Structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies*
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown how the form of the gauge and gravitational anomalies in quantum field theories may be derived from classical index theorems. The gravitational anomaly in both Einstein and Lorentz form is considered and their equivalence is exhibited. The formalism of gauge and gravitational theories is reviewed using the language of differential geometry, and notions from the theory of characteristic classes necessary for understanding the classical index theorems are introduced. The treatment of known topological results includes a pedagogical derivation of the Wess-Zumino effective Lagrangian in abitrary even dimension. The relation between various forms of the anomaly present in the literature is also clarified
The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown how the form of the gauge and gravitational anomalies in quantum field theories may be derived from classical index theorems. The gravitational anomaly in both Einstein and Lorentz form is considered and their equivalence is exhibited. The formalism of gauge and gravitational theories is reviewed using the language of differential geometry, and notions from the theory of characteristic classes necessary for understanding the classical index theorems are introduced. The treatment of known topological results includes a pedagogical derivation of the Wess-Zumino effective Lagrangian in arbitrary even dimension. The relation between various forms of the anomaly present in the literature is also clarified
Topological meaning of gauge and gravitational anomalies and Gaussian factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss a relation between the 2n-dimensional anomalies and the (2n+2)-dimensional chiral anomalies using the Gaussian factor (heat kernel) regularization. Recently, it was shown that Fujikawa's form of the non-Abelian anomaly is related to a topological object in a direct manner. Their argument seems general and independent of concrete forms of index, anomaly and other details of models. In this paper we extend the analysis to the V, A coupling gauge theories, the gravitational theory and also to the open superstring theory. In application to the gravitational anomaly, we obtain a family of consistent anomalies from the higher dimensional index, which are all equivalent to Fujikawa's form. Our construction of gravitational anomalies leads naturally to counterterms which relate different forms of anomalies to one another. In the case of Type-I superstring theory in 10 dimensions, we show that the gauge anomaly in this theory is related to a index of a kind of Dirac operator in 12 dimensions. Our consideration might provide hints to geometrical understanding of string anomaly. (author)
Gauge and gravitational anomalies in D=4 N=1 orientifolds
Scrucca, C. A.; Serone, M.
1999-01-01
We analyze in detail the cancellation of U(1)-gauge and U(1)-gravitational anomalies in certain D=4 N=1 Type IIB orientifolds, from a string theory point of view. We verify the proposal that these anomalies are cancelled by a Green-Schwarz mechanism involving only twisted RR fields. By factorizing one-loop partition functions, we also get the RR couplings of D-branes and O-planes to theses fields. Twisted sectors with fixed planes participate to the inflow mechanism in a peculiar way.SR416082...
Gauge and gravitational anomalies in D=4 N=1 orientifolds
Scrucca, Claudio A; Scrucca, Claudio A.; Serone, Marco
1999-01-01
The cancellation of U(1)-gauge and U(1)-gravitational anomalies in certain D=4 N=1 Type IIB orientifolds is analyzed in detail, from a string theory point of view. We verify the proposal that these anomalies are cancelled by a Green-Schwarz mechanism involving only twisted Ramond-Ramond fields. By factorizing one-loop partition functions, we also get the anomalous couplings of D-branes, O-planes and orbifold fixed-points to these twisted fields. Twisted sectors with fixed-planes participate to the inflow mechanism in a peculiar way.
Gauge and Gravitational Anomalies and Hawking Radiation of Rotating BTZ Black Holes
Setare, M. R.
2006-01-01
In this paper we obtain the flux of Hawking radiation from Rotating BTZ black holes from gauge and gravitational anomalies point of view. Then we show that the gauge and gravitational anomaly in the BTZ spacetime is cancelled by the total flux of a 2-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature of the spacetime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Rabin, E-mail: rabin@bose.res.in; Dey, Shirsendu, E-mail: shirsendu12@bose.res.in
2014-06-02
We obtain the constitutive relations for the stress tensor and gauge current in (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics in the presence of both gauge and gravitational (conformal as well as diffeomorphism) anomalies. The relations between response parameters and anomaly coefficients are also found. The role of the Israel Hartle Hawking vacuum is emphasised. Finally, in the absence of gauge fields, earlier results obtained by a hydrodynamic expansion are reproduced.
Bosonic chiral anomalies in gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The notion of chirality for electromagneticting field is defined. The chirality is classically conserved in gravitational interaction. The corresponding chiral current is however anomalous in external gravitational field. This anomaly is analogous to the well-known fermionic triangle anomaly. The result obtained permits to calculate radiative corrections to the fermionic chiral anomaly in gravitational field. The relation between the number of zero modes of antisymmetric tensor gauge field (with zero spin) and the anomaly for vector field is considered. The possible observational manifestations of the photonic chiral anomaly in the gravitational field of the kerr black hole are discussed
Classical gauge gravitation theory
Sardanashvily, G.
2011-01-01
Classical gravitation theory is formulated as gauge theory on natural bundles where gauge symmetries are general covariant transformations and a gravitational field is a Higgs field responsible for their spontaneous symmetry breaking.
Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Second Order Transport and Gravitational Anomaly*,**
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Megías Eugenio
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We study the transport properties of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies. The computation is performed in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence for a 5 dim holographic model with Chern-Simons terms in the action. We find new anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients, as well as new contributions to the existing ones coming from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. Consequences for the shear waves dispersion relation are analyzed.
Holographic Gravitational Anomaly and Chiral Vortical Effect
Landsteiner, Karl; Melgar, Luis; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-01-01
We analyze a holographic model with a pure gauge and a mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term in the action. These are the holographic implementations of the usual chiral and the mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies in four dimensional field theories with chiral fermions. We discuss the holographic renormalization and show that the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term does not induce new divergences. In order to cancel contributions from the extrinsic curvature at a boundary at finite distance a new type of counterterm has to be added however. This counterterm can also serve to make the Dirichlet problem well defined in case the gauge field strength vanishes on the boundary. A charged asymptotically AdS black hole is a solution to the theory and as an application we compute the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical conductivities via Kubo formulas. We find that the characteristic term proportional to T^2 is present also at strong coupling and that its numerical value is not renormalized compared to the wea...
Holographic gravitational anomaly and chiral vortical effect
Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Melgar, Luis; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-09-01
We analyze a holographic model with a pure gauge and a mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term in the action. These are the holographic implementations of the usual chiral and the mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies in four dimensional field theories with chiral fermions. We discuss the holographic renormalization and show that the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term does not induce new divergences. In order to cancel contributions from the extrinsic curvature at a boundary at finite distance a new type of counterterm has to be added however. This counterterm can also serve to make the Dirichlet problem well defined in case the gauge field strength vanishes on the boundary. A charged asymptotically AdS black hole is a solution to the theory and as an application we compute the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical conductivities via Kubo formulas. We find that the characteristic term proportional to T 2 is present also at strong coupling and that its numerical value is not renormalized compared to the weak coupling result.
Anomaly cancellation condition in lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that, to all orders of powers of the gauge potential, a gauge anomaly ? defined on 4-dimensional infinite lattice can always be removed by a local counterterm, provided that ? depends smoothly and locally on the gauge potential and that ? reproduces the gauge anomaly in the continuum theory in the classical continuum limit: The unique exception is proportional to the anomaly in the continuum theory. This follows from an analysis of nontrivial local solutions to the Wess-Zumino consistency condition in lattice gauge theory. Our result is applicable to the lattice chiral gauge theory based on the Ginsparg-Wilson Dirac operator, when the gauge field is sufficiently weak parallel-U(n,?) - 1-parallel < ?', where U(n,?) is the link variable and ?' a certain small positive constant. (author)
Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The book concludes with thirteen appendices, covering mainly technical issues but also including Ashtekhar variables and Chern-Simons theory. Irritatingly, there is a separate bibliography for each chapter (which leads to much duplication) but commendably, the author highlights selected sources for suitable further reading. Also to be welcomed wholeheartedly are well-chosen worked examples and exercises, ranging from easy to fairly challenging, in each chapter. This is a properly bound paperback, hardly inexpensive, but well up to IOP's impeccable production standards. Could this be the ideal textbook for a research student or even an established researcher from another field to pick up the latest developments in field theory? Unfortunately this is not the whole story. The back cover also asserts, while talking about gauge invariance, that 'It is less known that the principle of equivalence, one of the basic dynamical properties of the gravitational interaction, can be expressed as a (spacetime) gauge symmetry'. On page 10 this is qualified to be a local symmetry. On pages 62-3 this hidden result is revealed. As every relativist knows, the principle of equivalence implies that for each spacetime point p a chart (normal coordinates at p) can be chosen so that the metric tensor takes its Minkowski value and its (partial) derivatives vanish at p. In other words every (pseudo-)Riemannian manifold is locally flat, the 'less known' result. So what else can the author tell us about gravity? There is little to fault in the first two sections of the book, trying to express gravity as a nonlinear spin-2 theory on Minkowski spacetime, apart from the obvious objection. A well-known and highly-recommendable textbook by S Weinberg 1972 Gravitation and Cosmology (New York: Wiley), carries out, at a more elementary level, a similar programme with the same defect. Such local theories cannot predict global changes whereby spacetime has a different topology to the Minkowski one. (The unconvinced reader should investigate references to black holes in Weinberg's text.) As speaker after speaker at the S W Hawking 60th Birthday Conference last week emphasized, when trying to unify gravity with quantum theory, it is perilous to neglect geometry. Because the later chapters on supersymmetry, supergravity, Kaluza-Klein and string theories are more fashionable, I need to point out an important caveat. Excluding textbooks and conference volumes, all (English language) citations in the supersymmetry/supergravity chapter are at least 16 years old. Apart from one 2000 article (on teleparallel theory) this age gap drops by three years for the chapter on Kaluza-Klein theory, and it does not change any further for the string theory chapter. There have been more recent significant advances in our understanding and interpretation of these theories but, alas, they are not chronicled here. I raised a question as to the value of this book at the end of the first paragraph, and I want to answer it within the context of the conference mentioned above, which tried t
Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Second Order Transport and Gravitational Anomaly***
Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2014-03-01
We study the transport properties of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies. The computation is performed in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence for a 5 dim holographic model with Chern-Simons terms in the action. We find new anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients, as well as new contributions to the existing ones coming from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. Consequences for the shear waves dispersion relation are analyzed. Talk given by E. Megías at the International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC 2013, 2-7 June 2013, Firenze, Italy.Supported by Plan Nacional de Altas Energías (FPA2009-07908, FPA2011-25948), Spanish MICINN Consolider-Ingenio 2010 Programme CPAN (CSD2007-00042), Comunidad de Madrid HEP-HACOS S2009/ESP-1473, Spanish MINECO's Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa Program (SEV-2012-0234, SEV-2012-0249), and the Juan de la Cierva Program.
Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries
Stewart, J
2002-01-01
The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...
Conformal Anomalies and the Gravitational Effective Action: The $TJJ$ Correlator for a Dirac Fermion
Armillis, R.; Coriano, C.; Rose, L. Delle
2009-01-01
We compute in linearized gravity all the contributions to the gravitational effective action due to a virtual Dirac fermion, related to the conformal anomaly. This requires, in perturbation theory, the identification of the gauge-gauge-graviton vertex off mass shell, involving the correlator of the energy-momentum tensor and two vector currents ($TJJ$), which is responsible for the generation of the gauge contributions to the conformal anomaly in gravity. We also present the...
Anomaly cancellation and abelian gauge symmetries in F-theory
Cveti?, Mirjam; Grimm, Thomas W.; Klevers, Denis
2013-02-01
We study 4D F-theory compactifications on singular Calabi-Yau fourfolds with fluxes. The resulting {N}=1 effective theories can admit non-Abelian and U(1) gauge groups as well as charged chiral matter. In these setups we analyze anomaly cancellation and the generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism. This requires the study of 3D {N}=2 theories obtained by a circle compactification and their M-theory duals. Reducing M- theory on resolved Calabi-Yau fourfolds corresponds to considering the effective theory on the 3D Coulomb branch in which certain massive states are integrated out. Both 4D gaugings and 3D one-loop corrections of these massive states induce Chern-Simons terms. All 4D anomalies are captured by the one-loop terms. The ones corresponding to the mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies depend on the Kaluza-Klein vector and are induced by integrating out Kaluza-Klein modes of the U(1) charged matter. In M-theory all Chern-Simons terms classically arise from G 4-flux. We find that F-theory fluxes implement automatically the 4D Green-Schwarz mechanism if non-trivial geometric relations for the resolved Calabi-Yau fourfold are satisfied. We confirm these relations in various explicit examples and elucidate the general construction of U(1) symmetries in F-theory. We also compare anomaly cancellation in F-theory with its analog in Type IIB orientifold setups.
Topological orders with global gauge anomalies
You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke
2015-08-01
By definition, the physics of the d -dimensional (dim) boundary of a (d +1 ) -dim symmetry protected topological (SPT) state cannot be realized as itself on a d -dim lattice. If the symmetry of the system is unitary, then a formal way to determine whether a d -dim theory must be a boundary or not, is to couple this theory to a gauge field (or to "gauge" its symmetry), and check if there is a gauge anomaly. In this paper we discuss the following question: Can the boundary of a SPT state be driven into a fully gapped topological order which preserves all the symmetries? We argue (conjecture) that if the gauge anomaly of the boundary is "perturbative," then the boundary must remain gapless; while if the boundary only has global gauge anomaly but no perturbative anomaly, then it is possible to gap out the boundary by driving it into a topological state, when d ?2 . We will demonstrate this conjecture with two examples: (1) the 3 d spin-1/2 chiral fermion with the well-known Witten's global anomaly [Phys. Lett. 117, 324 (1982), 10.1016/0370-2693(82)90728-6], which can be realized on the boundary of a 4 d topological superconductor with SU(2) or U (1 ) ?Z2 symmetry; and (2) the 4 d boundary of a 5 d topological superconductor with the same symmetry. We show that these boundary systems can be driven into a fully gapped Z2 N topological order with topological degeneracy, but this Z2 N topological order cannot be future driven into a trivial confined phase that preserves all the symmetries due to some special properties of its topological defects. Our study also leads to exotic states of matter in pure 3 d space.
Unification of Gravitation and Gauge Fields
Huang, Xin-Bing
2004-01-01
In this letter, I indicate that complex daor field should also have spinor suffixes. The gravitation and gauge fields are unified under the framework of daor field. I acquire the elegant coupling equation of gravitation and gauge fields, from which Einstein's gravitational equation can be deduced.
Noncommutative chiral gravitational anomalies in two dimensions
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
H, García-Compeán; C, Soto-Campos.
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Se examinan las anomalías gravitacionales en un espacio no conmutativo. El análisis es general e independiente de alguna teoría de gravedad no conmutativa específica y depende sólo de cómo la gravedad se acople a los fermiones quirales. El cálculo de Delbourgo-Salam de la correccción gravitacional a [...] la anomalía axial ABJ se estudia en detalle en este contexto. Finalmente se muestra que la anomalía gravitacional en dos dimensiones no admite correcciones no conmutativas en el parámetro ?. Abstract in english Gravitational anomalies in a noncommutative space are examined. The analysis is generic and independent of a particular noncommutative theory of gravity, and it depends only on how gravity is noncommutatively coupled to chiral fermions. Delbourgo-Salam computation of the gravitational correction of [...] the axial ABJ-anomaly is studied in detail in this context. Finally, we show that the two-dimensional gravitational anomaly does not permit noncommutative corrections in the parameter ?.
Gauge invariant gravitation theory. 1. Gravitational field source and spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that gauge invariance occurs as the consequence of physical field (fields with certain spin) description by the values, transformed as irreducible representations of homogeneous Lorentz group. Gauge-invariant lagrangian of the field of 2 spin was constructed. It was proved that gravitational field represented the superposition of gauge-invariant fields of 2 and 0 spins. Occurrence of the zero spin field is directly related with nonpreservation of the (gauge-invariant) source of gravitational field
Gauge Anomalies and Neutrino Seesaw Models
Neves Cebola, Luis Manuel
Despite the success of the Standard Model concerning theoretical predictions, there are several experimental results that cannot be explained and there are reasons to believe that there exists new physics beyond it. Neutrino oscillations, and hence their masses, are examples of this. Experimentally it is known that neutrinos masses are quite small, when compared to all Standard Model particle masses. Among the theoretical possibilities to explain these tiny masses, the seesaw mechanism is a simple and well-motivated framework. In its minimal version, heavy particles are introduced that decouple from the theory in the early universe. To build consistent theories, classical symmetries need to be preserved at quantum level, so that there are no anomalies. The cancellation of these anomalies leads to constraints in the parameters of the theory. One attractive solution is to realize the anomaly cancellation through the modication of the gauge symmetry. In this thesis we present a short review of some features of t...
Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies
Castro, Alejandra; Iqbal, Nabil; Perlmutter, Eric
2014-01-01
We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal worldline into a ribbon, and that the anomalous contribution to the CFT entanglement entropy is given by the twist in this ribbon. The entanglement functional may also be interpreted as the worldline action for a spinning particle -- that is, an anyon -- in three-dimensional curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the minimization of this action results in the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations of motion for a spinning particle in three dimensions. We work out several simple examples and demonstrate agreement with CFT calculations.
Gauge gravitation theory from the geometric viewpoint
Sardanashvily, G.
2005-01-01
This is the Preface to the special issue of 'International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics', v.3, N.1 (2006) dedicated to the 50th aniversary of gauge gravitation theory. It addresses the geometry underlying gauge gravitation theories, their higher-dimensional, supergauge and non-commutatuve extensions.
Conformal Anomaly and Large Scale Gravitational Coupling
Salehi, H.; Bisabr, Y.
2000-01-01
We present a model in which the breackdown of conformal symmetry of a quantum stress-tensor due to the trace anomaly is related to a cosmological effect in a gravitational model. This is done by characterizing the traceless part of the quantum stress-tensor in terms of the stress-tensor of a conformal invariant classical scalar field. We introduce a conformal frame in which the anomalous trace is identified with a cosmological constant. In this conformal frame we establish t...
Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?
Iorio, Lorenzo
2015-02-01
Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.
Remark on the Consistent Gauge Anomaly in Supersymmetric Theories
Ohshima, Y; Suzuki, H; Yasuta, H; Ohshima, Yoshihisa; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yasuta, Hirofumi
1999-01-01
We present a direct field theoretical calculation of the consistent gauge anomaly in the superfield formalism, on the basis of a definition of the effective action through the covariant gauge current. The scheme is conceptually and technically simple and the gauge covariance in intermediate steps reduces calculational labors considerably. The resultant superfield anomaly, being proportional to the anomaly $d^{abc}=\\tr T^a\\{T^b,T^c\\}$, is minimal even without supplementing any counterterms. Our anomaly coincides with the anomaly obtained by Marinkovi\\'c as the solution of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition.
Supersymmetric gauge anomaly with general homo topic paths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gates, S. James E-mail: gatess@wam.umd.edu; Grisaru, Marcus T. E-mail: grisaru@brandeis.edu; Knutt, Marcia E. E-mail: knutt@physics.mcgill.ca; Penati, Silvia E-mail: silvia.penati@mi.infn.it; Suzuki, Hiroshi E-mail: hsuzuki@mito.ipc.ibaraki.ac.jp
2001-02-26
We use the method of Banerjee, Banerjee and Mitra and minimal homotopy paths to compute the consistent gauge anomaly for several superspace models of SSYM coupled to matter. We review the derivation of the anomaly for N=1 in four dimensions and then discuss the anomaly for two-dimensional models with (2,0) supersymmetry.
Supersymmetric gauge anomaly with general homo topic paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use the method of Banerjee, Banerjee and Mitra and minimal homotopy paths to compute the consistent gauge anomaly for several superspace models of SSYM coupled to matter. We review the derivation of the anomaly for N=1 in four dimensions and then discuss the anomaly for two-dimensional models with (2,0) supersymmetry
Gravitation as Gauge theory of Poincare Group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The geometrical approach to gauge theories, based on fiber-bundles, is shown in detail. Several gauge formalisms for gravitation are examined. In particular, it is shown how to build gauge theories for non-semisimple groups. A gravitational theory for the Poincare group, with all the essential characteristics of a Yang-Mills theory is proposed. Inonu-Wigner contractions of gauge theories are introduced, which provide a Lagrangian formalism, equivalent to a Lagrangian de Sitter theory supplemented by weak constraints. Yang and Einstein theories for gravitation become particular cases of a Yang-Mills theory. The classical limit of the proposed formalism leads to the Poisson equation, for the static case. (Author)
Modification of Gravitational Anomaly Method in Hawking Radiation
Morita, Takeshi
2009-01-01
We discuss an ambiguity of the derivation of the Hawking radiation through the gravitational anomaly method and propose modifications of this method such that it reproduces the correct thermal fluxes. In this modified gravitational anomaly method, we employ the two-dimensional conformal field theory technique.
Modification of Gravitational Anomaly Method in Hawking Radiation
Morita, Takeshi
2009-01-01
We argue an ambiguity of the derivation of the Hawking radiation through the gravitational anomaly method and propose modifications of this method such that it reproduces the correct thermal fluxes. In this modified gravitational anomaly method, we employ the two dimensional conformal field theory technique.
Baryon Asymmetry, Supersymmetry and Gravitational Anomalies
Ibáñez, L E; Ibanez, Luis E.; Quevedo, Fernando
1993-01-01
We discuss two independent issues about the baryon asymmetry of the universe. First, assuming that it is generated by an unspecified source at high temperatures, we study the effects of non-perturbative $SU(2)_W$ dynamics above the electroweak scale, in the context of supersymmetric models. We find that there is a substantial difference with the nonsupersymmetric case with the net effect of relaxing previous bounds on B and L violating interactions. In particular supersymmetry allows neutrino masses as large as 10 eV (preferred by solar neutrino and COBE data and measurable at future neutrino oscillation experiments). Second, we argue that the existence of a mixed lepton number-gravitational anomaly in the standard model will induce B-L violating interactions. These transitions would be catalized by Einstein-Yang-Mills instantons or sphalerons and could create a primordial B-L asymmetry at Planck temperatures or lower. Gravity (and the anomaly structure of the standard model) could then be the ultimate source...
On the Poincare Gauge Theory of Gravitation
Ali, S. A.; C. Cafaro; Capozziello, S; Corda, Ch.
2009-01-01
We present a compact, self-contained review of the conventional gauge theoretical approach to gravitation based on the local Poincare group of symmetry transformations. The covariant field equations, Bianchi identities and conservation laws for angular momentum and energy-momentum are obtained.
Gravitational rescue of minimal gauge mediation
Iyer, Abhishek M; Vempati, Sudhir K
2014-01-01
Gravity mediation supersymmetry breaking become comparable to gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking contributions when messenger masses are close to the GUT scale. By suitably tuning the gravity contributions one can then modify the soft supersymmetry breaking sector to generate a large stop mixing parameter and a light higgs mass of 125 GeV. In this kind of hybrid models, however the nice features of gauge mediation like flavour conservation etc, are lost. To preserve the nice features, gravitational contributions should become important for lighter messenger masses and should be important only for certain fields. This is possible when the hidden sector contains multiple (at least two) spurions with hierarchical vaccum expectation values. In this case, the gravitational contribtutions can be organised to be `just right'. We present a complete model with two spurion hidden sector where the gravitational contribution is from a warped flavour model in a Randall-Sundrum setting. Along the way, we present simple ...
Global gauge anomalies for simple Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We generalize the formula by Elitzur and Nair on the global-anomaly coefficients in even (D = 2n)-dimensional space and analyze global anomalies for Sp(2N), SO(N), and SU(N) groups. In particular, we show that any irreducible representation of any Sp(N) and SU(2) group has no global anomalies in D = 8k dimensions. In D = 8k+4 dimensions, SU(2) has Z2-type global anomalies only if the spin J of an irreducible representation has the form J = (12(1+4l) = 1)2, (52,9)2,... For any SU(N) group in D = 2n, the global-anomaly coefficients can be expressed in terms of so-called unstable James numbers of Stiefel manifold SU(n+1)SU(n-k) and generalized Dynkin indices Q/sub n/?1(?) for SU
Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?
Iorio, Lorenzo
2014-01-01
Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gra...
Hawking Radiation from Rotating Black Holes and Gravitational Anomalies
Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro
2006-01-01
We study the Hawking radiation from Rotating black holes from gravitational anomalies point of view. First, we show that the scalar field theory near the Kerr black hole horizon can be reduced to the 2-dimensional effective theory. Then, following Robinson and Wilczek, we derive the Hawking flux by requiring the cancellation of gravitational anomalies. We also apply this method to Hawking radiation from higher dimensional Myers-Perry black holes. In the Appendix, we present ...
Interpretation of gravitational anomalies on Mars, Venus and Earth
Tarakanov, Y. A.; Kambarov, N. S.; Prikhodko, V. A.; Bondarenko, D. R.
1984-06-01
Findings based on gravimetric observations that relate to gravitational anomalies on Mars, Venus, and Earth are presented. Results for the three planets were compared. Interpretation of the results was based on Stokes constants using figures for field characteristics in a finite number of isolated points. Details of interpretation of gravitational anomalies are given for each of three plants. The main conclusions are: there is substantial difference in the structure and nature of compression on the three planets, the Earth's lithosphere is sufficiently thin and flexible to retain the shape of a hydrostatic balanced body, the probable source of gravitational anomalies on Venus is variation in the depth of the second-phase mantle boundary, and 11 of the 13 major anomalies detected on Mars result from irregularities in the lithosphere-mantle disjunction.
Global gauge anomaly of classical groups in even dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Explicit expression of global gauge anomaly coefficients A(?) of locally anomaly-free representation ? of classical groups SU(N), Sp(2N) and SO(N) have been calculated in even dimensional space-time by uses of group theory and homotopy theory. As a by-product, we will prove some modular relations involving the n-th Kynkin indices Q/sub n/(?) of these groups. 11 refs
Global gauge anomalies in two-dimensional bosonic sigma models
Gawedzki, Krzysztof; Waldorf, Konrad
2010-01-01
We revisit the gauging of rigid symmetries in two-dimensional bosonic sigma models with a Wess-Zumino term in the action. Such a term is related to a background closed 3-form H on the target space. More exactly, the sigma-model Feynman amplitudes of classical fields are associated to a bundle gerbe with connection of curvature H over the target space. Under conditions that were unraveled more than twenty years ago, the classical amplitudes may be coupled to the topologically trivial gauge fields of the symmetry group in a way which assures infinitesimal gauge invariance. We show that the resulting gauged Wess-Zumino amplitudes may, nevertheless, exhibit global gauge anomalies that we fully classify. The general results are illustrated on the example of the WZW and the coset models of conformal field theory. The latter are shown to be inconsistent in the presence of global anomalies. We introduce a notion of equivariant gerbes that allow an anomaly-free coupling of the Wess-Zumino amplitudes to all gauge field...
On the geometric foundation of classical gauge gravitation theory
Sardanashvily, G.
2002-01-01
A number of recent works in E-print arXiv have addressed the foundation of gauge gravitation theory again. As is well known, differential geometry of fibre bundles provides the adequate mathematical formulation of classical field theory, including gauge theory on principal bundles. Gauge gravitation theory is formulated on the natural bundles over a world manifold whose structure group is reducible to the Lorentz group. It is the metric-affine gravitation theory where a metr...
Universally finite gravitational and gauge theories
Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwa?, Les?aw
2015-11-01
It is well known that standard gauge theories are renormalizable in D = 4 while Einstein gravity is renormalizable in D = 2. This is where the research in the field of two derivatives theories is currently standing. We hereby present a class of weakly non-local higher derivative gravitational and gauge theories universally consistent at quantum level in any spacetime dimension. These theories are unitary (ghost-free) and perturbatively renormalizable. Moreover, we can always find a simple extension of these theories that is super-renormalizable or finite at quantum level in even and odd spacetime dimensions. Finally, we propose a super-renormalizable or finite theory for gravity coupled to matter laying the groundwork for a "finite standard model of particle physics" and/or a grand unified theory of all fundamental interactions.
More on counterterms in the gravitational action and anomalies
Taylor-Robinson, M M
2000-01-01
The addition of boundary counterterms to the gravitational action ofasymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes permits us to define the partitionfunction unambiguously without background subtraction. We show that theinclusion of p-form fields in the gravitational action requires the addition offurther counterterms which we explicitly identify. We also relate logarithmicdivergences in the action dependent on the matter fields to anomalies in thedual conformal field theories. In particular we find that the anomaly predictedfor the correlator of the stress energy tensor and two vector currents in fourdimensions agrees with that of the ${\\cal{N}} = 4$ superconformal SU(N) gaugetheory.
Gerbes, M5-brane anomalies and E8 gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abelian gerbes and twisted bundles describe the topology of the NS 3-form gauge field strength H. We review how they have been usefully applied to study and resolve global anomalies in open string theory. Abelian 2-gerbes and twisted nonabelian gerbes describe the topology of the 4-form field strength G of M-theory. We show that twisted nonabelian gerbes are relevant in the study and resolution of global anomalies of multiple coinciding M5-branes. Global anomalies for one M5-brane have been studied by Witten and by Diaconescu, Freed and Moore. The structure and the differential geometry of twisted nonabelian gerbes (i.e. modules for 2-gerbes) is defined and studied. The nonabelian 2-form gauge potential living on multiple coinciding M5-branes arises as curving (curvature) of twisted nonabelian gerbes. The nonabelian group is in general ?-tildeE8, the central extension of the E8 loop group. The twist is in general necessary to cancel global anomalies due to the non-triviality of the 11-dimensional 4-form field strength G and due to the possible torsion present in the cycles the M5-branes wrap. Our description of M5-branes global anomalies leads to the D4-branes one upon compactification of M-theory to Type IIA theory. (author)
Muon g-2 Anomaly and Dark Leptonic Gauge Boson
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hye-Sung [W& M
2014-11-01
One of the major motivations to search for a dark gauge boson of MeV-GeV scale is the long-standing muon g-2 anomaly. Because of active searches such as fixed target experiments and rare meson decays, the muon g-2 favored parameter region has been rapidly reduced. With the most recent data, it is practically excluded now in the popular dark photon model. We overview the issue and investigate a potentially alternative model based on the gauged lepton number or U(1)_L, which is under different experimental constraints.
Gerbes, M5-Brane Anomalies and E_8 Gauge Theory
Aschieri, P; Aschieri, Paolo; Jurco, Branislav
2004-01-01
Abelian gerbes and twisted bundles describe the topology of the NS-NS 3-form gauge field strength H. We review how they have been usefully applied to study and resolve global anomalies in open string theory. Abelian 2-gerbes and twisted nonabelian gerbes describe the topology of the 4-form field strength G of M-theory. We show that twisted nonabelian gerbes are relevant in the study and resolution of global anomalies of multiple coinciding M5-branes. Global anomalies for one M5-brane have been studied by Witten and by Diaconescu, Freed and Moore. The structure and the differential geometry of twisted nonabelian gerbes (i.e. modules for 2-gerbes) is defined and studied. The nonabelian 2-form gauge potential living on multiple coinciding M5-branes arises as curving (curvature) of twisted nonabelian gerbes. The nonabelian group is in general $\\tilde\\Omega E_8$, the central extension of the E_8 loop group. The twist is in general necessary to cancel global anomalies due to the nontriviality of the 11-dimensional ...
Einstein's gravitation as a gauge theory of the Lorentz group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gauge principle in the loop space is invoked to produce the gauge theory of the Lorentz group. The full kinematics of gravitation is derived from this principle. The dynamics is introduced with a gauge ''matter field'' Lagrangian which leads to the sourceless Einstein equations. Some possibilities about quantization and implementation on the lattice are suggested
Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)
Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Torsten
2009-05-13
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)
Addressing the LHC flavour anomalies with horizontal gauge symmetries
Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian
2015-01-01
We study the impact of an additional $U(1)'$ gauge symmetry with flavour-dependent charges for quarks and leptons on the LHC flavour anomalies observed in $B \\to K^* \\mu^+\\mu^-$, $R(K) = B \\to K \\mu^+\\mu^-/B \\to K e^+e^-$, and $h \\to \\mu\\tau$. In its minimal version with two scalar doublets, the resulting model naturally explains the deviations from the Standard Model observed in $B \\to K^* \\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $R(K)$. The CMS access in $h \\to \\mu\\tau$ can be explained by introducing a third scalar doublet, which gives rise to a prediction for $\\tau \\to 3\\mu$. We investigate constraints from flavour observables and direct LHC searches for $pp \\to Z' \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$. Our model successfully generates the measured fermion-mixing matrices and does not require vector-like fermions, unlike previous attempts to explain these anomalies.
Hawking Radiation and Covariant Anomalies
Banerjee, Rabin; Kulkarni, Shailesh
2007-01-01
Generalising the method of Wilczek and collaborators we provide a derivation of Hawking radiation from charged black holes using only covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies. The reliability and universality of the anomaly cancellation approach to Hawking radiation is also discussed.
Dirac Equation in Gauge and Affine-Metric Gravitation Theories
Giachetta, G.; Sardanashvily, G.
1995-01-01
We show that the covariant derivative of Dirac fermion fields in the presence of a general linear connection on a world manifold is universal for Einstein's, gauge and affine-metric gravitation theories.
Gravitation, gauge theories and differential geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this article is to outline various mathematical ideas, methods, and results, primarily from differential geometry and topology, and to show where they can be applied to Yang-Mills gauge theories and Einstein's theory of gravitation.We have several goals in mind. The first is to convey to physicists the bases for many mathematical concepts by using intuitive arguments while avoiding the detailed formality of most textbooks. Although a variety of mathematical theorems will be stated, we will generally give simple examples motivating the results instead of presenting abstract proofs. Another goal is to list a wide variety of mathematical terminology and results in a format which allows easy reference. The reader then has the option of supplementing the descriptions given here by consulting standard mathematical references and articles such as those listed in the bibliography. Finally, we intend this article to serve the dual purpose of acquainting mathematicians with some basic physical concepts which have mathematical ramifications; physical problems have often stimuladed new directions in mathematical thought. (orig./WL)
Gauge Invariant Effective Stress-Energy Tensors for Gravitational Waves
Anderson, Paul R.
1996-01-01
It is shown that if a generalized definition of gauge invariance is used, gauge invariant effective stress-energy tensors for gravitational waves and other gravitational perturbations can be defined in a much larger variety of circumstances than has previously been possible. In particular it is no longer necessary to average the stress-energy tensor over a region of spacetime which is larger in scale than the wavelengths of the waves and it is no longer necessary to restrict...
Gauge Approach to Gravitation and Regular Big Bang Theory
Minkevich, A. V.
2005-01-01
Field theoretical scheme of regular Big Bang in 4-dimensional physical space-time, built in the framework of gauge approach to gravitation, is discussed. Regular bouncing character of homogeneous isotropic cosmological models is ensured by gravitational repulsion effect at extreme conditions without quantum gravitational corrections. The most general properties of regular inflationary cosmological models are examined. Developing theory is valid, if energy density of gravitat...
Gauge Theory of the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field
Bock, Robert D.
2015-01-01
We develop a gauge theory of the combined gravitational-electromagnetic field by expanding the Poincar\\'e group to include clock synchronization transformations. We show that the electromagnetic field can be interpreted as a local gauge theory of the synchrony group. According to this interpretation, the electromagnetic field equations possess nonlinear terms and electromagnetic gauge transformations acquire a space-time interpretation as local synchrony transformations. The...
Gravitational counterterms in an axial gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
All the counterterms of quantum Einstein gravity are calculated up to bilinear terms and one-loop order in an axial gauge as a sum of gauge-invariant and the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-invariant terms. Contrary to the de Donder gauge condition, ten out of thirty-three coefficients for counterterms remain undetermined in this gauge. Some relations among the counterterms, which satisfy the BRS invariance, are implicitly obtained in the course of the calculations
Gravitational anomalies, entanglement entropy, and flat-space holography
Hosseini, Seyed Morteza
2015-01-01
We introduce a prescription to compute the entanglement entropy of Galilean conformal field theories by combining gravitational anomalies and an \\.{I}n\\"{o}n\\"{u}-Wigner contraction. Using this proposal, we calculate the entanglement entropy for a class of Galilean conformal field theories, which are believed to be dual to three-dimensional flat-space cosmological solutions. These geometries describe expanding (contracting) universes and can be viewed as the flat-space limit of rotating BTZ black holes. We show that our finding reduces, in the appropriate limits, to the results discussed in the literature and provide interpretations for the previously unexplored regimes, such as flat-space chiral gravity.
