure of the quantum space. The underlying structure was founded on the Fourier representation of the functional space. "Differential Topology in Quantum Space" deals with the method of analysis approperiate for the quantum space; based on the Fourier representation of the functional space. "Gauge Theory of Gravitation" deals with gravitation as a quantum topological phenomenon; by introducing the effect of gravitation into the quantum space through a phase angle; this displays its unity with the rest of the gauge interactions and shows that the manifold is compact.

Ahmed, D A

1998-01-01

172

In Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) from orbifold and various string constructions the generic vector-like particles do not need to form complete SU(5) or SO(10) representations. To realize them concretely, we present orbifold SU(5) models, orbifold SO(10) models where the gauge symmetry can be broken down to flipped SU(5) X U(1)_X or Pati-Salam SU(4)_C X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R gauge symmetries, and F-theory SU(5) models. Interestingly, these vector-like particles can be at the TeV-scale so that the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass can be lifted, or play the messenger fields in the Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (GMSB). Considering GMSB, ultraviolet insensitive Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB), and the deflected AMSB, we study the general gaugino mass relations and their indices, which are valid from the GUT scale to the electroweak scale at one loop, in the SU(5) models, the flipped SU(5) X U(1)_X models, and the Pati-Salam SU(4)_C X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R models. In the deflected AMSB, we also defi...

Li, Tianjun

2010-01-01

173

Higgs and gravitational scalar fields together induce Weyl gauge

A common biquadratic potential for the Higgs field $h$ and an additional scalar field $\\phi$, non minimally coupled to gravity, is considered in locally scale symmetric approaches to standard model fields in curved spacetime. A common ground state of the two scalar fields exists and couples both fields to gravity, more precisely to scalar curvature $R$. In Einstein gauge ($\\phi = const$, often called "Einstein frame"), also $R$ is scaled to a constant. This condition makes perfect sense, even in the general case, in the Weyl geometric approach. There it has been called {\\em Weyl gauge}, because it was first considered by Weyl in the different context of his original scale geometric theory of gravity of 1918. Now it seems to get new meaning as a combined effect of electroweak theory and gravity, and their common influence on atomic frequencies.

Scholz, Erhard

2014-01-01

174

Higgs and gravitational scalar fields together induce Weyl gauge

A common biquadratic potential for the Higgs field and an additional scalar field , non minimally coupled to gravity, is considered in a locally scale symmetric approach to standard model fields in curved spacetime. A common ground state of the two scalar fields exists and couples both fields to gravity, more precisely to Weyl geometric scalar curvature . In Einstein gauge (, often called "Einstein frame"), also is scaled to a constant. This condition makes perfect sense, even in the general case, in the Weyl geometric approach. There it has been called Weyl gauge, because it was first considered by Weyl in the different context of his original scale geometric theory of gravity of 1918. Now it may get new meaning as a combined effect of electroweak theory and gravity, and their common influence on atomic frequencies.

Scholz, Erhard

2015-02-01

175

Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Local Wald Entropy Current and Gravitational Anomaly

We propose, in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence, a definition for a local horizon entropy current for higher-curvature gravitational theories. The current is well-defined to first order in fluid gradients for general gravity actions with an algebraic dependence on the Riemann tensor. As a detailed example, we consider five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory with a mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term. In this theory, we construct the proposed entropy current on a charged black-brane background, and show that it has a non-negative divergence. Moreover, a complete correspondence between the charged black-brane horizon's dynamics and the hydrodynamics of an anomalous four-dimensional field theory is established. Our proposed entropy current is then found to coincide with the entropy current of the anomalous field theory fluid.

Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

2012-01-01

176

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, by using Mathematica, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution. Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion, the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced. Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field, we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity, including the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun. It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.

177

This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

178

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss the gravitational self-force on a particle in a black hole space-time. For a point particle, the full (bare) self-force diverges. It is known that the metric perturbation induced by a particle can be divided into two parts, the direct part (or the S part) and the tail part (or the R part), in the harmonic gauge, and the regularized self-force is derived from the R part which is regular and satisfies the source-free perturbed Einstein equations. In this paper, we c...

Nakano, Hiroyuki; Sago, Norichika; Sasaki, Misao

2003-01-01

179

Axial vacuum symmetry of the unified gauge theories with the gravitational mechanism of instability

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of stable-state determination is considered in unified gauge theories involving gravitation. The gravitational fields are examined at a classical level. The self-consistent set of field equations is studied in the semiclassical approach. A new determination of stable states is given. If the conditions of the determination are not satisfied then the vacuum state may be metastable. For the case of axial symmetry the metastable Z-type states are shown to cancel if these states are symmetric. (author)

180

Gauge theory and gravitation: an approach to a fiber bundle formalism

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thesis is composed of two different parts. A formal complete and rigorous mathematical part-of topics of differential manilfolds, exterior calculus, riemannian geometry, principal fiber bundle (p.f.) with connections and linear connections and a second part of application of this mathematical formalism concerning physical theories, particularly the Maxwell eletromagnetism (EM), gauge theory of Yang-Mills (Y-M), the GRT, and the gravitation theory of Einstein-Cartan. (E.C.)

181

Gauge-invariant gravitational wave modes in pre-big bang cosmology

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The t<0 branch of pre-big bang cosmological scenarios is subject to a gravitational wave instability. The unstable behaviour of tensor perturbations is derived in a very simple way in Hwang's covariant and gauge-invariant formalism developed for extended theories of gravity. A simple interpretation of this instability as the effect of an "antifriction" is given, and it is argued that a universe must eventually enter the expanding phase.

Faraoni, Valerio

2010-01-01

182

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present an algorithm for calculating the metric perturbations and gravitational self-force for extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) with eccentric orbits. The massive black hole is taken to be Schwarzschild and metric perturbations are computed in Lorenz gauge. The perturbation equations are solved as coupled systems of ordinary differential equations in the frequency domain. Accurate local behavior of the metric is attained through use of the method of extended homogeneo...

Osburn, Thomas; Forseth, Erik; Evans, Charles; Hopper, Seth

2014-01-01

183

Gauge-invariant gravitational wave modes in pre-big bang cosmology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The t<0 branch of pre-big bang cosmological scenarios is subject to a gravitational wave instability. The unstable behaviour of tensor perturbations is derived in a very simple way in Hwang's covariant and gauge-invariant formalism developed for extended theories of gravity. A simple interpretation of this instability as the effect of an ''antifriction'' is given, and it is argued that a universe must eventually enter the expanding phase. (orig.)

184

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We reexamine the gravitational collapse of rotating neutron stars to black holes by new 3+1 numerical relativity simulations employing the Z4c formulation of Einstein equations, the moving puncture gauge conditions, and a conservative mesh refinement scheme or the general relativistic hydrodynamics. The end state of the collapse is compared to the vacuum spacetime resulting from the evolution of spinning puncture initial data. Using a local analysis for the metric fields, we...

Dietrich, Tim; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano

2014-01-01

185

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of metric perturbations is explored in the gravity theory with anomaly-induced quantum corrections. Our first purpose is to derive the equation for gravitational waves in this theory on the general homogeneous and isotropic background, and then verify the stability of such background with respect to metric perturbations. The problem under consideration has several interesting applications. Our first purpose is to explore the stability of the classical cosmological solutions in the theory with quantum effects taken into account. There is an interesting literature about stability of Minkowski and de Sitter spaces and here we extend the consideration also to the radiation and matter dominated cosmologies. Furthermore, we analyze the behavior of metric perturbations during inflationary period, in the stable phase of the Modified Starobinsky inflation

186

Gravitational analysis of V541 Cygni, DI Herculis, and the Pioneer anomaly

Detailed analyses by independent research groups over several decades reveal a significant discrepancy between the observed rate of periastron advance in the detached eclipsing binary star systems DI Herculis and V541 Cygni and the values theoretically predicted from the combined classical and general relativistic effects. A modification to Newton's gravitational theory is proposed in this investigation to account for these discrepancies, and is represented by {F} = - Gm1m2/r3{r} - Gom1m2/r2{r} where G o is a second gravitational constant. The two body problem is solved analytically in closed form, resulting in a retrograde contribution to the advance of periastron. Numerical values of G o were calculated from an analysis of the available data for each of these binary star systems, resulting in a value of G o =(1.5±0.3)×10-27 m2 kg-1 s-2 from the analysis of V541 Cygni, and Go = (1.5_{ - 1.5}^{ + 0.3}) × 10^{-27} {m}2 {kg}^{-1} {s}^{-2} from an analysis of DI Herculis. The level of agreement between these values supports the assumption that the rotational axes of the stars in V541 Cygni are oriented perpendicular to the orbital plane, as opposed to the highly inclined orbits of the stars observed in DI Herculis. An independently determined value of G o was calculated through an analysis of the Pioneer anomaly data, resulting in G o =(3.00±0.37)×10-27 m2 kg-1 s-2. Within a factor of two, this value of G o agrees with the results obtained from DI Herculis and V541 Cygni. The proposed theory predicts the "turn on" of the Pioneer anomaly to occur at a heliocentric distance of 10.0 AU, in good agreement with observation.

Reardon, Arthur C.

2011-12-01

187

Gauge unification of basic forces particularly of gravitation with strong interactions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corresponding to the two known types of gauge theories, Yang-Mills with spin-one mediating particles and Einstein Weyl with spin-two mediating particles, it is speculated that two distinct gauge unifications of the basic forces appear to be taking place. One is the familiar Yang-Mills unification of weak and electromagnetic forces with the strong. The second is the less familiar gauge unification of gravitation with spin-two tensor-dominated aspects of strong interactions. It is proposed that there are strongly interacting spin-two strong gravitons obeying Einstein's equations, and their existence gives a clue to an understanding of the (partial) confinement of quarks, as well as of the concept of hadronic temperature, through the use of Schwarzschild de-Sitter-like partially confining solitonic solutions of the strong gravity Einstein equation

188

Structure crustale et anomalies du champ de gravite dans l'est du Canada

Cette these presente les resultats d'etudes gravimetriques menees dans le Bouclier canadien. Les mesures du champ de gravite recoltees le long et a proximite de divers transects Lithoprobe y sont interpretees. Chacun des chapitres de cette these est un article publie ou soumis. Le premier article presente l'interpretation gravimetrique le long de la ligne sismique 52 de Lithoprobe, dans la province de Grenville. A l'echelle regionale, la modelisation de l'anomalie de Bouguer invoque un amincissement crustal au sud du front de Grenville sous le terrane allochtone du reservoir Cabonga. Cet amincissement, localise au niveau de la croute inferieure, peut etre associe a une extension post-orogenique. Le modele gravimetrique a aussi permis de mettre en evidence des caracteristiques majeures non revelees par les donnees sismiques, telle que la zone de contact subverticale entre les terranes du reservoir de Cabonga et du reservoir Dozois. La rampe de Baskatong representerait une discontinuite majeure le long de laquelle, les terranes proterozoiques furent accretes. Par ailleurs, un modele de l'anomalie residuelle, dans la partie nord du profil, met en evidence trois corps gabbroiques peu profonds. Le second article presente des modeles crustaux du nord de la province du Superieur a la lumiere de nouvelles donnees de gravite recoltees le long d'un transect traversant les sous-provinces de Nemiscau et La Grande. L'interpretation de l'anomalie de Bouguer pour le nord de l'Abitibi et l'Opatica, invoque un epaississement crustal. Pour les sous-provinces de Nemiscau et La Grande, l'interpretation gravimetrique invoque une densite de la croute superieure plus elevee qu'en Abitibi et en Opatica. Un leger epaississement crustal est observe dans la sous-province de La Grande. Des sequences supracrustales mafiques sont aussi mises en evidence a l'extremite nord du profil dans la sous-province de La Grande. La signature gravimetrique associee a la variation laterale de densite et les evidences de terrain indiquent un pendage vers le nord des principales frontieres tectoniques. Le troisieme chapitre fait l'objet d'une etude du champ de pesanteur au dessus de la region de la baie d'Ungava a partir de donnees satellite et de nouvelles donnees recoltees le long de la cote sud de la baie. Un leve gravimetrique partant de la baie aux Feuilles, dans la province du Superieur, traversant l'Orogene du Nouveau Quebec (ONQ), et finissant pres de la riviere George dans le craton de Rae, a ete realise. L'interpretation des donnees acquises a permis de fournir des modeles de densite. Ces modeles mettent en evidence un epaississement crustal sous l'ONQ et un amincissement sous le terrane de Kuujjuaq, a l'est de l'orogene. Alors que plus a l'est, dans le craton de Rae, une anomalie negative de quelques dix milligals est correlee avec les extensions vers le nord de la zone de cisaillement de la riviere George (ZCRG) et du batholite de De Pas. L'orientation des structures sur les modeles de gravite suggere un chevauchement du craton de Rae au dessus de l'ONQ. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Telmat, Hamid

189

We reexamine the gravitational collapse of rotating neutron stars to black holes by new 3+1 numerical relativity simulations employing the Z4c formulation of Einstein equations, the moving puncture gauge conditions, and a conservative mesh refinement scheme or the general relativistic hydrodynamics. The end state of the collapse is compared to the vacuum spacetime resulting from the evolution of spinning puncture initial data. Using a local analysis for the metric fields, we demonstrate that the two spacetimes atually agree. Gravitational waveforms are analyzed in some detail. We connect the emission of radiation to the collapse dynamics using simplified spacetime diagrams, and discuss the similarity of the waveform structure with the one of black hole perturbation theory.

Dietrich, Tim

2014-01-01

190

About Lorentz Invariance and Gauge Symmetries: An Alternative Approach to Relativistic Gravitation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An alternative presentation of a relativistic theory of gravitation, equivalent to general relativity, is given. It is based upon the restriction of the Lorentz invariance of special relativity from a global invariance to a local one. The resulting expressions appear rather simple as we consider the transformations of a local set of pseudo-orthonormal coordinates and not the geometry of a 4-dimension hyper-surface described by a set of curvilinear coordinates. This is the major difference with the usual presentations of general relativity but that difference is purely formal. The usual approach is most adequate for describing the universe on a large scale in astrophysics and cosmology. The approach of this paper, derived from particle physics and focused on local reference frames, underlines the formal similarity between gravitation and the other interactions inasmuch as they are associated to the restriction of gauge symmetries from a global invariance to a local one.

Richard Bonneville

2014-11-01

191

A new mathematical model for evaluation of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor is formulated in this article. Firstly, we construct corresponding differential operators for the components of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor in a spherical local north-oriented frame. We show that the differential operators may efficiently be decomposed into an azimuthal and an isotropic part. The differential operators are even more simplified for a certain class of isotropic kernels. Secondly, the differential operators are applied to the well-known integrals of Newton, Abel-Poisson, Pizzetti and Hotine. In this way, 40 new integral formulas are derived. The new integral formulas allow for evaluation of the components of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor from density distribution, disturbing gravitational potential, gravity anomalies and gravity disturbances. Thirdly, we investigate the behaviour of the corresponding integral kernels in the spatial domain. The new mathematical formulas extend the theoretical apparatus of geodesy, i.e. the well-known Meissl scheme, and reveal important properties of the third-order gravitational tensor. They may be exploited in geophysical studies, continuation of gravitational field quantities and analysing the gradiometric-geodynamic boundary value problem.

Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

2015-02-01

192

A comparative review of certain gauge theories of the gravitational field

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general formal analysis is made trying to obtain a better understanding and greater synthesis of the mathematical structure of the gravitational field's gauge theories. Under this approach, some misstatements appearing in current theories are detected. A theory based on the direct product groups T(4) X GL(4) and T(4) X O(1,3) is suggested (in contrast to those using the Poincare group, semidirect product). Such a theory corrects the just mentioned deficiencies possessing the attributes of the preceding ones. (author)

193

Does the Neptunian system of satellites challenge a gravitational origin for the Pioneer anomaly?

If the Pioneer Anomaly was a genuine dynamical effect of gravitational origin, it should also affect the orbital motions of the solar system's bodies moving in the space regions in which the PA manifested itself in its presently known form, i.e. as a constant and uniform acceleration approximately directed towards the Sun with a non-zero magnitude (8.74+/-1.33) x 10^-10 m s^-2 after 20 au from the Sun. We preliminarily investigate its effects on the orbital motions of the Neptunian satellites Triton, Nereid and Proteus, located at about 30 au from the Sun, both analytically and numerically. The analytical calculations show that the PA-induced radial and transverse perturbations of Triton are of the order of a few km yr^-1, those of Nereid are about 10+/-100 km yr^-1, while Proteus experiences radial and transverse shifts of the order of 0.1 km yr^-1. The out-of-plane perturbations are negligible, apart from that of Nereid which amounts to about 20 km yr^-1. The corresponding orbital uncertainties obtained fro...

Iorio, Lorenzo

2009-01-01

194

BRS cohomology and topological anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of non-abelian anomalies in gauge theories and gravitation, first discovered via perturbative techniques, is now completely explained from the mathematical point of view by means of the family index theorem of Atiyah and Singer. Here we make contact between this approach and BRS cohomology, by showing that they yield the same non-abelian anomalies, provided a certain restriction to ''local'' functionals is not introduced from the very beginning. In particular, this solves the ''unicity'' problem for this kind of anomalies. Local BRS cohomology is still relevant for the abelian case. (orig.)

195

Hawking radiation from the dilaton—(anti) de Sitter black hole via covariant anomaly

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adopting the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and Wilczek recently, this paper discusses Hawking radiation from the dilaton—(anti) de Sitter black hole. To save the underlying gauge and general covariance, it introduces covariant fluxes of gauge and energy-momentum tensor to cancel the gauge and gravitational anomalies. The result shows that the introduced compensating fluxes are equivalent to those of a 2-dimensional blackbody radiation at Hawking temperature with appropriate chemical potential. (general)

196

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of anomaly at the generalized canonical quantization (BFV - quantization) of bosonic string coupled to background fields is considered. The equation for symbol of anomaly operator is obtained. The general solution of this equation is found and the arbitrariness in general form of anomaly is investigated. (orig.)

Buchbinder, I.L.; Mistchuk, B.R.; Pershin, V.D.

1996-11-01

197

Does the Neptunian system of satellites challenge a gravitational origin for the Pioneer anomaly?

If the Pioneer anomaly (PA) was a genuine dynamical effect of gravitational origin, it should also affect the orbital motions of the Solar system's bodies moving in the space regions in which the PA manifested itself in its presently known form, i.e. as a constant and uniform acceleration approximately directed towards the Sun with a non-zero magnitude after 20au from the Sun. In this paper we preliminarily investigate its effects on the orbital motions of the Neptunian satellites Triton, Nereid and Proteus, located at about 30au from the Sun, both analytically and numerically. Extensive observational records covering several orbital revolutions have recently been analysed for them, notably improving the knowledge of their orbits. Both analytical and numerical calculations, limited to the direct, Neptune-satellite interaction, show that the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the PA-induced radial, transverse and out-of-plane perturbations over one century are up to 300, 600km, 8m for Triton, 17500, 35000, 800km for Nereid and 60, 120km, 30m for Proteus. The corresponding orbital uncertainties obtained from a recent analysis of all the data available for the satellites considered are, in general, smaller by one-two orders of magnitude, although obtained without modelling a Pioneer-like extra-force. Further investigations based on a reprocessing of the satellites' real or simulated data with modified equations of motions including an additional Pioneer-type force as well are worth being implemented and may shed further light on this important issue.

Iorio, L.

2010-07-01

198

Renormalizable Quantum Gauge General Relativity

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quantum gauge general relativity is proposed in the framework of quantum gauge theory of gravity. It is formulated based on gauge principle which states that the correct symmetry for gravitational interactions should be gravitational gauge symmetry. The gravitational gauge group is studied in the paper. Then gravitational gauge interactions of pure gravitational gauge field is studied. It is found that the field equation of gravitational gauge field is just the Einstein'...

Wu, Ning

2003-01-01

199

Covariant Lorentz anomalies in higher dimensional space

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The covariant Lorentz anomalies are evaluated by both the path integral and the topological methods, when Weyl fermions couple with the gauge and gravitational fields. In 2,4,6-dimensional curved space, the difference between the results obtained by the two methods is removed by counterterms and the equivalence of both methods is proved. It is shown that the Lorentz anomalies in flat space of arbitrary dimensions are eliminated. (author)

200

Locally covariant chiral fermions and anomalies

We define chiral fermions in the presence of non-trivial gravitational and gauge background fields in the framework of locally covariant field theory. This allows to straightforwardly compute the chiral anomalies on non-compact Lorentzian space-times, without recourse to a weak field approximation.

Zahn, Jochen

2015-01-01

201

Locally covariant chiral fermions and anomalies

We define chiral fermions in the presence of non-trivial gravitational and gauge background fields in the framework of locally covariant field theory. This allows to straightforwardly compute the chiral anomalies on non-compact Lorentzian spacetimes, without recourse to a weak field approximation.

Zahn, Jochen

2015-01-01

202

Frequency-domain algorithm for the Lorenz-gauge gravitational self-force

State-of-the-art computations of the gravitational self-force (GSF) on massive particles in black hole spacetimes involve numerical evolution of the metric perturbation equations in the time-domain, which is computationally very costly. We present here a new strategy, based on a frequency-domain treatment of the perturbation equations, which offers considerable computational saving. The essential ingredients of our method are (i) a Fourier-harmonic decomposition of the Lorenz-gauge metric perturbation equations and a numerical solution of the resulting coupled set of ordinary equations with suitable boundary conditions; (ii) a generalized version of the method of extended homogeneous solutions [Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 78}, 084021 (2008)] used to circumvent the Gibbs phenomenon that would otherwise hamper the convergence of the Fourier mode-sum at the particle's location; and (iii) standard mode-sum regularization, which finally yields the physical GSF as a sum over regularized modal contributions. We present a work...

Akcay, Sarp; Barack, Leor

2013-01-01

203

Classical field theory on electrodynamics, non-Abelian gauge theories and gravitation

The book describes Maxwell's equations first in their integral, directly testable form, then moves on to their local formulation. The first two chapters cover all essential properties of Maxwell's equations, including their symmetries and their covariance in a modern notation. Chapter 3 is devoted to Maxwell theory as a classical field theory and to solutions of the wave equation. Chapter 4 deals with important applications of Maxwell theory. It includes topical subjects such as metamaterials with negative refraction index and solutions of Helmholtz' equation in paraxial approximation relevant for the description of laser beams. Chapter 5 describes non-Abelian gauge theories from a classical, geometric point of view, in analogy to Maxwell theory as a prototype, and culminates in an application to the U(2) theory relevant for electroweak interactions. The last chapter 6 gives a concise summary of semi-Riemannian geometry as the framework for the classical field theory of gravitation. The chapter concludes wit...

Scheck, Florian

2012-01-01

204

Anomaly cancellation and gauge group of the standard model in NCG

It is well known that anomaly cancellation {\\it almost} determines the hypercharges in the standard model. A related (and somewhat more stronger) phenomenon takes place in Connes' NCG framework: unimodularity (a technical condition on elements of the algebra) is {\\it strictly} equivalent to anomaly cancellation (in the absence of right-handed neutrinos); and this in turn reduces the symmetry group of the theory to the standard SU(3)\\times SU(2) \\times U(1).

