WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Gauge anomalies, gravitational anomalies, and superstrings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs.

Bardeen, W.A.

1985-08-01

2

Structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies*  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown how the form of the gauge and gravitational anomalies in quantum field theories may be derived from classical index theorems. The gravitational anomaly in both Einstein and Lorentz form is considered and their equivalence is exhibited. The formalism of gauge and gravitational theories is reviewed using the language of differential geometry, and notions from the theory of characteristic classes necessary for understanding the classical index theorems are introduced. The treatment of known topological results includes a pedagogical derivation of the Wess-Zumino effective Lagrangian in abitrary even dimension. The relation between various forms of the anomaly present in the literature is also clarified

1985-01-01

3

Gauge and gravitational anomalies in D=4 N=1 orientifolds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cancellation of U(1)-gauge and U(1)-gravitational anomalies in certain D = 4 N = 1 type-IIB orientifolds is analyzed in detail, from a string theory point of view. We verify the proposal that these anomalies are cancelled by a Green-Schwarz mechanism involving only twisted Ramond-Ramond fields. By factorizing one-loop partition functions, we also get the anomalous couplings of D-branes, O-planes and orbifold fixed-points to these twisted fields. Twisted sectors with fixed-planes participa...

Scrucca, C. A.; Serone, M.

1999-01-01

4

Gauge and gravitational anomalies and Hawking radiation of rotating BTZ black holes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we obtain the flux of Hawking radiation from rotating BTZ black holes from the gauge and gravitational anomalies point of view. Then we show that the gauge and gravitational anomaly in BTZ spacetime is cancelled by the total flux of a 2-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature of the spacetime. (orig.)

Setare, M.R. [Payame Noor University, Department of Science, Bijar (Iran)

2007-02-15

5

Constitutive relations and response parameters in two-dimensional hydrodynamics with gauge and gravitational anomalies  

Science.gov (United States)

We obtain the constitutive relations for the stress tensor and gauge current in (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics in the presence of both gauge and gravitational (conformal as well as diffeomorphism) anomalies. The relations between response parameters and anomaly coefficients are also found. The role of the Israel Hartle Hawking vacuum is emphasised. Finally, in the absence of gauge fields, earlier results obtained by a hydrodynamic expansion are reproduced.

Banerjee, Rabin; Dey, Shirsendu

2014-06-01

6

Constitutive relations and response parameters in two dimensional hydrodynamics with gauge and gravitational anomalies  

CERN Document Server

We obtain the constitutive relations for the stress tensor and gauge current in $(1+1)$ dimensional hydrodynamics in the presence of both gauge and gravitational (conformal as well as diffeomorphism) anomalies. The relations between response parameters and anomaly coefficients are also found. The role of the Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum is emphasized. Finally, in the absence of gauge fields, earlier results obtained by a hydrodynamic expansion are reproduced.

Banerjee, Rabin

2014-01-01

7

Hawking radiation from rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spaces via gauge and gravitational anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Robinson-Wilczek's recent work, which treats Hawking radiation as a compensating flux to cancel gravitational anomaly at the horizon of a Schwarzschild-type black hole, is extended to study Hawking radiation of rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spaces, especially that in dragging coordinate system, via gauge and gravitational anomalies. The results show that in order to restore gauge invariance and general coordinate covariance at the quantum level in the effective field theory, the charge and energy flux by requiring to cancel gauge and gravitational anomalies at the horizon, must have a form equivalent to that of a (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at Hawking temperature with an appropriate chemical potential.

Jiang Qingquan [Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)]. E-mail: jiangqingqua@126.com; Wu Shuangqing [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)]. E-mail: sqwu@phy.ccnu.edu.cn

2007-04-05

8

Hawking radiation from rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spaces via gauge and gravitational anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Robinson-Wilczek's recent work, which treats Hawking radiation as a compensating flux to cancel gravitational anomaly at the horizon of a Schwarzschild-type black hole, is extended to study Hawking radiation of rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spaces, especially that in dragging coordinate system, via gauge and gravitational anomalies. The results show that in order to restore gauge invariance and general coordinate covariance at the quantum level in the effective field theory, the charge and energy flux by requiring to cancel gauge and gravitational anomalies at the horizon, must have a form equivalent to that of a (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at Hawking temperature with an appropriate chemical potential

2007-04-05

9

False Gravitational Anomalies  

CERN Multimedia

It is pointed out that the existence of gravitational anomalies cannot be established by the reasoning of Alvarez-Gaume and Witten. Its serious drawback is the confusion of the T*-product quantities with the T-product ones. It is explicitly confirmed that the gravitational anomaly is non-existent in the 2-dimensional case.

Abe, M; Abe, Mitsuo; Nakanishi, Noboru

2005-01-01

10

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport  

CERN Multimedia

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-01-01

11

Hawking radiation from charged black holes via gauge and gravitational anomalies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extending the method of Robinson and Wolczek, we show that in order to avoid a breakdown of general covariance and gauge invariance at the quantum level the total flux of charge and energy in each outgoing partial wave of a charged quantum field in a Reissner-Nordström black hole background must be equal to that of a (1 + 1)-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature with the appropriate chemical potential. PMID:16712145

Iso, Satoshi; Umetsu, Hiroshi; Wilczek, Frank

2006-04-21

12

Gauge Theories of Gravitation  

CERN Document Server

During the last five decades, gravity, as one of the fundamental forces of nature, has been formulated as a gauge field theory of the Weyl-Cartan-Yang-Mills type. The resulting theory, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity, encompasses Einstein's gravitational theory as well as the teleparallel theory of gravity as subcases. In general, the spacetime structure is enriched by Cartan's torsion and the new theory can accommodate fermionic matter and its spin in a perfectly natural way. The present reprint volume contains articles from the most prominent proponents of the theory and is supplemented by detailed commentaries of the editors. This guided tour starts from special relativity and leads, in its first part, to general relativity and its gauge type extensions a la Weyl and Cartan. Subsequent stopping points are the theories of Yang-Mills and Utiyama and, as a particular vantage point, the theory of Sciama and Kibble. Later, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory and its generalizations are explored and specific topi...

Blagojevi?, Milutin

2012-01-01

13

Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Second Order Transport and Gravitational Anomaly*,**  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We study the transport properties of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies. The computation is performed in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence for a 5 dim holographic model with Chern-Simons terms in the action. We find new anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients, as well as new contributions to the existing ones coming from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. Consequences for the shear waves dispersion relation are analyzed.

Megías Eugenio

2014-03-01

14

Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The book concludes with thirteen appendices, covering mainly technical issues but also including Ashtekhar variables and Chern-Simons theory. Irritatingly, there is a separate bibliography for each chapter (which leads to much duplication) but commendably, the author highlights selected sources for suitable further reading. Also to be welcomed wholeheartedly are well-chosen worked examples and exercises, ranging from easy to fairly challenging, in each chapter. This is a properly bound paperback, hardly inexpensive, but well up to IOP's impeccable production standards. Could this be the ideal textbook for a research student or even an established researcher from another field to pick up the latest developments in field theory? Unfortunately this is not the whole story. The back cover also asserts, while talking about gauge invariance, that 'It is less known that the principle of equivalence, one of the basic dynamical properties of the gravitational interaction, can be expressed as a (spacetime) gauge symmetry'. On page 10 this is qualified to be a local symmetry. On pages 62-3 this hidden result is revealed. As every relativist knows, the principle of equivalence implies that for each spacetime point p a chart (normal coordinates at p) can be chosen so that the metric tensor takes its Minkowski value and its (partial) derivatives vanish at p. In other words every (pseudo-)Riemannian manifold is locally flat, the 'less known' result. So what else can the author tell us about gravity? There is little to fault in the first two sections of the book, trying to express gravity as a nonlinear spin-2 theory on Minkowski spacetime, apart from the obvious objection. A well-known and highly-recommendable textbook by S Weinberg 1972 Gravitation and Cosmology (New York: Wiley), carries out, at a more elementary level, a similar programme with the same defect. Such local theories cannot predict global changes whereby spacetime has a different topology to the Minkowski one. (The unconvinced reader should investigate references to black holes in Weinberg's text.) As speaker after speaker at the S W Hawking 60th Birthday Conference last week emphasized, when trying to unify gravity with quantum theory, it is perilous to neglect geometry. Because the later chapters on supersymmetry, supergravity, Kaluza-Klein and string theories are more fashionable, I need to point out an important caveat. Excluding textbooks and conference volumes, all (English language) citations in the supersymmetry/supergravity chapter are at least 16 years old. Apart from one 2000 article (on teleparallel theory) this age gap drops by three years for the chapter on Kaluza-Klein theory, and it does not change any further for the string theory chapter. There have been more recent significant advances in our understanding and interpretation of these theories but, alas, they are not chronicled here. I raised a question as to the value of this book at the end of the first paragraph, and I want to answer it within the context of the conference mentioned above, which tried t

2002-03-07

15

Comment on gravitational anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown by the path integral method that the general coordinate and local Lorentz anomalies satisfy certain relations between them. The physical meaning of the cancellation of those two anomalies is clarified and it is illustrated for the fields (psi, psi sub(?), Fsub(a)) in d = 2. We show that the use of local counter terms can be avoided if one adopts a non-linear realization of general coordinate transformations. The field representation (such as psi sub(?) and psisub(a)) dependence of the local Lorentz anomaly is also noted. (author)

1984-01-01

16

Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries  

CERN Document Server

The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...

Stewart, J

2002-01-01

17

Review on possible gravitational anomalies  

CERN Document Server

This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15).

Amador, X E

2005-01-01

18

Gravitation as a gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present gauge theories of gravitation based, respectively, on the general linear group GL(n, R) and its inhomogeneous extension IGL(n, R). [SO(n-1,1) and ISO(n-1,1) for torsion-free manifolds]. Noting that the geometry of the conventional gauge theories can be described in terms of a principal fiber bundle, and that their action is a scalar in such a superspace, we construct principal fiber bundles based on the above gauge groups and propose to describe gravitation in terms of their corresponding scalar curvatures. To ensure that these manifolds do indeed have close ties with the space-time of general relativity, we make use of the notion of the parallel transport of vector fields in space-time to uniquely relate the connections in space-time to the gauge potentials in fiber bundles. The relations turn out to be similar to that suggested earlier by Yang. The actions we obtain are related to those of Einstein and Yang but are distinct from both and have an Einstein limit. The inclusion of internal symmetry leads to the analogs of Einstein-Yang-Mills equations. A number of variations and less attractive alternatives based on the subgroups of the above groups are also discussed

1976-06-15

19

Quantization of gauge theories with anomalies  

CERN Document Server

In this talk, we briefly review the basic concepts of anomalous gauge theories. It has been known for some time how theories with local anomalies can be handled. Recently it has been pointed out that global anomalies, which obstruct the quantization of certain gauge theories in the temporal gauge, get bypassed in canonical quantization.

Mitra, P

1995-01-01

20

Hawking radiation via higher-spin gauge anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We give a higher-spin generalization of the anomaly method for the Hawking radiation from black holes. In the paper [S. Iso, T. Morita, and H. Umetsu, arXiv:0710.0453.] higher-spin generalizations of the gauge (and gravitational) anomalies in d=2 were obtained. By applying these anomalies to black hole physics, we derive the higher moments of the Hawking fluxes. We also give a higher-spin generalization of the trace anomaly method by Christensen and Fulling [S. Christensen and S. Fulling, Phys. Rev. D 15, 2088 (1977).

2008-02-15

 
 
 
 
21

Gauge theories of gravitation: commutative and noncommutative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gauge theories of gravitation both commutative and non-commutative are presented and a comparison between their results is given. The commutative gauge theory of gravitation is developed in a similar way with internal gauge theory by using the formalism of differential forms. In the noncommutative case we use a covariant star product between differential forms in order to construct a gauge invariant action for the gravitational field. Because the Poincare algebra do not closes with respect to this star product we use GL(2, C) as gauge group. (authors)

2009-01-01

22

Gauge-independent trace anomaly for gravitons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the trace anomaly for gravitons calculated using the usual effective action formalism depends on the choice of gauge when the background spacetime is not a solution of the classical equation of motion, that is, when off shell. We then use the gauge-independent Vilkovisky-DeWitt effective action to restore gauge independence to the off-shell case. Additionally we explicitly evaluate trace anomalies for some N-sphere background spacetimes

1995-10-15

23

Anomaly cancellation condition in lattice gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that, to all orders of powers of the gauge potential, a gauge anomaly ? defined on 4-dimensional infinite lattice can always be removed by a local counterterm, provided that ? depends smoothly and locally on the gauge potential and that ? reproduces the gauge anomaly in the continuum theory in the classical continuum limit: The unique exception is proportional to the anomaly in the continuum theory. This follows from an analysis of nontrivial local solutions to the Wess-Zumino consistency condition in lattice gauge theory. Our result is applicable to the lattice chiral gauge theory based on the Ginsparg-Wilson Dirac operator, when the gauge field is sufficiently weak parallel-U(n,?) - 1-parallel < ?', where U(n,?) is the link variable and ?' a certain small positive constant. (author)

2000-01-01

24

Gravitational singularity in Poincare gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of the existence of a gravitational singularity in Poincare gauge theory is studied. It is found that, under certain conditions, a singularity can be avoided in the case of homogeneous and isotropic space. (orig.)

1982-03-11

25

Cosmological meaning of the gravitational gauge group  

CERN Document Server

It is shown that under a Kaluza--Klein-like ansatz, the de Sitter group as the gravitational gauge group can choose the only one model that may avert the big-bang singularity by torsion under certain assumptions, in a class of gravitational models with quadratic torsion terms.

Lu, Jia-An

2014-01-01

26

Singlet deflected anomaly/gauge mediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study an extension of the standard anomaly/gauge mediation scenario where the messenger fields have direct interactions with an extra gauge singlet. This realizes a phenomenologically viable NMSSM-like scenario free of the ?-b? problem. Current cosmological constraints imply a small size for the anomaly-mediation contributions, unless some source of R-parity violation is permitted. In the latter case the allowed regions in the parameter space can be substantially larger than in the corresponding gauge-mediation scenario.

2012-02-28

27

Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Second Order Transport and Gravitational Anomaly***  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the transport properties of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies. The computation is performed in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence for a 5 dim holographic model with Chern-Simons terms in the action. We find new anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients, as well as new contributions to the existing ones coming from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. Consequences for the shear waves dispersion relation are analyzed. Talk given by E. Megías at the International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC 2013, 2-7 June 2013, Firenze, Italy.Supported by Plan Nacional de Altas Energías (FPA2009-07908, FPA2011-25948), Spanish MICINN Consolider-Ingenio 2010 Programme CPAN (CSD2007-00042), Comunidad de Madrid HEP-HACOS S2009/ESP-1473, Spanish MINECO's Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa Program (SEV-2012-0234, SEV-2012-0249), and the Juan de la Cierva Program.

Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2014-03-01

28

Localized anomalies in orbifold gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We apply the path-integral formalism to compute the anomalies in general orbifold gauge theories (including possible nontrivial Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions) where a gauge group G is broken down to subgroups Hf at the fixed points y=yf. Bulk and localized anomalies, proportional to ?(y-yf), do generically appear from matter propagating in the bulk. The anomaly zero mode that survives in the four-dimensional effective theory should be canceled by localized fermions [except possibly for mixed U(1) anomalies]. We examine in detail the possibility of canceling localized anomalies by the Green-Schwarz mechanism involving two- and four-forms in the bulk. The four-form can only cancel anomalies which do not survive in the 4D effective theory: they are called globally vanishing anomalies. The two-form may cancel a specific class of mixed U(1) anomalies. Only if these anomalies are present in the 4D theory does this mechanism spontaneously break the U(1) symmetry. The examples of five- and six-dimensional ZN orbifolds are considered in great detail. In five dimensions the Green-Schwarz four-form has no physical degrees of freedom and is equivalent to canceling anomalies by a Chern-Simons term. In all other cases, the Green-Schwarz forms have some physical degrees of freedom and leave some nonrenormalizable interactions in the low energy effective theory. In general, localized anomaly cancellation imposes strong constraints on model building

2003-11-15

29

Gravitation as Gauge theory of Poincare Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geometrical approach to gauge theories, based on fiber-bundles, is shown in detail. Several gauge formalisms for gravitation are examined. In particular, it is shown how to build gauge theories for non-semisimple groups. A gravitational theory for the Poincare group, with all the essential characteristics of a Yang-Mills theory is proposed. Inonu-Wigner contractions of gauge theories are introduced, which provide a Lagrangian formalism, equivalent to a Lagrangian de Sitter theory supplemented by weak constraints. Yang and Einstein theories for gravitation become particular cases of a Yang-Mills theory. The classical limit of the proposed formalism leads to the Poisson equation, for the static case. (Author)

1982-01-01

30

Localized anomalies in orbifold gauge theories  

CERN Document Server

We apply the path-integral formalism to compute the anomalies in general orbifold gauge theories (including possible non-trivial Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions) where a gauge group G is broken down to subgroups H_f at the fixed points y=y_f. Bulk and localized anomalies, proportional to \\delta(y-y_f), do generically appear from matter propagating in the bulk. The anomaly zero-mode that survives in the four-dimensional effective theory should be canceled by localized fermions (except possibly for mixed U(1) anomalies). We examine in detail the possibility of canceling localized anomalies by the Green-Schwarz mechanism involving two- and four-forms in the bulk. The four-form can only cancel anomalies which do not survive in the 4D effective theory: they are called globally vanishing anomalies. The two-form may cancel a specific class of mixed U(1) anomalies. Only if these anomalies are present in the 4D theory this mechanism spontaneously breaks the U(1) symmetry. The examples of five and six-dimensional Z_...

Von Gersdorff, Gero; Gersdorff, Gero von; Quiros, Mariano

2003-01-01

31

(Extra)Ordinary Gauge/Anomaly Mediation  

CERN Document Server

We study anomaly mediation models with gauge mediation effects from messengers which have a general renormalizable mass matrix with a supersymmetry-breaking spurion. Our models lead to a rich structure of supersymmetry breaking terms in the visible sector. We derive sum rules among the soft scalar masses for each generation. Our sum rules for the first and second generations are the same as those in general gauge mediation, but the sum rule for the third generation is different because of the top Yukawa coupling. We find the parameter space where the tachyonic slepton problem is solved. We also explore the case in which gauge mediation causes the anomalously small gaugino masses. Since anomaly mediation effects on the gaugino masses exist, we can obtain viable mass spectrum of the visible sector fields.

Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Sakai, Manabu

2011-01-01

32

Gravitational anomaly and hydrodynamics in AdS/CFT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a holographic model with a pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons terms in the action, we analyze the anomalous induced current of a vortex in the relativistic fluid via the chiral vortical effect, which is analogous to the anomalous current induced by a magnetic field via the chiral magnetic effect. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid characterized by a term proportional to T2. The numerical value of this term is not renormalized compared to the weak coupling result [1]. We also address on a general formalism to unify the two inequivalent implementations to the chemical potential for an anomalous symmetry presented in [2]. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

2012-09-01

33

Anomalies, gauge field topology, and the lattice  

CERN Multimedia

Motivated by the connection between gauge field topology and the axial anomaly in fermion currents, I use the fourth power of the naive Dirac operator to define a local lattice measure of topological charge. For smooth gauge fields this reduces to the usual topological density. For typical gauge field configurations in a numerical simulation, however, quantum fluctuations dominate, and the sum of this density over the system does not generally give an integer winding. On cooling with respect to the Wilson gauge action, instanton like structures do emerge. As cooling proceeds, these objects tend shrink and finally ``fall through the lattice.'' Modifying the action can block the shrinking at the expense of a loss of reflection positivity. The cooling procedure is highly sensitive to the details of the initial steps, suggesting that quantum fluctuations induce a small but fundamental ambiguity in the definition of topological susceptibility.

Creutz, Michael

2010-01-01

34

Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies  

CERN Document Server

We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal worldline into a ribbon, and that the anomalous contribution to the CFT entanglement entropy is given by the twist in this ribbon. The entanglement functional may also be interpreted as the worldline action for a spinning particle -- that is, an anyon -- in three-dimensional curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the minimization of this action results in the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations of motion for a spinning particle in three dimensions. We work out several simple examples and demonstrate agreement with CFT calculations.

Castro, Alejandra; Iqbal, Nabil; Perlmutter, Eric

2014-01-01

35

De Sitter gauge theory of gravitation, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

De Sitter gauge theory of gravitation formulated in a previous paper is developed further. Covariant field strengths and their decompositions into the irreducible components are given, and with them the most general form of quadratic Lagrangian density of the gauge field is constructed. In the infinite limit of the radius ? of the de Sitter universe, the Lagrangian density is reduced to Poincare gauge invariant one if the parameters in it satisfy certain conditions. The affine connection of the space-time is related to the gauge field on the basis of a postulate from which the metricity of the space-time follows. The space-time is torsionless if and only if a field-field strength identity is satisfied. The Einstein and Kibble type Lagrangian densities are special cases of our Lagrangian density. (author)

1980-01-01

36

Gravitational Shielding Effects in Gauge Theory of Gravity  

CERN Multimedia

In 1992, E.E.Podkletnov and R.Nieminen find that, under certain conditions, ceramic superconductor with composite structure has revealed weak shielding properties against gravitational force. In classical Newton's theory of gravity and even in Einstein's general theory of gravity, there are no grounds of gravitational shielding effects. But in quantum gauge theory of gravity, the gravitational shielding effects can be explained in a simple and natural way. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, gravitational gauge interactions of complex scalar field can be formulated based on gauge principle. After spontaneous symmetry breaking, if the vacuum of the complex scalar field is not stable and uniform, there will be a mass term of gravitational gauge field. When gravitational gauge field propagates in this unstable vacuum of the complex scalar field, it will decays exponentially, which is the nature of gravitational shielding effects. The mechanism of gravitational shielding effects is studied in this paper, and some...

Wu, N

2003-01-01

37

Gauge Anomalies and Neutrino Seesaw Models  

CERN Document Server

Despite the success of the Standard Model concerning theoretical predictions, there are several experimental results that cannot be explained and there are reasons to believe that there exists new physics beyond it. Neutrino oscillations, and hence their masses, are examples of this. Experimentally it is known that neutrinos masses are quite small, when compared to all Standard Model particle masses. Among the theoretical possibilities to explain these tiny masses, the seesaw mechanism is a simple and well-motivated framework. In its minimal version, heavy particles are introduced that decouple from the theory in the early universe. To build consistent theories, classical symmetries need to be preserved at quantum level, so that there are no anomalies. The cancellation of these anomalies leads to constraints in the parameters of the theory. One attractive solution is to realize the anomaly cancellation through the modication of the gauge symmetry. In this thesis we present a short review of some features of t...

Neves Cebola, Luis Manuel

38

Consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral scalars  

CERN Document Server

Starting from the Henneaux-Teitelboim action for a chiral scalar, which generalizes to curved space the Floreanini-Jackiw action, we give two simple derivations of the exact consistent gravitational anomaly. The first derivation is through the Schwinger-DeWitt regularization. The second exploits cohomological methods and uses the fact that in dimension two the diffeomorphism transformations are described by a single ghost which allows to climb the cohomological chain in a unique way.

Menotti, Pietro

2010-01-01

39

IDENTIFYING ANOMALIES IN GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. In a previous paper, we predicted how the time delay between the bright pair of images in a 'fold' lens scales with the image separation, for smooth lens potentials. Here we show that the proportionality constant increases with the quadrupole moment of the lens potential, and depends only weakly on the position of the source along the caustic. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as 'time delay anomalies'. We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131 - 1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131 - 1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in the fold lenses, B1608+656 and WFI 2033 - 4723, and the cusp lens RX J0911+0551. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Finally, to assist future monitoring campaigns we use our smooth models with shear to predict the time delays for all known four-image lenses.

2010-02-01

40

Topics in gravitation and gauge fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theoretical studies presented here address three distinct topics. The first deals with quantum-mechanical effects of classical gravitational radiation. Specifically, the use of the interstellar medium itself as a remote quantum-mechanical detector of gravitational waves is investigated. This study is motivated by the presumed existence of atomic hydrogen in the vicinity of astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation. Space-time curvature produces uniquely identifiable shifts in atomic hydrogen energy levels. The oscillating level shifts induced by a passing gravitational wave could conceivably be detected spectroscopically. Accordingly the level shifts for both low-lying and highly excited states of single electron atoms immersed in gravitational radiation have been studied. The second two topics deal with the theory of quantized fields on curved space-times. In the first of these studies, a naive model of cosmological baryon synthesis is examined. The model incorporates a hard CP violation as well as a baryon (and lepton) non-conserving interaction and is thus capable of generating an excess of matter over antimatter. The time dependent background geometry of the early universe drives the interaction producing net excess of baryon/lepton pairs. In the final topic, the question of renormalizability of non-Abelian gauge fields theories in a general curved space-time is addressed. All modern theories of elementary particle physics are gauge theories and one would like to know if their perturbative expansions continue to be well defined (i.e. renormalizable) on curved backgrounds. In general, one is interested in knowing if field theories renormalizable in Minkowski space remain so in a general curved space-time

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Anomaly Nucleation Constrains SU(2) Gauge Theories  

CERN Document Server

We argue for the existence of additional constraints on SU(2) gauge theories in four dimensions when realized in ultraviolet completions admitting an analog of D-brane nucleation. In type II string compactifications these constraints are necessary and sufficient for the absence of cubic non-abelian anomalies in certain nucleated SU(N>2) theories. It is argued that they appear quite broadly in the string landscape. Implications for particle physics are discussed; most realizations of the standard model in this context are inconsistent, unless extra electroweak fermions are added.

Halverson, James

2013-01-01

42

Gravitation, gauge theories and the early universe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains chapters on various aspects of gravitation, gauge theory and the early universe. The work begins with an introduction into relativity, particle physics and classical quantum theory. This is followed by reviews of the latest developments in each of these fields, such as black-hole thermodynamics, electroweak theory, grand unification, and the renormalization group. The concluding part of the work comprises discussions of current research topics, such as the problem of the big-bang cosmology, quantum fields in curved spacetimes, quantum cosmology, Kaluza-Klein theories, supersymmetry, supergravity and superstrings. In addition, special articles on relevant mathematical topics are included. (author). 239 refs.; 60 figs.; 18 tabs

1986-12-01

43

Poincare gauge theory of gravitation and its Hamiltonian formulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poincare gauge approach to the theory of gravitation is formulated. It has a very close resemblance to the usual procedure for gauging internal symmetries. By using Dirac's systematic method for systems with constraints, Einstein-Cartan form of Poincare gauge theory is put into Hamiltonian form, by means of a time gauge and by treating tetrad and connection coefficients as independent variables. (author)

1981-04-11

44

Gravitational Anomalies and Thermal Hall effect in Topological Insulators  

CERN Document Server

It has been suggested that a temperature gradient will induce a Leduc-Righi, or thermal Hall, current in the Majorana quasiparticles localized on the surface of class DIII topological insulators, and that the magnitude of this current can be related {\\it via} an Einstein argument to a Hall-like energy flux induced by gravity. We critically examine this idea, and argue that the gravitational Hall effect is more complicated than its familiar analogue. A conventional Hall current is generated by a {\\it uniform} electric field, but computing the flux from the gravitational Chern-Simons functional shows that gravitational field {\\it gradients} - i.e. tidal forces - are needed to induce a energy-momentum flow. We relate the surface energy-momentum flux to a domain-wall gravitational anomaly {\\it via} the Callan-Harvey inflow mechanism. We stress that the gauge invariance of the combined bulk-plus-boundary theory ensures that the current in the domain wall always experiences a "covariant" rather than "consistent" an...

Stone, Michael

2012-01-01

45

SU(N) global gauge anomalies in even dimensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuming that the representations of the SU(N) (N = n,n-1) gauge groups in (D = 2n)-dimensional space are chosen to be free of local (perturbative) anomalies, i.e., Tr F/sup n//sup +1/ = 0, the following is proved by group theory: (1) For SU(n), there will be no global (nonperturbative) gauge anomalies in D = 4k+2 and at most Z2 global anomalies in D = 4k and (2) for SU(n-1), there exist no global gauge anomalies if D = 2n?6. The topological argument is given for why, for any gauge group, the global anomaly is at most Z2 and in D = 4k+2 no global gauge anomalies exist for a self-contragredient representation

1988-03-15

46

Anomaly and Nonplanar Diagrams in Noncommutative Gauge Theories  

CERN Document Server

Anomalies in relation to nonplanar triangle diagrams of noncommutative gauge theory are studied. Local chiral gauge anomaly for noncommutative U(1) and U(N) gauge theories with adjoint matter fields is determined perturbatively and shown to vanish for both planar and nonplanar diagrams. For U(1) gauge theory with fundamental matter field coupling, three different noncommutative currents are found, which give the same global symmetry and lead to the same classically conserved charge. Only one of these currents yields a nonplanar contribution and leads to a finite global anomaly for light-like noncommutativity parameter $\\theta_{\\mu\

Ardalan, Farhad; Ardalan, Farhad; Sadooghi, Neda

2002-01-01

47

On the Anomalies and Schwinger Terms in Noncommutative Gauge Theories  

CERN Document Server

Invariant (nonplanar) anomaly of noncommutative QED is reexamined. It is found that just as in ordinary gauge theory UV regularization is needed to discover anomalies, in noncommutative case, in addition, an IR regularization is also required to exhibit existence of invariant anomaly. Thus resolving the controversy in the value of invariant anomaly, an expression for the unintergrated anomaly is found. Schwinger terms of the current algebra of the theory are derived.