A Gauge Like Formulation of Gravitation and Related Issues
Sidharth, B G
2004-01-01
After many fruitless decades of trying to unify electromagnetism and gravitation, it is now being realized that this can be done only in discrete spacetime, as indeed the author had demonstrated. In this context, a unified description of gravitation and electromagnetism is provided within the framework of a gauge like formulation. Following the discrete spacetime structure, we then argue that the underpinning for the universe is an array of Planck scale oscillators.
Gravitational rescue of minimal gauge mediation
Iyer, Abhishek M; Mummidi, V. Suryanarayana(Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India); Sudhir K. Vempati
2014-01-01
Gravity mediation supersymmetry breaking become comparable to gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking contributions when messenger masses are close to the GUT scale. By suitably tuning the gravity contributions one can then modify the soft supersymmetry breaking sector to generate a large stop mixing parameter and a light higgs mass of 125 GeV. In this kind of hybrid models, however the nice features of gauge mediation like flavour conservation etc, are lost. To preserve the n...
Mass Gauging Demonstrator for Any Gravitational Conditions
Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Pedersen, Kevin W. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
The present invention is a mass gauging interferometry system used to determine the volume contained within a tank. By using an optical interferometric technique to determine gas density and/or pressure a much smaller compression volume or higher fidelity measurement is possible. The mass gauging interferometer system is comprised of an optical source, a component that splits the optical source into a plurality of beams, a component that recombines the split beams, an optical cell operatively coupled to a tank, a detector for detecting fringes, and a means for compression. A portion of the beam travels through the optical cell operatively coupled to the tank, while the other beam(s) is a reference.
Gravitational anomalies in higher dimensional Riemann-Cartan space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yajima, S [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tokuo, S [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Fukuda, M [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Higashida, Y [Takuma National College of Technology, 551 kohda, Takuma-cho, Mitoyo, Kagawa 769-1192 (Japan); Kamo, Y [Radioisotope Center, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kubota, S-I [Computing and Communications Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Koorimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Taira, H [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)
2007-02-21
By applying the covariant Taylor expansion method of the heat kernel, the covariant Einstein anomalies associated with a Weyl fermion of spin 1/2 in four-, six- and eight-dimensional Riemann-Cartan space are manifestly given. Many unknown terms with torsion tensors appear in these anomalies. The Lorentz anomaly is intimately related to the Einstein anomaly even in Riemann-Cartan space. The explicit form of the Lorentz anomaly corresponding to the Einstein anomaly is also obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs
Natural gauge and gravitational coupling unification and the superpartner masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The possibility to achieve unification at the string scale in the context of the simplest supersymmetric grand unified theory is investigated. We find conservative upper bounds on the superpartner masses consistent with the unification of gauge and gravitational couplings, MG?f?7 GeV, for the superparticles with spin one-half and zero, respectively. These bounds hint towards the possibility that this supersymmetric scenario could be tested at future colliders, and in particular, at the forthcoming LHC
Hawking Radiation from Black Holes of Constant Negative Curvature via Gravitational Anomalies
Skamagoulis, Petros
2010-01-01
I derive the Hawking flux from black holes of constant negative curvature and from a black hole of constant negative curvature conformally coupled to a scalar field, using the covariant gravitational anomalies method.
On the definiteness of the conformal anomaly in nonconformal gauges
Mödritsch, W
1993-01-01
The critical dimension of the bosonic string in the harmonic and the deDonder gauge may be calculated from the time ordered product of two energy momentum tensors. We show that recently found ambiguities within that method in nonconformal gauges can be resolved by a treatment respecting background covariance.
The approximate solution with torsion for a charged particle in a gauge theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper a method of finding an approximate solution of field equations in a gauge theory of gravitation is given by means of physical considerations. Using this method, an approximate solution of the field of a charged particle in a gauge theory of gravitation, a space-time metric and torsion tensors, is obtained. This method can also be used to solve field equations in other gauge theories of gravitation. (author)
Chiral anomalies in higher-derivative supersymmetric 6D gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the recently constructed higher-derivative 6D SYM theory involves internal chiral anomaly breaking gauge invariance. The anomaly is cancelled when adding to the theory an adjoint matter hyper-multiplet. One shows that as the effective charge grows at high energies, the theories are not consistently defined nonperturbatively. Constructing a nontrivial 6D theory that would be internally consistent both perturbatively and nonperturbatively remains a major challenge. (author)
A Class of Anomaly-Free Gauge Theories
Roepstorff, G
2000-01-01
We report on a detailed calculation of the anomaly coefficients for the odd and even parts of the $Z_2$-graded representation $\\theta$ of the Lie algebra Lie$ G$ on the exterior algebra of dimension $2^n$ assuming that $G\\subset U(n)$. The coefficients vanish provided $G\\subset SU(n)$ and $n\
Consistent and covariant gauge anomalies as solutions of the same extended algebraic problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the usual consistent and covariant gauge anomalies are different solutions of the same algebraic problem related to the complex noncompact extension of the vector and axial vector gauge group. They are obtained as nontrivial integrals of the relevant Wess-Zumino consistency conditions as well as representations of the algebra of generators acting as functional differential operators upon a fermionic effective action extended to complex vector and axial vector potentials. (orig.)
Anomalies and Entanglement Entropy
Nishioka, Tatsuma
2015-01-01
We initiate a systematic study of entanglement and Renyi entropies in the presence of gauge and gravitational anomalies in even-dimensional quantum field theories. We argue that the mixed and gravitational anomalies are sensitive to boosts and obtain a closed form expression for their behavior under such transformations. Explicit constructions exhibiting the dependence of entanglement entropy on boosts is provided for theories on spacetimes with non-trivial magnetic fluxes and (or) non-vanishing Pontryagin classes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The anomaly cancellation method proposed by Wilczek et al. is applied to the general charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. Thus Hawking temperature and fluxes are found. The Hawking temperature obtained agrees with the surface gravity formula. The black holes have charge and two unequal angular momenta, and these give rise to appropriate terms in the effective U(1) gauge field of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional theory. In particular, it is found that the terms in this U(1) gauge field correspond exactly to the correct electrostatic potential and the two angular velocities on the horizon of the black holes, and so the results for the Hawking fluxes derived here from the anomaly cancellation method are in complete agreement with the ones obtained from integrating the Planck distribution.
Hawking radiation from gravity's rainbow via gravitational anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and Wilczek, we investigates Hawking radiation from the modified Schwarzschild black hole from gravity's rainbow from the anomaly point of view. Unlike the general Schwarzschild space—time, the metric of this black hole depends on the energies of probes. The obtained result shows to restore the underlying general covariance at the quantum level in the effective field, the covariant compensating flux of energy—momentum tensor, which is related to the energies of the probes, should precisely equal to that of a (1 + 1)-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that certain one-loop corrections to superstring effective four-dimensional lagrangians, involving non-harmonic field-dependent renormalization of gauge couplings, can be consistently written in a standard N=1 supergravity form, preserving target-space duality. The preservation of target-space duality is due both to a four-dimensional Green-Schwarz mechanism and to local terms, coming from non-local chiral superfields, originated by mixed gauge-?-model anomaly diagrams. In some models, the Green-Schwarz mechanism is sufficient to achieve complete anomaly cancellation. In more general models automorphic functions, generated by the integration over the heavy string modes, are required to preserve target-space duality. (orig.)
Gravitationally violated U(1) symmetry and neutrino anomalies
Joshipura, Anjan S.
1998-01-01
The current searches for neutrino oscillations seem to suggest an approximate $L_e-L_\\m-L_{\\tau}$ flavor symmetry. This symmetry implies a pair of degenerate neutrinos with mass $m_0$ and large leptonic mixing. We explore the possibility that gravitational interactions break this global symmetry. The Planck scale suppressed breaking of the $L_e-L_\\m-L_{\\tau}$ symmetry is shown to lead to the right amount of splitting among the degenerate neutrinos needed in order to solve th...
Datta, Anindya; Huitu, Katri(Department of Physics, and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O.Box 64, (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2), FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland)
2002-01-01
We point out that slepton pairs produced via gauge boson fusion in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model have very characteristic and almost clean signal at the Large Hadron Collider. In this article, we discuss how one lepton associated with missing energy and produced in between two high-$p_T$ and high-mass forward jets can explore quite heavy sleptons in this scenario.
Stochastic quantization and gauge-fixing of the linearized gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Due to the indefiniteness of the Euclidean gravitational action the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme fails in the case of the gravitational field. Therefore we apply a recently proposed modification of stochastic quantization that works in Minkowski space and preserves all the advantages of the original Parisi-Wu method; in particular no gauge-fixing is required. Additionally stochastic gauge-fixing may be introduced and is also studied in detail. The graviton propagators obtained with and without stochastic gauge-fixing all exhibit a noncausal contribution, but apart from this effect the gauge-invariant quantities are the same as those of standard quantization. (Author)
External gauge invariance and anomaly in BS vertices and bound states
Bando, M; Kugo, T; Masako Bando; Masayasu Harada; Taichiro Kugo
1993-01-01
A systematic method is given for obtaining consistent approximations to the Schwinger-Dyson(SD) and Bethe-Salpeter(BS) equations which maintain the external gauge invariance. We show that for any order of approximation to the SD equation there is a corresponding approximation to the BS equations such that the solutions to those equations satisfy the Ward-Takahashi identities of the external gauge symmetry. This formulation also clarifies the way how we can calculate the Green functions of current operators in a consistent manner with the gauge invariance and the axial anomaly. We show which type of diagrams for the $\\pi^0\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ amplitude using the pion BS amplitude give result consistent with the low-energy theorem. An interesting phenomenon is observed in the ladder approximation that the low energy theorem is saturated by the zeroth order terms in the external momenta of the pseudoscalar BS amplitude and the vector vertex functions.
Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model confronts the LHC 750 GeV di-photon anomaly
Huang, Wei-Chih; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2015-01-01
In light of the recent 750 GeV di-photon anomaly observed at the LHC, we check the possibility of accommodating the deviation from the Standard Model~(SM) prediction based on the Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model, which has been proposed lately. The model embeds two Higgs doublets into a doublet of a non-abelian gauge group $SU(2)_H$, while the SM $SU(2)_L$ right-handed fermion singlets are paired up with new heavy fermions to form $SU(2)_H$ doublets, and $SU(2)_L$ left-handed fermion doublets are singlets under $SU(2)_H$. An $SU(2)_H$ scalar doublet, which provides a mass to the new heavy fermions as well as the $SU(2)_H$ gauge bosons, can be produced via gluon fusion and subsequently decays into two photons with the help of the new fermions to account for the deviation from the SM prediction.
Hawking radiation from the Schwarzschild black hole with a global monopole via gravitational anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper derives the Hawking flux from the Schwarzschild black hole with a global monopole by using Robinson and Wilczek's method. Adopting a dimensional reduction technique, it can describe the effective quantum field in the (3 + 1)-dimensional global monopole background by an infinite collection of the (1 + 1)-dimensional massless fields if neglecting the ingoing modes near the horizon, where the gravitational anomaly can be cancelled by the (1 + 1)-dimensional black body radiation at the Hawking temperature
Neveu-Schwarz 5-branes in type-IIA supergravity and gravitational anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct a gravitational-anomaly-free effective action for the coupled system of type-IIA D=10 dynamical supergravity interacting with a NS5-brane. The NS5-brane is considered as elementary in that the associated current is a ? function supported on its world volume. Our approach is based on a Chern kernel which encodes the singularities of the three-form field strength near the brane in an SO(4)-invariant way and provides a solution for its Bianchi identity in terms of a two-form potential. A dimensional reduction of the recently constructed anomaly-free effective action for an elementary M5-brane in D=11 is seen to reproduce our ten-dimensional action. The Chern-kernel approach provides in particular a concrete realization of the anomaly cancellation mechanism envisaged by Witten
Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free ZN symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z6 symmetry, proton hexality P6, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LHuLHu. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1)X FN models in which the Z3 symmetry baryon triality, B3, arises from U(1)X breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B3-conserving FN models. (orig.)
Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luhn, C.
2006-05-15
Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free Z{sub N} symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z{sub 6} symmetry, proton hexality P{sub 6}, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LH{sub u}LH{sub u}. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1){sub X} FN models in which the Z{sub 3} symmetry baryon triality, B{sub 3}, arises from U(1){sub X} breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B{sub 3}-conserving FN models. (orig.)
Gauge-invariant definition of gravitational radiation in Robertson-Walker cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauge-invariant quantities are introduced which relate directly to the ideal fluid perturbations in Robertson-Walker backgrounds. It is shown how the vanishing of these gauge invariants is equivalent to the definition of purely radiative perturbations found in some early works. If one imposes a regularity condition, then the vanishing of just four gauge invariants is sufficient to define the condition of no perturbation of matter. The latter result is used to clarify the relationship to Hawking's definition of gravitational radiation
Rose, Luigi Delle
2013-01-01
The principal goal of the physics of the fundamental interactions is to provide a consistent description of the nature of the subnuclear forces, which manifest in our universe, together with the gravitational force, in a unified framework. This attempt, which is far from being complete, is characterized by two milestones, the Standard Model of the elementary particles and the Einstein's theory of General Relativity. The coupling of a quantum field theory, such as the Standard Model, to a weak gravitational background provides significant information concerning the coupling of matter to gravity and allows to study in a systematic way the origin of the conformal anomaly. For this reason, the computation of correlation functions in a weak gravitational background is of remarkable interest and the consequences of this analysis are also of phenomenological relevance. For instance, they concern the appearance in the spectrum of the theory of a composite state, the dilaton, which is identified, in perturbation theor...
Gravitational waves from Abelian gauge fields and cosmic strings at preheating
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Primordial gravitational waves provide a very important stochastic background that could be detected soon with interferometric gravitational wave antennas or indirectly via the induced patterns in the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The detection of these waves will open a new window into the early Universe, and therefore it is important to characterize in detail all possible sources of primordial gravitational waves. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical methods to study the production of gravitational waves from out-of-equilibrium gauge fields at preheating. We then consider models of preheating after hybrid inflation, where the symmetry breaking field is charged under a local U(1) symmetry. We analyze in detail the dynamics of the system in both momentum and configuration space. We show that gauge fields leave specific imprints in the resulting gravitational wave spectra, mainly through the appearance of new peaks at characteristic frequencies that are related to the mass scales in the problem. We also show how these new features in the spectra correlate with stringlike spatial configurations in both the Higgs and gauge fields that arise due to the appearance of topological winding numbers of the Higgs around Nielsen-Olesen strings. We study in detail the time evolution of the spectrum of gauge fields and gravitational waves as these strings evolve and decay before entering a turbulent regime where the gravitational wave energy density saturates.
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Using anomalous viewpoint, we study the Hawking radiation from a kind of topological Kerr Anti-de-Sitter (Kerr-AdS) black hole with one rotational parameter. We employ the covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies. The result supports the Robinson–Wilczek opinion and shows that the Hawking temperature can be correctly determined by cancelling covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies at the horizon
Online-Offline, 1999
1999-01-01
This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…
Hawking Radiation of Black Rings from Anomalies
Chen, Bin; He, Wei
2007-01-01
We derive Hawking radiation of 5-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find as in the black hole case, the problem could reduce to a (1+1) dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral,dipole and charged black rings.
Anomalies of Density, Stresses, and the Gravitational Field in the Interior of Mars
Chuikova, N A; Maksimova, T G; 10.3103/S0027134912020075
2012-01-01
We determined the possible compensation depths for relief harmonics of different degrees and orders. The relief is shown to be completely compensated within the depth range of 0 to 1400 km. The lateral distributions of compensation masses are determined at these depths and the maps are constructed. The possible nonisostatic vertical stresses in the crust and mantle of Mars are estimated to be 64 MPa in compression and 20 MPa in tension. The relief anomalies of the Tharsis volcanic plateau and symmetric feature in the eastern hemisphere could have arisen and been maintained dynamically due to two plumes in the mantle substance that are enriched with fluids. The plumes that originate at the core of Mars can arise and be maintained by the anomalies of the inner gravitational field achieving +800 mGal in the region of plume formation, - 1200 mGal above the lower mantle-core transition layer, and -1400 mGal at the crust.
Overconnections and the energy-tensors of gauge and gravitational fields
Canarutto, Daniel
2015-01-01
A geometric construction for obtaining a prolongation of a connection to a connection of a bundle of connections is presented. This determines a natural extension of the notion of canonical energy-tensor which suits gauge and gravitational fields, and shares the main properties of the energy-tensor of a matter field in the jet space formulation of Lagrangian field theory, in particular with regards to symmetries of the Poincar\\'e-Cartan form. Accordingly, the joint energy-tensor for interacting matter and gauge fields turns out to be a natural geometric object, whose definition needs no auxuliary structures. Various topics related to energy-tensors, symmetries and the Einstein equations in a theory with interacting matter, gauge and gravitational fields can be viewed under a clarifying light. Finally, the symmetry determined by the "Komar super potential" is expressed as a symmetry of the gravitational Poincar\\'e-Cartan form.
Li, Tianjun
2010-01-01
In Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) from orbifold and various string constructions the generic vector-like particles do not need to form complete SU(5) or SO(10) representations. To realize them concretely, we present orbifold SU(5) models, orbifold SO(10) models where the gauge symmetry can be broken down to flipped SU(5) X U(1)_X or Pati-Salam SU(4)_C X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R gauge symmetries, and F-theory SU(5) models. Interestingly, these vector-like particles can be at the TeV-scale so that the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass can be lifted, or play the messenger fields in the Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (GMSB). Considering GMSB, ultraviolet insensitive Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB), and the deflected AMSB, we study the general gaugino mass relations and their indices, which are valid from the GUT scale to the electroweak scale at one loop, in the SU(5) models, the flipped SU(5) X U(1)_X models, and the Pati-Salam SU(4)_C X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R models. In the deflected AMSB, we also defi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: (author)The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard supersymmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra
Gravitational matter-antimatter asymmetry and four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry
Hsu, J. P.
1981-01-01
A formulation of gravity based on the maximum four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry is studied. The theory predicts that the gravitational force inside matter (fermions) is different from that inside antimatter. This difference could lead to the cosmic separation of matter and antimatter in the evolution of the universe. Moreover, a new gravitational long-range spin-force between two fermions is predicted, in addition to the usual Newtonian force. The geometrical foundation of such a gravitational theory is the Riemann-Cartan geometry, in which there is a torsion. The results of the theory for weak fields are consistent with previous experiments.
Gauge theory duals of black hole – black string transitions of gravitational theories on a circle
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We study the black hole – black string phase transitions of gravitational theories compactified on a circle using the holographic duality conjecture. The gauge theory duals of these theories are maximally supersymmetric and strongly coupled 1 + 1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theories compactified on a circle, in the large N limit. We perform the strongly coupled finite temperature gauge theory calculations on a lattice, using the recently developed exact lattice supersymmetry methods based on topological twisting and orbifolding. The spatial Polyakov line serves as relevant order parameter of the confinement – deconfinement phase transitions in the gauge theory duals
Gravitational and gauge couplings in Chern-Simons fractional spin gravity
Boulanger, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Mauricio
2015-01-01
We propose an extension of Vasiliev's supertrace operation for the enveloping algebra of Wigner's deformed oscillator algebra to the fractional spin algebra given in arXiv:1312.5700. The resulting three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory unifies the Blencowe-Vasiliev higher spin gravity with fractional spin fields and internal gauge potentials. For integer or half-integer fractional spins, infinite dimensional ideals arise and decouple, leaving finite dimensional gauge algebras gl(2l+1) or gl(l|l+1) and various real forms thereof. We derive the relation between gravitational and internal gauge couplings.
Path-dependent formulation of gravitation as a gauge theory
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A satisfactory description of Riemann-Cartan U4 manifolds is obtained as a gauge theory associated with the Poincare group and formulated in flat space-time. The formulation does not introduce any ad hoc prescription to identify the tetrads. The connection with the usual local descriptions is also worked out explicitly
Chiral anomalies of bosonic fields in curved space-time
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In this paper it is shown that bosonic fields interacting with gravity possess chiral anomalies in complete analogy with fermions. The chiral current of photons is defined which is conserved in the classical limit. The triangle photonic graph in external gravitational field leads to the nonconservation of the chiral current. The photonic anomaly permits to calculate radiative corrections to the well-known fermionic chiral anomaly in gravitational field. The relation between the anomaly for vector fields and that of the gauge antisymmetric vector field is considered. The possible observational consequences of the anomaly are discussed
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A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, by using Mathematica, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution. Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion, the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced. Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field, we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity, including the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun. It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.
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The dynamics of metric perturbations is explored in the gravity theory with anomaly-induced quantum corrections. Our first purpose is to derive the equation for gravitational waves in this theory on the general homogeneous and isotropic background, and then verify the stability of such background with respect to metric perturbations. The problem under consideration has several interesting applications. Our first purpose is to explore the stability of the classical cosmological solutions in the theory with quantum effects taken into account. There is an interesting literature about stability of Minkowski and de Sitter spaces and here we extend the consideration also to the radiation and matter dominated cosmologies. Furthermore, we analyze the behavior of metric perturbations during inflationary period, in the stable phase of the Modified Starobinsky inflation
Stress-tensor trace anomaly in a gravitational metric: Scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We compute the stress-tensor vacuum expectation value of a massive, scalar quantum field that is coupled to the metric of an arbitrary classical gravitational field. The renormalized tensor is defined by a dimensionally continued, proper-time representation. The stress tensor is calculated for arbitrary dimension in a potentially conformal-invariant manner so that its trace is formally proportional to the square of the scalar-field mass with this trace vanishing as the scalar field becomes massless. However, the renormalized stress tensor violates this formal identity with its trace containing additional, anomalous terms. These finite-trace anomalies are intimately related to the infinite counterterms that must be put into the action to make the stress tensor finite
The trumpet solution from spherical gravitational collapse with puncture gauges
Thierfelder, Marcus; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Hilditch, David; Bruegmann, Bernd; Rezzolla, Luciano
2010-01-01
We investigate the stationary end-state obtained by evolving a collapsing spherical star with the gauges routinely adopted to study puncture black holes. We compare the end-state of the collapse with the trumpet solution found in the evolution of a single wormhole slice and show that the two solutions closely agree. We demonstrate that the agreement is caused by the use of the Gamma-driver shift condition, which allows the matter to fall inwards into a region of spacetime th...
SL(2,C) Gauge Theory of Gravitation and the Quantization of the Gravitational Field
Carmeli, Moshe; Malin, Shimon
1999-01-01
A new approach to quantize the gravitational field is presented. It is based on the observation that the quantum character of matter becomes more significant as one gets closer to the big bang. As the metric loses its meaning, it makes sense to consider Schrodinger's three generic types of manifolds - unconnected differentiable, affinely connected, and metrically connected - as a temporal sequence following the big bang. Hence one should quantize the gravitational field on g...
Stochastic quantization of gauge, gravitational and string fields
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The stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu and its application to gauge fields are briefly reviewed. The method is then generalized so as to make it applicable to Einstein gravity. The generalization is based on the existence of a preferred metric in field configuration space and involves Ito's calculus. In the nonlinear case the indefiniteness of the Euclidean Einstein action necessitates to generalize the stochastic formalism further to Lorentzian space-times. The formalism is shown to imply the path integral measure of De Witt, a causal Feynman propagator, and a consistent stochastic perturbation theory. Finally it is shown how stochastic quantization resolves the indefiniteness problem in free bosonic string field theory. (Author)
Gauge theory and gravitation: an approach to a fiber bundle formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The thesis is composed of two different parts. A formal complete and rigorous mathematical part-of topics of differential manilfolds, exterior calculus, riemannian geometry, principal fiber bundle (p.f.) with connections and linear connections and a second part of application of this mathematical formalism concerning physical theories, particularly the Maxwell eletromagnetism (EM), gauge theory of Yang-Mills (Y-M), the GRT, and the gravitation theory of Einstein-Cartan. (E.C.)
Gauge-invariant gravitational wave modes in pre-big bang cosmology
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The t<0 branch of pre-big bang cosmological scenarios is subject to a gravitational wave instability. The unstable behaviour of tensor perturbations is derived in a very simple way in Hwang's covariant and gauge-invariant formalism developed for extended theories of gravity. A simple interpretation of this instability as the effect of an ''antifriction'' is given, and it is argued that a universe must eventually enter the expanding phase. (orig.)
Gravitational energy for GR and Poincaré gauge theories: A covariant Hamiltonian approach
Chen, Chiang-Mei; Nester, James M.; Tung, Roh-Suan
2015-08-01
Our topic concerns a long standing puzzle: The energy of gravitating systems. More precisely we want to consider, for gravitating systems, how to best describe energy-momentum and angular momentum/center-of-mass momentum (CoMM). It is known that these quantities cannot be given by a local density. The modern understanding is that (i) they are quasi-local (associated with a closed 2-surface), (ii) they have no unique formula, (iii) they have no reference frame independent description. In the first part of this work, we review some early history, much of it not so well known, on the subject of gravitational energy in Einstein's general relativity (GR), noting especially Noether's contribution. In the second part, we review (including some new results) much of our covariant Hamiltonian formalism and apply it to Poincaré gauge theories of gravity (PG), with GR as a special case. The key point is that the Hamiltonian boundary term has two roles, it determines the quasi-local quantities, and furthermore, it determines the boundary conditions for the dynamical variables. Energy-momentum and angular momentum/CoMM are associated with the geometric symmetries under Poincaré transformations. They are best described in a local Poincaré gauge theory. The type of spacetime that naturally has this symmetry is Riemann-Cartan spacetime, with a metric compatible connection having, in general, both curvature and torsion. Thus our expression for the energy-momentum of physical systems is obtained via our covariant Hamiltonian formulation applied to the PG.
Buchbinder, I L; Pershin, V D; Buchbinder, I L; Mistchuk, B R; Pershin, V D
1995-01-01
The general BRST-BFV analysis of anomaly in the string theory coupled to background fields is carried out. An exact equation for c-valued symbol of anomaly operator is found and structure of its solutions is studied.
Covariant Lorentz anomalies in higher dimensional space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The covariant Lorentz anomalies are evaluated by both the path integral and the topological methods, when Weyl fermions couple with the gauge and gravitational fields. In 2,4,6-dimensional curved space, the difference between the results obtained by the two methods is removed by counterterms and the equivalence of both methods is proved. It is shown that the Lorentz anomalies in flat space of arbitrary dimensions are eliminated. (author)
Anomaly cancellation in M-theory
de Alwis, S P
1997-01-01
We show the complete cancellation of gauge and gravitational anomalies in the M-theory of Horava and Witten using their boundary contribution, and a term coming from the existence of two and five-branes. A factor of three discrepancy noted in an earlier work is resolved. We end with a comment on flux quantization.
Locally covariant chiral fermions and anomalies
Zahn, Jochen
2015-01-01
We define chiral fermions in the presence of non-trivial gravitational and gauge background fields in the framework of locally covariant field theory. This allows to straightforwardly compute the chiral anomalies on non-compact Lorentzian spacetimes, without recourse to a weak field approximation.
Locally covariant chiral fermions and anomalies
Zahn, Jochen
2015-01-01
We define chiral fermions in the presence of non-trivial gravitational and gauge background fields in the framework of locally covariant field theory. This allows to straightforwardly compute the chiral anomalies on non-compact Lorentzian space-times, without recourse to a weak field approximation.
Locally covariant chiral fermions and anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jochen Zahn
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We define chiral fermions in the presence of non-trivial gravitational and gauge background fields in the framework of locally covariant field theory. This allows to straightforwardly compute the chiral anomalies on non-compact Lorentzian spacetimes, without recourse to a weak field approximation.
Membrane Paradigm, Gravitational $\\Theta$-Term and Gauge/Gravity Duality
Fischler, Willy
2015-01-01
Following the membrane paradigm, we explore the effect of the gravitational $\\Theta$-term on the behavior of the stretched horizon of a black hole in (3+1)-dimensions. We reformulate the membrane paradigm from a quantum path-integral point of view where we interpret the macroscopic properties of the horizon as effects of integrating out the region inside the horizon. The gravitational $\\Theta$-term is a total derivative, however, using our framework we show that this term affects the transport properties of the horizon. In particular, the horizon acquires a third order parity violating, dimensionless transport coefficient which affects the way localized perturbations scramble on the horizon. Then we consider a large-N gauge theory in (2+1)-dimensions which is dual to an asymptotically AdS background in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime to show that the $\\Theta$-term induces a non-trivial contact term in the energy-momentum tensor of the dual theory. As a consequence, the dual gauge theory in the presence of the $\\T...
Gravitational Energy for GR and Poincare Gauge Theories: a Covariant Hamiltonian Approach
Chen, Chiang-Mei; Tung, Roh-Suan
2015-01-01
Our topic concerns a long standing puzzle: the energy of gravitating systems. More precisely we want to consider, for gravitating systems, how to best describe energy-momentum and angular momentum/center-of-mass momentum (CoMM). It is known that these quantities cannot be given by a local density. The modern understanding is that (i) they are quasi-local (associated with a closed 2-surface), (ii) they have no unique formula, (iii) they have no reference frame independent description. In the first part of this work we review some early history, much of it not so well known, on the subject of gravitational energy in Einstein's general relativity (GR), noting especially Noether's contribution. In the second part we review (including some new results) much of our covariant Hamiltonian formalism and apply it to Poincar\\'e gauge theories (GR is a special case). The key point is that the Hamiltonian boundary term has two roles, it determines the quasi-local quantities, and, furthermore it determines the boundary con...
Iorio, L
2006-01-01
In this paper we put on the test the new mechanism of gravitational origin recently put forth by Jaekel and Reynaud in order to explain the Pioneer anomaly in the framework of their post-Einsteinian metric extension of general relativity. According to such a proposal, the secular part of the anomalous acceleration experienced by the twin spacecraft of about 1 nm s$^{-2}$ could be caused by an extra-potential \\delta\\Phi_P=c^2\\chi r^2, with \\chi=4 10^-8 AU^-2, coming from the second sector of the considered model. When applied to the motion of the planets of the Solar System, it would induce anomalous secular perihelion advances which amount to o tens-hundreds of arcseconds per century for the outer planets. As for other previously proposed non-conventional gravitational explanations of the Pioneer anomaly, the answer of the latest observational determinations of the residual perihelion rates by RAS IAA is neatly and unambiguously negative. The presence of another possible candidate to explain the Pioneer anoma...
Classical field theory on electrodynamics, non-Abelian gauge theories and gravitation
Scheck, Florian
2012-01-01
The book describes Maxwell's equations first in their integral, directly testable form, then moves on to their local formulation. The first two chapters cover all essential properties of Maxwell's equations, including their symmetries and their covariance in a modern notation. Chapter 3 is devoted to Maxwell theory as a classical field theory and to solutions of the wave equation. Chapter 4 deals with important applications of Maxwell theory. It includes topical subjects such as metamaterials with negative refraction index and solutions of Helmholtz' equation in paraxial approximation relevant for the description of laser beams. Chapter 5 describes non-Abelian gauge theories from a classical, geometric point of view, in analogy to Maxwell theory as a prototype, and culminates in an application to the U(2) theory relevant for electroweak interactions. The last chapter 6 gives a concise summary of semi-Riemannian geometry as the framework for the classical field theory of gravitation. The chapter concludes wit...
Holomorphy, Rescaling Anomalies and Exact $\\beta$ Functions in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Arkani-Hamed, N; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Murayama, Hitoshi
2000-01-01
There have been known "exact" beta functions for the gauge coupling in N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories, the so-called NSVZ beta functions. Shifman and Vainshtein (SV) further related these beta functions to the exact 1-loop running of the "Wilsonian" gauge coupling. All these results, however, remain somewhat mysterious. We attempt to clarify these issues by presenting new perspectives on the NSVZ beta function. Our interpretation of the results is somewhat different than the one given by SV, having nothing to do with the distinction between "Wilsonian" and "1PI" effective actions. Throughout we work in the context of the Wilsonian Renormalization Group; namely, as the cutoff of the theory is changed from M to M', we determine the appropriate changes in the bare couplings needed to keep the low energy physics fixed. The entire analysis is therefore free of infrared subtleties. When the bare Lagrangian given at the cutoff is manifestly holomorphic in the gauge coupling, we show that the required change in th...
AdS solutions in gauge supergravities and the global anomaly for the product of complex two-cycles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bytsenko, A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina-Parana (Brazil); Elizalde, E. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICE/CSIC) and Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Facultat de Ciencies, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)
2011-03-15
Cohomological methods are applied for the special set of solutions corresponding to rotating branes in arbitrary dimensions, AdS black holes (which can be embedded in ten or eleven dimensions), and gauge supergravities. A new class of solutions is proposed, the Hilbert modular varieties, which consist of the 2n-fold product of the two-spaces H{sup n} /{gamma} (where H{sup n} denotes the product of n upper half-planes, H {sup 2}, equipped with the co-compact action of {gamma} is contained in SL(2, R){sup n}) and (H {sup n}){sup *}/{gamma} (where (H {sup 2}){sup *}=H {sup 2}{gamma} and {gamma} is a congruence subgroup of SL(2, R) {sup n}). The cohomology groups of the Hilbert variety, which inherit a Hodge structure (in the sense of Deligne), are analyzed, as well as bifiltered sequences, weight and Hodge filtrations, and it is argued that the torsion part of the cuspidal cohomology is involved in the global anomaly condition. Indeed, in the presence of the cuspidal part, all cohomology classes can be mapped to the boundary of the space and the cuspidal contribution can be involved in the global anomaly condition. (orig.)
Anomalies of the Entanglement Entropy in Chiral Theories
Iqbal, Nabil
2015-01-01
We study entanglement entropy in theories with gravitational or mixed U(1) gauge-gravitational anomalies in two, four and six dimensions. In such theories there is an anomaly in the entanglement entropy: it depends on the choice of reference frame in which the theory is regulated. We discuss subtleties regarding regulators and entanglement entropies in anomalous theories. We then study the entanglement entropy of free chiral fermions and self-dual bosons and show that in sufficiently symmetric situations this entanglement anomaly comes from an imbalance in the flux of modes flowing through the boundary, controlled by familiar index theorems. In two and four dimensions we use anomalous Ward identities to find general expressions for the transformation of the entanglement entropy under a diffeomorphism. (In the case of a mixed anomaly there is an alternative presentation of the theory in which the entanglement entropy is not invariant under a U(1) gauge transformation. The free-field manifestation of this pheno...
Brizuela, David; Kraemer, Manuel
2015-01-01
We present detailed calculations for quantum-gravitational corrections to the power spectra of gauge-invariant scalar and tensor perturbations during inflation. This is done by performing a semiclassical Born--Oppenheimer type of approximation to the Wheeler--DeWitt equation, from which we obtain a Schr\\"odinger equation with quantum-gravitational correction terms. As a first step, we perform our calculation for a de Sitter universe and find that the correction terms lead to an enhancement of power on the largest scales.