Alvarez, Enrique; Martín, C P; Alvarez, Enrique

1995-01-01

205

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we put on the test the new mechanism of gravitational origin recently put forth by Jaekel and Reynaud in order to explain the Pioneer anomaly in the framework of their post-Einsteinian metric extension of general relativity. According to such a proposal, the secular part of the anomalous acceleration experienced by the twin spacecraft of about 1 nm s^-2 could be caused by an extra-potential \\delta\\Phi_P=c^2\\chi r^2, with \\chi=4 10^-8 AU^-2, coming from the seco...

Iorio, Lorenzo

2006-01-01

206

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use analytic techniques to study the gravitational force that would be produced by different Kuiper-Belt mass distributions. In particular, we study the 3-dimensional rings (and wedge) whose densities vary as the inverse of the distance, as a constant, as the inverse-squared of the distance, as well as that which varies according to the Boss-Peale model. These analytic calculations yield physical insight into the physics of the problem. They also verify that physically viable models of this type can produce neither the magnitude nor the constancy of the Pioneer anomaly

207

In this paper we put on the test the new mechanism of gravitational origin recently put forth by Jaekel and Reynaud in order to explain the Pioneer anomaly in the framework of their post-Einsteinian metric extension of general relativity. According to such a proposal, the secular part of the anomalous acceleration experienced by the twin spacecraft of about 1 nm s$^{-2}$ could be caused by an extra-potential \\delta\\Phi_P=c^2\\chi r^2, with \\chi=4 10^-8 AU^-2, coming from the second sector of the considered model. When applied to the motion of the planets of the Solar System, it would induce anomalous secular perihelion advances which amount to o tens-hundreds of arcseconds per century for the outer planets. As for other previously proposed non-conventional gravitational explanations of the Pioneer anomaly, the answer of the latest observational determinations of the residual perihelion rates by RAS IAA is neatly and unambiguously negative. The presence of another possible candidate to explain the Pioneer anoma...

Iorio, L

2006-01-01

208

Covariant anomalies and functional determinants

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analize the algebraic structure of consistent and covariant anomalies in gauge and gravitational theories: using a complex extension of the Lie algebra it is possible to describe them in a unified way. Then we study their representations by means of functional determinants, showing how the algebraic solution determines the relevant operators for the definition of the effective action. Particular attention is devoted to the Lorentz anomaly: we obtain by functional methods the covariant anomaly for the spin-current and for the energy-momentum tensor in presence of a curved background. With regard to the consistent sector we are able to give a general functional solution only for d = 2: using the characterization derived from the extended algebra, we find a continuous family of operators whose determinant describes the effective action of chiral spinors in curved space. We compute this action and we generalize the result in presence of a U(1) gauge connection. (orig.)

209

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examine the adiabatic approximation in the study of a relativistic two-body problem with the gravitational radiation reaction. We recently pointed out that the usual metric perturbation scheme using a perturbation of the stress-energy tensor may not be appropriate for study of the dissipative dynamics of the bodies due to the radiation reaction. Over a time scale during which the usual perturbation scheme is valid, the orbits may not deviate substantially relative to the orbits of the background orbits. As a result, one can eliminate the orbital deviation through a gauge transformation. This is called the gauge problem of the gravitational radiation reaction exerted on the bodies, and it has been reported that a careful gauge fixing may be necessary to produce a physically reasonable prediction for the evolution of the system. We recently proposed a possible approach to solve this problem with a linear black hole perturbation. This paper proposes a non-linear generalization of that method for a general application of this problem. We show that, under a specific gauge condition, the method actually allows us to avoid the gauge problem. (author)

210

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Constancy of the speed of light in time-spatial area with the same gravitational potential (or in time-spatial area with equal level of contraction/expansion of the space-time is demonstrated. All of the experiments (“One-way”, “Two-way” and “Multiple-way” measurements are made in time-spatial area with the same gravitational potential (or in time-spatial area with equal level of contraction/expansion of the space-time – this is the Earth’s surface. Explanation that there is no change in the value of the speed of light in all of the above mentioned experiments is given. The speed of light (or of the electromagnetic radiation is changing only when the light passes through time-spatial areas with different gravitational potentials (or in time-spatial areas with different levels of contraction/expansion of the space-time. The Pioneer 10 and 11 Acceleration Anomaly is actually a proving experiment of this reality.

Gocho Vasilev Sharlanov

2011-10-01

211

Invisible charginos and neutralinos from gauge boson fusion : a way to explore anomaly mediation ?

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We point out that vector boson fusion (VBF) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can lead to useful signals for charginos and neutralinos in supersymmetric scenarios where these particles are almost invisible. The proposed signals are just two forward jets with missing transverse energy. It is shown that in this way one can put by far the strongest constraint on the parameter space of a theory with anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) at the LHC. In addition, scenari...

Datta, Anindya; Konar, Partha; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup

2001-01-01

212

Two potential coefficient fields that are complete to degree and order 360 have been computed. One field (OSU86E) excludes geophysically predicted anomalies while the other (OSU86F) includes such anomalies. These fields were computed using a set of 30' mean gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry in the ocean areas and from land measurements in North America, Europe, Australia, Japan and a few other areas. Where no 30' data existed, 1 deg x 1 deg mean anomaly estimates were used if available. No rigorous combination of satellite and terrestrial data was carried out. Instead advantage was taken of the adjusted anomalies and potential coefficients from a rigorous combination of the GEML2' potential coefficient set and 1 deg x 1 deg mean gravity anomalies. The two new fields were computed using a quadrature procedure with de-smoothing factors. The spectra of the new fields agree well with the spectra of the fields with 1 deg x 1 deg data out to degree 180. Above degree 180 the new fields have more power. The fields have been tested through comparison of Doppler station geoid undulations with undulations from various geopotential models. The agreement between the two types of undulations is approximately + or - 1.6 m. The use of a 360 field over a 180 field does not significantly improve the comparison. Instead it allows the comparison to be done at some stations where high frequency effects are important. In addition maps made in areas of high frequency information (such as trench areas) clearly reveal the signal in the new fields from degree 181 to 360.

Rapp, Richard H.; Cruz, Jaime Y.

1986-01-01

213

AdS solutions in gauge supergravities and the global anomaly for the product of complex two-cycles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cohomological methods are applied for the special set of solutions corresponding to rotating branes in arbitrary dimensions, AdS black holes (which can be embedded in ten or eleven dimensions), and gauge supergravities. A new class of solutions is proposed, the Hilbert modular varieties, which consist of the 2n-fold product of the two-spaces Hn /? (where Hn denotes the product of n upper half-planes, H 2, equipped with the co-compact action of ? is contained in SL(2, R)n) and (H n)*/? (where (H 2)*=H 2? and ? is a congruence subgroup of SL(2, R) n). The cohomology groups of the Hilbert variety, which inherit a Hodge structure (in the sense of Deligne), are analyzed, as well as bifiltered sequences, weight and Hodge filtrations, and it is argued that the torsion part of the cuspidal cohomology is involved in the global anomaly condition. Indeed, in the presence of the cuspidal part, all cohomology classes can be mapped to the boundary of the space and the cuspidal contribution can be involved in the global anomaly condition. (orig.)

214

AdS solutions in gauge supergravities and the global anomaly for the product of complex two-cycles

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cohomological methods are applied for the special set of solutions corresponding to rotating branes in arbitrary dimensions, AdS black holes (which can be embedded in ten or eleven dimensions), and gauge supergravities. A new class of solutions is proposed, the Hilbert modular varieties, which consist of the 2n-fold product of the two-spaces H{sup n} /{gamma} (where H{sup n} denotes the product of n upper half-planes, H {sup 2}, equipped with the co-compact action of {gamma} is contained in SL(2, R){sup n}) and (H {sup n}){sup *}/{gamma} (where (H {sup 2}){sup *}=H {sup 2}{gamma} and {gamma} is a congruence subgroup of SL(2, R) {sup n}). The cohomology groups of the Hilbert variety, which inherit a Hodge structure (in the sense of Deligne), are analyzed, as well as bifiltered sequences, weight and Hodge filtrations, and it is argued that the torsion part of the cuspidal cohomology is involved in the global anomaly condition. Indeed, in the presence of the cuspidal part, all cohomology classes can be mapped to the boundary of the space and the cuspidal contribution can be involved in the global anomaly condition. (orig.)

Bytsenko, A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina-Parana (Brazil); Elizalde, E. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICE/CSIC) and Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Facultat de Ciencies, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

2011-03-15

215

In this note we demonstrate the equation of motion for test particles in an ambient gravitational field for the teleparallel theory of gravity, considered as a generalized gauge theory, using a computational scheme due to Feynman. It can be thought of as the Wong equation for a generalized gauge theory. The Wong and Lorentz equations become identical when the generators of a generalized non-abelian gauge theory are taken to be the local translation generators.

Fabi, S

2011-01-01

216

Gauge structure, anomalies and mass generation in a three dimensional thirring model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider a three dimensional model of spinor fields with a Thirring like, quadrilinear self interaction. Using either two or four component Dirac spinors, we prove that the 1/N expansion for the model is renormalizable if a gauge structure to select physical quantities is introduced. For certain values of the coupling the leading 1/N approximation exihibits bound state poles. Dynamical breaking of parity or chiral symmetry is shown to occur as a cooperative effect of different orders of 1/N, if N is smaller than the critical value Nc = 128/x2D', where D is two or four depending on wether the fermion field has two or four components. (author)

217

Exact results in two-dimensional chiral hydrodynamics with gravitational anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exact formulation of two-dimensional chiral hydrodynamics with diffeomorphism and conformal anomalies is provided. The constitutive relation involving the stress tensor is computed. It reveals a one parameter class of solutions which is a new result. For a particular value of this parameter, the results found in the gradient expansion scheme are reproduced. Moreover, the constitutive relation is analogous to the corresponding relation for an ideal fluid, appropriately modified to include the chirality property, which has also been derived here. (orig.)

218

Exact results in two-dimensional chiral hydrodynamics with gravitational anomalies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exact formulation of two-dimensional chiral hydrodynamics with diffeomorphism and conformal anomalies is provided. The constitutive relation involving the stress tensor is computed. It reveals a one parameter class of solutions which is a new result. For a particular value of this parameter, the results found in the gradient expansion scheme are reproduced. Moreover, the constitutive relation is analogous to the corresponding relation for an ideal fluid, appropriately modified to include the chirality property, which has also been derived here. (orig.)

Banerjee, Rabin [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India)

2014-04-15

219

We address the question of whether the LambdaCDM model produces enough substructure in galaxy scale dark matter halos to cause the observed image flux anomalies in lensed QSOs observed in the radio and mid-infrared. We create a very large number of simulated lenses with finite source sizes to compare with the data. After analysing these simulations, our conclusions are: 1) The finite size of the source is important. The point source approximation commonly used can cause large and biased results. 2) When we randomly select lens models that are distorted from a Singular Isothermal Ellipsoid in reasonable ways, but do not contain substructure, the flux anomalies are not reproduced. 3) We find new upper bounds on the amount of substructure from the constraint that no simple single-galaxy lenses have been observed with a single source having more than four well separated images. 4) The lower bound on the amount of substructure is set by the frequency of image flux anomalies and is largely a bound on the surface ma...

Metcalf, R Benton

2010-01-01

220

In the context of the recently proposed formulation of quantum geometrodynamics in extended phase space we discuss the problem how the behavior of the Universe, initially managed by quantum laws, has become classical. In this version of quantum geometrodynamics we quantize gauge gravitational degrees of freedom on an equal basis with physical degrees of freedom. As a consequence of this approach, a wave function of the Universe depends not only on physical fields but also on gauge degrees of freedom. From this viewpoint, one should regard the physical Universe as a subsystem whose properties are formed in interaction with the subsystem of gauge degrees of freedom. We argue that the subsystem of gauge degrees of freedom may play the role of environment, which, being taken into account, causes the density matrix to be diagonal. We show that under physically reasonable fixing of gauge condition the density matrix describing the physical subsystem of the Universe may have a Gaussian peak in some variable, but it ...

Shestakova, T P

2003-01-01

221

Mixed Lorentz anomaly in four-dimensional space

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using the diagrammmatical and the topological methods, the Lorentz anomaly is evaluated for chiral Weyl fermions interacting with combined gravitational and U(1) gauge fields in four-dimensional space. The results are consistent with that of Nieh in which signs of anomalous terms are taken correctly. The absence of the Lorentz anomaly, in the space-time with torsion, is also explained from the diagrammatical method. (orig.)

222

Symmetry Protected Topological Phases, Anomalies, and Cobordisms: Beyond Group Cohomology

We argue that Symmetry Protected Topological Phases with a finite symmetry group $G$ are classified by cobordism groups of the classifying space of $G$. This provides an explanation for the recent discovery of bosonic SPT phases which do not fit into the group cohomology classification. We discuss the connection of the cobordism classification of SPT phases to gauge and gravitational anomalies in various dimensions.

Kapustin, Anton

2014-01-01

223

Solution of the anomaly puzzle in SUSY gauge theories and the Wilson operator expansion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper completes a series of works on ? functions and the anomaly problem in supersymmetric theories. Exact expressions for the ? functions are obtained within the framework of standard perturbation theory. The key observation is that the Wilson effective action SW(?) does not coincide with the sum of vacuum loops in the external field ?(?). The difference is due to infrared effects. The coefficient 1/g2 in front of the operator W2 in SW is renormalized only at one-loop level (extension of the non-renormalization theorem for F-terms). This fact results in the one-loop form of the anomalous operator equation for the supercurrent (generalization of the Adler-Bardeen theorem). The full Gell-Mann-Low function emerges after passing to matrix elements of the operators. The quantity entering observable amplitudes differs from 1/g2 by ?ilnZi where the factors Zi describe renormalization of the fields. (In this sense the Z factors of the matter fields become observable.) We discuss the relation with calculations of the instanton type. (orig.)

224

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theory of gravitation in more than four dimensions (Kaluza-Klein theory) is considered to see if it can explain in a natural, unified way the observed gauge and gravitational fields in four dimensions. The extra dimensions are taken to be closed and small enough that they cannot be observed directly. The possibility that quantum effects might cause the contraction of the extra dimensions is considered. The quantum effective potential (Casimir energy) of the gravitational field is calculated on the space-time manifold (Minkowski-space)x(N-sphere) to one-loop order in the loop expansion. (N must be odd for technical reasons). A cosmological constant is included in the higher dimensional theory, although the observed cosmological constant in four dimensions is required to be zero. For positive values of the cosmological constant the effective potential is attractive, which means that the extra dimensions would tend to contract at least until they are of a size on the order of the Planck length. The minima of the effective potential, which determine the solutions to the quantum-corrected equations of motion, are located. The first case in which a solution meeting certain minimal requirements is found is N = 13, in which case the associated gauge group is SO(14). The gauge coupling constant in this theory is a predicted number. Similar solutions are found for N = 15, 17, 19, and 21. Unfortunately, in all cases the effective potential has an imaginary part, which is intertial has an imaginary part, which is interpreted as an instability of the solution against quantum decay

225

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lectures given cover the topological effects in gauge field theories, fermionic chiral anomalies, and some relationships between the two. Gauge field theories in three and four space-time dimensions are considered. Topological terms as external U(1) functional gauge potential connections in field space are discussed. Both the structure and physical impact of anomalies are described. 17 refs

226

We show that the Implicit Regularization Technique is useful to display quantum symmetry breaking in a complete regularization independent fashion. Arbitrary parameters are expressed by finite differences between integrals of the same superficial degree of divergence whose value is fixed on physical grounds (symmetry requirements or phenomenology). We study Weyl fermions on a classical gravitational background in two dimensions and show that, assuming Lorentz symmetry, the Weyl and Einstein Ward identities reduce to a set of algebraic equations for the arbitrary parameters which allows us to study the Ward identities on equal footing. We conclude in a renormalization independent way that the axial part of the Einstein Ward identity is always violated. Moreover whereas we can preserve the pure tensor part of the Einstein Ward identity at the expense of violating the Weyl Ward identities we may as well violate the former and preserve the latter.

Souza, L A M; Nemes, M C; Souza, Leonardo A. M.; Sampaio, Marcos

2006-01-01

227

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the Implicit Regularization Technique is useful to display quantum symmetry breaking in a complete regularization independent fashion. Arbitrary parameters are expressed by finite differences between integrals of the same superficial degree of divergence whose value is fixed on physical grounds (symmetry requirements or phenomenology). We study Weyl fermions on a classical gravitational background in two dimensions and show that, assuming Lorentz symmetry, the Weyl and Einstein Ward identities reduce to a set of algebraic equations for the arbitrary parameters which allows us to study the Ward identities on equal footing. We conclude in a renormalization independent way that the axial part of the Einstein Ward identity is always violated. Moreover whereas we can preserve the pure tensor part of the Einstein Ward identity at the expense of violating the Weyl Ward identities we may as well violate the former and preserve the latter

228

Interpretation of a Short-Term Anomaly in the Gravitational Microlensing Event MOA-2012-BLG-486

A planetary microlensing signal is generally characterized by a short-term perturbation to the standard single lensing light curve. A subset of binary-source events can produce perturbations that mimic planetary signals, thereby introducing an ambiguity between the planetary and binary-source interpretations. In this paper, we present analysis of the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486, for which the light curve exhibits a short-lived perturbation. Routine modeling not considering data taken in different passbands yields a best-fit planetary model that is slightly preferred over the best-fit binary-source model. However, when allowed for a change in the color during the perturbation, we find that the binary-source model yields a significantly better fit and thus the degeneracy is clearly resolved. This event not only signifies the importance of considering various interpretations of short-term anomalies, but also demonstrates the importance of multi-band data for checking the possibility of false-positive pla...

Hwang, K -H; Bond, I A; Sumi, T; Han, C; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bozza, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Tsapras, Y; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Fukunaga, D; Harris, P; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Namba, S; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yamai, N; Yock, P C M; Yonehara, A; de Almeida, L Andrade; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Jablonski, F; Jung, Y K; Kavka, A; Lee, C -U; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shin, I -G; Yee, J C; Albrow, M D; Bachelet, E; Batista, V; Brillant, S; Caldwell, J A R; Cassan, A; Cole, A; Corrales, E; Coutures, Ch; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Fouqué, P; Greenhill, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kane, S R; Kubas, D; Marquette, J -B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Williams, A; Wouters, D; Bramich, D M; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Browne, P; Hundertmark, M; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Street, R A

2013-01-01

229

D=7 / D=6 Heterotic Supergravity with Gauged R-Symmetry

We construct a family of chiral anomaly-free supergravity theories in D=6 starting from D=7 supergravity with a gauged noncompact R-symmetry, employing a Horava-Witten bulk-plus-boundary construction. The gauged noncompact R-symmetry yields a positive (de Sitter sign) D=6 scalar field potential. Classical anomaly inflow which is needed to cancel boundary-field loop anomalies requires careful consideration of the gravitational, gauge, mixed and local supersymmetry anomalies. Coupling of boundary hypermultiplets requires care with the Sp(1) gauge connection required to obtain quaternionic Kahler target manifolds in D=6. This class of gauged R-symmetry models may be of use as starting points for further compactifications to D=4 that take advantage of the positive scalar potential, such as those proposed in the scenario of supersymmetry in large extra dimensions.

Pugh, T G; Stelle, K S

2010-01-01

230

D =7/ D =6 heterotic supergravity with gauged R-symmetry

We construct a family of chiral anomaly-free supergravity theories in D =6 starting from D = 7 supergravity with a gauged noncompact R-symmetry, employing a Ho?ava-Witten bulk-plus-boundary construction. The gauged noncompact R-symmetry yields a positive (de Sitter sign) D = 6 scalar field potential. Classical anomaly inflow which is needed to cancel boundary-field loop anomalies requires careful consideration of the gravitational, gauge, mixed and local supersymmetry anomalies. Coupling of boundary hypermultiplets requires care with the Sp(1) gauge connection required to obtain quaternionic Kähler target manifolds in D = 6. This class of gauged R-symmetry models may be of use as starting points for further compactifications to D = 4 that take advantage of the positive scalar potential, such as those proposed in the scenario of supersymmetry in large extra dimensions.

Pugh, T. G.; Sezgin, E.; Stelle, K. S.

2011-02-01

231

Explicit construction of anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate explicitly the dimensional ladder which links the d+2 dimensional chiral anomaly, the d+1 dimensional parity anomaly and the d-dimensional gauge anomaly. We solve the two- and three-dimensional problems of massless fermions in a background instanton gauge potential, discuss the structure of the anomalous effective actions and show the equality of the topological invariants relevant to the different anomalies. (orig.)

232

A systematic construction of curved phase space: A gravitational gauge theory with symplectic form

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General relativity can be constructed as a gauge theory using the quotient manifold strategy of [1, 2]. We consider a conformal gauging where the geometry is far richer than normal spacetime, including a symplectic form and the necessary emergence of Lorentzian signature. The resulting 2n-dim manifold constitutes a relativistic phase space, and general relativity is recovered when we demand that the momentum space is flat. However, the full geometry allows for curved phase space.

233

Gauge invariance and string interactions in a generalized theory of gravitation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gauge invariance of the Lagrangian in the nonsymmetric extension of general relativity is investigated. The skew parts of the nonsymmetric Hermitian g/sub munu/, in the weak-field approximation, act as gauge potentials that correspond to the exchange of massless scalar mesons between one-dimensionally extended objects (strings) in space-time. For open strings a massive vector particle, associated with the torsion, is also exchanged between the end points of the strings

234

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quantum gravity is formulated based on principle of local gauge invariance. The model discussed in this paper has local gravitational gauge symmetry and gravitational field appears as gauge field. The problems on quantization and renormalization of the theory are also discussed in this paper. In leading order approximation, the gravitational gauge field theory gives out classical Newton's theory of gravity. In first order approximation and for vacuum, the gravitational g...

Wu, Ning

2001-01-01

235

There are several instances where quantum anomalies of continuous and discrete classical symmetries play an important role in fundamental physics. Examples come from chiral anomalies in the Standard Model of fundamental interactions and gravitational anomalies in string theories. Their generic origin is the fact that classical symmetries may not preserve the domains of quantum operators like the Hamiltonian. In this work, we show by simple examples that anomalous symmetries can often be implemented at the expense of working with mixed states having nonzero entropies. In particular there is the result on color breaking by non-abelian magnetic monopoles. This anomaly can be rectified by using impure states. We also argue that non-abelian groups of twisted bundles are always anomalous for pure states sharpening an earlier argument of Sorkin and Balachandran [A. P. Balachandran, G. Marmo, B. S. Skagerstam, and A. Stern, Classical Topology and Quantum States (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991).]. This is the case of mapping class groups of geons [A. P. Balachandran, G. Marmo, B. S. Skagerstam, and A. Stern, Classical Topology and Quantum States (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991).] indicating that large diffeos are anomalous for pure states in the presence of geons. Nevertheless diffeo invariance may be restored by using impure states. This work concludes with examples of these ideas drawn from molecular physics. The above approach using impure states is entirely equivalent to restricting all states to the algebra of observables invariant under the anomalous symmetries. For anomalous gauge groups such as color, this would mean that we work with observables singlet under global gauge transformations. For color, this will mean that we work with color singlets, a reasonable constraint.

Balachandran, A. P.; de Queiroz, Amilcar R.