Ardalan, F; Sadooghi, N

2005-01-01

48

Modification of Gravitational Anomaly Method in Hawking Radiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss an ambiguity of the derivation of the Hawking radiation through the gravitational anomaly method and propose modifications of this method such that it reproduces the correct thermal fluxes. In this modified gravitational anomaly method, we employ the two-dimensional conformal field theory technique.

Morita, Takeshi

2009-01-01

49

Perturbative and gauge invariant treatment of gravitational wave memory  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a perturbative treatment of gravitational wave memory. The coordinate invariance of Einstein's equations leads to a type of gauge invariance in perturbation theory. As with any gauge invariant theory, results are more clear when expressed in terms of manifestly gauge invariant quantities. Therefore we derive all our results from the perturbed Weyl tensor rather than the perturbed metric. We derive gravitational wave memory for the Einstein equations coupled to a general energy-momentum tensor that reaches null infinity.

Bieri, Lydia; Garfinkle, David

2014-04-01

50

Classifying gauge anomalies through SPT orders and classifying anomalies through topological orders  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete). We argue that, in d space-time dimensions, the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[H^{d+1}(G,R/Z)]\\oplus H_\\pi^{d+1}(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of the group cohomology class H^{d+1}(G,R/Z) of the gauge group G (denoted as Free[H^{d+1}(G,\\R/\\Z)]). We refer other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as nonABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomaly. We introduce a notion of \\pi-cohomology group, H_\\pi^{d+1}(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[H^{d+1}(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group H^{d+1}(BG,\\R/\\Z) as subgroups. We argue that H_\\pi^{d+1}(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic nonABJ gauge anomalies, and partially classifies fermionic nonABJ anomalies. We also show a very close rel...

Wen, Xiao-Gang

2013-01-01

51

Mathematical remarks on the cohomology of gauge groups and anomalies  

CERN Document Server

Anomalies can be viewed as arising from the cohomology of the Lie algebra of the group of gauge transformations and also from the topological cohomology of the group of connections modulo gauge transformations. We show how these two approaches are unified by the transgression map. We discuss the geometry behind the current commutator anomaly and the Faddeev- Mickelsson anomaly using the recent notion of a gerbe. Some anomalies (notably 3-cocycles) do not have such a geometric origin. We discuss one example and a conjecture on how these may be related to geometric anomalies

Carey, A L; Carey, A L; Murray, M K

1994-01-01

52

Einstein's gravitation as a gauge theory of the Lorentz group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gauge principle in the loop space is invoked to produce the gauge theory of the Lorentz group. The full kinematics of gravitation is derived from this principle. The dynamics is introduced with a gauge ''matter field'' Lagrangian which leads to the sourceless Einstein equations. Some possibilities about quantization and implementation on the lattice are suggested

1985-06-15

53

Gravitational and Inertial Anomalies and Seismic Prediction  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent measurements of forces and motions on the earth's surface taken during eclipses and other configurations of the earth, moon and sun contradict general relativity, the accepted theory of gravity. These phenomena could help explain correlations between seismic behavior and the positions of the earth, moon and sun which so far have no accepted explanation. For decades there have been strong correlations between seismic activity and the positions of the earth, moon and sun as well as the level of solar activity. While a few of the weaker correlations can be explained with tidal triggering models, the stronger and more predominate relationships have no explanation within accepted theories of gravity and/or geology. Measurements taken with a variety of pendulums have shown an anomalous precession that varies with lunar phase and lunar sidereal period. More pronounced anomalies are observed during eclipses. Not only is there a more pronounced anomalous precession, but there is also an anomalous decrease in vertical gravity during the eclipse. A few researchers have even observed similar anomalies during planetary occultations. The main observation can be interpreted as a unexplained torque which twists one way before an eclipse and the opposite afterwards. In the northern hemisphere the torque would be counterclockwise prior to the eclipse when viewed from above and clockwise after. Various tectonic models have North America rotating counterclockwise. As it does, it compresses an area lying along a line roughly perpendicular to the San Andreas and running through its intersection with the Garlock fault. Strong earthquakes occur in this area just prior to eclipses. This is very near in time to when the anomalous counterclockwise torsion would be maximized. This paper summarizes measurements of anomalous gravitation and inertia. Tectonic forces that would result from them are calculated. Over 200 papers that show a positive correlation between earth-lunar-solar position and seismic activity are also summarized. Possible connections between anomalous periods in seismicity and anomalous gravity and inertia are described.

Kokus, Martin

2013-04-01

54

Gravitation, gauge theories and differential geometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this article is to outline various mathematical ideas, methods, and results, primarily from differential geometry and topology, and to show where they can be applied to Yang-Mills gauge theories and Einstein's theory of gravitation.We have several goals in mind. The first is to convey to physicists the bases for many mathematical concepts by using intuitive arguments while avoiding the detailed formality of most textbooks. Although a variety of mathematical theorems will be stated, we will generally give simple examples motivating the results instead of presenting abstract proofs. Another goal is to list a wide variety of mathematical terminology and results in a format which allows easy reference. The reader then has the option of supplementing the descriptions given here by consulting standard mathematical references and articles such as those listed in the bibliography. Finally, we intend this article to serve the dual purpose of acquainting mathematicians with some basic physical concepts which have mathematical ramifications; physical problems have often stimuladed new directions in mathematical thought. (orig./WL)

1980-01-01

55

Gauge Invariant Effective Stress-Energy Tensors for Gravitational Waves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is shown that if a generalized definition of gauge invariance is used, gauge invariant effective stress-energy tensors for gravitational waves and other gravitational perturbations can be defined in a much larger variety of circumstances than has previously been possible. In particular it is no longer necessary to average the stress-energy tensor over a region of spacetime which is larger in scale than the wavelengths of the waves and it is no longer necessary to restrict...

Anderson, Paul R.

1996-01-01

56

Anomalies on orbifolds with gauge symmetry breaking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We embed two 4D chiral multiplets of opposite representations in the 5D N=2 $SU(N+K)$ gauge theory compactified on an orbifold $S^1/(Z_2\\times Z'_2)$. There are two types of orbifold boundary conditions in the extra dimension to obtain the 4D N=1 $SU(N)\\times SU(K)\\times U(1)$ gauge theory from the bulk: in Type I, one has the bulk gauge group at $y=0$ and the unbroken gauge group at $y=\\pi R/2$ while in Type II, one has the unbroken gauge group at both fixed points. In both...

Lee, Hyun Min

2002-01-01

57

Hawking Radiation from Rotating Black Holes and Gravitational Anomalies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the Hawking radiation from Rotating black holes from gravitational anomalies point of view. First, we show that the scalar field theory near the Kerr black hole horizon can be reduced to the 2-dimensional effective theory. Then, following Robinson and Wilczek, we derive the Hawking flux by requiring the cancellation of gravitational anomalies. We also apply this method to Hawking radiation from higher dimensional Myers-Perry black holes. In the Appendix, we present ...

Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro

2006-01-01

58

Gravitational anomalies and the family's index theorem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the use of the family's index theorem in the study of gravitational anomalies. The geometrical framework required to apply the family's index theorem is presented and the relation to gravitational anomalies is discussed. We show how physics necessitates the introduction of the notion of local cohomology which is distinct from the ordinary topological cohomology. The recent results of Alvarez-Gaume and Witten are derived by using the family's index theorem.

Alvarez, O.; Zumino, B.; Singer, I.M.

1984-11-01

59

Gauge Approach to Gravitation and Regular Big Bang Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field theoretical scheme of regular Big Bang in 4-dimensional physical space-time, built in the framework of gauge approach to gravitation, is discussed. Regular bouncing character of homogeneous isotropic cosmological models is ensured by gravitational repulsion effect at extreme conditions without quantum gravitational corrections. The most general properties of regular inflationary cosmological models are examined. Developing theory is valid, if energy density of gravitat...

Minkevich, A. V.

2005-01-01

60

Weyl anomalies of strings in temporal gauge  

CERN Document Server

We consider two-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to matter in the temporal gauge, using the Polyakov path integral. We show that the integration over the metric can be explicitly performed under some plausible assumptions. We also discuss that the critical dimensions in string theory may not be determined in the temporal gauge.

Kawano, T

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Gravitational anomaly cancellation in type I superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By explicit calculations we show that the gravitational anomaly of type I superstring theory vanishes at the string level. There are contributions from four topologically different diagrams to the anomaly: annulus, Moebius strip, torus, and Klein bottle. We explicitly show how the non-trivial cancellation occurs between the open (annulus and Moebius strip) and closed (Klein bottle) sectors. The anomaly of the torus diagram has the same form of type II superstring theory and vanishes because of the modular invariance. (orig.)

1988-01-11

62

Gravitational anomaly cancellation in type I superstring theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By explicit calculations we show that the gravitational anomaly of type I superstring theory vanishes at the string level. There are contributions from four topologically different diagrams to the anomaly: annulus, Moebius strip, torus, and Klein bottle. We explicitly show how the non-trivial cancellation occurs between the open (annulus and Moebius strip) and closed (Klein bottle) sectors. The anomaly of the torus diagram has the same form of type II superstring theory and vanishes because of the modular invariance.

Hayashi, Masahito; Kawamotu, Noboru; Kuramoto, Tetsuji; Shigemoto, Kazuyasu

1988-01-11

63

Harada–Tsutsui gauge recovery procedure: From Abelian gauge anomalies to the Stueckelberg mechanism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Revisiting a path-integral procedure developed by Harada and Tsutsui for recovering gauge invariance from anomalous effective actions, it is shown that there are two ways to achieve gauge symmetry: one already presented by the authors, which is shown to preserve the anomaly in the sense of standard current conservation law, and another one which is anomaly-free, preserving current conservation. It is also shown that the application of the Harada–Tsutsui technique to other models which are not anomalous but do not exhibit gauge invariance allows the identification of the gauge invariant formulation of the Proca model, also done by the referred authors, with the Stueckelberg model, leading to the interpretation of the gauge invariant map as a generalization of the Stueckelberg mechanism. -- Highlights: • A gauge restoration technique from Abelian anomalous models is discussed. • It is shown that there is another way that leads to gauge symmetry restoration from such technique. • It is shown that the first gauge restoration preserves the anomaly, while the proposed second one is free from anomalies. • It is shown that the proposed gauge symmetry restoration can be identified with the Stueckelberg mechanism.

Lima, Gabriel Di Lemos Santiago, E-mail: gabriellemos3@hotmail.com

2014-02-15

64

Hawking radiation for non-asymptotically flat dilatonic black holes using gravitational anomaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The d-dimensional scalar field action may be reduced, in the background geometry of a black hole, to a two-dimensional effective action. In the near-horizon region, it appears a gravitational anomaly: the energy-momentum tensor of the scalar field is not conserved anymore. This anomaly is removed by introducing a term related to the Hawking temperature of the black hole. Even if the temperature term introduced is not covariant, a gauge transformation may restore the covariance. We apply this method to compute the temperature of the dilatonic non-asymptotically flat black holes. We compare the results with those obtained through other methods. (orig.)

Fabris, J.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Marques, G.T. [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia-Brazil, ICIBE-LASIC, Belem, Para (Brazil)

2012-12-15

65

Two-dimensional gravitational anomalies, Schwinger terms and dispersion relations  

CERN Document Server

We are dealing with two-dimensional gravitational anomalies, specifically with the Einstein anomaly and the Weyl anomaly, and we show that they are fully determined by dispersion relations independent of any renormalization procedure (or ultraviolet regularization). The origin of the anomalies is the existence of a superconvergence sum rule for the imaginary part of the relevant formfactor. In the zero mass limit the imaginary part of the formfactor approaches a $\\delta$-function singularity at zero momentum squared, exhibiting in this way the infrared feature of the gravitational anomalies. We find an equivalence between the dispersive approach and the dimensional regularization procedure. The Schwinger terms appearing in the equal time commutators of the energy momentum tensors can be calculated by the same dispersive method. Although all computations are performed in two dimensions the method is expected to work in higher dimensions too.

Bertlmann, Reinhold A

2001-01-01

66

Overcoming the Gauge Problem for the Gravitational Self-Force  

CERN Document Server

The gravitational waves emitted by binary systems with extreme-mass ratios carry unique astrophysical information that can only be detected by space-based detectors like eLISA. To that end, a very accurate modelling of the system is required. The gravitational self-force program, which has been fully developed in the Lorenz gauge, is the best approach we have so far. However, the computations required would be done more efficiently if we could work in other gauges, like the Regge-Wheeler (RW) one in the case of Schwarzschild black holes. In this letter we present a new scheme, based on the Particle-without-Particle formulation of the field equations, where the gravitational self-force can be obtained from just solving individual wave-type equations like the master equations of the RW gauge. This approach can help to tackle the yet unsolved Kerr case.

Canizares, Priscilla

2014-01-01

67

Gauge and averaging in gravitational self-force  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law once the Lorenz-gauge force is known. For a class of gauges satisfying a 'parity condition' ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolve due to first-order self-force effects. Finally, I consider the 'mode sum regularization' scheme for computing the self-force in black hole background spacetimes, and use the angle-average form of the force to show that the same mode-by-mode subtraction may be performed in all parity-regular gauges. It appears plausible that suitably modified versions of the Regge-Wheeler and radiation gauges (convenient to Schwarzschild and Kerr, respectively) are in this class.

2011-10-15

68

Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies: Pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the spectral sequencies technique, it is studied the local polynomial cohomology space of the operator S deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(x)deltasub(lambda) -deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x), which is isomorphic to the local functional cohomology of the operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time. In the Faddeev-Popov (PHI II) charge-one sector, it is found that all the anomalies have the form ?(x) deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x)?-circumflex(x), where Csup(lambda)(x) is the ghost field, and ?-circumflex(x) is a PHI II charge-zero anomaly

1985-07-01

69

First integrals of motion in a gauge covariant framework, Killing-Maxwell system and quantum anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hidden symmetries in a covariant Hamiltonian framework are investigated. The special role of the Stackel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. The covariant phase-space is extended to include external gauge fields and scalar potentials. We investigate the possibility for a higher-order symmetry to survive when the electromagnetic interactions are taken into account. Aconcrete realization of this possibility is given by the Killing-Maxwell system. The classical conserved quantities do not generally transfer to the quantized systems producing quantum gravitational anomalies. As a rule the conformal extension of the Killing vectors and tensors does not produce symmetry operators for the Klein-Gordon operator.

Visinescu, M., E-mail: mvisin@theory.nipne.ro [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Theoretical Physics (Romania)

2012-10-15

70

Algebraic structure of chiral anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I will describe first the algebraic aspects of chiral anomalies, exercising however due care about the topological delicacies. I will illustrate the structure and methods in the context of gauge anomalies and will eventually make contact with results obtained from index theory. I will go into two sorts of generalizations: on the one hand, generalizing the algebraic set up yields e.g. gravitational and mixed gauge anomalies, supersymmetric gauge anomalies, anomalies in supergravity theories; on the other hand most constructions applied to the cohomologies which characterize anomalies easily extend to higher cohomologies. Section II is devoted to a description of the general set up as it applies to gauge anomalies. Section III deals with a number of algebraic set ups which characterize more general types of anomalies: gravitational and mixed gauge anomalies, supersymmetric gauge anomalies, anomalies in supergravity theories. It also includes brief remarks on ? models and a reminder on the full BRST algebra of quantized gauge theories

1985-06-01

71

Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)

2009-01-01

72

Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)

Schmidt, Torsten

2009-05-13

73

On the Interpretation of Gravitational Corrections to Gauge Couplings  

CERN Document Server

Several recent papers discuss gravitational corrections to gauge couplings that depend quadratically on the energy. In the framework of the background-field approach, these correspond in general to adding to the effective action terms quadratic in the field strength but with higher-order space-time derivatives. We observe that such terms can be removed by appropriate local field redefinitions, and do not contribute to physical scattering-matrix elements. We illustrate this observation in the context of open string theory, where the effective action includes, among other terms, the well-known Born-Infeld form of non-linear electrodynamics. We conclude that the quadratically energy-dependent gravitational corrections are \\emph{not} physical in the sense of contributing to the running of a physically-measurable gauge coupling, or of unifying couplings as in string theory.

Ellis, John

2012-01-01

74

Conformal invariance in gauge theories. III. Linear Gravitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The result s of the first two parts of the present study are generalized to the case of nonlinear gravitation. Under the assumption that the gauge tensor field of second rank transforms in accordance with a non-principal representation of the conformal group it is found that the conformally invariant two-point functions of this field have nonzero transverse part, and a nondegenerate conformally invariant Lagrangian is also constructed. It is shown that in the gauge-invariant sector this theory is identical with ordinary renormalizable linear gravitation. The global symmetry of the effective Lagrangian, which can be used to separate the subspace of transverse states and derive a Ward identity, is discussed.

Zaikov, R.P.

1988-12-01

75

On the gravitational origin of the Pioneer Anomaly  

CERN Multimedia

From Doppler tracking data and data on circular motion of astronomical objects we obtain a metric of the Pioneer Anomaly. The metric resolves the issue of manifest absence of anomaly acceleration in orbits of the outer planets and extra-Pluto objects of the Solar system. However, it turns out that the energy-momentum tensor of matter, which generates such a gravitational field in GR, violates energy dominance conditions. At the same time the equation of state derived from the energy-momentum tensor is that of dark energy with $w=-1/3$. So the model proposed must be carefully studied by "Grand-Fit" investigations.

Siutsou, I A

2009-01-01

76

Hawking radiation of a vector field and gravitational anomalies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, the relation between Hawking radiation and gravitational anomalies has been used to estimate the flux of Hawking radiation for a large class of black objects. In this paper, we extend the formalism, originally proposed by Robinson and Wilczek, to the Hawking radiation of vector particles (photons). It is explicitly shown, with Hamiltonian formalism, that the theory of an electromagnetic field on d-dimensional spherical black holes reduces to one of an infinite numb...

Murata, Keiju; Miyamoto, Umpei

2007-01-01

77

Geometric structure of the translation gauge theory of gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the translation gauge theory of gravitation, we give a general expression of the affine connexion coefficient satisfying the following conditions: (i) It is a function of the vierbein b sub(kappa)sup(?) and of its first derivative b sub(kappa)sup(?),sub(#betta#). (ii) It is linear in b sub(kappa)sup(?),sub(#betta#). (iii) It satisfies the metricity cond ition. Our expression includes both of the connexion coefficients of the Riemann and Weitzenboeck space-times as special ones, and hence, the space-time in the translation gauge theory is of Riemann-Cartan type. We fix the gravitational interaction of matter fields following Hayashi's method. The most general quadratic Lagrangian density of b sub(kappa)sup(?) is represented in terms of the curvature scalar and of the torsion tensor. In the case of electromagnetic field interacting with gravitational field, it is pointed out that the torsion tensor can give rise to observable effects if the field strength F sub(??) of the electromagnetic field is given by F sub(??) = nabla sub(?)A sub(#betta#) - nabla sub(#betta#)A sub(?). Besides the electric charge of the matter field there is a charge which is associated both with the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. In the case of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields produced by a spherically symmetric massive charged matter, the effects of the torsion tensor appear in the post-Newtonian term in the gravitational potential and in the ''post-Coulombian term'' in the electric field strength. We point out the available experimental data in the astronomy impose no restriction on the connexion coefficient. (author)

1982-01-01

78

Hawking radiation of a vector field and gravitational anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, the relation between Hawking radiation and gravitational anomalies has been used to estimate the flux of Hawking radiation for a large class of black objects. In this paper, we extend the formalism, originally proposed by Robinson and Wilczek, to the Hawking radiation of vector particles (photons). It is explicitly shown, with the Hamiltonian formalism, that the theory of an electromagnetic field on d-dimensional spherical black holes reduces to one of an infinite number of massive complex scalar fields on 2-dimensional spacetime, for which the usual anomaly-cancellation method is available. It is found that the total energy emitted from the horizon for the electromagnetic field is just (d-2) times that for a scalar field. The results support the picture that Hawking radiation can be regarded as an anomaly eliminator on horizons. Possible extensions and applications of the analysis are discussed

2007-10-15

79

Anomaly-free formulation of chiral gauge theory and quantum holonomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the quantization of a fermion field coupled to external gauge fields. Defining the S-matrix carefully by means of the time-dependent Bogoliubov transformation, we show a possibility of an anomaly-free formulation of chiral gauge theories. In this formulation the gauge anomaly is canceled by the non-trivial quantum holonomy of the fermionic Fock vacuum. (author)

1988-07-01

80

Gauge field, strings, solitons, anomalies and the speed of life  

CERN Document Server

It's been said that "mathematics is biology's next microscope, only better; biology is mathematics' next physics, only better". Here we aim for something even better. We try to combine mathematical physics and biology into a picoscope of life. For this we merge techniques which have been introduced and developed in modern mathematical physics, largely by Ludvig Faddeev to describe objects such as solitons and Higgs and to explain phenomena such as anomalies in gauge fields. We propose a synthesis that can help to resolve the protein folding problem, one of the most important conundrums in all of science. We apply the concept of gauge invariance to scrutinize the extrinsic geometry of strings in three dimensional space. We evoke general principles of symmetry in combination with Wilsonian universality and derive an essentially unique Landau-Ginzburg energy that describes the dynamics of a generic string-like configuration in the far infrared. We observe that the energy supports topological solitons, that perta...

Niemi, Antti J

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The approximate solution with torsion for a charged particle in a gauge theory of gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a method of finding an approximate solution of field equations in a gauge theory of gravitation is given by means of physical considerations. Using this method, an approximate solution of the field of a charged particle in a gauge theory of gravitation, a space-time metric and torsion tensors, is obtained. This method can also be used to solve field equations in other gauge theories of gravitation. (author)

1981-01-01

82

Searching for $Z^{'}$ Gauge Boson in an Anomaly-Free U(1)$'$ Gauge Family Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study a simple ultraviolet(UV) complete and anomaly free $Z'$ model based on a U$(1)'$ gauge family symmetry without introducing extra fermions beyond the standard model. The U$(1)'$ group is diagonal in the three family space in which the U(1)$'$ charges of the first and second families are the same but different from those of the third family. After spontaneous symmetry breaking and rotating to the mass eigenstates of quarks and leptons, there exist in general both flav...

Liu, Jin-yan; Tang, Yong; Wu, Yue-liang

2011-01-01

83

Direct gauging of the Poincare group V. Group scaling, classical gauge theory, and gravitational corrections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Homogeneous scaling of the group space of the Poincare group, P_1_0, is shown to induce scalings of all geometric quantities associated with the local action of P_1_0. The field equations for both the translation and the Lorentz rotation compensating fields reduce to O(1) equations if the scaling parameter is set equal to the general relativistic gravitational coupling constant 8?Gc"-"4. Standard expansions of all field variables in power series in the scaling parameter give the following results. The zeroth-order field equations are exactly the classical field equations for matter fields on Minkowski space subject to local action of an internal symmetry group (classical gauge theory). The expansion process is shown to break P_1_0-gauge covariance of the theory, and hence solving the zeroth-order field equations imposes an implicit system of P_1_0-gauge conditions. Explicit systems of field equations are obtained for the first- and higher-order approximations. The first-order translation field equations are driven by the momentum-energy tensor of the matter and internal compensating fields in the zeroth order (classical gauge theory), while the first-order Lorentz rotation field equations are driven by the spin currents of the same classical gauge theory. Field equations for the first-order gravitational corrections to the matter fields and the gauge fields for the internal symmetry group are obtained. Direct Poincare gauge theory is thus shown to satisfy the first two of the three-part acid test of any unified field theory. Satisfaction of the third part of the test, at least for finite neighborhoods, seems probable

1986-01-01

84

Dilaton-dependent ?' corrections in gauge theory of gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some solutions without singularities to an effective action derived from low-energy heterotic string theory with dilaton, ?' corrections and a potential for the dilaton are presented in a de-Sitter gauge theory of gravitation over a spherical symmetric Minkowski space-time. The higher derivative terms of ?' corrections are constructed so that they vanish when the spacetime is de-Sitter in the equivalent dilaton gravity. With a particular choice of the gauge fields and of the action with ?' expansion, which is typical of strings and disappears in the point-like limit, the field equations are derived. A singularity free solution, presented in this paper, is that which at late times is asymptotically Minkowski and the dilaton is frozen and if t ? 0 then the universe enters a de-Sitter phase. The calculations are performed using an analytical program conceived in GRTensorII for Maple 8. (author)

2004-08-26

85

Gravitational Contributions to Gauge Green's Functions and Asymptotic Free Power-Law Running of Gauge Coupling  

CERN Multimedia

We perform an explicit one-loop calculation for the gravitational contributions to the two-, three- and four-point gauge Green's functions with paying attention to the quadratic divergences. It is shown for the first time in the diagrammatic calculation that the Slavnov-Taylor identities are preserved even if the quantum graviton effects are included at one-loop level, such a conclusion is independent of the choice of regularization schemes. We also present a regularization scheme independent calculation based on the gauge condition independent background field framework of Vilkovisky-DeWitt's effective action with focusing on both the quadratic divergence and quartic divergence that is not discussed before. With the harmonic gauge condition, the results computed by using the traditional background field method can consistently be recovered from the Vilkovisky-DeWitt's effective action approach by simply taking a limiting case, and are found to be the same as the ones yielded by the diagrammatic calculation. ...

Tang, Yong

2011-01-01

86

One-loop gauge anomaly in type-I superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vanishing of the hexagon gauge anomaly of type-I superstring was shown previously by Green and Schwarz in the case that the gauge group is SO(32). The result, as well as the finiteness of the one-loop amplitude, makes the superstring theory a candidate for the unified theory including gravity. The vanishing of the gauge anomaly can be established for all N-point functions. The one-loop gauge anomaly is shown to be absent if the gauge group is SO(32). (orig.)

1986-12-11

87

Hawking Radiation and Covariant Anomalies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Generalising the method of Wilczek and collaborators we provide a derivation of Hawking radiation from charged black holes using only covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies. The reliability and universality of the anomaly cancellation approach to Hawking radiation is also discussed.

Banerjee, Rabin; Kulkarni, Shailesh

2007-01-01

88

Covariant and consistent anomalies in even-dimensional chiral gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is devoted to various aspects of anomalies in even-dimensional chiral gauge theories. The difference between the covariant and consistent anomalies is carefully explained in terms of their different origins. The consistent current is defined in terms of a gauge-variant effective action constructed from the covariant current. An alternative scheme is set up where the covariant anomaly is unaltered but the consistent anomaly vanishes because the effective action is gauge-invariant. A discussion of theories with vector and axial currents separately gauged is included: here, apart from the covariant anomalies, two different ways of constructing gauge-variant effective actions are possible, giving rise to different structures of the consistent anomalies. (orig.)

1986-01-01

89

Gravitational Self-force in a Radiation Gauge  

CERN Document Server

In this, the first of two companion papers, we present a method for finding the gravitational self-force in a radiation gauge for a particle moving on a geodesic in a Schwarzschild or Kerr spacetime. The method involves a mode-sum renormalization of a spin-weight $\\pm 2$ perturbed Weyl scalar and the subsequent reconstruction from a Hertz potential of the renormalized perturbed metric. We show that the Hertz potential is uniquely specified by the requirement that it have no angular harmonics with $\\ell\\leq 2$. The resulting perturbed metric is singular only at the position of the particle: It is smooth on the axis of symmetry. An extension of an earlier result by Wald is needed to show that the perturbed metric is determined up to a gauge transformation and an infinitesimal change in the black hole mass and spin. We show that the singular behavior of the metric and self-force has the same power-law behavior in $L=\\ell+1/2$ as in a Lorenz gauge (with different coefficients). We compute the singular Weyl scalar...