On the definition of gauge transformations in gauge theory
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The different types of gauge transformations in gauge theory are discerned and defined in fiber bundle terms. The gauge gravitation case is analysed in order to examine various versions of the gauge gravitation theory. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The lectures given cover the topological effects in gauge field theories, fermionic chiral anomalies, and some relationships between the two. Gauge field theories in three and four space-time dimensions are considered. Topological terms as external U(1) functional gauge potential connections in field space are discussed. Both the structure and physical impact of anomalies are described. 17 refs
Stress-tensor trace anomaly in a gravitational metric: General theory, Maxwell field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The renormalization of the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of a scalar field propagating in a curved space-time with an arbitrary metric was discussed in a previous paper. A new regularization scheme was introduced which employs a continuation in the dimensionality of space-time implemented with a proper-time representation of the Green's function. Here we present a more general formulation of this method which clarifies its basic features and which explicitly displays the stress tensor as the metric functional derivative of the one-loop action functional. We apply this more general formulation to both the scalar field theory and to the electrodynamic, Maxwell theory. Although the trace of the stress tensor formally vanishes both for the massless scalar field and for the Maxwell field, the trace of the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the stress tensor does not vanish for either theory. These finite-trace anomalies cannot be removed by adding a finite local counterterm into the Lagrange function. The anomalies are intimately related to the infinite scalar counterterms that are needed to render the action finite
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We show that the Implicit Regularization Technique is useful to display quantum symmetry breaking in a complete regularization independent fashion. Arbitrary parameters are expressed by finite differences between integrals of the same superficial degree of divergence whose value is fixed on physical grounds (symmetry requirements or phenomenology). We study Weyl fermions on a classical gravitational background in two dimensions and show that, assuming Lorentz symmetry, the Weyl and Einstein Ward identities reduce to a set of algebraic equations for the arbitrary parameters which allows us to study the Ward identities on equal footing. We conclude in a renormalization independent way that the axial part of the Einstein Ward identity is always violated. Moreover whereas we can preserve the pure tensor part of the Einstein Ward identity at the expense of violating the Weyl Ward identities we may as well violate the former and preserve the latter
Galilean Anomalies and Their Effect on Hydrodynamics
Jain, Akash
2015-01-01
We extend the null background construction of [arXiv:1505.05677,arXiv:1509.04718] to include torsion and a conserved spin current, and use it to study gauge and gravitational anomalies in Galilean theories coupled to torsional Newton-Cartan backgrounds. We establish that the relativistic anomaly inflow mechanism with an appropriately modified anomaly polynomial, can be used to generate these anomalies. Similar to relativistic case, we find that Galilean anomalies also survive only in even dimensions. Further, these anomalies only effect the gauge and rotational symmetries of a Galilean theory; in particular the Milne boost symmetry remains non-anomalous. We also extend the transgression machinery used in relativistic fluids to fluids on null backgrounds, and use it to determine how these anomalies affect the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid. Unrelated to Galilean fluids, we propose an analogue of the off-shell second law of thermodynamics for relativistic fluids introduced by [arXiv:1106.0277], to i...
More on axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions
Bakas, Ioannis
2011-01-01
We show that the gauge and metric field contribution to the axial anomaly of a four-dimensional massless Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropy scaling exponent z is identical to the relativistic case, hereby extending the results found in arXiv:1103.5693 to arbitrary values of z. This is in accordance with the fact that the axial anomaly is an infra-red phenomenon in disguise. We also provide some new models that realize baryon and lepton number violation in non-relativistic theories of gravity. In all cases, the volume of space exhibits a lower bound that is fixed by the gravitational coupling parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This book is a populary introduction to the current status of research in gravitation. After a description of the gravitational theory of Newton and Einstein's general relativity theory the quantum theory of gravitation and supergravity are introduced. Then the dimensions of the space-time are discussed. Thereafter gravitational waves and gravitational lenses are described. Finally black holes, cosmic jets, and the structure of the universe are considered. (HSI)
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A theory of gravitation in more than four dimensions (Kaluza-Klein theory) is considered to see if it can explain in a natural, unified way the observed gauge and gravitational fields in four dimensions. The extra dimensions are taken to be closed and small enough that they cannot be observed directly. The possibility that quantum effects might cause the contraction of the extra dimensions is considered. The quantum effective potential (Casimir energy) of the gravitational field is calculated on the space-time manifold (Minkowski-space)x(N-sphere) to one-loop order in the loop expansion. (N must be odd for technical reasons). A cosmological constant is included in the higher dimensional theory, although the observed cosmological constant in four dimensions is required to be zero. For positive values of the cosmological constant the effective potential is attractive, which means that the extra dimensions would tend to contract at least until they are of a size on the order of the Planck length. The minima of the effective potential, which determine the solutions to the quantum-corrected equations of motion, are located. The first case in which a solution meeting certain minimal requirements is found is N = 13, in which case the associated gauge group is SO(14). The gauge coupling constant in this theory is a predicted number. Similar solutions are found for N = 15, 17, 19, and 21. Unfortunately, in all cases the effective potential has an imaginary part, which is interpreted as an instability of the solution against quantum decay
A Nonperturbative Regulator for Chiral Gauge Theories
Grabowska, Dorota M
2015-01-01
We propose a nonperturbative gauge invariant regulator for $d$-dimensional chiral gauge theories on the lattice. The method involves simulating domain wall fermions in $d+1$ dimensions with quantum gauge fields that reside on one $d$-dimensional surface and are extended into the bulk via gradient flow. The result is a theory of gauged fermions plus mirror fermions, where the mirror fermions couple to the gauge fields via a form factor that becomes exponentially soft with the separation between domain walls. The resultant theory has a local $d$-dimensional interpretation if and only if the chiral fermion representation is anomaly free. A physical realization of this construction leads to mirror fermions in the Standard Model with soft form factors for gauge fields and gravity. These mirror particles could evade detection except by sensitive probes at extremely low energy, and yet still affect vacuum topology, and could gravitate differently than conventional matter.
Elsayed, Ahmed Mohammed Hussain El Kenawy
2015-05-01
Many arid and semi-arid regions have sparse precipitation observing networks, which limits the capacity for detailed hydrological modelling, water resources management and flood forecasting efforts. The objective of this work is to evaluate the utility of relatively high-spatial resolution rainfall products to reproduce observed multi-decadal rainfall characteristics such as climatologies, anomalies and trends over Saudi Arabia. Our study compares the statistical characteristics of rainfall from 53 observatories over the reference period 1965-2005, with rainfall data from six widely used gauge-based products, including APHRODITE, GPCC, PRINCETON, UDEL, CRU and PREC/L. In addition, the performance of three global climate models (GCMs), including CCSM4, EC-EARTH and MRI-I-CGCM3, integrated as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), was also evaluated. Results indicate that the gauge-based products were generally skillful in reproducing rainfall characteristics in Saudi Arabia. In most cases, the gauge-based products were also able to capture the annual cycle, anomalies and climatologies of observed data, although significant inter-product variability was observed, depending on the assessment metric being used. In comparison, the GCM-based products generally exhibited poor performance, with larger biases and very weak correlations, particularly during the summertime. Importantly, all products generally failed to reproduce the observed long-term seasonal and annual trends in the region, particularly during the dry seasons (summer and autumn). Overall, this work suggests that selected gauge-based products with daily (APHRODITE and PRINCETON) and monthly (GPCC and CRU) resolutions show superior performance relative to other products, implying that they may be the most appropriate data source from which multi-decadal variations of rainfall can be investigated at the regional scale over Saudi Arabia. Discriminating these skillful products is important not only for reducing uncertainty in climate, hydrological and environmental assessments but also for advancing model developments in the region. © 2015 Royal Meteorological Society.
Beauchesne, Hugues; Earl, Kevin; Grégoire, Thomas
2015-08-01
Stringent experimental constraints have raised the lower limit on the masses of squarks to TeV levels, while compatibility with the mass of the Higgs boson provides an upper limit. This two-sided bound has lead to the emergence of Mini-Split theories where gauginos are not far removed from the electroweak scale while scalars are somewhat heavier. This small hierarchy modifies the spectrum of standard anomaly and gauge mediation, leading to Mini-Split deflected anomaly and gauge mediation models. In this paper, we study LHC constraints on these models and their prospects at LHC 14 and a 100 TeV collider. Current constraints on their parameter space come from ATLAS and CMS supersymmetry searches, the known mass of the Higgs boson, and the absence of a color-breaking vacuum. Prospects at LHC 14 and a 100 TeV collider are obtained from these same theoretical constraints in conjunction with background estimates. As would be expected from renormalization group effects, a slightly lighter third generation of squarks is assumed. Higgsinos have masses similar to those of the scalars and are at the origin of the deflection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stringent presentation of field theory, mediates the connection from the classicalelectrodynamics up to modern gauge theories. The compact presentation is ideal for the bachelor study. New chapter on general relativity theory. Deepens the learned by numerous application from laser physic, metamaterials and different more. Theoretical physics 3. Classical field theory. On electrodynamics, non-Abelian, and gravitation is the third of five volumes on theoretical physics by professor Scheck. The cycle theoretical physics comprehends: Volume 1: Mechanics. From Newtons law to the deterministic chaos. Volume 2: Nonrelativistic quantum theory. From the hydrogen atom to the many-particle systems. Volume 3: Classical field theory. From the electrodynamics to the gauge theories. Volume 5: From the laws of thermodynamics to the quantum statistics. This textbook mediates modern theoretical physics in string presentation illustrated by many examples. It contains numerous problems with solution hints ore exemplary, complete solutions. The third edition was revised in many single topics, especially the chapter on general relativity theory was supplemented by an extensive analysis of the Schwarzschild solution.
Fisenko, S. I.
2001-01-01
Parity nonconservation in the beta-decay processes is considered as fundamental property of weak interactions. Nevertheless, this property can be treated as anomaly, because in fundamental interactions of the rest types parity is conserved. Analogously, anomaly in the short-duration strong-current pulse discharges is well known. The essence of this phenomenon consists in generation of local high-temperature plasma formations (LHTF) with the typical values of its thermodynami...
Corda, C
2006-01-01
Recently, with the ``bounching photon'' treatment, the gauge invariance of the response of an interferometer to scalar gravitational waves (SGWs) has been demonstred in its full frequency dependence in three different gauges well known in literature, while in previous works it was been shown only in the low frequencies approximation. In this paper the analysis of the response function for SGWs is generalized in its full angular dependence and directly in the gauge of the local observer, which is the gauge of a laboratory enviroment on Earth. The result is used for anlyzing the cross - correlation between the two LIGO interferometers in their advanced configuration for a potential detection of a stochastic bacground of SGWs. An inferior limit for the integration time of a potential detection is released.
Path integral quantization of gravitational interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some of the local symmetry properties of quantum field theory in curved space-time and quantized gravitational interactions are discussed. We concentrate on local symmetry properties, and thus the asymptotically flat space-time is assumed, whenever necessary, in the hope that the precise boundary conditions will not modify the short distance structure in quantum theory. We adopt the DeWitt-Faddeev-Popov prescription of the Feynman path integral with a complete gauge fixing. The topics discussed include: (i) A brief review of the path integral derivation of chiral anomalies in flat space-time. (ii) The specification of the gravitational path integral measure, which avoids all the ''fake'' gravitational anomalies, and the applications of this path integral prescription to 1) effective potential in generalized Kaluza-Klein theory, 2) 4-dimensional conformal anomalies, 3) conformal symmetry in pure conformal gravity, 4) bosonic string theory as a gravitational theory in d = 2, 5) Virasoro condition and the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the path integral formalism, 6) gravitational anomalies and the definition of the energy-momentum tensor. (author)
Anomaly analysis of Hawking radiation from Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Considering gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon, a new method to derive Hawking radiation from black holes has been developed by Wilczek et al. In this paper, we apply this method to non-rotating and rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes with squashed horizon, respectively. For the rotating case, we found that, after dimensional reduction, an effective U(1) gauge field is generated by an angular isometry. The results show that the gauge current and energy-momentum tensor fluxes are exactly equivalent to Hawking radiation from the event horizon. (orig.)
Trace anomalies from quantum mechanics
Bastianelli, F; Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Nieuwenhuizen, Peter van
1993-01-01
The 1-loop anomalies of a d-dimensional quantum field theory can be computed by evaluating the trace of the regulated path integral jacobian matrix, as shown by Fujikawa. In 1983, Alvarez-Gaum\\'e and Witten observed that one can simplify this evaluation by replacing the operators which appear in the regulator and in the jacobian by quantum mechanical operators with the same (anti)commutation relations. By rewriting this quantum mechanical trace as a path integral with periodic boundary conditions for a one-dimensional supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model, they obtained the chiral anomalies for spin 1/2 and 3/2 fields and selfdual antisymmetric tensors in d dimensions. In this article, we treat the case of trace anomalies for spin 0, 1/2 and 1 fields in a gravitational and Yang-Mills background. We do not introduce a supersymmetric sigma model, but keep the original Dirac matrices $\\g^\\m$ and internal symmetry generators $T^a$ in the path integral. As a result, we get a matrix-valued action. Gauge covariance o...
The Conformal Anomaly and the Neutral Currents Sector of the Standard Model
Coriano, Claudio; Quintavalle, Antonio; Serino, Mirko
2011-01-01
We elaborate on the structure of the graviton-gauge-gauge vertex in the electroweak theory, obtained by the insertion of the complete energy-momentum tensor ($T$) on 2-point functions of neutral gauge currents. The vertex defines the leading contribution to the effective action which accounts for the conformal anomaly and related interaction between the Standard Model and gravity. The energy momentum tensor is derived from the curved spacetime Lagrangian in the linearized gravitational limit, and with the inclusion of the term of improvement of a conformally coupled Higgs sector. The vertex is defined by a set of Ward and Slavnov-Taylor identities which are explicitly satisfied by the perturbative expansion in dimensional regularization. As in the previous cases of QED and QCD, we find that the conformal anomaly induces an effective massless pseudoscalar interaction between gravity and the neutral currents in each gauge invariant component of the vertex. We comment on the possible extension of similar analysi...
Anomaly-induced effective action and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the early Universe matter can be described as a conformal invariant ultra-relativistic perfect fluid, which does not contribute, on classical level, to the evolution of the isotropic and homogeneous metric. If we suppose that there is some desert in the particle spectrum just below the Planck mass, then the effect of conformal trace anomaly is dominating at the corresponding energies. With some additional constraints on the particle content of the underlying gauge model (which favor extended or supersymmetric versions of the Standard Model rather than the minimal one), one arrives at the stable inflation. We review the model and report about the calculation of the gravitational waves on the background of the anomaly-induced inflation. The result for the perturbation spectrum is close to the one for the conventional inflation model, and is in agreement with the existing Cobe data
*-Wars episode I: the phantom anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As pointed out, chiral non-commutative theories exist, and examples can be constructed via string theory. Gauge anomalies require the matter content of individual gauge group factors, including U(1) factors, to be non-chiral. All 'bad' mixed gauge anomalies, and also all 'good' (e.g., for ?0???) ABJ type flavor anomalies, automatically vanish in non-commutative gauge theories. We interpret this as being analogous to string theory, and an example of UV/IR mixing: non-commutative gauge theories automatically contain 'closed string', Green-Schwarz fields, which cancel these anomalies
Without gravity, you would float into space. Gravity pulls matter together: it holds us onto the Earth, it holds the Earth in orbit around the sun and it holds our solar system in orbit about the centre of the galaxy. Everything with mass feels the attraction of gravity. The strength of the attraction between 2 objects depends on their masses. Despite its omnipresence, gravity is the weakest of the 4 forces. It is insignificant at the scale of human beings: when a group of visitors walks past, gravity doesn't pull you towards them! At even smaller scales, the gravitational pull between the electron and the proton is about 1040 times weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them. Text for the interactive: Why does the same mass weigh more on the Earth than on the moon ?
New anomaly in axial-vector ward identity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown how a new type of anomaly, in addition to the Adler--Bell--Jackiw anomaly, can occur in a gauge theory with ?5 couplings. Such an anomaly renders standard theories of quantum flavor dynamics nonrenormalizable. 19 references
Invariant Regularization of Supersymmetric Chiral Gauge Theory
Suzuki, Hiroshi(Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581, Japan)
1999-01-01
We present a regularization scheme which respects the supersymmetry and the maximal background gauge covariance in supersymmetric chiral gauge theories. When the anomaly cancellation condition is satisfied, the effective action in the superfield background field method automatically restores the gauge invariance without counterterms. The scheme also provides a background gauge covariant definition of composite operators that is especially useful in analyzing anomalies. We pr...
Renormalization of non-abelian gauge theories in curved space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use indirect, renormalization group arguments to calculate the gravitational counterterms needed to renormalize an interacting non-abelian gauge theory in curved space-time. This method makes it straightforward to calculate terms in the trace anomaly which first appear at high order in the coupling constant, some of which would need a 4-loop calculation to find directly. The role of gauge invariance in the theory is considered, and we discuss briefly the effect of using coordinate-dependent gauge-fixing terms. We conclude by suggesting possible applications of this work to models of the very early universe
Charge, anomalies and index theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author explains how gauge fields, spinor fields and other gauge-dependent quantities, are unobservable and are not primary, but are constructed from the properties of the observables. A brief survey is presented of the phenomenon of anomalies in theories with axial currents; some of the puzzling aspects of anomalies are described, such as the necessary breakdown of apparent symmetries of a theory, in the presence of external fields
Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen's monograph 'Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space' collects in one volume the results of the authors' 15-year research programme on anomalies that arise in Feynman diagrams of quantum field theories on curved manifolds. The programme was spurred by the path-integral techniques introduced in Alvarez-Gaume and Witten's renowned 1983 paper on gravitational anomalies which, together with the anomaly cancellation paper by Green and Schwarz, led to the string theory explosion of the 1980s. The authors have produced a tour de force, giving a comprehensive and pedagogical exposition of material that is central to current research. The first part of the book develops from scratch a formalism for defining and evaluating quantum mechanical path integrals in nonlinear sigma models, using time slicing regularization, mode regularization and dimensional regularization. The second part applies this formalism to quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1 and 3/2 and to self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields. The book concludes with a discussion of gravitational anomalies in 10-dimensional supergravities, for both classical and exceptional gauge groups. The target audience is researchers and graduate students in curved spacetime quantum field theory and string theory, and the aims, style and pedagogical level have been chosen with this audience in mind. Path integrals are treated as calculational tools, and the notation and terminology are throughout tailored to calculational convenience, rather than to mathematical rigour. The style is closer to that of an exceedingly thorough and self-contained review article than to that of a textbook. As the authors mention, the first part of the book can be used as an introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics, although in a classroom setting perhaps more likely as supplementary reading than a primary class text. Readers outside the core audience, including this reviewer, will gain from the book a heightened appreciation of the central role of regularization as a defining ingredient of a quantum field theory and will be impressed by the agreement of results arising from different regularization schemes. The readers may in particular enjoy the authors' 'brief history of anomalies' in quantum field theory, as well as a similar historical discussion of path integrals in quantum mechanics. (book review)
Shah, Abhay; Keidl, Tobias; Friedman, John; Price, Larry
2011-04-01
This talk reports recent progress on computing the self-force in a radiation gauge for a particle in circular orbit around a Kerr black hole. We work in a gauge which allows us to use the Teukolsky equation to obtain retarded field needed to compute the self-force. We use of the Chrzanowski-Cohen-Kegeles formalism to extract the perturbed metric from the Weyl scalar. The Hertz potential is calculated by algebraically inverting the differential angular equation relating it to the Weyl scalar. Since this is an algebraic inversion, every operator acting on the Hertz potential to yield the self-force can be traced back to an action on the Weyl scalar, which simplifies our analytic work. Once the retarded self-force is calculated, we match it numerically to an appropriate series in the angular harmonic index l to extract regularization parameters. The quantity habuaub and an associated change in the orbital frequency are invariant under helically symmetric gauge transformations, and we compute them inside the (Boyer-Lindquist) radius of the particle.
Holographic renormalization of cascading gauge theories
Aharony, O; Yarom, A; Aharony, Ofer; Buchel, Alex; Yarom, Amos
2005-01-01
We perform a holographic renormalization of cascading gauge theories. Specifically, we find the counter-terms that need to be added to the gravitational action of the backgrounds dual to the cascading theory of Klebanov and Tseytlin, compactified on an arbitrary four-manifold, in order to obtain finite correlation functions (with a limited set of sources). We show that it is possible to truncate the action for deformations of this background to a five dimensional system coupling together the metric and four scalar fields. Somewhat surprisingly, despite the fact that these theories involve an infinite number of high-energy degrees of freedom, we find finite answers for all one-point functions (including the conformal anomaly). We compute explicitly the renormalized stress tensor for the cascading gauge theories at high temperature and show how our finite answers are consistent with the infinite number of degrees of freedom. Finally, we discuss ambiguities appearing in the holographic renormalization we propose...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheck, Florian [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik
2010-07-01
Stringent presentation of field theory, mediates the connection from the classicalelectrodynamics up to modern gauge theories. The compact presentation is ideal for the bachelor study. New chapter on general relativity theory. Deepens the learned by numerous application from laser physic, metamaterials and different more. Theoretical physics 3. Classical field theory. On electrodynamics, non-Abelian, and gravitation is the third of five volumes on theoretical physics by professor Scheck. The cycle theoretical physics comprehends: Volume 1: Mechanics. From Newtons law to the deterministic chaos. Volume 2: Nonrelativistic quantum theory. From the hydrogen atom to the many-particle systems. Volume 3: Classical field theory. From the electrodynamics to the gauge theories. Volume 5: From the laws of thermodynamics to the quantum statistics. This textbook mediates modern theoretical physics in string presentation illustrated by many examples. It contains numerous problems with solution hints ore exemplary, complete solutions. The third edition was revised in many single topics, especially the chapter on general relativity theory was supplemented by an extensive analysis of the Schwarzschild solution. [German] Stringente Darstellung der Feldtheorie, vermittelt den Zusammenhang von der klassischen Elektrodynamik bis zu modernen Eichtheorien. Die kompakte Darstellung ist ideal fuer das Bachelor-Studium. Neues Kapitel zur Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie. Vertieft das Erlernte durch zahlreiche Anwendungsbeispiele aus Laserphysik, Metamaterialien uvm. Theoretische Physik 3. Klassische Feldtheorie. Von Elektrodynamik, nicht-Abelschen Eichtheorien und Gravitation ist der dritte von fuenf Baenden zur Theoretischen Physik von Professor Scheck. Der Zyklus Theoretische Physik umfasst: Band 1: Mechanik. Von den Newtonschen Gesetzen zum deterministischen Chaos. Band 2: Nichtrelativistische Quantentheorie. Vom Wasserstoffatom zu den Vielteilchensystemen. Band 3: Klassische Feldtheorie. Von der Elektrodynamik zu den Eichtheorien Band 4: Quantisierte Felder. Von den Symmetrien zur Quantenelektrodynamik Band 5: Theorie der Waerme. Von den Hauptsaetzen der Thermodynamik zur Quantenstatistik Dieses Lehrbuch vermittelt moderne Theoretische Physik in stringenter, durch viele Beispiele illustrierter Darstellung. Es enthaelt zahlreiche Aufgaben mit Loesungshinweisen oder exemplarischen, vollstaendigen Loesungen. Die dritte Auflage wurde in vielen Einzelheiten ueberarbeitet, insbesondere das Kapitel ueber Allgemeine Relativitaetstheorie wurde um eine ausfuehrliche Analyse der Schwarzschild-Loesung ergaenzt. (orig.)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bogus - Spacecraft anomalies due to the space environment range from minor operational problems to permanent spacecraft failure. The NGDC Spacecraft Anomaly...
Entanglement Entropy & Anomaly Inflow
Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.
2015-01-01
We study entanglement entropy for parity-violating (time-reversal breaking) quantum field theories on $\\mathbb{R}^{1,2}$ in the presence of a domain wall between two distinct parity-odd phases. The domain wall hosts a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) with non-trivial chiral central charge. Such a CFT possesses gravitational anomalies. It has been shown recently that, as a consequence, its intrinsic entanglement entropy is sensitive to Lorentz boosts around the en...
Igarashi, Yuji; Sato, Masanao; Sonoda, Hidenori; 10.1143/PTP.125.565
2011-01-01
The antifield formalism adapted in the exact renormalization group is found to be useful for describing a system with some symmetry, especially the gauge symmetry. In the formalism, the vanishing of the quantum master operator implies the presence of a symmetry. The QM operator satisfies a simple algebraic relation that will be shown to be related to the Wess-Zumino condition for anomalies. We also explain how an anomaly contributes to the QM operator.
What's wrong with anomalous chiral gauge theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is argued on general ground and demonstrated in the particular example of the Chiral Schwinger Model that there is nothing wrong with apparently anomalous chiral gauge theory. If quantised correctly, there should be no gauge anomaly and chiral gauge theory should be renormalisable and unitary, even in higher dimensions and with non-Abelian gauge groups. Furthermore, it is claimed that mass terms for gauge bosons and chiral fermions can be generated without spoiling the gauge invariance. 19 refs
Holography with Gravitational Chern-Simons Term
Solodukhin, Sergey N.
2005-01-01
The holographic description in the presence of gravitational Chern-Simons term is studied. The modified gravitational equations are integrated by using the Fefferman-Graham expansion and the holographic stress-energy tensor is identified. The stress-energy tensor has both conformal anomaly and gravitational or, if re-formulated in terms of the zweibein, Lorentz anomaly. We comment on the structure of anomalies in two dimensions and show that the two-dimensional stress-energy...
Global Anomalies and Effective Field Theory
Golkar, Siavash
2015-01-01
We show that matching anomalies under large gauge transformations and large diffeomorphisms can explain the appearance and non-renormalization of couplings in effective field theory. We focus on %thermal partition functions and thermal effective field theory where we argue that the appearance of certain unusual Chern-Simons couplings is a consequence of global anomalies. As an example, we show that a mixed global anomaly in four dimensions fixes the chiral vortical effect coefficient. This is an experimentally measurable prediction from a global anomaly. For certain situations, we propose a simpler method for calculating global anomalies which uses correlation functions rather than eta invariants.
Gravitation and electromagnetism
Sidharth, B G
2002-01-01
Maxwell's equations comprise both electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The transverse part of the vector potential belongs to magnetism, the longitudinal one is concerned with gravitation. The Coulomb gauge indicates that longitudinal components of the fields propagate instantaneously. The delta-function singularity of the field of the divergence of the vector potential, referred to as the dilatation center, represents an elementary agent of gravitation. Viewing a parti...
Black hole spectra in holography: Consequences for equilibration of dual gauge theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex Buchel
2015-07-01
Full Text Available For a closed system to equilibrate from a given initial condition there must exist an equilibrium state with the energy equal to the initial one. Equilibrium states of a strongly coupled gauge theory with a gravitational holographic dual are represented by black holes. We study the spectrum of black holes in Pilch–Warner geometry. These black holes are holographically dual to equilibrium states of strongly coupled SU(N N=2? gauge theory plasma on S3 in the planar limit. We find that there is no energy gap in the black hole spectrum. Thus, there is a priori no obstruction for equilibration of arbitrary low-energy states in the theory via a small black hole gravitational collapse. The latter is contrasted with phenomenological examples of holography with dual four-dimensional CFTs having non-equal central charges in the stress–energy tensor trace anomaly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batra, Puneet; /Argonne; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Spivak, David; /UC, Berkeley, Math. Dept.
2005-10-01
We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the Standard Model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.
Astrometric solar system anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY
2009-01-01
There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.
The Effective Gravitational Theory at Large Scale with Lorentz Violation
Wu, Yiwei; Yang, Lixiang; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2015-01-01
The dipole anomaly in the power spectrum of CMB may indicate that the Lorentz boost invarianc is violated at cosmic scale. We assume that the Lorentz symmetry is violated partly from the scale of galaxy. We employ the symmetry of very special relativity as an example to illustrate the Lorentz violation effect by constructing the corresponding gauge theories as the effective gravitational theory at the large scale. We find the common feather of these gravitation models is the non-triviality of spacetime torsion and contorsion even if the matter source is of only scalar matter. The presence of non-trivial contorsion contributes an effective enenrgy-momentum distribution which may account for part of dark matter effect.
Calculation of the commutator anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is well-known that, for the non-Abelian gauge theory coupled to the chiral fermions, which is described by a Lagrangian, the anomaly of the non-Abelian current is given by the descent form of the Chern-Simon five form; D*Ja = (-1/24?2)tr[d(AdA + 1/2A3)], where A = A?dx? = -itaA?adx?. Recently, Faddeev argued that, for such an anomalous system, the gauge symmetry would be represented in a generalized sense of projective representation; V(g1)V(g2)?(A) = exp[i?2(g1, g2; A)] X V(g1g2)?(A), where ?(A) is the wave functional and the phase factor ?2 depends on both the group elements and the gauge field configuration A. Here, it is convenient to consider the infinitesimal version of the above argument. The generator of infinitesimal gauge transformation in the temporal gauge A0 = 0 is given by Ga(x) = ?iEia + gfabcAibEic - g?-bar?0ta?, and the infinitesimal form of the previous product rule can be written as the equal time commutation relation; [Ga(x), Gb(y)] = ifabcGc(x)?3(x-y) + ab(x,y,A), where is related to ?2. In this equation, the first term is what is expected as the normal commutation relation of the generator, while the second term is an anomaly, which is designated here as the commutator anomaly. Then the present study concentrates on operations to determine the anomaly term. (Nogami, A.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonlocal gauge theories, including gravitation, are considered. It is shown that to give a meaning to ?5-anomalous theories it is sufficient to introduce an additional nonlocal interaction. The introduction of such an interaction leads to a unitary macrocausal theory describing the interaction of massive vector fields with fermion fields. It is shown that nonlocal gauge theories with nonlocality scale ?/sub nl/ ? (1-10) TeV are capable of solving the hierarchy problem. An example of a nonlinear gauge model of grand unification is found in which topologically nontrivial monopole solutions with finite energy are absent
Ohanian, Hans
2015-04-01
It seems desirable that Einstein's gravitational theory with the Lagrangian (mPlanck)2 (- g)1/2 R should arise by symmetry breaking from an underlying conformally symmetric theory. A simple way to achieve this goal is to start with a conformally invariant version of Brans-Dicke theory with a complex massless scalar field ? coupled to the curvature by a term ?? * (- g)1/2 R , and also coupled to a massless gauge-vector field ?? for which the complex scalar acts as source. The vector field can be interpreted geometrically as the Weyl gauge-vector for transport of lengths in the conformal geometry. By the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, the scalar field generates an effective potential with a stable minimum at ? 0 . By the Higgs mechanism, this leads to conformal symmetry breaking, and both the scalar and gauge-vector fields acquire masses of the order of mPlanck , so they become practically undetectable, while the value of ??* becomes equal to (mPlanck)2 .
Hossenfelder, S
2006-01-01
We examine the possibility of a symmetry between gravitating and anti-gravitating particles. The properties of the anti-gravitating quantum fields are defined by the behavior under Lorentz- and gauge- transformations. The equations of motion and the conserved canonical currents are derived and it is shown that the kinetic energy remains positive whereas the source term to the field equations of General Relativity changes its sign. Furthermore, the interaction between gravitational and anti-gravitational fields is mediated by the graviton only, such that the coupling is naturally suppressed by the Planck scale. We discuss that in a scenario with extra dimensions, the production of anti-gravitating matter becomes possible at the LHC. We also briefly comment on cosmological implications.
Anomaly Mediation in Local Effective Theories
Dine, Michael
2013-01-01
The phenomenon known as "anomaly mediation" can be understood in a variety of ways. Rather than an anomaly, certain gaugino bilinear terms are required by local supersymmetry and gauge invariance (the derivation of these terms is in some cases related to anomalies in scale invariance or $R$ symmetries). We explain why the gaugino bilinear is required in supersymmetric gauge theories with varying number of colors and flavors. By working in the Higgs phase, gauging a flavor group, or working below the scale of gaugino condensation, each of these theories has a local effective description in which we can identify the bilinear term, establishing its necessity in the microscopic theory. For example, in theories that exhibit gaugino condensation, the potential in the very low energy theory is supersymmetric precisely due to the relation between the nonperturbative superpotential and the gaugino bilinear terms. Similarly, the gravitino mass appears from its coupling to the gaugino bilinear.
Gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction
Handmer, Casey J.; Szilágyi, Béla; Winicour, Jeffrey
2015-12-01
We present gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction. We compare gravitational waveforms extracted from a head-on black hole merger simulated in two different gauges by two different codes. We show rapid convergence, demonstrating both gauge invariance of the extraction algorithm and consistency between the legacy Pitt null code and the much faster spectral Einstein code (SpEC).
Gauge Invariant Spectral Cauchy Characteristic Extraction
Handmer, Casey J; Winicour, Jeffrey
2015-01-01
We present gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction. We compare gravitational waveforms extracted from a head-on black hole merger simulated in two different gauges by two different codes. We show rapid convergence, demonstrating both gauge invariance of the extraction algorithm and consistency between the legacy Pitt null code and the much faster Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bachas, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, ENS, 75 - Paris (France); Bilal, A. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, (Switzerland); Douglas, M. [New Jersey University, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Nekrasov, N. [IHES, Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 91 - Bures sur Yvette (France); David, F. [CEA Saclay, Service de Physique Theorique, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2002-07-01
The 76. session of the summer school in theoretical physics was devoted to recent developments in string theory, gauge theories and quantum gravity. Superstring theory is the leading candidate for a unified theory of all fundamental physical forces and elementary particles. The discovery of dualities and of important tools such as D-branes, has greatly reinforced this point of view. This document gathers the papers of 9 lectures: 1) supergravity, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories, 3) an introduction to duality symmetries, 4) large N field theories and gravity, 5) D-branes on the conifold and N = 1 gauge/gravity dualities, 6) de Sitter space, 7) string compactification with N = 1 supersymmetry, 8) open strings and non-commutative gauge theories, and 9) condensates near the Argyres-Douglas point in SU(2) gauge theory with broken N = 2 supersymmetry, and of 8 seminars: 1) quantum field theory with extra dimensions, 2) special holonomy spaces and M-theory, 3) four dimensional non-critical strings, 4) U-opportunities: why ten equal to ten?, 5) exact answers to approximate questions - non-commutative dipoles, open Wilson lines and UV-IR duality, 6) open-string models with broken supersymmetry, 7) on a field theory of open strings, tachyon condensation and closed strings, and 8) exceptional magic. (A.C.)
Gravitational Analog of the Electromagnetic Poynting Vector
de Menezes, L. M.
1998-01-01
The gravitational analog of the electromagnetic Poynting vector is constructed using the field equations of general relativity in the Hilbert gauge. It is found that when the gravitational Poynting vector is applied to the solution of the linear mass quadrupole oscillator, the correct gravitational quadrupole radiation flux is obtained. Further to this, the Maxwell-like gravitational Poynting vector gives rise to Einstein's quadrupole radiation formula. The gravitational ene...
Axionic Defect Anomalies and their Cancellation
Izquierdo, J.M.; Townsend, P K
1993-01-01
We present a simple derivation of the Callan-Harvey-Naculich effect, {\\it i.e.} the compensation of charge violation on axion strings due to gauge anomalies by accretion of charge onto the string from the surrounding space. We then show, in the case of axion fields without a potential, that an alternative explanation is possible in which no reference to the surrounding space is necessary because the anomalies are cancelled by a version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism. We prov...
Gravitational Energy-Momentum Density in Teleparallel Gravity
de Andrade, V. C.(Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília, DF, Brazil); Guillen, L. C. T.; Pereira, J. G.
2000-01-01
In the context of a gauge theory for the translation group, a conserved energy-momentum gauge current for the gravitational field is obtained. It is a true spacetime and gauge tensor, and transforms covariantly under global Lorentz transformations. By rewriting the gauge gravitational field equation in a purely spacetime form, it becomes the teleparallel equivalent of Einstein's equation, and the gauge current reduces to the M{\\o}ller's canonical energy-momentum density of t...
Gravitational energy and gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The papers of the International symposium after N.I. Lobachevsky Gravitational energy and gravitational waves at Dubna in December 1993 are presented. The main attention is paid to the gravitation theory, gravitational field energy density, gravitational waves and radiation
Connections between Schwinger terms and anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present examples of a new type of Schwinger terms appearing in commutators of energy-momentum tensor. We demonstrate them in two-dimensional flat Minkowski space. The Schwinger terms which correspond to gravitational anomaly appear in different places from those of conformal anomaly. Nevertheless, they still preserve the Jacobi identity. We also discuss the relation between anomalies and the Schwinger terms. In any-dimensional curved space-time Faddeev's cohomological technique works well. Therefore we can derive the Schwinger terms in curved space-time. (author)
Determination of Cosmological Constant from Gauge Theory of Gravity
Wu, Ning; Resconi, Germano; Xu, Zhan; Zheng, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Da-Hua; Ruan, Tu-Nan
2001-01-01
Combining general relativity and gravitational gauge theory, the cosmological constant is determined theoretically. The cosmological constant is related to the average vacuum energy of gravitational gauge field. Because the vacuum energy of gravitational gauge field is negative, the cosmological constant is positive, which generates repulsive force on stars to make the expansion rate of the Universe accelerated. A rough estimation of it gives out its magnitude of the order o...