2012-01-01

236

Moduli corrections to gravitational couplings from string loops

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study moduli dependent threshold corrections to gravitational couplings in the case of the heterotic string compactified on a symmetric orbifold, for untwisted moduli, extending previous analysis on gauge couplings. Like in the gauge case, the contribution comes entirely from the spacetime N=2 sector. As a byproduct, this calculation provides a simple derivation of the trace anomaly coefficients for the different fields coupled to gravity. (author). 8 refs

237

One-loop effective actions and 2D hydrodynamics with anomalies

We revisit the study of a 2D quantum field theory in the hydrodynamic regime and develop a formalism based on Euclidean one-loop partition functions that is suitable to analyze transport properties due to gauge and gravitational anomalies. To do so, we generalize the method of a modified Dirac operator developed for zero-temperature anomalies to finite temperature, chemical potentials and rotations.

Ng, Gim Seng

2014-01-01

238

Chiral Gravity Waves and Leptogenesis in Inflationary Models with non-Abelian Gauge Fields

We present a leptogenesis scenario associated with inflationary models involving non-Abelian gauge fields within the standard model of particle physics (SM). We show that this class of inflationary models generates intrinsic birefringent gravitational waves that through the gravitational chiral anomaly in SM, can naturally create a net lepton number density. The CP violating interaction is produced by tensor fluctuations of the gauge field, while the efficiency of this process is determined by the effective background value of the gauge field. We demonstrate that this mechanism can create the observed value of baryon to photon number density in a natural range of parameters of these models.

Maleknejad, Azadeh

2014-01-01

239

We initiate a systematic study of `t Hooft anomalies in Galilean field theories, focusing on two questions therein. In the first, we consider the non-relativistic theories obtained from a discrete light-cone quantization (DLCQ) of a relativistic theory with flavor or gravitational anomalies. We find that these anomalies survive the DLCQ, becoming mixed flavor/boost or gravitational/boost anomalies. We also classify the pure Weyl anomalies of Schr\\"odinger theories, which are Galilean conformal field theories (CFTs) with $z=2$. There are no pure Weyl anomalies in even spacetime dimension, and the lowest-derivative anomalies in odd dimension are in one-to-one correspondence with those of a relativistic CFT in one dimension higher. These results classify many of the anomalies that arise in the field theories dual to string theory on Schr\\"odinger spacetimes.

Jensen, Kristan

2014-01-01

240

Path integral quantization of gravitational interactions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the local symmetry properties of quantum field theory in curved space-time and quantized gravitational interactions are discussed. We concentrate on local symmetry properties, and thus the asymptotically flat space-time is assumed, whenever necessary, in the hope that the precise boundary conditions will not modify the short distance structure in quantum theory. We adopt the DeWitt-Faddeev-Popov prescription of the Feynman path integral with a complete gauge fixing. The topics discussed include: (i) A brief review of the path integral derivation of chiral anomalies in flat space-time. (ii) The specification of the gravitational path integral measure, which avoids all the ''fake'' gravitational anomalies, and the applications of this path integral prescription to 1) effective potential in generalized Kaluza-Klein theory, 2) 4-dimensional conformal anomalies, 3) conformal symmetry in pure conformal gravity, 4) bosonic string theory as a gravitational theory in d = 2, 5) Virasoro condition and the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the path integral formalism, 6) gravitational anomalies and the definition of the energy-momentum tensor. (author)

241

Search at the Mainz Microtron for light massive gauge bosons relevant for the muon g-2 anomaly.

A massive, but light, Abelian U(1) gauge boson is a well-motivated possible signature of physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. In this Letter, the search for the signal of such a U(1) gauge boson in electron-positron pair production at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron is described. Exclusion limits in the mass range of 40??MeV/c^{2} to 300??MeV/c^{2}, with a sensitivity in the squared mixing parameter of as little as ?^{2}=8×10^{-7} are presented. A large fraction of the parameter space has been excluded where the discrepancy of the measured anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with theory might be explained by an additional U(1) gauge boson. PMID:24949757

Merkel, H; Achenbach, P; Ayerbe Gayoso, C; Beranek, T; Beri?i?, J; Bernauer, J C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Correa, L; Debenjak, L; Denig, A; Distler, M O; Esser, A; Fonvieille, H; Friš?i?, I; Gómez Rodríguez de la Paz, M; Hoek, M; Kegel, S; Kohl, Y; Middleton, D G; Mihovilovi?, M; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pochodzalla, J; Rohrbeck, M; Ron, G; Sánchez Majos, S; Schlimme, B S; Schoth, M; Schulz, F; Sfienti, C; Sirca, S; Thiel, M; Tyukin, A; Weber, A; Weinriefer, M

2014-06-01

242

Search for light massive gauge bosons as an explanation of the $(g-2)_\\mu$ anomaly at MAMI

A massive, but light abelian U(1) gauge boson is a well motivated possible signature of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. In this paper, the search for the signal of such a U(1) gauge boson in electron-positron pair-production at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) is described. Exclusion limits in the mass range of 40 MeV up to 300 MeV with a sensitivity in the mixing parameter of down to $\\epsilon^2 = 8\\times 10^{-7}$ are presented. A large fraction of the parameter space has been excluded where the discrepancy of the measured anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with theory might be explained by an additional U(1) gauge boson.

Merkel, H; Gayoso, C Ayerbe; Beranek, T; Beri?i?, J; Bernauer, J C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Correa, L; Debenjak, L; Denig, A; Distler, M O; Esser, A; Fonvieille, H; Friš?i?, I; de la Paz, M Gómez Rodríguez; Hoek, M; Kegel, S; Kohl, Y; Middleton, D G; Mihovilovi?, M; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pochodzalla, J; Rohrbeck, M; Ron, G; Majos, S Sánchez; Schlimme, B S; Schoth, M; Schulz, F; Sfienti, C; Širca, S; Thiel, M; Tyukin, A; Weber, A; Weinriefer, M

2014-01-01

243

Search at the Mainz Microtron for Light Massive Gauge Bosons Relevant for the Muon g-2 Anomaly

A massive, but light, Abelian U(1) gauge boson is a well-motivated possible signature of physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. In this Letter, the search for the signal of such a U(1) gauge boson in electron-positron pair production at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron is described. Exclusion limits in the mass range of 40 MeV/c2 to 300 MeV/c2, with a sensitivity in the squared mixing parameter of as little as ?2=8×10-7 are presented. A large fraction of the parameter space has been excluded where the discrepancy of the measured anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with theory might be explained by an additional U(1) gauge boson.

Merkel, H.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Beranek, T.; Beri?i?, J.; Bernauer, J. C.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Debenjak, L.; Denig, A.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friš?i?, I.; Gómez Rodríguez de la Paz, M.; Hoek, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Middleton, D. G.; Mihovilovi?, M.; Müller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Rohrbeck, M.; Ron, G.; Sánchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. S.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Thiel, M.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.; Weinriefer, M.; A1 Collaboration

2014-06-01

244

Anomalies in orbifold field theories

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the constraints on models with extra dimensions arising from local anomaly cancellation. We consider a five-dimensional field theory with a U(I) gauge field and a charged fermion, compactified on the orbifold S-1/(Z(2) x Z(2)'). We show that, even if the orbifold projections remove both fermionic zero modes, there are gauge anomalies localized at the fixed points. Anomalies naively cancel after integration over the fifth dimension, but gauge invariance is broken, spoiling the consist...

Scrucca, C. A.; Serone, M.; Silvestrini, L.; Zwirner, F.

2001-01-01

245

Without gravity, you would float into space. Gravity pulls matter together: it holds us onto the Earth, it holds the Earth in orbit around the sun and it holds our solar system in orbit about the centre of the galaxy. Everything with mass feels the attraction of gravity. The strength of the attraction between 2 objects depends on their masses. Despite its omnipresence, gravity is the weakest of the 4 forces. It is insignificant at the scale of human beings: when a group of visitors walks past, gravity doesn't pull you towards them! At even smaller scales, the gravitational pull between the electron and the proton is about 1040 times weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them. Text for the interactive: Why does the same mass weigh more on the Earth than on the moon ?

246

Compensating fields and anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article we shall examine the question of quantum equivalence in the presence of anomalies and review various results related to this issue. We will argue that anomalies do not affect the gauge-equivalence for theories with compensating fields. We discuss how intrinsic pathologies in models many reflect themselves in the extra terms required for gauge-equivalence, and the interplay between 'compensating anomalies' and anomalies in other invariances. We consider several examples: the (non-Abelian) Stueckelberg model, scale-invariant gravity, non-linear sigma models and supergravity. (author)

247

The global anomaly of the self-dual field in general backgrounds

We prove a formula for the global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory in the presence of background gauge fields, assuming the results of arXiv:1110.4639. Along the way, we also clarify various points about the self-dual field theory. In particular, we give a general definition of the theta characteristic entering its partition function and settle the issue of its possible metric dependence. We treat the cohomological version of type IIB supergravity as an example of the formalism. We show the apparent existence of a mixed gauge-gravitational global anomaly, occurring when the B-field and Ramond-Ramond 2-form gauge fields have non-trivial Wilson lines, and suggest a way in which it could cancel.

Monnier, Samuel

2013-01-01

248

Strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking

We consider an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with anomaly mediation as the only source of supersymmetry breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem solved by a gauged U(1) symmetry. The extra gauge symmetry is broken at high energies in a manner preserving supersymmetry, while also introducing both the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs ?-term. We call the model strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We present typical spectra for the model and compare them with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 125 GeV with a gravitino mass of 140 TeV and tan??=16. However, the muon anomalous magnetic moment is 3? away from the experimental value. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, which can exit to a false vacuum characterized by large Higgs vacuum expectation values, reaching the true ground state after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of neutralino dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino mass (and hence the Higgs mass) is high. Naturally light cosmic strings are produced, satisfying bounds from the cosmic microwave background. The complementary pulsar timing and cosmic ray bounds require that strings decay primarily via loops into gravitational waves. Unless the loops are extremely small, the next generation pulsar timing array will rule out or detect the string-derived gravitational radiation background in this model.

Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

2013-04-01

249

Simple evaluation of chiral anomalies in the path-integral approach

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We comment on the relation between Schwinger's proper-time method and the one-dimensional supersymmetric path-integral method in the evaluation of chiral anomalies in gauge and gravitational interactions. For this purpose, we introduce a modified one-dimensional path integral which is directly related to the proper-time method by a Legendre transformation. This modified scheme provides a simple way of evaluating chiral anomalies. The one-dimensional path-integral method is also shown to work for the trace anomaly in four-dimensional flat space-time

250

On the simple evaluation of chiral anomalies in the path integral approach

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We comment on the relation between the Schwinger's proper time method and the one-dimensional supersymmetric path integral method in the evaluation of chiral anomalies in gauge and gravitational interactions. For this purpose, we introduce a modified one-dimensional path integral which is directly related to the proper time method by a Legendre transformation. This modified scheme provides a simple way of evaluating chiral anomalies. The one-dimensional path integral method is also shown to work for the trace anomaly in 4-dimensional flat space-time. (author)

251

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper an explanation of the Pioneer anomaly is given, using the hypothesis of the time dependent gravitational potential. The implications of this hypothesis on the planetary orbits and orbital periods are given in section 2. In sections 3 and 4 we give a detailed explanation of the Pioneer anomaly, which corresponds to the observed phenomena.

Trencevski, Kostadin; Celakoska, Emilija G.

2006-01-01

252

Origins of global anomalies in quantum mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and tractable examples of abelian and non-abelian gauge systems with global anomalies are presented in quantum mechanics. Explicit calculations are done both in the bath-integral and hamiltonian formalism. Algebraic criteria are given for the existence of global gauge anomalies. These criteria are applied for every gauge group and many representations. The inconsistency of theories with a global gauge anomaly is discussed. (orig.)

253

We study a simple ultraviolet complete and anomaly free $Z'$ model based on a U$(1)'$ gauge family symmetry without introducing extra fermions beyond the standard model. The U$(1)'$ group is diagonal in the three family space in which the U(1)$'$ charges of the first and second families are the same but different from those of the third family. After spontaneous symmetry breaking and rotating to the mass eigenstates of quarks and leptons, there exist in general both flavor-changing and left-right asymmetric processes via the $Z'$ boson exchanging interactions, which can lead to the flavor-changing neutral currents and the forward-backward asymmetry in the top quark pair production. Based on such a $Z'$ model, we present a general analysis on the forward-backward asymmetry in the top quark pair production by considering the recently reported experimental results, and find that there exists a parameter space which can lead to the desired asymmetry for explaining the CDF experiment results.

Liu, Jin-Yan; Wu, Yue-Liang

2011-01-01

254

Lorentz anomaly in arbitrary dimensions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the Lorentz invariance is broken in gauge theories of chiral Weyl fermions in flat space-time via one-loop quantum corrections. Abelian gauge fields contribute to this anomaly in even dimensions larger than or equal to four and non-Abelian gauge fields do in even dimensions larger than or equal to six. The anomaly is proportional to D/2 - 1 power to the charge, where D is a number of space-time dimensions

255

The Pioneers 10 and 11, spacecrafts deployed to explore the outer solar system, are reported to have experienced a constant anomalous acceleration toward the Sun. I contend that a generally covariant correction is the cause of the observed Pioneers' anomaly. I include the dominant generic corrections of the pure gravity before computing their corrections to the space-time geometry around the Sun. Afterwards I will find the correction describing the Pioneers' anomaly. I observe that the covariant resolution of the Pioneers' anomaly challenges the common sense to the gravitational interactions among the elementary particles. I then notice that it predicts an anomaly for satellites orbiting the earth.

Exirifard, Qasem

2007-01-01

256

Anomalies in quantum field theory and differential geometry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anomalies in field theory appeared first in perturbative computations involving Feynman diagrams. It is only recently that differential geometric techniques have been used to obtain the form of gauge and gravitational anomalies in a direct and simple way. This is possible because of the topological nature of the anomaly. In the first chapter of this thesis the gauged Wess-Zumino action is constructed by differential geometry methods. After reviewing the relevant techniques, an expression for the action valid in any (even) number of space-time dimensions is obtained. This expression is compared with Witten's result in four dimensions. The link between topology and the anomaly is provided by the appropriate index theorem. The index density is a supersymmetric invariant polynomial from which the anomaly and other related objects can be obtained through the use of the ''descent equations.'' A new proof of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem for the Dirac operator is presented. This proof is based on the use of a WKB approximation to evaluate the supertrace of the kernel for a supersymmetric hamiltonian. The necessary WKB techniques are developed and mechanical systems with bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom are discussed

257

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the second of two companion papers on computing the self-force in a radiation gauge; more precisely, the method uses a radiation gauge for the radiative part of the metric perturbation, together with an arbitrarily chosen gauge for the parts of the perturbation associated with changes in black-hole mass and spin and with a shift in the center of mass. In a test of the method delineated in the first paper, we compute the conservative part of the self-force for a particle in circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. The gauge vector relating our radiation gauge to a Lorenz gauge is helically symmetric, implying that the quantity h??u?u? must have the same value for our radiation gauge as for a Lorenz gauge; and we confirm this numerically to one part in 1014. As outlined in the first paper, the perturbed metric is constructed from a Hertz potential that is in a term obtained algebraically from the retarded perturbed spin-2 Weyl scalar, ?0ret. We use a mode-sum renormalization and find the renormalization coefficients by matching a series in L=l+1/2 to the large-L behavior of the expression for the self-force in terms of the retarded field h??ret; we similarly find the leading renormalization coefficients of h??u?u? and the related change in the angular velocity of the particle due to its self-force. We show numerically that orce. We show numerically that the singular part of the self-force has the form f?S=??-1>, the part of ???-1 that is axisymmetric about a radial line through the particle. This differs only by a constant from its form for a Lorenz gauge. It is because we do not use a radiation gauge to describe the change in black-hole mass that the singular part of the self-force has no singularity along a radial line through the particle and, at least in this example, is spherically symmetric to subleading order in ?.

258

Global anomalies and chiral p-forms

This is a short review of the papers arXiv:1109.2904 and arXiv:1110.4639. After a reminder about local and global gravitational anomalies, we sketch the derivation of the global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory (also known as chiral p-form). We then show that "cohomological" type IIB supergravity is free of global gravitational anomalies on all ten-dimensional spin manifolds

Monnier, Samuel

2012-01-01

259

Gravitational cubic interactions for a simple mixed-symmetry gauge field in AdS and flat backgrounds

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cubic interactions between the simplest mixed-symmetry gauge field and gravity are constructed in anti-de Sitter (AdS) and flat backgrounds. Non-Abelian cubic interactions are obtained in AdS following various perturbative methods including the Fradkin-Vasiliev construction, with and without Stueckelberg fields. The action that features the maximal number of Stueckelberg fields can be considered in the flat limit without loss of physical degrees of freedom. The resulting interactions in flat space are compared with a classification of vertices obtained via the antifield cohomological perturbative method. It is shown that the gauge algebra becomes Abelian in the flat limit, in contrast to what happens for totally symmetric gauge fields in AdS. (paper)

Boulanger, Nicolas [Service de Mecanique et Gravitation, Universite de Mons-UMONS, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Skvortsov, E D [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zinoviev, Yu M, E-mail: nicolas.boulanger@umons.ac.be, E-mail: skvortsov@lpi.ru, E-mail: Yurii.Zinoviev@ihep.ru [Institute for High Energy Physics Protvino, Moscow Region 142280 (Russian Federation)

2011-10-14

260

Path integral for gauge theories with fermions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The index theorem indicates that a naive unitary transformation of basis vectors for fermions interacting with gauge fields is not allowed in general. On the basis of this observation, it was previously shown that the path integral measure of a gauge invariant fermion theory is transformed non-trivially under the chiral transformation, and thus leading to a simple derivation of ''anomalous'' chiral Ward-Takahashi identities. We here clarify some of the technical aspects associated with the discussion. It is shown that the Jacobian factor in the path integral measure, which corresponds to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, is independent of any smooth regularization procedure of large eigenvalues of D in Euclidean theory; this property holds in any even dimensional space-time and also for the gravitational anomaly. The appearance of the anomaly and its connection with the index theorem are thus related to the fact that the primary importance is attached to the Lorentz covariant ''energy'' operator D and that D and ?5 do not commute. The abnormal behavior of the path integral measure at the zero-frequency sector in the presence of instantons and its connection with spontaneous symmetry breaking is also clarified. We comment on several other problems associated with the anomaly and on the Pauli-Villars regularization method. (author)

261

The role of Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum has been discussed for anomalous fluid in presence of both the gauge and gravitational anomalies in ($1+3$) dimensions. I show that imposition of this vacuum condition leads to the relation $\\tilde{c}_{4d}=-8\\pi^2c_m$ between the response parameter ($\\tilde{c}_{4d}$) and the anomaly coefficient ($c_m$). This establishes a connection between the coefficients appearing in a first order and a third order derivative terms in the constitutive relation.

Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

2014-01-01

262

In the construction of a fundamental conformally-invariant gravitational theory for very early times in the universe or for very short distance scales, we need to invoke a symmetry-breaking mechanism so this theory can be transmuted into the conformally-noninvariant conventional Einstein theory that we see in the universe today at macroscopic distance scales. I here propose a simple and consistent way to achieve this breaking of conformal symmetry by the Higgs mechanism applied to a massless complex scalar field coupled to a massless vector field. Upon symmetry breaking, these scalar and vector fields acquire masses of the order of the Planck mass. Before symmetry breaking, the massless vector field obeys equations similar to those of the electromagnetic field, but it is distinct from it. This new vector field can be regarded as the Weyl gauge-vector for the transport of lengths in the conformal geometry.

Ohanian, Hans C

2015-01-01

263

Unification of Electromagnetic Interactions and Gravitational Interactions

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions is discussed in this paper. Based on gauge principle, electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions are formulated in the same manner and are unified in a semi-direct product group of U(1) Abel gauge group and gravitational gauge group.

Wu, Ning

2002-01-01

264

This is the second of a couple of papers in which we aim to show the peculiar capability of the Hamiltonian ADM formulation of metric gravity to grasp a series of conceptual and technical problems that appear to have not been directly discussed so far. In this paper we also propose new viewpoints about issues that, being deeply rooted into the foundational level of Einstein theory, seem particularly worth of clarification in connection with the alternative programs of string theory and loop quantum gravity. The achievements of the present work include: (1) the analysis of the so-called Hole phenomenology in strict connection with the Hamiltonian treatment of the initial value problem. The work is carried through in metric gravity for the class of spatially non-compact Christoudoulou-Klainermann space-times, in which the temporal evolution is ruled by the weak ADM energy. It is crucial to our analysis the re-interpretation of active diffeomorphisms as passive and metric-dependent dynamical symmetries of Einstein's equations, a re-interpretation which enables to disclose their (nearly unknown) connection to gauge transformations on-shell; this is expounded in the first paper (gr-qc/0403081); (2) the utilization of the Bergmann-Komar intrinsic pseudo-coordinates, defined as suitable functionals of the Weyl curvature scalars, as tools for a specific gauge-fixing to the super-hamiltonian and super-momentum constraints; (3) the consequent construction of a physical atlas of 4-coordinate systems for the 4-dimensional mathematical manifold, in terms of the highly non-local degrees of freedom of the gravitational field (its four independent Dirac observables). Such construction embodies the physical individuation of the points of space-time as point-events, both in absence and presence of matter, and associates a non-commutative structure to each gauge fixing or 4-dimensional coordinate system; (4) a clarification of the multiple definition given by Peter Bergmann of the concept of (Bergmann) observable in general relativity. This clarification leads to the proposal of a main conjecture asserting the existence of: i) special Dirac's observables which are also Bergmann's observables, ii) gauge variables that are coordinate independent (namely they behave like the tetradic scalar fields of the Newman-Penrose formalism). A by-product of this achievements is the falsification of a recently advanced argument asserting the absence of (any kind of) change in the observable quantities of general relativity; (5) a proposal showing how the physical individuation of point-events could in principle be implemented as an experimental setup and protocol leading to a standard of space-time more or less like atomic clocks define standards of time. In the end, against the well-known Einstein's assertion according to which general covariance takes away from space and time the last remnant of physical objectivity, we conclude that point-events maintain a peculiar sort of objectivity. Also, besides being operationally essential for building measuring apparatuses for the gravitational field, the role of matter in the non-vacuum gravitational case is also that of participating directly in the individuation process, being involved in the determination of the Dirac observables. Finally, some hints following from our approach for the quantum gravity programme are suggested.

Lusanna, Luca; Pauri, Massimo

2006-02-01

265

Antibracket, antifields and gauge-theory quantization

The antibracket formalism for gauge theories, at both the classical and quantum level, is reviewed. Gauge transformations and the associated gauge structure are analyzed in detail. The basic concepts involved in the antibracket formalism are elucidated. Gauge-fixing, quantum effects, and anomalies within the field-antifield formalism are developed. The concepts, issues and constructions are illustrated using eight gauge-theory models.

Gomis, J P; Samuel, S; Gomis, Joaquim; Paris, Jordi; Samuel, Stuart

1994-01-01

266

Antibracket, antifields and gauge-theory quantization

The antibracket formalism for gauge theories, at both the classical and quantum level, is reviewed. Gauge transformations and the associated gauge structure are analyzed in detail. The basic concepts involved in the antibracket formalism are elucidated. Gauge-fixing, quantum effects, and anomalies within the field-antifield formalism are developed. The concepts, issues and constructions are illustrated using eight gauge-theory models.