Keidl, Tobias S; Friedman, John L; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Price, Larry R

2010-01-01

90

Anomaly-free gauged U(1)' in local supersymmetry and baryon-number violation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supersymmetric extension of the standard model suffers from a problem of baryon-number violation. Discrete (and global) symmetries introduced to protect the proton are unstable under gravitational effects. We add a gauged U(1)X to the standard model gauge group GSM and require it to be anomaly-free. As new (chiral) superfields we only allow GSM-singlets in order to maintain the good unification predictions. We find the most general set of solutions for the rational singlet charges. We embed our models in local supersymmetry and study the breaking of supersymmetry and U(1)X to determine MX. We determine the full non-renormalizable and gauge invariant Lagrangian for the different solutions. We expect any effective theory to contain baryon-and lepton-number violating terms of dimension four suppressed by powers of MX/MPl. The power is predicted by the U(1)X charges. We find consistency with the experimental bounds on the proton lifetime and on the neutrino masses. We also expect all supersymmetric models to have an unstable but longlived lightest supersymmetric particle. Consistency with underground experiments on upward going muons leads to stricter constraints than the proton decay experiments. These are barely satisfied. (orig.)

1995-08-07

91

Can the Pioneer anomaly be of gravitational origin?  

CERN Document Server

In order to satisfy the equivalence principle, any mechanism proposed to gravitationally explain the Pioneer anomaly, in the form in which it is presently known from the so-far analyzed Pioneer 10/11 data, cannot leave out of consideration its impact on the motion of the planets of the Solar System as well. In this paper we, first, use the latest observational determinations of the secular perihelion advances of some planets in order to put on the test two interesting models of modified gravity recently proposed to accommodate the Pioneer anomaly. Second, we use to radio-technical ranging data to Voyager 2 when it encountered Uranus and Neptune to perform a further, independent test of the hypothesis that a Pioneer-like acceleration can also affect the motion of the planets, at least in the regions in which the Pioneer anomaly manifested itself according to our present-day knowledge of it. As in the case of previous tests based on the use of the planetary right ascension and declination, the answer is negativ...

Iorio, L

2006-01-01

92

Stochastic quantization and gauge-fixing of the linearized gravitational field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the indefiniteness of the Euclidean gravitational action the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme fails in the case of the gravitational field. Therefore we apply a recently proposed modification of stochastic quantization that works in Minkowski space and preserves all the advantages of the original Parisi-Wu method; in particular no gauge-fixing is required. Additionally stochastic gauge-fixing may be introduced and is also studied in detail. The graviton propagators obtained with and without stochastic gauge-fixing all exhibit a noncausal contribution, but apart from this effect the gauge-invariant quantities are the same as those of standard quantization. (Author)

1984-01-01

93

Gravitational anomalies in higher dimensional Riemann-Cartan space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By applying the covariant Taylor expansion method of the heat kernel, the covariant Einstein anomalies associated with a Weyl fermion of spin 1/2 in four-, six- and eight-dimensional Riemann-Cartan space are manifestly given. Many unknown terms with torsion tensors appear in these anomalies. The Lorentz anomaly is intimately related to the Einstein anomaly even in Riemann-Cartan space. The explicit form of the Lorentz anomaly corresponding to the Einstein anomaly is also obtained

2007-02-21

94

Conservation of Gravitational Energy-Momentum and Inner Diffeomorphism Group Gauge Invariance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Viewing gravitational energy momentum as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energy-momentum requires two different symmetries to account for their independent conservations—spacetime and inner translation invariance. Gauging the latter a generalization of non-Abelian gauge theories of compact Lie groups is developed resulting in the gauge theory of the non-compact group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of an inner Minkowski space M4. As usual the gauging requires the introduction of a covariant derivative, a gauge field and a field strength operator. An invariant and minimal gauge field Lagrangian is derived. The classical field dynamics and the conservation laws for the new gauge theory are developed. Finally, the theory’s Hamiltonian in the axial gauge is expressed by two times six unconstrained independent canonical variables obeying the usual Poisson brackets and the positivity of the Hamiltonian is related to a condition on the support of the gauge fields.

Christian Wiesendanger

2013-08-01

95

Poincaré gauge invariance and gravitation in Minkowski spacetime  

CERN Multimedia

A formulation of Poincare symmetry as an inner symmetry of field theories defined on a fixed Minkowski spacetime is given. Local P gauge transformations and the corresponding covariant derivative with P gauge fields are introduced. The renormalization properties of scalar, spinor and vector fields in P gauge field backgrounds are determined. A minimal gauge field dynamics consistent with the renormalization constraints is given.

Wiesendanger, C

1996-01-01

96

Resolution of axial anomaly problem in supersymmetric gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explicit form of transformation is found which converters the operators, involved in axial anomaly, from the renormalization scheme obeying the Adler-BaAdeen theorem to a supersymmetric one. It is shown that there is no contradiction between axial current and superconformal anomalies. In supersymmetric scheme the axial current and its anomaly belong to the corresponding supermultiplets

1984-01-01

97

Gauge freedom for Gravitational Wave problems in tensor-scalar theories of gravity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A specific choice of gauge is shown to imply a decoupling between the tensor and scalar components of Gravitational Radiation in the context of Brans-Dicke type theories of gravitation. The comparison of the predictions of these theories with those of General Relativity is thereby made straightforward.

Wiaux, Y.

1999-01-01

98

Gauge freedom for gravitational wave problems in tensor-scalar theories of gravity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A specific choice of gauge is shown to imply a decoupling between the tensor and scalar components of gravitational radiation in the context of Brans–Dicke-type theories of gravitation. The comparison of the predictions of these theories with those of general relativity is thereby made straightforward.

Wiaux, Y.

1999-01-01

99

Commutator gauge anomaly, bundle of vacua and particle creation in two dimensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the physical situation in which the consideration of the fermionic vacuum bundle over gauge group manifold is useful. The bundle curvature turns out to be connected with the commutator gauge anomaly. This allows to consider the problem where this curvature is manifested. (author). 17 refs

1991-01-01

100

On-shell Supersymmetry Anomalies and the Spontaneous Breaking of Gauge Symmetry  

CERN Multimedia

A search for supersymmetry anomalies requires an examination of the BRS cohomology of supersymmetric Yang-Mills coupled to chiral matter, and the physically interesting (on-shell) anomalies are those which cannot be eliminated using the equations of motion. An analysis of this cohomology problem shows that the simplest situation where a physically interesting supersymmetry anomaly can arise is when: 1. the anomaly occurs in the renormalization of a composite antichiral spinor superfield operator constructed from the chiral matter in the theory, 2. the anomalous diagrams are one-loop triangle diagrams containing a gauge propagator, 3. the gauge symmetry (but not supersymmetry) is spontaneously broken, 4. the initial operator has a dimension such that the triangle diagram is at least linearly divergent, 5. the anomaly contains only massless chiral superfields, although (apparently harder to calculate) supersymmetry anomalies can also contain massive chiral superfields, 6. the theory contains vertices which, aft...

Dixon, J A

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Gravitation as a Super SL(2,C) Gauge Theory  

CERN Document Server

We present a gauge theory of the super SL(2,C) group. The gauge potential is a connection of the Super SL(2,C) group. A MacDowell-Mansouri type of action is proposed where the action is quadratic in the Super SL(2,C) curvature and depends purely on gauge connection. By breaking the symmetry of the Super SL(2,C) topological gauge theory to SL(2,C), a metric is naturally defined.

Tung, R S

2001-01-01

102

Gravitational waves from Abelian gauge fields and cosmic strings at preheating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primordial gravitational waves provide a very important stochastic background that could be detected soon with interferometric gravitational wave antennas or indirectly via the induced patterns in the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The detection of these waves will open a new window into the early Universe, and therefore it is important to characterize in detail all possible sources of primordial gravitational waves. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical methods to study the production of gravitational waves from out-of-equilibrium gauge fields at preheating. We then consider models of preheating after hybrid inflation, where the symmetry breaking field is charged under a local U(1) symmetry. We analyze in detail the dynamics of the system in both momentum and configuration space. We show that gauge fields leave specific imprints in the resulting gravitational wave spectra, mainly through the appearance of new peaks at characteristic frequencies that are related to the mass scales in the problem. We also show how these new features in the spectra correlate with stringlike spatial configurations in both the Higgs and gauge fields that arise due to the appearance of topological winding numbers of the Higgs around Nielsen-Olesen strings. We study in detail the time evolution of the spectrum of gauge fields and gravitational waves as these strings evolve and decay before entering a turbulent regime where the gravitational wave energy density saturates.

2010-10-15

103

On the cancellation of hard anomalies in gauge field models: A regularization independent proof  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we prove Bardeen's conjecture that the anomaly of the Adler-Bardeen-Bell-Jackiw-Schwinger type in gauge models are definitely absent if they are cancelled at the first order of the h/2? perturbation expansion. Our analysis develops within the regularization independent B.P.H.Z. renormalization scheme. We discuss the possible appearance of anomalies in an enlarged class of gauge models admitting soft violations of the Slavnov-Taylor identities which prescribe the gauge transformation properties of the Green functions. By a repeated use of the Callan-Symanzik equation we conclude that the lowest non vanishing contributions to the anomalies must necessarily correspond to the first order in the h/2? perturbation expansion, hence if they are cancelled at this order the theory will be definitely anomaly free. (orig.)

1980-01-01

104

Gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation of apparent horizon in FRW universe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motivated by the successful applications of the anomaly cancellation method to derive Hawking radiation from various types of black hole spacetimes, we further extend the gravitational anomaly method to investigate the Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of a FRW universe by assuming that the gravitational anomaly also exists near the apparent horizon of the FRW universe. The result shows that the radiation flux from the apparent horizon of the FRW universe measured by a Kodama observer is just the pure thermal flux. The result presented here will further confirm the thermal properties of the apparent horizon in a FRW universe. (orig.)

Li, Ran; Ren, Ji-Rong; Wei, Shao-Wen [Lanzhou University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou, Gansu (China)

2009-08-15

105

Gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation of apparent horizon in FRW universe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Motivated by the successful applications of the anomaly cancellation method to derive Hawking radiation from various types of black hole spacetimes, we further extend the gravitational anomaly method to investigate the Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of a FRW universe by assuming that the gravitational anomaly also exists near the apparent horizon of the FRW universe. The result shows that the radiation flux from the apparent horizon of the FRW universe measured by a Kodama observer is just the pure thermal flux. The result presented here will further confirm the thermal properties of the apparent horizon in a FRW universe. (orig.)

2009-08-01

106

Algebraic structure of quantum gravity and the classification of the gravitational anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BRS equations of quantum gravity and of gauge theories coupled to gravity are established in a formalism which unifies the gauge and ghost fields. This formalism allows one to disentangle the algebra of Lorentz transformations from the local diffeomorphisms. We use it to classify the potential anomalies in the Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. All anomalies which can be written as exterior forms have the structure of usual flat space ABBJ anomalies related to the direct product of the Lorentz group by the Yang-Mills group. The others are related to the ungauged coordinate dilatations. Our results hold true in the presence of torsion. (orig.)

1984-09-13

107

A Poincaré gauge theory of gravitation in Minkowski spacetime  

CERN Multimedia

The conventional role of spacetime geometry in the description of gravity is pointed out. Global Poincar\\acute{\\mbox{e}} symmetry as an inner symmetry of field theories defined on a fixed Minkowski spacetime is discussed. Its extension to local {\\bf P\\/} gauge symmetry and the corresponding {\\bf P\\/} gauge fields are introduced. Their minimal coupling to matter is obtained. The scaling behaviour of the partition function of a spinor in {\\bf P\\/} gauge field backgrounds is computed. The corresponding renormalization constraint is used to determine a minimal gauge field dynamics.

Wiesendanger, C

1996-01-01

108

On the problem of axial anomaly in supersymmetric gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explicit relation is found between the axial current obeying the Adler-Bardeen theorem and the supersymmetric one belonging to a supermultiplet. It is shown that the axial and superconformal anomalies are consistent in all orders of perturbation theory

1984-01-01

109

Holonomy anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs

1985-03-28

110

Holonomy anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs. (LEW)

Bagger, J.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

1985-05-01

111

Generalized Formalism in Gauge-Invariant Gravitational Perturbations  

CERN Multimedia

By use of the gauge-invariant variables proposed by Kodama and Ishibashi, we obtain the most general perturbation equations in the $(m+n)$-dimensional spacetime with a warped product metric. These equations do not depend on the spectral expansions of the Laplace-type operators on the $n$-dimensional Einstein manifold. These equations enable us to have a complete gauge-invariant perturbation theory and a well-defined spectral expansion for all modes and the gauge invariance is kept for each mode. By studying perturbations of some projections of Weyl tensor in the case of $m=2$, we define three Teukolsky-like gauge-invariant variables and obtain the perturbation equations of these variables by considering perturbations of the Penrose wave equations in the $(2+n)$-dimensional Einstein spectime. In particular, we find the relations between the Teukolsky-like gauge-invariant variables and the Kodama-Ishibashi gauge-invariant variables. These relations imply that the Kodama-Ishibashi gauge-invariant variables all c...

Cai, Rong-Gen

2013-01-01

112

Generalized formalism in gauge-invariant gravitational perturbations  

Science.gov (United States)

By the use of the gauge-invariant variables proposed by Kodama and Ishibashi, we obtain the most general perturbation equations in the (m+n)-dimensional spacetime with a warped product metric. These equations do not depend on the spectral expansions of the Laplace-type operators on the n-dimensional Einstein manifold. These equations enable us to have a complete gauge-invariant perturbation theory and a well-defined spectral expansion for all modes, and the gauge invariance is kept for each mode. By studying perturbations of some projections of Weyl tensor in the case of m=2, we define three Teukolsky-like gauge-invariant variables and obtain the perturbation equations of these variables by considering the perturbations of the Penrose wave equations in the (2+n)-dimensional Einstein spectime. In particular, we find the relations between the Teukolsky-like gauge-invariant variables and the Kodama-Ishibashi gauge-invariant variables. These relations imply that the Kodama-Ishibashi gauge-invariant variables all come from the perturbations of the Weyl tensor of the spacetime.

Cai, Rong-Gen; Cao, Li-Ming

2013-10-01

113

The structure of the anomalies of gauge theories in the causal approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider the gauge invariance of the standard Yang-Mills model in the framework of the causal approach of Epstein-Glaser and Scharf and determine the generic form of the anomalies. The method used is based on the Epstein-Glaser approach to renormalization theory. In the case of quantum electrodynamics we obtain quite easily the absence of anomalies in all orders. (author)

Grigore, D.R. [Dept. of Theor. Phys., Inst. Atomic Phys., Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: grigore@theor1.theory.nipne.ro; grigore@ifin.nipne.ro

2002-02-22

114

Chiral anomalies in higher-derivative supersymmetric 6D gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the recently constructed higher-derivative 6D SYM theory involves internal chiral anomaly breaking gauge invariance. The anomaly is cancelled when adding to the theory an adjoint matter hyper-multiplet. One shows that as the effective charge grows at high energies, the theories are not consistently defined nonperturbatively. Constructing a nontrivial 6D theory that would be internally consistent both perturbatively and nonperturbatively remains a major challenge. (author)

2006-01-01

115

Chiral anomalies in higher-derivative supersymmetric 6D gauge theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show that the recently constructed higher-derivative 6D SYM theory involves internal chiral anomaly breaking gauge invariance. The anomaly is cancelled when adding to the theory an adjoint matter hyper-multiplet. One shows that as the effective charge grows at high energies, the theories are not consistently defined nonperturbatively. Constructing a nontrivial 6D theory that would be internally consistent both perturbatively and nonperturbatively remains a major challenge. (author)

Smilga, A.V. [SUBATECH, Universite de Nantes, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, BP 20722, Nantes 44307 (France)

2006-08-15

116

Tetrad fields and metric tensor in the gauge theory of gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most relevant geometrical aspects of the gauge theory of gravitation are considered. A global definition of the tetrad fields is given and emphasis is placed on their role in defining an isomorphism between the tangent bundle of space-time and an appropriate vector bundle B associated to the gauge bundle. It is finally shown how to construct the fundamental geometrical objects on space-time, starting from B. (orig.)

1981-01-01

117

Gauge theory duals of black hole - black string transitions of gravitational theories on a circle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the black hole - black string phase transitions of gravitational theories compactified on a circle using the holographic duality conjecture. The gauge theory duals of these theories are maximally supersymmetric and strongly coupled 1 + 1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theories compactified on a circle, in the large $N$ limit. We perform the strongly coupled finite temperature gauge theory calculations on a lattice, using the recently developed exact lattice supersymme...

Catterall, Simon; Joseph, Anosh; Wiseman, Toby

2010-01-01

118

Gravitational matter-antimatter asymmetry and four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A formulation of gravity based on the maximum four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry is studied. The theory predicts that the gravitational force inside matter (fermions) is different from that inside antimatter. This difference could lead to the cosmic separation of matter and antimatter in the evolution of the universe. Moreover, a new gravitational long-range spin-force between two fermions is predicted, in addition to the usual Newtonian force. The geometrical foundation of such a gravitational theory is the Riemann-Cartan geometry, in which there is a torsion. The results of the theory for weak fields are consistent with previous experiments. (author)

1981-02-11

119

Pioneer anomaly? Gravitational pull due to the Kuiper belt  

CERN Multimedia

In this work we study the gravitational influence of the material extending from Uranus orbit to the Kuiper belt and beyond on objects moving within these regions. We conclude that a density distribution given by $\\rho(r)=\\frac{1}{20 r}$ (for $r\\geq 20 UA$) generates a constant acceleration towards the Sun on those objects, which accounts for the blue shift detected on the Pioneers space crafts. We also discuss the effect of this gravitational pull on Neptune, and comment on the possible origin of such a matter distribution.

De Diego, J A; Zavala, I; Diego, Jos\\'e A. de; Nunez, Dario; Zavala, Jesus

2005-01-01

120

Pioneer anomaly? Gravitational pull due to the Kuiper belt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we study the gravitational influence of the material extending from Uranus orbit to the Kuiper belt and beyond on objects moving within these regions. We conclude that a density distribution given by $\\rho(r)=\\frac{1}{r}$ (for $r\\geq 20 UA$) generates a constant acceleration towards the Sun on those objects, which, with the proper amount of mass, accounts for the blue shift detected on the Pioneers space crafts. We also discuss the effect of this gravitational p...

Diego, Jose A.; Nunez, Dario; Zavala, Jesus

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Gauge theory duals of black hole - black string transitions of gravitational theories on a circle  

CERN Multimedia

We study the black hole - black string phase transitions of gravitational theories compactified on a circle using the holographic duality conjecture. The gauge theory duals of these theories are maximally supersymmetric and strongly coupled 1 + 1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theories compactified on a circle, in the large $N$ limit. We perform the strongly coupled finite temperature gauge theory calculations on a lattice, using the recently developed exact lattice supersymmetry methods based on topological twisting and orbifolding. The spatial Polyakov line serves as relevant order parameter of the confinement - deconfinement phase transitions in the gauge theory duals.

Catterall, Simon; Wiseman, Toby

2010-01-01

122

Anomaly cancellation in a class of chiral flavor gauge models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Typical features on anomaly cancellation in the 3-n-1 extensions of the 3-2-1 standard model, with n=3,4, which has been proposed recently, are shown. It is pointed out that in this class of theories a natural explanation for the fundamental question of fermion family replication arises from the theoretical requirements of renormalizability and self-consistency, which constrains the number of the QFD families to the QCD color degrees of freedom. (author). 10 refs.

Pisano, F.; Tuan, Tran Anh [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

1994-12-31

123

Anomaly cancellation in a class of chiral flavor gauge models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Typical features on anomaly cancellation in the 3-n-1 extensions of the 3-2-1 standard model, with n=3,4, which has been proposed recently, are shown. It is pointed out that in this class of theories a natural explanation for the fundamental question of fermion family replication arises from the theoretical requirements of renormalizability and self-consistency, which constrains the number of the QFD families to the QCD color degrees of freedom. (author). 10 refs

1993-10-03

124

Anomaly cancellation in a class of chiral flavor gauge models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show typical features on anomaly cancellation in the 3 - n - 1 extensions of the 3 - 2 - 1 standard model, with n = 3,4 which has been proposed recently. We point out that in this class of theories a natural explanation for the fundamental question of fermion family replication arises from the theoretical requirements of renormalizability and self-consistency, which constrains the number of the QFD families to the QCD color degrees of freedom. (author). 10 refs

1993-01-01

125

Local positive anomalies in the gravitational force in northwest Poland confined to the Pleistocene troughs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the northwest Polish lowland, a set of diverse local anomalies of the gravitational force are observed. the majority of them are confined to local structures of the Zeckstein-Mesozoic complex, while some reflect Tertiary tectonic-erosion basins. Repeated analysis of the results of semidetailed gravimetric surveying made it possible to reveal in the examined region yet another type of positive anomaly of the gravitational force stretching dozens of kilometers. Its width does not exceed several kilometers, but the axis meanders. Numerous data about the structure and relief of the subquaternary surface in northwest Poland makes it possible to judge that the main role here is played by extended, narrow and deep basins of the valley type, part of which probably is subglacial or interglacial troughs of the Pleistocene age that were cut at the base of the Quaternary, Tertiary or upper Cretaceous deposits. Using the results of semidetailed gravimetric surveying of northwest Poland presented in the form of maps of residual anomalies calculated according to the Griffin method (R = 2.236 km, S = 1 km) and the results of regional gravimetric studies of the coastal part of the Baltic Sea (maps of the Bouguer anomaly) the authors have isolated and designated the position of seven positive anomalies of gravitational force not associated with structures of the Zeckstein-Mesozoic complex whose axes change direction, while the length is much greater than the width. These anomalies are characterized by amplitude exceeding 0.5 mgal, and large horizontal gradient. The anomalies of Grabov, Slup and Bytov, and also Lupav are noted in the coastal zone of the central Pomorye. Their position coincides to a greater or lesser degree with the flow of rivers from which they obtained their names. The Vitsko anomaly lies in the same zone, while the Kostsezhina anomaly lies to the southeast of it.

Dabrowski, A.; Bojski, J.E.

1982-01-01

126

Hawking radiation from gravity's rainbow via gravitational anomaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and Wilczek, we investigates Hawking radiation from the modified Schwarzschild black hole from gravity's rainbow from the anomaly point of view. Unlike the general Schwarzschild space—time, the metric of this black hole depends on the energies of probes. The obtained result shows to restore the underlying general covariance at the quantum level in the effective field, the covariant compensating flux of energy—momentum tensor, which is related to the energies of the probes, should precisely equal to that of a (1 + 1)-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature

2008-05-01

127

Hawking radiation via anomaly cancellation for the black holes of five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anomaly cancellation method proposed by Wilczek et al. is applied to the general charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. Thus Hawking temperature and fluxes are found. The Hawking temperature obtained agrees with the surface gravity formula. The black holes have charge and two unequal angular momenta, and these give rise to appropriate terms in the effective U(1) gauge field of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional theory. In particular, it is found that the terms in this U(1) gauge field correspond exactly to the correct electrostatic potential and the two angular velocities on the horizon of the black holes, and so the results for the Hawking fluxes derived here from the anomaly cancellation method are in complete agreement with the ones obtained from integrating the Planck distribution.

2009-04-15

128

Adler-Bardeen theorem and manifest anomaly cancellation to all orders in gauge theories  

CERN Document Server

We reconsider the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the cancellation of gauge anomalies to all orders, when they vanish at one loop. Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism and combining the dimensional-regularization technique with the higher-derivative gauge-invariant regularization, we prove the theorem in the most general perturbatively unitary renormalizable gauge theories coupled to matter in four dimensions, and identify the subtraction scheme where anomaly cancellation to all orders is manifest, namely no subtractions of finite local counterterms are required from two loops onwards. Our approach is based on an order-by-order analysis of renormalization, and, differently from most derivations existing in the literature, does not make use of arguments based on the properties of the renormalization group. As a consequence, the proof we give also applies to conformal field theories and finite theories.

Anselmi, Damiano

2014-01-01

129

Path-dependent formulation of gravitation as a gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A satisfactory description of Riemann-Cartan U4 manifolds is obtained as a gauge theory associated with the Poincare group and formulated in flat space-time. The formulation does not introduce any ad hoc prescription to identify the tetrads. The connection with the usual local descriptions is also worked out explicitly

1984-04-21

130

T-duality and the gravitational description of gauge theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a review of some basic features on the relation between supergravity and pure gauge theories with special emphasis on the relation between T-duality and supersymmetry. Some new results concerning the interplay between T-duality and near horizon geometries are presented. (orig.)

Gomez, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Silva, P.

2000-07-01

131

Anomalies in gauge theory and gerbes over quotient stacks  

CERN Document Server

In gauge theories one is interested in lifting the action of the gauge transformation group G on the space of connection one-forms A to the total space of the Fock bundle F-->A in a consistent way with the second quantized Dirac operators $\\hat{D_a}, a\\in A. In general, there is an obstruction to this and one has to introduce a Lie group extension \\hat{G}, not necessarily central, of G that acts in the Fock bundle. It was first noticed in the works of J. Mickelsson and L. Faddeev that in dimensions greater than one the group multiplication in \\hat{G} depends also on the elements a \\in A. We give a new interpretation of this phenomenon and show that \\hat{G} can be replaced with a Lie groupoid extension of the action groupoid A \\rtimes G. This extension proves out to be an S^1-central extension so that one may apply the general theory of these extensions developed by K. Behrend and P. Xu.

Tahtinen, Vesa

2007-01-01

132

Canonical (anti-)commutation rules in QCD abd unbroken gauge invariance, QCD - the two central anomalies and canonical structure  

CERN Document Server

The regularities at large distances of complete gauge invariance in QCD are shown to bear nontrivial consequences for the selection among inequivalent representations of canonical commutation (anticommutation) rules for gauge boson (quark) fields. The trace anomaly forces a modification of the gauge boson Lagrangean and by this of the entire associated canonical structure.

Minkowski, Peter

2012-01-01

133

Some remarks on BRS transformations, anomalies and the cohomology of the Lie algebra of the group of gauge transformations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show that ghosts in gauge theories can be interpreted as Maurer-Cartan forms in the infinite dimensional group G of gauge transformations. We examine the cohomology of the Lie algebra of G and identify the coboundary opeator with the BRS operator. We describe the anomalous terms encountered in the renormalization of gauge theories (triangle anomalies) as elements of these cohomology groups.

Bonora, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, P.

1983-01-01

134

Some remarks on BRS transformations, anomalies and the cohomology of the Lie algebra of the group of gauge transformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that ghosts in gauge theories can be interpreted as Maurer-Cartan forms in the infinite dimensional group G of gauge transformations. We examine the cohomology of the Lie algebra of G and identify the coboundary opeator with the BRS operator. We describe the anomalous terms encountered in the renormalization of gauge theories (triangle anomalies) as elements of these cohomology groups. (orig.)

1983-01-01

135

Modular invariance and the gravitational anomaly in type II superstring theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By explicit calculations we show that the one-loop parity-violating amplitude with six external gravitons is modular invariant and finite. As a natural consequence of the modular invariance and double periodicity of the amplitude with respect to torus parameters, the gravitational anomaly of type II superstring theory vanishes.

Hayashi, Masahito; Kawamoto, Noboru; Kuramoto, Tetsuji; Shigemoto, Kazuyasu

1987-12-07

136

Modular invariance and the gravitational anomaly in type II superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By explicit calculations we show that the one-loop parity-violating amplitude with six external gravitons is modular invariant and finite. As a natural consequence of the modular invariance and double periodicity of the amplitude with respect to torus parameters, the gravitational anomaly of type II superstring theory vanishes. (orig.)

1987-12-07

137

Gravitational Anomalies and Thermal Hall effect in Topological Insulators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been suggested that a temperature gradient will induce a Leduc-Righi, or thermal Hall, current in the Majorana quasiparticles localized on the surface of class DIII topological insulators, and that the magnitude of this current can be related {\\it via} an Einstein argument to a Hall-like energy flux induced by gravity. We critically examine this idea, and argue that the gravitational Hall effect is more complicated than its familiar analogue. A conventional Hall curre...

Stone, Michael

2012-01-01

138

Higgs and gravitational scalar fields together induce Weyl gauge  

CERN Document Server

A common biquadratic potential for the Higgs field $h$ and an additional scalar field $\\phi$, non minimally coupled to gravity, is considered in locally scale symmetric approaches to standard model fields in curved spacetime. A common ground state of the two scalar fields exists and couples both fields to gravity, more precisely to scalar curvature $R$. In Einstein gauge ($\\phi = const$, often called "Einstein frame"), also $R$ is scaled to a constant. This condition makes perfect sense, even in the general case, in the Weyl geometric approach. There it has been called {\\em Weyl gauge}, because it was first considered by Weyl in the different context of his original scale geometric theory of gravity of 1918. Now it seems to get new meaning as a combined effect of electroweak theory and gravity, and their common influence on atomic frequencies.