Cohomology for covariant anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a new cohomology approach to the covariant anomalies in detail. A set of differential forms is constructed from descent-like 'sidestepping' equations. From this set, we can derive the covariant anomalies including the commutator anomaly as well as the current anomaly with correct normalizations. We also discuss the relation to the conventional set of differential forms for the consistent anomalies. (author)
Galilean Theories of Gravitation
Pietri, R; Lusanna, L.; Pauri, M.
1992-01-01
A generalization of Newtonian gravitation theory is obtained by a suitable limiting procedure from the ADM action of general relativity coupled to a mass-point. Three particular theories are discussed and it is found that two of them are invariant under an extended Galilei gauge group.
Benini, Francesco; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; Verlinde, Herman
2009-01-01
We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain "messenger mesons," which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benini, Francesco; /Princeton U.; Dymarsky, Anatoly; /Stanford U., ITP; Franco, Sebastian; /Santa Barbara, KITP; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Verlinde, Herman; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2009-06-19
We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons,' which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons', which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.
Benini, Francesco; Dymarsky, Anatoly; Franco, Sebastián; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; Verlinde, Herman
2009-12-01
We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain ``messenger mesons," which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.
Anomaly Structure of Supergravity and Anomaly Cancellation
Butter, Daniel
2009-01-01
We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1)_K transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.
The Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity
Butter, Daniel
2014-01-01
On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a $U(1)$ gauge transformation and under the T-duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three K\\"ahler moduli $T^i$ obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields...
Low-Scale Gauge Mediation with a 100 TeV Gravitino
Asano, Masaki; Yokozaki, Norimi
2015-01-01
We propose a new framework of low-scale gauge-mediated supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking with a gravitino mass of O(100) TeV. The usual 4D gauge mediation models predict a light gravitino and suffer from cosmological problems. In our framework, a heavy gravitino in gauge mediation is realized with a flat extra-dimension, whose compactification scale is around the grand unified theory scale. Superparticle masses of the visible sector from gravity/anomaly mediation are suppressed, and they are purely generated by usual gauge mediation on the visible brane. Importantly, the Higgs Bmu-term vanishes at the leading order, which enables us to obtain the suitable mu-Bmu relation for the electroweak symmetry breaking. We discuss such models considering two possibilities of the SUSY breaking source: 1) Scherk-Schwarz SUSY breaking which we call Scherk-Schwarz Gauge Mediation and 2) gravitational SUSY breaking localized on a hidden brane. In the case 2), the cosmological moduli problem may be relaxed as well.
Gravitational wave detector response in terms of spacetime Riemann curvature
Koop, Michael J.; Finn, Lee Samuel
2013-01-01
Gravitational wave detectors are typically described as responding to gravitational wave metric perturbations, which are gauge-dependent and --- correspondingly --- unphysical quantities. This is particularly true for ground-based interferometric detectors, like LIGO, space-based detectors, like LISA and its derivatives, spacecraft doppler tracking detectors, and pulsar timing arrays detectors. The description of gravitational waves, and a gravitational wave detector's respo...
Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.)
Gauge conditions and gauge transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The principal problems of gauge fixation in field theories are discussed. It is stressed the importance of the Dirac extended gauge group and of the weak gauge invariance of the physical quantities. The importance of distinguishing of dynamical gauges from non-dynamical ones is pointed out. Mainly in electrodynamics the role of the physical degrees of freedom in some popular gauges is analysed. It is shown the key role of the Fock gauge. The principal difference between local and global gauge transformations and their physical sense is elucidated. 148 refs., 3 figs
Entropy for gravitational Chern-Simons terms by squashed cone method
Guo, Wu-zhong
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the entropy of gravitational Chern-Simons terms for the horizon with non-vanishing extrinsic curvatures, or the holographic entanglement entropy for arbitrary entangling surface. In 3D we find no anomaly of entropy appears. But the squashed cone method can not be used directly to get the correct result. For higher dimensions the anomaly of entropy would appear, still, we can not use the squashed cone method directly. That is becasuse the Chern-Simons action is not gauge invariant. To get a reasonable result we suggest two methods. One is by adding a boundary term to recover the gauge invariance. This boundary term can be derived from the variation of the Chern-Simons action. The other one is by using the Chern-Simons relation $d\\bm{\\Omega_{4n-1}}=tr(\\bm{R}^{2n})$. We notice that the entropy of $tr(\\bm{R}^{2n})$ is a total derivative locally, i.e. $S=d s_{CS}$. We propose to identify $s_{CS}$ with the entropy of gravitational Chern-Simons terms $\\Omega_{4n-1}$. In the first method ...
Chiral anomalies and differential geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zumino, B.
1983-10-01
Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)
Chiral anomalies and differential geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references
Axionic defect anomalies and their cancellation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a simple derivation of the Callan-Harvey-Naculich effect, i.e. the compensation of charge violation on axion strings due to gauge anomalies by accretion of charge onto the string from the surrounding space. We then show, in the case of axion fields without a potential, that an alternative explanation is possible in which no reference to the surrounding space is necessary because the anomalies are cancelled by a version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism. We prove that such an alternative explanation is always possible in the more general context of p-brane defects in d-dimensional field theories, and hence that there always exists an anomaly-free effective world-volume action whenever the space-time theory is anomaly free. Our results have implications, which we discuss, for heterotic and type-II fivebranes. (orig.)
Emergent gravity and chiral anomaly in Dirac semimetals in the presence of dislocations
Zubkov, M A
2015-01-01
We consider the recently discovered Dirac semimetals with two Dirac points $\\pm{\\bf K}$. In the presence of elastic deformations each fermion propagates in a curved space, whose metric is defined by the expansion of the effective Hamiltonian near the Dirac point. Besides, there is the emergent electromagnetic field that is defined by the shift of the Dirac point. We consider the case, when the deformations are caused by the dislocations. The dislocation carries singular torsion and the quantized flux of emergent magnetic field. Both torsion singularity and emergent magnetic flux may be observed in the scattering of quasiparticles on the dislocation due to Stodolsky and Aharonov - Bohm effects. We discuss quantum anomalies in the quasiparticle currents in the presence of emergent gauge and gravitational fields and the external electromagnetic field. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in the presence of external electric field the quasiparticles/holes are pumped from vacuum along the dislocation. The appea...
Relevance of induced gauge interactions in decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decoherence in quantum cosmology is shown to occur naturally in the presence of induced geometric gauge interactions associated with particle production. A new ''gauge'' - variant form of the semiclassical Einstein equations is also presented which makes the non-gravitating character of the vacuum polarization energy explicit. (author). 20 refs
Entanglement Entropy & Anomaly Inflow
Hughes, Taylor L; Parrikar, Onkar; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T
2015-01-01
We study entanglement entropy for parity-violating (time-reversal breaking) quantum field theories on $\\mathbb{R}^{1,2}$ in the presence of a domain wall between two distinct parity-odd phases. The domain wall hosts a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) with non-trivial chiral central charge. Such a CFT possesses gravitational anomalies. It has been shown recently that, as a consequence, its intrinsic entanglement entropy is sensitive to Lorentz boosts around the entangling surface. Here, we show using various methods that the entanglement entropy of the three-dimensional bulk theory is also sensitive to such boosts owing to parity-violating effects, and that the bulk response to a Lorentz boost precisely cancels the contribution coming from the domain wall CFT. We argue that this can naturally be interpreted as entanglement inflow (i.e., inflow of entanglement entropy analogous to the familiar Callan-Harvey effect) between the bulk and the domain-wall, mediated by the low-lying states in the entangl...
Tensor gauge condition and tensor field decomposition
Chen, Xiang-Song; Zhu, Ben-Chao
2011-01-01
We discuss various proposals of separating a tensor field into pure-gauge and gauge-invariant components. Such tensor field decomposition is intimately related to the effort of identifying the real gravitational degrees of freedom out of the metric tensor in Einstein's general relativity. We show that, as for a vector field, the tensor field decomposition has exact correspondence to, and can be derived from, the gauge-fixing approach. The complication for the tensor field, h...
Gauge Invariant Effective Action in Abelian Chiral Gauge Theory on the Lattice
Suzuki, Hiroshi(Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581, Japan)
1999-01-01
L\\"uscher's recent formulation of Abelian chiral gauge theories on the lattice, in the vacuum (or perturbative) sector in infinite volume, is reinterpreted in terms of the lattice covariant regularization. The gauge invariance of the effective action and the integrability of the gauge current in anomaly-free cases become transparent. The real part of the effective action is simply one-half that of the Dirac fermion and, when the Dirac operator behaves properly in the continu...
One loop divergences and anomalies from chiral superfields in supergravity
Butter, Daniel
2009-01-01
We apply the heat kernel method (using Avramidi's non-recursive technique) to the study of the effective action of chiral matter in a complex representation of an arbitrary gauge sector coupled to background U(1) supergravity. This generalizes previous methods, which restricted to 1) real representations of the gauge sector in traditional Poincar\\'e supergravity or 2) vanishing supergravity background. In this new scheme, we identify a classical ambiguity in these theories which mixes the supergravity U(1) with the gauge U(1). At the quantum level, this ambiguity is maintained since the effective action changes only by a local counterterm as one shifts a U(1) factor between the supergravity and gauge sectors. An immediate application of our formalism is the calculation of the one-loop gauge, Kahler, and reparametrization anomalies of chiral matter coupled to minimal supergravity from purely chiral loops. Our approach gives an anomaly whose covariant part is both manifestly supersymmetric and non-perturbative ...
Gauge invariant composite operators of QED in the exact renormalization group formalism
Sonoda, Hidenori
2013-01-01
Using the exact renormalization group (ERG) formalism, we study the gauge invariant composite operators in QED. Gauge invariant composite operators are introduced as infinitesimal changes of the gauge invariant Wilson action. We examine the dependence on the gauge fixing parameter of both the Wilson action and gauge invariant composite operators. After defining ``gauge fixing parameter independence,'' we show that any gauge independent composite operators can be made ``gauge fixing parameter independent'' by appropriate normalization. As an application, we give a concise but careful proof of the Adler-Bardeen non-renormalization theorem for the axial anomaly in an arbitrary covariant gauge by extending the original proof by A. Zee.
2015-11-04
Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis
Bhat, Suresh; Paul, Fredrick; Doddamani, Siddalingeshwar C.
2015-01-01
Renal pyelic fusion anomalies are rare and detected incidentally on imaging. Most cases of pyelic fusion anomalies reported are in patients with horseshoe kidney. We report a rare case of pyelic fusion anomaly in normally located kidneys, which has not been reported so far.
Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies
Anderson, John D.
2009-05-01
There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.
Footprints of New Strong Dynamics via Anomaly
Nakai, Yuichiro; Tobioka, Kohsaku
2015-01-01
Chiral anomaly provides a smoking-gun evidence of a new confining gauge theory. Motivated by a reported event excess in diphoton invariant mass distribution at the LHC, we discuss a scenario that a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone (pNG) boson of a new QCD-like theory is produced by gluon fusion and decays into a pair of the standard model gauge bosons. Despite the strong dynamics, the production cross section and the decay widths are determined by anomaly matching condition. The excess can be explained by the pNG boson with mass of around 750 GeV. The model also predicts exotic hadrons such as a color octet scalar and baryons which are within the reach of the LHC experiment.
Pioneer Anomaly in Perturbed FRW Metric
Shojaie, Hossein
2012-01-01
In this manuscript, it is shown that the Pioneer anomaly is the local evidence for an expanding universe. In other words, its value is a direct measure of the Hubble constant while its sign shows the expanding behavior of the dynamics of the universe. This analysis is obtained by studying the radial geodesic deviation of the light rays in the perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric in the Newtonian gauge.
Anomaly extraction from the path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa's recently proposed derivation of the anomaly from the path integral is examined. It is attempted to give a better understanding of his work. In particular, evasions of his result are discussed; for example it is shown how chiral U(1) axial invariance can be maintained by employing a gauge variant regularization prescription. A brief connection with the point-splitting method is also made. (author)
Quaternion gauge theory of dyonic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Outlining the idea of quaternion non-Abelian gauge formalism and that of the structural symmetry between generalized fields of dyons and gravito-dyons, it is shown that this formulation characterizes the Abelian and non-Abelian structure of dyons in terms of pure real and imaginary unit quaternions. Extending this formalism to the case of gravito-dyons it has been shown that pure imaginary unit quaternions advocate the curvature in the theory of gravito-dyons and hence the SL(2,c) gauge group of gravitation plays the same role as that of SU(2) gauge group does in non-Abelian gauge theory. Furthermore, we have unified the theories of electromagnetism and gravitation in terms of single parameter ? by means of quaternion-gauge formalism and the corresponding field equations have also been derived in a unique and consistent way. (author)
Symplectic gauge fields and dark matter
Asorey, J; Garcia-Alvarez, D
2015-01-01
The dynamics of symplectic gauge fields provides a consistent framework for fundamental interactions based on spin three gauge fields. One remarkable property is that symplectic gauge fields only have minimal couplings with gravitational fields and not with any other field of the Standard Model. Interactions with ordinary matter and radiation can only arise from radiative corrections. In spite of the gauge nature of symplectic fields they acquire a mass by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism which generates Higgs-like mass terms where the gravitational field is playing the role of a Higgs field. Massive symplectic gauge fields weakly interacting with ordinary matter are natural candidates for the dark matter component of the Universe.
Understanding Anomalies to Extract Vacuum Energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent Russian literature contains some interesting speculations of potentially wide applicability regarding the physical vacuum. These investigations examined and applied a theory to various anomalies to try and understand what these events may represent. Data were collected by Dmitriev to quantify these events and identify commonalties that indicate the anomalies might have a natural origin. Dyatlov created theories on the Polarized Inhomogeneous Physical Vacuum where he claimed that each anomaly possessed a distinct boundary separate from its surroundings. Within this inhomogeneous boundary, the theory suggests that the magnetic, electric, gravitic, and spin fields would be different from its surroundings. From these findings, he developed equations that resemble the London equations for a superconductor and are somewhat similar to those developed later by Puthoff. The importance of these events is that with additional understanding, they may offer a means for extracting energy from the physical vacuum. Moreover, one may speculate that these anomalies may represent a gravitational vortex or even a portal or a wormhole to look into potential travel within other dimensions
Differential renormalization of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The scope of constrained differential renormalization is to provide renormalized expressions for Feynman graphs, preserving at the same time the Ward identities of the theory. It has been shown recently that this can be done consistently at least to one loop for Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories. We briefly review these results, evaluate as an example the gluon self energy in both coordinate and momentum space, and comment on anomalies. (author)
Differential renormalization of gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguila, F. del; Perez-Victoria, M. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)
1998-10-01
The scope of constrained differential renormalization is to provide renormalized expressions for Feynman graphs, preserving at the same time the Ward identities of the theory. It has been shown recently that this can be done consistently at least to one loop for Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories. We briefly review these results, evaluate as an example the gluon self energy in both coordinate and momentum space, and comment on anomalies. (author) 9 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab
Liouville action in cone gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effective action of the conformally invariant field theory in the curved background space is considered in the light cone gauge. The effective potential in the classical background stress is defined as the Legendre transform of the Liouville action. This potential is tightly connected with the sl(2) current algebra. The series of the covariant differential operators is constructed and the anomalies of their determinants are reduced to this effective potential. 7 refs
Pioneer Anomaly and the Kuiper Belt mass distribution
Bertolami, O.; Vieira, P
2005-01-01
Pioneer 10 and 11 were the first probes sent to study the outer planets of the Solar System and Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to leave the Solar System. Besides their already epic journeys, Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft were subjected to an unaccounted effect interpreted as a constant acceleration toward the Sun, the so-called Pioneer anomaly. One of the possibilities put forward for explaining the Pioneer anomaly is the gravitational acceleration of the Kuiper Belt. In...
The Nonlinear Essence of Gravitational Waves
Aldrovandi, R.; Pereira, J. G.; Vu, K. H.
2007-01-01
A critical review of gravitational wave theory is made. It is pointed out that the usual linear approach to the gravitational wave theory is neither conceptually consistent nor mathematically justified. Relying upon that analysis it is then argued that -- analogously to a Yang-Mills propagating field, which must be nonlinear to carry its gauge charge -- a gravitational wave must necessarily be nonlinear to transport its own charge -- that is, energy-momentum.
Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms
Goldman, N.; Juzeliunas, G.; Ohberg, P.; Spielman, I. B
2013-01-01
Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle - the graviton - that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge f...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is known that a hierarchial spontaneous breakdown of a gauge symmetry can occur with enormous ratios of 'super-heavy' and 'ordinary' gauge boson masses. A sufficient condition is that the initial spontaneous breakdown of the over-all gauge group should leave some scalars with small or zero masses. If these scalars have zero masses, the ratios of superheavy and ordinary gauge boson masses will automatically be of the form exp(C/g2), where C is typically of order unity, and g is a representative gauge coupling. Numerical calculations show that these ratios can easily be as large as needed in a grand unification of QCD with SU(2) X U(1). For a range of parameters, there is an absolute upper bound on these ratios, which is larger by a factor exp (1/4) than the vlaues for zero scalar mass. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
History of discovery and study of gravitational lenses is discussed. Vitational focusing is based on refraction of light beams in an inhomogeneous gravitational field of a star. The effect of gravitational . focusing. The gravitational field acts like a collecting lens. The role of the gravitational lens can be played not only by individual stars but whole galaxies as well. In March 1979 optical spectra of quasar 0957 + 561 A,B have been obtained. Spectra of quasar components turned out to be identical. This circumstance confirmed a hypothesis of the gravitational lens reality
Stringy explanation of $b \\to s \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ anomalies
Celis, Alejandro; Lust, Dieter
2015-01-01
We show that the recent anomalies in $b \\to s \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ transitions observed by the LHCb collaboration can be accommodated within string motivated models with a low mass $Z^{\\prime}$ gauge boson. Such $Z^{\\prime}$ gauge boson can be obtained in compactifications with a low string scale. We consider a class of intersecting D-brane models, in which different families of quarks and leptons are simultaneously realized at different D-brane intersections. The explanation of $b \\to s \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ anomalies via a stringy $Z^{\\prime}$ sets important restrictions on these viable D-brane constructions.
Anomalies in non-polynomial closed string field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaku, Michio (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (USA))
1990-11-01
The complete classical action for the non-polynomial closed string field theory was written down last year by the author and the Kyoto group. It successfully reproduces all closed string tree diagrams, but fails to reproduce modular invariant loop amplitudes. In this paper we show that the classical action is also riddled with gauge anomalies. Thus, the classical action is not really gauge invariant and fails as a quantum theory. The presence of gauge anomalies and the violation of modular invariance appear to be a disaster for the theory. Actually, this is a blessing in disguise. We show that by adding new non-polynomial terms to the action, we can simultaneously eliminate both the gauge anomalies and the modular-violating loop diagrams. We show this explicitly at the one loop level and also for an infinite class of p-puncture, genus-g amplitudes, making use of a series of non-trivial identities. The theory is thus an acceptable quantum theory. We comment on the origin of this strange link between local gauge anomalies and global modular invariance. (orig.).
Topological anomalies for Seifert 3-manifolds
Imbimbo, Camillo
2014-01-01
We study globally supersymmetric 3d gauge theories on curved manifolds by describing the coupling of 3d topological gauge theories, with both Yang-Mills and Chern-Simons terms in the action, to background topological gravity. In our approach the Seifert condition for manifolds supporting global supersymmetry is elegantly deduced from the topological gravity BRST transformations. A cohomological characterization of the geometrical moduli which affect the partition function is obtained. In the Seifert context Chern-Simons topological (framing) anomaly is BRST trivial. We compute explicitly the corresponding local Wess-Zumino functional. As an application, we obtain the dependence on the Seifert moduli of the partition function of 3d supersymmetric gauge theory on the squashed sphere by solving the anomalous topological Ward identities, in a regularization independent way and without the need of evaluating any functional determinant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article is a survey of the history and ideas of gauge theory. Described here are the gradual emergence of symmetry as a driving force in the shaping of physical theory; the elevation of Noether's theorem, relating symmetries to conservation laws, to a fundamental principle of nature; and the force of the idea (''the gauge principle'') that the symmetries of nature, like the interactions themselves, should be local in character. The fundamental role of gauge fields in mediating the interactions of physics springs from Noether's theorem and the gauge principle in a remarkably clean and elegant way, leaving, however, some tantalizing loose ends that might prove to be the clue to a future deeper level of understanding. The example of the electromagnetic field as the prototype gauge theory is discussed in some detail and serves as the basis for examining the similarities and differences that emerge in generalizing to non-Abelian gauge theories. The article concludes with a brief examination of the dream of total unification: all the forces of nature in a single unified gauge theory, with the differences among the forces due to the specific way in which the fundamental symmetries are broken in the local environment
Fermions with a domain-wall mass: explicit Greens function and anomaly cancellation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the explicit Greens function for fermions in 2+1 dimensions, with a domain wall mass. We then show a calculation demonstrating the anomaly cancellation when such fermions move in the background of an abelian gauge field. (orig.)
Fermions with a domain-wall mass: explicit Greens function and anomaly cancellation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandrasekharan, S. (Dept. of Physics, Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))
1994-04-01
We calculate the explicit Greens function for fermions in 2+1 dimensions, with a domain wall mass. We then show a calculation demonstrating the anomaly cancellation when such fermions move in the background of an abelian gauge field. (orig.)
Conformal Anomalies in Hydrodynamics
Eling, Christopher; Theisen, Stefan; Yankielowicz, Shimon
2013-01-01
We study the effect of conformal anomalies on the hydrodynamic description of conformal field theories in four spacetime dimensions. We consider equilibrium curved backgrounds characterized by a time-like Killing vector and construct a local low energy effective action that captures the conformal anomalies. Using as a special background the Rindler spacetime we derive a formula for the effect of the anomaly on the hydrodynamic pressure.
Gebhard, Gernot
2010-01-01
Computing tight WCET bounds in the presence of timing anomalies - found in almost any modern hardware architecture - is a major challenge of timing analysis. In this paper, we renew the discussion about timing anomalies, demonstrating that even simple hardware architectures are prone to timing anomalies. We furthermore complete the list of timing-anomalous cache replacement policies, proving that the most-recently-used replacement policy (MRU) also exhibits a domino effect.
Toward Supervised Anomaly Detection
Goernitz, Nico; Kloft, Marius Micha; Rieck, Konrad; Brefeld, Ulf
2014-01-01
Anomaly detection is being regarded as an unsupervised learning task as anomalies stem from adversarial or unlikely events with unknown distributions. However, the predictive performance of purely unsupervised anomaly detection often fails to match the required detection rates in many tasks and there exists a need for labeled data to guide the model generation. Our first contribution shows that classical semi-supervised approaches, originating from a supervised classifier, a...
Network Traffic Anomaly Detection
Huang, Hong; Al-Azzawi, Hussein; Brani, Hajar
2014-01-01
This paper presents a tutorial for network anomaly detection, focusing on non-signature-based approaches. Network traffic anomalies are unusual and significant changes in the traffic of a network. Networks play an important role in today's social and economic infrastructures. The security of the network becomes crucial, and network traffic anomaly detection constitutes an important part of network security. In this paper, we present three major approaches to non-signature-ba...
Gauge bosons production and properties
Rebassoo, Finn O'neill
2015-01-01
Studies of the production and decay of gauge bosons are an important probe of the electroweak sector of the standard model. Anomalies in these processes could be a sign of new physics, and are an indirect search for physics beyond the scale that can be directly measured at accelerators. The sensitivity to new physics depends on both the experimental uncertainty and standard model theoretical uncertainty, so reducing both of these is important for any discovery of new physics. This article will focus on the experimental measurements of these processes and specifically on results from the last year at the Tevatron and LHC, though relevant earlier measurements will be referenced. In addition to being sensitive to new physics, gauge boson production is a background to a lot of new physics models and Higgs measurements. Thus, measuring these processes precisely is of the utmost importance. Gauge boson production is also an important way to constrain parton distribution functions (pdfs), and test perturbative and n...
Nonplanar anomalies in noncommutative theories and the Green-Schwarz mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss nonplanar anomalies in noncommutative gauge theories. In particular we show that a nonplanar anomaly exists when the external noncommutative momentum is zero and that it leads to a non-conservation of the associated axial charge. In the case of nonplanar local anomalies, a cancellation of the anomaly can be achieved by a Green-Schwarz mechanism. In an example of D3 branes placed on an orbifold singularity that leads to a chiral theory, the mechanism involves twisted RR fields which propagate with zero noncommutative momentum. Global anomalies are not cancelled and, in particular, the decay ?0?2? is allowed. (author)
Vanishing Vierbein in Gauge Theories of Gravitation
Jadczyk, Arkadiusz
1999-01-01
Comment: Latex format. 15 pages, 2 figures in gif format, available also for downloads at http://www.cassiopaea.org/images/traj.gif and http://www.cassiopaea.org/images/bubble.gif respectively. This paper has been published as a preprint 1n 1982. After so many years I decided to make it available for a wider public, to include 1984 referee report with my comments, and also to add reference to a more recent work on degenerate metric, where this paper is quoted
Tensor gauge condition and tensor field decomposition
Zhu, Ben-Chao; Chen, Xiang-Song
2015-10-01
We discuss various proposals of separating a tensor field into pure-gauge and gauge-invariant components. Such tensor field decomposition is intimately related to the effort of identifying the real gravitational degrees of freedom out of the metric tensor in Einstein’s general relativity. We show that as for a vector field, the tensor field decomposition has exact correspondence to and can be derived from the gauge-fixing approach. The complication for the tensor field, however, is that there are infinitely many complete gauge conditions in contrast to the uniqueness of Coulomb gauge for a vector field. The cause of such complication, as we reveal, is the emergence of a peculiar gauge-invariant pure-gauge construction for any gauge field of spin ? 2. We make an extensive exploration of the complete tensor gauge conditions and their corresponding tensor field decompositions, regarding mathematical structures, equations of motion for the fields and nonlinear properties. Apparently, no single choice is superior in all aspects, due to an awkward fact that no gauge-fixing can reduce a tensor field to be purely dynamical (i.e. transverse and traceless), as can the Coulomb gauge in a vector case.
Gravitational lensing by gravitational waves
G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; Tsupko, O. Yu.
2008-01-01
Gravitational lensing by gravitational wave is considered. We notice that although final and initial direction of photons coincide, displacement between final and initial trajectories occurs. This displacement is calculated analytically for the plane gravitational wave pulse. Estimations for observations are discussed.
On an Interpretation of Non-Riemannian Gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motivated by the invariance of actions under gauge symmetries the definitions of standard clocks in theories of gravitation are discussed. We argue that standard Einsteinian clocks can be defined in non-Riemannian theories of gravitation and that atomic clocks may be adopted to measure proper time in the presence of non-Riemannian gravitational fields. These ideas are illustrated in terms of a recently developed model of gravitation based on a non-Riemannian space-time geometry. (author)
The Trace Anomaly and Massless Scalar Degrees of Freedom in Gravity
Giannotti, Maurizio; Mottola, Emil
2008-01-01
The trace anomaly of quantum fields in electromagnetic or gravitational backgrounds implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. Considering first the axial anomaly and using QED as an example, we compute the full one-loop triangle amplitude of the fermionic stress tensor with two current vertices, , and exhibit the scalar pole in this amplitude associated with the trace anomaly, in the limit of zero electron mass m -...
Differential formalism aspects of the gauge classical theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical aspects of the gauge theories are shown using differential geometry as fundamental tool. Somme comments are done about Maxwell Electro-dynamics, classical Yang-Mills and gravitation theories. (L.C.)
Loup, Fernando
2007-01-01
We use the 5D Extra Dimensional Force according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Formalisms to study the behaviour of the Chung-Freese Superluminal BraneWorld compared to the Alcubierre Warp Drive and we arrive at some interesting results from the point of view of the Alcubierre ansatz although we used a diferent Shape Function f(rs) with a behaviour similar to the Natario Warp Drive. We introduce here the Casimir Warp Drive. We also demonstrate that in flat 5D Minkowsky Spacetime or weak Gravitational Fields we cannot tell if we live in a 5D or a 4D Universe according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Dimensional Reduction but in the extreme conditions of Strong Gravitational Fields we demonstrate that the effects of the 5D Extra Dimension becomes visible and perhaps the study of the extreme conditions in Black Holes can tell if we live in a Higher Dimensional Universe. We use a 5D Maartens-Clarkson Schwarzschild Cosmic Black ...
Origin of Weyl Anomaly as Pair Production in Dirac Sea
Habara, Yoshinobu; Ninomiya, Masao
2015-01-01
Using Dirac sea picture for both left and right moving Weyl fermion (massless fermions) in $1+1$ dimensional world with a general relativity metric field we calculate the Weyl anomaly. That is to say we calculate the trace of the energy-momentum tensor $T_{\\mu}^{\\> \\mu}$ arising from the fermions. With the gauge choice ansatz $g_{\\mu \
Anomaly driven signatures of extra U(1)'s
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg
2010-01-01
Anomaly cancellation between different sectors of a theory may mediate new interactions between gauge bosons. Such interactions lead to observable effects both at precision laboratory experiments and at accelerators. Such experiments may reveal the presence of hidden sectors or hidden extra dimensions.
Dimensional regularization and ?5. The spurious anomalies problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A change of principles of operation with external diagram pulses ia proposed in dimensional regularization with four-dimensional ?5-matrix. It is shown that in this case for Abelian gauge theories in one-loop approximation false axial anomalies do not appear. 10 refs
Studies On Phases Of Gauge Theories
Duan, Z P
2001-01-01
In this dissertation, we describe our studies on phases of gauge theories in the infrared. In Part I, we study the phases of chiral gauge theories whose spontaneous symmetry breaking is due to the strong attractive interaction between fermions. We discuss two chiral SU(N) gauge theories involving fermions in the symmetric and antisymmetric two-index tensor representations respectively. In addition to global anomaly matching, we employ a recently proposed inequality constraint on the number of effective low energy degrees of freedom of a theory, based on the thermodynamic free energy. Several possible zero temperature phases are consistent with the constraints. A simple picture for the phase structure emerges if these theories choose the phase, consistent with global anomaly matching, that minimizes the massless degree of freedom count defined through the free energy. In Part II, we study QCD at high density. In this region, due to the well-known BCS mechanism, even a small attractive interaction around the Fe...
Gauge field theories. Part three. Renormalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The renormalization of nonabelian gauge theories both with exact symmetry and with spontaneous symmetry breaking is discussed. The method of dimensional regularization is described and used in the ensuing discussion. Triangle anomalies and their implications and the method for cancellation of anomalies in an SU(2) x U(1) theory, introduction of the BRS form of local gauge transformation and its use for the iterative proof of renormalizability to all orders for pure Yang--Mills and with fermion and scalar matter fields are considered. Lastly for massive vectors arising from spontaneous breaking, the demonstration of renormalizability is given, using the 't Hooft gauges introduced first in 1971. While the treatment is not totally rigorous, all the principle steps are given. 108 references
The gauge theory of the translation group and underlying geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author finds that the gauge theory of the translation group is a gravitational theory based on the Weitzenboeck space, called New General Relativity in contrast to General Relativity on the Riemann space. Both GR and NGR pass all the tests so far done. NGR ascribes gravitation to torsion alone but GR to curvature only. As a by-product a recent claim is disproved, that the present gauge-theory leads to GR. (Auth.)
The Trace Anomaly and Dynamical Vacuum Energy in Cosmology
Mottola, Emil
2010-01-01
The trace anomaly of conformal matter implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. These poles may be described by a local effective action with massless scalar fields, which couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects at macroscopic scales. In an effective field theory approach, the effective action of the anomaly is an infrared relevant term that should be added to the Einstein-Hilbert action of classical General Relativity to take account of macroscopic quantum effects. The additional scalar degrees of freedom contained in this effective action may be understood as responsible for both the Casimir effect in flat spacetime and large quantum backreaction effects at the horizon scale of cosmological spacetimes. These effects of the trace anomaly imply that the cosmological vacuum energy is dynamical, and its value depends on macroscopic boundary conditions at the cosmol...
Gauge and Gravity Amplitude Relations
Carrasco, John Joseph M
2015-01-01
In these lectures I talk about simplifications and universalities found in scattering amplitudes for gauge and gravity theories. In contrast to Ward identities, which are understood to arise from familiar symmetries of the classical action, these structures are currently only understood in terms of graphical organizational principles, such as the gauge-theoretic color-kinematics duality and the gravitational double-copy structure, for local representations of multi-loop S-matrix elements. These graphical principles make manifest new relationships in and between gauge and gravity scattering amplitudes. My lectures will focus on arriving at such graphical organizations for generic theories with examples presented from maximal supersymmetry, and their use in unitarity-based multi-loop integrand construction.
Composite gauge bosons of transmuted gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that effective gauge theories of composite gauge bosons describing the dynamics of composite quarks and leptons can be transmuted from the subcolor gauge theory describing that of subquarks due to the condensation of subquarks and that the equality of effective gauge coupling constants can result as in a grand unified gauge theory. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In these notes the author provides some background on the theory of gauge fields, a subject of increasing popularity among particle physicists (and others). Detailed motivations and applications which are covered in the other lectures of this school are not presented. In particular the application to weak interactions is omitted by referring to the introduction given by J. Ilipoulos a year ago (CERN Report 76-11). The aim is rather to stress those aspects which suggest that gauge fields may play some role in a future theory of strong interactions. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravitational waves propagate through space in the same way as electromagnetic waves, but the utmost weakness of the coupling between the matter and gravitational radiation field makes them very difficult to observe. There is no realistic event for an accretion on a neutron star or a black hole producing a gravitational radiation able to be detected. Only one possibility is left, the gravitational collapse itself. A gain of six orders of magnitude on the sensitivity of the detectors now available should allow such observation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard
2001-03-16
We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.
Anomaly cancellation in K3 orientifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study in detail the pattern of anomaly cancellation in D=6 Type IIB ZN orientifolds, occurring through a generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism involving several RR antisymmetric tensors and scalars fields. The starting point is a direct string theory computation of the inflow of anomaly arising from magnetic interaction of D-branes, O-planes and fixed points, which are encoded in topological one-loop partition functions in the RR odd spin-structure. All the RR anomalous couplings of these objects are then obtained by factorization. They are responsible for a spontaneous breaking of U(1) factors through a Higgs mechanism involving the corresponding hypermultiplets. Some of them are also related by supersymmetry to gauge couplings involving the NSNS scalars sitting in the tensor multiplets. We also comment on the possible occurrence of tensionless strings when these couplings diverge
Anomaly cancellation in K3 orientifolds
Scrucca, Claudio A; Scrucca, Claudio A.; Serone, Marco
2000-01-01
We study in detail the pattern of anomaly cancellation in D=6 Type IIB Z_N orientifolds, occurring through a generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism involving several RR antisymmetric tensors and scalars fields. The starting point is a direct string theory computation of the inflow of anomaly arising from magnetic interaction of D-branes, O-planes and fixed-points, which are encoded in topological one-loop partition functions in the RR odd spin-structure. All the RR anomalous couplings of these objects are then obtained by factorization. They are responsible for a spontaneous breaking of U(1) factors through a Higgs mechanism involving the corresponding hypermultiplets. Some of them are also related by supersymmetry to gauge couplings involving the NSNS scalars sitting in the tensor multiplets. We also comment on the possible occurrence of tensionless strings when these couplings diverge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author summarizes the works presented at the meeting on skyrmions and anomalies. He divides the principal issues of this workshop into five categories: QCD effective lagrangians, chiral bags and the Cheshire cat principle, strangeness problem, phenomenology, mathematical structure
Neutrino anomalies without oscillations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sandip Pakvasa
2000-01-01
I review explanations for the three neutrino anomalies (solar, atmospheric and LSND) which go beyond the `conventional' neutrino oscillations induced by mass-mixing. Several of these require non-zero neutrino masses as well.
Two potentials, one gauge group. A possible geometrical motivation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doria, R.M.; Pombo, C.