Gomis, Joaquim; París, Jordi; Samuel, Stuart

1995-08-01

267

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an alternative field theoretical approach to the definition of conserved quantities, based directly on the field equation content of a Lagrangian theory (in the standard framework of the calculus of variations in jet bundles). The contraction of the Euler-Lagrange equations with Lie derivatives of the dynamical fields allows one to derive a variational Lagrangian for any given set of Lagrangian equations. A two-step algorithmical procedure can thence be applied to the variational Lagrangian in order to produce a general expression for the variation of all quantities which are (covariantly) conserved along the given dynamics. As a concrete example we test this new formalism on Einstein's equations: well-known and widely accepted formulae for the variation of the Hamiltonian and the variation of energy for general relativity are recovered. We also consider the Einstein-Cartan (Sciama-Kibble) theory in tetrad formalism and as a by-product we gain some new insight into the Kosmann lift in gauge natural theories, which arises when trying to restore naturality in a gauge natural variational Lagrangian

268

Geometry and anomalies in superconnection space

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the concepts of gauge and supersymmetry orbits in superconnection space we give a geometrical derivation of the consistency condition for both gauge and supersymmetry anomalies. A relationship between supersymmetry anomalies in different approaches is established. An application is studied. (orig.)

269

Anomalies in Superfluids and a Chiral Electric Effect

We analyze the chiral transport terms in relativistic superfluid hydrodynamics. In addition to the spontaneously broken symmetry current, we consider an arbitrary number of unbroken symmetries and extend the results of arXiv:1105.3733. We suggest an interpretation of some of the new transport coefficients in terms of chiral and gravitational anomalies. In particular, we show that with unbroken gauged charges in the system, one can observe a chiral electric conductivity - a current in a perpendicular direction to the applied electric field. We present a motivated proposal for the value of the associated transport coefficient, linking it to the triangle anomaly. Along the way we present new arguments regarding the interpretation of the anomalous transport coefficients in normal fluids. We propose a natural generalization of the chiral transport terms to the case of an arbitrary number of spontaneously broken symmetry currents.

Neiman, Yasha

2011-01-01

270

Infinity and anomaly cancellation in superstring theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of calculations in string perturbation theory at the one-loop level is reviewed. The paper was presented to the workshop on 'Supersymmetry and its applications', Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1985. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: loops of open strings, closed-string loop amplitude, multi-loop amplitudes, one-loop chiral gauge anomalies, gauge invariance of tree diagrams, one-loop anomaly, and anomaly cancellations in the low-energy theory. (U.K.)

271

Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen's monograph 'Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space' collects in one volume the results of the authors' 15-year research programme on anomalies that arise in Feynman diagrams of quantum field theories on curved manifolds. The programme was spurred by the path-integral techniques introduced in Alvarez-Gaume and Witten's renowned 1983 paper on gravitational anomalies which, together with the anomaly cancellation paper by Green and Schwarz, led to the string theory explosion of the 1980s. The authors have produced a tour de force, giving a comprehensive and pedagogical exposition of material that is central to current research. The first part of the book develops from scratch a formalism for defining and evaluating quantum mechanical path integrals in nonlinear sigma models, using time slicing regularization, mode regularization and dimensional regularization. The second part applies this formalism to quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1 and 3/2 and to self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields. The book concludes with a discussion of gravitational anomalies in 10-dimensional supergravities, for both classical and exceptional gauge groups. The target audience is researchers and graduate students in curved spacetime quantum field theory and string theory, and the aims, style and pedagogical level have been chosen with this audience in mind. Path integrals are treated as calculational tools, and the notation and terminology are throughout taiotation and terminology are throughout tailored to calculational convenience, rather than to mathematical rigour. The style is closer to that of an exceedingly thorough and self-contained review article than to that of a textbook. As the authors mention, the first part of the book can be used as an introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics, although in a classroom setting perhaps more likely as supplementary reading than a primary class text. Readers outside the core audience, including this reviewer, will gain from the book a heightened appreciation of the central role of regularization as a defining ingredient of a quantum field theory and will be impressed by the agreement of results arising from different regularization schemes. The readers may in particular enjoy the authors' 'brief history of anomalies' in quantum field theory, as well as a similar historical discussion of path integrals in quantum mechanics. (book review)

272

Anomaly poles as common signatures of chiral and conformal anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One feature of the chiral anomaly, analyzed in a perturbative framework, is the appearance of massless poles which account for it. They are identified by a spectral analysis of the anomaly graph and are usually interpreted as being of an infrared origin. Recent investigations show that their presence is not just confined in the infrared, but that they appear in the effective action under the most general kinematical conditions, even if they decouple in the infrared. Further studies reveal that they are responsible for the non-unitary behaviour of these theories in the ultraviolet (UV) region. We extend this analysis to the case of the conformal anomaly, showing that the effective action describing the interaction of gauge fields with gravity is characterized by anomaly poles that give the entire anomaly and are decoupled in the infrared (IR), in complete analogy with the chiral case. This complements a related analysis by Giannotti and Mottola on the trace anomaly in gravity, in which an anomaly pole has been identified in the corresponding correlator using dispersion theory in the IR. Our extension is based on an exact computation of the off-shell correlation function involving an energy-momentum tensor and two vector currents (the gauge-gauge-graviton vertex) which is responsible for the appearance of the anomaly.

273

Anomaly poles as common signatures of chiral and conformal anomalies

One feature of the chiral anomaly, analyzed in a perturbative framework, is the appearance of massless poles which account for it. They are identified by a spectral analysis of the anomaly graph and are usually interpreted as being of an infrared origin. Recent investigations show that their presence is not just confined in the infrared, but that they appear in the effective action under the most general kinematical conditions, even if they decouple in the infrared. Further studies reveal that they are responsible for the non-unitary behaviour of these theories in the ultraviolet (UV) region. We extend this analysis to the case of the conformal anomaly, showing that the effective action describing the interaction of gauge fields with gravity is characterized by anomaly poles that give the entire anomaly and are decoupled in the infrared (IR), in complete analogy with the chiral case. This complements a related analysis by Giannotti and Mottola on the trace anomaly in gravity, in which an anomaly pole has been identified in the corresponding correlator using dispersion theory in the IR. Our extension is based on an exact computation of the off-shell correlation function involving an energy-momentum tensor and two vector currents (the gauge-gauge-graviton vertex) which is responsible for the appearance of the anomaly.

Armillis, Roberta; Corianò, Claudio; Delle Rose, Luigi

2009-12-01

274

Anomaly poles as common signatures of chiral and conformal anomalies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One feature of the chiral anomaly, analyzed in a perturbative framework, is the appearance of massless poles which account for it. They are identified by a spectral analysis of the anomaly graph and are usually interpreted as being of an infrared origin. Recent investigations show that their presence is not just confined in the infrared, but that they appear in the effective action under the most general kinematical conditions, even if they decouple in the infrared. Further studies reveal that they are responsible for the non-unitary behaviour of these theories in the ultraviolet (UV) region. We extend this analysis to the case of the conformal anomaly, showing that the effective action describing the interaction of gauge fields with gravity is characterized by anomaly poles that give the entire anomaly and are decoupled in the infrared (IR), in complete analogy with the chiral case. This complements a related analysis by Giannotti and Mottola on the trace anomaly in gravity, in which an anomaly pole has been identified in the corresponding correlator using dispersion theory in the IR. Our extension is based on an exact computation of the off-shell correlation function involving an energy-momentum tensor and two vector currents (the gauge-gauge-graviton vertex) which is responsible for the appearance of the anomaly.

Armillis, Roberta, E-mail: roberta.armillis@le.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN Sezione di Lecce, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Coriano, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.coriano@le.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN Sezione di Lecce, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Delle Rose, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.dellerose@le.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN Sezione di Lecce, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

2009-12-07

275

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The inclusion of a flat metric tensor in gravitation permits the formulation of a gravitational stress-energy tensor and the formal derivation of general relativity from a linear theory in flat spacetime. Building on the works of Kraichnan and Deser, we present such a derivation using universal coupling and gauge invariance. Next we slightly weaken the assumptions of universal coupling and gauge invariance, obtaining a larger ``slightly bimetric'' class of theories, in ...

Pitts, J. Brian; Schieve, W. C.

2001-01-01

276

Gravitation and Electromagnetism

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maxwell's equations comprise both electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The transverse part of the vector potential belongs to magnetism, the longitudinal one is concerned with gravitation. The Coulomb gauge indicates that longitudinal components of the fields propagate instantaneously. The delta-function singularity of the field of the divergence of the vector potential, referred to as the dilatation center, represents an elementary agent of gravitation. Viewing a parti...

Sidharth, B. G.

2001-01-01

277

Anomalies, Becchi-Rouet-Stora cohomology, and effective theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is made of the known Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) cohomology and potential anomalies in ''nonrenormalizable'' effective gauge theories with and without supersymmetry. The probable existence of higher-dimension Abelian anomalies is mentioned. Supersymmetric theories have complicated BRS cohomology, but at least for N=1 and D=4, it appears that this does not give rise to corresponding anomalies so long as the gauge anomalies are eliminated

278

Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity

On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a U (1 ) gauge transformation and under the T -duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three Kähler moduli Ti obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars (PV) regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields. The resulting chiral anomaly forms a supermultiplet with the corresponding conformal anomaly, provided the ultraviolet cutoff has the appropriate field dependence, in which case total derivative terms, such as Gauss-Bonnet, do not drop out from the effective action. The anomalies can be partially canceled by the four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism, but additional counterterms, and/or a more elaborate set of Pauli-Villars fields and couplings, are needed to cancel the full anomaly, including D -term contributions to the conformal anomaly that are nonlinear in the parameters of the anomalous transformations.

Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

2015-01-01

279

The antifield formalism adapted in the exact renormalization group is found to be useful for describing a system with some symmetry, especially the gauge symmetry. In the formalism, the vanishing of the quantum master operator implies the presence of a symmetry. The QM operator satisfies a simple algebraic relation that will be shown to be related to the Wess-Zumino condition for anomalies. We also explain how an anomaly contributes to the QM operator.

Igarashi, Yuji; Sato, Masanao; Sonoda, Hidenori; 10.1143/PTP.125.565

2011-01-01

280

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a systematic method to construct the gauged BRST symmetry for any theory. In this framework, it results as the combination of two basic symmetries of the gauge-fixed theory one considers: the BRST symmetry and the ghost number symmetry, this later being promoted to a local one. From this, we can derive a general relation between the BRST and the ghost number Noether currents. We then take advantage of the present method to elaborate a geometrical algorithm leading to the obtention of the gauged BRST symmetry for a large class of theories, in arbitrary dimensions of space. These involve systems of antisymmetric tensor gauge fields of arbitrary rank, eventually coupled to gravity. This algorithm allows us to derive algebraically the expressions for the possible consistent anomalies of the BRST Noether current algebras; various examples are explicitely discussed. The gauged BRST symmetry for the free bosonic string is also constructed and used to exhibit the link between the trace anomaly and the nilpotency anomaly of the BRST charge operator. In particular, when the Beltrami parametrization is introduced, we show that the corresponding BRST symmetry can be gauged in a way compatible with the holomorphic factorization. A further use of Ward-Slavnov identities constraining the BRST and ghost number current algebra allows us to recover the well-known local counterterm necessary, at the one-loop level, to render the BRST current a good conformal operator

281

How to test gravitation theories by means of gravitational-wave measurements

Gravitational-wave experiments are a potentially powerful tool for testing gravitation theories. Most theories in the literature predict rather different polarization properties for gravitational waves than are predicted by general relativity; and many theories predict anomalies in the propagation speeds of gravitational waves.

Thorne, K. S.

1974-01-01

282

Ward identities and gauge independence in general chiral gauge theories

Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, we study the Ward identities and the equations of gauge dependence in potentially anomalous general gauge theories, renormalizable or not. A crucial new term, absent in manifestly nonanomalous theories, is responsible for interesting effects. We prove that gauge invariance always implies gauge independence, which in turn ensures perturbative unitarity. Precisely, we consider potentially anomalous theories that are actually free of gauge anomalies thanks to the Adler-Bardeen theorem. We show that when we make a canonical transformation on the tree-level action, it is always possible to re-renormalize the divergences and re-fine-tune the finite local counterterms, so that the renormalized $\\Gamma $ functional of the transformed theory is also free of gauge anomalies, and is related to the renormalized $\\Gamma $ functional of the starting theory by a canonical transformation. An unexpected consequence of our results is that the beta functions of the couplings may depend on...

Anselmi, Damiano

2015-01-01

283

Anomaly constraints on nonlinear sigma models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anomalies in nonlinear sigma models can sometimes be cancelled by local counterterms. We show that these counterterms have a simple topological interpretation, and that the requirements for anomaly cancellation can be easily understood in terms of 't Hooft's anomaly matching conditions. We exhibit the anomaly on homogeneous spaces G/H and on general riemannian manifolds M. We include external gauge fields on the manifolds and derive the generalized anomaly-cancellation conditions. Finally, we discuss the implications of this work for superstring theories. (orig.)

284

Gauge fields and correspondence principle

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is proposed for constructing gauge theories with Weyl fermions satisfying the correspondence principle. The additional terms in the Weinberg-Salam Lagrangian are found in an arbitrary gauge. The part played by the Higgs and Goldstone fields in the presence of anomalies is discussed

285

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss the definitions of standard clocks in theories of gravitation. These definitions are motivated by the invariance of actions under different gauge symmetries. We contrast the definition of a standard Weyl clock with that of a clock in general relativity and argue that the historical criticisms of theories based on non-metric compatible connections by Einstein, Pauli and others must be considered in the context of Weyl's original gauge symmetry. We argue that standa...

Teyssandier, Pierre; Tucker, Robin W.

1995-01-01

286

Brane boxes, anomalies, bending, and tadpoles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Certain classes of chiral four-dimensional gauge theories may be obtained as the world volume theories of D5-branes are suspended between networks of NS5-branes, the so-called brane box models. In this paper, we derive the stringy consistency conditions placed on these models, and show that they are equivalent to an anomaly cancellation of the gauge theories. We derive these conditions in the orbifold theories which are T dual to the elliptic brane box models. Specifically, we show that the expression for tadpoles for unphysical twisted Ramond-Ramond 4-form fields in the orbifold theory are proportional to the gauge anomalies of the brane box theory. Thus string consistency is equivalent to world volume gauge anomaly cancellation. Furthermore, we find additional cylinder amplitudes which give the ? functions of the gauge theory. We show how these correspond to bending of the NS-branes in the brane box theory. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

287

Chiral anomalies? a voice for choice

One can construct theories free of all chiral anomalies by performing computations in the Lorentz gauge! We consider theories with chiral fermions gauged in a representation not satisfying the no-anomaly condition. We find certain terms to be added to the Action that restore the gauge invariance. In the abelian situation (and the usual singlet chiral anomaly case as well) only a finite number of terms must be added, and these terms may be viewed as representing merely an alternate (clearly preferable!?) regulariziation of the theory. In the general nonabelian case, an infinite number of terms must be added. However, in every case all added terms vanish for the gauge field in the Lorentz gauge! The particle content of the theory is not changed by the added terms, the same physical particles appear in intermediate states of the unitarity relationship.

Federbush, P G

1995-01-01

288

Stochastic perturbative derivation of the axial anomaly

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The axial anomaly is calculated as the infinite Langevin time limit of stochastic triangle diagrams. Their regularization is insured with the help of an analytic stochastic regulator. The usual axial anomaly is recovered only when the Langevin equations used to generate the perturbative expansion are gauge covariant. (orig.)

289

Consistency conditions for Kaluza-Klein anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General consistency requirements on anomalies in D = 2n dimensions are derived with topological techniques. It is shown that for a non-Abelian gauge theory the group-theoretic piece of the anomaly is an overall multiplicative factor for any even D> or =4

290

... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Poland Anomaly What is Poland anomaly? What are the ... Anomaly Additional Resources for Poland Anomaly What is Poland anomaly? Named after Sir Alfred Poland, Poland anomaly ( ...

291

Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space

292

Supersymmetry: Kaluza-Klein theory, anomalies, and superstrings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in the search for a unified theory of elementary particles is reviewed. The supersymmetrical Kaluza-Klein theories are described: 11-, 10-, and 6-dimensional models of supergravity. The methods of spontaneous compactification, with whose help the four-dimensional theories are obtained, are described. The properties of the massless sector: zero modes in the Kaluza-Klein theories: and the question of the stability of vacuum solutions are discussed. An important criterion for the selection of a self-consistent theory is the absence of anomalies. The basic formulas for multidimensional chiral and gravitational anomalies are presented. The mechanism of the cancellation of the anomaly for Green and Schwarz's 10-dimensional effective field theory of superstrings with the gauge groups SO(32) and E8 x E8 is described. The basic concepts and the results of the theory of superstrings are presented. This theory has no divergences and is at the present time a very attractive candidate for a unified theory of elementary particles

293

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The statistics of scalar matter changes when it is coupled to a U(1) gauge field with Chern-Simons dynamics, because all particles carry a magnetic flux and therefore give rise to Aharonov-Bohm phases when they move around each other. We argue that also the ''dual'' version of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Aharonov-Casher effect, can give rise to Berry phases which transmute ordinary particles into anyons. The Aharonov-Casher effect consists of an extra topological phase in the wave function of a magnetic moment moving around an electric charge. Considering (2+1)-dimensional Dirac fermions at low energies, both effects are present, and the fermions are turned into (interacting) anyons even though there is no Chern-Simons term included in the action. We study in detail the gravitational analogue of this mechanism. The post-Newtonian approximation is applied to the gravitational interaction of (2+1)-dimensional particles with spin, and to stringlike matter distributions with internal angular momentum in 3+1 dimensions. The action for gravity is taken to be the pure Einstein-Hilbert term. In the adiabatic limit one finds scrA·v-type interactions where scrA is a long-range vortex field. These interactions give rise to various kinds of Berry phases, in particular to the gravitational analogues of the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher phases. The former occurs when a mass moves around a particle with spin, and the latter arises when a particle with spin moves in the Newhen a particle with spin moves in the Newtonian scalar potential of a second (spinless) particle. These Berry phases lead to a ''self-anyonization'' of particles with nonzero spin. The topological term in their effective action has the same structure as the one which obtains when spinless particles are considered, but with a gravitational Chern-Simons term included in the action for the gravitational field

294

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a global symmetry G breaks down to some subgroup H, the low-energy phenomenological lagrangian is given by a sigma-model defined on the homogeneous space G/H. We show that when chiral fermions are coupled to this sigma-model, there are in general anomalies in the Ward identities which express the non-conservation of the G-currents, thus breaking the standard current algebra predictions based on G/H. We discuss the anomaly cancellation conditions in detail. We then consider the extension of these results to the possible presence of anomalies under arbitrary reparametrizations of the Goldstone boson manifold. We relate these to anomalies in the holonomy group of the manifold and again exhibit the conditions under which these anomalies are cancelled. (orig.)

295

Gauge Defect Networks in Two-Dimensional CFT

An interpretation of the gauge anomaly of the two-dimensional multi-phase sigma model is presented in terms of an obstruction to the existence of a topological defect network implementing a local trivialisation of the gauged sigma model.

Suszek, Rafa? R

2013-01-01

296

Anomaly Poles as Common Signatures of Chiral and Conformal Anomalies

One feature of the chiral anomaly, analyzed in a perturbative framework, is the appearance of massless poles which account for it. They are identified by a spectral analysis of the anomaly graph and are usually interpreted as being of an infrared origin. Recent investigations shown that their presence is not just confined in the infrared, but that they appear in the effective action under the most general kinematical conditions, even if they decouple in the infrared. Further studies reveal that they are responsible for the non-unitary behaviour of these theories in the ultraviolet (UV) region. We extend this analysis to the case of the conformal anomaly, showing that the effective action describing the interaction of gauge fields with gravity is characterized by anomaly poles that give the entire anomaly and are decoupled in the infrared (IR), in complete analogy with the chiral case. This complements a related analysis by Giannotti and Mottola on the trace anomaly in gravity, in which an anomaly pole has bee...

Armillis, Roberta; Rose, Luigi Delle

2009-01-01

297

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) delimits the transition from circular orbits to those that plunge into a black hole. In the test-mass limit, well-defined ISCO conditions exist for the Kerr and Schwarzschild spacetimes. In the finite-mass case, there are a large variety of ways to define an ISCO in a post-Newtonian (PN) context. Here I generalize the gauge-invariant ISCO condition of Blanchet and Iyer [Classical Quantum Gravity 20, 755 (2003)] to the case of spinning (nonprecessing) binaries. The Blanchet-Iyer ISCO condition has two desirable and unexpected properties: (1) it exactly reproduces the Schwarzschild ISCO in the test-mass limit, and (2) it accurately approximates the recently calculated shift in the Schwarzschild ISCO frequency due to the conservative-piece of the gravitational self-force [L. Barack and N. Sago, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 191101 (2009)]. The generalization of this ISCO condition to spinning binaries has the property that it also exactly reproduces the Kerr ISCO in the test-mass limit (up to the order at which PN spin corrections are currently known). The shift in the ISCO due to the spin of the test-particle is also calculated. Remarkably, the gauge-invariant PN ISCO condition exactly reproduces the ISCO shift predicted by the Papapetrou equations for a fully relativistic spinning particle. It is surprising that an analysis of the stability of the standard PN equations of motion is able (without any form of 'resummation') to accuratelut any form of 'resummation') to accurately describe strong-field effects of the Kerr spacetime. The ISCO frequency shift due to the conservative self-force in Kerr is also calculated from this new ISCO condition, as well as from the effective-one-body Hamiltonian of Barausse and Buonanno [Phys. Rev. D 81, 084024 (2010)]. These results serve as a useful point of comparison for future gravitational self-force calculations in the Kerr spacetime.

298

Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ˜ 6× 10^{-9} Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of a_P = (8.74 ± 1.33)× 10^{-10} m/s^2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.

2010-09-01

299

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 × 10–9 Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of aP = (8.74 ± 1.33 × 10–10 m/s2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

Viktor T. Toth

2010-09-01

300

Calculation of the commutator anomaly

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well-known that, for the non-Abelian gauge theory coupled to the chiral fermions, which is described by a Lagrangian, the anomaly of the non-Abelian current is given by the descent form of the Chern-Simon five form; D*Ja = (-1/24?2)tr[d(AdA + 1/2A3)], where A = A?dx? = -itaA?adx?. Recently, Faddeev argued that, for such an anomalous system, the gauge symmetry would be represented in a generalized sense of projective representation; V(g1)V(g2)?(A) = exp[i?2(g1, g2; A)] X V(g1g2)?(A), where ?(A) is the wave functional and the phase factor ?2 depends on both the group elements and the gauge field configuration A. Here, it is convenient to consider the infinitesimal version of the above argument. The generator of infinitesimal gauge transformation in the temporal gauge A0 = 0 is given by Ga(x) = ?iEia + gfabcAibEic - g?-bar?0ta?, and the infinitesimal form of the previous product rule can be written as the equal time commutation relation; [Ga(x), Gb(y)] = ifabcGc(x)?3(x-y) + ab(x,y,A), where is related to ?2. In this equation, the first term is what is expected as the normal commutation relation of the generator, while the second term is an anomaly, which is designated here as the commutator anomaly. Then the present study concentrates on operations to determine the anomaly term. (Nogami, A.)

301

Galilean Theories of Gravitation

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A generalization of Newtonian gravitation theory is obtained by a suitable limiting procedure from the ADM action of general relativity coupled to a mass-point. Three particular theories are discussed and it is found that two of them are invariant under an extended Galilei gauge group.