Scholz, Erhard

2014-01-01

139

Gravitational duality in MacDowell-Mansouri gauge theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong-weak duality invariance can only be defined for particular sectors of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. Nevertheless, for full non-Abelian nonsupersymmetric theories, dual theories with inverted couplings have been found. We show that an analogous procedure allows us to find the dual action to the gauge theory of gravity constructed by the MacDowell-Mansouri model plus the superposition of a ? term.

García-Compeán, H.; Obregón, O.; Ramírez, C.

1998-11-01

140

Hawking Radiation of Black p-Branes from Gravitational Anomaly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the Hawking radiation of black $p$-branes of superstring theories using the method of anomaly cancelation, specially, we use the method of [S. Iso, H. Umetsu and F. Wilczek, {\\sl Phys. Rev. Lett.} {\\bf 96}, 151302 (2006); {\\sl Phys. Rev. D} {\\bf 74}, 044017 (2006)]. The metrics of black $p$-branes are spherically symmetric, but not the Schwarzschild type. In order to simplify the calculation, we first make a coordinate transformation to transform the metric to...

Ma, Zheng Ze

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Decaying Hidden Gauge Boson and the PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS Anomalies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that the PAMELA anomaly in the positron fraction as well as the ATIC/PPB-BETS excesses in the e^- + e^+ flux are simultaneously explained in our scenario that a hidden U(1)H gauge boson constitutes dark matter of the Universe and decays into the standard-model particles through a kinetic mixing with an U(1)B-L gauge boson. Interestingly, the B-L charge assignment suppresses an antiproton flux in consistent with the PAMELA and BESS experiments, while the hierarchy bet...

Chen, Chuan-ren; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, T. T.

2008-01-01

142

Axial anomaly in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm gauge field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate on the plane the axial anomaly for Euclidean Dirac fermions in the presence of a background Aharonov-Bohm gauge potential. The nonperturbative analysis depends on the self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac operator and the result is shown to be influenced by the actual way of understanding the local axial vector current. The role of the quantum mechanical parameters involved in the expression for the axial anomaly is discussed. A derivation of the effective action by means of the stereographic projection is also considered

1994-10-15

143

Dion solution to unified Einstein gravitation theory and SO(3) gauge fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dion solution is found to the Julia-Zee type of the non-Abelian gauge theory in the framework of the Georgi-Glashow SO(3)-model with account of an intrinsic gravitational field described by the space-time curvature. A cosmological term is considered in the Einstein equation of gravitation as well as a contribution to the vacuum energy-momentum tensor associated with a spontaneous symmetry decomposition. The Einstein equation solution found describes the unified Reisner-Nordstrem space-time

1985-01-01

144

String theory applications in gravitational problems and gauge theories  

CERN Document Server

In this dissertation, we review the study of quark and monopole bound-state potentials within the gauge/gravity correspondence. Their behaviors often differ from what is expected on general physical grounds and field-theory considerations. We identify the configurations of physical interest by examining the stability of the string (brane) solutions dual to the flux tubes between the bound states. In particular, we formulate and prove several general statements concerning the perturbative stability of such string (brane) solutions, relevant for these configurations in a general class of backgrounds. We apply the results to N = 4 SYM and N = 1 at finite temperature and at generic points of the Coulomb branch. In all cases, the problematic regions are found to be unstable and hence physically irrelevant.

Siampos, Konstadinos

2010-01-01

145

Stochastic quantization of gauge, gravitational and string fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu and its application to gauge fields are briefly reviewed. The method is then generalized so as to make it applicable to Einstein gravity. The generalization is based on the existence of a preferred metric in field configuration space and involves Ito's calculus. In the nonlinear case the indefiniteness of the Euclidean Einstein action necessitates to generalize the stochastic formalism further to Lorentzian space-times. The formalism is shown to imply the path integral measure of De Witt, a causal Feynman propagator, and a consistent stochastic perturbation theory. Finally it is shown how stochastic quantization resolves the indefiniteness problem in free bosonic string field theory. (Author)

1986-01-01

146

Gravitational anomalies signaling the breakdown of classical gravity  

CERN Document Server

Recent observations for three types of astrophysical systems severely challenge the GR plus dark matter scenario, showing a phenomenology which is what modified gravity theories predict. Stellar kinematics in the outskirts of globular clusters show the appearance of MOND type dynamics on crossing the $a_{0}$ threshold. Analysis shows a ``Tully-Fisher'' relation in these systems, a scaling of dispersion velocities with the fourth root of their masses. Secondly, an anomaly has been found at the unexpected scales of wide binaries in the solar neighbourhood. Binary orbital velocities cease to fall along Keplerian expectations, and settle at a constant value, exactly on crossing the $a_{0}$ threshold. Finally, the inferred infall velocity of the bullet cluster is inconsistent with the standard cosmological scenario, where much smaller limit encounter velocities appear. This stems from the escape velocity limit present in standard gravity; the ``bullet'' should not hit the ``target'' at more than the escape velocit...

Hernandez, X; Allen, C

2014-01-01

147

Currents and the anomalies in chiral gauge theories: Dynamical approach in higher dimensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integral representation for the fermion effective action for chiral gauge theories in d = 2n space-time dimensions is given which is able to reproduce the mismatch, as suggested by differential geometric methods, between the covariant current and the consistent current. Both types of anomalies (i.e. covariant as well as consistent) can also be calculated without having to evaluate Feynman diagrams or to introduce any local counterterms. (orig.)

1986-07-10

148

Large-N bounds on, and compositeness limit of, gauge and gravitational interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a toy model of gauge and gravitational interactions in D?4 dimensions, endowed with an invariant UV cut-off ?, and containing a large number N of non-self-interacting matter species, the physical gauge and gravitational couplings at the cut-off, ?g?g2?D-4 and ?G?GN?D-2, are shown to be bounded by appropriate powers of 1/N. This implies that the infinite-bare-coupling (so-called compositeness) limit of these theories is smooth, and can even resemble our world. We argue that such a result, when extended to more realistic situations, can help avoid large-N violations of entropy bounds, solve the dilaton stabilization and GUT-scale problems in superstring theory, and provide a new possible candidate for quintessence. (author)

2002-06-01

149

Gauge-invariant gravitational wave modes in pre-big bang cosmology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The t<0 branch of pre-big bang cosmological scenarios is subject to a gravitational wave instability. The unstable behaviour of tensor perturbations is derived in a very simple way in Hwang's covariant and gauge-invariant formalism developed for extended theories of gravity. A simple interpretation of this instability as the effect of an ''antifriction'' is given, and it is argued that a universe must eventually enter the expanding phase. (orig.)

Faraoni, Valerio [Bishop' s University, Physics Department, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

2010-11-15

150

Gauge-invariant gravitational wave modes in pre-big bang cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The t<0 branch of pre-big bang cosmological scenarios is subject to a gravitational wave instability. The unstable behaviour of tensor perturbations is derived in a very simple way in Hwang's covariant and gauge-invariant formalism developed for extended theories of gravity. A simple interpretation of this instability as the effect of an ''antifriction'' is given, and it is argued that a universe must eventually enter the expanding phase. (orig.)

2010-11-01

151

Gauge-invariant gravitational wave modes in pre-big bang cosmology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The t<0 branch of pre-big bang cosmological scenarios is subject to a gravitational wave instability. The unstable behaviour of tensor perturbations is derived in a very simple way in Hwang's covariant and gauge-invariant formalism developed for extended theories of gravity. A simple interpretation of this instability as the effect of an "antifriction" is given, and it is argued that a universe must eventually enter the expanding phase.

Faraoni, Valerio

2010-01-01

152

Topological anomalies in the n dependence of the n-states Potts lattice gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate that there is an unexpected n dependence in the topological representation of the n-states gauge Potts model as a theory of random surfaces. Our results show that there are some inherent difficulties in regarding n as a continuous parameter. In particular, we point out some difficulties on constructing plaquette percolation as the n->1 limit of the n-states gauge Potts model and in setting up a 1/n expansion. While we find anomalies in the Wilson-loop expectation already in three dimensions, for the free energy they occur only in four or more dimensions. Related difficulties might appear in the Zsub(n) clock and the pure SU(n) lattice gauge theories. (orig.)

1984-05-07

153

Braided fusion categories, gravitational anomalies, and the mathematical framework for topological orders in any dimensions  

CERN Document Server

Gravitational anomalies can be realized on the boundary of topologically ordered states in one higher dimension and are described by topological orders in one higher dimension. In this paper, we try to develop a general theory for both topological order and gravitational anomaly in any dimensions. (1) We introduce the notion of BF category to describe the braiding and fusion properties of topological excitations that can be point-like, string-like, etc. A subset of BF categories -- closed BF categories -- classify topological orders in any dimensions, while generic BF categories classify (potentially) anomalous topological orders that can appear at a boundary of a gapped quantum liquid in one higher dimension. (2) We introduce topological path integral based on tensor network to realize those topological orders. (3) Bosonic topological orders have an important topological invariant: the vector bundles of the degenerate ground states over the moduli spaces of closed spaces with different metrics. They may full...

Kong, Liang

2014-01-01

154

Evaluating spectral density of gravitational force anomaly governed by the bottom relief  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the Taylor expansion of an integrated relationship which links the bottom relief and the gravitational force anomaly ..delta..g governed by the relief, spectral density S..delta.. /SUB g/ (..omega..) is obtained in the form of a sum. It is assumed that the ordinates of depths are subordinate to the normal distribution law. A relationship is found between the spectral density of the relief S /SUB h/ (..omega..) and S..delta.. /SUB g/ (..omega..) is applicable for studying the probability characteristics ..delta..g in the range of upper frequencies, where direct measurement of the gravitational force anomalies in the sea with accuracy on the order of 0.1 Mgal is impossible.

Muksunov, I.Kh.

1981-01-01

155

Hawking radiation from the Schwarzschild black hole with a global monopole via gravitational anomaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper derives the Hawking flux from the Schwarzschild black hole with a global monopole by using Robinson and Wilczek's method. Adopting a dimensional reduction technique, it can describe the effective quantum field in the (3 + 1)-dimensional global monopole background by an infinite collection of the (1 + 1)-dimensional massless fields if neglecting the ingoing modes near the horizon, where the gravitational anomaly can be cancelled by the (1 + 1)-dimensional black body radiation at the Hawking temperature

2008-03-01

156

Gauge unification of basic forces particularly of gravitation with strong interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corresponding to the two known types of gauge theories, Yang-Mills with spin-one mediating particles and Einstein Weyl with spin-two mediating particles, it is speculated that two distinct gauge unifications of the basic forces appear to be taking place. One is the familiar Yang-Mills unification of weak and electromagnetic forces with the strong. The second is the less familiar gauge unification of gravitation with spin-two tensor-dominated aspects of strong interactions. It is proposed that there are strongly interacting spin-two strong gravitons obeying Einstein's equations, and their existence gives a clue to an understanding of the (partial) confinement of quarks, as well as of the concept of hadronic temperature, through the use of Schwarzschild de-Sitter-like partially confining solitonic solutions of the strong gravity Einstein equation

1977-01-01

157

Numerical evolution of plane gravitational waves in the Friedrich-Nagy gauge  

Science.gov (United States)

The first proof of well posedness of an initial boundary value problem for the Einstein equations was given in 1999 by Friedrich and Nagy. They used a frame formalism with a particular gauge for formulating the equations. This "Friedrich-Nagy" gauge has never been implemented for use in numerical simulations before because it was deemed too complicated. In this paper we present an implementation of the Friedrich-Nagy gauge for systems with two commuting spacelike Killing vectors. We investigate the numerical performance of this formulation for plane wave space-times, reproducing the well-known Khan-Penrose solution for colliding impulsive plane waves and exhibiting a gravitational wave "ping-pong."

Frauendiener, Jörg; Stevens, Chris

2014-05-01

158

The Standard Model in a Weak Gravitational Background. Dilatons, Scale Anomalies and Conformal Methods  

CERN Document Server

The principal goal of the physics of the fundamental interactions is to provide a consistent description of the nature of the subnuclear forces, which manifest in our universe, together with the gravitational force, in a unified framework. This attempt, which is far from being complete, is characterized by two milestones, the Standard Model of the elementary particles and the Einstein's theory of General Relativity. The coupling of a quantum field theory, such as the Standard Model, to a weak gravitational background provides significant information concerning the coupling of matter to gravity and allows to study in a systematic way the origin of the conformal anomaly. For this reason, the computation of correlation functions in a weak gravitational background is of remarkable interest and the consequences of this analysis are also of phenomenological relevance. For instance, they concern the appearance in the spectrum of the theory of a composite state, the dilaton, which is identified, in perturbation theor...

Rose, Luigi Delle

2013-01-01

159

Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free ZN symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z6 symmetry, proton hexality P6, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LHuLHu. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1)X FN models in which the Z3 symmetry baryon triality, B3, arises from U(1)X breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B3-conserving FN models. (orig.)

2006-01-01

160

Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free Z{sub N} symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z{sub 6} symmetry, proton hexality P{sub 6}, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LH{sub u}LH{sub u}. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1){sub X} FN models in which the Z{sub 3} symmetry baryon triality, B{sub 3}, arises from U(1){sub X} breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B{sub 3}-conserving FN models. (orig.)

Luhn, C.

2006-05-15

 
 
 
 
161

Validation of GOCE global gravitational field models by comparison with regional geoid and gravity anomaly surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

The satellite gravitational gradiometry mission GOCE provides various products related to the Earth's gravitational field. One of these products is a global gravitational field model, i.e. representation of the Earth's gravitational field in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients. Such a model is used in realizing vertical reference frames in geodesy, exploring the interior of the Earth in geophysics and geology, studying the behavior of currents in oceanography, or discovering sea level rise and ice-melting in climatology. Numerous Earth's gravitational field representations have already been derived from GOCE. These representations differ according to the time span of GOCE measurements and the theoretical approach used in the harmonic analysis. To assess the quality of the GOCE models validation by independent knowledge of the gravitational field has to be performed. Global gravitational field models with limited spectral/spatial resolution are validated by terrestrial data. In this case, spectral inconsistency between the two sources of data has to be treated properly. An intuitive approach to perform the validation in a consistent way is offered by an adequate filtering. Transformation of the regional data into the spectral domain is performed firstly. Then a low-pass filter is applied to generate a smoothed version of the regional model with the same spectral content as the global GOCE model. Subsequently, the filtered signal is transformed back into the space domain where comparison with a GOCE geoid surface is performed. Despite its conceptual simplicity, the development of an optimal filtering procedure is still challenging. In this contribution we address some aspects of the filtering method. Firstly, a simulation study based on EGM2008 is performed to investigate the accuracy of the direct transformation from space to frequency domain and its inverse. Moreover, various mathematical filters are considered to filter out the short wavelengths. Secondly, the most accurate filtering procedure is applied in validation of real GOCE models. The validation experiment is performed with respect to gravity anomalies and geoid undulations over the territory of Scandinavia.

Sprlak, M.; Gerlach, C.; Pettersen, B. R.; Omang, O. C. D.

2012-04-01

162

Hawking Radiation from Topological Kerr Anti-de-Sitter Black Hole with One Rotational Parameter via Covariant Anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using anomalous viewpoint, we study the Hawking radiation from a kind of topological Kerr Anti-de-Sitter (Kerr-AdS) black hole with one rotational parameter. We employ the covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies. The result supports the Robinson–Wilczek opinion and shows that the Hawking temperature can be correctly determined by cancelling covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies at the horizon

2008-02-01

163

Chiral symmetry breaking and nonperturbative scale anomaly in gauge field theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nonperturbative dynamics of chiral and scale symmetry breaking in asymtotically free and non-asymptotically free (with an ultraviolet stable fixed point) vector-like gauge theories is investigated. In the two-loop approximation analytical expressions for the chiral and gluon condensates are obtained. The hypothesis about a soft behaviour at small distances of composite operators in non-asymptotically free gauge theories with a fixed point is put forward and substantiated. It is shown that in these theories the form of the scale anomaly depends on the type of the phase in coupling constant to which it relates. A new dilaton effective lagrangian for glueball and chiral fields is suggested. The mass relation for the single scalar fermion-antifermion bound state is obtained. The important ingredient of this approach is a large (d? 2) dynamical dimension of composite chiral fields. The application of this approach to QCD and technicolour models is discussed

1987-01-01

164

From Gauge Anomalies to Gerbes and Gerbal Representations: Group Cocycles in Quantum Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I shall discuss the role of group cohomology in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. First, I recall how cocycles of degree 1 and 2 appear naturally in the context of gauge anomalies. Then we investigate how group cohomology of degree 3 comes from a prolongation problem for group extensions and we discuss its role in quantum field theory. Finally, we discuss a generalization to representation theory where a representation is replaced by a 1-cocycle or its prolongation by a circle, and point out how this type of situations come up in the quantization of Yang-Mills theory.

J. Mickelsson

2010-01-01

165

Self-dual cosmic strings and gravitating vortices in gauged sigma models  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cosmic strings are considered in two types of gauged sigma models, which generalize the gravitating Abelian Higgs model. The two models differ by whether the U(1) kinetic term is of the Maxwell or Chern-Simons form. We obtain the self-duality conditions for a general two-dimensional target space defined in terms of field dependent "dielectric functions". In particular, we analyze analytically and numerically the equations for the case of O(3) models (two-sphere as target space), and find cosmic string solutions of several kinds as well as gravitating vortices. We classify the solutions by their flux and topological charge. We note an interesting connection between the Maxwell and Chern-Simons type models, which is responsible for simple relations between the self-dual solutions of both types. There is however a significant difference between the two systems, in that only the Chern-Simons type sigma model gives rise to spinning cosmic vortices.

Verbin, Y.; Madsen, Søren Peder

2003-01-01

166

Conserved vector current of the SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation and Noether's theorem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation one obtains a conserved vector current which is analogous to the isotropic spin current of the ordinary SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. In a recent paper Malin has shown that the gravitational conserved current can be defined, and its conservation can be proved, in a spinor affine spacetime without assuming the existence of a metric tensor, and that a metric structure is required to obtain a decomposition of the current as a sum of contributions of the sources and of the graviational field itself. In this paper we apply Noether's theorem to obtain a general SL(2,C) invariant form of this conserved current. (orig.)

1982-07-01

167

Unified self-dual gauge theory of gravitational and electromagnetic fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A gauge theory with SO (1,4) x U (1) as structural group and having a spherically symmetric Minkowski space-time as base manifold is constructed. SO(1,4) denotes the de-Sitter (DS) group and U(1) is the abelian group of phase transformations. The direct-product structure of the structural group imposes the introduction of the tetrads and spin connection as gauge fields (or potentials) of the gravitational field and of the potential vector describing the electromagnetic field in our unified gauge theory. The strength tensors of these gauge potentials are calculated considering a model with spherically symmetric fields. Then, the self-duality equations are obtained and their solutions are analyzed. It is shown that these equations admit the DS solution. In contrast, it is established that the Reissner-Nordstroem (RN) solution is not a self-dual one. However, the Yang-Mills field equations have both DS and RN as their solutions. (author)

2004-08-26

168

General Gauge and Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking in Grand Unified Theories with Vector-Like Particles  

CERN Document Server

In Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) from orbifold and various string constructions the generic vector-like particles do not need to form complete SU(5) or SO(10) representations. To realize them concretely, we present orbifold SU(5) models, orbifold SO(10) models where the gauge symmetry can be broken down to flipped SU(5) X U(1)_X or Pati-Salam SU(4)_C X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R gauge symmetries, and F-theory SU(5) models. Interestingly, these vector-like particles can be at the TeV-scale so that the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass can be lifted, or play the messenger fields in the Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (GMSB). Considering GMSB, ultraviolet insensitive Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB), and the deflected AMSB, we study the general gaugino mass relations and their indices, which are valid from the GUT scale to the electroweak scale at one loop, in the SU(5) models, the flipped SU(5) X U(1)_X models, and the Pati-Salam SU(4)_C X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R models. In the deflected AMSB, we also defi...

Li, Tianjun

2010-01-01

169

Anomaly-Free Supergravities in Six Dimensions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis reviews minimal N=2 chiral supergravities coupled to matter in six dimensions with emphasis on anomaly cancellation. In general, six-dimensional chiral supergravities suffer from gravitational, gauge and mixed anomalies which render the theories inconsistent at the quantum level. Consistency is restored if the anomalies of the theory cancel via the Green-Schwarz mechanism or generalizations thereof. The anomaly cancellation conditions translate into a certain set...

Avramis, Spyros D.

2006-01-01

170

A Semi-Vectorization Algorithm to Synthesis of Gravitational Anomaly Quantities on the Earth  

Science.gov (United States)

The Earth's gravitational potential can be expressed by the well-known spherical harmonic expansion. The computational time of summing up this expansion is an important practical issue which can be reduced by an efficient numerical algorithm. This paper proposes such a method for block-wise synthesizing the anomaly quantities on the Earth surface using vectorization. Fully-vectorization means transformation of the summations to the simple matrix and vector products. It is not a practical for the matrices with large dimensions. Here a semi-vectorization algorithm is proposed to avoid working with large vectors and matrices. It speeds up the computations by using one loop for the summation either on degrees or on orders. The former is a good option to synthesize the anomaly quantities on the Earth surface considering a digital elevation model (DEM). This approach is more efficient than the two-step method which computes the quantities on the reference ellipsoid and continues them upward to the Earth surface. The algorithm has been coded in MATLAB which synthesizes a global grid of 5â?²Ã- 5â?² (corresponding 9 million points) of gravity anomaly or geoid height using a geopotential model to degree 360 in 10000 seconds by an ordinary computer with 2G RAM.

Abdollahzadeh, M.; Eshagh, M.; Najafi Alamdari, M.

2009-04-01

171

Hawking radiation of black rings from anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We derive Hawking radiation of five-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find, as in the black hole case, that the problem could reduce to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral, dipole and charged black rings.

Chen Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); He Wei [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: bchen01@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: weihe@itp.ac.cn

2008-07-07

172

Anomaly-Free Supergravities in Six Dimensions  

CERN Document Server

This thesis reviews minimal N=2 chiral supergravities coupled to matter in six dimensions with emphasis on anomaly cancellation. In general, six-dimensional chiral supergravities suffer from gravitational, gauge and mixed anomalies which render the theories inconsistent at the quantum level. Consistency is restored if the anomalies of the theory cancel via the Green-Schwarz mechanism or generalizations thereof. The anomaly cancellation conditions translate into a certain set of constraints for the gauge group of the theory as well as on its matter content. For the case of ungauged theories these constraints admit numerous solutions but, in the case of gauged theories, the allowed solutions are remarkably few. In this thesis, we examine these anomaly cancellation conditions in detail and we present all solutions to these conditions under certain restrictions on the allowed gauge groups and representations, imposed for practical reasons. We also briefly examine anomaly cancellation in the context of Horava-Witt...

Avramis, S D

2006-01-01

173

Gauge-Invariant Localization of Infinitely Many Gravitational Energies from all Possible Auxiliary Structures, Or, Why Pseudotensors are Okay  

CERN Multimedia

The problem of finding a covariant expression for the distribution and conservation of gravitational energy-momentum dates to the 1910s. A suitably covariant infinite-component localization is displayed, reflecting Bergmann's realization that there are infinitely many conserved gravitational energy-momenta. Initially use is made of a flat background metric or connection (or rather, all of them), because the desired gauge invariance properties are obvious. Partial gauge-fixing then yields an appropriate covariant quantity without any background metric or connection; one version is the collection of pseudotensors of a given type, such as the Einstein pseudotensor, in_every_ coordinate system. This solution to the gauge covariance problem is easily adapted to any pseudotensorial expression or to any tensorial expression built with a background metric or connection. Thus the specific functional form can be chosen on technical grounds such as relating to Noether's theorem and yielding expected values of conserved ...

Pitts, J Brian

2009-01-01

174

Dimensional regularization and the two-loop axial anomaly in abelian, non-abelian and supersymmetric gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two-loop corrections to the axial anomaly are calculated for a non-abelian gauge theory with fermions using both conventional and supersymmetric dimensional regularization. In both cases we find results consistent with the Adler-Bardeen theorem if we use the non-anticommuting ?5 of 't Hooft and Veltman. Expectations (based on the supermultiplet structure of the anomalies) that there exists in N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory an axial current J5 such that delta x J5 approx. equal to ?(g)FF tilde are discussed. (orig.)

1982-10-18

175

Survival of New Physics: An Anomaly-free Neutral Gauge Boson at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

An anomaly-free $U(1)'$ effective Lagrangian as the most common new physics beyond the standard model is proposed to survey the maximal parameter space constrained by electroweak precise measurements at the LEP and direct detection in dilepton decay channel at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. By the global fit of effective couplings of $Z$ boson to the SM fermions, $\\Delta_{11},\\Delta_{21},g_2\\Delta_{31}$ related to mixings and $r$ related to $U(1)'$ charge assignment are bounded. The allowed areas are plotted in the not only $r$-$g_2$ but also $m_{Z'}$-$g_2$ planes, which show that a sub-TeV $Z'$ is still permissible as long as the coupling $g_2\\sim 0.01$. The results provides a prime requirement to an extra $U(1)'$ gauge boson and hinds the direction of possible new physics beyond the standard model. The possible signal in dilepton decay channel at LHC at $\\sqrt{s}=14$ TeV is also provided.

Zhang, Ying

2013-01-01

176

Anomaly inflow and thermal equilibrium  

CERN Document Server

Using the anomaly inflow mechanism, we compute a contribution of gauge and (or) gravitational anomalies to the partition function of a theory in even dimensional spacetimes in backgrounds with a U(1) isometry. This contribution is a local functional of the background fields. By identifying the U(1) isometry with Euclidean time we obtain a contribution of the anomaly to the thermodynamic partition function from which hydrostatic correlators can be efficiently computed. Our result is in line with, and an extension of, previous studies on the role of anomalies in a hydrodynamic setting. Along the way we find simplified expressions for Bardeen-Zumino polynomials and various transgression formulae.

Jensen, Kristan; Yarom, Amos

2013-01-01

177

Anomalies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

178

Classical Gravitational Interactions and Gravitational Lorentz Force  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In quantum gauge theory of gravity, the gravitational field is represented by gravitational gauge field. The field strength of gravitational gauge field has both gravitoelectric component and gravitomagnetic component. In classical level, gauge theory of gravity gives classical Newtonian gravitational interactions in a relativistic form. Besides, it gives gravitational Lorentz force, which is the gravitational force on a moving object in gravitomagnetic field. The direction of gravitational Lorentz force is not the same as that of classical gravitational Newtonian force. Effects of gravitational Lorentz force should be detectable, and these effects can be used to discriminate gravitomagnetic field from ordinary electromagnetic magnetic field.

2005-11-01

179

Does the Neptunian system of satellites challenge a gravitational origin for the Pioneer anomaly?  

Science.gov (United States)

If the Pioneer anomaly (PA) was a genuine dynamical effect of gravitational origin, it should also affect the orbital motions of the Solar system's bodies moving in the space regions in which the PA manifested itself in its presently known form, i.e. as a constant and uniform acceleration approximately directed towards the Sun with a non-zero magnitude after 20au from the Sun. In this paper we preliminarily investigate its effects on the orbital motions of the Neptunian satellites Triton, Nereid and Proteus, located at about 30au from the Sun, both analytically and numerically. Extensive observational records covering several orbital revolutions have recently been analysed for them, notably improving the knowledge of their orbits. Both analytical and numerical calculations, limited to the direct, Neptune-satellite interaction, show that the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the PA-induced radial, transverse and out-of-plane perturbations over one century are up to 300, 600km, 8m for Triton, 17500, 35000, 800km for Nereid and 60, 120km, 30m for Proteus. The corresponding orbital uncertainties obtained from a recent analysis of all the data available for the satellites considered are, in general, smaller by one-two orders of magnitude, although obtained without modelling a Pioneer-like extra-force. Further investigations based on a reprocessing of the satellites' real or simulated data with modified equations of motions including an additional Pioneer-type force as well are worth being implemented and may shed further light on this important issue.

Iorio, L.