1986-12-11
By studying the purely gravitational sector of a higher-dimensional matter-gravity coupled theory, one can see that in the case of nonvanishing torsion the effective 4-dimensional theory exhibits two gauge potentials that transform under the action of a single gauge group.
Two potentials, one gauge group: A possible geometrical motivation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By studying the purely gravitational sector of a higher dimensional matter-gravity coupled theory, one can see that in the case of non-vanishing torsion the effective 4-dimensional theory exhibits two gauge potentials that transform under the action of a single gauge group. (Author)
Two potentials, one gauge group: a possible geometrical motivation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By studying the purely gravitational sector of a higher-dimensional matter-gravity coupled theory, one can see that in the case of nonvanishing torsion the effective 4-dimensional theory exhibits two gauge potentials that transform under the action of a single gauge group
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
New Kimberly C.B.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Gravitational wave emission from the gravitational collapse of massive stars has been studied for more than three decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories.
Palguta, J.; Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Moore, W. B.
2004-12-01
The discovery of mass anomalies on Ganymede was reported this summer (Anderson et al., Science 305, 989 (2004)). We report here on a more detailed characterization of the source of the anomalies. In order to reduce the noise evident in the Doppler residuals previously used, we applied a variable-width Gaussian filter to the time series. The filter width in the time domain increases with the spacecraft altitude, reducing the noise before and after closest approach. The smoothed Doppler data were numerically differentiated and the resulting accelerations along the line of sight were fit with a multiple point-mass model. The variable-width filter reveals a previously obscured positive acceleration feature about 300 s before closest approach. Rather than two or three mass points as reported in Anderson et al., we find that five mass points provide a much improved fit to the data, including the new acceleration feature before closest approach. Two of the five masses are near the previous masses from the two-point fit, and are in good agreement with their mass values. There is a positive anomaly at about 60o north latitude and a negative anomaly at about 24o north latitude. We conclude that the two-point fit reveals two major anomalies on Ganymede, but misses three more revealed by the five-point fit. Further, the mass anomalies can be divided into two groups. Three of the five masses could indicate a single broad anomaly under the outgoing flyby trajectory centered roughly at 45o north latitude and 18o west longitude. The other two masses could indicate a single extended anomaly under the incoming trajectory centered roughly at 20o north latitude and 173o west longitude. We also include results on placing the five masses at different depths from zero to 1450 km below the surface. A good fit is obtained at any depth from surface to rock-ice interface at about 800 km depth, but the fit deteriorates at greater depth. It is highly unlikely mass anomalies exist within Ganymede's ice shell. We prefer either the near surface or the rock-ice interface. The rock-ice interface is attractive based on rigidity arguments, and the suggestion of two major extended anomalies is even more striking at greater depth. In order to fit the acceleration data, the anomalies must be six or seven times more massive at the 800 km depth than at the surface.
Classification of 6d N=(1,0) gauge theories
Bhardwaj, Lakshya
2015-11-01
We delineate a procedure to classify 6d N=(1,0) gauge theories composed, in part, of a semi-simple gauge group and hypermultiplets. We classify these theories by requiring that satisfy some consistency conditions. The primary consistency condition is that the gauge anomaly can be cancelled by adding tensor multiplets which couple to the gauge fields by acting as sources of instanton strings. Based on the number of tensor multiplets required to cancel the anomaly, we conjecture that the UV completion of these consistent gauge theories (if it exists) should be either a 6d N=(1,0) SCFT or a 6d N=(1,0) little string theory.
Sluse, D; Magain, P; Courbin, F; Meylan, G
2011-01-01
(abridged) Gravitationally lensed quasars can be used as powerful cosmological and astrophysical probes. We can (i) infer the Hubble constant based on the time-delay technique, (ii) unveil substructures along the l.o.s. toward distant galaxies, and (iii) compare the shape and the slope of baryons and dark matter distributions in galaxies. To reach these goals, we need high-accuracy astrometry and morphology measurements of the lens. In this work, we first present new astrometry for 11 lenses with measured time delays. Using MCS deconvolution on NIC2 HST images, we reached an astrometric accuracy of about 1-2.5 mas and an accurate shape measurement of the lens galaxy. Second, we combined these measurements with those of 14 other systems to present new mass models of these lenses. This led to the following results: 1) In 4 double-image quasars, we show that the influence of the lens environment on the time delay can easily be quantified and modeled, hence putting these lenses with high priority for time-delay d...
Physical anomaly on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors study the axial anomaly of chiral non-invariant generalized Wilson's action and point out a possibility that physical anomaly which is responsible for ?0 ? 2? decay and ?-eta-eta' mass difference vanishes. The physical anomaly is different from the commonly defined anomaly which has correct magnitude. (Auth.)
Anomaly induced effects in a magnetic field
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Ruchayskiy, O
2008-01-01
We consider a modification of electrodynamics by an additional light massive vector field, interacting with the photon via Chern-Simons-like coupling. This theory predicts observable effects for the experiments studying the propagation of light in an external magnetic field, very similar to those, predicted by theories of axion and axion-like particles. We discuss a possible microscopic origin of this theory from a theory with non-trivial gauge anomaly cancellation between massive and light particles (including, for example, millicharged fermions). Due to the conservation of the gauge current, the production of the new vector field is suppressed at high energies. As a result, this theory can avoid both stellar bounds (which exist for axions) and the bounds from CMB considered recently, allowing for positive results in experiments like ALPS, LIPPS, OSQAR, PVLAS-2, BMV, Q&A, etc.
Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms
Goldman, N; Ohberg, P; Spielman, I B
2013-01-01
Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle - the graviton - that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms "feeling" laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field,...
The Energy-Momentum Tensor for Gravitational Interactions
Wyss, Walter
1999-01-01
Within the Lagrange formalism we show that the gauge invariant total energy-momentum tensor for gravitational interactions is zero. If the equations of motion are satisfied the energy tensor is conserved.
Three lectures on Poincare gauge theory
M. Blagojevic
2003-01-01
In these lectures we review the basic structure of Poincare gauge theory of gravity, with emphasis on its fundamental principles and geometric interpretation. A specific limit of this theory, defined by the teleparallel geometry of spacetime, is discussed as a viable alternative for the description of macroscopic gravitational phenomena.
A Pseudospectral Method for Gravitational Wave Collapse
Hilditch, David; Bruegmann, Bernd
2015-01-01
We present a new pseudospectral code, bamps, for numerical relativity written with the evolution of collapsing gravitational waves in mind. We employ the first order generalized harmonic gauge formulation. The relevant theory is reviewed and the numerical method is critically examined and specialized for the task at hand. In particular we investigate formulation parameters, gauge and constraint preserving boundary conditions well-suited to non-vanishing gauge source functions. Different types of axisymmetric twist-free moment of time symmetry gravitational wave initial data are discussed. A treatment of the axisymmetric apparent horizon condition is presented with careful attention to regularity on axis. Our apparent horizon finder is then evaluated in a number of test cases. Moving on to evolutions, we investigate modifications to the generalized harmonic gauge constraint damping scheme to improve conservation in the strong field regime. We demonstrate strong-scaling of our pseudospectral penalty code. We em...
Supersymmetric gauge theories from string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis presents various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain sub-cycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. Even if the Calabi-Yau geometry is too complicated to evaluate the geometric integrals explicitly, one can then always use matrix model perturbation theory to calculate the effective superpotential. The second part of this work covers the generation of four-dimensional super-symmetric gauge theories, carrying several important characteristic features of the standard model, from compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity on G2-manifolds. If the latter contain conical singularities, chiral fermions are present in the four-dimensional gauge theory, which potentially lead to anomalies. We show that, locally at each singularity, these anomalies are cancelled by the non-invariance of the classical action through a mechanism called 'anomaly inflow'. Unfortunately, no explicit metric of a compact G2-manifold is known. Here we construct families of metrics on compact weak G2-manifolds, which contain two conical singularities. Weak G2-manifolds have properties that are similar to the ones of proper G2-manifolds, and hence the explicit examples might be useful to better understand the generic situation. Finally, we reconsider the relation between eleven-dimensional supergravity and the E8 x E8-heterotic string. This is done by carefully studying the anomalies that appear if the supergravity theory is formulated on a ten-manifold times the interval. Again we find that the anomalies cancel locally at the boundaries of the interval through anomaly inflow, provided one suitably modifies the classical action. (author)
Connecting anomaly and tunneling methods for the Hawking effect through chirality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of chirality is discussed in unifying the anomaly and the tunneling formalisms for deriving the Hawking effect. Using the chirality condition and starting from the familiar form of the trace anomaly, the chiral (gravitational) anomaly, manifested as a nonconservation of the stress tensor, near the horizon of a black hole, is derived. Solution of this equation yields the stress tensor whose asymptotic infinity limit gives the Hawking flux. Finally, use of the same chirality condition in the tunneling formalism gives the Hawking temperature that is compatible with the flux obtained by anomaly method.
Plane gravitational waves in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the coset model ( E2c xE2c)/E2c and construct a class of exact string vacua which describe plane gravitational waves and their duals, generalizing the plane wave background found by Nappi and Witten. In particular, the vector gauging describes a two-parameter family of singular geometries with two isometries, which is dual to plane gravitational waves. In addition, there is a mixed vector-axial gauging which describes a one-parameter family of plane waves with five isometries. These two backgrounds are related by a duality transformation which generalizes the known axial-vector duality for abelian subgroups. ((orig.))
Plane Gravitational Waves in String Theory
Antoniadis, I.; Obers, N. A.
1994-01-01
We analyze the coset model $(E_2^c \\ti E_2^c)/E_2^c$ and construct a class of exact string vacua which describe plane gravitational waves and their duals, generalizing the plane wave background found by Nappi and Witten. In particular, the vector gauging describes a two-parameter family of singular geometries with two isometries, which is dual to plane gravitational waves. In addition, there is a mixed vector-axial gauging which describes a one-parameter family of plane wave...
Cohen, Timothy; Knapen, Simon
2015-01-01
We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the $\\mu-b_\\mu$ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on $\\mu$ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small $a$-terms and small $\\tan \\beta$ -- the stop mass ranges from $10^5$ to $10^8 \\mbox{ GeV}$. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.
Trace anomaly and massless scalar degrees of freedom in gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The trace anomaly of quantum fields in electromagnetic or gravitational backgrounds implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. Considering first the axial anomaly and using QED as an example, we compute the full one-loop triangle amplitude of the fermionic stress tensor with two current vertices, ??J?J?>, and exhibit the scalar pole in this amplitude associated with the trace anomaly, in the limit of zero electron mass m?0. To emphasize the infrared aspect of the anomaly, we use a dispersive approach and show that this amplitude and the existence of the massless scalar pole is determined completely by its ultraviolet finite terms, together with the requirements of Poincare invariance of the vacuum, Bose symmetry under interchange of J? and J?, and vector current and stress-tensor conservation. We derive a sum rule for the appropriate positive spectral function corresponding to the discontinuity of the triangle amplitude, showing that it becomes proportional to ?(k2) and therefore contains a massless scalar intermediate state in the conformal limit of zero electron mass. The effective action corresponding to the trace of the triangle amplitude can be expressed in local form by the introduction of two scalar auxiliary fields which satisfy massless wave equations. These massless scalar degrees of freedom couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enormous technical and economic benefits have been conferred on the industry in many countries by the application of nucleonic gauging. The last few years have witnessed many important advances in the field. Basically radioisotope instruments are used to measure a variety of physical properties of material in solid, liquid and gaseous state and many of them are designed to work in the industrial plants and fields under rigorous conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The potential cosmological sources of gravitational radiation and the detectors used to measure it are discussed, surveying the current status of investigations. Detectors characterized include room-temperature and cryogenic bars, torsion pendula, laser interferometric detectors, and space-based detectors. The sources are supernovae (e.g., SN 1987A) and gravitational collapses, coalescing compact-object binaries, pulsars, Wagoner stars, the stochastic background, and LF sources (black-hole formation in galactic centers, Galactic binaries, and stars falling into nearby black holes). Also considered are outstanding theoretical modeling problems with implications for gravitational-wave observations. 46 refs
Singularities in the dynamics of superfluid 3He-A: analog of chiral anomaly and ZERO-charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some of the peculiarities in the dynamics of 3He-A (the anomalous current, nonanalyticity of the gauge expansion, orbital moment paradox) can be attributed to the gap vanishing in the energy spectrum of fermion excitations at two points on the Fermi sphere. Near these points the Bogolyubov equations fer fermions can be linearized and change into the Weyl equations for massless right-hand ''positrons'' and left-hand ''electrons'' moving in ''elecromagnetic'' and ''gravitational'' fields which are produced by fluctuations of the order parameter. This permits one to relate the singularities in the dynamics of 3He-A to the phenomena of chiral anomaly, zero-charge, nonlinear polarization of vacuum and electron-positron pair production in strong fields in quantum electrodynamics with massless chiral fermions. The local gauge invaiance and general covariance of the Weyl equations obtained simplify considerably the derivation of various singularities in the action for 3He-A, including the Wess-Zumino action
Anomaly Extraction in Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mr. Naushad Mujawar
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The application detects anomaly in network using techniques like histogram, cloning voting, filtering. To extract anomalous flows, one could build a model describing normal flow characteristics and use the model to identify deviating flows. We can compare flows of packets on network with previous flows, like new flows that were not previously observed or flows with significant increase/decrease in their volume. Identify an anomalous flow that combines and consolidates information from multiple histogram-based anomaly detectors [1] [4] [8]. Compared to other possible approaches. Build a histogram based detector that (i applies histogram cloning[1][4], i.e., maintains multiple randomized histograms to obtain additional views of network traffic[3]; and (ii uses the Kullback-Leibler (KL distance to detect anomalies.
Katz, Joseph
2005-01-01
Observers at rest in a stationary spacetime flat at infinity can measure small amounts of rest-mass+internal energies+kinetic energies+pressure energy in a small volume of fluid attached to a local inertial frame. The sum of these small amounts is the total "matter energy" for those observers. The total mass-energy minus the matter energy is the binding gravitational energy. Misner, Thorne and Wheeler evaluated the gravitational energy of a spherically symmetric static spa...
Confining gauge theories without Goldstone bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the possibility that in the Wilson lattice definition of confining gauge theories without Goldstone bosons one may systematically adjust the lightest vector mass to zero while keeping the isosinglet scalar mass, which arises by the chiral anomaly, nontachyonic. We discuss a Weyl fermion theory and find the lightest vector particle to be an isoscalar (at least in strong coupling) so that there is no collision with known theorems. We discuss how an abelian gauge symmetry can arise as an infrared attractor and point out a difference between the Weyl fermion theory and one flavour QCD. Attention is also drawn to a physical motivation. (orig.)
ALT_TIDE_GAUGE_L4_OST_SLA_US_WEST_COAST:1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains sea level anomalies and alongshore ocean currents (U and V) derived from satellite altimeters and tide gauge data. Currents and heights near...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several detailed models have been proposed in the last few years in an attempt to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, using gauge theories. These are based on a renormalisable field theory. An attempt is made to outline the patterns that have emerged from these models. The interesting point is that the various requirements of weak, and electromagnetic interactions along with some restrictions needed for strong interactions seem to lead to a broad picture of strong interactions. The results are analysed and reviewed. (K.B.)
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris L. Fryer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
On the fundamental principles of the relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper expounds consistently within the frames of the Special Relativity Theory the fundamental postulates of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (RTG) which make it possible to obtain the unique complete system of the equations for gravitational field. Major attention has been paid to the analysis of the gauge group and of the causality principle. Some results related to the evolution of the Friedmann Universe, to gravitational collapse, etc. being the consequences of the RTG equations are also presented. 7 refs
Gauge Invariant Descriptions of Gauge Polarizations Revisited
Guo, Zhi-Qiang
2013-01-01
We examine the feasibility of gauge invariant descriptions of the gluon polarization following the proposal that a gauge field can be decomposed into its physical part and its pure gauge part. We show that gauge invariant angular momentum currents can be constructed from summations of gauge variant Noether currents. We present novel expressions of the pure gauge field, which are used to formulate gauge invariant descriptions of the gluon spin and the photon spin. We show that the gauge invariant extension of the Chern-Simons current can describe the spins of the Laguerre-Gauss laser modes. We also discuss the relation of gauge invariant operators and the parton distributions constructed from Dirac variables.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The anomaly busters had struck on the first day of the Kyoto meeting with Yoji Totsuka of Tokyo speaking on baryon number nonjjonservation and 'related topics'. The unstable proton is a vital test of grand unified pictures pulling together the electroweak and quark/gluon forces in a single field theory
Introduction to gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In these lectures we present the key ingredients of theories with local gauge invariance. We introduce gauge invariance as a starting point for the construction of a certain class of field theories, both for abelian and nonabelian gauge groups. General implications of gauge invariance are discussed, and we outline in detail how gauge fields can acquire masses in a spontaneous fashion. (orig./HSI)
Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation, world sheet instantons and wormholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the breaking of the global conservation of gauge field charges which are commonly thought to survive the spontaneous breakdown of gauge symmetry brought about by Kalb-Ramond fields. Depending on the dilaton field and also the size of the compactifying space, the global charge breaking may take place due to world sheet instantons. In going to 3+1 dimensions one could have a serious problem in order to produce the hierarchies between the quark and the charged lepton masses using the mass protecting charges with the Green-Schwartz anomaly cancellation. Various unnatural features of this type of models are discussed. (author)
Graviton as a pair of collinear gauge bosons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan Stieberger
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We show that the mixed gravitational/gauge superstring amplitudes describing decays of massless closed strings – gravitons or dilatons – into a number of gauge bosons, can be written at the tree (disk level as linear combinations of pure open string amplitudes in which the graviton (or dilaton is replaced by a pair of collinear gauge bosons. Each of the constituent gauge bosons carry exactly one half of the original closed string momentum, while their ±1 helicities add up to ±2 for the graviton or to 0 for the dilaton.
(Non-)Abelian discrete anomalies
Araki, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo(Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 Japan); Kubo, Jisuke; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul; Ratz, Michael; Vaudrevange, Patrick K S
2008-01-01
We derive anomaly constraints for Abelian and non-Abelian discrete symmetries using the path integral approach. We survey anomalies of discrete symmetries in heterotic orbifolds and find a new relation between such anomalies and the so-called `anomalous' U(1).
Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas; Vaudrevange, Patrick K S
2015-01-01
We show that there is a class of finite groups, the so-called perfect groups, which cannot exhibit anomalies. This implies that all non-Abelian finite simple groups are anomaly-free. On the other hand, non-perfect groups generically suffer from anomalies. We present two different ways that allow one to understand these statements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mu-Chun Chen
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We show that there is a class of finite groups, the so-called perfect groups, which cannot exhibit anomalies. This implies that all non-Abelian finite simple groups are anomaly-free. On the other hand, non-perfect groups generically suffer from anomalies. We present two different ways that allow one to understand these statements.
Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings and the gauge hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gauge hierarchy problem is reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 39 refs
${\\cal N} = 1$ Euler Anomaly Flow from Dilaton Effective Action
Prochazka, Vladimir
2015-01-01
We consider ${\\cal N} =1$ supersymmetric gauge theories in the conformal window. The running of the gauge coupling is absorbed into the metric by applying a suitable matter superfield- and Weyl-transformation. The computation becomes equivalent to one of a free theory in a curved background carrying the information of the renormalisation group flow. We use the techniques of conformal anomaly matching and dilaton effective action, by Komargodski and Schwimmer, to rederive the difference of the Euler anomaly coefficient $\\Delta a \\equiv a_{\\rm UV} - a_{\\rm IR} $ for the ${\\cal N} =1$ theory. The structure of $\\Delta a $ is therefore in one-to-one correspondence with the Wess-Zumino dilaton action.
Renormalization with flow equations and the ABJ anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the renormalizability of axial abelian gauge theory within the flow equation framework in which the theory is regularized in a way which does not respect gauge-invariance but permits to rigorously apply Euclidean path integral methods. On the one hand we prove renormalizability in the weak sense of power counting; on the other hand we analyse the Slavnov-Taylor-identities of the theory to show that these cannot be restored after taking away the regulators as has been proven in the case of non-anomalous theories like QED. We insist on the relation between the anomaly and the infrared problem for theories with massless particles. We have no evidence that the anomaly is related to the transformation properties of the integration measure in the path integral as is sometimes asserted in the literature but rather to the properties of triangular diagramme analysed by Adler and followers.
A flyby anomaly for Juno? Not from standard physics
Iorio, L.
2014-12-01
An empirical formula recently appeared in the literature to explain the observed anomalies of about ? ? ? ? 1 - 10 mm s-1 in the geocentric range-rates ? ? of the Galileo, NEAR and Rosetta spacecraft at some of their past perigee passages along unbound, hyperbolic trajectories.It predicts an anomaly of the order of 6 mm s-1 for the recent flyby of Juno, occurred on 9 October 2013.Data analyses to confirm or disproof it are currently ongoing.We numerically calculate the impact on the geocentric Juno's range rate of some classical and general relativistic dynamical effects which are either unmodeled or mismodeled to a certain level in the software used to process the data.They are: (a) the first even zonal harmonic coefficient J2 of the multipolar expansion of the terrestrial gravitational potential causing orbital perturbations both at the (a?) Newtonian (J2) and at the (a?) first post-Newtonian level (J2c-2) (b) the post-Newtonian gravitoelectric (GE) Schwarschild-like component of the Earth's gravitational field (c) the post-Newtonian gravitomagnetic (GM) Lense-Thirring effect.The magnitudes of their mismodeled and nominal range-rate signatures are: (a?) ????J2 ? 1 ? m s-1 (a?) ???J2c-2 ? 0.015 ? m s-1 (b) ???GE ? 25 ? m s-1 (c) ???GM ? 0.05 ? m s-1. If a flyby anomaly as large as a few mm s-1 will be finally found also for Juno, it will not be due to any of these standard gravitational effects. It turns out that a Rindler-type radial extra-acceleration of the same magnitude as in the Pioneer anomaly would impact the Juno's range-rate at a ???Rin ? 1.5 ? m s-1 level. Regardless of the quest for the flyby anomaly, all such effects are undetectable.
Nomograms For Interpreting Gravity Anomalies Above A Finite Horizontal Cylinder
El Hussani, A. [???? ???????
1985-01-01
The present study gives a new method for solving the inverse problem of the gravitational anomalies related to a finite horizontal cylinder, by the use of the downward continuation method. Master curves have been obtained for this purpose, besides a detailed explaination of calculating the different parameters of such a causative body. The accuracy of the methods has been also demonstrated with a synthetic model, together with calculated error curves to obtain the corrected depth and length f...
Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms.
Goldman, N; Juzeli?nas, G; Öhberg, P; Spielman, I B
2014-12-01
Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our Universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle-the graviton-that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms 'feeling' laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials-both Abelian and non-Abelian-in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms. PMID:25422950
Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms
Goldman, N.; Juzeli?nas, G.; Öhberg, P.; Spielman, I. B.
2014-12-01
Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our Universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle—the graviton—that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms ‘feeling’ laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials—both Abelian and non-Abelian—in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms.
Framing Anomaly in the Effective Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Gromov, Andrey; Abanov, Alexander; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-03-01
While the classical Chern-Simons theory is topological, it's quantum version is not as it depends on the metric of the base manifold through the path integral measure. This phenomenon is known as the framing anomaly. It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions of fractional quantum Hall systems (FQH). In the lowest order in gradients the effective action includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and generates a ``finite size correction'' to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses of non-Abelian FQH states.
Anomaly-induced inflaton decay and gravitino-overproduction problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We point out that the inflaton spontaneously decays into any gauge bosons and gauginos via the super-Weyl, Kahler and sigma-model anomalies in supergravity, once the inflaton acquires a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value. In particular, in the dynamical supersymmetry breaking scenarios, the inflaton necessarily decays into the supersymmetry breaking sector, if the inflaton mass is larger than the dynamical scale. This generically causes the overproduction of the gravitinos, which severely constrains the inflation models. (orig.)
Torsion, Parity-odd Response and Anomalies in Topological States
Parrikar, Onkar; Leigh, Robert G
2014-01-01
We study the response of a class of topological systems to electromagnetic and gravitational sources, including torsion and curvature. By using the technology of anomaly polynomials, we derive the parity-odd response of a massive Dirac fermion in $d=2+1$ and $d=4+1$, which provides a simple model for a topological insulator. We discuss the covariant anomalies of the corresponding edge states, from a Callan-Harvey anomaly-inflow, as well as a Hamiltonian spectral flow point of view. We also discuss the applicability of our results to other systems such as Weyl semi-metals. Finally, using dimensional reduction from $d=4+1$, we derive the effective action for a $d=3+1$ time-reversal invariant topological insulator in the presence of torsion and curvature, and discuss its various physical consequences.
Coordinate and Kaehler ?-model anomalies and their cancellation in string effective field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the complete set of one-loop triangle graphs involving the Yang-Mills gauge connection, the Kaehler connection and the ?-model coordinate connection in the effective field theory of (2, 2) symmetric ZN orbifolds. That is, we discuss pure gauge, pure Kaehler and pure ?-model coordinate anomalies as well as the mixed anomalies, such as Kaehler-gauge, some of which have been discussed elsewhere. We propose a mechanism for restoring both Kaehler and ?-model coordinate symmetry based upon the introduction of two types of counterterms. Finally, we enlarge ?-model generalization of the Green-Schwarz mechanism to allow the removal of the universal parts of a wider class of anomalies than those previously discussed. (orig.)
Interpolating axial anomaly induced amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose an interpolating formula for the amplitude induced by the axial anomaly, concentrating on the ?0?*?* transition form factor. Our form factor is constructed by the 'vector meson pole terms' and the 'anomaly terms', in which the anomaly terms can be essentially evaluated by the triangle quark graph. We pay our attention to the anomaly term and make intensive analysis of the existing experimental data, i.e., the electromagnetic ?0 and ? transition form factors. Our result shows that it is essential to use the constituent quark mass instead of the current quark mass in evaluating the anomaly term from the triangle graph. (author)
Z' models for the LHCb and g-2 muon anomalies
Allanach, Ben; Strumia, Alessandro; Sun, Sichun
2015-01-01
We revisit a class of Z' explanations of the anomalies found by the LHCb collaboration in $B$ decays, and show that the scenario is tightly constrained by a combination of constraints: (i) LHC searches for di-muon resonances, (ii) pertubativity of the Z' couplings; (iii) the $B_s$ mass difference, and (iv) and electro-weak precision data. Solutions are found by suppressing the Z' coupling to electrons and to light quarks and/or by allowing for a Z' decay width into dark matter. We also present a simplified framework where a TeV-scale Z' gauge boson that couples to standard leptons as well as to new heavy vector-like leptons, can simultaneously accommodate the LHCb anomalies and the muon g-2 anomaly.
Axial anomaly and negative longitudinal magnetoresistance: theory vs. experiment
Goswami, Pallab; Pixley, Jed
2015-03-01
Traditionally axial anomaly is associated with quantum mechanical violation of U(1) axial symmetry of relativistic Dirac/Weyl fermions in odd spatial dimensions, in the presence of electromagnetic gauge fields. Recently there has been considerable interest in both condensed matter and high energy physics communities in Nielsen and Ninomiya's original proposal that the axial anomaly can lead to a negative longitudinal magnetoresistance for condensed matter realization of Weyl fermions. In this talk I will show that the axial anomaly can arise in any generic three dimensional material placed under parallel electric and quantizing magnetic fields. However, the emergence of negative magnetoresistance depends crucially on the forward scattering nature of the underlying relaxation mechanism. Therefore, sufficiently clean and dilute three dimensional materials without magnetism or magnetic impurities can be promising candidates for observing this phenomenon. I will briefly discuss concrete experimental evidence of this enigmatic effect in quasi-2D layered materials.
Hypercharged Anomaly Mediation
Dermisek, Radovan; Wang, Lian-Tao
2007-01-01
We show that, in string models with the MSSM residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio \\alpha between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 35 TeV. We summarize some of the phenomenological features of this scenario.
Hypercharged Anomaly Mediation
Dermisek, Radovan; Verlinde, Herman; Wang, Lian-Tao
2007-01-01
We show that, in string models with the MSSM residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio \\alpha between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 35 TeV. We summarize some of the phenomenological features of this s...
Higher SPT's and a generalization of anomaly in-flow
Thorngren, Ryan
2015-01-01
Symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases of bosons in $d$ spatial dimensions have been characterized by the action of the protecting global symmetry $G$ on their boundary. The symmetry acts on the boundary in a way that would be impossible to realize in a purely $d-1$ dimensional system i.e., without the bulk. This is often formalized by saying the $G$ symmetry is anomalous when the boundary theory is gauged. Simultaneously gauging the symmetry on the boundary and in the bulk yields a gauge-invariant composite system. One says there is an anomaly in-flow from the boundary to the bulk. Recently it has been appreciated that some anomalies are too severe to be regulated by an SPT bulk. These do not satisfy anomaly in-flow in the traditional sense. However, we show that these anomalous systems can be regulated as the symmetric boundaries of the newly discovered higher SPT phases. These higher SPT's are protected by a symmetry $d$-group, a higher categorical version of a group which can charge not just particle...
Gauged BRST symmetry and the occurence of higher cocycles in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The BRST symmetry of Yang Mills theories can be gauged via the introduction of an anticommuting single gauge field. There follows the construction of a local BRST operation which allows an algebraic analysis of the BRST current algebra. This construction provides, in particular, a field theory interpretation of most higher cocycles which accompany the usual chiral anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This system of gauging is now being designed to fit on an Excello NC lathe to measure the form, accuracy, and size of external contoured surfaces as they approach the finish machined size. A template profile of the finished workpiece, but 0.003 in. bigger on radius, will be aligned with the workpiece using a reference diameter and face on the machining fixture to leave a gap between the profile of the template and workpiece. A helium--neon laser beam will be projected through this gap using a rotating retroreflector and a fixed laser. The resulting diffraction pattern produced by the laser beam passing through the template to workpiece gap will be reflected and focused on a fixed diode array via a second retroreflector which moves and remains in optical alignment with the first. These retroreflectors will be rotated about a center that will enable the laser beam, which is shaped in a long slit, to scan the template workpiece gap from the pole to the equator of the workpiece. The characteristic diffraction pattern will be detected by the fixed diode array, and the signal levels from this array will be processed in a mini-computer programmed to produce a best fit through the two minima of the diode signals. The separation of the two minima will yield the size of the workpiece to template gap and this information will be presented to the machine tool operator
A noncommutative anomaly through Seiberg-Witten map and non-locally regularized BV quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: It is a well known fact that quantum field theory has its main basis in the principle of gauge symmetry. The gauge theory, constructed with the principle of gauge symmetry, encompassing the symmetries and their corresponding conservation laws, has underlying role in the description of the fundamental forces in nature. Nevertheless, we have also to consider that a specific conservation law that is true in a certain classical theory, can be broken when the theory is quantized. In this case we have what is known as an anomaly. Anomalies have their importance in physics where they are needed to describe certain experimental facts, for example. The anomaly cannot be considered just a perturbation effect, which results from the regularization of some divergent diagrams, it shows the deep laws of quantum physics. So, as we can see, it is important to find methods to compute the anomaly by the quantized the primary theory. A NC space can be visualized as a deformation of the usual spacetime with the *-product and can be constructed after the quantization of a given space with its symplectic structure. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map connects NC fields, transformations parameters and gauge potential to their commutative analogs. In this work we used the SW map to calculate the NC version of the anomaly of the BV quantized chiral Schwinger model with nonlocal regularization. (author)
A noncommutative anomaly through Seiberg-Witten map and non-locally regularized BV quantization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abreu, Everton M.C.; Nikoofard, Vahid [UFRuralRJ, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: It is a well known fact that quantum field theory has its main basis in the principle of gauge symmetry. The gauge theory, constructed with the principle of gauge symmetry, encompassing the symmetries and their corresponding conservation laws, has underlying role in the description of the fundamental forces in nature. Nevertheless, we have also to consider that a specific conservation law that is true in a certain classical theory, can be broken when the theory is quantized. In this case we have what is known as an anomaly. Anomalies have their importance in physics where they are needed to describe certain experimental facts, for example. The anomaly cannot be considered just a perturbation effect, which results from the regularization of some divergent diagrams, it shows the deep laws of quantum physics. So, as we can see, it is important to find methods to compute the anomaly by the quantized the primary theory. A NC space can be visualized as a deformation of the usual spacetime with the *-product and can be constructed after the quantization of a given space with its symplectic structure. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map connects NC fields, transformations parameters and gauge potential to their commutative analogs. In this work we used the SW map to calculate the NC version of the anomaly of the BV quantized chiral Schwinger model with nonlocal regularization. (author)
Cosmic strings in a product Abelian gauge field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that multiply distributed cosmic strings arise in the product Abelian gauge field theory of Tong and Wong where vortices generated from an extra gauge sector are used to realize magnetic impurities. It is seen that, in view of the fully coupled Einstein and gauge-matter equations, the presence of such cosmic strings in the form of topological defects is essential for gravitation. Asymptotic behavior of the string solutions can be precisely described to allow the derivation of a necessary and sufficient condition for the gravitational metric to be geodesically complete and an explicit calculation of the deficit angle proportional to the string tension, both stated in terms of string numbers, energy levels of broken symmetries, and the universal gravitational constant
Applications of noncovariant gauges in the algebraic renormalization procedure
Boresch, A; Schweda, Manfred
1998-01-01
This volume is a natural continuation of the book Algebraic Renormalization, Perturbative Renormalization, Symmetries and Anomalies, by O Piguet and S P Sorella, with the aim of applying the algebraic renormalization procedure to gauge field models quantized in nonstandard gauges. The main ingredient of the algebraic renormalization program is the quantum action principle, which allows one to control in a unique manner the breaking of a symmetry induced by a noninvariant subtraction scheme. In particular, the volume studies in-depth the following quantized gauge field models: QED, Yang-Mills t
Energy Momentum Pseudo-Tensor of Relic Gravitational Wave in Expanding Universe
Su, Daiqin; Zhang, Yang
2012-01-01
We study the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of gravitational wave, and examine the one introduced by Landau-Lifshitz for a general gravitational field and the effective one recently used in literature. In short wavelength limit after Brill-Hartle average, both lead to the same gauge invariant stress tensor of gravitational wave. For relic gravitational waves in the expanding universe, we examine two forms of pressure, $p_{gw}$ and $\\mathcal{P}_{gw}$, and trace the origin of t...
Gravitational Radiation from Oscillating Gravitational Dipole
De Aquino, Fran
2002-01-01
The concept of Gravitational Dipole is introduced starting from the recent discovery of negative gravitational mass (gr-qc/0005107 and physics/0205089). A simple experiment, a gravitational wave transmitter, to test this new concept of gravitational radiation source is presented.
Interplay of gravitation and linear superposition of different mass eigenstates
D. V. Ahluwalia; Burgard, C.
1998-01-01
The interplay of gravitation and the quantum-mechanical principle of linear superposition induces a new set of neutrino oscillation phases. These ensure that the flavor-oscillation clocks, inherent in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, redshift precisely as required by Einstein's theory of gravitation. The physical observability of these phases in the context of the solar neutrino anomaly, type-II supernovae, and certain atomic systems is briefly discussed.
Determination of Gravitational Counterterms Near Four Dimensions from RG Equations
Hamada, Ken-ji
2014-01-01
The finiteness condition of renormalization gives a restriction on the form of the gravitational action. By reconsidering the Hathrell's RG equations for massless QED in curved space, we determine the gravitational counterterms and the conformal anomalies as well near four dimensions. As conjectured for conformal couplings in 1970s, we show that at all orders of the perturbation they can be combined into two forms only: the square of the Weyl tensor in $D$ dimensions and $E_...
Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P
2001-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.
Quantum gravitational effects in de Sitter space
Kiefer, C
1995-01-01
We calculate the first quantum gravitational correction term to the trace anomaly in De Sitter space from the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. This is obtained through an expansion of the full wave functional for gravity and a conformally coupled scalar field in powers of the Planck mass. We also discuss a quantum gravity induced violation of unitarity and comment on its possible relevance for inflation.