Pietri, R.; Lusanna, L.; Pauri, M.

1992-01-01

302

Anomalies, Beta Functions, and GUT's

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of supersymmetric Grand Unified theories it is possible to extend the minimal Higgs sectors of the models by introducing high dimension (anomaly free) representations. For example, in the minimal SU(5) supersymmetric Grand Unified Model, this is done to obtain phenomenological viable fermion mass relations and/or to solve the doublet-triplet splitting problem. In this work we explore models with different anomaly free combinations of SU(5) representations motivated by the flavour problem as well as their effect on perturbative validity of the gauge coupling evolution.

303

(abridged)The achievements of the present work include: a) A clarification of the multiple definition given by Bergmann of the concept of {\\it (Bergmann) observable. This clarification leads to the proposal of a {\\it main conjecture} asserting the existence of i) special Dirac's observables which are also Bergmann's observables, ii) gauge variables that are coordinate independent (namely they behave like the tetradic scalar fields of the Newman-Penrose formalism). b) The analysis of the so-called {\\it Hole} phenomenology in strict connection with the Hamiltonian treatment of the initial value problem in metric gravity for the class of Christoudoulou -Klainermann space-times, in which the temporal evolution is ruled by the {\\it weak} ADM energy. It is crucial the re-interpretation of {\\it active} diffeomorphisms as {\\it passive and metric-dependent} dynamical symmetries of Einstein's equations, a re-interpretation which enables to disclose their (nearly unknown) connection to gauge transformations on-shell; th...

Lusanna, L

2004-01-01

304

Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 x 10^{-9} Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of a_P = (8.74 +/- 1.33) x 10^{-10} m/s^2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse-square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the discovered effect and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extend...

Turyshev, Slava G

2010-01-01

305

Algebraic consistency in anomalous gauge theories

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A consistency condition for anomalous gauge theories is used to show that the usual form of the chiral anomaly is inadmissible and that a different but equivalent form yields Faddeev's Schwinger term.

Mitra, P.

1988-01-25

306

Triangle Anomalies from Einstein Manifolds

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The triangle anomalies in conformal field theory, which can be used to determine the central charge a, correspond to the Chern-Simons couplings of gauge fields in AdS under the gauge/gravity correspondence. We present a simple geometrical formula for the Chern-Simons couplings in the case of type IIB supergravity compactified on a five-dimensional Einstein manifold X. When X is a circle bundle over del Pezzo surfaces or a toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold, we show that the grav...

Benvenuti, Sergio; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; Tachikawa, Yuji

2006-01-01

307

Tadpole versus anomaly cancellation in D=4,6 compact IIB orientifolds

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is often stated in the literature concerning D=4,6 compact Type IIB orientifolds that tadpole cancellation conditions i) uniquely fix the gauge group (up to Wilson lines and/or moving of branes) and ii) are equivalent to gauge anomaly cancellation. We study the relationship between tadpole and anomaly cancellation conditions and qualify both statements. In general the tadpole cancellation conditions imply gauge anomaly cancellation but are stronger than the latter conditi...

Aldazabal, G.; Badagnani, D.; Ibanez, L. E.; Uranga, A. M.

1999-01-01

308

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons', which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.

309

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons,' which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.

Benini, Francesco; /Princeton U.; Dymarsky, Anatoly; /Stanford U., ITP; Franco, Sebastian; /Santa Barbara, KITP; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Verlinde, Herman; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

2009-06-19

310

Perturbative BRST current algebra anomalies for the free bosonic string

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A gauged version of the BRST symmetry for a general class of gauge-fixed actions for the bosonic string is used to study the possible anomalies of the corresponding BRST current algebra. One finds that they are rigidly linked to the trace anomaly of the initial theory. A similar analysis is performed for the BRST current algebra associated with the 'conformal-factorized theory' obtained by introducing Beltrami differentials. One finds that the factorization is maintained in the anomalous current algebra theory; again, all the current-algebra anomalies are rigidly linked to the 'holomorphy' anomaly. None of these current algebras is anomalous in the critical dimension. (orig.)

311

The consistent chiral anomaly in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By means of algebraic methods we find a solution of the consistency conditions obeyed by the chiral anomaly in SYM theories. The latter consists of a chiral gauge anomaly which breaks rigid supersymmetry and of a supersymmetric partner. We prove that the supersymmetric partner can be eliminated by adding a suitable counterterm to the action. The gauge anomaly obtained by varying the new action is showed to be supersymmetric invariant. We give an explicit expression of it. We also show the equivalence of the expression of consistent chiral anomalies in different formulations of SYM theories. (orig.)

312

Classical anomalies for spinning particles

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss the phenomenon of classical anomaly. It is observed for 3D Berezin-Marinov (BM), Barducci-Casalbuoni-Lusanna (BCL) and Cortes-Plyushchay-Velazquez (CPV) pseudoclassical spin particle models. We show that quantum mechanically these different models correspond to the same P,T-invariant system of planar fermions, but the quantum system has global symmetries being not reproducible classically in full in any of the models. We demonstrate that the specific U(1) gauge sy...

Gamboa, Jorge; Plyushchay, Mikhail

1997-01-01

313

Black hole spectra in holography: consequences for equilibration of dual gauge theories

Energy gap in the spectrum of equilibrium states of interacting system, along with ability to continuously excite the system inside this gap, leads to violation of the ergodicity hypothesis. We explore this in the framework of gauge theory/string theory correspondence. We study the spectrum of static black holes in Pilch-Warner geometry. These black holes are holographically dual to equilibrium states of strongly coupled $SU(N)$ ${\\cal N}=2^*$ gauge theory plasma on $S^3$ in the planar limit. We find that there is no energy gap in the black hole spectrum. Thus, there is a priory no obstruction for equilibration of arbitrary low-energy states in the theory via a small black hole gravitational collapse. The latter is contrasted with phenomenological examples of holography with dual four-dimensional CFTs having non-equal central charges in the stress-energy tensor trace anomaly.

Buchel, Alex

2015-01-01

314

Gravitational Analog of the Electromagnetic Poynting Vector

The gravitational analog of the electromagnetic Poynting vector is constructed using the field equations of general relativity in the Hilbert gauge. It is found that when the gravitational Poynting vector is applied to the solution of the linear mass quadrupole oscillator, the correct gravitational quadrupole radiation flux is obtained. Further to this, the Maxwell-like gravitational Poynting vector gives rise to Einstein's quadrupole radiation formula. The gravitational energy-momentum (pseudo) tensor obtained is symmetric and traceless. The former property allows the definition of angular momentum for the free gravitational field.

De Menezes, L M

1998-01-01

315

Gauging Nonlinear Supersymmetry

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coset methods are used to construct the action describing the dynamics associated with the spontaneous breaking of the local supersymmetries. The resulting action is an invariant form of the Einstein-Hilbert action, which in addition to the gravitational vierbein, also includes a massive gravitino field. Invariant interactions with matter and gauge fields are also constructed. The effective Lagrangian describing processes involving the emission or absorption of a single ligh...

Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.; Nitta, M.; Ter Veldhuis, T.

2005-01-01

316

Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.

Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.

Yilmaz, H.

317

Gauge field topology and the hadron spectrum

Topologically non-trivial gauge field configurations are an interesting aspect of non-abelian gauge theories. These become particularly important upon quantizing the theory, especially through their effect on the pseudo-scalar spectrum. These effects are closely tied to chiral anomalies and the possibility of CP violation in the strong interactions.

Creutz, Michael

2014-01-01

318

Quantization of gauge theories with Weyl fermions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that, in the covariant lagrangian formalism, a proper treatment of the gauge degrees of freedom in ordinary Yang-Mills theory with Weyl fermions uncovers the presence of the Wess-Zumino action: the group of gauge transformations gets quantized and the anomaly is absorbed. (orig.)

319

Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies: Pt. 1

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Faddeev-Popov charge-zero and charge-one sectors of the cohomology space of the differential operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time are studied. It will be used, with some modification, a technique introduced some years ago by Dixon. In this paper it is shown that the cohomology of the operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) on the local functional space is isomorphic to the cohomology of the operator S deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(x) deltasub(lambda) -deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x) on the domain of local polynomial functions

320

Density-curvature response and gravitational anomaly

We study constraints imposed by the Galilean invariance on linear electromagnetic and elastic responses of two-dimensional gapped systems in background magnetic field. Exact relations between response functions following from the Ward identities are derived. In addition to viscosity-conductivity relations known in literature we find new relations between the density-curvature response and the chiral central charge.

Gromov, Andrey

2014-01-01

321

Noncommutative chiral gravitational anomalies in two dimensions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se examinan las anomal´?as gravitacionales en un espacio no conmutativo. El an´alisis es general e independiente de alguna teor´?a de gravedad no conmutativa espec´?fica y depende s´olo de c´omo la gravedad se acople a los fermiones quirales. El c´alculo de Delbourgo-Salam de la correccci´on gravitacional a la anomal´?a axial ABJ se estudia en detalle en este contexto. Finalmente se muestra que la anomal´?a gravitacional en dos dimensiones no admite correcciones no conmutativas en el par´ametro £.

H. Garc\\u00EDa-Compe\\u00E1n

2007-01-01

322

Connections between Schwinger terms and anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present examples of a new type of Schwinger terms appearing in commutators of energy-momentum tensor. We demonstrate them in two-dimensional flat Minkowski space. The Schwinger terms which correspond to gravitational anomaly appear in different places from those of conformal anomaly. Nevertheless, they still preserve the Jacobi identity. We also discuss the relation between anomalies and the Schwinger terms. In any-dimensional curved space-time Faddeev's cohomological technique works well. Therefore we can derive the Schwinger terms in curved space-time. (author)

323

Triangle Anomalies from Einstein Manifolds

The triangle anomalies in conformal field theory, which can be used to determine the central charge a, correspond to the Chern-Simons couplings of gauge fields in AdS under the gauge/gravity correspondence. We present a simple geometrical formula for the Chern-Simons couplings in the case of type IIB supergravity compactified on a five-dimensional Einstein manifold X. When X is a circle bundle over del Pezzo surfaces or a toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold, we show that the gravity result is in perfect agreement with the corresponding quiver gauge theory. Our analysis reveals an interesting connection with the condensation of giant gravitons or dibaryon operators which effectively induces a rolling among Sasaki-Einstein vacua.

Benvenuti, S; Tachikawa, Y; Benvenuti, Sergio; Tachikawa, Yuji; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando

2006-01-01

324

Study of axial anomaly for reduced Susskind fermions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The correct axial anomaly is reproduced for reduced (one-flavor) Susskind fermions on a two-dimensional euclidean lattice. Reduced Susskind fermions with U(1) gauge interactions are introduced on the lattice in two different ways. (author)

325

Quantization of gravitation with Weyl fermions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that quantization of gravitation consistent with the presence of Weyl fermions is possible, in spite of the existence of Lorentz anomalies; the group of local Lorentz transformations is quantized becoming a physical field and the anomaly is absorbed

326

On SU(2) anomaly and Majorana fermions

In this paper a loophole in the SU(2) gauge anomaly is presented. It is shown that using several topological tools a theory can be designed that implements the quantization of a single Weyl doublet anomaly free while keeping the non-abelian character of the particle in the theory. This opens the perspective for non-Abelian statistics of deconfined particle like objects in 3+1 dimensions and for applications in Quantum Computing. Moreover, if this loophole cannot be closed, old arguments related to anomaly cancelations must be reviewed.

Patrascu, Andrei

2015-01-01

327

Anomalous commutators in two-dimensional chiral gauge theories

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that in two-dimensional models of chiral fermions coupled with background gauge fields, anomalous commutators of currents as well as of generators of time-independent gauge transformations are completely determined by the anomaly if the gauge group is semisimple. The four-dimensional case is commented on.

Mitra, P.

1987-09-17

328

New insight into BRST anomalies in superstring theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the extended BRST formalism of Batalin, Fradkin and Vilkovisky, we perform a general algebraic analysis of the BRST anomalies in superstring theory of Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond. Consistency conditions on the BRST anomalies are completely solved. The genuine super-Virasoro anomaly is identified with the essentially unique solution to the consistency condition without any reference to a particular gauge for the 2D supergravity fields. In a configuration space where metric and gravitino fields are properly constructed, the general form of the super-Weyl anomaly is obtained from the super-Virasoro anomaly as its descendant. We give a novel local action of super-Liouville type, which plays a role of Wess-Zumino-Witten term shifting the super-Virasoro anomaly into the super-Weyl anomaly. These results reveal a hierarchical relationship in the BRST anomalies. ((orig.))

329

On the determination of the group of gauge transformations in the gauge field theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existence of various types of gauge transformations (gT) in gauge theory and gravitational theory is established and their definitions in stratification formalism are given. It is noted that there is no any transformation of gravitational field not induced by transformation of reference system which leaves lagrangian and equations of gravitational theory invariant. That is each gT in gauge gravitational theory is of the first type. They form gauge GL+(4, R)x(X) group and gravitational theory can be constructed as gauge theory of GL+(4, R) group in which, however, gauge fields are reduced to gauge fields of Lorentz group and GL+(4, R) group represents the group of spontaneously broken symmetries with Lorentz subgroup of exact symmetries. This is a consequence of equivalence principle and is expressed in stratification terms in reduction of structural GL+(4, R) group of tangential and associated with it stratifications to Lorentz group, which results in interpretation of metrical gravitational field as the field of Goldstone type

330

A non-relativistic Weyl anomaly

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examine the Weyl anomaly for a four-dimensional z = 3 Lifshitz scalar coupled to Horava's theory of anisotropic gravity. We find a one-loop break-down of scale-invariance at second order in the gravitational background.

331

Modern on-shell methods allow us to construct both the classical and quantum S-matrix for a large class of theories, without utilizing knowledge of the interacting Lagrangian. It was recently shown that the same applies for chiral gauge theories, where the constraints from anomaly cancelation can be recast into the tension between unitarity and locality, without any reference to gauge symmetry. In this paper, we give a more detailed exploration, for chiral QED and QCD. We study the rational terms that are mandated by locality, and show that the factorization poles of such terms reveal a new particle in the spectrum, the Green-Schwarz two-from. We further extend the analysis to six-dimensional gravity coupled to chiral matter, including self-dual two-forms for which covariant actions generically do not exist. Despite this, the on-shell methods define the correct quantum S-matrix by demonstrating that locality of the one-loop amplitude requires combination of chiral matter that is consistent with that of anomal...

Chen, Wei-Ming; McGady, David A

2014-01-01

332

Grand unification through gravitational effects

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We systematically study the unification of gauge couplings in the presence of (one or more) effective dimension-5 operators cHG??G??/4Mpl, induced into the grand unified theory by gravitational interactions at the Planck scale. These operators alter the usual condition for gauge-coupling unification, which can, depending on the Higgs content H and vacuum expectation value, result in unification at scales MX significantly different than naively expected. We find nonsupersymmetric models of SU(5) and SO(10) unification, with natural Wilson coefficients c, that easily satisfy the constraints from proton decay. Furthermore, gauge-coupling unification at scales as high as the Planck scale seems feasible, possibly hinting at simultaneous unification of gauge and gravitational interactions. In the Appendix we work out the group theoretical aspects of this scenario for SU(5) and SO(10) unified groups in detail; this material is also relevant in the analysis of nonuniversal gaugino masses obtained from supergravity.

333

Grand unification through gravitational effects

We systematically study the unification of gauge couplings in the presence of (one or more) effective dimension-5 operators cHGG/4MPl, induced into the grand unified theory by gravitational interactions at the Planck scale MPl. These operators alter the usual condition for gauge coupling unification, which can, depending on the Higgs content H and vacuum expectation value, result in unification at scales MX significantly different than naively expected. We find non-supersymmetric models of SU(5) and SO(10) unification, with natural Wilson coefficients c, that easily satisfy the constraints from proton decay. Furthermore, gauge coupling unification at scales as high as the Planck scale seems feasible, possibly hinting at simultaneous unification of gauge and gravitational interactions. In an appendix we work out the group theoretical aspects of this scenario for SU(5) and SO(10) unified groups in detail; this material is also relevant in the analysis of non-universal gaugino masses obtained from supergravity.

Calmet, Xavier; Reeb, David

2009-01-01

334

A first look at Weyl anomalies in shape dynamics

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the more popular objections towards shape dynamics is the suspicion that anomalies in the spatial Weyl symmetry will arise upon quantization. The purpose of this short paper is to establish the tools required for an investigation of the sort of anomalies that can possibly arise. The first step is to adapt to our setting Barnich and Henneaux's formulation of gauge cohomology in the Hamiltonian setting, which serve to decompose the anomaly into a spatial component and t...

Gomes, Henrique

2013-01-01

335

Yang's pure space equations (C.N. Yang, Phys. Rev. Lett. v.33, p.445 (1974)) generalize Einstein's gravitational equations, while coming from gauge theory. We study these equations from a number of vantage points: summarizing the work done previously, comparing them with the Einstein equations and investigating their properties. In particular, the initial value problem is discussed and a number of results are presented for these equations with common energy-momentum tensors.

Guilfoyle, B S; Guilfoyle, Brendan S.; Nolan, Brien C.

1998-01-01

336

Gravitational Model of the Three Elements Theory

The gravitational model of the three elements theory is an alternative theory to dark matter. It uses a modification of Newton's law in order to explain gravitational mysteries. The results of this model are explanations for the dark matter mysteries, the Pioneer anomaly, and the disparities of the measurements of G. Concerning the earth flyby anomalies, the theoretical order of magnitude is the same as the experimental one. A very small change of the perihelion advance of the planet orbits is calculated by this model. Meanwhile, this gravitational model is perfectly compatible with restricted relativity and general relativity, and is part of the three element theory, a unifying theory.

Lassiaille, Frederic

337

Gravitation equations and space-time relativity

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In contrast to electrodynamics, Einstein's gravitation equations are not invariant with respect to a wide class of the mapping of field variables which leave equations of motion of test particles in a given coordinate system invariant. It seems obvious enough that just these mappings should play a role of gauge transformations of the variables in differential equations of gravitational field. We consider here in short a gauge-invariant bimetric generalisation of the Einstein...

Verozub, Leonid

2008-01-01

338

Tensor gauge condition and tensor field decomposition

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss various proposals of separating a tensor field into pure-gauge and gauge-invariant components. Such tensor field decomposition is intimately related to the effort of identifying the real gravitational degrees of freedom out of the metric tensor in Einstein's general relativity. We show that, as for a vector field, the tensor field decomposition has exact correspondence to, and can be derived from, the gauge-fixing approach. The complication for the tensor field, h...

Chen, Xiang-song; Zhu, Ben-chao

2011-01-01

339

Grand unification through gravitational effects

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We systematically study the unification of gauge couplings in the presence of (one or more) effective dimension-5 operators cHGG/4MPl, induced into the grand unified theory by gravitational interactions at the Planck scale MPl. These operators alter the usual condition for gauge coupling unification, which can, depending on the Higgs content H and vacuum expectation value, result in unification at scales MX significantly different than naively expected. We find non-supersymm...

Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Reeb, David

2009-01-01

340

On the vacuum fluctuations, Pioneer Anomaly and Modified Newtonian Dynamics

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We argue that the so-called "Pioneer Anomaly" is related to the quantum vacuum fluctuations. Our approach is based on the hypothesis of the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter, what allows considering, the virtual particle-antiparticle pairs in the physical vacuum, as gravitational dipoles. Our simplified calculations indicate that the anomalous deceleration of the Pioneer spacecrafts could be a consequence of the vacuum polarization in the gravitational fi...

Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

2010-01-01

341

Chern-Simons and WZW anomaly cancelations across dimensions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WZW functional in D=4 can be derived directly from the Chern-Simons functional of a compactified D=5 gauge theory and the boundary fermions it supplants. A simple pedagogical model based on U(1) gauge groups illustrates how this works. A bulk-boundary system with the fermions eliminated manifestly evinces anomaly cancelations between CS and WZW terms

342

Chern-Simons and WZW anomaly cancelations across dimensions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WZW functional in D=4 can be derived directly from the Chern-Simons functional of a compactified D=5 gauge theory and the boundary fermions it supplants. A simple pedagogical model based on U(1) gauge groups illustrates how this works. A bulk-boundary system with the fermions eliminated manifestly evinces anomaly cancelations between CS and WZW terms.

343

Chern-Simons and WZW Anomaly Cancelations Across Dimensions

The WZW functional in D=4 can be derived directly from the Chern-Simons functional of a compactified D=5 gauge theory and the boundary fermions it supplants. A simple pedagogical model based on U(1) gauge groups illustrates how this works. A bulk-boundary system with the fermions eliminated manifestly evinces anomaly cancelations between CS and WZW terms.

Hill, Christopher T

2008-01-01

344

Chern-Simons and WZW anomaly cancelations across dimensions.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The WZW functional in D=4 can be derived directly from the Chern-Simons functional of a compactified D=5 gauge theory and the boundary fermions it supplants. A simple pedagogical model based on U(1) gauge groups illustrates how this works. A bulk-boundary system with the fermions eliminated manifestly evinces anomaly cancelations between CS and WZW terms.

Hill, C. T.; Zachos, C. K.; High Energy Physics; FNAL

2008-12-01

345

The Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity

On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a $U(1)$ gauge transformation and under the T-duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three K\\"ahler moduli $T^i$ obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields...

Butter, Daniel

2014-01-01

346

Emergent gravity and chiral anomaly in Dirac semimetals in the presence of dislocations

We consider the recently discovered Dirac semimetals with two Dirac points $\\pm{\\bf K}$. In the presence of elastic deformations each fermion propagates in a curved space, whose metric is defined by the expansion of the effective Hamiltonian near the Dirac point. Besides, there is the emergent electromagnetic field that is defined by the shift of the Dirac point. We consider the case, when the deformations are caused by the dislocations. The dislocation carries singular torsion and the quantized flux of emergent magnetic field. Both torsion singularity and emergent magnetic flux may be observed in the scattering of quasiparticles on the dislocation due to Stodolsky and Aharonov - Bohm effects. We discuss quantum anomalies in the quasiparticle currents in the presence of emergent gauge and gravitational fields and the external electromagnetic field. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in the presence of external electric field the quasiparticles/holes are pumped from vacuum along the dislocation. The appea...

Zubkov, M A

2015-01-01

347

Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.)

348

(Fractional) intersection numbers, tadpoles and anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use the Witten index in the open string sector to determine tadpole charges of orientifold planes and D-branes. As specific examples we consider type I compactifications on Calabi Yau manifolds and noncompact orbifolds. The tadpole constraints suggest that the standard embedding is not a natural choice for the gauge bundle. Rather there should be a close connection of the gauge bundle and the spin bundle. In the case of a four fold, the standard embedding does not in general fulfill the tadpole conditions. We show that this agrees with the Green-Schwarz mechanism. In the case of noncompact orbifolds we are able to solve the tadpole constraints with a gauge bundle, which is related to the spin bundle. We compare these results to anomaly cancellation on the fixed plane of the orbifold. In the case of branes wrapping noncompact cycles, there are fractional intersection numbers and anomaly coefficients, which we explain in geometric terms

349

QCD Flux Tubes and Anomaly Inflow

We apply the Callan-Harvey anomaly inflow mechanism to the study of QCD (chromoelectric) flux tubes, quark (pair)-creation and chiral magnetic effect, using new variables from the Cho-Faddeev-Niemi decomposition of the gauge potential. A phenomenological description of chromoelectric flux tubes is obtained by studying a gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective Lagrangian, derived from the original QCD Lagrangian. At the quantum level, quark condensates in the QCD vacuum may form a vortex-like structure in a chromoelectric flux tube. Quark zero modes trapped in the vortex are chiral and lead to a two-dimensional gauge anomaly. To cancel it an effective Chern-Simons coupling is needed and hence a topological charge density term naturally appears.