2010-07-01

180

Consistent and covariant anomalies in the overlap formulation of chiral gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter we show how the covariant anomaly emerges in the overlap scheme. We also prove that the overlap scheme correctly reproduces the anomaly in the flavour currents such as j5? in vector like theories like QCD. (author). 6 refs

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Induced spin from the ISO(2,1) gauge theory with the gravitational Chern-Simons term  

CERN Multimedia

In the context of ISO(2,1) gauge theory, we consider (2+1)-dimensional gravity with the gravitational Chern-Simons term (CST). This formulation allows the `exact' solution for the system coupled to a massive point particle (which is not the case in the conventional Chern-Simons gravity). The solution exhibits locally trivial structure even with the CST, although still shows globally nontrivialness such as the conical space and the helical time structure. Since the solution is exact, we can say the CST induces spin even for noncritical case of \\s+\\al m\

Cho, J H; Cho, Jin Ho

1994-01-01

182

Renormalisation of gauge theories using effective Lagrangians, II  

Science.gov (United States)

The method of effective Lagrangian flow provides the most physically illuminating discussion of renormalisation theory. The extra complication of the unitarity question in gauge theories was solved in the first paper (for the non-chiral case) and in this paper we extend the results to chiral gauge theories and rigid N = 1 super Yang-Mills. We prove that one-loop anomaly cancellation is a sufficient condition for unitarity, and we also prove the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the divergence of a non-gauged axial current. Finally, we show that the gravitational anomalies of a gauged current are removed completely when canceled at the one-loop level.

Warr, Brian J.

1988-04-01

183

BRS cohomology and topological anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The occurrence of non-abelian anomalies in gauge theories and gravitation, first discovered via perturbative techniques, is now completely explained from the mathematical point of view by means of the family index theorem of Atiyah and Singer. Here we make contact between this approach and BRS cohomology, by showing that they yield the same non-abelian anomalies, provided a certain restriction to ''local'' functionals is not introduced from the very beginning. In particular, this solves the ''unicity'' problem for this kind of anomalies. Local BRS cohomology is still relevant for the abelian case. (orig.).

Falqui, G.; Reina, C.

1985-12-03

184

BRS cohomology and topological anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of non-abelian anomalies in gauge theories and gravitation, first discovered via perturbative techniques, is now completely explained from the mathematical point of view by means of the family index theorem of Atiyah and Singer. Here we make contact between this approach and BRS cohomology, by showing that they yield the same non-abelian anomalies, provided a certain restriction to ''local'' functionals is not introduced from the very beginning. In particular, this solves the ''unicity'' problem for this kind of anomalies. Local BRS cohomology is still relevant for the abelian case. (orig.)

1985-12-03

185

Analytic gravitational-force calculations for models of the Kuiper Belt, with application to the Pioneer anomaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use analytic techniques to study the gravitational force that would be produced by different Kuiper-Belt mass distributions. In particular, we study the 3-dimensional rings (and wedge) whose densities vary as the inverse of the distance, as a constant, as the inverse-squared of the distance, as well as that which varies according to the Boss-Peale model. These analytic calculations yield physical insight into the physics of the problem. They also verify that physically viable models of this type can produce neither the magnitude nor the constancy of the Pioneer anomaly

2005-10-15

186

Locally covariant chiral fermions and anomalies  

CERN Document Server

We define chiral fermions in the presence of non-trivial gravitational and gauge background fields in the framework of locally covariant field theory. This allows to straightforwardly compute the chiral anomalies on non-compact Lorentzian space-times, without recourse to a weak field approximation.

Zahn, Jochen

2014-01-01

187

Anomaly cancellation and gauge group of the standard model in NCG  

CERN Document Server

It is well known that anomaly cancellation {\\it almost} determines the hypercharges in the standard model. A related (and somewhat more stronger) phenomenon takes place in Connes' NCG framework: unimodularity (a technical condition on elements of the algebra) is {\\it strictly} equivalent to anomaly cancellation (in the absence of right-handed neutrinos); and this in turn reduces the symmetry group of the theory to the standard SU(3)\\times SU(2) \\times U(1).

Alvarez, Enrique; Martín, C P; Alvarez, Enrique

1995-01-01

188

Gauge invariance and string interactions in a generalized theory of gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gauge invariance of the Lagrangian in the nonsymmetric extension of general relativity is investigated. The skew parts of the nonsymmetric Hermitian g/sub munu/, in the weak-field approximation, act as gauge potentials that correspond to the exchange of massless scalar mesons between one-dimensionally extended objects (strings) in space-time. For open strings a massive vector particle, associated with the torsion, is also exchanged between the end points of the strings

1981-06-15

189

Errata and Addenda to "Anomaly Cancellation Condition in Lattice Gauge Theory"  

CERN Document Server

We correct some intermediate expressions and arguments in Nucl. Phys. B 585 (2000) 471--513. The main results do not change. We also mention some additional observations, including a constraint on a coefficient of the possible nontrivial anomaly which was not given in the paper.

Igarashi, H; Suzuki, H; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

2000-01-01

190

Anomalies in gravity-coupled SU(N) Yang-Mills theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a general even space-time dimension I consider spin-1/2 fermions coupled to SU(N) Yang-Mills fields and to gravity. It is shown (unexpectedly) that, once the chiral gauge anomaly is cancelled, gravitational anomalies do not further constrain the fermion representation.

Frampton, P.H.

1984-06-14

191

Dynamics of a self-gravitating lightlike matter shell: A gauge-invariant Lagrangian and Hamiltonian description  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete Lagrangian and Hamiltonian description of the theory of self-gravitating lightlike matter shells is given in terms of gauge-independent geometric quantities. For this purpose the notion of an extrinsic curvature for a null-like hypersurface is discussed and the corresponding Gauss-Codazzi equations are proved. These equations imply Bianchi identities for spacetimes with null-like, singular curvature. The energy-momentum tensor density of a lightlike matter shell is unambiguously defined in terms of an invariant matter Lagrangian density. The Noether identity and Belinfante-Rosenfeld theorem for such a tensor density are proved. Finally, the Hamiltonian dynamics of the interacting 'gravity+matter' system is derived from the total Lagrangian, the latter being an invariant scalar density

2002-03-15

192

D-brane Charges in Gravitational Duals of 2+1 Dimensional Gauge Theories and Duality Cascades  

CERN Document Server

We perform a systematic analysis of the D-brane charges associated with string theory realizations of d=3 gauge theories, focusing on the examples of the N=4 supersymmetric U(N)xU(N+M) Yang-Mills theory and the N=3 supersymmetric U(N)xU(N+M) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We use both the brane construction of these theories and their dual string theory backgrounds in the supergravity approximation. In the N=4 case we generalize the previously known gravitational duals to arbitrary values of the gauge couplings, and present a precise mapping between the gravity and field theory parameters. In the N=3 case, which (for some values of N and M) flows to an N=6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theory in the IR, we argue that the careful analysis of the charges leads to a shift in the value of the B-field in the IR solution by 1/2, in units where its periodicity is one, compared to previous claims. We also suggest that the N=3 theories may exhibit, for some values of N and M, duality cascades similar to those of ...

Aharony, Ofer; Hirano, Shinji; Ouyang, Peter

2009-01-01

193

Invisible charginos and neutralinos from gauge boson fusion: A way to explore anomaly mediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We point out that vector boson fusion at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can lead to useful signals for charginos and neutralinos in supersymmetric scenarios where these particles are almost invisible. The proposed signals are just two forward jets with missing transverse energy. It is shown that, in this way, one can put by far the strongest constraint on the parameter space of a theory with anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking at the LHC. In addition, scenarios where the lightest neutralinos and charginos are Higgsino-like can give signals of the above type

2002-05-06

194

Gauge structure, anomalies and mass generation in a three dimensional thirring model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider a three dimensional model of spinor fields with a Thirring like, quadrilinear self interaction. Using either two or four component Dirac spinors, we prove that the 1/N expansion for the model is renormalizable if a gauge structure to select physical quantities is introduced. For certain values of the coupling the leading 1/N approximation exihibits bound state poles. Dynamical breaking of parity or chiral symmetry is shown to occur as a cooperative effect of different orders of 1/N, if N is smaller than the critical value N_c = "1"2"8/_x_"2_D_', where D is two or four depending on wether the fermion field has two or four components. (author)

1990-01-01

195

Introduction to anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These lectures are dedicated to the study of the recent progress and implications of anomalies in quantum field theory. In this introduction the author recapitulates some of the highlights in the history of the subject. The outline of these lectures is as follows: Section II contains a quick review of spinors in Euclidean and Minkowski space, some other group theory results relevant for the computation of anomalies in various dimensions, and an exposition of the index theorem. Section III starts the analysis of fermion determinants and chiral effective actions by deriving the non-Abelian anomaly from index theory. Using the results of Section II, the anomaly cancellation recently discovered by Green and Schwarz will be presented in Section IV as well as the connection of these results of Section III with the descent equations and the Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangians. Section V contains the generalization of anomalies to ?-models and some of its application in string theory. Section VI will deal with the anomalies from the Hamiltonian point of view. An exact formula for the imaginary part of the effective action for chiral fermions in the presence of arbitrary external gauge and gravitational fields will be derived in Section VII, and used in Section VIII for the study of global anomalies. 85 references

1986-01-01

196

Models of Metal Poor Stars with Gravitational Settling and Radiative Accelerations I. Evolution and Abundance Anomalies  

CERN Document Server

Evolutionary models have been calculated for Pop II stars of 0.5 to 1.0$M_\\odot$ from the pre-main-sequence to the lower part of the giant branch. Rosseland opacities and radiative accelerations were calculated taking into account the concentration variations of 28 chemical species, including all species contributing to Rosseland opacities in the OPAL tables. The effects of radiative accelerations, thermal diffusion and gravitational settling are included. While models were calculated both for Z=0.00017 and 0.0017, we concentrate on models with Z=0.00017 in this paper. These are the first Pop II models calculated taking radiative acceleration into account. It is shown that, at least in a 0.8$M_\\odot$ star, it is a better approximation not to let Fe diffuse than to calculate its gravitational settling without including the effects of $g_{rad}(Fe)$. In the absence of any turbulence outside of convection zones, the effects of atomic diffusion are large mainly for stars more massive than 0.7$M_\\odot$. Overabundan...

Richard, O; Richer, J; Turcotte, S; Turck-Chièze, S; Van den Berg, D A; Berg, Don A. Vanden

2002-01-01

197

Solution of the anomaly puzzle in SUSY gauge theories and the Wilson operator expansion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper completes a series of works on ? functions and the anomaly problem in supersymmetric theories. Exact expressions for the ? functions are obtained within the framework of standard perturbation theory. The key observation is that the Wilson effective action S_W(?) does not coincide with the sum of vacuum loops in the external field ?(?). The difference is due to infrared effects. The coefficient 1/g"2 in front of the operator W"2 in S_W is renormalized only at one-loop level (extension of the non-renormalization theorem for F-terms). This fact results in the one-loop form of the anomalous operator equation for the supercurrent (generalization of the Adler-Bardeen theorem). The full Gell-Mann-Low function emerges after passing to matrix elements of the operators. The quantity entering observable amplitudes differs from 1/g"2 by ?_ilnZ_i where the factors Z_i describe renormalization of the fields. (In this sense the Z factors of the matter fields become observable.) We discuss the relation with calculations of the instanton type. (orig.)

1986-11-10

198

Interpretation of a Short-Term Anomaly in the Gravitational Microlensing Event MOA-2012-BLG-486  

CERN Multimedia

A planetary microlensing signal is generally characterized by a short-term perturbation to the standard single lensing light curve. A subset of binary-source events can produce perturbations that mimic planetary signals, thereby introducing an ambiguity between the planetary and binary-source interpretations. In this paper, we present analysis of the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486, for which the light curve exhibits a short-lived perturbation. Routine modeling not considering data taken in different passbands yields a best-fit planetary model that is slightly preferred over the best-fit binary-source model. However, when allowed for a change in the color during the perturbation, we find that the binary-source model yields a significantly better fit and thus the degeneracy is clearly resolved. This event not only signifies the importance of considering various interpretations of short-term anomalies, but also demonstrates the importance of multi-band data for checking the possibility of false-positive pla...

Hwang, K -H; Bond, I A; Sumi, T; Han, C; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bozza, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Tsapras, Y; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Fukunaga, D; Harris, P; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Namba, S; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yamai, N; Yock, P C M; Yonehara, A; de Almeida, L Andrade; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Jablonski, F; Jung, Y K; Kavka, A; Lee, C -U; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shin, I -G; Yee, J C; Albrow, M D; Bachelet, E; Batista, V; Brillant, S; Caldwell, J A R; Cassan, A; Cole, A; Corrales, E; Coutures, Ch; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Fouqué, P; Greenhill, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kane, S R; Kubas, D; Marquette, J -B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Williams, A; Wouters, D; Bramich, D M; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Browne, P; Hundertmark, M; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Street, R A

2013-01-01

199

Moduli corrections to gravitational couplings from string loops  

CERN Multimedia

We study moduli dependent threshold corrections to gravitational couplings in the case of the heterotic string compactified on a symmetric orbifold, for untwisted moduli, extending previous analysis on gauge couplings. Like in the gauge case, the contribution comes entirely from the spacetime $N=2$ sector. As a byproduct, this calculation provides a simple derivation of the trace anomaly coefficients for the different fields coupled to gravity.

Antoniadis, Ignatios; Narain, Kumar S

1992-01-01

200

Construction of local covariational functions for anomalies of the gravitational force for mining regions. Postroyeniye lokalnykh kovariatsionnykh funktsiy anomaliy sily tyazhesti dlya gornykh raynov  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented of studying the first stage in the use of the method of collocation for condensing the results of gravimetric surveying in mining regions, construction of an empirical covariation function (EKF). The computation of the EKF was made both from directly measured values of anomalies of the gravitational force, and with regard for known relationship: ..delta..=a+bh, where ..delta..g- anomaly of the gravitational force; a and b--known coefficients of the regression equation; h--exceeding of the point above a certain average surface. Based on analysis of the constructed four variants of EKF, as well as the obtained parameters of these functions (dispersions of the field, lengths of the correlation, parameters of curvature), a conclusion was drawn about the need to compute the indicated relationship for constructing the EKF for improving the accuracy of the ..delta..g forecast.

Yevseyeva, E.M.; Kirichuk, V.V.; Zinger, V.Ye.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Anomalies and Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We extend the work by Iso, Umetsu and Wilczek (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 151302) to derive the Hawking flux via gauge and gravitational anomalies of a most general two-dimensional non-extremal black hole spacetime with the determinant of its diagonal metric differing from unity {radical} (-g)1) {ne} 1 and use it to investigate Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole by requiring the cancellation of anomalies at the horizon. It is shown that the compensating energy-momentum and gauge fluxes required to cancel gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon are precisely equivalent to the (1 + 1)-dimensional thermal fluxes associated with Hawking radiation emanating from the horizon at the Hawking temperature. These fluxes are universally determined by the value of anomalies at the horizon.

Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

2007-10-21

202

Anomalies and Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We extend the work by Iso, Umetsu and Wilczek (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 151302) to derive the Hawking flux via gauge and gravitational anomalies of a most general two-dimensional non-extremal black hole spacetime with the determinant of its diagonal metric differing from unity ? (-g)1) ? 1 and use it to investigate Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole by requiring the cancellation of anomalies at the horizon. It is shown that the compensating energy-momentum and gauge fluxes required to cancel gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon are precisely equivalent to the (1 + 1)-dimensional thermal fluxes associated with Hawking radiation emanating from the horizon at the Hawking temperature. These fluxes are universally determined by the value of anomalies at the horizon

2007-10-21

203

Gravitation  

CERN Multimedia

Without gravity, you would float into space. Gravity pulls matter together: it holds us onto the Earth, it holds the Earth in orbit around the sun and it holds our solar system in orbit about the centre of the galaxy. Everything with mass feels the attraction of gravity. The strength of the attraction between 2 objects depends on their masses. Despite its omnipresence, gravity is the weakest of the 4 forces. It is insignificant at the scale of human beings: when a group of visitors walks past, gravity doesn't pull you towards them! At even smaller scales, the gravitational pull between the electron and the proton is about 1040 times weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them. Text for the interactive: Why does the same mass weigh more on the Earth than on the moon ?

204

Deriving exact prepotential for $N = 2$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories from superconformal anomaly with rank two gauge groups  

CERN Multimedia

The exact prepotential for $N = 2$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is derived from the superconformal anomalous Ward identity for the gauge group SU(2) and SU(3), which can be generalized to any other rank two gauge groups.

Naik, S

1999-01-01

205

Chiral Gravity Waves and Leptogenesis in Inflationary Models with non-Abelian Gauge Fields  

CERN Document Server

We present a leptogenesis scenario associated with inflationary models involving non-Abelian gauge fields within the standard model of particle physics (SM). We show that this class of inflationary models generates intrinsic birefringent gravitational waves that through the gravitational chiral anomaly in SM, can naturally create a net lepton number density. The CP violating interaction is produced by tensor fluctuations of the gauge field, while the efficiency of this process is determined by the effective background value of the gauge field. We demonstrate that this mechanism can create the observed value of baryon to photon number density in a natural range of parameters of these models.

Maleknejad, Azadeh

2014-01-01

206

Path integral quantization of gravitational interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the local symmetry properties of quantum field theory in curved space-time and quantized gravitational interactions are discussed. We concentrate on local symmetry properties, and thus the asymptotically flat space-time is assumed, whenever necessary, in the hope that the precise boundary conditions will not modify the short distance structure in quantum theory. We adopt the DeWitt-Faddeev-Popov prescription of the Feynman path integral with a complete gauge fixing. The topics discussed include: (i) A brief review of the path integral derivation of chiral anomalies in flat space-time. (ii) The specification of the gravitational path integral measure, which avoids all the ''fake'' gravitational anomalies, and the applications of this path integral prescription to 1) effective potential in generalized Kaluza-Klein theory, 2) 4-dimensional conformal anomalies, 3) conformal symmetry in pure conformal gravity, 4) bosonic string theory as a gravitational theory in d = 2, 5) Virasoro condition and the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the path integral formalism, 6) gravitational anomalies and the definition of the energy-momentum tensor. (author)

1985-01-01

207

Abelian Gauge Theories with Tensor Gauge Fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gauge fields of arbitrary tensor type are introduced. In curved space-time the gravitational field serves as a bridge joining different gauge fields. The theory of second order tensor gauge field is developed on the basis of close analogy to Maxwell elect...

E. Kapuscik

1984-01-01

208

Renormalisation of gauge theories using effective Lagrangians, II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method of effective Lagrangian flow provides the most physically illuminating discussion of renormalisation theory. The extra complication of the unitarity question in gauge theories was solved in the first paper (for the non-chiral case) and in this paper we extend the results to chiral gauge theories and rigid N = 1 super Yang--Mills. We prove that one-loop anomaly cancellation is a sufficient condition for unitarity, and we also prove the Adler--Bardeen theorem for the divergence of a non-gauged axial current. Finally, we show that the gravitational anomalies of a gauged current are removed completely when canceled at the one-loop level. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

Warr, B.J.

1988-04-01

209

Renormalisation of gauge theories using effective Lagrangians, II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of effective Lagrangian flow provides the most physically illuminating discussion of renormalisation theory. The extra complication of the unitarity question in gauge theories was solved in the first paper (for the non-chiral case) and in this paper we extend the results to chiral gauge theories and rigid N = 1 super Yang--Mills. We prove that one-loop anomaly cancellation is a sufficient condition for unitarity, and we also prove the Adler--Bardeen theorem for the divergence of a non-gauged axial current. Finally, we show that the gravitational anomalies of a gauged current are removed completely when canceled at the one-loop level. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

1988-01-01

210

The global anomalies of (2,0) superconformal field theories in six dimensions  

CERN Document Server

We compute the global gauge and gravitational anomalies of the A-type (2,0) superconformal quantum field theories in six dimensions, and conjecture a formula valid for the D- and E-type theories. We show that the anomaly contains terms that do not contribute to the local anomaly but that are crucial for the consistency of the global anomaly. A side result is an intuitive picture for the appearance of Hopf-Wess-Zumino terms on the Coulomb branch of the (2,0) theories.

Monnier, Samuel

2014-01-01

211

Search at the Mainz Microtron for Light Massive Gauge Bosons Relevant for the Muon g-2 Anomaly  

Science.gov (United States)

A massive, but light, Abelian U(1) gauge boson is a well-motivated possible signature of physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. In this Letter, the search for the signal of such a U(1) gauge boson in electron-positron pair production at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron is described. Exclusion limits in the mass range of 40 MeV/c2 to 300 MeV/c2, with a sensitivity in the squared mixing parameter of as little as ?2=8×10-7 are presented. A large fraction of the parameter space has been excluded where the discrepancy of the measured anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with theory might be explained by an additional U(1) gauge boson.

Merkel, H.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Beranek, T.; Beri?i?, J.; Bernauer, J. C.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Debenjak, L.; Denig, A.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friš?i?, I.; Gómez Rodríguez de la Paz, M.; Hoek, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Middleton, D. G.; Mihovilovi?, M.; Müller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Rohrbeck, M.; Ron, G.; Sánchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. S.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Thiel, M.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.; Weinriefer, M.; A1 Collaboration

2014-06-01

212

Search for light massive gauge bosons as an explanation of the $(g-2)_\\mu$ anomaly at MAMI  

CERN Multimedia

A massive, but light abelian U(1) gauge boson is a well motivated possible signature of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. In this paper, the search for the signal of such a U(1) gauge boson in electron-positron pair-production at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) is described. Exclusion limits in the mass range of 40 MeV up to 300 MeV with a sensitivity in the mixing parameter of down to $\\epsilon^2 = 8\\times 10^{-7}$ are presented. A large fraction of the parameter space has been excluded where the discrepancy of the measured anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with theory might be explained by an additional U(1) gauge boson.

Merkel, H; Gayoso, C Ayerbe; Beranek, T; Beri?i?, J; Bernauer, J C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Correa, L; Debenjak, L; Denig, A; Distler, M O; Esser, A; Fonvieille, H; Friš?i?, I; de la Paz, M Gómez Rodríguez; Hoek, M; Kegel, S; Kohl, Y; Middleton, D G; Mihovilovi?, M; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pochodzalla, J; Rohrbeck, M; Ron, G; Majos, S Sánchez; Schlimme, B S; Schoth, M; Schulz, F; Sfienti, C; Širca, S; Thiel, M; Tyukin, A; Weber, A; Weinriefer, M

2014-01-01

213

Mixed states from anomalies  

Science.gov (United States)

There are several instances where quantum anomalies of continuous and discrete classical symmetries play an important role in fundamental physics. Examples come from chiral anomalies in the Standard Model of fundamental interactions and gravitational anomalies in string theories. Their generic origin is the fact that classical symmetries may not preserve the domains of quantum operators like the Hamiltonian. In this work, we show by simple examples that anomalous symmetries can often be implemented at the expense of working with mixed states having nonzero entropies. In particular there is the result on color breaking by non-abelian magnetic monopoles. This anomaly can be rectified by using impure states. We also argue that non-abelian groups of twisted bundles are always anomalous for pure states sharpening an earlier argument of Sorkin and Balachandran [A. P. Balachandran, G. Marmo, B. S. Skagerstam, and A. Stern, Classical Topology and Quantum States (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991).]. This is the case of mapping class groups of geons [A. P. Balachandran, G. Marmo, B. S. Skagerstam, and A. Stern, Classical Topology and Quantum States (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991).] indicating that large diffeos are anomalous for pure states in the presence of geons. Nevertheless diffeo invariance may be restored by using impure states. This work concludes with examples of these ideas drawn from molecular physics. The above approach using impure states is entirely equivalent to restricting all states to the algebra of observables invariant under the anomalous symmetries. For anomalous gauge groups such as color, this would mean that we work with observables singlet under global gauge transformations. For color, this will mean that we work with color singlets, a reasonable constraint.

Balachandran, A. P.; de Queiroz, Amilcar R.

2012-01-01

214

Gravitational cubic interactions for a simple mixed-symmetry gauge field in AdS and flat backgrounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cubic interactions between the simplest mixed-symmetry gauge field and gravity are constructed in anti-de Sitter (AdS) and flat backgrounds. Non-Abelian cubic interactions are obtained in AdS following various perturbative methods including the Fradkin-Vasiliev construction, with and without Stueckelberg fields. The action that features the maximal number of Stueckelberg fields can be considered in the flat limit without loss of physical degrees of freedom. The resulting interactions in flat space are compared with a classification of vertices obtained via the antifield cohomological perturbative method. It is shown that the gauge algebra becomes Abelian in the flat limit, in contrast to what happens for totally symmetric gauge fields in AdS. (paper)

2011-10-14

215

Algebraic determination of covariant anomalies and Schwinger terms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inclusion of the anti-ghost field in the BRST algebra allows us to derive simultaneously consistent and covariant anomalies and Schwinger terms (as well as Bardeen-Zumino counterterms) by transgression form a Chern-Simons form. Our method which uses the natural variables of the gauged BRST symmetry encompasses all polynomials and descent equations of a previously proposed approach which relies on various homotopy operators. In conclusion, both approaches are generalized to gravitational theories. (orig.)

1990-08-06

216

Parity violating gravitational response and anomalous constitutive relations  

CERN Document Server

We compute the parity violating part of the time-dependent gravitational response function of an ideal gas of Weyl fermions up to third order in the derivative expansion and give its full tensorial structure. Our main results are two functions that parametrize the energy-momentum tensor in terms of gauge-invariant combinations of vector and tensor metric perturbations. The zero frequency limit of these functions is related with the anomalous constitutive relations and with the full anomalous partition function in the presence of gauge and mixed anomalies. In particular, our results imply the existence of a previously unknown invariant contribution to the parity-odd partition function at third derivative order that we explicitly construct. Beyond the static limit, the gravitational response function may provide valuable insights into time-dependent phenomena driven by anomalies.

Mañes, Juan L

2013-01-01

217

Anomaly analysis of Hawking radiation from Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon, a new method to derive Hawking radiation from black holes has been developed by Wilczek et al. In this paper, we apply this method to non-rotating and rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes with squashed horizon, respectively. For the rotating case, we found that, after dimensional reduction, an effective U(1) gauge field is generated by an angular isometry. The results show that the gauge current and energy-momentum tensor fluxes are exactly equivalent to Hawking radiation from the event horizon. (orig.)

Wei, Shao-Wen; Li, Ran; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Ren, Ji-Rong [Lanzhou University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou (China)

2010-01-15

218

Anomaly analysis of Hawking radiation from Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considering gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon, a new method to derive Hawking radiation from black holes has been developed by Wilczek et al. In this paper, we apply this method to non-rotating and rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes with squashed horizon, respectively. For the rotating case, we found that, after dimensional reduction, an effective U(1) gauge field is generated by an angular isometry. The results show that the gauge current and energy-momentum tensor fluxes are exactly equivalent to Hawking radiation from the event horizon. (orig.)

2010-01-01

219

Gravitational Geons Revisited  

CERN Document Server

A careful analysis of the gravitational geon solution found by Brill and Hartle is made. The gravitational wave expansion they used is shown to be consistent and to result in a gauge invariant wave equation. It also results in a gauge invariant effective stress-energy tensor for the gravitational waves provided that a generalized definition of a gauge transformation is used. To leading order this gauge transformation is the same as the usual one for gravitational waves. It is shown that the geon solution is a self-consistent solution to Einstein's equations and that, to leading order, the equations describing the geometry of the gravitational geon are identical to those derived by Wheeler for the electromagnetic geon.

Anderson, P R; Anderson, Paul R.; Brill, Dieter R.

1997-01-01

220

Gravitational research. Gravitational waves  

Science.gov (United States)

Gravitational wave research is reviewed. Gravitational theory, relativity theory, experiments in general relativity, sources of gravitational waves, the Rome gravitational experiment, quantic limits of gravitational waves measurements and how to avoid those limits are discussed.

Amaldi, E.; Pizzella, G.