Resurgent Transseries and the Holomorphic Anomaly
Santamaría, Ricardo Couso; Schiappa, Ricardo; Vonk, Marcel
2013-01-01
The gauge theoretic large N expansion yields an asymptotic series which requires a nonperturbative completion in order to be well defined. Recently, within the context of random matrix models, it was shown how to build resurgent transseries solutions encoding the full nonperturbative information beyond the 't Hooft genus expansion. On the other hand, via large N duality, random matrix models may be holographically described by B-model closed topological strings in local Calabi-Yau geometries. This raises the question of constructing the corresponding holographically dual resurgent transseries, tantamount to nonperturbative topological string theory. This paper addresses this point by showing how to construct resurgent transseries solutions to the holomorphic anomaly equations. These solutions are built upon (generalized) multi-instanton sectors, where the instanton actions are holomorphic. The asymptotic expansions around the multi-instanton sectors have both holomorphic and anti-holomorphic dependence, may a...
Anomaly cancelling terms from the elliptic genus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the heterotic string one-loop diagram in 2n+2 dimensions with one external B?? and n external gravitons and/or gauge bosons. The result is a modular integral over the weight zero terms of the character valued partition function (or elliptic genus) of the theory, and can be directly expressed in terms of the factor which multiplies Tr F2-Tr R2 in the field theory anomaly. The integrands have a non-trivial dependence on the modular parameter ?, reflecting contributions not only from the physical massless states but also from an infinity of 'unphysical' modes. Some of them are identical to integrands which have been discussed recently in relation with Atkin-Lehner symmetry and the cosmological constant. As a corollary we find a method to compute these integrals without using Atkin-Lehner transformations. (orig.)
Conformal anomaly c-coefficients of superconformal 6d theories
Beccaria, Matteo
2015-01-01
We propose general relations between the conformal anomaly and the chiral (R-symmetry and gravitational) anomaly coefficients in 6d (1,0) superconformal theories. The suggested expressions for the three type B conformal anomaly c-coefficients complement the expression for the type A anomaly a-coefficient found in arXiv:1506.03807. We check them on several examples -- the standard (1,0) hyper and tensor multiplets as well as some higher derivative short multiplets containing vector fields that generalize the superconformal 6d vector multiplet discussed in arXiv:1506.08727. We also consider a family of higher derivative superconformal (2,0) 6d multiplets associated to 7d multiplets in the KK spectrum of 11d supergravity compactified on S^4. In particular, we prove that (2,0) 6d conformal supergravity coupled to 26 tensor multiplets is free of all chiral and conformal anomalies. We discuss some interacting (1,0) superconformal theories, predicting the c-coefficients for the "E-string" theory on multiple M5-brane...
Brzezinski, T.; Majid, S.
1996-01-01
We develop a generalised gauge theory in which the role of gauge group is played by a coalgebra and the role of principal bundle by an algebra. The theory provides a unifying point of view which includes quantum group gauge theory, embeddable quantum homogeneous spaces and braided group gauge theory, the latter being introduced now by these means. Examples include ones in which the gauge groups are the braided line and the quantum plane.
Hypercharged Anomaly Mediation
Dermíšek, Radovan; Verlinde, Herman; Wang, Lian-Tao
2008-04-01
We show that, in string models with the minimal supersymmetric standard model residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio ? between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05?|?|?0.25 and m3/2?35TeV. We summarize some of the experimental signatures of this scenario.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cassez, Franck; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2012-01-01
Timing anomalies make worst-case execution time analysis much harder, because the analysis will have to consider all local choices. It has been widely recognised that certain hardware features are timing anomalous, while others are not. However, defining formally what a timing anomaly is, has been difficult. We examine previous definitions of timing anomalies, and identify examples where they do not align with common observations. We then provide a definition for consistently slower hardware traces that can be used to define timing anomalies and aligns with common observations.
Hall viscosity from elastic gauge fields in Dirac crystals
Cortijo, Alberto; Landsteiner, Karl; Vozmediano, María A H
2015-01-01
The combination of Dirac physics and elasticity has been explored at length in graphene where the so--called "elastic gauge fields" have given rise to an entire new field of research and applications: Straintronics. The fact that these elastic fields couple to fermions as the electromagnetic field, implies that many electromagnetic responses will have elastic counterparts not explored before. In this work we will first show that the presence of elastic gauge fields will be the rule rather than the exception in most of the topologically non--trivial materials in two and three dimensions. In particular we will extract the elastic gauge fields associated to the recently observed Weyl semimetals, the "three dimensional graphene". As it is known, quantum electrodynamics suffers from the chiral anomaly whose consequences have been recently explored in matter systems. We will show that, associated to the physics of the anomalies, and as a counterpart of the Hall conductivity, elastic materials will have a Hall visco...
Arraut, Ivan(Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan)
2012-01-01
We analyze the propagation of gravitational waves (GWs) in an asymptotically de-Sitter space by expanding the perturbation around Minkowski and introducing the effects of the Cosmological Constant ($\\Lambda$), first as an additional source (de-Donder gauge) and after as a gauge effect ($\\Lambda$-gauge). In both cases the inclusion of the Cosmological Constant $\\Lambda$ impedes the detection of a gravitational wave at a distance larger than $L_{crit}=(6\\sqrt{2}\\pi f \\hat{h}/\\...
Gravity anomalies, forearc morphology and seismicity in subduction zones
Bassett, D.; Watts, A. B.; Das, S.
2012-12-01
We apply spectral averaging techniques to isolate and remove the long-wavelength large-amplitude trench-normal topographic and free-air gravity anomaly "high" and "low" associated with subduction zones. The residual grids generated illuminate the short-wavelength structure of the forearc. Systematic analysis of all subduction boundaries on Earth has enabled a classification of these grids with particular emphasis placed on topography and gravity anomalies observed in the region above the shallow seismogenic portion of the plate interface. The isostatic compensation of these anomalies is investigated using 3D calculations of the gravitational admittance and coherence. In the shallow region of the megathrust, typically within 100 km from the trench, isolated residual anomalies with amplitudes of up to 2.5 km and 125 mGal are generally interpreted as accreted/subducting relief in the form of seamounts and other bathymetric features. While most of these anomalies, which have radii 1000 km) trench-parallel forearc ridges with residual anomalies of up to 1.5 km and 150 mGal are identified in approximately one-third of the subduction zones analyzed. Despite great length along strike, these ridges are less than 100 km wide and several appear uncompensated. A high proportion of arc-normal structure and the truncation/morphological transition of trench-parallel forearc ridges is explained through the identification and tracking of pre-existing structure on the over-riding and subducting plates into the seismogenic portion of the plate boundary. Spatial correlations between regions with well-defined trench-parallel forearc ridges and the occurrence of large magnitude interplate earthquakes, in addition to the uncompensated state of these ridges, suggest links between the morphology of the forearc and the peak earthquake stress drop on the subduction megathrust. We present our classification of residual bathymetric and gravitational anomalies using examples from Sumatra, Kuril-Kamchatka, Mariana, Peru-Chile and the Tonga-Kermadec margin. We reassess proposed links between trench-parallel residual topography and gravity anomalies and subduction zone seismicity using global earthquake catalogs and a new compilation of published aftershock locations and distributed slip models from over 200 of the largest subduction zone earthquakes. Our results highlight the role of pre-existing structure in both the over-riding and subducting plates in modulating the along- and across-strike segmentation of subduction zones. Understanding the genesis of long-wavelength trench-parallel forearc ridges may provide further insights into links between forearc morphology, the rheology of the overriding and subducting plates and seismicity in subduction zones.
Implementing Mach's principle using gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We reformulate an approach fist given by Barbour and Bertotti (BB) for implementing Mach's principle for nonrelativistic particles. This reformulation can deal with arbitrary symmetry groups and finite group elements. Applying these techniques to U(1) and SU(N) invariant scalar field theories, we show that BB's proposal is nearly equivalent to defining a covariant derivative using a dynamical connection. We then propose a modified version of the BB method which implements Mach's principle using gauge theory techniques and argue that this modified method is equivalent to the original. Given this connection between the particle models and Yang-Mills theories, we consider the effect of dynamic curvature as a possible generalization of the BB scheme. Since the BB method can be used as a novel way of deriving geometrodynamics, the connection with gauge theory may shed new light on the gauge properties of the gravitational field.
System for closure of a physical anomaly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S
2014-11-11
Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Metin SALTIK
1996-03-01
Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.
Massive graviton and determination of cosmological constant from gauge theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The universe contains a lot more than the eye meets . Sophisticated experiments search diligently for this invisible dark matter. Here we will describe some theoretical implications of the gravitational gauge theory recently proposed by Ning Wu (hep-th/0112062), namely the possibility of the existence of massive gravitons which fill the intergalactic space. Dark matter is an important problem in cosmology. In gravitational gauge field theory, the following effects should be taken into account to solve this problem: 1) The existence of massive graviton will have some contribution to the dark matter; 2) If the gravitational magnetic field is strong inside a celestial system, the gravitational Lorentz force will provide additional centripetal force for circular motion of a celestial object; 3) The existence of a factor which violate inverse square law of classical gravity. Combining general relativity and gravitational gauge theory the cosmological constant is determined theoretically. The cosmological constant is related to the average vacuum energy of the gravitational gauge field. Because the vacuum energy of the gravitational gauge field is negative, the cosmological constant is positive what generates repulsive force on stars to make the expansion rate of the Universe accelerated. A rough estimation of it gives out its magnitude order 10-52 m-2, which is well consistent with experimental results. (authors)
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Joseph, A.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, E.S.; Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.
at the mouth of the Zuari estuary, and anomalies were reported at all periods except during peak summer and the onset of the summer monsoon. These anomalies lead to an over-estimation of sea level by a tide-well based gauge. The density difference, delta p...
Anomalies for nonlocal dirac operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The anomalies of a very general class of non local Dirac operators are computed using the ?-function definition of the fermionic determinant and an asymmetric version of the Wigner transformation. For the axial anomaly all new terms introduced by the non locality can be brought to the standard minimal Bardeen's form. Some extensions of the present techniques are also commented
Seismic data fusion anomaly detection
Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David
2014-06-01
Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.
Algebraic study of chiral anomalies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Juan Mañes; Raymond Stora; Bruno Zumino
2012-06-01
The algebraic structure of chiral anomalies is made globally valid on non-trivial bundles by the introduction of a ?xed background connection. Some of the techniques used in the study of the anomaly are improved or generalized, including a systematic way of generating towers of ‘descent equations’.
Understanding diboson anomalies
Sajjad, Aqil
2015-01-01
We conduct a model-independent effective theory analysis of hypercharged fields with various spin structures towards understanding the recently observed diboson signal as well as possible future excesses involving $WZ$ and $WH$ modes. Within the assumption of no additional physics beyond the standard model up to the scale of the possible diboson resonance, we show that a hypercharged scalar and a spin 2 particle do not have tree-level $WZ$ and $WH$ decay channels up to dimension 5 operators, and cannot therefore account for the anomaly, whereas a hypercharged vector is a viable candidate provided we also introduce a $Z'$ in order to satisfy electroweak precision constraints. We calculate bounds on the $Z'$ mass consistent with the Atlas/CMS diboson signals as well as electroweak precision data.
Anterior abdominal wall anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Eliçevik
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Anterior abdominal wall defects consists of omphalocele, gastroschisis, umblical hernia and exstrophy-epispadias complex. This section is written for the diagnosis and treatment of those anomalies which are summarized by figures. Managment of abdominal wall defects requires collaboration between the Pediatricians and Pediatric Surgeons. The pitfalls of preoperative and postoperative care from the respect of Pediatrics and intensive care unit are established. Especially the exstrophy-epispadias complex is a life long diasease, special attention for the diagnosis and treatment of mainly the urogenital and associated malformations must be given on the long term follow-up. Patient transfer to specialized centers of Pediatric Urology, in the field of exstrophy-epispadias-complex is recommended. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45 Suppl: 29-34
Land, K; Land, Kate; Magueijo, Joao
2004-01-01
We perform a frequentist analysis of the bispectrum of WMAP first year data. We find clear signal domination up to l=200, with overall consistency with Gaussianity except for the following features. There is a flat patch (i.e. a low chi-squared region) in the same-l components of the bispectrum spanning the range l=32-62; this may be interpreted as ruling out Gaussianity at the 99.6% confidence level. There is also an asymmetry between the North and South inter-l bispectrum components at the 99% confidence level. The preferred asymmetry axis correlates well with the (l,b)=(57,10) direction quoted in the literature for asymmetries in the power spectrum and three-point correlation function. However our analysis of the quadrupole (its bispectrum and principal axes) fail to make contact with previously claimed anomalies.
Kok, P; Kok, Pieter; Yurtsever, Ulvi
2003-01-01
We investigate the effect of quantum metric fluctuations on qubits that are gravitationally coupled to a background spacetime. In our first example, we study the propagation of a qubit in flat spacetime whose metric is subject to flat quantum fluctuations with a Gaussian spectrum. We find that these fluctuations cause two changes in the state of the qubit: they lead to a phase drift, as well as the expected exponential suppression (decoherence) of the off-diagonal terms in the density matrix. Secondly, we calculate the decoherence of a qubit in a circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. The no-hair theorems suggest a quantum state for the metric in which the black hole's mass fluctuates with a thermal spectrum at the Hawking temperature. Again, we find that the orbiting qubit undergoes decoherence and a phase drift that both depend on the temperature of the black hole. Thirdly, we study the interaction of coherent and squeezed gravitational waves with a qubit in uniform motion. Finally, we investigat...
The trace anomaly and dynamical vacuum energy in cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mottola, Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
The trace anomaly of conformal matter implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. These poles may be described by a local effective action with massless scalar fields, which couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects at macroscopic scales. In an effective field theory approach, the effective action of the anomaly is an infrared relevant term that should be added to the Einstein-Hilbert action of classical General Relativity to take account of macroscopic quantum effects. The additional scalar degrees of freedom contained in this effective action may be understood as responsible for both the Casimir effect in flat spacetime and large quantum backreaction effects at the horizon scale of cosmological spacetimes. These effects of the trace anomaly imply that the cosmological vacuum energy is dynamical, and its value depends on macroscopic boundary conditions at the cosmological horizon scale, rather than sensitivity to the extreme ultraviolet Planck scale.
Astrometric and Timing Effects of Gravitational Waves from Localized Sources
Kopeikin, S M; Gwinn, C R; Eubanks, T M; Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Schafer, Gerhard; Gwinn, Carl R.
1999-01-01
A consistent approach for an exhaustive solution of the problem of propagation of light rays in the field of gravitational waves emitted by a localized source of gravitational radiation is developed in the first post-Minkowskian and quadrupole approximation of General Relativity. We demonstrate that the equations of light propagation in the retarded gravitational field of an arbitrary localized source emitting quadrupolar gravitational waves can be integrated exactly. The influence of the gravitational field on the light propagation is examined not only in the wave zone but also in cases when light passes through the intermediate and near zones of the source. Explicit analytic expressions for light deflection and integrated time delay (Shapiro effect) are obtained accounting for all possible retardation effects and arbitrary relative locations of the source of gravitational waves, that of light rays, and the observer. It is shown that the ADM and harmonic gauge conditions can both be satisfied simultaneously ...
A gravitational effective action on a finite triangulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct a function of the edge-lengths of a triangulated surface whose variation under a rescaling of all the edges that meet at a vertex is the defect angle at that vertex. We interpret this function as a gravitational effective action on the triangulation, and the variation as a trace anomaly
Exploring the web of heterotic string theories using anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruehle, Fabian
2013-07-15
We investigate how anomalies can be used to infer relations among different descriptions of heterotic string theory. Starting from the observation that the construction mechanism of heterotic orbifold compactifications considered up to now prevents them from being resolved into fully smooth Calabi-Yau compactification manifolds, we use a new mechanism to obtain an orbifold which does not suffer from the aforementioned limitations. We explain in general how to resolve orbifolds into smooth Calabi-Yau using toric geometry and gauged linear sigma models. The latter allow for studying the theory in various other regions of the string moduli space as well, which unveils interesting intermediate geometries. By following anomalies through the different regimes, we can match the orbifold theories to their smooth Calabi-Yau counterparts. In the process, we investigate discrete R and non-R orbifold symmetries and propose a mechanism for studying their fate in other regions of the moduli space. Finally, we introduce a novel anomaly cancelation mechanism in gauged linear sigma models, which manifests itself in target space as a description of compactification geometries with torsion and Neveu-Schwarz five branes.
Exploring the web of heterotic string theories using anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate how anomalies can be used to infer relations among different descriptions of heterotic string theory. Starting from the observation that the construction mechanism of heterotic orbifold compactifications considered up to now prevents them from being resolved into fully smooth Calabi-Yau compactification manifolds, we use a new mechanism to obtain an orbifold which does not suffer from the aforementioned limitations. We explain in general how to resolve orbifolds into smooth Calabi-Yau using toric geometry and gauged linear sigma models. The latter allow for studying the theory in various other regions of the string moduli space as well, which unveils interesting intermediate geometries. By following anomalies through the different regimes, we can match the orbifold theories to their smooth Calabi-Yau counterparts. In the process, we investigate discrete R and non-R orbifold symmetries and propose a mechanism for studying their fate in other regions of the moduli space. Finally, we introduce a novel anomaly cancelation mechanism in gauged linear sigma models, which manifests itself in target space as a description of compactification geometries with torsion and Neveu-Schwarz five branes.
Anomalies of BRS and anti-BRS Ward-identities in N=1 supersymmetric theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The requirement of BRS and anti-BRS symmetries in the N=1 supersymmetric theory leads to Ward-Identities independent of the gauge parameter. The cohomology conditions are immediately satisfied. The determination of a supersymmetric compact formula for the anomaly is not affected by the anti-BRS symmetry. (author). 30 refs
Low energy limit of parity-violating amplitudes and anomaly cancellations in type-I superstring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The low energy limit of parity-violating one-loop amplitudes with external six gauge bosons is studied in type-I superstring theory. The leading contributions come from the integration region near the boundaries of moduli space and give the same anomaly as in the effective particle field theory. (author). 21 refs
Dimock, J
2014-01-01
We consider abelian gauge theories on a lattice and develop properties of an axial gauge that is covariant under lattice symmetries. Particular attention is paid to a version that behaves nicely under block averaging renormalization group transformations.
Running couplings in quantum theory of gravity coupled with gauge fields
Narain, Gaurav; Anishetty, Ramesh
2013-10-01
In this paper we study the coupled system of non-abelian gauge fields with higher-derivative gravity. Charge renormalization is investigated in this coupled system. It is found that the leading term in the gauge coupling beta function comes due to interaction of gauge fields with gravitons. This is shown to be a universal quantity in the sense that it doesn't depend on the gauge coupling and the gauge group, but may depend on the other couplings of the action (gravitational and matter). The coupled system is studied at one-loop. It is found that the leading term of gauge beta function is zero at one-loop in four dimensions. The effect of gauge fields on the running of gravitational couplings is investigated. The coupled system of gauge field with higher-derivative gravity is shown to satisfy unitarity when quantum corrections are taken in to account. Moreover, it is found that Newton constant goes to zero at short distances. In this renormalizable and unitary theory of gauge field coupled with higher-derivative gravity, the leading term of the gauge beta function, found to be universal for all gauge groups, is further studied in more detail by isolating it in the context of abelian gauge theories coupled with gravity in four dimensions. Using self-duality of abelian gauge theories in four dimensions, this term of the gauge beta function is shown to be zero to all loops. This is found to be independent of the gravity action, regularization scheme and gauge fixing condition. An explicit one-loop computation for arbitrary gravity action further demonstrates the vanishing of this term in the gauge beta function in four dimensions, independent of the regularization scheme and gauge fixing condition. Consequences of this are discussed.
Canonical quantization and cosmological particle production in non-Abelian gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A canonical quantization scheme for nonabelian gauge fields in an external, classical gravitational field is formulated and applied to the problem of cosmological Higgs and gauge boson production. Via interaction, the mass of the Higgs field not only leads to additional Higgs production, but also enables the production of massless bosons
Framing Anomaly in the Effective Theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Gromov, Andrey; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G.; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-01-01
We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.
Gravity duals of supersymmetric gauge theories on three-manifolds
Farquet, Daniel; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James
2014-01-01
We study gravity duals to a broad class of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories defined on a general class of three-manifold geometries. The gravity backgrounds are based on Euclidean self-dual solutions to four-dimensional gauged supergravity. As well as constructing new examples, we prove in general that for solutions defined on the four-ball the gravitational free energy depends only on the supersymmetric Killing vector, finding a simple closed formula when the solution has U(1) x U(1) symmetry. Our result agrees with the large N limit of the free energy of the dual gauge theory, computed using localization. This constitutes an exact check of the gauge/gravity correspondence for a very broad class of gauge theories with a large N limit, defined on a general class of background three-manifold geometries.
Faber, M.; Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.
2001-01-01
We introduce a variation of direct maximal center gauge fixing: the ``direct Laplacian'' center gauge. The new procedure overcomes certain shortcomings of maximal center gauge, associated with Gribov copies, that were pointed out by Bornyakov et al. in hep-lat/0009035.
Anomalous U(1) Models in Four and Five Dimensions and their Anomaly Poles
Armillis, Roberta; Rose, Luigi Delle; Guzzi, Marco
2009-01-01
We show that effective anomalous models in four dimensions in which gauge invariance is restored with Wess-Zumino counterterms or with an anomaly inflow from extra dimensions are both affected by the presence of anomaly poles in certain amplitudes which break unitarity in the ultraviolet. In the case of extra dimensions the breaking takes place after any partial summation of the Kaluza-Klein excitations, showing an intrinsic limitation of the mechanism of inflow, with localized fermions on the branes, respect to the constraints from unitarity. We discuss the origin of these contributions by performing a complete analysis of the anomaly vertex at perturbative level using two independent (but equivalent) representations. We conclude that consistent formulations of anomalous models are not constrained just by gauge invariance, as usually stressed, via the addition of Wess-Zumino terms, but require necessarily the cancellation of these contributions, which are scaleless and prohibit any derivative expansion. We c...
On the covariant gauge {alpha} of the linearized gravity in de Sitter spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheong, Lee Yen [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)
2012-09-26
In previous work, we studied the linearized gravity with covariant gauge {beta}= 2/3 and {alpha}= 5/3. It was found that the sum of the source and initial contributions reproduces the correct field configuration over the whole de Sitter spacetime. In this paper, we extend this work to generalizing the linearized gravitational field in an arbitrary value of the gauge parameter {alpha} but the gauge parameter {beta} remains the same.
Gauge theories, black hole evaporation and cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent work of Linde, which suggests that gauge theories modify the effective gravitational constant, are applied to the theory of black hole evaporation. Considerable modification of the late stages of evaporation are predicted. Contrary to expectations, the black hole never attains a sufficient temperature to enter the antigravity regime, which would represent a failure of cosmic censorship. (orig.)
Non-abelian discrete gauge symmetries and inflation
Cohn, J. D.; Stewart, E. D.
2000-01-01
Obtaining a potential flat enough to provide slow roll inflation is often difficult when gravitational effects are included. Non-abelian discrete gauge symmetries can guarantee the flatness of the inflaton potential in this case, and also provide special field values where inflation can end.
Quantum Gravitational Bremsstrahlung, Massless versus Massive Gravity
Berchtold, Julian B.; Scharf, Gunter
2007-01-01
The massive spin-2 quantum gauge theory previously developed is applied to calculate gravitational bremsstrahlung. It is shown that this theory is unique and free from defects. In particular, there is no strong coupling if the graviton mass becomes small. The cross sections go over smoothly into the ones of the massless theory in the limit of vanishing graviton mass. The massless cross sections are calculated for the full tensor theory.
Embedding variables in the canonical theory of gravitating shells
Hajicek, P.; C Kiefer
2000-01-01
A thin shell of light-like dust with its own gravitational field is studied in the special case of spherical symmetry. The action functional for this system due to Louko, Whiting, and Friedman is reduced to Kucha\\v{r} form: the new variables are embeddings, their conjugate momenta, and Dirac observables. The concepts of background manifold and covariant gauge fixing, that underlie these variables, are reformulated in a way that implies the uniqueness and gauge invariance of ...
Fermion on curved spaces, symmetries, and quantum anomalies
Visinescu, M
2006-01-01
We review the geodesic motion of pseudo-classical spinning particles in curved spaces. Investigating the generalized Killing equations for spinning spaces, we express the constants of motion in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. Passing from the spinning spaces to the Dirac equation in curved backgrounds we point out the role of the Killing-Yano tensors in the construction of the Dirac-type operators. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino space. The gravitational and axial anomalies are studied for generalized Euclidean Taub-NUT metrics which admit hidden symmetries analogous to the Runge-Lenz vector of the Kepler-type problem. Using the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem for manifolds with boundaries, it is shown that the these metrics make no contribution to the axial anomaly.
Fermion on Curved Spaces, Symmetries, and Quantum Anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai Visinescu
2006-11-01
Full Text Available We review the geodesic motion of pseudo-classical spinning particles in curved spaces. Investigating the generalized Killing equations for spinning spaces, we express the constants of motion in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. Passing from the spinning spaces to the Dirac equation in curved backgrounds we point out the role of the Killing-Yano tensors in the construction of the Dirac-type operators. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino space. The gravitational and axial anomalies are studied for generalized Euclidean Taub-NUT metrics which admit hidden symmetries analogous to the Runge-Lenz vector of the Kepler-type problem. Using the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem for manifolds with boundaries, it is shown that the these metrics make no contribution to the axial anomaly.
The heterotic ?-model with background gauge fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop methods for simplifying considerably the computation of ?-functions for the heterotic ?-model in the presence of background gauge fields. These methods are used to obtain three-loop results. Up to the overall normalization of the O(?'2) contribution, the ?-functions are on-shell equivalent to the equations of motion derived from an effective action which has been obtained previously in the string S-matrix approach. Our results shed, however, new light on the off-shell relation between these field equations and the ?-functions. It is also shown that, to all orders in ?', the net effect of gauge anomalies is the addition of a Chern-Simons term to the torsion. (orig.)
Anomalies in instanton calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I develop a formalism for solving topological field theories explicitly, in the case when the explicit expression of the instantons is known. I solve topological Yang-Mills theory with the k=1 instanton of Belavin et al. and topological gravity with the Eguchi-Hanson instanton. It turns out that naively empty theories are indeed nontrivial. Many unexpected interesting hidden quantities (punctures, contact terms, nonperturbative anomalies with or without gravity) are revealed. Topological Yang-Mills theory with G=SU(2) is not just Donaldson theory, but contains a certain link theory. Indeed, local and non-local observables have the property of marking cycles. Moreover, from topological gravity one learns that an object can be considered BRST exact only if it is so all over the moduli space M , boundary included. Being BRST exact in any interior point of M is not sufficient to make an amplitude vanish. Presumably, recursion relations and hierarchies can be found to solve topological field theories in four dimensions, in particular topological Yang-Mills theory with G=SU(2) on R4 and topological gravity with the full set of asymptotically locally Euclidean manifolds. ((orig.))
Demonstrating Gravitational Repulsion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wagener P. C.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In previous papers we showed that a classical model of gravitation explains present gravitational phenomena. This paper deals with gravitational repulsion and it shows how it manifests in black holes and particle pair production. We also suggest a laboratory experiment to demonstrate gravitational repulsion.
Gravitational Superenergy Tensor
Mashhoon, Bahram; McClune, James C.; Quevedo, Hernando
1996-01-01
We provide a physical basis for the local gravitational superenergy tensor. Furthermore, our gravitoelectromagnetic deduction of the Bel-Debever-Robinson superenergy tensor permits the identification of the gravitational stress-energy tensor. This {\\it local} gravitational analog of the Maxwell stress-energy tensor is illustrated for a plane gravitational wave.
Dynamically Broken U(1) `Left' Gauge Theories in Four Dimensions
Machet, B
1993-01-01
We study a dynamically broken U(1) "left" gauge theory endowed with a composite scalar doublet (one scalar and one pseudoscalar); its Lagrangian only differs from that of an abelian `Standard Model' by the addition of a derivative coupling between a Wess-Zumino field, linked to the previous scalars, and the fermionic current. Yet, in the Feynman path integral, the non independence of the fermionic and scalar variables of integration requires the introduction of constraints. When the gauge symmetry is broken by the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field, they freeze all degrees of freedom but those of a massive gauge field, including a (abelian) pion. The anomaly disappears and the gauge current is conserved. This is shown, and renormalizability studied, in the `Nambu-Jona-Lasinio approximation'. Unitarity is demonstrated on general grounds.
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...
Quantum Gravitational Decoherence of Light and Matter
Oniga, Teodora
2015-01-01
Real world quantum systems are open to perpetual influence from the wider environment. Vacuum gravitational fluctuations provide a most fundamental source of the environmental influence through their universal interactions with all forms of energy and matter causing decoherence. This may have subtle implications on precision laboratory experiments and astronomical observations and could limit the ultimate capacities for quantum technologies prone to decoherence. To establish the essential physical mechanism of decoherence under weak spacetime fluctuations, we carry out a sequence of analytical steps utilizing the Dirac constraint quantization and gauge invariant influence functional techniques, resulting in a general master equation of a compact form, that describes an open quantum gravitational system with arbitrary bosonic fields. An initial application of the theory is illustrated by the implied quantum gravitational dissipation of light as well as (non)relativistic massive or massless scalar particles. Re...
Anomalies, instantons and chiral symmetry breaking at a Lifshitz point
Bakas, Ioannis
2012-01-01
We give a new twist to an old-fashioned topic in quantum field theory describing violations of the chiral charge conservation of massless fermions through Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies in the background of instanton fields in the context of non-relativistic Lifshitz theories. The results we report here summarize in a nut-shell our earlier work on the subject found in arXiv:1103.5693 and arXiv:1110.1332. We present simple examples where index computations can be carried out explicitly focusing, in particular, to gravitational models of Lifshitz type and highlight their differences from ordinary gravity in four space-time dimensions.
Space weather and space anomalies
Dorman, L.I.; N. Iucci; A. V. Belov; Levitin, A. E.; E. A. Eroshenko; Ptitsyna, N. G.; Villoresi, G.; Chizhenkov, G. V.; Gromova, L. I.; Parisi, M; Tyasto, M. I.; Yanke, V. G.
2005-01-01
A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particula...
Attractors and the Holomorphic Anomaly
Verlinde, Erik
2004-01-01
Motivated by the recently proposed connection between N=2 BPS black holes and topological strings, I study the attractor equations and their interplay with the holomorphic anomaly equation. The topological string partition function is interpreted as a wave-function obtained by quantizing the real cohomology of the Calabi-Yau. In this interpretation the apparent background dependence due to the holomorphic anomaly is caused by the choice of complex polarization. The black hol...
Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Objective: Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Results: Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Conclusions: Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs.
Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies
Anderson, John D.; Nieto, Michael Martin
2009-01-01
There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of no...
Bel, Lluis
2009-01-01
A simple and {\\it innocent} modification of Poisson's equation leads to a modified Newtonnian theory of gravitation where a localized and {\\it positive} energy density of the gravitational field contributes to its own source. The result is that the total {\\it active gravitational mass} of a compact object is the sum of its {\\it proper mass} and an {\\it evanescent gravitational mass} which is a mass equivalent to the gravitational energy.
Bowler, Michael George
1976-01-01
Gravitation and Relativity generalizes Isaac Newton's theory of gravitation using the elementary tools of Albert Einstein's special relativity. Topics covered include gravitational waves, martian electrodynamics, relativistic gravitational fields and gravitational forces, the distortion of reference frames, and the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. Black holes and the geometry of spacetime also receive consideration. This book is comprised of 10 chapters; the first of which briefly reviews special relativity, with the emphasis on the Lorentz covariance of the equations of physics. This
On the localization of the gravitational energy
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
N., Pinto Neto; P. I., Trajtenberg.
2000-03-01
Full Text Available Using a formalism introduced by Feynman, Deser, Grishchuk, Petrov and Popova, the pseudotensors, such as de.ned by Einstein, Tolman, Landau/Lifshitz and Møller, are expessed as gauge dependent tensors in a background space, as the gravitational energy-momentum tensor of Deser, Grishchuk, Petrov and [...] Popova. Using a result obtained by Virbhadra for the energy density in the Reissner-Nordström spacetime, it is shown that the action of these gauge transformations on the above tensorial expressions is the same as the action of the coordinate transformations on the equivalent pseudotensorial expressions, meaning that these tensors can be set to zero at a point by a suitable choice of gauge transformation.
Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2002-09-15
Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.
QED Fermi-Fields as Operator Valued Distributions and Anomalies
Grange, P C; Grange, Pierre Ca; Werner, Ernst
2004-01-01
The treatment of fields as operator valued distributions (OPVD) is recalled with the emphasis on the importance of causality following the work of Epstein and Glaser. Gauge invariant theories demand the extension of the usual translation operation on OPVD, thereby leading to a generalized $QED$ formulation. At D=2 the solvability of the Schwinger model is totally preserved. At D=4 the paracompactness property of the Euclidean manifold permits using test functions which are decomposition of unity and thereby provides a natural justification and extension of the non perturbative heat kernel method (Fujikawa) for abelian anomalies. On the Minkowski manifold the specific role of causality in the restauration of gauge invariance (and mass generation for $QED_{2}$) is examplified in a simple way.
Some Friedmann cosmological solutions in the scale covariant theory of gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aroonkumar Beesham
1991-06-01
Full Text Available The scale covariant theory of gravity admits the possibility of a time varying gravitational constant but contains a gauge function for which there is no independent equation. The circumstances under which explicit forms for a gauge function may be derived within the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models are investigated and several forms are derived.
Four Poission-Laplace Theory of Gravitation (I)
Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi
2015-08-01
The Poisson-Laplace equation is a working and acceptable equation of gravitation which is mostly used or applied in its differential form in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) modelling of e.g. molecular clouds. From a general relativistic standpoint, it describes gravitational fields in the region of low spacetime curvature as it emerges in the weak field limit. For non-static gravitational fields, this equation is not generally covariant. On the requirements of general covariance, this equation can be extended to include a time-dependent component, in which case one is led to the Four Poisson-Laplace equation. We solve the Four Poisson-Laplace equation for radial solutions, and apart from the Newtonian gravitational component, we obtain four new solutions leading to four new gravitational components capable (in-principle) of explaining e.g. the Pioneer anomaly, the Titius-Bode Law and the formation of planetary rings. In this letter, we focus only on writing down these solutions. The task showing that these new solutions might explain the aforesaid gravitational anomalies has been left for separate future readings.
A little more Gauge Mediation and the light Higgs mass
Mummidi, V Suryanarayana
2013-01-01
We consider minimal models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with an extra $U(1)$ factor in addition to the Standard Model gauge group. A $U(1)$ charged, Standard Model singlet is assumed to be present which allows for an additional NMSSM like coupling, $\\lambda H_u H_d S$. The U(1) is assumed to be flavour universal. Anomaly cancellation in the MSSM sector requires additional coloured degrees of freedom. The $S$ field can get a large vacuum expectation value along with consistent electroweak symmetry breaking. It is shown that the lightest CP even Higgs boson can attain mass of the order of 125 GeV.
A little more gauge mediation and the light Higgs mass
Suryanarayana Mummidi, V.Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India; Sudhir K. Vempati
2014-01-01
We consider minimal models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with an extra U(1) factor in addition to the Standard Model gauge group. A U(1) charged, Standard Model singlet is assumed to be present which allows for an additional NMSSM like coupling, ?HuHdS . The U(1) is assumed to be flavour universal. Anomaly cancellation in the MSSM sector requires additional coloured degrees of freedom. The S field can get a large vacuum expectation value along with consistent electroweak symmetry b...
Gravitational energy from a combination of a tetrad expression and Einstein's pseudotensor
So, Lau Loi
2008-01-01
The energy-momentum for a gravitating system can be considered by the tetard teleparalle gauge current in orthonormal frames. Whereas the Einstein pseudotensor used holonomic frames. Tetrad expression itself gives a better result for gravitational energy than Einstein's. Inspired by an idea of Deser, we found a gravitational energy expression which enjoys the positive energy property by combining the tetrad expression and the Einstein pseudotensor, i.e., the connection coeff...