Xiong, Chi

2013-01-01

350

Gaugino-Assisted Anomaly Mediation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or ''hidden'') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, we consider this the simplest working model of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. We identify the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches. We also discuss mechanisms for generating the ? term and constraints on additional bulk fields. (author)

351

Gaugino-assisted anomaly mediation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or 'hidden') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, this is among the simplest working models of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. Finally, the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches are identified. This talk is based on work [1] done in collaboration with David E. Kaplan

352

Mass, Inertia, and Gravitation

We discuss some effects induced by quantum field fluctuations on mass, inertia, and gravitation. Recalling the problem raised by vacuum field fluctuations with respect to inertia and gravitation, we show that vacuum energy differences, such as Casimir energy, do contribute to inertia. Mass behaves as a quantum observable and in particular possesses quantum fluctuations. We show that the compatibility of the quantum nature of mass with gravitation can be ensured by conformal symmetries, which allow one to formulate a quantum version of the equivalence principle. Finally, we consider some corrections to the coupling between metric fields and energy-momentum tensors induced by radiative corrections. Newton's gravitation constant is replaced by two different running coupling constants in the sectors of traceless and traced tensors. There result metric extensions of general relativity (GR), which can be characterized by modified Ricci curvatures or by two gravitation potentials. The corresponding phenomenological framework extends the usual parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) one, with the ability to remain compatible with classical tests of gravity while accounting for new features, such as Pioneer-like anomalies or anomalous light deflection.

Jaekel, Marc-Thierry; Reynaud, Serge

353

Gauge boson mass without a Higgs field: a simple model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple, anomaly-free chiral gauge theory can be perturbatively quantized and renormalized in such a way as to generate fermion and gauge boson masses. This development exploits certain freedoms inherent in choosing the unperturbed Lagrangian and in the renormalization procedure. Apart from its intrinsic interest, such a mechanism might be employed in electroweak gauge theory to generate fermion and gauge boson masses without a Higgs sector. 38 refs

354

Gravitation and inertia; a rearrangement of vacuum in gravity

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We address the gravitation and inertia in the framework of 'general gauge principle', which accounts for 'gravitation gauge group' generated by hidden local internal symmetry implemented on the flat space. We connect this group to nonlinear realization of the Lie group of 'distortion' of local internal properties of six-dimensional flat space, which is assumed as a toy model underlying four-dimensional Minkowski space. The agreement between proposed gravitational theory and ...

Ter-kazarian, Gagik

2010-01-01

355

Axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field and noncommutative anomaly

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly of a 3+1 dimensional QED is calculated in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown that in the regime with the lowest Landau level (LLL) dominance a dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 dimensions occurs in the longitudinal sector of the low energy effective field theory. In the chiral limit, the resulting anomaly is therefore comparable with the axial anomaly of a two-dimensional massless Schwinger model. It is further shown that the UA(1) anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field is closely related to the nonplanar axial anomaly of a conventional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory

356

6d, N=(1,0) Coulomb Branch Anomaly Matching

6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d N=(1,0) theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, $\\Delta I_8={1\\over 2}X_4^2$. Then $\\Delta I_8$ is cancelled by making $X_4$ an electric / magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in $X_4$ to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for N=(2,0) theories. We also consider the N=(1,0) SCFTs from N small $E_8$ instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

Intriligator, Kenneth

2014-01-01

357

We present a UV complete model with a gauged flavor symmetry which approximately realizes holomorphic Minimal Flavor Violation (MFV) in R-parity violating (RPV) supersymmetry. Previous work has shown that imposing MFV as an ansatz easily evades direct constraints and has interesting collider phenomenology. The model in this work spontaneously breaks the flavor symmetry and features the minimum "exotic" field content needed to cancel anomalies. The flavor gauge bosons exhibit an inverted hierarchy so that those associated with the third generation are the lightest. This allows low energy flavor constraints to be easily satisfied and leaves open the possibility of flavor gauge bosons accessible at the LHC. The usual MSSM RPV operators are all forbidden by the new gauge symmetry, but the model allows a purely "exotic" operator which violates both R-parity and baryon number. Since the exotic fields mix with MSSM-like right handed quarks, diagonalizing the full mass matrix after flavor-breaking transforms this ope...

Krnjaic, Gordan

2013-01-01

358

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

History of discovery and study of gravitational lenses is discussed. Vitational focusing is based on refraction of light beams in an inhomogeneous gravitational field of a star. The effect of gravitational . focusing. The gravitational field acts like a collecting lens. The role of the gravitational lens can be played not only by individual stars but whole galaxies as well. In March 1979 optical spectra of quasar 0957 + 561 A,B have been obtained. Spectra of quasar components turned out to be identical. This circumstance confirmed a hypothesis of the gravitational lens reality

359

Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references

360

Recent developments in the path integral approach to anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief summary of the path integral approach to anomalous identities, some of the recent developments in this approach are discussed. The topics discussed include (i) Construction of the effective action by means of the covariant current, (ii) Gauss law constraint in anomalous gauge theories, (iii) Path integral approach to anomalies in superconformal transformations, (iv) Conformal and ghost number anomalies in string theory in analogy with the instanton calculation, (v) Covariant local Lorentz anomaly and its connection with the mathematical construction of the consistent anomaly. (author)

361

Gauge-Fixing and Residual Symmetries in Gauge/Gravity Theories with Extra Dimensions

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study compactified pure gauge/gravitational theories with gauge-fixing terms and show that these theories possess quantum mechanical SUSY-like symmetries between unphysical degrees of freedom. These residual symmetries are global symmetries and generated by quantum mechanical N=2 supercharges. Also, we establish new one-parameter family of gauge choices for higher-dimensional gravity, and calculate as a check of its validity one graviton exchange amplitude in the lowest t...

Lim, C. S.; Nagasawa, Tomoaki; Ohya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sakamoto, Makoto

2008-01-01

362

Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

Bakas, Ioannis

2011-01-01

363

Gravitational wave detector response in terms of spacetime Riemann curvature

Gravitational wave detectors are typically described as responding to gravitational wave metric perturbations, which are gauge-dependent and --- correspondingly --- unphysical quantities. This is particularly true for ground-based interferometric detectors, like LIGO, space-based detectors, like LISA and its derivatives, spacecraft doppler tracking detectors, and pulsar timing arrays detectors. The description of gravitational waves, and a gravitational wave detector's response, to the unphysical metric perturbation has lead to a proliferation of false analogies and descriptions regarding how these detectors function, and true misunderstandings of the physical character of gravitational waves. Here we provide a fully physical and gauge invariant description of the response of a wide class of gravitational wave detectors in terms of the Riemann curvature, the physical quantity that describes gravitational phenomena in general relativity. In the limit of high frequency gravitational waves, the Riemann curvature...

Koop, Michael J

2013-01-01

364

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fundamental laws of nature may be truely random, or they may be so complicated that a random description is adequate. With this philosophy we examine various ways in which a lattice gauge theory (at the Planck scale) can be generalized. Without here giving up a regular lattice structure (which we really ought to do) we consider two generalizations. Making the action (quenched) random has the effect that the gauge group tends to break down and some gauge bosons become massive, unless the gauge group has special properties: no noncentral corners in the geometry of conjugacy classes and furthermore a connected center. Making the concept of gauge transformation more general has a symmetry breaking effect for groups with outer automorphisms. A study of SU5-breaking in the context of the first breakdown mechanism (D. Bennett, E. Buturovic and H. B. Nielsen) is shortly reviewed. (orig.)

365

Target Spaces from Chiral Gauge Theories

Chiral gauge theories in two dimensions with (0,2) supersymmetry are central in the study of string compactifications. Remarkably little is known about generic (0,2) theories. We consider theories with branches on which multiplets with a net gauge anomaly become massive. The simplest example is a relevant perturbation of the gauge theory that flows to the CP(n) model. To compute the effective action, we derive a useful set of Feynman rules for (0,2) supergraphs. From the effective action, we see that the infra-red geometry reflects the gauge anomaly by the presence of a boundary at finite distance. In generic examples, there are boundaries, fluxes and branes; the resulting spaces are non-Kahler.

Melnikov, Ilarion V; Sethi, Savdeep; Stern, Mark

2012-01-01

366

Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z = 3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the ?-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2) x U(1) isometry. In contrast to the instantons of Einstein gravity, chiral symmetry breaking becomes possible in the unimodular phase of Horava-Lifshitz theory arising at ? = 1/3 provided that the volume of space is bounded from below by the ratio of the Ricci to Cotton tensor couplings raised to the third power. Some other aspects of the anomalies in non-relativistic quantum field theories are also discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA,2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

367

A clarification on a common misconception about interferometric detectors of gravitational waves

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of this letter are two. First, to show the angular gauge-invariance on the response of interferometers to gravitational waves (GWs). In this process, after resuming for completeness results on the Transverse-Traceless (TT) gauge, where, in general, the theoretical computations on GWs are performed, we analyse the gauge of the local observer, which represents the gauge of a laboratory environment on Earth. The gauge-invariance between the two gauges is shown in its f...

Corda, Christian

2011-01-01

368

Standard Model Gauge Couplings from Gauge-Dilatation Symmetry Breaking

It is well known that the self-energy of the gauge bosons is quadratically divergent in the Standard Model when a simple cutoff is imposed. We demonstrate phenomenologically that the quadratic divergences in fact unify. The unification occurs at a surprisingly low scale, GeV. Suppose now that there is a spontaneously broken rotational symmetry between the space-time coordinates and gauge theoretical phases. The symmetry-breaking pattern is such that the gauge bosons arise as the massless Goldstone bosons, whereas the dilatonic mode acts as the massive (Higgs) boson, whose vacuum expectation value determines the gauge couplings. In this case, the quadratic divergences or the tadpoles of the gauge boson self-energy should indeed unify because these divergences need to be cancelled by a universal dilatonic contribution, assuming dynamical symmetry breaking. If there is dynamical symmetry breaking, we are in principle able to calculate the value of the gauge couplings as well as the scale hierarchy . We perform this calculation by adopting a naive quartic symmetry-breaking potential which unfortunately violates local gauge invariance. Using tadpole-cancellation and dilatonic self-energy conditions, the value of is then found to be approximately GeV in the Feynman gauge and GeV in the Landau gauge. The cancellation of an anomaly in the dilaton self-energy requires that the number of fermionic generations equals three. The symmetry-breaking needs to be driven by some other mass-generating mechanism such as electroweak symmetry breaking. Our estimation for is of the correct order if GeV.

Odagiri, Kosuke

2014-09-01

369

Central Charge and Entangled Gauge Fields

Entanglement entropy of gauge fields is calculated using the partition function in curved spacetime with boundary. Deriving a Gibbons-Hawking like term from a BRST action produces a Wald entropy like codimension-2 surface term. It is further suggested that boundary degrees of freedom localized on the entanglement surface generated from the gauge redundancy could be used to resolve a subtle mismatch in a universal conformal anomaly-entanglement entropy relation.

Huang, Kuo-Wei

2014-01-01

370

S-matrix theory for gravitational field

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major results of the investigation conducted on the quantum theory of the gravitational field and reported to the conference are summarized. The S matrix has been constructed in the most general class of gauges including relativistic ones. The causes of the failure to apply the proper-time regularization technique to gravitational interaction are considered. The corrected and improved proper-time method makes it possible to obtain the universal expression for one-loop divergences in and arbitrary system of gravitational fields. Under the assumption of mass-shell renormalizability the quantum theory of the gravitational field is asymptotically free

371

A proposal that explains the Pioneer anomaly

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose here an explanation of the Pioneer anomaly which is not in conflict with the cartography of the solar system. In our model, the spaceship does not suffer any extra acceleration but follows the trajectory predicted by standard gravitational theory. The observed acceleration is not real but apparent and has the same observational footprint as a deceleration of astronomical time with respect to atomic time. The details can be summarized as follows: i) as we argued in...

Ranada, Antonio F.; Tiemblo, Alfredo

2008-01-01

372

Gravitational Model of the Three Elements Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The gravitational model of the three elements theory is an alternative theory to dark matter. It uses a modification of Newton’s law in order to explain gravitational mysteries. The results of this model are explanations for the dark matter mysteries, and the Pioneer anomaly. The disparity of the gravitational constant measurements might also be explained. Concerning the Earth flyby anomalies, the theoretical order of magnitude is the same as the experimental one. A very small change of the perihelion advance of the planet orbits is calculated by this model. Meanwhile, this gravitational model is perfectly compatible with restricted relativity and general relativity, and is part of the three element theory, a unifying theory.

Frederic Lassiaille

2012-05-01

373

A first look at Weyl anomalies in shape dynamics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the more popular objections towards shape dynamics is the suspicion that anomalies in the spatial Weyl symmetry will arise upon quantization. The purpose of this short paper is to establish the tools required for an investigation of the sort of anomalies that can possibly arise. The first step is to adapt to our setting Barnich and Henneaux's formulation of gauge cohomology in the Hamiltonian setting, which serve to decompose the anomaly into a spatial component and time component. The spatial part of the anomaly, i.e., the anomaly in the symmetry algebra itself ([?, ?] ? ? instead of vanishing) is given by a projection of the second ghost cohomology of the Hamiltonian BRST differential associated to ?, modulo spatial derivatives. The temporal part, [?, H] ? ? is given by a different projection of the first ghost cohomology and an extra piece arising from a solution to a functional differential equation. Assuming locality of the gauge cohomology groups involved, this part is always local. Assuming locality for the gauge cohomology groups, using Barnich and Henneaux's results, the classification of Weyl cohomology for higher ghost numbers performed by Boulanger, and following the descent equations, we find a complete characterizations of anomalies in 3+1 dimensions. The spatial part of the anomaly and the first component of the temporal anomaly are always local given these assumptions even in shape dynamics. The part emerging from the solution of the functional differential equations explicitly involves the shape dynamics Hamiltonian, and thus might be non-local. If one restricts this extra piece of the temporal anomaly to be also local, then overall no Weyl anomalies, either temporal or spatial, emerge in the 3+1 case

374

A first look at Weyl anomalies in shape dynamics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the more popular objections towards shape dynamics is the suspicion that anomalies in the spatial Weyl symmetry will arise upon quantization. The purpose of this short paper is to establish the tools required for an investigation of the sort of anomalies that can possibly arise. The first step is to adapt to our setting Barnich and Henneaux's formulation of gauge cohomology in the Hamiltonian setting, which serve to decompose the anomaly into a spatial component and time component. The spatial part of the anomaly, i.e., the anomaly in the symmetry algebra itself ([?, ?] ? ? instead of vanishing) is given by a projection of the second ghost cohomology of the Hamiltonian BRST differential associated to ?, modulo spatial derivatives. The temporal part, [?, H] ? ? is given by a different projection of the first ghost cohomology and an extra piece arising from a solution to a functional differential equation. Assuming locality of the gauge cohomology groups involved, this part is always local. Assuming locality for the gauge cohomology groups, using Barnich and Henneaux's results, the classification of Weyl cohomology for higher ghost numbers performed by Boulanger, and following the descent equations, we find a complete characterizations of anomalies in 3+1 dimensions. The spatial part of the anomaly and the first component of the temporal anomaly are always local given these assumptions even in shape dynamics. The part emerging from the solution of the functional differential equations explicitly involves the shape dynamics Hamiltonian, and thus might be non-local. If one restricts this extra piece of the temporal anomaly to be also local, then overall no Weyl anomalies, either temporal or spatial, emerge in the 3+1 case.

Gomes, Henrique, E-mail: gomes.ha@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2013-11-15

375

A first look at Weyl anomalies in shape dynamics

One of the more popular objections towards shape dynamics is the suspicion that anomalies in the spatial Weyl symmetry will arise upon quantization. The purpose of this short paper is to establish the tools required for an investigation of the sort of anomalies that can possibly arise. The first step is to adapt to our setting Barnich and Henneaux's formulation of gauge cohomology in the Hamiltonian setting, which serve to decompose the anomaly into a spatial component and time component. The spatial part of the anomaly, i.e., the anomaly in the symmetry algebra itself ([?, ?] ? ? instead of vanishing) is given by a projection of the second ghost cohomology of the Hamiltonian BRST differential associated to ?, modulo spatial derivatives. The temporal part, [?, H] ? ? is given by a different projection of the first ghost cohomology and an extra piece arising from a solution to a functional differential equation. Assuming locality of the gauge cohomology groups involved, this part is always local. Assuming locality for the gauge cohomology groups, using Barnich and Henneaux's results, the classification of Weyl cohomology for higher ghost numbers performed by Boulanger, and following the descent equations, we find a complete characterizations of anomalies in 3+1 dimensions. The spatial part of the anomaly and the first component of the temporal anomaly are always local given these assumptions even in shape dynamics. The part emerging from the solution of the functional differential equations explicitly involves the shape dynamics Hamiltonian, and thus might be non-local. If one restricts this extra piece of the temporal anomaly to be also local, then overall no Weyl anomalies, either temporal or spatial, emerge in the 3+1 case.

Gomes, Henrique

2013-11-01

376

Conformal anomaly and cohomology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the trace anomaly is a non-trivial element of a suitable cohomology group. So we extend the geometrical interpretation of anomalies previously considered in the Adler-Bell-Jackiw case. (orig.)

377

Anomaly-free constraints in neutrino seesaw models

The implementation of seesaw mechanisms to give mass to neutrinos in the presence of an anomaly-free $U(1)_X$ gauge symmetry is discussed in the context of minimal extensions of the Standard Model. If the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken at high energies by singlet scalar fields, then type-I and type-III seesaw can be naturally realized. Nevertheless, both mechanisms cannot be simultaneously implemented with an anomaly-free local $U(1)_X$, unless the symmetry is a replica of the well-known hypercharge. On the other hand, for combined type-I/II or type-III/II seesaw models it is always possible to find nontrivial anomaly-free charge assignments, which are however constrained by the low-energy phenomenology of the new neutral gauge boson.

Emmanuel-Costa, D; Felipe, R Gonzalez

2009-01-01

378

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gravitational waves propagate through space in the same way as electromagnetic waves, but the utmost weakness of the coupling between the matter and gravitational radiation field makes them very difficult to observe. There is no realistic event for an accretion on a neutron star or a black hole producing a gravitational radiation able to be detected. Only one possibility is left, the gravitational collapse itself. A gain of six orders of magnitude on the sensitivity of the detectors now available should allow such observation

379

Wodzicki residue and anomalies of current algebras

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commutator anomalies (Schwinger terms) of current algebras in 3 + 1 dimensions are computed in terms of the Wodzicki residue of pseudo-differential operators; the result can be written as a (twisted) Radul 2-cocyle for the Lie algebra of PSDO's. The construction of the (second quantized) current algebra is closely related to a geometric renormalization of the interaction Hamiltonian HI = j?A? in gauge theory. (orig.)

380

Anomaly extraction from the path integral

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fujikawa's recently proposed derivation of the anomaly from the path integral is examined. It is attempted to give a better understanding of his work. In particular, evasions of his result are discussed; for example it is shown how chiral U(1) axial invariance can be maintained by employing a gauge variant regularization prescription. A brief connection with the point-splitting method is also made. (orig.)

381

Pioneer Anomaly in Perturbed FRW Metric

In this manuscript, it is shown that the Pioneer anomaly is the local evidence for an expanding universe. In other words, its value is a direct measure of the Hubble constant while its sign shows the expanding behavior of the dynamics of the universe. This analysis is obtained by studying the radial geodesic deviation of the light rays in the perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric in the Newtonian gauge.

Shojaie, Hossein

2012-01-01

382

Anomaly equations and the persistent mass condition

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vector SU(Nsub(c)) gauge theories with nsub(f) flavors in the fundamental representation are considered. We prove that if the persistent mass condition is assumed, the two anomaly equations are identical and flavor independent for nsub(f)>=3. Integer solutions exist only for nsub(f)=2. The necessity of a separate discussion for 2<=nsub(f)<=Nsub(c) is explained. (author)

383

Anomalies, D-flatness and small instantons

Recently, Witten has proposed a mechanism for symmetry enhancement in SO(32) heterotic string theory, where the singularity obtained by shrinking an instanton to zero size is resolved by the appearance of an Sp(1) gauge symmetry. In this short letter, we consider spacetime constraints from anomaly cancellation in six dimensions and D-flatness and demonstrate a subtlety which arises in the moduli space when many instantons are shrunk to zero size.

Leigh, R. G.

1996-02-01

384

Anomalies, d-flatness and small instantons

Recently, Witten has proposed a mechanism for symmetry enhancement in SO(32) heterotic string theory, where the singularity obtained by shrinking an instanton to zero size is resolved by the appearance of an Sp(1) gauge symmetry. In this short letter, we consider spacetime constraints from anomaly cancellation in six dimensions and D-flatness and demonstrate a subtlety which arises in the moduli space when many instantons are shrunk to zero size.

Leigh, Robert G

1995-01-01

385

Differential formalism aspects of the gauge classical theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical aspects of the gauge theories are shown using differential geometry as fundamental tool. Somme comments are done about Maxwell Electro-dynamics, classical Yang-Mills and gravitation theories. (L.C.)

386

General relativity and quintessence explain the Pioneer anomaly

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The anomalous time depending blueshift, the so-called "Pioneer anomaly", that was detected in the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10/11, Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft may not result from a real change of velocity. Rather, the Pioneer anomaly may be understood within the framework of general relativity as a time depending gravitational frequency shift accounting for the time dependence of the density of the dark energy when the latter is identified with quintessence. Thus, in...

Mbelek, J. P.

2004-01-01

387

Pioneer Anomaly and the Kuiper Belt mass distribution

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pioneer 10 and 11 were the first probes sent to study the outer planets of the Solar System and Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to leave the Solar System. Besides their already epic journeys, Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft were subjected to an unaccounted effect interpreted as a constant acceleration toward the Sun, the so-called Pioneer anomaly. One of the possibilities put forward for explaining the Pioneer anomaly is the gravitational acceleration of the Kuiper Belt. In...

Bertolami, O.; Vieira, P.

2005-01-01

388

On Schwinger terms in nonabelian chiral gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chiral fermionic currents, coupled with nonabelian background gauge fields, are known to have Schwinger terms in their commutators. It is shown that if the gauge group is semisimple, the anomaly is completely determined by these Schwinger terms. Violation of Jacobi identities can also be demonstrated using them. (orig.)

389

On Schwinger terms in nonabelian chiral gauge theories

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chiral fermionic currents, coupled with nonabelian background gauge fields, are known to have Schwinger terms in their commutators. It is shown that if the gauge group is semisimple, the anomaly is completely determined by these Schwinger terms. Violation of Jacobi identities can also be demonstrated using them.

Mitra, P.

1987-04-02

390

Gauge field theories: various mathematical approaches

This paper presents relevant modern mathematical formulations for (classical) gauge field theories, namely, ordinary differential geometry, noncommutative geometry, and transitive Lie algebroids. They provide rigorous frameworks to describe Yang-Mills-Higgs theories or gravitation theories, and each of them improves the paradigm of gauge field theories. A brief comparison between them is carried out, essentially due to the various notions of connection. However they reveal a compelling common mathematical pattern on which the paper concludes.