1985-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Theoretical physics 3. Classical field theory. On electrodynamics, non-Abelian gauge theories, and gravitation. 3. ed.; Theoretische Physik 3. Klassische Feldtheorie. Von Elektrodynamik, nicht-Abelschen Eichtheorien und Gravitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stringent presentation of field theory, mediates the connection from the classicalelectrodynamics up to modern gauge theories. The compact presentation is ideal for the bachelor study. New chapter on general relativity theory. Deepens the learned by numerous application from laser physic, metamaterials and different more. Theoretical physics 3. Classical field theory. On electrodynamics, non-Abelian, and gravitation is the third of five volumes on theoretical physics by professor Scheck. The cycle theoretical physics comprehends: Volume 1: Mechanics. From Newtons law to the deterministic chaos. Volume 2: Nonrelativistic quantum theory. From the hydrogen atom to the many-particle systems. Volume 3: Classical field theory. From the electrodynamics to the gauge theories. Volume 5: From the laws of thermodynamics to the quantum statistics. This textbook mediates modern theoretical physics in string presentation illustrated by many examples. It contains numerous problems with solution hints ore exemplary, complete solutions. The third edition was revised in many single topics, especially the chapter on general relativity theory was supplemented by an extensive analysis of the Schwarzschild solution. [German] Stringente Darstellung der Feldtheorie, vermittelt den Zusammenhang von der klassischen Elektrodynamik bis zu modernen Eichtheorien. Die kompakte Darstellung ist ideal fuer das Bachelor-Studium. Neues Kapitel zur Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie. Vertieft das Erlernte durch zahlreiche Anwendungsbeispiele aus Laserphysik, Metamaterialien uvm. Theoretische Physik 3. Klassische Feldtheorie. Von Elektrodynamik, nicht-Abelschen Eichtheorien und Gravitation ist der dritte von fuenf Baenden zur Theoretischen Physik von Professor Scheck. Der Zyklus Theoretische Physik umfasst: Band 1: Mechanik. Von den Newtonschen Gesetzen zum deterministischen Chaos. Band 2: Nichtrelativistische Quantentheorie. Vom Wasserstoffatom zu den Vielteilchensystemen. Band 3: Klassische Feldtheorie. Von der Elektrodynamik zu den Eichtheorien Band 4: Quantisierte Felder. Von den Symmetrien zur Quantenelektrodynamik Band 5: Theorie der Waerme. Von den Hauptsaetzen der Thermodynamik zur Quantenstatistik Dieses Lehrbuch vermittelt moderne Theoretische Physik in stringenter, durch viele Beispiele illustrierter Darstellung. Es enthaelt zahlreiche Aufgaben mit Loesungshinweisen oder exemplarischen, vollstaendigen Loesungen. Die dritte Auflage wurde in vielen Einzelheiten ueberarbeitet, insbesondere das Kapitel ueber Allgemeine Relativitaetstheorie wurde um eine ausfuehrliche Analyse der Schwarzschild-Loesung ergaenzt. (orig.)

Scheck, Florian [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

2010-07-01

222

Constructing the Lorentz anomaly out of the Virasoro anomaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use a simple argument based on the algebra of cocycles to construct out of the Virasoro anomaly the anomaly that occurs in the Lorentz algebra when strings are quantised in the light-cone gauge. (orig.)

1988-06-16

223

The conformal anomaly and the neutral currents sector of the Standard Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We elaborate on the structure of the graviton-gauge-gauge vertex in the electroweak theory, obtained by the insertion of the complete energy-momentum tensor (T) on 2-point functions of neutral gauge currents (VV'). The vertex defines the leading contribution to the effective action which accounts for the conformal anomaly and related interaction between the Standard Model and gravity. The energy-momentum tensor is derived from the curved spacetime Lagrangian in the linearized gravitational limit, and with the inclusion of the term of improvement of a conformally coupled Higgs sector. As in the previous cases of QED and QCD, we find that the conformal anomaly induces an effective massless scalar interaction between gravity and the neutral currents in each gauge invariant component of the vertex. This is described by the exchange of an anomaly pole. We show that for a spontaneously broken theory the anomaly can be entirely attributed to the poles only for a conformally coupled Higgs scalar. In the exchange of a graviton, the trace part of the corresponding interaction can be interpreted as due to an effective dilaton, using a local version of the effective action. We discuss the implications of the anomalous Ward identity for the TVV' correlator for the structure of the gauge/gauge/effective dilaton vertex in the effective action. The analogy between these effective interactions and those related to the radion in theories with large extra dimensions is pointed out.

2011-05-30

224

Discrete Anomaly Matching  

CERN Document Server

We extend the well-known 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for continuous global symmetries to discrete groups. We state the matching conditions for all possible anomalies which involve discrete symmetries explicitly. There are two types of discrete anomalies. For Type I anomalies, the matching conditions have to be always satisfied regardless of the details of the massive bound state spectrum. The Type II anomalies have to be also matched except if there are fractionally charged massive bound states in the theory. We check discrete anomaly matching in recent solutions of certain N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories, most of which satisfy these constraints. The excluded examples include the chirally symmetric phase of N=1 pure supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories described by the Veneziano-Yankielowicz Lagrangian and certain non-supersymmetric confining theories. The conjectured self-dual theories based on exceptional gauge groups do not satisfy discrete anomaly matching nor mapping of operators, and are viable...

Csáki, C; Csaki, Csaba; Murayama, Hitoshi

1998-01-01

225

Slightly Bimetric Gravitation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The inclusion of a flat metric tensor in gravitation permits the formulation of a gravitational stress-energy tensor and the formal derivation of general relativity from a linear theory in flat spacetime. Building on the works of Kraichnan and Deser, we present such a derivation using universal coupling and gauge invariance. Next we slightly weaken the assumptions of universal coupling and gauge invariance, obtaining a larger ``slightly bimetric'' class of theories, in ...

Pitts, J. Brian; Schieve, W. C.

2001-01-01

226

Holographic renormalization of cascading gauge theories  

CERN Document Server

We perform a holographic renormalization of cascading gauge theories. Specifically, we find the counter-terms that need to be added to the gravitational action of the backgrounds dual to the cascading theory of Klebanov and Tseytlin, compactified on an arbitrary four-manifold, in order to obtain finite correlation functions (with a limited set of sources). We show that it is possible to truncate the action for deformations of this background to a five dimensional system coupling together the metric and four scalar fields. Somewhat surprisingly, despite the fact that these theories involve an infinite number of high-energy degrees of freedom, we find finite answers for all one-point functions (including the conformal anomaly). We compute explicitly the renormalized stress tensor for the cascading gauge theories at high temperature and show how our finite answers are consistent with the infinite number of degrees of freedom. Finally, we discuss ambiguities appearing in the holographic renormalization we propose...

Aharony, O; Yarom, A; Aharony, Ofer; Buchel, Alex; Yarom, Amos

2005-01-01

227

Antibracket, antifields and gauge-theory quantization  

CERN Multimedia

The antibracket formalism for gauge theories, at both the classical and quantum level, is reviewed. Gauge transformations and the associated gauge structure are analyzed in detail. The basic concepts involved in the antibracket formalism are elucidated. Gauge-fixing, quantum effects, and anomalies within the field-antifield formalism are developed. The concepts, issues and constructions are illustrated using eight gauge-theory models.

Gomis, J P; Samuel, S; Gomis, Joaquim; Paris, Jordi; Samuel, Stuart

1994-01-01

228

More on axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the gauge and metric field contribution to the axial anomaly of a four-dimensional massless Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropy scaling exponent z is identical to the relativistic case, hereby extending the results found in arXiv:1103.5693 to arbitrary values of z. This is in accordance with the fact that the axial anomaly is an infra-red phenomenon in disguise. We also provide some new models that realize baryon and lepton number violation in non-relativistic theories of gravity. In all cases, the volume of space exhibits a lower bound that is fixed by the gravitational coupling parameters. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

2012-03-01

229

Quantum Anomalies at Horizon and Hawking Radiations in Myers-Perry Black Holes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new method has been developed recently to derive Hawking radiations from black holes based on considerations of gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon gr-qc/0502074 hep-th/0602146. In this paper, we apply the method to Myers-Perry black holes with multiple angular momenta in various dimensions by using the dimensional reduction technique adopted in the case of four-dimensional rotating black holes hep-th/0606018.

Iso, Satoshi; Morita, Takeshi; Umetsu, Hiroshi

2006-01-01

230

Analogue of the Witten effect in the Poincare gauge theory of gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly is analysed in the framework of the Poincare gauge theory. It is shown that an additional CP-violating term 8*RR in the effective Lagrangian is equivalent to a shift in the mass of the Taub-NUT metric as felt by fermions. This analogue of the Witten effect is discussed in conjunction with the appearance of torsion in recently found exact solutions. (author)

1985-01-01

231

*-Wars Episode I The Phantom Anomaly  

CERN Document Server

As pointed out, chiral non-commutative theories exist, and examples can be constructed via string theory. Gauge anomalies require the matter content of individual gauge group factors, including U(1) factors, to be non-chiral. All ``bad'' mixed gauge anomalies, and also all ``good'' (e.g. for $\\pi ^0\\to \\gamma \\gamma$) ABJ type flavor anomalies, automatically vanish in non-commutative gauge theories. We interpret this as being analogous to string theory, and an example of UV/IR mixing: non-commutative gauge theories automatically contain ``closed string,'' Green-Schwarz fields, which cancel these anomalies.

Intriligator, K; Intriligator, Ken; Kumar, Jason

2002-01-01

232

Anomaly inflow mechanism using Wilson lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the anomaly inflow mechanism can be implemented using Wilson lines in odd dimensional gauge theories. An action of Wess-Zumino-Witten type can be constructed using Wilson lines. The action is understood in the odd dimensional bulk space-time rather than in the even dimensional boundary. This action is not gauge invariant. It gives anomalous gauge variations of the consistent form on boundary space-times. So it can be used to cancel the quantum anomalies localized on boundary space-times. This offers a new way to cancel the gauge anomaly and construct anomaly-free gauge theory in odd dimensional space-time

2007-03-15

233

Anomalies in quantum field theory and differential geometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anomalies in field theory appeared first in perturbative computations involving Feynman diagrams. It is only recently that differential geometric techniques have been used to obtain the form of gauge and gravitational anomalies in a direct and simple way. This is possible because of the topological nature of the anomaly. In the first chapter of this thesis the gauged Wess-Zumino action is constructed by differential geometry methods. After reviewing the relevant techniques, an expression for the action valid in any (even) number of space-time dimensions is obtained. This expression is compared with Witten's result in four dimensions. The link between topology and the anomaly is provided by the appropriate index theorem. The index density is a supersymmetric invariant polynomial from which the anomaly and other related objects can be obtained through the use of the ''descent equations.'' A new proof of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem for the Dirac operator is presented. This proof is based on the use of a WKB approximation to evaluate the supertrace of the kernel for a supersymmetric hamiltonian. The necessary WKB techniques are developed and mechanical systems with bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom are discussed

1986-01-01

234

Abelian gauge theories with tensor gauge fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gauge fields of arbitrary tensor type are introduced. In curved space-time the gravitational field serves as a bridge joining different gauge fields. The theory of second order tensor gauge field is developed on the basis of close analogy to Maxwell electrodynamics. The notion of tensor current is introduced and an experimental test of its detection is proposed. The main result consists in a coupled set of field equations representing a generalization of Maxwell theory in which the Einstein equivalence principle is not satisfied. (author)

1984-01-01

235

Vacuum condition and the relation between response parameter and anomaly coefficient in ($1+3$) dimensions  

CERN Document Server

The role of Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum has been discussed for anomalous fluid in presence of both the gauge and gravitational anomalies in ($1+3$) dimensions. I show that imposition of this vacuum condition leads to the relation $\\tilde{c}_{4d}=-8\\pi^2c_m$ between the response parameter ($\\tilde{c}_{4d}$) and the anomaly coefficient ($c_m$). This establishes a connection between the coefficients appearing in a first order and a third order derivative terms in the constitutive relation.

Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

2014-01-01

236

Higgs vacuum in gravitation theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the description of the gravitational field as the Higgs-Goldstone one in the gravitational gauge theory, an existence of the Higgs gravitational vacuum is predicted, and the model of the Higgs vacuum is constructed. The Higgs material fiel vacuum may serve as the material sourse of the latter. At a classical level it means an existence of the background gravitational field induced by the background Higgs matter

1986-01-01

237

The Holographic Supercurrent Anomaly  

CERN Document Server

The \\gamma-trace anomaly of supersymmetry current in a supersymmetric gauge theory shares a superconformal anomaly multiplet with the chiral R-symmetry anomaly and the Weyl anomaly, and its holographic reproduction is a valuable test to the AdS/CFT correspondence conjecture. We investigate how the \\gamma-trace anomaly of the supersymmetry current of {\\cal N}=1 four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theory in an {\\cal N}=1 conformal supergravity background can be extracted out from the ${\\cal N}=2$ gauged supergravity in five dimensions. It is shown that the reproduction of this super-Weyl anomaly originates from the following two facts: First the {\\cal N}=2 bulk supersymmetry transformation converts into {\\cal N}=1 superconformal transformation on the boundary, which consists of {\\cal N}=1 supersymmetry transformation and special conformal supersymmetry (or super-Weyl) transformation; second the supersymmetry variation of the bulk action of five-dimensional gauged supergravity is a total derivative. The non-co...

Chaichian, Masud

2004-01-01

238

Normal gauge in supergravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the gauge proposed a large number of derivatives of the axial gravitational superfield Hsup(m) vanish at a given point in superspace. The remaining derivatives of Hsup(m) are the values at z_0 of the basic superfields R, anti R, G, W, anti W in terms of which torsion and curvature are expressible. The normal gauge simplifies significantly many considerations and calculations in supergravity

1980-01-01

239

Anomaly Constraints on Monopoles and Dyons  

CERN Multimedia

Fermions with magnetic charges can contribute to anomalies. We derive the axial anomaly and gauge anomalies for monopoles and dyons, and find eight new gauge anomaly cancelation conditions in a general theory with both electric and magnetic charges. As a byproduct we also extend the Zwanziger two-potential formalism to include the theta parameter, and elaborate on the condition for CP invariance in theories with fermionic dyons.

Csaki, Csaba; Shirman, Yuri; 10.1103/PhysRevD.81.125028

2010-01-01

240

No anomaly is observed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two-loop anomaly in supersymmetric gauge theories discussed in a recent paper by R. van Damme and G. 't Hooft is considered. We find that this is due to some mistakes in calculations. In fact, it is possible to transform the theory regularized by the conventional dimensional regularization into the dimensionally reduced one by means of finite local counter-terms. So, no anomaly is observed

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Who is afraid of anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Triangle anomalies are shown to be nonessential for renormalizability of axial vector gauge models. No 'compensating' fields are needed to make such models (in particular Weinberg-Salam model) renormalizable. (orig.)

1976-01-01

242

Emergent Gauge Fields  

CERN Document Server

Erik Verlinde's proposal of the emergence of the gravitational force as an entropic force is extended to abelian and non-abelian gauge fields and to matter fields. This suggests a picture with no fundamental forces or forms of matter whatsoever.

Freund, Peter G O

2010-01-01

243

Relativistic Rigid Particles Classical Tachyons and Quantum Anomalies  

CERN Multimedia

Causal rigid particles whose action includes an {\\it arbitrary} dependence on the world-line extrinsic curvature are considered. General classes of solutions are constructed, including {\\it causal tachyonic} ones. The Hamiltonian formulation is developed in detail except for one degenerate situation for which only partial results are given and requiring a separate analysis. However, for otherwise generic rigid particles, the precise specification of Hamiltonian gauge symmetries is obtained with in particular the identification of the Teichm$\\ddot{\\rm u}$ller and modular spaces for these systems. Finally, canonical quantisation of the generic case is performed paying special attention to the phase space restriction due to causal propagation. A mixed Lorentz-gravitational anomaly is found in the commutator of Lorentz boosts with world-line reparametrisations. The subspace of gauge invariant physical states is therefore not invariant under Lorentz transformations. Consequences for rigid strings and membranes are...

Govaerts, J

1993-01-01

244

Antibracket, antifields and gauge-theory quantization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antibracket formalism for gauge theories, at both the classical and quantum level, is reviewed. Gauge transformations and the associated gauge structure are analyzed in detail. The basic concepts involved in the antibracket formalism are elucidated. Gauge-fixing, quantum effects, and anomalies within the field-antifield formalism are developed. The concepts, issues and constructions are illustrated using eight gauge-theory models. (orig.)

1995-08-01

245

ISO(3, 1) gauge theory of gravity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We establish a Poincare affine frame bundle, give the operation of gauge group ISO(3, 1) on the fiber bundle, obtain the action of the Poincare gauge theory of gravity, and advance two sets of gravitational gauge field equations of the theory. We discuss some special cases of the theory.

Changgui, S.; Bangging, X.

1986-04-01

246

ISO(3, 1) gauge theory of gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We establish a Poincare affine frame bundle, give the operation of gauge group ISO(3, 1) on the fiber bundle, obtain the action of the Poincare gauge theory of gravity, and advance two sets of gravitational gauge field equations of the theory. We discuss some special cases of the theory

1986-01-01

247

ISO(3, 1) gauge theory of gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Poincare affine frame bundle is established the operation of gauge group ISO(3, 1) on the fiber bundle given the action of the Poincare gauge theory of gravity obtained and two sets of gravitational gauge field equations of the theory are advanced. Some special cases of the theory are discussed. (author)

1986-01-01

248

On the cancellation of Witten anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is argued that the gauge anomalies are only the artefacts of quantum field theory when certain subtleties are not taken into account. With the Berry`s phase needed to satisfy certain boundary conditions of the generating path integral, the gauge anomalies associated with homotopically nontrivial gauge transformations are shown explicitly to be eliminated, without any extra quantum fields introduced. This is in contra-distinction to other quantisations of `anomalous` gauge theory where extra, new fields are introduced to explicitly cancel the anomalies. 12 refs.

Kieu, T.D.

1995-04-01

249

On the cancellation of Witten anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is argued that the gauge anomalies are only the artefacts of quantum field theory when certain subtleties are not taken into account. With the Berry's phase needed to satisfy certain boundary conditions of the generating path integral, the gauge anomalies associated with homotopically nontrivial gauge transformations are shown explicitly to be eliminated, without any extra quantum fields introduced. This is in contra-distinction to other quantisations of 'anomalous' gauge theory where extra, new fields are introduced to explicitly cancel the anomalies. 12 refs

1995-01-01

250

Chern-Simons forms in gravitation theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chern-Simons (CS) form evolved from an obstruction in mathematics into an important object in theoretical physics. In fact, the presence of CS terms in physics is more common than one may think: they seem to play an important role in high Tc superconductivity and in recently discovered topological insulators. In classical physics, the minimal coupling in electromagnetism and to the action for a mechanical system in Hamiltonian form are examples of CS functionals. CS forms are also the natural generalization of the minimal coupling between the electromagnetic field and a point charge when the source is not point like but an extended fundamental object, a membrane. They are found in relation with anomalies in quantum field theories, and as Lagrangians for gauge fields, including gravity and supergravity. A cursory review of the role of CS forms in gravitation theories is presented at an introductory level. (topical review)

2012-07-07

251

Determination of Cosmological Constant from Gauge Theory of Gravity  

CERN Document Server

Combining general relativity and gravitational gauge theory, the cosmological constant is determined theoretically. The cosmological constant is related to the average vacuum energy of gravitational gauge field. Because the vacuum energy of gravitational gauge field is negative, the cosmological constant is positive, which generates repulsive force on stars to make the expansion rate of the Universe accelerated. A rough estimation of it gives out its magnitude of the order of $10^{-52} m^{-2}$, which is well constant with experimental results.

Wu, N; Xu, Z; Zheng, Z P; Zhang, D H; Ruan, T N; Wu, Ning; Resconi, Germano; Xu, Zhan; Zheng, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Da-Hua; Ruan, Tu-Nan

2001-01-01

252

Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen's monograph 'Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space' collects in one volume the results of the authors' 15-year research programme on anomalies that arise in Feynman diagrams of quantum field theories on curved manifolds. The programme was spurred by the path-integral techniques introduced in Alvarez-Gaume and Witten's renowned 1983 paper on gravitational anomalies which, together with the anomaly cancellation paper by Green and Schwarz, led to the string theory explosion of the 1980s. The authors have produced a tour de force, giving a comprehensive and pedagogical exposition of material that is central to current research. The first part of the book develops from scratch a formalism for defining and evaluating quantum mechanical path integrals in nonlinear sigma models, using time slicing regularization, mode regularization and dimensional regularization. The second part applies this formalism to quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1 and 3/2 and to self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields. The book concludes with a discussion of gravitational anomalies in 10-dimensional supergravities, for both classical and exceptional gauge groups. The target audience is researchers and graduate students in curved spacetime quantum field theory and string theory, and the aims, style and pedagogical level have been chosen with this audience in mind. Path integrals are treated as calculational tools, and the notation and terminology are throughout tailored to calculational convenience, rather than to mathematical rigour. The style is closer to that of an exceedingly thorough and self-contained review article than to that of a textbook. As the authors mention, the first part of the book can be used as an introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics, although in a classroom setting perhaps more likely as supplementary reading than a primary class text. Readers outside the core audience, including this reviewer, will gain from the book a heightened appreciation of the central role of regularization as a defining ingredient of a quantum field theory and will be impressed by the agreement of results arising from different regularization schemes. The readers may in particular enjoy the authors' 'brief history of anomalies' in quantum field theory, as well as a similar historical discussion of path integrals in quantum mechanics. (book review)

2007-04-07

253

Energy-Momentum and Gauge Conservation Laws  

CERN Multimedia

We treat energy-momentum conservation laws as particular gauge conservation laws when generators of gauge transformations are horizontal vector fields on fibre bundles. In particular, the generators of general covariant transformations are the canonical horizontal prolongations of vector fields on a world manifold. This is the case of the energy-momentum conservation laws in gravitation theories. We find that, in main gravitational models, the corresponding energy-momentum flows reduce to the generalized Komar superpotential. We show that the superpotential form of a conserved flow is the common property of gauge conservation laws if generators of gauge transformations depend on derivatives of gauge parameters. At the same time, dependence of conserved flows on gauge parameters make gauge conservation laws form-invariant under gauge transformations.

Giachetta, G; Sardanashvily, G

1999-01-01

254

Gravitational Instantons and Fluxes from M/F-theory on Calabi-Yau fourfolds  

CERN Document Server

We compactify four-dimensional N=1 gauged supergravity theories on a circle including fluxes for shift-symmetric scalars. Four-dimensional Taub-NUT gravitational instantons universally correct the three-dimensional superpotential in the absence of fluxes. In the presence of fluxes these Taub-NUT instanton contributions are no longer gauge-invariant. Invariance can be restored by gauge instantons on top of Taub-NUT instantons. We establish the embedding of this scenario into M-theory. Circle fluxes and gaugings arise from a restricted class of M-theory four-form fluxes on a resolved Calabi-Yau fourfold. The M5-brane on the base of the elliptic fourfold dualizes into the universal Taub-NUT instanton. In the presence of fluxes this M5-brane is anomalous. We argue that anomaly free contributions arise from involved M5-brane geometries dual to gauge-instantons on top of Taub-NUT instantons. Adding a four-dimensional superpotential to the gravitational instanton corrections leads to three-dimensional Anti-de Sitter...

Grimm, Thomas W

2011-01-01

255

Gravitational instantons and fluxes from M/F-theory on Calabi-Yau fourfolds  

Science.gov (United States)

We compactify four-dimensional N=1 gauged supergravity theories on a circle including fluxes for shift-symmetric scalars. Four-dimensional Taub-NUT gravitational instantons universally correct the three-dimensional superpotential in the absence of fluxes. In the presence of fluxes these Taub-NUT instanton contributions are no longer gauge-invariant. Invariance can be restored by gauge-instantons on top of Taub-NUT instantons. We establish the embedding of this scenario into M-theory. Circle fluxes and gaugings arise from a restricted class of M-theory four-form fluxes on a resolved Calabi-Yau fourfold. The M5-brane on the base of the elliptic fourfold dualizes into the universal Taub-NUT instanton. In the presence of fluxes this M5-brane is anomalous. We argue that anomaly-free contributions arise from involved M5-brane geometries dual to gauge-instantons on top of Taub-NUT instantons. Adding a four-dimensional superpotential to the gravitational instanton corrections leads to three-dimensional Anti-de Sitter vacua at stabilized compactification radius. We comment on the possibility to uplift these M-theory vacua, and to tunnel to four-dimensional F-theory vacua.

Grimm, Thomas W.; Savelli, Raffaele

2012-01-01

256

Cohomology and heterotic world-sheet anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Topological methods are applied to calculating world-sheet anomalies in (p,q) supersymmetry. Specifically, we construct the (1,0) gauge anomaly using cohomology and the descent equations in (1,0) superspace. The coefficient of the anomaly is calculated with supergraph techniques.

Louis, J.; Ovrut, B.A.

1987-08-15

257

Consistent and covariant anomalies and local cohomology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reformulate the anomaly problem in gauge theories in the total space of a principal fiber bundle P. We show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between consistent anomalies and nontrivial elements of a local de Rham cohomology group on P. We discuss the role of covariant anomalies.

Bonora, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, P.

1986-05-15

258

Nucleonic gauges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques employed in nuclear gauges for the measurement of level, thickness, density and moisture are described. The gauges include both transmission and backscatter gauges and utilize alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons or gamma radiation

1982-10-01

259

Anomaly poles as common signatures of chiral and conformal anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One feature of the chiral anomaly, analyzed in a perturbative framework, is the appearance of massless poles which account for it. They are identified by a spectral analysis of the anomaly graph and are usually interpreted as being of an infrared origin. Recent investigations show that their presence is not just confined in the infrared, but that they appear in the effective action under the most general kinematical conditions, even if they decouple in the infrared. Further studies reveal that they are responsible for the non-unitary behaviour of these theories in the ultraviolet (UV) region. We extend this analysis to the case of the conformal anomaly, showing that the effective action describing the interaction of gauge fields with gravity is characterized by anomaly poles that give the entire anomaly and are decoupled in the infrared (IR), in complete analogy with the chiral case. This complements a related analysis by Giannotti and Mottola on the trace anomaly in gravity, in which an anomaly pole has been identified in the corresponding correlator using dispersion theory in the IR. Our extension is based on an exact computation of the off-shell correlation function involving an energy-momentum tensor and two vector currents (the gauge-gauge-graviton vertex) which is responsible for the appearance of the anomaly.

2009-12-07

260

Anomalies and de Sitter radiation from the generic black holes in de Sitter spaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Robinson-Wilczek's recent work shows that, the energy-momentum tensor flux required to cancel gravitational anomaly at the event horizon of a Schwarzschild-type black hole has an equivalent form to that of a (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at the Hawking temperature. Motivated by their work, Hawking radiation from the cosmological horizons of the general Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Kerr-de Sitter black holes, has been studied by the method of anomaly cancellation. The result shows that the absorbing gauge current and energy momentum tensor fluxes required to cancel gauge and gravitational anomalies at the cosmological horizon are precisely equal to those of Hawking radiation from it. It should be emphasized that the effective field theory for generic black holes in de Sitter spaces should be formulated within the region between the event horizon (EH) and the cosmological horizon (CH), to integrate out the classically irrelevant ingoing modes at the EH and the classically irrelevant outgoing modes at the CH, respectively

2007-07-19

 
 
 
 
261

Holographic gauge mediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons', which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.

2009-12-01

262

Holographic Gauge Mediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons,' which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.

Benini, Francesco; /Princeton U.; Dymarsky, Anatoly; /Stanford U., ITP; Franco, Sebastian; /Santa Barbara, KITP; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Verlinde, Herman; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

2009-06-19

263

Mixed States from Anomalies  

CERN Document Server

There are several instances where quantum anomalies of continuous and discrete classical symmetries play an important role in fundamental physics. Examples come from chiral anomalies in the Standard Model of fundamental interactions and gravitational anomalies in string theories. Their generic origin is the fact that classical symmetries may not preserve the domains of quantum operators like the Hamiltonian. In this work, we show by simple examples that anomalous symmetries can often be implemented at the expense of working with mixed states having non-zero entropies. In particular there is the result on color breaking by non-abelian magnetic monopoles. This anomaly can be rectified by using impure states. We also argue that non-abelian groups of twisted bundles are always anomalous for pure states sharpening an earlier argument of Sorkin and Balachandran. This is the case of mapping class groups of geons indicating that "large" diffeos are anomalous for pure states in the presence of geons. Nevertheless diff...

Balachandran, A P

2011-01-01

264

Enlarged geometries of gauge bundles  

CERN Multimedia

The geometrical picture of gauge theories must be enlarged when a gauge potential ceases to behave like a connection, as it does in electroweak interactions. When the gauge group has dimension four, the vector space isomorphism between spacetime and the gauge algebra is realized by a tetrad-like field. The object measuring the deviation from a strict bundle structure has the formal behavior of a spacetime connection, of which the deformed gauge field-strength is the torsion. A generalized derivative emerges in terms of which the two Bianchi identities are formally recovered. Effects of gravitational type turn up. The dynamical equations obtained correspond to a broken gauge model on a curved spacetime.

Aldrovandi, R

2000-01-01

265

Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.

Yilmaz, H.

266

Global anomalies in M-theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We first consider M-theory formulated on an open eleven-dimensional spin-manifold. There is then a potential anomaly under gauge transformations on the E{sub 8} bundle that is defined over the boundary and also under diffeomorphisms of the boundary. We then consider M-theory configurations that include a five-brane. In this case, diffeomorphisms of the eleven-manifold induce diffeomorphisms of the five-brane world-volume and gauge transformations on its normal bundle. These transformations are also potentially anomalous. In both of these cases, it has previously been shown that the perturbative anomalies, i.e. the anomalies under transformations that can be continuously connected to the identity, cancel. We extend this analysis to global anomalies, i.e. anomalies under transformations in other components of the group of gauge transformations and diffeomorphisms. These anomalies are given by certain topological invariants that we explicitly construct. (orig.). 19 refs.