Generalized Higher Gauge Theory
Ritter, Patricia; Schmidt, Lennart
2015-01-01
We study a generalization of higher gauge theory which makes use of generalized geometry and seems to be closely related to double field theory. The local kinematical data of this theory is captured by morphisms of graded manifolds between the canonical exact Courant Lie 2-algebroid $TM\\oplus T^*M$ over some manifold $M$ and a semistrict gauge Lie 2-algebra. We discuss generalized curvatures and their infinitesimal gauge transformations. Finite gauge transformation as well as global kinematical data are then obtained from principal 2-bundles over 2-spaces. As dynamical principle, we consider first the canonical Chern-Simons action for such a gauge theory. We then show that a previously proposed 3-Lie algebra model for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory is very naturally interpreted as a generalized higher gauge theory.
Top quark asymmetry and Wjj excess at CDF from gauged flavor symmetry
Babu, K. S; Frank, Mariana(Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Qc., H4B 1R6, Canada); Rai, Santosh Kumar(Regional Centre for Accelerator-based Particle Physics, Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019, India)
2011-01-01
We show that the scalar sector needed for fermion mass generation when the flavor symmetry of the standard model is maximally gauged can consistently explain two anomalies reported recently by the CDF collaboration - the forward-backward asymmetry in t-tbar pair production, and the dijet invariant mass in the Wjj channel. A pair of nearly degenerate scalar doublets with masses in the range 150-200 GeV explain these anomalies, with additional scalars predicted in the mass ran...
Gravitational and Anti-gravitational Applications
Ellman, Roger
1998-01-01
It is now possible to partially deflect gravitation away from an object so that the gravitational attraction on the object is reduced. That effect makes it possible to extract energy from the gravitational field, which makes the generation of gravito-electric power technologically feasible. Such plants would be similar to hydro-electric plants and would have their advantages of not needing fuel and not polluting the environment. Physically, the action of deflecting away gr...
Introduction to gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These lecture notes contain the text of five lectures and a Supplement. The lectures were given at the JINR-CERN School of Physics, Tabor, Czechoslovakia, 5-18 June 1983. The subgect of the lecinvariancetures: gauge of electromagnetic and weak interactions, higgs and supersymmetric particles. The Supplement contains reprints (or excerpts) of some classical papers on gauge invariance by V. Fock, F. London, O. Klein and H. Weyl, in which the concept of gauge invariance was introduced and developed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the phase structure of SU(2) gauge theories at zero and high temperature, with and without scalar matter fields, in terms of the symmetric/broken realization of the remnant gauge symmetry which exists after fixing to Coulomb gauge. The symmetric realization is associated with a linearly rising color Coulomb potential (which we compute numerically), and is a necessary but not sufficient condition for confinement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonlocal gauge theories including gravity are considered. It is shown that the introduction of the additional nonlocal interaction makes ?5-anomalous theories meaningful. The introduction of such interaction leads to macrocausal unitary theory, which describes the interaction of massive vector fields with fermion fields. It is shown that nonlocal gauge theories with nonlocal scale ?nl?(1-10) TeV can solve the gauge hierarchy problem. An example of nonlinear grand unified gauge model in which topologically nontrivial finite energy monopole solutions are absent is found
Massive gravity as a quantum gauge theory
Grigore, D R; Grigore, Dan Radu; Scharf, Gunter
2004-01-01
We present a new point of view on the quantization of the massive gravitational field, namely we use exclusively the quantum framework of the second quantization. The Hilbert space of the many-gravitons system is a Fock space ${\\cal F}^{+}({\\sf H}_{\\rm graviton})$ where the one-particle Hilbert space ${\\sf H}_{graviton}$ carries the direct sum of two unitary irreducible representations of the Poincar\\'e group corresponding to two particles of mass $m > 0$ and spins 2 and 0, respectively. This Hilbert space is canonically isomorphic to a space of the type $Ker(Q)/Im(Q)$ where $Q$ is a gauge charge defined in an extension of the Hilbert space ${\\cal H}_{\\rm graviton}$ generated by the gravitational field $h_{\\mu\
Soliton solutions in relativistic field theories and gravitation
Diaz-Alonso, Joaquin; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego
2007-01-01
We report on some recent results on a class of relativistic lagrangian field theories supporting non-topological soliton solutions and their applications in the contexts of Gravitation and Cosmology. We analyze one and many-components scalar fields and gauge fields.
Experimental Anomalies in Neutrino Physics
Palamara, Ornella
2014-03-01
In recent years, experimental anomalies ranging in significance (2.8-3.8 ?) have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrinos over baselines less than 1 km. Results from the LSND and MiniBooNE short-baseline ?e /?e appearance experiments show anomalies which cannot be described by oscillations between the three standard model neutrinos (the ``LSND anomaly''). In addition, a re-analysis of the anti-neutrino flux produced by nuclear power reactors has led to an apparent deficit in ?e event rates in a number of reactor experiments (the ``reactor anomaly''). Similarly, calibration runs using 51Cr and 37Ar radioactive sources in the Gallium solar neutrino experiments GALLEX and SAGE have shown an unexplained deficit in the electron neutrino event rate over very short distances (the ``Gallium anomaly''). The puzzling results from these experiments, which together may suggest the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model and hint at exciting new physics, including the possibility of additional low-mass sterile neutrino states, have raised the interest in the community for new experimental efforts that could eventually solve this puzzle. Definitive evidence for sterile neutrinos would be a revolutionary discovery, with implications for particle physics as well as cosmology. Proposals to address these signals by employing accelerator, reactor and radioactive source experiments are in the planning stages or underway worldwide. In this talk some of these will be reviewed, with emphasis on the accelerator programs.
On the absence of parity anomaly and the finiteness of massless QED{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Cima, Oswaldo M.; Franco, Daniel H.T.; Piguet, Olivier [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV) - MG (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: In this work we call into question some unclear points concerning the perturbatively parity breakdown at 1-loop for the massless QED{sub 3} frequently claimed in the literature. There are some claims in the literature that Pauli- Villars regularization must be used because it does not break gauge invariance, contrary to the dimensional regularization case, that is not true in the light of perturbation theory for massless QED{sub 3}. Moreover, Pauli- Villars breaks parity, dimensional regularization does not, both preserve gauge invariance, which of them is more suitable in the quantization of the massless QED{sub 3}? Such a question makes no sense if both schemes are properly used. Fortuitous breaking of gauge symmetry happens when there is no invariant regularization scheme available, however, the Quantum Action Principle guarantees that they can be completely eliminated, when gauge anomaly is absent, by the introduction of noninvariant local counterterms at each perturbative order. As long as perturbative quantum field theory is concerned, whether a parity anomaly owing to radiative corrections exists or not shall be definitely proved by using a renormalization method independent of any regularization scheme. We show algebraically, by adopting the Lowenstein-Zimmermann subtraction scheme, that the massless QED3 is perturbatively finite and parity anomaly free. We conclude from the Quantum Action Principle to the absence of noninvariant counterterms at the level of the Slavnov-Taylor identity, avoiding in this way a possible parity anomaly that could be induced by parity-odd noninvariant counterterms. The 1-loop parity-odd contribution to the vacuum-polarization tensor is also explicitly computed in the framework of the BPHZL renormalization method. It is shown that a Chern-Simons term is generated at that order induced through the IR subtractions (which breaks parity), therefore, what is called 'parity anomaly' is in fact a parity-odd counterterm. (author)
Geometrical Foundations of Cartan Gauge Gravity
Catren, Gabriel
2014-01-01
We use the theory of Cartan connections to analyze the geometrical structures underpinning the gauge-theoretical descriptions of the gravitational interaction. According to the theory of Cartan connections, the spin connection $\\omega$ and the soldering form $\\theta$ that define the fundamental variables of the Palatini formulation of general relativity can be understood as different components of a single field, namely a Cartan connection $A=\\omega+\\theta$. In order to stress both the similarities and the differences between the notions of Ehresmann connection and Cartan connection, we explain in detail how a Cartan geometry $(P_{H}\\rightarrow M, A)$ can be obtained from a $G$-principal bundle $P_{G}\\rightarrow M$ endowed with an Ehresmann connection (being the Lorentz group $H$ a subgroup of $G$) by means of a bundle reduction mechanism. We claim that this reduction must be understood as a partial gauge fixing of the local gauge symmetries of $P_{G}$, i.e. as a gauge fixing that leaves "unbroken" the local ...
Supersymmetry Breaks when Gauge Symmetry Breaks: Cybersusy I
Dixon, John
2008-01-01
This paper summarizes a new approach to supersymmetry breaking in the supersymmetric standard model (SSM). The approach arises from some remarkable features of the BRS cohomology for composite operators in the SSM, and the behaviour of those operators when gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken. A new realization of supersymmetry arises for these operators. This realization is equivalent to the generation of supersymmetry anomalies, though they are not present in the usual s...
Ngo Thanh, Hai
2011-01-01
In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird mit Hilfe der verallgemeinerten Eichtheorie/Gravitations-Dualität, welche stark gekoppelte Eichtheorien mit schwach gekrümmten gravitativen Theorien verbindet, stark korrelierte Quantenzustände der Materie untersucht. Der Schwerpunkt liegt dabei in Anwendungen auf Systeme der kondensierten Materie, insbesondere Hochtemperatur-Supraleitung und kritische Quantenzustände bei verschwindender Temperatur. Die Eichtheorie/Gravitations-Dualität entsta...
Graph anomalies in cyber communications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-11
Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.
Charge, anomalies and index theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
First we give a brief survey of the phenomenon of anomalies in theories with axial currents; we describe some of the puzzling aspects of anomalies, such as the necessary breakdown of apparant symmetries of a theory, in the presence of external fields. Then we try to persuade you that anomalies are A Good Thing, and can be used to implement the algebraic programme suggested by Haag. In fact, for the free field, explicit formula for the charged operators, implementing the Bogoliubov transformations defined by scattering in an external field, can be given. This leads to a new interpretation of the external field problem, in which the dressed vacuum is rather a model of an extended particle than a ground state; it is similar to the Skyrmion. (orig./HSI)
A NEO-NEWTONIAN EXPLANATION OF THE PIONEER ANOMALY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. D. Greaves
2009-01-01
Full Text Available For over 20 years NASA has struggled to nd an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly, an unmodelled weak acceleration towards the sun (= 8:5 x 10-10 m s-2, observed in deep space probes Pioneer 10, 11, Galileo and Ulysses (Anderson et al. 1998, 1999; Katz 1999. No consensus explanation has been given since the anomaly was rst announced, suggesting that new physics is involved. The riddle may be solved if we assume that c, the speed of light, is not a universal constant. Newtonian mechanics, together with the hypothesis by C?spedes-Cur? (2002 that the index of refraction is a function of the gravitational energy density of space, leads to values of c slightly higher for interstellar space dominated by the primordial energy density p* due to galaxies and far away stars, far from the gravitational in uence of Earth, Moon, and Sun. The value derived for the index of refraction of space (n0 < 1, implies a Doppler shift of the radio signal received from the probes which results in a decrease of the frequency received at Earth and interpreted as a weak acceleration towards the Sun.
A neo-Newtonian explanation of the Pioneer anomaly
Greaves, E. D.
2009-05-01
For over 20 years NASA has struggled to find an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly, an unmodelled weak acceleration towards the sun (? 8.5×10^{-10} m s^{-2}), observed in deep space probes Pioneer 10, 11, Galileo and Ulysses (Anderson et al. 1998, 1999; Katz 1999). No consensus explanation has been given since the anomaly was first announced, suggesting that new physics is involved. The riddle may be solved if we assume that c, the speed of light, is not a universal constant. Newtonian mechanics, together with the hypothesis by Céspedes-Curé (2002) that the index of refraction is a function of the gravitational energy density of space, leads to values of c slightly higher for interstellar space dominated by the primordial energy density ?_{*}^{} due to galaxies and far away stars, far from the gravitational influence of Earth, Moon, and Sun. The value derived for the index of refraction of space (n' < 1), implies a Doppler shift of the radio signal received from the probes which results in a decrease of the frequency received at Earth and interpreted as a weak acceleration towards the Sun.
(Non-)Aligned gauges and global gauge symmetry breaking
Maas, Axel
2012-01-01
The concept of (global) gauge symmetry breaking plays an important role in many areas of physics. Since the corresponding symmetry is a gauge symmetry, its breaking is actually gauge-dependent. Thus, it is possible to design gauges which restore the symmetry as good as possible. Such gauge constructions will be detailed here, illustrated with the use of lattice gauge theory. Their use will be discussed for the cases of the Higgs effect, high-baryon density color superconduct...
Underdevelopment’s gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marin Dinu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The energy necessary to escape the gravitational pull of underdevelopment and to enter an evolutional trajectory dependent on the gravitational pull of development is unintelligible in economic terms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A moisture and density gauge which combines sources of gamma and neutron radiation in a casing which is placed in the medium being analyzed. The gauge includes detectors for the gamma and neutron radiation being placed in end to end configuration within the casing such that the neutron detector is placed between the gamma radiation detector and the source of gamma radiation
On the gravitational scattering of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the scattering of weak gravitational waves from a slowly rotating gravitational source, having mass M and angular momentum J-vector . We start considering the dynamics of a massless spin-2 field ??? propagating in the weak gravitational field of the source, writing down the Fierz–Pauli in the presence of a slightly curved background. We adopt a semiclassical framework, where the gravitational background is described as a classical external field; meanwhile, the spin-2 field is treated quantum mechanically. In the weak-coupling limit, in which the typical wavelength of ??? satisfies ???Rs (where Rs is the Schwarzschild radius of the source), we obtain the cross-section for the scattering process in the Born approximation. We also discuss helicity asymmetry, showing its relationship with the spin-2 field coupling to the derivatives of the background metric. We finally consider the transition to the case of gravitational wave scattering, showing that—under reasonable assumptions—gravitational waves are expected to follow the same behavior. Our results partly agree with those presented through the years by various authors. The present analysis suggests that the scattering of weak gravitational waves in the field of a macroscopic gravitational source still represents an interesting open issue for further careful investigation. (paper)
Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some aspects of topological influence on gauge field theory are analysed, considering the geometry and differential topology methods. A review of concepts of differential forms, fibered spaces, connection and curvature, showing an interpretation of gauge theory in this context, is presented. The question of fermions, analysing in details the Dirac-Kaehler which fermionic particle is considered a general differential form, is studied. It is shown how the explicit expressions in function of the Dirac spinor components vary with the Dirac matrix representation. The Dirac-Kahler equation contains 4 times (in 4 dimensions) the Dirac equation, each particle being associated an ideal at left of the algebra of general differential forms. These ideals and the SU(4) symmetry among them are also studied on the point of view of spinors and, the group of reduction to one of the ideals is identified as the Cartan subalgebra of this SU(4). Finally, the axial anomaly is calculated through the functional determinant given by the Dirac-Kaehler operator. The regularization method is the Seeley's coefficients. From that results a comparison of the index theorems for the twisted complexes of signature and spin, which proportionality is given by the number of the algebra ideals contained in the Dirac-Kaehler equation and which also manifests in the respective axial anomaly equations. (L.C.)
The parity-preserving massive QED3: Vanishing ?-function and no parity anomaly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.M. Del Cima
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The parity-preserving massive QED3 exhibits vanishing gauge coupling ?-function and is parity and infrared anomaly free at all orders in perturbation theory. Parity is not an anomalous symmetry, even for the parity-preserving massive QED3, in spite of some claims about the possibility of a perturbative parity breakdown, called parity anomaly. The proof is done by using the algebraic renormalization method, which is independent of any regularization scheme, based on general theorems of perturbative quantum field theory.
Minimal seesaw as an ultraviolet insensitive cure for the problems of anomaly mediation
Mohapatra, R. N.; Setzer, N.; Spinner, S.
2008-03-01
We show that an intermediate scale supersymmetric left-right seesaw scenario with automatic R-parity conservation can cure the problem of tachyonic slepton masses that arise when supersymmetry is broken by anomaly mediation, while preserving ultraviolet insensitivity. The reason for this is the existence of light B-L=2 Higgses with Yukawa couplings to the charged leptons. We find these theories to have distinct predictions compared to the usual mSUGRA and gauge mediated models as well as the minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models. Such predictions include a condensed gaugino mass spectrum and possibly a correspondingly condensed sfermion spectrum.
Absence of low temperature anomaly on the melting curve of $^4$He
Todoshchenko, I. A.; Alles, H.; Junes, H. J.; Parshin, A. Ya.; Tsepelin, V.
2007-01-01
We have measured the melting pressure and pressure in the liquid at constant density of ultra-pure $^4$He (0.3 ppb of $^3$He impurities) with the accuracy of about 0.5 $\\mu$bar in the temperature range from 10 to 320 mK. Our measurements show that the anomaly on the melting curve below 80 mK which we have recently observed is entirely due to an anomaly in the elastic modulus of Be-Cu from which our pressure gauge is made of. We thus conclude that the melting pressure of $^4$...
Vacuum stability bounds on higgs mass with gravitational contributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the gravitational contributions to ?4 theory with general R? gauge-fixing choice and find that the result is gauge independent. Based on weak coupling expansion of gravity and ignoring the possible higher dimensional operators from “integrating out” the impact of gravity, we study the impacts of gravitational effects on vacuum stability. New contributions to the beta function of scalar quartic coupling ? by gravitational effects can modify the RGE running of ? near the Planck scale. Numerical calculations show that the lower bound of higgs mass requiring absolutely vacuum stability can be relaxed for almost 0.6 to 0.8 GeV depending on the choice of top quark mass
Boundary terms of conformal anomaly
Solodukhin, Sergey N
2015-01-01
We analyze the structure of the boundary terms in the conformal anomaly integrated over a manifold with boundaries. We suggest that the anomalies of type B, polynomial in the Weyl tensor, are accompanied with the respective boundary terms of the Gibbons-Hawking type. Their form is dictated by the requirement that they produce a variation which compensates the normal derivatives of the metric variation on the boundary in order to have a well-defined variational procedure. This suggestion agrees with recent findings in four dimensions for free fields of various spin. We generalize this consideration to six dimensions and derive explicitly the respective boundary terms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first six chapters of this book: physical fundamentals, Riemann's geometry, gravitational theory, experimental tests of the general theory of relativity, cosmology and gravitational waves, give a survey on the 'classical' results of the relativity theory. In the chapters to follow, aspects of more recent development are dealt with: new differential geometrical methods, star formation and gravitational collapse, fields in the Riemann's space, gravitation and field theory. (BJ/LH)
Quaternion gauge fields. Pseudocolor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simplified Guenaydin-Guersey model, in which a Majorana field constructed using quaternions combines a lepton and a color quark, is considered. Formulation of the gauge principle directly in the quaternions leads to the appearance of two vector quaternion gauge fields, these corresponding to the decomposition SO(4) ? SO(3) x SO(3) of the invariance group. The diagonal subgroup SO(3) of automorphisms of the quarternions appears as a pseudocolor symmetry of the quarks, and the gauge field corresponding to it as the field of three color gluons. The other gauge field corresponds to lepton-quark transitions and in the presence of spontaneous breaking of the SO(4) gauge symmetry by the scalar quaternion field acquires a (large) finite mass
Quaternion gauge field. Pseudocolor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simplified Guersay-Guenaydin model in which a lepton and a colour quark are united in the Majorana quaternion field is considered. Direct formulation of the gauge principle in the framework of quaternions leads to the appearance of two vector gauge quaternion fields corresponding to the decomposition of the invariance group SO(4)?SO(3)xSO(3). The diagonal subgroup SO(3), the quaternion automorphism group, is considered as the quark pseudocolour symmetry and the corresponding gauge field is interpreted as the three-gluon-colour field. The other gauge field corresponds to lepton-quark transition and acquires a (large) finite mass under spontaneous breaking of SO(4) gauge symmetry due to the scalar quaternion field
Neutrinos and abelian gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the intimate connection between neutrinos and simple abelian gauge symmetries U(1)', starting from the observation that the full global symmetry group of the Standard Model, G=U(1)B-L x U(1)Le-L? x U(1)L?-L?, can be promoted to a local symmetry group by introducing three right-handed neutrinos - automatically making neutrinos massive. The unflavored part U(1)B-L is linked to the Dirac vs. Majorana nature of neutrinos; we discuss the B-L landscape - including lepton-number-violating Dirac neutrinos - and implications for neutrinos, the baryon asymmetry, and experiments. Flavored subgroups U(1)' is contained in G can shed light on the peculiar leptonic mixing pattern and mass ordering; we show how normal, inverted, and quasi-degenerate mass hierarchy can arise from a U(1)' in a simple and testable manner. We furthermore present all U(1)' is contained in G that can enforce viable texture zeros in the neutrino mass matrices. Beyond G, symmetries U(1)DM in the dark matter sector can give rise to naturally light sterile neutrinos, which provide a new portal between visible and dark sector, and also resolve some longstanding anomalies in neutrino experiments. Further topics under consideration are the mixing of vector bosons with the Z boson, as well as the Stueckelberg mechanism. The latter raises the question why the photon should be massless - or stable for that matter.
Taking Kaluza seriously leads to a non-gauge-invariant electromagnetic theory in a curved space-time
Fabbri, Luca
2002-01-01
Kaluza's mertic with the cylinder condition is considered without the weak gravitational field approximation. It is shown that these hypoteses lead to a non-gauge-invariant electromagnetic theory in a curved space-time. The problem of electro-gravitational unification is considered from this point of view.
Goenner, H.; Leclerc, M
2000-01-01
A special-relativistic scalar-vector theory of gravitation is presented which mimics an important class of solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations. The theory includes solutions equivalent to Schwarzschild, Kerr, Reissner-Nordstroem, and Friedman metrics as well as to gravitational waves. In fact, all the empirical tests until now due to general relativity can be explained within this flat spacetime theory.
Ridgely, Charles T.
2011-01-01
When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…
Detection of gravitational radiation
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In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI)
Combining Anomaly and Z' Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking
de Blas, Jorge; Paz, Gil; Wang, Lian-Tao
2009-01-01
We propose a scenario in which the supersymmetry breaking effect mediated by an additional U(1)' is comparable with that of anomaly mediation. We argue that such a scenario can be naturally realized in a large class of models. Combining anomaly with Z' mediation allows us to solve the tachyonic slepton problem of the former and avoid significant fine tuning in the latter. We focus on an NMSSM-like scenario where U(1)' gauge invariance is used to forbid a tree-level mu term, and present concrete models, which admit successful dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. Gaugino masses are somewhat lighter than the scalar masses, and the third generation squarks are lighter than the first two. In the specific class of models under consideration, the gluino is light since it only receives a contribution from 2-loop anomaly mediation, and it decays dominantly into third generation quarks. Gluino production leads to distinct LHC signals and prospects of early discovery. In addition, there is a relatively light Z', wit...
Noncommutative chiral anomaly and the Dirac-Ginsparg-Wilson operator
Ydri, Badis
2003-08-01
It is shown that the local axial anomaly in 2-dimensions emerges naturally if one postulates an underlying noncommutative fuzzy structure of spacetime. In particular the Dirac-Ginsparg-Wilson relation on S2F is shown to contain an edge effect which corresponds precisely to the ``fuzzy'' U(1)A axial anomaly on the fuzzy sphere. We also derive a novel gauge-covariant expansion of the quark propagator in the form (1/Script DAF) = (ahat GammaL)/2+1/(Script DAa) where a = 2/(2l+1) is the lattice spacing on S2F, hat GammaL is the covariant noncommutative chirality and Script DAa is an effective Dirac operator which has essentially the same IR spectrum as Script DAF but differes from it on the UV modes. Most remarkably is the fact that both operators share the same limit and thus the above covariant expansion is not available in the continuum theory. The first bit in this expansion (ahat GammaL)/2 although it vanishes as it stands in the continuum limit, its contribution to the anomaly is exactly the canonical theta term. The contribution of the propagator 1/(Script DAa) is on the other hand equal to the toplogical Chern-Simons action which in two dimensions vanishes identically.
An Analysis of Anomaly Cancellation for Theories in D=10
Antonelli, Andrea
2015-01-01
We prove that the swampland for D=10 N=1 SUGRA coupled to D=10 N=1 SYM is only populated by U(1)^496 and E_8 x U(1)^248. With this goal in mind, we review the anomalies for classical and exceptional groups, retrieving trace identities up to the sixth power of the curvature for each class of groups. We expand this idea for low-dimensional groups, for which the trace of the sixth power is known to factorize, and we retrieve such factorization. We obtain the total anomaly polynomials for individual low dimensional groups and combinations of them and finally we investigate their non-factorization, in such a way that U(1)^496and E_8 xU(1)^248 are non-trivially shown to be the only anomaly-free theories allowed in D=10. Using the method developed for checking the factorization of gauge theories, we retrieve the Green-Schwarz terms for the two theories populating the swampland.
Anomaly Mediated Gaugino Mass and Path-Integral Measure
Harigaya, Keisuke
2014-01-01
In recent years, there have been controversy concerning the anomaly mediated gaugino mass in the superspace formalism of supergravity. In this paper, we reexamine the gaugino mass term in this formalism by paying particular attention to symmetry which controls gaugino masses in supergravity. We first discuss super-Diffeomorphism invariance of path-integral measures of charged superfields. As we will show, the super-Diffeomorphism invariant measure is not invariant under a super-Weyl transformation, which is the origin of the anomaly mediated gaugino mass. We show how the anomaly mediated gaugino mass is expressed as a local operator in a Wilsonian effective action in a super-Diffeomorphism covariant way. We also obtain a gaugino mass term independent of the gauge choice of the fictitious super-Weyl symmetry in the super-Weyl compensator formalism, which reproduces the widely accepted result. Besides, we discuss how to reconcile the gaugino mass term in the local Wilsonian effective action and the gaugino mass...
An Anzatz about Gravity, Cosmology, and the Pioneer Anomaly
Murad, Paul
2010-01-01
The Pulsar 1913+16 binary system may represent a `young' binary system where previously it is claimed that the dynamics are due to either a third body or a gravitational vortex. Usually a binary system's trajectory could reside in a single ellipse or circular orbit; the double ellipse implies that the 1913+16 system may be starting to degenerate into a single elliptical trajectory. This could be validated only after a considerably long time period. In a majority of binary star systems, the weights of both stars are claimed by analysis to be the same. It may be feasible that the trajectory of the primary spinning star could demonstrate repulsive gravitational effects where the neutron star's high spin rate induces a repulsive gravitational source term that compensates for inertia. If true, then it provides evidence that angular momentum may be translated into linear momentum as a repulsive source that has propulsion implications. This also suggests mass differences may dictate the neutron star's spin rate as an artifact of a natural gravitational process. Moreover, the reduced matter required by the `dark' mass hypothesis may not exist but these effects could be due to repulsive gravity residing in rotating celestial bodies. The Pioneer anomaly observed on five different deep-space spacecraft, is the appearance of a constant gravitational force directed toward the sun. Pioneer spacecraft data reveals that a vortex-like magnetic field exists emanating from the sun. The spiral arms of the Sun's magnetic vortex field may be causal to this constant acceleration. This may profoundly provide a possible experimental verification on a cosmic scale of Gertsenshtein's principle relating gravity to electromagnetism. Furthermore, the anomalous acceleration may disappear once the spacecraft passes out into a magnetic spiral furrow, which is something that needs to be observed in the future. Other effects offer an explanation from space-time geometry to the Yarkovsky thermal effects are discussed.
An Anzatz about Gravity, Cosmology, and the Pioneer Anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Pulsar 1913+16 binary system may represent a 'young' binary system where previously it is claimed that the dynamics are due to either a third body or a gravitational vortex. Usually a binary system's trajectory could reside in a single ellipse or circular orbit; the double ellipse implies that the 1913+16 system may be starting to degenerate into a single elliptical trajectory. This could be validated only after a considerably long time period. In a majority of binary star systems, the weights of both stars are claimed by analysis to be the same. It may be feasible that the trajectory of the primary spinning star could demonstrate repulsive gravitational effects where the neutron star's high spin rate induces a repulsive gravitational source term that compensates for inertia. If true, then it provides evidence that angular momentum may be translated into linear momentum as a repulsive source that has propulsion implications. This also suggests mass differences may dictate the neutron star's spin rate as an artifact of a natural gravitational process. Moreover, the reduced matter required by the 'dark' mass hypothesis may not exist but these effects could be due to repulsive gravity residing in rotating celestial bodies.The Pioneer anomaly observed on five different deep-space spacecraft, is the appearance of a constant gravitational force directed toward the sun. Pioneer spacecraft data reveals that a vortex-like magnetic field exists emanating from the sun. The spiral arms of the Sun's magnetic vortex field may be causal to this constant acceleration. This may profoundly provide a possible experimental verification on a cosmic scale of Gertsenshtein's principle relating gravity to electromagnetism. Furthermore, the anomalous acceleration may disappear once the spacecraft passes out into a magnetic spiral furrow, which is something that needs to be observed in the future. Other effects offer an explanation from space-time geometry to the Yarkovsky thermal effects are discussed.
On gauged Baryon and Lepton numbers
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The observation that Baryon number and Lepton number are conserved in nature provides strong motivation for associating gauge symmetries to these conserved numbers. This endeavor requires that the gauge group of electroweak interactions be extended from SU(2)L X U(1)Y to SU(2)L X U(1)R X U(1)Lepton where U(1)R couples only to the right-handed quarks and leptons. If it furthur postulated that right-handed currents exist on par with the left-handed ones, then the full electroweak symmetry is SU(2)L X SU(2)R X U(1)Baryon X U(1)Lepton. The SU(2)L X SU(2)R X U(1)Baryon X U(1)Lepton model is described in some detail. The triangle anomalies of the three families of quarks and leptons in the model are cancelled invoking leptoquark matter which is new fermionic matter that carries baryon as well as lepton numbers. In addition to the standard neutral boson (Z degree), the theory predicts two neutral gauge bosons with mass lower bounds of 120 GeV and 210 GeV which makes these particles prospective candidates for production at LEP, the TEVATRON and the SSC
Flavour dependent gauged radiative neutrino mass model
Baek, Seungwon; Okada, Hiroshi; Yagyu, Kei
2015-04-01
We propose a one-loop induced radiative neutrino mass model with anomaly free flavour dependent gauge symmetry: ? minus ? symmetry U(1) ?- ? . A neutrino mass matrix satisfying current experimental data can be obtained by introducing a weak isospin singlet scalar boson that breaks U(1) ?- ? symmetry, an inert doublet scalar field, and three right-handed neutrinos in addition to the fields in the standard model. We find that a characteristic structure appears in the neutrino mass matrix: two-zero texture form which predicts three non-zero neutrino masses and three non-zero CP-phases from five well measured experimental inputs of two squared mass differences and three mixing angles. Furthermore, it is clarified that only the inverted mass hierarchy is allowed in our model. In a favored parameter set from the neutrino sector, the discrepancy in the muon anomalous magnetic moment between the experimental data and the the standard model prediction can be explained by the additional neutral gauge boson loop contribution with mass of order 100 MeV and new gauge coupling of order 10-3.
The Hamiltonian structure of two-dimensional space-time and its relation with the conformal anomaly
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The article is concerned with three different aspects of field dynamics in two dimensional space-time and their mutual relationship. These include: the algebra of the hamiltonian generators of surface deformations and its Schwinger terms, gravitation theory, and the conformal anomaly. (U.K.)
Running Couplings in Quantum Theory of Gravity Coupled with Gauge Fields
Narain, Gaurav
2013-01-01
In this paper we study the coupled system of non-abelian gauge fields with higher-derivative gravity. Charge renormalization is investigated in this coupled system. It is found that the leading term in the gauge coupling beta function comes due to interaction of gauge fields with gravitons. This is shown to be a universal quantity in the sense that it doesn't depend on the gauge coupling and the gauge group, but may depend on the other couplings of the action (gravitational and matter). The coupled system is studied at one-loop. It is found that the leading term of gauge beta function is zero at one-loop in four dimensions. The effect of gauge fields on the running of gravitational couplings is investigated. The coupled system of gauge field with higher-derivative gravity is shown to satisfy unitarity when quantum corrections are taken in to account. Moreover, it is found that Newton constant goes to zero at short distances. In this renormalizable and unitary theory of gauge field coupled with higher-derivati...
Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly
... within the eye (glaucoma), clouding of the lens (cataract), and unusually small eyeballs (microphthalmia). In most cases, Peters anomaly is bilateral, which means that it affects both eyes, although the level of vision impairment may be different in each eye. These individuals ...
Branchial cleft anomalies: CT evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seok, Eul Hye; Park, Chan Sup [College of Medicine, Inha University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)
1994-04-15
The purpose of this paper is to describe the CT findings of a variety of branchial cleft anomalies in the head and neck area. We reviewed the CT findings of 16 patients with neck lesion pathologically proved as branchial cleft anomalies. There were two first and 12 second branchial cleft cysts, one first and one second branchial cleft sinuses. Two cases of first branchial cleft cysts were manifested as thin-walled, cystic masses at auricular area. One first branchial cleft sinus was an external opening type and manifested as an ill-defined, enhancing solid lesion at posterior auricular area. All 12 cases of second branchial cleft cysts demonstrated a typical location, displacing the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly, the carotid artery and internal jugular vein complex medially and the submandibular gland anteriorly. Eight cases of second branchial cleft cysts were seen as fluid-filled, round or ovoid-shaped cysts, and 3 cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped cysts. In one case, suppurative adenopathy with loss of soft tissue planes around the cyst was observed. One case of second branchial cleft sinus was manifested as a tubular-shaped, enhancing lesion at submental area and containing external opening site draining into the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We conclude that CT provides important diagnostic and therapeutic information in patients with a neck mass believed to be a branchial cleft anomaly, as it can differentiate various forms of the branchial anomalies by their characteristic location and shape.
Determination of Gravitational Counterterms Near Four Dimensions from RG Equations
Hamada, Ken-ji
2014-01-01
The finiteness condition of renormalization gives a restriction on the form of the gravitational action. By reconsidering the Hathrell's RG equations for massless QED in curved space, we determine the gravitational counterterms and conformal anomalies near four dimensions. As conjectured for conformal couplings in 1970s, we show at all orders of the perturbation that they can be combined into two forms only: the square of the Weyl tensor in $D$ dimensions and \\begin{eqnarray*} E_D=G_4 +(D-4)\\chi(D)H^2 -4\\chi(D) \
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field studies to measure actual radiation exposures of operators of commercial moisture-density gauges were undertaken in several regions of Canada. Newly developed bubble detector dosimeter technology and conventional dosimetry such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), integrating electronic dosimeters (DRDs), and CR-39 neutron track-etch detectors were used to estimate the doses received by 23 moisture-density gauge operators and maintenance staff. These radiation dose estimates were supported by mapping radiation fields and accounting for the time an operator was near a gauge. Major findings indicate that gauge maintenance and servicing workers were more likely than gauge operators to receive exposures above the level of 5 mSv, and that neutron doses were roughly the same as gamma doses. Gauge operators receive approximately 75% of their dose when transporting and carrying the gauge. Dose to their hands is similar to the dose to their trunks, but the dose to their feet area is 6 to 30 times higher. Gamma radiation is the primary source of radiation contributing to operator dose
Equations of Motion in the Gauge Gravity Models
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In the gauge gravitational models, the geometry of a spacetime manifold becomes non-Riemannian. The curvature, torsion and nonmetricity are all nontrivial in these models, in general. The study of the dynamics of the physical matter (particles, bodies, continuous media, etc.) in such manifolds is crucial for determining the actual geometrical structure of the spacetime. Here we briefly describe a model of a test particle with hyper-momentum which can be used as a tool for detecting the non-Riemannian geometry, and recall that the conservation laws in the gauge gravity theories underlie the general analysis of the equations of motion in such models. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.
1991-12-31
The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.
Gauge Coupling Unification in Gauge-Higgs Grand Unification
Yamatsu, Naoki
2015-01-01
We discuss renormalization group equations for gauge coupling constants in gauge-Higgs grand unification on five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum warped space. We show that all the four-dimensional Standard Model gauge coupling constants are asymptotically free and are effectively unified in $SO(11)$ gauge-Higgs grand unified theories on 5D Randall-Sundrum warped space.
Unusual vascular ring anomaly in a foal
Smith, Trinity R.