Jordan, François; Thierry, Masson

2014-01-01

391

Penner Type Ensemble for Gauge Theories Revisited

The Penner type beta-ensemble for Omega-deformed N=2 SU(2) gauge theory with two massless flavors arising as a limiting case from the AGT conjecture is considered. The partition function can be calculated perturbatively in a saddle-point approximation. A large N limit reproduces the gauge theory partition function expanded in a strong coupling regime, for any beta and beyond tree-level, confirming previous results obtained via special geometry and the holomorphic anomaly equation. The leading terms and gap of the gauge theory free energy at the monopole/dyon point follow as a corollary.

Krefl, Daniel

2012-01-01

392

Topology of gauge theories on compact 4-manifolds

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a gauge theory the topological structure of the group of gauge transformations G can have important consequences. Information is obtained about the topology of G in four dimensions and this is used to study the existence of a global gauge fixing condition. The topological nature of G also allows inequivalent topological sectors to exist and these are discussed in four- and five-dimensional gauge theories. Finally, the topological structure of G imposes constraints on the existence of global anomalies in four-dimensional gauge theories. (author)

393

Balloon measurements were made of the far infrared background radiation. The radiometer used and its calibration are discussed. An electromagnetically coupled broadband gravitational antenna is also considered. The proposed antenna design and noise sources in the antenna are reviewed. A comparison is made between interferometric broadband and resonant bar antennas for the detection of gravitational wave pulses.

Weiss, R.; Muehlner, D. J.; Benford, R. L.; Owens, D. K.; Pierre, N. A.; Rosenbluh, M.

1972-01-01

394

This model shows the effect of gravitational attraction between two objects, demonstrating that gravitational forces are directly proportional to mass of each body, but inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. The model may be easily modified to demonstrate Coulomb's Law.

Charlotte Trout

395

Global obstructions to gauge-invariance in chiral gauge theory on the lattice

It is shown that certain global obstructions to gauge-invariance in chiral gauge theory, described in the continuum by Alvarez-Gaume and Ginsparg, are exactly reproduced on the lattice in the Overlap formulation at small non-zero lattice spacing (i.e. close to the classical continuum limit). As a consequence, the continuum anomaly cancellation condition $d_R^{abc}=0$ is seen to be a necessary (although not necessarily sufficient) condition for anomaly cancellation on the lattice in the Overlap formulation.

Adams, D H

2000-01-01

396

Inflationary Baryogenesis in a Model with Gauged Baryon Number

We argue that inflationary dynamics may support a scenario where significant matter-antimatter asymmetry is generated from initially small-scale quantum fluctuations that are subsequently stretched out over large scales. This scenario can be realised in extensions of the Standard Model with an extra gauge symmetry having mixed anomalies with the electroweak gauge symmetry. Inflationary baryogenesis in a model with gauged baryon number is considered in detail.

Barrie, Neil D

2014-01-01

397

Inflationary baryogenesis in a model with gauged baryon number

We argue that inflationary dynamics may support a scenario where significant matter-antimatter asymmetry is generated from initially small-scale quantum fluctuations that are subsequently stretched out over large scales. This scenario can be realised in extensions of the Standard Model with an extra gauge symmetry having mixed anomalies with the electroweak gauge symmetry. Inflationary baryogenesis in a model with gauged baryon number is considered in detail.

Barrie, Neil D.; Kobakhidze, Archil

2014-09-01

398

We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.

Arav, Igal; Oz, Yaron

2014-01-01

399

Topological anomalies for Seifert 3-manifolds

We study globally supersymmetric 3d gauge theories on curved manifolds by describing the coupling of 3d topological gauge theories, with both Yang-Mills and Chern-Simons terms in the action, to background topological gravity. In our approach the Seifert condition for manifolds supporting global supersymmetry is elegantly deduced from the topological gravity BRST transformations. A cohomological characterization of the geometrical moduli which affect the partition function is obtained. In the Seifert context Chern-Simons topological (framing) anomaly is BRST trivial. We compute explicitly the corresponding local Wess-Zumino functional. As an application, we obtain the dependence on the Seifert moduli of the partition function of 3d supersymmetric gauge theory on the squashed sphere by solving the anomalous topological Ward identities, in a regularization independent way and without the need of evaluating any functional determinant.

Imbimbo, Camillo

2014-01-01

400

We use the 5D Extra Dimensional Force according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Formalisms to study the behaviour of the Chung-Freese Superluminal BraneWorld compared to the Alcubierre Warp Drive and we arrive at some interesting results from the point of view of the Alcubierre ansatz although we used a diferent Shape Function f(rs) with a behaviour similar to the Natario Warp Drive. We introduce here the Casimir Warp Drive. We also demonstrate that in flat 5D Minkowsky Spacetime or weak Gravitational Fields we cannot tell if we live in a 5D or a 4D Universe according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Dimensional Reduction but in the extreme conditions of Strong Gravitational Fields we demonstrate that the effects of the 5D Extra Dimension becomes visible and perhaps the study of the extreme conditions in Black Holes can tell if we live in a Higher Dimensional Universe. We use a 5D Maartens-Clarkson Schwarzschild Cosmic Black ...

Loup, Fernando

2007-01-01

401

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The features and results of the surgical treatment of idiopathic macular holes with application of modern microinvasive 25+ Gauge chromovitrectomy and endovitriol dye BrilliantBlue G have been studied in the article. Materials and methods: The surgical treatment of 45 patients with macular holes aged 58,4 +/-10,3 years has been performed. Results: Microinvasive 25+Gauge chromovitrectomy with application of endovitriol dye BrilliantBlueG allows to achieve high anatomic and functional results in treatment of idiopathic macular holes in the early and remote periods of supervision. Intraoperative and postoperative complications have been analyzed with anatomic and functional results. Conclusion: It has been revealed that modern microinvasive 25+ Gauge chromovitrectomy with application of endovitriol dye BrilliantBlueG makes the surgery easier and more effective.

??????? B.C.

2013-03-01

402

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An introduction to the unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is given. The ingredients of gauge theories and symmetries and conservation laws lead to discussion of local gauge invariance and QED, followed by weak interactions and quantum flavor dynamics. The construction of the standard SU(2)xU(1) model precedes discussion of the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions and weak neutral current couplings in this model. Presentation of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous breaking of a local symmetry leads to a spontaneous breaking scheme for the standard SU(2)xU(1) model. Consideration of quarks, leptons, masses and the Cabibbo angles, of the four quark and six quark models and CP violation lead finally to grand unification, followed by discussion of mixing angles in the Georgi-Glashow model, the Higgses of the SU(5) model and proton/ neutron decay in SU(5). (JIW)

403

Composite gauge bosons of transmuted gauge symmetry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that effective gauge theories of composite gauge bosons describing the dynamics of composite quarks and leptons can be transmuted from the subcolor gauge theory describing that of subquarks due to the condensation of subquarks and that the equality of effective gauge coupling constants can result as in a grand unified gauge theory. (author)

404

From the viewpoint of the integral formalism of gauge gravitational theories, the path dependent gravitational phase factors define the Lorentz transformations between the local inertial coordinate systems of different positions. With this point we show that the spectral shifts in the curved spacetime, such as the gravitational and cosmological redshifts, can be understood as Doppler shifts. All these shifts are interpreted in a unified way as being originated from the relative motion of the free falling observers instantaneously static with the wave source and the receiver respectively. The gravitational phase factor of quantum systems in the curved spacetime is also discussed.

Li, Mingzhe

2014-01-01

405

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these notes the author provides some background on the theory of gauge fields, a subject of increasing popularity among particle physicists (and others). Detailed motivations and applications which are covered in the other lectures of this school are not presented. In particular the application to weak interactions is omitted by referring to the introduction given by J. Ilipoulos a year ago (CERN Report 76-11). The aim is rather to stress those aspects which suggest that gauge fields may play some role in a future theory of strong interactions. (Auth.)

406

Gauge field theories. I : Gauge fields, Goldstone theorem and Higgs phenomena

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture on gauge field theories is presented in six sections. In Section I, some general features of the gauge field theories are considered. The simple example of electrodynamics is studied in detail. The minimal electromagnetic interaction; one parameter gauge theory, the non-Abelian gauge groups; Yang-Mills fields and the Universality of gauge field couplings are discussed. In Section II, the various problems that arise in the dynamics of Yang-Mills fields at classical and quantum level are discussed. Included in the discussion are : Field equations and identities, Canonical formalism, Quantization, and Mass of the gauge field quanta. In Section III, spontaneous symmetry breaking is discussed in the context of field theory. Goldstone theorom is clearly stated, proved and illustrated by simple examples. Goldstone quanta are explained. In Section IV, the Higg's phenomenon concerning Goldstone bosons and massless particles is studied in detail in the Abelian and non-Abelian Gauge formalisms. The working of the Higgs-Kibble mechanism is illustrated with examples. In Section V, the Weinberg-Salam model on the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons, based on Higgs-Kibble mechanism is discussed in relation to electron type leptons. In the last Section VI, some aspects of spontaneously broken gauge theories connected with renormalizability are discussed. These include (a) high energy behaviour of tree graphs, (b) self-masses, (c) the anomaly pgraphs, (b) self-masses, (c) the anomaly problem, and (d) the safe algebra. (A.K.)

407

Classical anomalies for spinning particles

We discuss the phenomenon of classical anomaly. It is observed for 3D Berezin-Marinov (BM), Barducci-Casalbuoni-Lusanna (BCL) and Cortés-Plyushchay-Velázquez (CPV) pseudoclassical spin particle models. We show that quantum mechanically these different models correspond to the same P, T-invariant system of planar fermions, but the quantum system has global symmetries being not reproducible classically in full in any of the models. We demonstrate that the specific U(1) gauge symmetry characterized by the opposite coupling constants of spin s = + {1}/{2} and s = - {1}/{2} states has a natural classical analog in the CPV model but can be reproduced in the BM and BCL models in an obscure and rather artificial form. We also show that the BM and BCL models quantum mechanically are equivalent in any odd-dimensional space-time, but describe different quantum systems in even space-time dimensions.

Gamboa, Jorge; Plyushchay, Mikhail

1998-02-01

408

Two potentials, one gauge group. A possible geometrical motivation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By studying the purely gravitational sector of a higher-dimensional matter-gravity coupled theory, one can see that in the case of nonvanishing torsion the effective 4-dimensional theory exhibits two gauge potentials that transform under the action of a single gauge group.

Doria, R.M.; Pombo, C.

1986-12-11

409

Poincare gauge theory from higher derivative matter lagrangean

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Starting from matter lagrangean containing higher order derivative than the first, we construct the Poincare gauge theory by localising the Poincare symmetry of the matter theory. The construction is shown to follow the usual geometric procedure of gravitational coupling, thereby buttressing the geometric interpretation of the Poincare gauge theory.

Mukherjee, Pradip

2009-01-01

410

Two potentials, one gauge group: a possible geometrical motivation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By studying the purely gravitational sector of a higher-dimensional matter-gravity coupled theory, one can see that in the case of nonvanishing torsion the effective 4-dimensional theory exhibits two gauge potentials that transform under the action of a single gauge group

411

Mansouri-Chang gravitation theory

The gauge theory of gravitation introduced by Mansouri and Chang (1976) is investigated; a symbolic manipulation computer system generates the Mansouri-Chang field equations in various coordinate systems. It is found that all vacuum Einstein spaces are vacuum Mansouri-Chang spaces in four dimensions, though for higher dimensions an Einstein vacuum space is not generally a Mansouri-Chang solution. The possibility that no solutions of the Mansouri-Chang equations are not Einstein vacuum spaces is discussed.

Pavelle, R.

1978-01-01

412

Unification of Gravitational and Electromagnetic Fields in Riemannian Geometry

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The gravitational field and the source-free electromagnetic field can be unified preliminarily by the equations in the Riemannian geometry, both are contractions of im and ik, respectively. So it will be equivalent to the Yang gravitational equations. From this we can obtain the Lorentz equations of motion, the first system and second source-free system of Maxwell field equations. This unification can be included in the gauge theory, and the unified gauge group is GL(2,C), w...

Chang, Yi-fang

2009-01-01

413

Relicts of topology: The axial-vector anomaly in four-dimensional QED

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By giving two examples it is shown that the solutions of the massless two-dimensional Dirac equation with certain, of course very special, gauge fields determine completely the solutions of the corresponding four-dimensional Dirac equation, where the gauge field has been generalized to four dimensions in an obvious way. Thus it is suggested that the form of the axial-vector anomaly in QED4 is fixed by the analogous anomaly in QED2

414

On the vacuum fluctuations, Pioneer Anomaly and Modified Newtonian Dynamics

We argue that the so-called "Pioneer Anomaly" is related to the quantum vacuum fluctuations. Our approach is based on the hypothesis of the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter, what allows considering, the virtual particle-antiparticle pairs in the physical vacuum, as gravitational dipoles. Our simplified calculations indicate that the anomalous deceleration of the Pioneer spacecrafts could be a consequence of the vacuum polarization in the gravitational field of the Sun. At the large distances, the vacuum polarization by baryonic matter could mimic dark matter what opens possibility that dark matter do not exist, as advocated by the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND).

Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

2010-01-01

415

On the vacuum fluctuations, Pioneer Anomaly and Modified Newtonian Dynamics

We argue that the so-called “Pioneer Anomaly” is related to the quantum vacuum fluctuations. Our approach is based on the hypothesis of the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter, what allows considering, the virtual particle-antiparticle pairs in the physical vacuum, as gravitational dipoles. Our simplified calculations indicate that the anomalous deceleration of the Pioneer spacecrafts could be a consequence of the vacuum polarization in the gravitational field of the Sun. At the large distances, the vacuum polarization by baryonic matter could mimic dark matter what opens possibility that dark matter do not exist, as advocated by the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND).

Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

2010-12-01

416

The shear viscosity of gauge theory plasma with chemical potentials

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider strongly coupled gauge theory plasma with conserved global charges that allow for a dual gravitational description. We study the shear viscosity of the gauge theory plasma in the presence of chemical potentials for these charges. Using gauge theory/string theory correspondence we prove that at large 't Hooft coupling the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density is universal.

Benincasa, Paolo [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada) and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada)]. E-mail: abuchel@perimeterinstitute.ca; Naryshkin, Roman [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Physics Department, Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University, Prosp. Glushkova 6, Kiev 03022 (Ukraine)

2007-02-08

417

Determination of covariant Schwinger terms in anomalous gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A functional integral method is used to determine equal time commutators between the covariant currents and the covariant Gauss-law operators in theories which are affected by an anomaly. By using a differential geometrical setup we show how the derivation of consistent- and covariant Schwinger terms can be understood on an equal footing. We find a modified consistency condition for the covariant anomaly. As a by-product the Bardeen-Zumino functional, which relates consistent and covariant anomalies, can be interpreted as connection on a certain line bundle over all gauge potentials. Finally the commutator anomalies are calculated for the two- and four dimensional case. (Author) 13 refs

418

Gauge-independent effective gauge fields

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of a gauge-independent definition of the effective gauge field is considered. The Slavnov identities corresponding to a system of interacting quantum gauge and classical matter fields, playing the role of a measuring device, are obtained. With their help, in the case of power-counting renormalizable theories, gauge independence of the effective device action is proved in the low-energy limit. This allows one to introduce a gauge-independent notion of the effective gauge field

419

Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms

Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle - the graviton - that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms "feeling" laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field,...

Goldman, N; Ohberg, P; Spielman, I B

2013-01-01

420

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gravitation has posed a puzzle and a problem for many decades. Attempts to unify it with other fundamental interactions have failed. These problems and puzzles have been underscored by the likes of Witten and Weinberg. We survey this and argue that gravitation has a different character compared to other fundamental interactions - it is an energy distributed over all the elementary particles in the universe. The above puzzle and problem is resolved satisfactorily. These consi...

Sidharth, B. G.

2006-01-01

421

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Observers at rest in a stationary spacetime flat at infinity can measure small amounts of rest-mass+internal energies+kinetic energies+pressure energy in a small volume of fluid attached to a local inertial frame. The sum of these small amounts is the total "matter energy" for those observers. The total mass-energy minus the matter energy is the binding gravitational energy. Misner, Thorne and Wheeler evaluated the gravitational energy of a spherically symmetric static spa...

Katz, Joseph

2005-01-01

422

Conformal Anomalies in Hydrodynamics

We study the effect of conformal anomalies on the hydrodynamic description of conformal field theories in four spacetime dimensions. We consider equilibrium curved backgrounds characterized by a time-like Killing vector and construct a local low energy effective action that captures the conformal anomalies. Using as a special background the Rindler spacetime we derive a formula for the effect of the anomaly on the hydrodynamic pressure.

Eling, Christopher; Theisen, Stefan; Yankielowicz, Shimon

2013-01-01

423

Unsupervised network anomaly detection

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anomaly detection has become a vital component of any network in today's Internet. Ranging from non-malicious unexpected events such as flash-crowds and failures, to network attacks such as denials-of-service and network scans, network traffic anomalies can have serious detrimental effects on the performance and integrity of the network. The continuous arising of new anomalies and attacks create a continuous challenge to cope with events that put the network integrity at risk. Moreover, the i...

Mazel, Johan

2011-01-01

424

The Trace Anomaly and Massless Scalar Degrees of Freedom in Gravity

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The trace anomaly of quantum fields in electromagnetic or gravitational backgrounds implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. Considering first the axial anomaly and using QED as an example, we compute the full one-loop triangle amplitude of the fermionic stress tensor with two current vertices, , and exhibit the scalar pole in this amplitude associated with the trace anomaly, in the limit of zer...

Giannotti, Maurizio; Mottola, Emil

2008-01-01

425

Parity anomaly in three dimensions via fermion-number fractionalization in two dimensions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new approach, peculiar in its simplicity, to the parity anomaly of relativistic fermions coupled to a static external gauge field, in 2+1 dimensions, makes clear the relationship to the fermion number fractionalization in 1+1 dimensions. From this correspondence we get the parity-anomaly behavior at finite temperature.

Moriconi, L. (Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 38071, 22452 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1991-11-15

426

Parity anomaly in three dimensions via fermion-number fractionalization in two dimensions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new approach, peculiar in its simplicity, to the parity anomaly of relativistic fermions coupled to a static external gauge field, in 2+1 dimensions, makes clear the relationship to the fermion number fractionalization in 1+1 dimensions. From this correspondence we get the parity-anomaly behavior at finite temperature

427

Canonical quantization and cosmological particle production in non-abelian gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A canonical quantization scheme for non-abelian gauge fields in an external, classical gravitational field is formulated and applied to the problem of cosmological Higgs and gauge boson production. Via interaction, the mass of the Higgs field not only leads to additional Higgs production, but also enables the production of massless gauge bosons. (orig.)

428

Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

429

Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

Chris L. Fryer

2011-01-01

430

Extended de Sitter Theory of Two Dimensional Gravitational Forces

We present a simple unifying gauge theoretical formulation of gravitational theories in two dimensional spacetime. This formulation includes the effects of a novel matter-gravity coupling which leads to an extended de Sitter symmetry algebra on which the gauge theory is based. Contractions of this theory encompass previously studied cases.

Cangemi, D; Cangemi, Daniel; Dunne, Gerald

1993-01-01

431

Dimensional regularization and ?5. The spurious anomalies problem

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A change of principles of operation with external diagram pulses ia proposed in dimensional regularization with four-dimensional ?5-matrix. It is shown that in this case for Abelian gauge theories in one-loop approximation false axial anomalies do not appear. 10 refs

432

The Trace Anomaly and Dynamical Vacuum Energy in Cosmology

The trace anomaly of conformal matter implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. These poles may be described by a local effective action with massless scalar fields, which couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects at macroscopic scales. In an effective field theory approach, the effective action of the anomaly is an infrared relevant term that should be added to the Einstein-Hilbert action of classical General Relativity to take account of macroscopic quantum effects. The additional scalar degrees of freedom contained in this effective action may be understood as responsible for both the Casimir effect in flat spacetime and large quantum backreaction effects at the horizon scale of cosmological spacetimes. These effects of the trace anomaly imply that the cosmological vacuum energy is dynamical, and its value depends on macroscopic boundary conditions at the cosmol...

Mottola, Emil

2010-01-01

433

On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein's theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein's field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, $R_{mu u} = 0$, violates his Principle of Equivalence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein's pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein's gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.

Crothers S. J.

2008-01-01

434

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enormous technical and economic benefits have been conferred on the industry in many countries by the application of nucleonic gauging. The last few years have witnessed many important advances in the field. Basically radioisotope instruments are used to measure a variety of physical properties of material in solid, liquid and gaseous state and many of them are designed to work in the industrial plants and fields under rigorous conditions

435

Interaction of Dirac and Majorana Neutrinos with Weak Gravitational Fields

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the interaction of high energy neutrinos with weak gravitational fields is briefly explored. The form of the graviton-neutrino vertex is motivated from Lorentz and gauge invariance and the non-relativistic interpretations of the neutrino gravitational form factors are obtained. We comment on the renormalization conditions, the preservation of the weak equivalence principle and the definition of the neutrino mass radius. We associate the neutrino gravitational f...

Menon, A.; Thalapillil, Arun M.

2008-01-01

436

Framing Anomaly in the Effective Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

We consider the geometric part of the effective action for Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to the obtain correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee and gravitational Chern- Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.

Gromov, Andrey; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G; Fradkin, Eduardo

2014-01-01

437

Pioneer anomaly and the Kuiper Belt mass distribution

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pioneer 10 and 11 were the first probes sent to study the outer planets of the Solar System, and Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to leave the Solar System. Besides their already epic journeys, Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft were subjected to an unaccounted effect interpreted as a constant acceleration towards the Sun, the so-called Pioneer anomaly. One of the possibilities put forward for explaining the Pioneer anomaly is the gravitational acceleration of the Kuiper Belt. In this work we examine this hypothesis for various models for the Kuiper Belt mass distribution. We find that the gravitational effect due to the Kuiper Belt cannot account for the Pioneer anomaly. Furthermore, we have also studied the hypothesis that drag forces can explain the Pioneer anomaly; however, we conclude that the density required for producing the Pioneer anomaly is many orders of magnitude greater than those of interplanetary and interstellar dust. Our conclusions suggest that only through a mission can the Pioneer anomaly be confirmed and further investigated. If a mission with these aims is ever sent to space, it turns out, on account of our results, that it will also be a quite interesting probe to study the mass distribution of the Kuiper Belt

438

Anomaly-free constraints in neutrino seesaw models

The implementation of seesaw mechanisms to give mass to neutrinos in the presence of an anomaly-free U(1)X gauge symmetry is discussed in the context of minimal extensions of the standard model. It is shown that type-I and type-III seesaw mechanisms cannot be simultaneously implemented with an anomaly-free local U(1)X, unless the symmetry is a replica of the well-known hypercharge. For combined type-I/II or type-III/II seesaw models it is always possible to find nontrivial anomaly-free charge assignments, which are however tightly constrained, if the new neutral gauge boson is kinematically accessible at LHC. The discovery of the latter and the measurement of its decays into third-generation quarks, as well as its mixing with the standard Z boson, would allow one to discriminate among different seesaw realizations.