Henningson, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.

1998-03-30

267

Normal gauge in the supergravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the gauge proposed a large number of derivatives of the axial gravitational superfield Ybsup(m)(x, THETA, THETA tilde) vanish at a given point Z0 in superspace. The remaining derivatives of Ybsup(m) are the values at z0 of the basic superfields R, anti R, G, W, anti W in terms of which torsion and curvature are expressible. The normal gauge simplifies significantly many considerations and calculations in supergravity

1980-01-01

268

Anomalies, Becchi-Rouet-Stora cohomology, and effective theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey is made of the known Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) cohomology and potential anomalies in nonrenormalizable'' effective gauge theories with and without supersymmetry. The probable existence of higher-dimension Abelian anomalies is mentioned. Supersymmetric theories have complicated BRS cohomology, but at least for {ital N}=1 and {ital D}=4, it appears that this does not give rise to corresponding anomalies so long as the gauge anomalies are eliminated.

Dixon, J.A. (Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas (USA))

1991-08-12

269

Anomalies, Becchi-Rouet-Stora cohomology, and effective theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is made of the known Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) cohomology and potential anomalies in ''nonrenormalizable'' effective gauge theories with and without supersymmetry. The probable existence of higher-dimension Abelian anomalies is mentioned. Supersymmetric theories have complicated BRS cohomology, but at least for N=1 and D=4, it appears that this does not give rise to corresponding anomalies so long as the gauge anomalies are eliminated

1991-08-12

270

Grand unification through gravitational effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We systematically study the unification of gauge couplings in the presence of (one or more) effective dimension-5 operators cHG??G??/4Mpl, induced into the grand unified theory by gravitational interactions at the Planck scale. These operators alter the usual condition for gauge-coupling unification, which can, depending on the Higgs content H and vacuum expectation value, result in unification at scales MX significantly different than naively expected. We find nonsupersymmetric models of SU(5) and SO(10) unification, with natural Wilson coefficients c, that easily satisfy the constraints from proton decay. Furthermore, gauge-coupling unification at scales as high as the Planck scale seems feasible, possibly hinting at simultaneous unification of gauge and gravitational interactions. In the Appendix we work out the group theoretical aspects of this scenario for SU(5) and SO(10) unified groups in detail; this material is also relevant in the analysis of nonuniversal gaugino masses obtained from supergravity.

2010-02-01

271

Grand unification through gravitational effects  

CERN Multimedia

We systematically study the unification of gauge couplings in the presence of (one or more) effective dimension-5 operators cHGG/4MPl, induced into the grand unified theory by gravitational interactions at the Planck scale MPl. These operators alter the usual condition for gauge coupling unification, which can, depending on the Higgs content H and vacuum expectation value, result in unification at scales MX significantly different than naively expected. We find non-supersymmetric models of SU(5) and SO(10) unification, with natural Wilson coefficients c, that easily satisfy the constraints from proton decay. Furthermore, gauge coupling unification at scales as high as the Planck scale seems feasible, possibly hinting at simultaneous unification of gauge and gravitational interactions. In an appendix we work out the group theoretical aspects of this scenario for SU(5) and SO(10) unified groups in detail; this material is also relevant in the analysis of non-universal gaugino masses obtained from supergravity.

Calmet, Xavier; Reeb, David

2009-01-01

272

Self-dual gauge fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using ideas and techniques adopted from the theory of self-dual gravitational fields we investigate properties of self-dual gauge fields. A linear equation which generates these fields is the center for this investigation. Some of the main results are a natural choice of gauge which leads to (a) a Hertz potential, (b) the Lorentz gauge condition, (c) a linear relationship between the field and potential, and (d) the surprising solitonlike behavior of the solutions such that the future and past asymptotic fields are identical

1980-12-15

273

Gravitational Higgs Mechanism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss the gravitational Higgs mechanism in domain wall background solutions that arise in the theory of 5-dimensional Einstein-Hilbert gravity coupled to a scalar field with a non-trivial potential. The scalar fluctuations in such backgrounds can be completely gauged away, and so can be the graviphoton fluctuations. On the other hand, we show that the graviscalar fluctuations do not have normalizable modes. As to the 4-dimensional graviton fluctuations, in the case wher...

Kakushadze, Zurab; Langfelder, Peter

2000-01-01

274

Yang's gravitational theory  

CERN Multimedia

Yang's pure space equations (C.N. Yang, Phys. Rev. Lett. v.33, p.445 (1974)) generalize Einstein's gravitational equations, while coming from gauge theory. We study these equations from a number of vantage points: summarizing the work done previously, comparing them with the Einstein equations and investigating their properties. In particular, the initial value problem is discussed and a number of results are presented for these equations with common energy-momentum tensors.

Guilfoyle, B S; Guilfoyle, Brendan S.; Nolan, Brien C.

1998-01-01

275

Interference, gravity and gauge fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phase shift due to gravitational field and all gauge fields in the interference of two coherent beams is obtained. In the case of gravitation, it is shown, for a particle with arbitrary spin, that there exists a phase shift due to the coupling of spin to space-time curvature. This and the corresponding phase shift for gauge fields are analogous to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The classical limit for particles moving in gravitational and gauge fields is obtained from the phase shift. For gravitation, in the absence of torsion, this is the Mathisson-Papapetrou equation, which is thereby shown to be the classical limit of the Dirac and Bargmann-Wigner wave equations, generalized to curved space-time. In the presence of torsion, a modification of this equation, given by Hehl, is obtained. It is pointed out that gravity is not a pure gauge field and that it must be placed in the more general category of an ''interference field'' which contains both gravity and gauge fields as special cases. The field equations for gauge fields and gravity are obtained from the heuristic assumption that a particle acts on a field in a manner which depends on how it responds to the field via the phase shift. For gauge fields, they contain the Yang-Mills equations as a special case. For gravity, a modification of Einstein's field equations is obtained, which corresponds to the Lagrangian (1/16?K).(2?+R) + (1/32?f)Rsub(??rho)sup(?) Rsup(??rho)sub(?), where the Riemann tensor contains torsion and K, f, ? are constants (? may be zero). The relevance of the phase shift, due to rotation, to the quantization of vortices in superfluid helium is pointed out. This suggests that the curl of the superfluid velocity may obey a system of equations analogous to Maxwell's equations and the analogue of the magnetic monopole for superfluid helium is also introduced. (author)

1979-09-21

276

Gravity, Gauge Theories and Geometric Algebra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new gauge theory of gravity is presented. The theory is constructed in a flat background spacetime and employs gauge fields to ensure that all relations between physical quantities are independent of the positions and orientations of the matter fields. In this manner all properties of the background spacetime are removed from physics, and what remains are a set of `intrinsic' relations between physical fields. The properties of the gravitational gauge fields are derived fr...

Lasenby, Anthony; Doran, Chris; Gull, Stephen

2004-01-01

277

Pressure gauge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pressure gauge bar has the same outer diameter as the fuel elements and can be moved between the partly fixed and elastic spacers of the grid. The inner part of the pressure gauge bar is provided with a transverse beam which is connected with a strain gauge and has a bolt penetrating the clad of the pressure gauge bar and touching the elastic spacer dimple. (DG)

1980-01-01

278

Further discussions on a possible lattice chiral gauge theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a possible $SU_L(2)$ lattice chiral gauge theory with a large multifermion coupling, we try to further clarify the threshold phenomenon: the possibility that the right-handed three-fermion state turns into the virtual states of its constituents (free chiral fermions) in the low-energy limit. Provided this phenomenon occurs, we discuss the chiral gauge coupling, Ward identities and the gauge anomaly within the gauge-invariant prescription of the perturbative chiral gauge t...

Xue, She-sheng

1997-01-01

279

Vacuum Gauges  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Semiconductor manufacturing equipment requires the use of many different types of vacuum gauges. Selection is based on range of process operations and production requirements. This MATEC module explores the theory and functionality of vacuum gauges and provides many examples of different types of gauges. The focus is on understanding the operating ranges and application constraints of each type of gauge. Mathematical equations are used to explain calibration, sensitivity, and overall operations of each type of gauge.

2012-11-28

280

The shear viscosity of gauge theory plasma with chemical potentials  

CERN Document Server

We consider strongly coupled gauge theory plasma with conserved global charges that allow for a dual gravitational description. We study the shear viscosity of the gauge theory plasma in the presence of chemical potentials for these charges. Using gauge theory/string theory correspondence we prove that at large 't Hooft coupling the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density is universal.

Benincasa, P; Naryshkin, R; Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Naryshkin, Roman

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Gravitational lenses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

History of discovery and study of gravitational lenses is discussed. Vitational focusing is based on refraction of light beams in an inhomogeneous gravitational field of a star. The effect of gravitational . focusing. The gravitational field acts like a collecting lens. The role of the gravitational lens can be played not only by individual stars but whole galaxies as well. In March 1979 optical spectra of quasar 0957 + 561 A,B have been obtained. Spectra of quasar components turned out to be identical. This circumstance confirmed a hypothesis of the gravitational lens reality

1982-01-01

282

Energy-momentum tensor for a Casimir apparatus in a weak gravitational field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the gravity acceleration on the regularized energy-momentum tensor of the quantized electromagnetic field between two plane-parallel conducting plates is derived. We use Fermi coordinates and work to first order in the constant acceleration parameter. A perturbative expansion, to this order, of the Green functions involved and of the energy-momentum tensor is derived by means of the covariant geodesic point-splitting procedure. In correspondence to the Green functions satisfying mixed and gauge-invariant boundary conditions, and Ward identities, the energy-momentum tensor is covariantly conserved and satisfies the expected relation between gauge-breaking and ghost parts, while a new simple formula for the trace anomaly is obtained to first order in the constant acceleration. A more systematic derivation is therefore obtained of the theoretical prediction according to which the Casimir device in a weak gravitational field will experience a tiny push in the upwards direction

2006-10-15

283

Konishi Anomalies and N=1 Curves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a brief summary of exact results on the non-perturbative effective superpotential of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories based on generalized Konishi anomaly equations. In particular we consider theories with classical gauge groups and chiral matter in two-index tensor representations. All these theories can be embedded into theories with unitary gauge group and adjoint matter. This embedding can be used to derive expressions for the exact non-perturbative superpote...

Landsteiner, Karl

2004-01-01

284

Localized Fermions and Anomaly Inflow via Deconstruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study fermion localization in gauge theory space. We consider four dimensional product gauge groups in which light chiral fermions transform under different gauge factors of the product group. This construction provides a suppression of higher dimensional operators. For example, it can be used to suppress dangerous proton decay operators. The anomalies associated with the light chiral fermions are compensated by Wess-Zumino terms, which in the continuum limit reproduce th...

Skiba, Witold; Smith, David

2002-01-01

285

Konishi Anomalies and Curves without Adjoints  

CERN Document Server

Generalized Konishi anomaly relations in the chiral ring of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories with unitary gauge group and chiral matter field in two-index tensor representations are derived. Contrary to previous investigations of related models we do not include matter multiplets in the adjoint representation. The corresponding curves turn out to be hyperelliptic. We also point out equivalences to models with orthogonal or symplectic gauge groups.

Landsteiner, K

2004-01-01

286

Loop Anomalies in the Causal Approach  

CERN Document Server

We consider gauge models in the causal approach and prove that the loop contributions to the chronological products do not produce anomalies, at least in the second and third order of the perturbation theory. The axial anomaly is null if we impose a stronger condition, namely that the chronological products are coboundaries, up to super-renormalizable terms.

Grigore, Dan-Radu

2013-01-01

287

Anomalies and noncommutative index theory  

CERN Multimedia

These are the notes of a lecture given during the summer school "Geometric and Topological Methods for Quantum Field Theory", Villa de Leyva, Colombia, july 11 - 29, 2005. We review basic facts concerning gauge anomalies and discuss the link with the Connes-Moscovici index formula in noncommutative geometry.

Perrot, D

2006-01-01

288

Anomaly-induced charges in baryons  

CERN Document Server

We show that quantum chiral anomaly of QCD in magnetic backgrounds induces a novel structure of electric charge inside baryons. To illustrate the anomaly effect, we employ the Skyrme model for baryons, with the anomaly-induced gauged Wess-Zumino term (\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) E_i B_i. Due to this term, the Skyrmions giving a local pion condensation ((\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) \

Eto, Minoru; Iida, Hideaki; Ishii, Takaaki; Maezawa, Yu

2011-01-01

289

Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)

1985-01-01

290

Schwinger terms in two-dimensional gravitation and Kallen's method  

CERN Multimedia

We evaluate the gravitational Schwinger terms for the specific two-dimensional model of Weyl fermions in a gravitational background field using a technique introduced by Kallen and find a relation which connects the Schwinger terms with the linearized gravitational anomalies.

Bertlmann, Reinhold A

2001-01-01

291

Covariant anomalies and Hawking radiation from charged rotating black strings in anti-de Sitter spacetimes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motivated by the success of the recently proposed method of anomaly cancellation to derive Hawking fluxes from black hole horizons of spacetimes in various dimensions, we have further extended the covariant anomaly cancellation method shortly simplified by Banerjee and Kulkarni to explore the Hawking radiation of the (3+1)-dimensional charged rotating black strings and their higher dimensional extensions in anti-de Sitter spacetimes, whose horizons are not spherical but can be toroidal, cylindrical or planar, according to their global identifications. It should be emphasized that our analysis presented here is very general in the sense that the determinant of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional effective metric from these black strings need not be equal to one ({radical}(-g){ne}1). Our results indicate that the gauge and energy-momentum fluxes needed to cancel the (1+1)-dimensional covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies are compatible with the Hawking fluxes. Besides, thermodynamics of these black strings are studied in the case of a variable cosmological constant.

Peng Junjin [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Wu Shuangqing [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)], E-mail: sqwu@phy.ccnu.edu.cn

2008-03-27

292

Covariant anomalies and Hawking radiation from charged rotating black strings in anti-de Sitter spacetimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Motivated by the success of the recently proposed method of anomaly cancellation to derive Hawking fluxes from black hole horizons of spacetimes in various dimensions, we have further extended the covariant anomaly cancellation method shortly simplified by Banerjee and Kulkarni to explore the Hawking radiation of the (3+1)-dimensional charged rotating black strings and their higher dimensional extensions in anti-de Sitter spacetimes, whose horizons are not spherical but can be toroidal, cylindrical or planar, according to their global identifications. It should be emphasized that our analysis presented here is very general in the sense that the determinant of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional effective metric from these black strings need not be equal to one (?(-g)?1). Our results indicate that the gauge and energy-momentum fluxes needed to cancel the (1+1)-dimensional covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies are compatible with the Hawking fluxes. Besides, thermodynamics of these black strings are studied in the case of a variable cosmological constant

2008-03-27

293

Vascular anomalies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Management of vascular anomalies is an emerging multidisciplinary, super-specialisation field involving several surgical, medical and radiological specialties. Over the years, development in this field has been limited because of complex nomenclature and lack of consensus on the best practice for treatment of some of the more complex vascular anomalies. It was only in 1996 that the International Society of the Study of Vascular Anomalies defined nomenclature for the anomalies and gave clear guidelines on management, allowing for improved clinical practices. As in all fields of clinical medicine, the correct diagnosis of the vascular anomalies is essential to choose the appropriate treatment. This paper gives clear guidelines for diagnosis, understanding of the anomalies and discusses their management.

Murthy Jyotsna

2005-01-01

294

Gravitational wave detector response in terms of spacetime Riemann curvature  

CERN Document Server

Gravitational wave detectors are typically described as responding to gravitational wave metric perturbations, which are gauge-dependent and --- correspondingly --- unphysical quantities. This is particularly true for ground-based interferometric detectors, like LIGO, space-based detectors, like LISA and its derivatives, spacecraft doppler tracking detectors, and pulsar timing arrays detectors. The description of gravitational waves, and a gravitational wave detector's response, to the unphysical metric perturbation has lead to a proliferation of false analogies and descriptions regarding how these detectors function, and true misunderstandings of the physical character of gravitational waves. Here we provide a fully physical and gauge invariant description of the response of a wide class of gravitational wave detectors in terms of the Riemann curvature, the physical quantity that describes gravitational phenomena in general relativity. In the limit of high frequency gravitational waves, the Riemann curvature...

Koop, Michael J

2013-01-01

295

Relationship between Hawking radiation and gravitational anomalies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that in order to avoid a breakdown of general covariance at the quantum level the total flux in each outgoing partial wave of a quantum field in a black hole background must be equal to that of a (1+1)-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature. PMID:16090602

Robinson, Sean P; Wilczek, Frank

2005-07-01

296

Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies. Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using the spectral sequencies technique, we study the local polynomial cohomology space of the operator S = deltasub(Tcl)sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(chi)dsub(lambda) - dsub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(chi), which is isomorphic to the local functional cohomology of the operator deltasub(Tcl)sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time.

Bandelloni, G.

1985-07-01

297

Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies. Part 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the Faddeev-Popov charge-zero and charge-one sectors of the cohomology space of the differential operator deltasub(Tcl)sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time. We shall use, with some modification, a technique introduced some years ago by Dixon. In this paper we show that the cohomology of the operator deltasub(Tcl)sup(L) on the local functional space is isomorphic to the cohomology of the operator S = Dsub(Tcl)sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(chi)dsub(lambda) - dsub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(chi) on the domain of local polynomial functions.

Bandelloni, G.

1985-07-01

298

Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies: Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Faddeev-Popov charge-zero and charge-one sectors of the cohomology space of the differential operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time are studied. It will be used, with some modification, a technique introduced some years ago by Dixon. In this paper it is shown that the cohomology of the operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) on the local functional space is isomorphic to the cohomology of the operator S deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(x) deltasub(lambda) -deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x) on the domain of local polynomial functions

1985-07-01

299

Gauge glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fundamental laws of nature may be truely random, or they may be so complicated that a random description is adequate. With this philosophy we examine various ways in which a lattice gauge theory (at the Planck scale) can be generalized. Without here giving up a regular lattice structure (which we really ought to do) we consider two generalizations. Making the action (quenched) random has the effect that the gauge group tends to break down and some gauge bosons become massive, unless the gauge group has special properties: no noncentral corners in the geometry of conjugacy classes and furthermore a connected center. Making the concept of gauge transformation more general has a symmetry breaking effect for groups with outer automorphisms. A study of SU_5-breaking in the context of the first breakdown mechanism (D. Bennett, E. Buturovic and H. B. Nielsen) is shortly reviewed. (orig.)

1984-01-01

300

On an Interpretation of Non-Riemannian Gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Motivated by the invariance of actions under gauge symmetries the definitions of standard clocks in theories of gravitation are discussed. We argue that standard Einsteinian clocks can be defined in non-Riemannian theories of gravitation and that atomic clocks may be adopted to measure proper time in the presence of non-Riemannian gravitational fields. These ideas are illustrated in terms of a recently developed model of gravitation based on a non-Riemannian space-time geometry. (author)

1998-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Learning about Poland Anomaly  

Science.gov (United States)

... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Poland Anomaly What is Poland anomaly? What are the ... Anomaly Additional Resources for Poland Anomaly What is Poland anomaly? Named after Sir Alfred Poland, Poland anomaly ( ...

302

Geometrical aspects of gauge configurations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author presents an informal description of the geometrical foundations of gauge theories. The theory of gravitation is compared to theories of the Yang-Mills type. Space-time symmetries of gauge configurations are defined in terms of automorphisms of principal bundles. Symmetry breaking is related to restricting the structure group of the bundle. The Lienard-Wiechert solution of the Yang-Mills equations is discussed in some detail. An approximate solution of the Yang-Mills equations is shown to allow for the phenomenon of radiation of the colour charge by a classical gluon field.

Trautman, A. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Teoretycznej)

1981-01-01

303

Gravitation a la string  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a model for the gravitational interaction in which the gravitational field is identified with the functions describing the embedding of spacetime in a ten-dimensional flat space. The choice of ten dimensions is dictated by the local isometric embedding theorem. The Lagrangian for the model is the Hilbert Lagrangian, but is considered as a functional of the embedding functions. The field equations are the Einstein equations contracted with the ten Gauss tensors of the embedding. For a static spherically symmetric field the correct asymptotic behaviour, the Schwarzschild solution, is obtained. Only six of the ten field equations are linearly independent. The ungauged energy-momentum tensor is identically zero; after fixing the gauge it turns out to be proportional to the Einstein tensor. (author)

1989-03-01

304

Topics in gravitational theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In chapter one the author calculates the gravitational lensing properties of an isothermal sphere in which the singularity at the origin is replaced by a finite core, and contrast this with the singular case. He shows that this can significantly alter the statistics of the lensing of distant quasars by both the known distribution of intervening galaxies, and also by a possible distribution of dark galaxies, as might be predicted in biased galaxy formation models. In chapter two he uses the results of chapter one to investigate the effect of distortions in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation due to the presence of soft cored clusters of galaxies acting as gravitational lenses. He discusses the observability of the temperature distortion in large separation lens systems and conclude that the effect should be observable in systems where the angular image separation is as little as 20. In chapter three he presents a generalization of the gauge invariant gravitational perturbation theory first introduced by Bardeen and subsequently refined by Brandenberger, Kahn, and Press. The resulting formalism offers a scheme for calculating the growth of scalar gravitational perturbations.

Hinshaw, G.F.

1988-01-01

305

Topics in gravitational theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In chapter one the author calculates the gravitational lensing properties of an isothermal sphere in which the singularity at the origin is replaced by a finite core, and contrast this with the singular case. He shows that this can significantly alter the statistics of the lensing of distant quasars by both the known distribution of intervening galaxies, and also by a possible distribution of dark galaxies, as might be predicted in biased galaxy formation models. In chapter two he uses the results of chapter one to investigate the effect of distortions in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation due to the presence of soft cored clusters of galaxies acting as gravitational lenses. He discusses the observability of the temperature distortion in large separation lens systems and conclude that the effect should be observable in systems where the angular image separation is as little as 20. In chapter three he presents a generalization of the gauge invariant gravitational perturbation theory first introduced by Bardeen and subsequently refined by Brandenberger, Kahn, and Press. The resulting formalism offers a scheme for calculating the growth of scalar gravitational perturbations

1988-01-01

306

Gauged Hopfions  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss the U(1) gauged version of the 3+1 dimensional Faddeev-Skyrme model supplemented by the Maxwell term. We show that there exist axially symmetric static solutions coupled to the noninteger toroidal flux of magnetic field, which revert to the usual Hopfions Am,n of lower degrees Q=mn in the limit of the gauge coupling constant vanishing. The masses of the static gauged Hopfions are found to be less than the corresponding masses of the usual ungauged solitons A1,1 and A2,1, respectively; they become lighter as the gauge coupling increases. The dependence of the solutions on the gauge coupling is investigated. We find that in the strong coupling regime the gauged Hopfion carries two magnetic fluxes, which are quantized in units of 2?, carrying n and m quanta, respectively. The first flux encircles the position curve and the second one is directed along the symmetry axis. Effective quantization of the field in the gauge sector may allow us to reconsider the usual arguments concerning the lower topological bound in the Faddeev-Skyrme-Maxwell model.

Shnir, Ya.; Zhilin, G.

2014-05-01

307

Gauged Hopfions  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the $U(1)$ gauged version of the 3+1 dimensional Faddeev-Skyrme model supplemented by the Maxwell term. We show that there exist axially symmetric static solutions coupled to the non-integer toroidal flux of magnetic field, which revert to the usual Hopfions ${\\cal A}_{m,n}$ of lower degrees $Q=mn$ in the limit of the gauge coupling constant vanishing. The masses of the static gauged Hopfions are found to be less than the corresponding masses of the usual ungauged solitons ${\\cal A}_{1,1}$ and ${\\cal A}_{2,1}$ respectively, they become lighter as gauge coupling increases. The dependence of the solutions on the gauge coupling is investigated. We find that in the strong coupling regime the gauged Hopfion carries two magnetic fluxes, which are quantized in units of $2\\pi$, carrying $n$ and $m$ quanta respectively. The first flux encircles the position curve and the second one is directed along the symmetry axis. Effective quantization of the field in the gauge sector may allow us to reconsider the usu...

Shnir, Ya

2014-01-01

308

Algebraic Renormalization of $N=1$ Supersymmetric Gauge Theories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complete renormalization procedure of a general N=1 supersymmetric gauge theory in the Wess-Zumino gauge is presented, using the regulator free ``algebraic renormalization'' procedure. Both gauge invariance and supersymmetry are included into one single BRS invariance. The form of the general nonabelian anomaly is given. Furthermore, it is explained how the gauge BRS and the supersymmetry functional operators can be extracted from the general BRS operator. It is then sho...

Maggiore, Nicola; Piguet, Olivier; Wolf, Sylvain

1995-01-01

309

Anomaly-free sets of fermions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the Standard Model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.

Batra, Puneet; /Argonne; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Spivak, David; /UC, Berkeley, Math. Dept.

2005-10-01

310

Anomaly-Free Sets of Fermions  

CERN Document Server

We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the Standard Model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.

Batra, P; Spivak, D; Batra, Puneet; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Spivak, David

2006-01-01

311

Dynamical cosmic strings from a gauge theory of gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new dynamical realization of O(5) gauge Euclidean gravity is proposed and shown to possess topologically nontrivial features, cosmic-string flux tubes and dark-matter solitons, of a purely gravitational origin (no Higgs particle needed)

1988-09-15

312

Astrometric solar system anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

2009-01-01

313

Gauge field theories: various mathematical approaches  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents relevant modern mathematical formulations for (classical) gauge field theories, namely, ordinary differential geometry, noncommutative geometry, and transitive Lie algebroids. They provide rigorous frameworks to describe Yang-Mills-Higgs theories or gravitation theories, and each of them improves the paradigm of gauge field theories. A brief comparison between them is carried out, essentially due to the various notions of connection. However they reveal a compelling common mathematical pattern on which the paper concludes.

Jordan, François; Thierry, Masson

2014-01-01

314

Planar and Nonplanar Konishi Anomalies and Exact Wilsonian Effective Superpotential for Noncommutative N=1 Supersymmetric U(1)  

CERN Document Server

The Konishi anomalies for noncommutative N=1 supersymmetric U(1) gauge theory arsing from planar and nonplanar diagrams are calculated. Whereas planar Konishi anomaly is the expected $\\star$-deformation of the commutative anomaly, nonplanar anomaly reflects the important features of nonplanar diagrams of noncommutative gauge theories, such as UV/IR mixing and the appearance of nonlocal open Wilson lines. We use the planar and nonplanar Konishi anomalies to calculate the Wilsonian low energy effective superpotential in the limit of large and small noncommutativity parameter, and find its dependence on a gauge invariant superfield ${\\cal{S}}$ which includes supersymmetric Wilson line, and has nontrivial dependence on the gauge supermultiplet.

Ardalan, F; Ardalan, Farhad; Sadooghi, Neda

2003-01-01

315

Pioneer anomaly?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this work we study the gravitational influence of the material extending from Uranus orbit to the Kuiper belt and beyond on objects moving within these regions. We conclude that a density distribution given by $\\rho(r)=\\frac{1}{r}$ (for $r\\geq 20 UA$) generates a constant acceleration towards the Sun on those objects, which, with the proper amount of mass, accounts for the blue shift detected on the Pioneers space crafts. We also discuss the effect of this gravitational pull on Neptune, and comment on the possible origin of such a matter distribution.

A. de Diego, Jose; Nunez, Dario

2006-01-01

316

Understanding the gravitational and cosmological redshifts as Doppler shifts by gravitational phase factors  

Science.gov (United States)

From the viewpoint of gauge gravitational theories, the path dependent gravitational phase factors define the Lorentz transformations between the local inertial coordinate systems of different positions. With this point we show that the spectral shifts in the curved spacetime, such as the gravitational and cosmological redshifts, can be understood as Doppler shifts. All these shifts are interpreted in a unified way as being originated from the relative motion of the free falling observers instantaneously static with the wave source and the receiver respectively. The gravitational phase factor of quantum systems in the curved spacetime is also discussed.

Li, Mingzhe

2014-07-01

317

Understanding the gravitational and cosmological redshifts as Doppler shifts by gravitational phase factors  

CERN Document Server

From the viewpoint of the integral formalism of gauge gravitational theories, the path dependent gravitational phase factors define the Lorentz transformations between the local inertial coordinate systems of different positions. With this point we show that the spectral shifts in the curved spacetime, such as the gravitational and cosmological redshifts, can be understood as Doppler shifts. All these shifts are interpreted in a unified way as being originated from the relative motion of the free falling observers instantaneously static with the wave source and the receiver respectively. The gravitational phase factor of quantum systems in the curved spacetime is also discussed.