2004-01-01
A 2.5-month-old filly was presented with signs of esophageal obstruction. The filly was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed a vascular ring anomaly. The vascular ring anomaly was not caused by a persistent right aortic arch, which is the only vascular ring anomaly reported to occur in horses.
Anomalies and Hawking fluxes from the black holes of topologically massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The anomaly cancellation method proposed by Wilczek et al. is applied to the black holes of topologically massive gravity (TMG) and topologically massive gravito-electrodynamics (TMGE). Thus the Hawking temperature and fluxes of the ACL and ACGL black holes are found. The Hawking temperatures obtained agree with the surface gravity formula. Both black holes are rotating and this gives rise to appropriate terms in the effective U(1) gauge field of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional theory. It is found that the terms in this U(1) gauge field correspond exactly to the correct angular velocities on the horizon of both black holes as well as the correct electrostatic potential of the ACGL black hole. So the results for the Hawking fluxes derived here from the anomaly cancellation method, are in complete agreement with the ones obtained from integrating the Planck distribution.
Anomalies and Hawking fluxes from the black holes of topologically massive gravity
Porfyriadis, Achilleas P
2009-01-01
The anomaly cancelation method proposed by Wilczek et al. is applied to the black holes of topologically massive gravity (TMG) and topologically massive gravito-electrodynamics (TMGE). Thus the Hawking temperature and fluxes of the ACL and ACGL black holes are found. The Hawking temperatures obtained agree with the surface gravity formula. Both black holes are rotating and this gives rise to appropriate terms in the effective U(1) gauge field of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional theory. It is found that the terms in this U(1) gauge field correspond exactly to the correct angular velocities on the horizon of both black holes as well as the correct electrostatic potential of the ACGL black hole. So the results for the Hawking fluxes derived here from the anomaly cancelation method, are in complete agreement with the ones obtained from integrating the Planck distribution.
Assessment of the 1997-1998 Asian Monsoon Anomalies
Lau, William K.-M.; Wu, H.-T.
1999-01-01
Using State-of-the-art satellite-gauge monthly rainfall estimate and optimally interpolated sea surface temperature (SST) data, we have assessed the 1997-98 Asian monsoon anomalies in terms of three basic causal factors: basin-scale SST, regional coupling, and internal variability. Singular Value Decomposition analysis of rainfall and SST are carried out globally over the entire tropics and regionally over the Asian monsoon domain. Contributions to monsoon rainfall predictability by various factors are evaluated from cumulative anomaly correlation with dominant regional SVD modes. Results reveal a dominant, large-scale monsoon-El Nino coupled mode with well-defined centers of action in the near-equatorial monsoon regions. it is noted that some subcontinental regions such as all-India, or arbitrarily chosen land regions over East Asia, while important socio-economically, are not near the centers of influence from El Nino, hence are not necessarily representative of the response of the entire monsoon region to El Nino. The observed 1997-98 Asian monsoon anomalies are found to be very complex with approximately 34% of the anomalies attributable to basin- scale SST influence associated with El Nino. Regional coupled processes contribute an additional 19%, leaving about 47% due to internal dynamics. Also noted is that the highest monsoon predictability is not necessary associated with major El Nino events (e.g. 1997, 1982) but rather in non-El Nino years (e.g. 1980, 1988) when contributions from the regional coupled modes far exceed those from the basin-scale SST. The results suggest that in order to improve monsoon seasonal-to-interannual predictability, there is a need to exploit not only monsoon-El Nino relationship, but also monsoon regional coupled processes and their modulation by long-term climate change.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Here some insight is provided into mathematical methods to analyze quantized gauge theories. This approach is being used to establish existence as well as to prove properties of gauge field models. Up to now, only abelian gauge fields are known to exist, namely the U(1) Higgs model on IR2 and IR3 and electrodynamics on the tori T2 and T3. In these lectures infrared properties of some of these models as studied. The non-Abelian gauge models are interesting for additional reasons: First, they have a natural geometric interpretation. Furthermore, because of asymptotic freedom, non-Abelian models have better local regularity properties than Abelian theories. Furthermore, they provide a rich analytic structure. In these notes ultraviolet properties of the d = 3 Yang-Mills theory are described. The Euclidean point of view is used throughout. The connection to real time follows from established results. 17 references, 8 figures
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The construction of field strength copies without any gauge constraint is discussed. Several examples are given, one of which is not only a field strength copy but also (at the same time) a 'current copy'. (author)
Maas, Axel
2012-01-01
QCD can be formulated using any gauge group. One particular interesting choice is to replace SU(3) by the exceptional group G2. Conceptually, this group is the simplest group with a trivial center. It thus permits to study the conjectured relevance of center degrees of freedom for QCD. Practically, since all its representation are real, it is possible to perform lattice simulations for this theory also at finite baryon densities. It is thus an excellent environment to test methods and to investigate general properties of gauge theories at finite densities. We review the status of our understanding of gauge theories with the gauge group G2, including Yang-Mills theory, Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, and QCD both in the vacuum and in the phase diagram.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cog-Gauge is a portable hand-held game that can be used by astronauts and crew members during space exploration missions to assess their cognitive workload...
6d holographic anomaly match as a continuum limit
Cremonesi, Stefano
2015-01-01
An infinite class of analytic AdS_7 x S^3 solutions has recently been found. The S^3 is distorted into a "crescent roll" shape by the presence of D8-branes. These solutions are conjectured to be dual to a class of "linear quivers", with a large number of gauge groups coupled to (bi-)fundamental matter and tensor fields. In this paper we perform a precise quantitative check of this correspondence, showing that the a Weyl anomalies computed in field theory and gravity agree. In the holographic limit, where the number of gauge groups is large, the field theory result is a quadratic form in the gauge group ranks involving the inverse of the A_N Cartan matrix C. The agreement can be understood as a continuum limit, using the fact that C is a lattice analogue of a second derivative. The discrete data of the field theory, summarized by two partitions, become in this limit the continuous functions in the geometry. Conversely, the geometry of the internal space gets discretized at the quantum level to the discrete dat...
Loop quantum gravity corrections to gravitational wave dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cosmological tensor perturbations equations are derived for Hamiltonian cosmology based on Ashtekar's formulation of general relativity, including typical quantum gravity effects in the Hamiltonian constraint as they are expected from loop quantum gravity. This translates to corrections of the dispersion relation for gravitational waves. The main application here is the preservation of causality which is shown to be realized due to the absence of anomalies in the effective constraint algebra used
Lattice Gauge Fixing for Parameter Dependent Covariant Gauges
Giusti, L; Paciello, M. L.; Petrarca, S.; Taglienti, B.
1999-01-01
We propose a non-perturbative procedure to fix generic covariant gauges on the lattice. Varying the gauge parameter, this gauge fixing provides a concrete method to check numerically the gauge dependence of correlators measured on the lattice. The new algorithm turns out to converge with a good efficiency. As a preliminary physical result, we find a sensitive dependence of the gluon propagator on the gauge parameter.
Quantization of gauge theory for gauge dependent operators
Chen, Xiang-Song; Sun, Wei-Min; Wang, Fan; Faessler, Amand
1999-01-01
Based on a canonically derived path integral formalism, we demonstrate that the perturbative calculation of the matrix element for gauge dependent operators has crucial difference from that for gauge invariant ones. For a gauge dependent operator ${\\cal O}(\\phi)$ what appears in the Feynman diagrams is not ${\\cal O} (\\phi)$ itself, but the gauge-transformed one ${\\cal O}(^\\omega \\phi)$, where $\\omega$ characterizes the specific gauge transformation which brings any field var...
Anomalous gauge theories revisited
Matsui, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi(Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581, Japan)
2004-01-01
A possible formulation of chiral gauge theories with an anomalous fermion content is re-examined in light of the lattice framework based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. It is shown that the fermion sector of a wide class of anomalous non-abelian theories cannot consistently be formulated within this lattice framework. In particular, in 4 dimension, {\\it all} anomalous non-abelian theories are included in this class. Anomalous abelian chiral gauge theories cannot be formulat...
Induced gauge interactions revisited
Broda, Bogus?aw; Szanecki, Micha?
2010-01-01
It has been shown that the old-fashioned idea of Sakharov's induced gravity and gauge interactions in the "one-loop dominance" version works astonishingly well yielding reasonable parameters. It appears that induced coupling constants of gauge interactions of the standard model assume qualitatively realistic values. Moreover, it is possible to induce the Barbero--Immirzi parameter of canonical gravity from the fields entering the standard model.
Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry and gravitational force
Hsu, J. P.
1980-01-01
Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry due to the gravitational interaction alone is discussed, considering the gravitational coupling of fermion matter related to the Yang-Mills (1954) gauge symmetry with the unique generalization of the four-dimensional Poincare group. Attention is given to the case of weak static fields which determines the space-time metric where only large source terms are retained. In addition, considering lowest-order Feynman diagrams, there are presented gravitational potential energies between fermions, between antifermions, and between a fermion and an antifermion. It is concluded that the gravitational force between matter is different from that between antimatter; implications from this concerning the evolution of the universe are discussed.
On the scaling rules for the anomaly-induced effective action of metric and electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The anomaly-induced effective action is a useful tool for deriving the contributions coming from quantum effects of massless conformal fields. It is well known that such corrections in the higher derivative vacuum sector of the gravitational action provide the same exponential inflation (Starobinsky model) as the cosmological constant term. At the same time, the presence of a classical electromagnetic field breaks down the exponential solution. In this Letter we explore the role of the anomaly-induced term in the radiation sector and, furthermore, derive the 'equation of state' and the scaling laws for all terms in the Einstein equations. As one could expect, the scaling law for the vacuum anomaly-induced effective action is the same as for the cosmological constant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a unified framework to describe lattice gauge theories by means of tensor networks: this framework is efficient as it exploits the high local symmetry content native to these systems by describing only the gauge invariant subspace. Compared to a standard tensor network description, the gauge invariant model allows one to increase real and imaginary time evolution up to a factor that is square of the dimension of the link variable. The gauge invariant tensor network description is based on the quantum link formulation, a compact and intuitive formulation for gauge theories on the lattice, which is alternative to and can be combined with the global symmetric tensor network description. We present some paradigmatic examples that show how this architecture might be used to describe the physics of condensed matter and high-energy physics systems. Finally, we present a cellular automata analysis which estimates the gauge invariant Hilbert space dimension as a function of the number of lattice sites that might guide the search for effective simplified models of complex theories. (paper)
Lattice Perturbation Theory in Noncommutative Geometry and Parity Anomaly in 3D Noncommutative QED
Nishimura, J
2003-01-01
We formulate lattice perturbation theory for gauge theories in noncommutative geometry. We apply it to three-dimensional noncommutative QED and calculate the effective action induced by Dirac fermions. In particular "parity invariance" of a massless theory receives an anomaly expressed by the noncommutative Chern-Simons action. The coefficient of the anomaly is labelled by an integer depending on the lattice action, which is a noncommutative counterpart of the phenomenon known in the commutative theory. The parity anomaly can also be obtained using Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, where the masslessness is guaranteed at finite lattice spacing. This suggests a natural definition of the lattice-regularized Chern-Simons theory on a noncommutative torus, which could enable nonperturbative studies of quantum Hall systems.
Transformations of asymptotic gravitational-wave data
Boyle, Michael
2015-01-01
Gravitational-wave data is gauge dependent. While we can restrict the class of gauges in which such data may be expressed, there will still be an infinite-dimensional group of transformations allowed while remaining in this class, and almost as many different---though physically equivalent---waveforms as there are transformations. This paper presents a method for calculating the effects of the most important transformation group, the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group, consisting of rotations, boosts, and supertranslations (which include time and space translations as special cases). To a reasonable approximation, these transformations result in simple coupling between the modes in a spin-weighted spherical-harmonic decomposition of the waveform. It is shown that waveforms from simulated compact binaries in the publicly available SXS waveform catalog contain unmodeled effects due to displacement and drift of the center of mass, accounting for mode-mixing at typical levels of 1%. However, these effects can be mit...
S-Dual Gravity in the Axial Gauge
Ellwanger, U
2006-01-01
We investigate an action that includes simultaneously original and dual gravitational fields (in the first order formalism), where the dual fields are completely determined in terms of the original fields through axial gauge conditions and partial (non-covariant) duality constraints. We introduce two kinds of matter, one that couples to the original metric, and dual matter that couples to the dual metric. The linear response of both metrics to the corresponding stress energy...
Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, B
2006-10-12
This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.
Attractors and the Holomorphic Anomaly
Verlinde, E
2004-01-01
Motivated by the recently proposed connection between N=2 BPS black holes and topological strings, I study the attractor equations and their interplay with the holomorphic anomaly equation. The topological string partition function is interpreted as a wave-function obtained by quantizing the real cohomology of the Calabi-Yau. In this interpretation the apparent background dependence due to the holomorphic anomaly is caused by the choice of complex polarization. The black hole attractor equations express the moduli in terms of the electric and magnetic charges, and lead to a real polarization in which the background dependence disappears. Our analysis results in a generalized formula for the relation between the microscopic density of black hole states and topological strings valid for all backgrounds.
Gauge fields in a torsion field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we analyse the motion and the field equations in a non-null curvature and torsion space. In this 4-n dimensional space, the connection coefficients are ?bca = 1/2Sbca + 1/2Tbca, where Sbca is the symmetrical part and Tbca are the components of the torsion tensor. We will consider that all the fields depend on x = x?, ? = 1,2,3,4 and do not depend on y = yk, k=1,2,...,n. The factor Sbca depends on the components of the metric tensor g??(x) and on the gauge fields A?s0(x) and the components of the torsion depend only on the gauge fields A?s0(x). We take into consideration the particular case for which the geodesic equations coincide with the motion equations in the presence of the gravitational and the gauge fields. In this case the field equations are Einstein equations in a 4-n dimensional space. We show that both the geodesic equations and the field equations can be obtained from a variational principle. (author)
Numerical Methods for Finding Stationary Gravitational Solutions
Dias, Oscar J C; Way, Benson
2015-01-01
The wide applications of higher dimensional gravity and gauge/gravity duality have fuelled the search for new stationary solutions of the Einstein equation (possibly coupled to matter). In this topical review, we explain the mathematical foundations and give a practical guide for the numerical solution of gravitational boundary value problems. We present these methods by way of example: resolving asymptotically flat black rings, singly-spinning lumpy black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS), and the Gregory-Laflamme zero modes of small rotating black holes in AdS$_5\\times S^5$. We also include several tools and tricks that have been useful throughout the literature.
?-Anomalies and space-time supersymmetry in the Green-Schwarz heterotic superstring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computation of ?-anomalies in the Green-Schwarz heterotic superstring sigma-model and the corresponding Wess-Zumino consistency condition constitute a powerful alternative approach for the derivation of manifestly supersymmetric string effective actions. With respect to the beta-function approach this technique presents the advantage that a result which is obtained with the computation of beta-functions at n loops can be obtained through the calculation of ?-anomalies at n-1 loops. In this paper we derive by a direct one-loop perturbative computation the ?-anomaly associated to the Yang-Mills Chern-Simons threeform and, for the first time, the one associated to the Lorentz Chern-Simons threeform. In the calculation we shall use a convenient set of constraints for the pure N=1, D=10 supergravity theory which is algebraically identical to the standard set of constraints for the pure N=1, D=10 super Yang-Mills theory. Contrary to what is often stated in the literature we show that the Lorentz ?-anomaly gets contributions from the integration over both the fermionic and bosonic degrees of freedom of the string. A careful analysis of the absolute coefficients of all these anomalies reveals that they can be absorbed by setting dH=(1)/(4)?'(F2-R2), where ?' is the string tension, the expected result. We show that this relation ensures also the absence of gauge and Lorentz anomalies in the sigma-model effective action. Moreover, the consistency condition of the ?-anomalies ensures the closure of the SUSY algebra in the Bianchi identities. We exhibit the presence of infrared divergences in the heterotic string sigma model, which are due to the presence of the d=2 scalar massless fields of the string, and present a conjecture for their cancellation which is intimately related to the locality and Wess-Zumino consistency of the ?-anomalies. ((orig.))
Anomaly Cancelation in Field Theory and F-theory on a Circle
Grimm, Thomas W
2015-01-01
We study the manifestation of local gauge anomalies of four- and six-dimensional field theories in the lower-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory obtained after circle compactification. We identify a convenient set of transformations acting on the whole tower of massless and massive states and investigate their action on the low-energy effective theories in the Coulomb branch. The maps employ higher-dimensional large gauge transformations and precisely yield the anomaly cancelation conditions when acting on the one-loop induced Chern-Simons terms in the three- and five-dimensional effective theory. The arising symmetries are argued to play a key role in the study of the M-theory to F-theory limit on Calabi-Yau manifolds. For example, using the fact that all fully resolved F-theory geometries inducing multiple Abelian gauge groups or non-Abelian groups admit a certain set of symmetries, we are able to generally show the cancelation of pure Abelian or pure non-Abelian anomalies in these models.
Anomaly mediation in superstring theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conlon, Joseph P. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Balliol College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Palti, Eran [Centre de Physique Theoretique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)
2010-08-15
We study anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in type IIB string theory and use our results to test the supergravity formula for anomaly mediated gaugino masses. We compute 1-loop gaugino masses for models of D3-branes on orbifold singularities with 3-form fluxes by calculating the annulus correlator of 3-form flux and two gauginos in the zero momentum limit. Consistent with supergravity expectations we find both anomalous and running contributions to 1-loop gaugino masses. For background Neveu-Schwarz H-flux we find an exact match with the supergravity formula. For Ramond-Ramond flux there is an off-shell ambiguity that precludes a full matching. The anomaly mediated gaugino masses, while determined by the infrared spectrum, arise from an explicit sum over UV open string winding modes. We also calculate brane-to-brane tree-level gravity mediated gaugino masses and show that there are two contributions coming from the dilaton and from the twisted modes, which are suppressed by the full T{sup 6} volume and the untwisted T{sup 2} volume respectively. (orig.)
Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies
Anderson, John D
2009-01-01
There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction ...
Anomaly mediation in superstring theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in type IIB string theory and use our results to test the supergravity formula for anomaly mediated gaugino masses. We compute 1-loop gaugino masses for models of D3-branes on orbifold singularities with 3-form fluxes by calculating the annulus correlator of 3-form flux and two gauginos in the zero momentum limit. Consistent with supergravity expectations we find both anomalous and running contributions to 1-loop gaugino masses. For background Neveu-Schwarz H-flux we find an exact match with the supergravity formula. For Ramond-Ramond flux there is an off-shell ambiguity that precludes a full matching. The anomaly mediated gaugino masses, while determined by the infrared spectrum, arise from an explicit sum over UV open string winding modes. We also calculate brane-to-brane tree-level gravity mediated gaugino masses and show that there are two contributions coming from the dilaton and from the twisted modes, which are suppressed by the full T6 volume and the untwisted T2 volume respectively. (orig.)
CERN. Geneva
2006-01-01
Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.
A Unified Field Theory of Gravity, Electromagnetism, and the Yang-Mills Gauge Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we attempt at constructing a comprehensive four-dimensional unified field theory of gravity, electromagnetism, and the non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and material spin fields are unified as intrinsic geometric objects of the space-time manifold S4 via the connection, with the general- ized non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field appearing in particular as a sub-field of the geometrized electromagnetic interaction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An attempt is made to compare the solution of field equations, corresponding to quadratic equations for the fields (g??, ????) in gauge gravitation theory (GGT) with general relativity theory solutions. Without restrictions for a concrete type of metrics only solutions of equations, for which torsion turns to zero, are considered. Equivalence of vacuum equations of gauge quadratic theory of gravity and general relativity theory is proved using the Newman-Penrose formalism
Introduction of the generalized Lorenz gauge condition into the vector-tensor theory
Gao, Changjun
2011-01-01
We introduce the generalized Lorentz gauge condition in the theory of quantum electrodynamics into the general vector-tensor theories of gravity. Then we explore the cosmic evolution and the static, spherically symmetric solution of the four dimensional vector field with the generalized Lorenz gauge. We find that, if the vector field is minimally coupled to the gravitation, it behaves as the cosmological constant. On the other hand, if it is nonminimally coupled to the gravi...
On gauge invariance of the effective potential in Kaluza-Klein theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is pointed out, that vacuum energy, calculated on the basis of extremals of vertex performance functional, in Kaluza-Klein theories does not depend on gauge. General statement is illustrated by calculations of vacuum energy in one-parametric gauge in vector field theory and Einstein gravitation within M4xTD-4 space, where M4 - is Minkowski space and TD - is D-dimensional torus
Bini, Donato; Damour, Thibault
2013-01-01
We extend the analytical determination of the main radial potential describing (within the effective one-body formalism) the gravitational interaction of two bodies beyond the 4th post-Newtonian approximation recently obtained by us. This extension is done to linear order in the mass ratio by applying analytical gravitational self-force theory (for a particle in circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole) to Detweiler's gauge-invariant redshift variable. By using the v...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium is herein derived on the basis of classical, Newtonian gravitational theory and by a general relativistic use of Archimedes' principle. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate students and those undergraduate students having prior experience with vector analysis and potential theory.
Poincare gauge in electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gauge presented here, which we call the Poincare gauge, is a generalization of the well-known expressions phi = -rxE0 and A = 1/2 B0 x r for the scalar and vector potentials which describe static, uniform electric and magnetic fields. This gauge provides a direct method for calculating a vector potential for any given static or dynamic magnetic field. After we establish the validity and generality of this gauge, we use it to produce a simple and unambiguous method of computing the flux linking an arbitrary knotted and twisted closed circuit. The magnetic flux linking the curve bounding a Moebius band is computed as a simple example. Arguments are then presented that physics students should have the opportunity of learning early in their curriculum modern geometric approaches to physics. (The language of exterior calculus may be as important to future physics as vector calculus was to the past.) Finally, an appendix illustrates how the Poincare gauge (and others) may be derived from Poincare's lemma relating exact and closed exterior differential forms
Vlokh, R.; M.Kostyrko
2006-01-01
Nonlinear effect of the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the gravitational coefficient G has been analysed. In frame of the approaches of parametric optics and gravitation nonlinearity we have shown that the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass can lead to changes in the gravitational coefficient G.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Vlokh
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear effect of the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the gravitational coefficient G has been analysed. In frame of the approaches of parametric optics and gravitation nonlinearity we have shown that the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass can lead to changes in the gravitational coefficient G.
Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2003-12-15
Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.
Spectral Action and Gravitational effects at the Planck scale
Devastato, Agostino
2013-01-01
We discuss the possibility to extend the spectral action up to energy close to the Planck scale, taking also into account the gravitational effects given by graviton exchange. Including this contribution in the theory, the coupling constant unification is not compromised, but is shifted to the Planck scale rendering all gauge couplings asymptotically free. In the scheme of noncommutative geometry, the gravitational effects change the main standard model coupling constants, leading to a restriction of the free parameters of the theory compatible with the Higgs and top mass prediction. We also discuss consequences for the neutrino mass and the see-saw mechanism.
The Diboson Excesses in an Anomaly Free Leptophobic Left-Right Model
Das, Kasinath; Nandi, S; Rai, Santosh Kumar
2015-01-01
The resonant excesses around 2 TeV reported by the ATLAS Collaboration can be explained in the left-right model, and the tight constraints from lepton plus missing energy searches can be evaded if the $SU(2)_R$ gauge symmetry is leptophobic. We for the first time propose an anomaly free leptophobic left-right model with gauge symmetry $SU(3)_C \\times SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)_{X}$ where the SM leptons are singlets under $SU(2)_R$. The gauge anomalies are cancelled by introducing extra vector-like quarks. The mass of $Z^\\prime$ gauge boson, which cannot be leptophobic, is assumed to be around or above 2.5 TeV so that the constraint on dilepton final state can be avoided. Moreover, we find that the $W^\\prime \\to WZ$ channel cannot explain the ATLAS diboson excess due to the tension with the constraint on $W^\\prime \\to jj$ decay mode. We solve this problem by considering the mixings between the SM quarks and vector-like quarks. We show explicitly that the ATLAS diboson excess can be explained in the via...
Discrete Abelian gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the possibility to gauge discrete Abelian symmetries. An algebraic approach to understanding general Abelian discrete groups, which govern the coupling structure of a physical theory is presented. In particular, the embedding of a general Abelian discrete group Zd1 x.. x Zdr into a general Abelian gauge group U(1)k via spontaneous symmetry breaking of the continuous group is elaborated in detail. A promising candidate for the embedding of any discrete gauge symmetry is string theory. The algebraic approach to general discrete Abelian groups establishes new possibilities of controlling the coupling structure in string derived model building. We discuss phenomenological consequences of discrete Abelian symmetries arising in string derived MSSM models. A simple discrete R-symmetry, ZR4, which contains matter parity as non-anomalous subgroup, is capable of resolving multiple issues such as dimension four and five proton decay as well as the ?-problem.
Gauge Invariance and Holographic Renormalization
Kim, Keun-Young; Seo, Yunseok; Sin, Sang-Jin
2015-01-01
We study the gauge invariance of physical observables in holographic theories under the local diffeomorphism. We find that gauge invariance is intimately related to the holographic renormalisation: the local counter terms defined in the boundary cancel most of gauge dependences of the on-shell action as well as the divergences. However, there still remain gauge dependent pieces in the on-shell action under some residual gauge transformation, while the equations of motion are invariant. We prove the invariance of the Green's functions under this residual gauge symmetry in the context of constructing numerical solutions by which all related AC transports are computed simultaneously.
Electromagnetism and Gravitation
Teller, Edward
1995-01-01
The classical concept of "mass density" is not fundamental to the quantum theory of matter. Therefore, mass density cannot be the source of gravitation. Here, we treat electromagnetic energy, momentum, and stress as its source. The resulting theory predicts that the gravitational potential near any charged elementary particle is many orders of magnitude greater than the Newtonian value.
Gravitation Astrometric Measurement Experiment
Gai, Mario; Vecchiato, Alberto; Ligori, Sebastiano; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Mario G.
2012-01-01
The Gravitation Astrometric Measurement Experiment (GAME) is a mission concept based on astronomical techniques (astrometry and coronagraphy) for Fundamental Physics measurements, namely the \\gamma\\ and \\beta\\ parameters of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian formulation of gravitation theories extending the General Relativity. The science case also addresses cosmology, extra-solar planets, Solar system objects and fundamental stellar parameters. The mission concept is described...
Canfora, F.; Vilasi, G.; Vitale, P.
2002-01-01
Gravitational fields invariant for a 2-dimensional Lie algebra of Killing fields [ X,Y] =Y, with Y of light type, are analyzed. The conditions for them to represent gravitational waves are verified and the definition of energy and polarization is addressed; realistic generating sources are described.
Gravitational physics with antimatter
Tasson, Jay D
2010-01-01
The production of low-energy antimatter provides unique opportunities to search for new physics in an unexplored regime. Testing gravitational interactions with antimatter is one such opportunity. Here a scenario based on Lorentz and CPT violation in the Standard- Model Extension is considered in which anomalous gravitational effects in antimatter could arise.
Those Elusive Gravitational Waves
MOSAIC, 1976
1976-01-01
The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Consequences in physical theory of assuming the general relativistic time tranformation for the de Broglie frequencies of matter, v = E/h = mc2/h, are investigated in this paper. Experimentally it is known that electromagnetic waves from a source in a gravitational field are decreased in frequency, in accordance with the Einstein general relativity time transformation. An extension to de Broglie frequencies implies mass decreases in a gravitational field. Such a decrease gives an otherwise missing energy conservation for some processes; also, a physical alteration is then associated with change in gravitational potential. Further, the general relativity time transformation that is the source of gravitational action in the weak field (Newtonian) approximation than has a physical correlate in the proposed gravitational mass loss. Rotational motion and the associated equivalent gravitional-field mass loss are considered; an essential formal difference between metric (gravitational) mass loss and special relativity mass increase is discussed. For a spherical nonrotating mass collapsed to its Schwarzschild radius the postulated mass loss is found to give a 25% decrease in the mass acting as origin off an external gravitational field
Geometric theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of geometric gravitation theory is discussed. An important geometric object - affine connection - is lost in the Einstein gravitation theory. It is noted that the detection of the lost object allows one to make the theory quite geometric. 1 ref
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
We compute the nonzero temperature free energy up to the order g^6 \\ln(1/g) in the coupling constant for vector like SU(N) gauge theories featuring matter transforming according to different representations of the underlying gauge group. The number of matter fields, i.e. flavors, is arranged in such a way that the theory develops a perturbative stable infrared fixed point at zero temperature. Due to large distance conformality we trade the coupling constant with its fixed point value and define ...
1994-01-01
This volume is a compilation of works which, taken together, give a complete and consistent presentation of instanton calculus in non-Abelian gauge theories, as it exists now. Some of the papers reproduced are instanton classics. Among other things, they show from a historical perspective how the instanton solution has been found, the motivation behind it and how the physical meaning of instantons has been revealed. Other papers are devoted to different aspects of instanton formalism including instantons in supersymmetric gauge theories. A few unsolved problems associated with instantons are d
Gravity Advanced Package to probe Solar System gravitation
Christophe, B.; Foulon, B.; Levy, A.
2009-04-01
The Gravity Advanced Package (GAP) is composed of an electrostatic accelerometer, as the ones developed by ONERA for geodetic missions CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE, and radio science instruments for Doppler and range tracking. The measurement of the non gravitational acceleration associated to the radio-science will allow to perform a very accurate navigation of the trajectory. The aim of the package is to test the gravitation in the Solar System, by checking the deviation of the probe trajectory from a geodetic one during the cruise phase of the interplanetary journey, with two primary scientific objectives: - Verify the Einstein gravitation law at the scale of the solar system, to see any dependency of the law with the distance to the gravitation source : any modification of the gravitation law can have consequence in the models of Solar System origin or planet formation; - Verify the anomaly detected on several fly-by of past interplanetary missions: the explanation of such anomaly can have consequence in the knowledge of the planet and moon gravity field which are often determined by such flyby around these bodies. After arrival to destination, such package can also be used to improve the gravity measurement of the visited planet and its moons, without any need of hypotheses on the non gravitational forces which will be measured (atmospheric drag, pressure radiation …). This measurement scenario is the one used for the CHAMP mission around the Earth, with a great improvement in the gravity field knowledge. The Gravity Advanced Package is presently proposed as an instrument for the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter mission, according to the ESA Fundamental Physic Advisory Group (FPAG) recommendation following the ESA Cosmic Vision process.
Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.
2012-01-01
We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.
D'Aquino, F
1998-01-01
There is a electromagnetic factor of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass, which in specific electromagnetic conditions, can be reduced, nullified, negated, and increased. This means that gravitational forces can be reduced, nullified, inverted and intensified by means of electromagnetic fields. Such control of the gravitational interaction can have a lot of practical applications. For example, a new concept of spacecraft and aerospace flight arises from the possibility of the electromagnetic control of the gravitational mass.Some theoretical consequences of the mentioned correlation are: the generalization of Newton=92s second law for the motion (New law for Inertia), the deduction of the differential equation for entropy (second law of Thermodynamics), unification of gravitational and electromagnetic interactions .
Dark energy as a Born-Infeld gauge interaction violating the equivalence principle.
Füzfa, A; Alimi, J-M
2006-08-11
We investigate the possibility that dark energy does not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter, yielding a violation of the weak and strong equivalence principles on cosmological scales. We build a transient mechanism in which gravitation is pushed away from general relativity by a Born-Infeld gauge interaction acting as an abnormally weighting (dark) energy. This mechanism accounts for the Hubble diagram of far-away supernovae by cosmic acceleration and time variation of the gravitational constant while accounting naturally for the present tests on general relativity. PMID:17026155
Constrained gauge theory, gravity and cosmology
Shang, Yanwen
We study gauge and gravitational field theories in which the gauge fixing conditions are imposed as constraints on classical fields. Quantization of fluctuations can be performed in a BRST invariant manner, while the main novelty is that the classical equations of motion admit solutions that are not present in the standard approach. Although the new solutions exist for both gauge and gravitational fields, one interesting example we consider in detail is constrained gravity endowed with a nonzero cosmological constant. This theory admits two classes of solutions, one of which is the conventional ones as found in General Relativity and the other is new. In particular, with an arbitrary cosmological constant, the theory admits two maximally symmetric solutions, one of which is a flat space, and the other is the curved space-time solution in GR. We argue that, due to BRST symmetry, the classical solutions obtained in these theories are not ruined by quantum effects. We also comment on massive deformations of the constrained models. For both gauge and gravity fields we point out that the propagators of the massive quanta have soft ultraviolet behavior and smooth transition to the massless limit. However, nonlinear stability may require further modifications of the massive theories. Following the above studies, we study cosmological implications of some of the new solutions found in constrained model of gravity. We show that a spatially-flat de Sitter universe can be created from "nothing". This universe has boundaries, and its total energy equals to zero. Although the probability to create such a universe is exponentially suppressed, it favors initial conditions suitable for inflation. Then we discuss a finite-energy solution with a nonzero cosmological constant and zero space-time curvature. There is no tunneling suppression to fluctuate into this state. We show that for a positive cosmological constant this state is unstable---it can rapidly transition to a de Sitter universe providing a new unsuppressed channel for inflation. For a negative cosmological constant the space-time flat solutions is stable.
H??? as a Triangle Anomaly: Possible Implications for the Hierarchy Problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Gouvea, Andre; Kile, Jennifer; Vega-Morales, Roberto
2013-06-24
The Standard Model calculation of H??? has the curious feature of being finite but regulator-dependent. While dimensional regularization yields a result which respects the electromagnetic Ward identities, additional terms which violate gauge invariance arise if the calculation is done setting d = 4. This discrepancy between the d=4 – ? and d = 4 results is recognized as a true ambiguity which must be resolved using physics input; as dimensional regularization respects gauge invariance, the d = 4 – ? calculation is accepted as the correct SM result. However, here we point out another possibility; working in analogy with the gauge chiral anomaly, we note that it is possible that the individual diagrams do violate the electromagnetic Ward identities, but that the gauge-invariance-violating terms cancel when all contributions to H???, both from the SM and from new physics, are included. We thus examine the consequences of the hypothesis that the d = 4 calculation is valid, but that such a cancellation occurs. We work in general renormalizable gauge, thus avoiding issues with momentum routing ambiguities. We point out that the gauge-invariance-violating terms in d = 4 arise not just for the diagram containing a SM $W^{\\pm}$ boson, but also for general fermion and scalar loops, and relate these terms to a lack of shift invariance in Higgs tadpole diagrams. We then derive the analogue of "anomaly cancellation conditions", and find consequences for solutions to the hierarchy problem. In particular, we find that supersymmetry obeys these conditions, even if it is softly broken at an arbitrarily high scale.
Development and Congenital Anomalies of the Pancreas
Bunsei Nobukawa; Hiroyuki Tadokoro; Masaru Takase
2011-01-01
Understanding how the pancreas develops is essential to understand the pathogenesis of congenital pancreatic anomalies. Recent studies have shown the advantages of investigating the development of frogs, mice, and chickens for understanding early embryonic development of the pancreas and congenital anomalies, such as choledochal cysts, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction, annular pancreas, and pancreas divisum. These anomalies arise from failure of complete rotation and fusion during embryo...
On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies
Auzzi, Roberto; Nardelli, Giuseppe
2015-01-01
We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schr\\"odinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.
Anomaly Extraction Using Association Rule Mining
Ms. Gargi Joshi
2014-01-01
Today network security, uptime and performance of network are important and serious issue in computer network. Anomaly is deviation from normal behavior which is factor that affects on network security. So Anomaly Extraction which detects and extracts anomalous flow from network is requirement of network operator. Anomaly extraction refers to automatically finding in a large set of flows observed during an anomalous time interval, the flows associated with the anomalous event(...
Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective
Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar
2013-01-01
With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach
Conformal anomalies and the index theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In some two-dimensional field theories, the family index theorem can be used to calculate the conformal anomaly. This is surprising since there is no known underlying topological origin for the conformal anomaly. The index theorem approach provides a different way of understanding Friedan's theorem relating the conformal anomaly to the Virasoro charge. Various aspects of string models are discussed within the context of the index theorem. (orig.)