Emmanuel-Costa, D.; Franco, Edison T.; Felipe, R. González

2009-06-01

439

Anomaly-free constraints in neutrino seesaw models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of seesaw mechanisms to give mass to neutrinos in the presence of an anomaly-free U(1)X gauge symmetry is discussed in the context of minimal extensions of the standard model. It is shown that type-I and type-III seesaw mechanisms cannot be simultaneously implemented with an anomaly-free local U(1)X, unless the symmetry is a replica of the well-known hypercharge. For combined type-I/II or type-III/II seesaw models it is always possible to find nontrivial anomaly-free charge assignments, which are however tightly constrained, if the new neutral gauge boson is kinematically accessible at LHC. The discovery of the latter and the measurement of its decays into third-generation quarks, as well as its mixing with the standard Z boson, would allow one to discriminate among different seesaw realizations.

440

Supersymmetric gauge theories from string theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis presents various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain sub-cycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. Even if the Calabi-Yau geometry is too complicated to evaluate the geometric integrals explicitly, one can then always use matrix model perturbation theory to calculate the effective superpotential. The second part of this work covers the generation of four-dimensional super-symmetric gauge theories, carrying several important characteristic features of the standard model, from compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity on G2-manifolds. If the latter contain conical singularities, chiral fermions are present in the four-dimensional gauge theory, which potentially lead to anomalies. We show that, locally at each singularity, these anomalies are cancelled by the non-invariance of the classical action through a mechanism called 'anomaly inflow'. Unfortunately, no explicit metric of a compact G2-manifold is known. Here we construct families of metrics on compact weak G2-manifolds, which contain two conical singularities. Weak G2-manifolds have properties that are similar to the ones of proper G2-manifolds, and hence the explicit examples might be useful to better understand the generic situation. Finally, we reconsider the relation between eleven-dimensional supergravity and the E8 x E8-heterotic string. This is done by carefully studying the anomalies that appear if the supergravity theory is formulated on a ten-manifold times the interval. Again we find that the anomalies cancel locally at the boundaries of the interval through anomaly inflow, provided one suitably modifies the classical action. (author)

441

Introduction to gauge theories of electroweak interactions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intended as a lecture for physicists who are not familiar with the sophisticated theoretical models in particle physics. Starting with the standard gauge model of electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions the recent developments of a unified gauge theory of electroweak interactions are shown. Shortcomings in the unitarity problem of the V-A fermi theory of charged intermediate vector bosons. Presented are the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics, the abelian higgs model as an example of a spontaneously broken gauge field theory, the minimal gauge group of electroweak interactions, the fermion mass generation. Further on the anomalies in quantum field theory are discussed and the radiative corrections to the vector boson masses are considered. (H.B.)

442

Geodesic-invariant equations of gravitation

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Einstein's equations of gravitation are not invariant under geodesic mappings, i. e. under a certain class of mappings of the Christoffel symbols and the metric tensor which leave the geodesic equations in a given coordinate system invariant. A theory in which geodesic mappings play the role of gauge transformations is considered.

Verozub, Leonid V.

2008-01-01

443

Gauge theories, geometry, and cosmology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The early universe is assumed to have evolved from a state which is symmetric under Weyl scale transformations, as well as parity inversions and time reversal. To assure the discrete symmetries, Weyl's original scale-invariant model must be extended to the full conformal group. If the conformal-group symmetry is spontaneously broken by the freezing out of a vacuum expectation value for the gravitational field, then there is a gauge in which the cosmological action is a Brans-Dicke action. When one takes the universal energy density to be largely due to the scalar field, one finds that the gravitational coupling strength has weakened from an initial strength comparable to that of the other fundamental interactions

444

Holonomy Attractor Connecting Spaces of Different Curvature Responsible for ``Anomalies''

In this lecture paper we derive Magic Angle Precession (MAP) from first geometric principles. MAP can arise in situations, where precession is multiply related to spin, linearly by time or distance (dynamic phase, rolling, Gauss law) and transcendentally by the holonomy loop path (geometric phase). With linear spin-precession coupling, gyroscopes can be spun up and down to very high frequencies via low frequency holonomy control induced by external accelerations, which provides for extreme coupling strengths or "anomalies" that can be tested by the powerball or gyrotwister device. Geometrically, a gyroscopic manifold with spherical metric is tangentially aligned to a precession wave channel with conic or hyperbolic metric (like the relativistic Thomas precession). Transporting triangular spin/precession vector relations across the tangential boundary of contact with SO(3) Lorentz symmetry, we get extreme vector currents near the attractor fixed points in precession phase space, where spin currents remain intact while crossing the contact boundaries between regions of different curvature signature (?1, 0, +1). The problem can be geometrically solved by considering a curvature invariant triangular condition, which holds on surfaces with different curvature that are in contact and locally parallel. In this case two out of three angles are identical, whereas the third angle is different due to holonomy. If we require that the side length ratio corresponding to these angles are invariant we get a geodesic chaotic attractor, which is a cosine map cos(x)˜Mx in parameter space providing for fixed points, limit cycle bifurcations, and singularities. The situation could be quite natural and common in the context of vector currents in curved spacetime and gauge theories. MAP could even be part of the electromagnetic interaction, where the electric charge is the geometric U(1) precession spin current and gauge potential with magnetic effects given by extra rotations under the SO(3). MAP can be extended to a neural network, where the synaptic connection of the holonomy attractor is just the mathematical condition adjusting and bridging spaces with positive (spherical) and negative (hyperbolic) curvature allowing for lossless/supra spin currents. Another strategy is to look for existing spin/precession anomalies and corresponding nonlinear holonomy conditions at the most fundamental level from the quark level to the cosmic scale. In these sceneries the geodesic attractor could control holonomy and curvature near the fixed points. It was proposed in 2002 that this should happen with electrons in atomic orbits showing a Berry phase part of the Rydberg or Sommerfeld fine structure constant and in 2003 that this effect could be responsible for (in)stabilities in the nuclear range and in superconductors. In 2008 it was shown that the attractor is part of the chaotic mechanical dynamics successfully at work in the Gyro-twister fitness device, and in 2007-2009 that there could be some deep relevance to "anomalies" in many scenarios even on the cosmic scales. Thus, we will point to and discuss some possible future applications that could be utilized for metric engineering: generating artificial holonomy and curvature (DC effect) for propulsion, or forcing holonomy waves (AC effect) in hyperbolic space-time, which are just gravitational waves interesting for communication.

Binder, Bernd

2009-03-01

445

Conformal anomaly actions for dilaton interactions

We discuss, in conformally invariant field theories such as QCD with massless fermions, a possible link between the perturbative signature of the conformal anomaly, in the form of anomaly poles of the 1-particle irreducible effective action, and its description in terms of Wess-Zumino actions with a dilaton. The two descriptions are expected to capture the UV and IR behaviour of the conformal anomaly, in terms of fundamental and effective degrees of freedom respectively, with the dilaton effective state appearing in a nonlinear realization. As in the chiral case, conformal anomalies seem to be related to the appearance of these effective interactions in the 1PI action in all the gauge-invariant sectors of the Standard Model. We show that, as a consequence of the underlying anomalous symmetry, the infinite hierarchy of recurrence relations involving self-interactions of the dilaton is entirely determined only by the first four of them. This relation can be generalized to any even space-time dimension.

Rose, Luigi Delle; Serino, Mirko

2014-01-01

446

Anomaly cancellation in K3 orientifolds

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study in detail the pattern of anomaly cancellation in D=6 Type IIB ZN orientifolds, occurring through a generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism involving several RR antisymmetric tensors and scalars fields. The starting point is a direct string theory computation of the inflow of anomaly arising from magnetic interaction of D-branes, O-planes and fixed points, which are encoded in topological one-loop partition functions in the RR odd spin-structure. All the RR anomalous couplings of these objects are then obtained by factorization. They are responsible for a spontaneous breaking of U(1) factors through a Higgs mechanism involving the corresponding hypermultiplets. Some of them are also related by supersymmetry to gauge couplings involving the NSNS scalars sitting in the tensor multiplets. We also comment on the possible occurrence of tensionless strings when these couplings diverge

447

Extended global symmetries of the bosonic string. Their current algebra and anomalies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantization of the bosonic string is discussed in a class of general homogeneous gauges. The corresponding bosonic string model may be characterized effectively by three global symmetries: the linearized BRS symmetry, the ghost-number symmetry, and the Lagrange-multiplier-field symmetry. In order to discuss the possible gauge (in)dependence of Noether currents and anomalies consistently, we enlarge these rigid symmetries to extended ones. In addition we construct the local version of the above global symmetries in a systematic way, by introducing appropriate external gauge fields. The possible anomalies are analysed with the help of Wess-Zumino consistency relations. (orig.).

Piguet, O. (Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique); Schwarz, D.; Schweda, M. (Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)

1990-08-16

448

On the axial anomalies in external tensor fields

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computation of the axial anomaly for Dirac fermions in external tensor fields is studied. The sequence of the supersymmetric one-dimensional models is presented. Their supercharges are equal, after quantization, to Dirac operators in external tensor fields, and the density of Witten's partition function gives the anomaly. It is shown that action in the corresponding path integral differs from the classical one. Gaussian approximation gives the anomaly only in the case of third-rank tensor with zero exterior derivative and in that case anomaly is calculated in all dimensions. The interpretation of that field as the torsion of gravitational field and also connection with the results of Witten and Alvarez-Gaume and Atiyah-Singer index theorem are discussed

449

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

2001-03-16

450

Confining gauge theories without Goldstone bosons

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the possibility that in the Wilson lattice definition of confining gauge theories without Goldstone bosons one may systematically adjust the lightest vector mass to zero while keeping the isosinglet scalar mass, which arises by the chiral anomaly, nontachyonic. We discuss a Weyl fermion theory and find the lightest vector particle to be an isoscalar (at least in strong coupling) so that there is no collision with known theorems. We discuss how an abelian gauge symmetry can arise as an infrared attractor and point out a difference between the Weyl fermion theory and one flavour QCD. Attention is also drawn to a physical motivation. (orig.)

451

Tadpole versus anomaly cancellation in D=4,6 compact IIB orientifolds

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is often stated in the literature concerning D=4,6 compact Type IIB orientifolds that tadpole cancellation conditions i) uniquely fix the gauge group (up to Wilson lines and/or moving of branes) and ii) are equivalent to gauge anomaly cancellation. We study the relationship between tadpole and anomaly cancellation conditions and qualify both statements. In general the tadpole cancellation conditions imply gauge anomaly cancellation but are stronger than the latter conditions in D=4, N=1 orientifolds. We also find that tadpole cancellation conditions in ZN D=4,6 compact orientifolds do not completely fix the gauge group and we provide new solutions different from those previously reported in the literature. (author)

452

Graviton as a pair of collinear gauge bosons

We show that the mixed gravitational/gauge superstring amplitudes describing decays of massless closed strings - gravitons or dilatons - into a number of gauge bosons, can be written at the tree (disk) level as linear combinations of pure open string amplitudes in which the graviton (or dilaton) is replaced by a pair of collinear gauge bosons. Each of the constituent gauge bosons carry exactly one half of the original closed string momentum, while their ±1 helicities add up to ±2 for the graviton or to 0 for the dilaton.

Stieberger, Stephan; Taylor, Tomasz R.

2014-12-01

453

Graviton as a Pair of Collinear Gauge Bosons

We show that the mixed gravitational/gauge superstring amplitudes describing decays of massless closed strings - gravitons or dilatons - into a number of gauge bosons, can be written at the tree (disk) level as linear combinations of pure open string amplitudes in which the graviton (or dilaton) is replaced by a pair of collinear gauge bosons. Each of the constituent gauge bosons carry exactly one half of the original closed string momentum, while their +/- 1 helicities add up to +/- 2 for the graviton or to 0 for the dilaton.

Stieberger, Stephan

2014-01-01

454

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that massless RR tadpoles in vacuum configurations with open and unoriented strings are always related to anomalies. RR tadpoles arising from sectors of the internal SCFT with non-vanishing Witten index are in one-to-one correspondence with conventional irreducible anomalies. The anomalous content of the remaining RR tadpoles can be disclosed by considering anomalous amplitudes with higher numbers of external legs. We then provide an explicit parametrization of the anomaly polynomial in terms of the boundary reflection coefficients, i.e. one-point functions of massless RR fields on the disk. After factorization of the reducible anomaly, we extract the relevant WZ couplings in the effective lagrangians. (author)

455

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author summarizes the works presented at the meeting on skyrmions and anomalies. He divides the principal issues of this workshop into five categories: QCD effective lagrangians, chiral bags and the Cheshire cat principle, strangeness problem, phenomenology, mathematical structure

456

In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T^2 in two cases: Nf = 0 and Nf = 3. We find that for Yang-Mills theory (Nf = 0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T^2-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures above 8 Tc while when including quarks (Nf = 3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2 Tc . In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T^2-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

Andersen, Jens O; Strickland, Michael; Su, Nan

2011-01-01

457

Trace anomaly and massless scalar degrees of freedom in gravity

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The trace anomaly of quantum fields in electromagnetic or gravitational backgrounds implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. Considering first the axial anomaly and using QED as an example, we compute the full one-loop triangle amplitude of the fermionic stress tensor with two current vertices, ??J?J?>, and exhibit the scalar pole in this amplitude associated with the trace anomaly, in the limit of zero electron mass m?0. To emphasize the infrared aspect of the anomaly, we use a dispersive approach and show that this amplitude and the existence of the massless scalar pole is determined completely by its ultraviolet finite terms, together with the requirements of Poincare invariance of the vacuum, Bose symmetry under interchange of J? and J?, and vector current and stress-tensor conservation. We derive a sum rule for the appropriate positive spectral function corresponding to the discontinuity of the triangle amplitude, showing that it becomes proportional to ?(k2) and therefore contains a massless scalar intermediate state in the conformal limit of zero electron mass. The effective action corresponding to the trace of the triangle amplitude can be expressed in local form by the introduction of two scalar auxiliary fields which satisfy massless wave equations. These massless scalar degrees of freedom couple to classical sources, dom couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects.

458

Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.

de Diego, Jose A

2008-01-01

459

Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms

Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our Universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle—the graviton—that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms ‘feeling’ laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials—both Abelian and non-Abelian—in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms.

Goldman, N.; Juzeli?nas, G.; Öhberg, P.; Spielman, I. B.

2014-12-01

460

Complex lymphatic anomalies include several diagnoses with overlapping patterns of clinical symptoms, anatomic location, imaging features, hematologic alterations, and complications. Lymphatic malformations likely arise through anomalous embryogenesis of the lymphatic system. Analysis of clinical, imaging, histologic, and hematologic features is often needed to reach a diagnosis. Aspiration of fluid collections can readily define fluid as chylous or not. The presence of chyle indicates dysfunction at the mesenteric or retroperitoneal level or above the cisterna chyli due to reflux. The imaging patterns of generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA) and Gorham-Stout disease have been segregated with distinctive bone lesions and peri-osseous features. More aggressive histology (spindled lymphatic endothelial cells), clinical progression, hemorrhage, or moderate hematologic changes should raise suspicion for kaposiform lymphangiomatosis. Biopsy may be needed for diagnosis, though avoidance of rib biopsy is advised to prevent iatrogenic chronic pleural effusion. Lymphangiography can visualize the anatomy and function of the lymphatic system and may identify dysfunction of the thoracic duct in central conducting lymphatic anomalies. Local control and symptom relief are targeted by resection, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy. Emerging data suggest a role for medical therapies for complications of complex lymphatic anomalies. Outcomes include recurrent effusion, infection, pain, fracture, mortality, and rarely, malignancy. Complex lymphatic anomalies present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Results from a phase 2 study of sirolimus in these and other conditions are expected in 2014. Improved characterization of natural history, predictors of poor outcomes, responses to therapy, and further clinical trials are needed for complex lymphatic anomalies. PMID:25241096

Trenor, Cameron C; Chaudry, Gulraiz

2014-08-01

461

Physical anomaly on the lattice

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors study the axial anomaly of chiral non-invariant generalized Wilson's action and point out a possibility that physical anomaly which is responsible for ?0 ? 2? decay and ?-eta-eta' mass difference vanishes. The physical anomaly is different from the commonly defined anomaly which has correct magnitude. (Auth.)

462

An Anomaly Associated with Ward—Takahashi Identity for Pseudo-Tensor Current in QED

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the quantum anomaly for the transverse Ward—Takahashi relations in the four-dimensional gauge theory QED by using Fujikawa's method in which the anomaly is fundamentally a variation of the functional integral measure under transformation. A regulator which leads to a finite result for the anomaly is proposed. It is shown that a novel anomaly associated with transverse Ward—Takahashi identity of pseudo-tensor current is derived due to a set of infinitesimal transverse transformation of field variables

463

An Anomaly Associated with Ward—Takahashi Identity for Pseudo-Tensor Current in QED

We study the quantum anomaly for the transverse Ward—Takahashi relations in the four-dimensional gauge theory QED by using Fujikawa's method in which the anomaly is fundamentally a variation of the functional integral measure under transformation. A regulator which leads to a finite result for the anomaly is proposed. It is shown that a novel anomaly associated with transverse Ward—Takahashi identity of pseudo-tensor current is derived due to a set of infinitesimal transverse transformation of field variables.

Bao, Ai-Dong; Sun, Yi-Qian; Wang, Dan

2012-12-01

464

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was made by Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., in August, 1979, on the uses of isotope-equipped measuring instruments in private industrial enterprises by sending questionnaires to 1372 enterprises using sealed radiation sources. The results are described. i.e. usage of isotope-equipped measuring instruments, the economic effects, and problems for the future, and also the general situation in this field. Such instruments used are gas chromatography apparatus, thickness, level and moisture gauges, sulfur analyzer, etc. Except the gas chromatography, the rest are mostly incorporated in automatic control systems. As the economic effects, there are the rises in productivity, quality and yield and the savings in materials, energy and manpower. While they are used to great advantage, there are still problems occasionally in measuring accuracy and others. (J.P.N.)

465

The existence of gauge conditions involving second-order derivatives of potentials is not well known in classical electrodynamics. We introduce one of these gauges, the Coulomb static gauge, in which the scalar potential is given by the Coulomb static potential. We obtain an explicit expression for the associated vector potential and show how the scalar and vector potentials in this gauge yield the retarded electric and magnetic fields. We note the close relation between the proposed gauge and the temporal gauge.

Heras, Jose A

2008-01-01

466

Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

2001-01-01

467

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review forms the microlensing part of the 33rd Saas-Fee Advanced Course "Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak & Micro'', which was held in April 2003 in Les Diablerets. It contains an introduction to the lensing effects of single and binary stars and it summarizes the state-of-the-art of microlensing observations and prospects at the time of the meeting. Stellar microlensing as well as quasar microlensing are covered.

Wambsganss, Joachim

2006-01-01

468

Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings and the gauge hierarchy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gauge hierarchy problem is reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 39 refs

469

The quantization of the electric charge in gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantization of the electric charges of the gauge bosons, the Higgs bosons and the fermions in gauge theories was studied. The intimate relation of the quantization of the electric charge with the spontaneous symmetry breaking, anomaly cancellation and majorana mass of fermions was investigated. Specific examples for the standard model and the SU(5) X U(1)Z model are discussed. It is found that in these models the electric charges of particles are dynamically quantized. 10 refs

470

Baryon and Lepton Number as Local Gauge Symmetries

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate a simple theory where Baryon number (B) and Lepton number (L) are local gauge symmetries. In this theory B and L are on the same footing and the anomalies are cancelled by adding a single new fermionic generation. There is an interesting realization of the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses. Furthermore, there is a natural suppression of flavour violation in the quark and leptonic sectors since the gauge symmetries and particle content forbid tree level flav...

Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Wise, Mark B.

2010-01-01

471

Electroweak phase transition in a model with gauged lepton number

In this work we study the electroweak phase transition in a model with gauged lepton number. Here, a family of vector-like leptons is required in order to cancel the gauge anomalies. Furthermore, these leptons can play an important role in the transition process. We find that this framework is able to provide a strong transition, but only for a very limited number of cases.

Aranda, Alfredo; Vaquera-Araujo, Carlos A

2014-01-01

472

A first look at Weyl anomalies in shape dynamics

One of the more popular objections towards shape dynamics is the suspicion that anomalies in the spatial Weyl symmetry will arise upon quantization. The purpose of this short paper is to establish the tools required for an investigation of the sort of anomalies that can possibly arise. The first step is to adapt to our setting Barnich and Henneaux's formulation of gauge cohomology in the Hamiltonian setting, which serve to decompose the anomaly into a spatial component and time component. The spatial part of the anomaly, i.e. the anomaly in the symmetry algebra itself ($[\\Omega, \\Omega]\\propto \\hbar$ instead of vanishing) is given by a projection of the second ghost cohomology of the Hamiltonian BRST differential associated to $\\Omega$, modulo spatial derivatives. Assuming locality of the gauge cohomology groups involved, this part is always local. The temporal part, $[\\Omega, H]\\propto\\hbar$ is given by a different projection of the first ghost cohomology, local under the same assumptions, and an extra piece...

Gomes, Henrique

2013-01-01

473

Fermions on curved spaces, symmetries, and quantum anomalies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigating the Dirac equation on curved backgrounds we point out the role of the Killing-Yano tensors in the construction of the Dirac-type operators. The gravitational and axial anomalies are studied for generalized Euclidean Taub-NUT metrics which admit hidden symmetries analogous to the Runge-Lenz vector of the Kepler-type problem. Using the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem for manifolds with boundaries, it is shown that these metrics make no contribution to the axial anomaly. (author)

474

Cosmic strings in a product Abelian gauge field theory

It is shown that multiply distributed cosmic strings arise in the product Abelian gauge field theory of Tong and Wong where vortices generated from an extra gauge sector are used to realize magnetic impurities. It is seen that, in view of the fully coupled Einstein and gauge-matter equations, the presence of such cosmic strings in the form of topological defects is essential for gravitation. Asymptotic behavior of the string solutions can be precisely described to allow the derivation of a necessary and sufficient condition for the gravitational metric to be geodesically complete and an explicit calculation of the deficit angle proportional to the string tension, both stated in terms of string numbers, energy levels of broken symmetries, and the universal gravitational constant.

Yang, Yisong

2014-08-01

475

The ? transformation and gravitational copies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An Abelian symmetry already considered by Einstein with respect to his asymmetrical field theories is related to the gravitational and gauge field copy phenomenon. It is shown that gauge field copies arise out of a straightforward generalization of the ? - map. The connection between Einstein's work on the ?-transformation and the copy phenomenon is obtained with the help of the Frobenius Theorem on the existence of foliations on a differentiable manifold. A problem like the one above is usually treated within the language of (intrinsic) Differential Geometry; General Relativity and classical unified field theories are traditionally developed in a classical style, that gap, a long introduction is prepared where the same structures are studied from the traditional and from the more recent point of view. (author)

476

A nonperturbative understanding of neutral pion decay was an essential step towards the idea that strong interactions are governed by a color gauge theory for quarks. Some aspects of this work and related problems are still important.

Crewther, R J

2014-01-01

477

Z'-gauge Bosons as Harbingers of Low Mass Strings

Massive Z'-gauge bosons act as excellent harbingers for string compactifications with a low string scale. In D-brane models they are associated to U(1) gauge symmetries that are either anomalous in four dimension