Li, Mingzhe

2014-01-01

318

An Insight into the Anatomy of Electro-Gravitational Interactions  

CERN Document Server

An interplay between electromagnetic and gravitational interactions is studied with particular emphasis on the particles mass dependence of amplitudes. The cancellations between diagrams due to the gauge invarinace are explicitly demonstrated.

Tikhonin, F F

2002-01-01

319

Gravitational radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential cosmological sources of gravitational radiation and the detectors used to measure it are discussed, surveying the current status of investigations. Detectors characterized include room-temperature and cryogenic bars, torsion pendula, laser interferometric detectors, and space-based detectors. The sources are supernovae (e.g., SN 1987A) and gravitational collapses, coalescing compact-object binaries, pulsars, Wagoner stars, the stochastic background, and LF sources (black-hole formation in galactic centers, Galactic binaries, and stars falling into nearby black holes). Also considered are outstanding theoretical modeling problems with implications for gravitational-wave observations. 46 refs

1988-12-11

320

Liouville action in cone gauge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effective action of the conformally invariant field theory in the curved background space is considered in the light cone gauge. The effective potential in the classical background stress is defined as the Legendre transform of the Liouville action. This potential is tightly connected with the sl(2) current algebra. The series of the covariant differential operators is constructed and the anomalies of their determinants are reduced to this effective potential. 7 refs

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Regularisation of Chiral Gauge Theories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article gives a review of the topic of regularising chiral gauge theories and is aimed at a general audience. It begins by clarifying the meaning of chirality and goes on to discussing chiral projections in field theory, parity violation and the distinction between vector and chiral field theories. It then discusses the standard model of electroweak interactions from the perspective of chirality. It also reviews at length the phenomenon of anomalies in quantum field the...

Dass, N. D. Hari

1999-01-01

322

Gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An introduction to the unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is given. The ingredients of gauge theories and symmetries and conservation laws lead to discussion of local gauge invariance and QED, followed by weak interactions and quantum flavor dynamics. The construction of the standard SU(2)xU(1) model precedes discussion of the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions and weak neutral current couplings in this model. Presentation of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous breaking of a local symmetry leads to a spontaneous breaking scheme for the standard SU(2)xU(1) model. Consideration of quarks, leptons, masses and the Cabibbo angles, of the four quark and six quark models and CP violation lead finally to grand unification, followed by discussion of mixing angles in the Georgi-Glashow model, the Higgses of the SU(5) model and proton/ neutron decay in SU(5). (JIW)

323

??????????????? ???????????????? 25+ Gauge ? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????-????? ??????????? ???????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The features and results of the surgical treatment of idiopathic macular holes with application of modern microinvasive 25+ Gauge chromovitrectomy and endovitriol dye BrilliantBlue G have been studied in the article. Materials and methods: The surgical treatment of 45 patients with macular holes aged 58,4 +/-10,3 years has been performed. Results: Microinvasive 25+Gauge chromovitrectomy with application of endovitriol dye BrilliantBlueG allows to achieve high anatomic and functional results in treatment of idiopathic macular holes in the early and remote periods of supervision. Intraoperative and postoperative complications have been analyzed with anatomic and functional results. Conclusion: It has been revealed that modern microinvasive 25+ Gauge chromovitrectomy with application of endovitriol dye BrilliantBlueG makes the surgery easier and more effective.

??????? B.C.

2013-03-01

324

Spin-2 particles in gravitational fields  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We give a solution of the wave equation for massless, or massive spin-2 particles propagating in a gravitational background. The solution is covariant, gauge-invariant and exact to first order in the background gravitational field. The background contribution is confined to a phase factor from which geometrical and physical optics can be derived. The phase also describes Mashhoon's spin-rotation coupling and, in general, the spin-gravity interaction.

Papini, G.

2007-01-01

325

Mansouri-Chang gravitation theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The gauge theory of gravitation introduced by Mansouri and Chang (1976) is investigated; a symbolic manipulation computer system generates the Mansouri-Chang field equations in various coordinate systems. It is found that all vacuum Einstein spaces are vacuum Mansouri-Chang spaces in four dimensions, though for higher dimensions an Einstein vacuum space is not generally a Mansouri-Chang solution. The possibility that no solutions of the Mansouri-Chang equations are not Einstein vacuum spaces is discussed.

Pavelle, R.

1978-01-01

326

New Gauge for Supersymmetric Abelian Gauge Theories.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new gauge for supersymmetric abelian gauge theories is presented. It is shown that this new gauge allows us to obtain terms which usually come as radiative corrections to the supersymmetric abelian gauge theories when one uses the Wess-Zumino gauge. (At...

A. W. Smith J. Barcelos Neto

1984-01-01

327

Matter field infinities in axial gauge gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The one-loop infinities for scalar, spinor and vector fields due to gravitational interactions are computed in the axial gravity gauge for the Einstein-Hilbert action. The results reveal an axis dependence, in addition to their expected non-renormalisability, which is expected to get progressively worse in higher orders of perturbation theory. This means that gauge equivalences between covariant and non-covariant gauges are impossible in ordinary quantum gravity unless cancellation of infinities occurs through some supersymmetric mechanism or unless a renormalisable conformal version of gravity is adopted. (author)

1982-04-04

328

Gauge fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these notes the author provides some background on the theory of gauge fields, a subject of increasing popularity among particle physicists (and others). Detailed motivations and applications which are covered in the other lectures of this school are not presented. In particular the application to weak interactions is omitted by referring to the introduction given by J. Ilipoulos a year ago (CERN Report 76-11). The aim is rather to stress those aspects which suggest that gauge fields may play some role in a future theory of strong interactions. (Auth.)

1978-11-02

329

The SU(2) Skyrme model and anomaly  

CERN Document Server

The SU(2) Skyrme model,expanding in the collective coordinates variables, gives rise to second-class constraints. Recently this system was embedded in a more general Abelian gauge theory using the BFFT Hamiltonian method. In this work we quantize this gauge theory computing the Noether current anomaly using for this two different methods: an operatorial Dirac first class formalism and the non-local BV quantization coupled with the Fujikawa regularization procedure.

Abreu, Everton M C; Oliveira, W; Abreu, Everton M C; Neto, Jorge Ananias; Oliveira, Wilson

2000-01-01

330

Instantons and Chiral Anomaly in Fuzzy Physics  

CERN Document Server

In continuum physics, there are important topological aspects like instantons, theta-terms and the axial anomaly. Conventional lattice discretizations often have difficulties in treating one or the other of these aspects. In this paper, we develop discrete quantum field theories on fuzzy manifolds using noncommutative geometry. Basing ourselves on previous treatments of instantons and chiral fermions (without fermion doubling) on fuzzy spaces and especially fuzzy spheres, we present discrete representations of theta-terms and topological susceptibility for gauge theories and derive axial anomaly on the fuzzy sphere. Our gauge field action for four dimensions is bounded by the modulus of the instanton number as in the continuum.

Balachandran, A P

2001-01-01

331

Instantons and Chiral Anomaly in Fuzzy Physics  

Science.gov (United States)

In continuum physics, there are important topological aspects like instantons, ?-terms and the axial anomaly. Conventional lattice discretizations often have difficulties in treating one or the other of these aspects. In this paper, we develop discrete quantum field theories on fuzzy manifolds using noncommutative geometry. Basing ourselves on previous treatments of instantons and chiral fermions (without fermion doubling) on fuzzy spaces and especially fuzzy spheres, we present discrete representations of ?-terms and topological susceptibility for gauge theories and derive axial anomaly on the fuzzy sphere. Our gauge field action for four dimensions is bounded by a constant times the modulus of the instanton number as in the continuum.

Balachandran, A. P.; Vaidya, S.

332

General form of dilaton gravity and nonlinear gauge theory  

CERN Multimedia

We construct a gauge theory based on general nonlinear Lie algebras. The generic form of `dilaton' gravity is derived from nonlinear Poincar{\\' e} algebra, which exhibits a gauge-theoretical origin of the non-geometric scalar field in two-dimensional gravitation theory.

Ikeda, N; K.-I, Izawa

1993-01-01

333

Two potentials, one gauge group: a possible geometrical motivation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By studying the purely gravitational sector of a higher-dimensional matter-gravity coupled theory, one can see that in the case of nonvanishing torsion the effective 4-dimensional theory exhibits two gauge potentials that transform under the action of a single gauge group

1986-12-11

334

Gauged WZW Models Via Equivariant Cohomology  

CERN Document Server

The problem of computing systematically the gauge invariant extension of WZW term through equivariant cohomology is addressed. The analysis done by Witten in the two-dimensional case is extended to the four-dimensional ones. While Cartan's model is used to find the anomaly cancelation condition. It is shown that the Weil model is more appropriated to find the gauge invariant extension of the WZW term. In the process we point out that Weil's and Cartan's models are also useful to stress some connections with the abelian anomaly.

Garcia-Compean, Hugo

2010-01-01

335

Improved Moving Puncture Gauge Conditions for Compact Binary Evolutions  

CERN Document Server

Robust gauge conditions are critically important to the stability and accuracy of numerical relativity (NR) simulations involving compact objects. Most of the NR community use the highly robust---though decade-old---moving-puncture (MP) gauge conditions for such simulations. It has been argued that in binary black hole (BBH) evolutions adopting this gauge, noise generated near adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) boundaries does not converge away cleanly with increasing resolution, severely limiting gravitational waveform accuracy at computationally feasible resolutions. We link this noise to a sharp, initial outgoing gauge wave crossing into progressively lower resolution AMR grids, and present improvements to the standard MP gauge conditions that focus on stretching, smoothing, and more rapidly settling this outgoing wave. Our best gauge choice greatly reduces gravitational waveform noise, yielding more cleanly convergent waveforms and $\\sim 40%$ lower waveform phase and amplitude errors during inspiral at typica...

Etienne, Zachariah B; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Kelly, Bernard J; Shapiro, Stuart L

2014-01-01

336

Gauge Dependence of the Effective Average Action in Einstein Gravity  

CERN Multimedia

We study the gauge dependence of the effective average action Gamma_k and Newtonian gravitational constant using the RG equation for Gamma_k. Then we truncate the space of action functionals to get a solution of this equation. We solve the truncated evolution equation for the Einstein gravity in the De Sitter background for a general gauge parameter alpha and obtain a system of equations for the cosmological and the Newtonian constants. Analyzing the running of the gravitational constant we find that the Newtonian constant depends strongly on the gauge parameter. This leads to the appearance of antiscreening and screening behavior of the quantum gravity. The resolution of the gauge dependence problem is suggested. For physical gauges like the Landau-De Witt gauge the

Falkenberg, S

1998-01-01

337

QCD Pressure and the Trace Anomaly  

CERN Document Server

Exact relations between the QCD thermal pressure and the trace anomaly are derived. These are used, first, to prove the equivalence of the thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic pressure in equilibrium in the presence of the trace anomaly, closing a gap in previous arguments. Second, in the temporal axial gauge a formula is derived which expresses the thermal pressure in terms of a Dyson-resummed two-point function. This overcomes the infrared problems encountered in the conventional perturbation-theory approach.

Drummond, I T; Landshoff, Peter V; Rebhan, Anton K

1999-01-01

338

BRST quantization of anomalous gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown how the BRST quantization can be applied to a gauge invariant sector of theories with anomalously broken symmetries. This result is used to shown that shifting the anomalies to a classically trivial sector of fields (Wess-Zumino mechanism) makes it possible to quantize the physical sector in a standard BRST way as for a non anomalous theory. The trivial sector plays the role of a topological sector if the system is quantized without shifting the anomalies. (author)

1994-10-04

339

Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

Chris L. Fryer

2011-01-01

340

Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms  

CERN Document Server

Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle - the graviton - that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms "feeling" laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field,...

Goldman, N; Ohberg, P; Spielman, I B

2013-01-01

342

Gauge Coupling Variation in Brane Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the space-time variation of gauge couplings in brane-world models induced by the coupling to a bulk scalar field. A variation is generated by the running of the gauge couplings with energy and a conformal anomaly while going from the Jordan to the Einstein frame. We indicate that the one-loop corrections cancel implying that one obtains a variation of the fine structure constant by either directly coupling the gauge fields to the bulk scalar field or having bulk ...

Palma, G. A.; Brax, Ph; Davis, A. C.; Bruck, C.

2003-01-01

343

Gravitational astrophysics  

Science.gov (United States)

Like the surface of a busy swimming pool, spacetime is awash with waves generated by the local and distant motions of mass and, in principle, much of this activity can be reconstructed by analysing the waveforms. However, instrumentation with a reasonable chance of directly detecting these gravitational waves has only become available within the past year, with the LIGO detectors now running at design sensitivity. Here we review the burgeoning field of observational gravitational astrophysics: using gravitational wave detectors as telescopes to help answer a wide range of astrophysical questions from neutron-star physics to cosmology. The next generation of ground-based telescopes should be able to make extensive gravitational observations of some of the more energetic events in our local universe. Looking only slightly further ahead, the space-based LISA observatory will reveal the gravitational universe in phenomenal detail, supplying high-quality data on perhaps thousands of sources, and tackling some of the most fascinating questions in contemporary astronomy.

Hendry, Martin; Woan, Graham

2007-02-01

344

Exact Gravitational Quasinormal Frequencies of Topological Black Holes  

CERN Multimedia

We compute the exact gravitational quasinormal frequencies for massless topological black holes in d-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. Using the gauge invariant formalism for gravitational perturbations derived by Kodama and Ishibashi, we show that in all cases the scalar, vector, and tensor modes can be reduced to a simple scalar field equation. This equation is exactly solvable in terms of hypergeometric functions, thus allowing an exact analytic determination of the gravitational quasinormal frequencies.

Birmingham, D; Birmingham, Danny; Mokhtari, Susan

2006-01-01

345

On the fundamental principles of the relativistic theory of gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper expounds consistently within the frames of the Special Relativity Theory the fundamental postulates of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (RTG) which make it possible to obtain the unique complete system of the equations for gravitational field. Major attention has been paid to the analysis of the gauge group and of the causality principle. Some results related to the evolution of the Friedmann Universe, to gravitational collapse, etc. being the consequences of the RTG equations are also presented. 7 refs

1990-01-01

346

Topology of gauge theories on compact 4-manifolds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a gauge theory the topological structure of the group of gauge transformations G can have important consequences. Information is obtained about the topology of G in four dimensions and this is used to study the existence of a global gauge fixing condition. The topological nature of G also allows inequivalent topological sectors to exist and these are discussed in four- and five-dimensional gauge theories. Finally, the topological structure of G imposes constraints on the existence of global anomalies in four-dimensional gauge theories. (author)

1987-03-01

347

Gauging device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A gauge supporting device for measuring say a square tube comprises a pair of rods or guides in tension between a pair of end members, the end members being spaced apart by a compression member or members. The tensioned guides provide planes of reference for measuring devices moved therealong on a carriage. The device is especially useful for making on site dimensional measurements of components, such as irradiated and therefore radioactive components, that cannot readily be transported to an inspection laboratory. (UK)

1979-01-01

348

Does a domain wall emit gravitational waves? general-relativistic perturbative treatment  

CERN Multimedia

The behavior of gravitational wave perturbations on a locally Minkowskian spacetime background containing a planar domain wall is investigated in the gauge-invariant general relativistic framework. It is shown that for this particular background the domain wall does not emit gravitational waves spontaneously by its free oscillation in the first order, although it scatters incidental gravitational waves.

Kodama, H; Fujiwara, Y; Hideo Kodama; Hideki Ishihara; Yoshihisa Fujiwara

1994-01-01

349

Gravitational induction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show explicitly that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law in electrodynamics. Some of the physical implications of gravitational induction are briefly discussed.

Bini, Donato [Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo ' M Picone' , CNR I-00161 Rome (Italy); Cherubini, Christian [ICRA, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Chicone, Carmen [Department of Mathematics, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Mashhoon, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2008-11-21

350

Cohomology of gauge groups: Cocycles and Schwinger terms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relation between anomalies in space-time, anomalous Schwinger terms in equal-time commutators, and the cohomology of the relevant gauge groups is discussed. The consistency condition for the Schwinger terms is derived. Integral formulas are given for the phases occuring in the ray representations of the space gauge at fixed time as well as for the higher cocyles.

Zumino, B.

1985-05-13

351

Anomalies without an action  

CERN Document Server

Modern on-shell methods allow us to construct both the classical and quantum S-matrix for a large class of theories, without utilizing knowledge of the interacting Lagrangian. It was recently shown that the same applies for chiral gauge theories, where the constraints from anomaly cancelation can be recast into the tension between unitarity and locality, without any reference to gauge symmetry. In this paper, we give a more detailed exploration, for chiral QED and QCD. We study the rational terms that are mandated by locality, and show that the factorization poles of such terms reveal a new particle in the spectrum, the Green-Schwarz two-from. We further extend the analysis to six-dimensional gravity coupled to chiral matter, including self-dual two-forms for which covariant actions generically do not exist. Despite this, the on-shell methods define the correct quantum S-matrix by demonstrating that locality of the one-loop amplitude requires combination of chiral matter that is consistent with that of anomal...

Chen, Wei-Ming; McGady, David A

2014-01-01

352

Inflationary Baryogenesis in a Model with Gauged Baryon Number  

CERN Document Server

We argue that inflationary dynamics may support a scenario where significant matter-antimatter asymmetry is generated from initially small-scale quantum fluctuations that are subsequently stretched out over large scales. This scenario can be realised in extensions of the Standard Model with an extra gauge symmetry having mixed anomalies with the electroweak gauge symmetry. Inflationary baryogenesis in a model with gauged baryon number is considered in detail.

Barrie, Neil D

2014-01-01

353

On the overlap formulation of chiral gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overlap formula proposed by Narayanan and Neuberger in chiral gauge theories is examined. The free chiral and Dirac Green's functions are constructed in this formalism. Four dimensional anomalies are calculated and the usual anomaly cancellation for one standard family of quarks and leptons is verified. (author). 4 refs

1994-01-01

354

Weak anomaly cancellation in even dimensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gauge anomaly for dimension d=2n>=6 contains several irreducible components. The leading component must be cancelled, but the nonleading parts may be either cancelled or compensated by introducing new fields. The latter mechanism is illustrated by a few examples. (orig.)

1985-06-27

355

Weak anomaly cancellation in even dimensions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gauge anomaly for dimension d=2n >= 6 contains several irreducible components. The leading component must be cancelled, but the nonleading parts may be either cancelled or compensated by introducing new fields. The latter mechanism is illustrated by a few examples.

Frampton, P.H.; Yamamoto, K. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill (USA). Inst. of Field Physics)

1985-06-27

356

Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z = 3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the ?-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2) x U(1) isometry. In contrast to the instantons of Einstein gravity, chiral symmetry breaking becomes possible in the unimodular phase of Horava-Lifshitz theory arising at ? = 1/3 provided that the volume of space is bounded from below by the ratio of the Ricci to Cotton tensor couplings raised to the third power. Some other aspects of the anomalies in non-relativistic quantum field theories are also discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

2011-10-01

357

Gravitational Baryogenesis  

CERN Document Server

We show that a gravitational interaction between the derivative of the Ricci scalar curvature and the baryon-number current dynamically breaks CPT in an expanding universe and, combined with baryon-number-violating interactions, can drive the universe towards an equilibrium baryon asymmetry that is observationally acceptable.

Davoudiasl, Hooman; Kribs, Graham D; Murayama, Hitoshi; Steinhardt, Paul J

2004-01-01

358

Gravitational baryogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that a gravitational interaction between the derivative of the Ricci scalar curvature and the baryon-number current dynamically breaks CPT in an expanding Universe and, combined with baryon-number-violating interactions, can drive the Universe towards an equilibrium baryon asymmetry that is observationally acceptable

2004-11-12

359

Gravitational Baryogenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show that a gravitational interaction between the derivative of the Ricci scalar curvature and the baryon-number current dynamically breaks CPT in an expanding universe and, combined with baryon-number-violating interactions, can drive the universe towards an equilibrium baryon asymmetry that is observationally acceptable.

Davoudias, Hooman; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Kribs, Graham D.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Steinhardt, Paul J.

2004-03-02

360

Gravitational Techniwaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the production and possible detection of gravitational waves stemming from the electroweak phase transition in the early universe in models of minimal walking technicolor. In particular we discuss the two possible scenarios in which one has only one electroweak phase transition and the case in which the technicolor dynamics allows for multiple phase transitions.

Jarvinen, Matti; Kouvaris, Chris; Sannino, Francesco

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Isotropic cosmology in metric-affine gauge theory of gravity  

CERN Multimedia

Geometrical structure of homogeneous isotropic models in the frame of the metric-affine gauge theory of gravity (MAGT) is analyzed. By using general form of gravitational Lagrangian including both a scalar curvature and various invariants quadratic in the curvature, torsion and nonmetricity tensors, gravitational equations of MAGT for homogeneous isotropic models are deduced. It is shown, that obtained gravitational equations lead to generalized cosmological Friedmann equation for the metrics by certain restrictions on indefinite parameters of gravitational Lagrangian. Isotropic models in the Weyl-cartan space-time are discussed.

Minkevich, A V

1998-01-01

362

Earth Gauge  

Science.gov (United States)

Earth Gauge is a free environmental information service for broadcast meteorologists in major U.S. media markets, based on the 3-5 day forecast. The service is designed to make it easy to talk about the links between weather and the environment on-air with simple "factoids" and viewer action tips. Teachers or students can browse an index of weather conditions, environmental impacts, and viewer action tips for many locations, organized by city, weather type, or environmental topic. There are also links to additional resources, including fact sheets and special features, imagery, video clips, and others.

363

QCD Flux Tubes and Anomaly Inflow  

CERN Multimedia

We apply the Callan-Harvey anomaly inflow mechanism to the study of QCD (chromoelectric) flux tubes, quark (pair)-creation and chiral magnetic effect, using new variables from the Cho-Faddeev-Niemi decomposition of the gauge potential. A phenomenological description of chromoelectric flux tubes is obtained by studying a gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective Lagrangian, derived from the original QCD Lagrangian. At the quantum level, quark condensates in the QCD vacuum may form a vortex-like structure in a chromoelectric flux tube. Quark zero modes trapped in the vortex are chiral and lead to a two-dimensional gauge anomaly. To cancel it an effective Chern-Simons coupling is needed and hence a topological charge density term naturally appears.

Xiong, Chi

2013-01-01

364

New insight into BRST anomalies in superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the extended BRST formalism of Batalin, Fradkin and Vilkovisky, we perform a general algebraic analysis of the BRST anomalies in superstring theory of Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond. Consistency conditions on the BRST anomalies are completely solved. The genuine super-Virasoro anomaly is identified with the essentially unique solution to the consistency condition without any reference to a particular gauge for the 2D supergravity fields. In a configuration space where metric and gravitino fields are properly constructed, the general form of the super-Weyl anomaly is obtained from the super-Virasoro anomaly as its descendant. We give a novel local action of super-Liouville type, which plays a role of Wess-Zumino-Witten term shifting the super-Virasoro anomaly into the super-Weyl anomaly. These results reveal a hierarchical relationship in the BRST anomalies. ((orig.))

1994-08-22

365

Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.)

1985-01-01

366

Gauge Invariant Descriptions of Gauge Polarizations Revisited  

CERN Document Server

We examine the feasibility of gauge invariant descriptions of the gluon polarization following the proposal that a gauge field can be decomposed into its physical part and its pure gauge part. We show that gauge invariant angular momentum currents can be constructed from summations of gauge variant Noether currents. We present novel expressions of the pure gauge field, which are used to formulate gauge invariant descriptions of the gluon spin and the photon spin. We show that the gauge invariant extension of the Chern-Simons current can describe the spins of the Laguerre-Gauss laser modes. We also discuss the relation of gauge invariant operators and the parton distributions constructed from Dirac variables.

Guo, Zhi-Qiang

2013-01-01

367

Non-minimal gauge mediation and moduli stabilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this Letter we consider U(1){sub A}-gauged Polonyi model with two spurions coupled to a twisted closed string modulus. This offers a consistent setup for metastable SUSY breakdown which allows for moduli stabilization and naturally leads to gauge or hybrid gauge/gravitational mediation mechanism. Due to the presence of the second spurion one can arrange for a solution of the {mu} and B{sub {mu}}problems in a version of modified Giudice-Masiero mechanism, which works both in the limit of pure gauge mediation and in the mixed regime of hybrid mediation.

Jelinski, T.; Lalak, Z. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Pawelczyk, J., E-mail: jacek.pawelczyk@fuw.edu.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2010-05-31

368

Introduction to gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these lectures we present the key ingredients of theories with local gauge invariance. We introduce gauge invariance as a starting point for the construction of a certain class of field theories, both for abelian and nonabelian gauge groups. General implications of gauge invariance are discussed, and we outline in detail how gauge fields can acquire masses in a spontaneous fashion. (orig./HSI)

1983-06-22

369

Quantization of Chern-Simons field theory in the Coulomb gauge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider here the Chern-Simons field theory with the gauge group SU(N) in the presence of a conformally flat gravitational background that describes a two-dimensional expanding ''universe.'' The propagator and the vertices are explicitly computed at the second order in perturbation theory imposing the Coulomb gauge fixing. It is shown in this gauge that the correlation functions of the gauge fields are independent of the metric

1994-12-15

370

Gravitational induction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show {\\it explicitly} that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz...

Bini, Donato; Cherubini, Christian; Chicone, Carmen; Mashhoon, Bahram

2008-01-01

371

Anomalies for spinor currents in a massless Yang-Mills theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anomalies of the divergences of the spinor currents in a supersymmetric gauge theory are studied in the perturbation theory. The linearly divergent nature of the loop integrations leads to the two kinds of anomalies. The divergent parts, which essentially give the vertex renormalization constant, contribute to the anomaly for the conformal spinor current, while the finite surface terms give rise to the anomaly for the first spinor current. The anomaly for the first current, however, can be removed by the redefinition of the gauge invariant conserved current

1977-01-01

372

Radioisotope Gauges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was made by Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., in August, 1979, on the uses of isotope-equipped measuring instruments in private industrial enterprises by sending questionnaires to 1372 enterprises using sealed radiation sources. The results are described. i.e. usage of isotope-equipped measuring instruments, the economic effects, and problems for the future, and also the general situation in this field. Such instruments used are gas chromatography apparatus, thickness, level and moisture gauges, sulfur analyzer, etc. Except the gas chromatography, the rest are mostly incorporated in automatic control systems. As the economic effects, there are the rises in productivity, quality and yield and the savings in materials, energy and manpower. While they are used to great advantage, there are still problems occasionally in measuring accuracy and others. (J.P.N.)

1979-11-21

373

On Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking  

CERN Document Server

A discrepancy between the Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB) gaugino mass calculated from the work of Kaplunovsky and Louis (hep-th/9402005) (KL) and other calculations in the literature is explained, and it is argued that the KL expression is the correct one relevant to the Wilsonian action. Furthermore it is argued that the AMSB contribution to the squark and slepton masses should be replaced by the contribution pointed out by Dine and Seiberg (DS) which has nothing to do with Weyl anomalies. This is not in general equivalent to the AMSB expression, and it is shown that there are models in which the usual AMSB expression would vanish but the DS one is non-zero. In fact the latter has aspects of both AMSB and gauge mediated SUSY breaking. In particular like the latter, it gives positive squared masses for sleptons.

de Alwis, S P

2008-01-01

374

One loop divergences and anomalies from chiral superfields in supergravity  

CERN Document Server

We apply the heat kernel method (using Avramidi's non-recursive technique) to the study of the effective action of chiral matter in a complex representation of an arbitrary gauge sector coupled to background U(1) supergravity. This generalizes previous methods, which restricted to 1) real representations of the gauge sector in traditional Poincar\\'e supergravity or 2) vanishing supergravity background. In this new scheme, we identify a classical ambiguity in these theories which mixes the supergravity U(1) with the gauge U(1). At the quantum level, this ambiguity is maintained since the effective action changes only by a local counterterm as one shifts a U(1) factor between the supergravity and gauge sectors. An immediate application of our formalism is the calculation of the one-loop gauge, Kahler, and reparametrization anomalies of chiral matter coupled to minimal supergravity from purely chiral loops. Our approach gives an anomaly whose covariant part is both manifestly supersymmetric and non-perturbative ...

Butter, Daniel

2009-01-01

375

The ? transformation and gravitational copies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An Abelian symmetry already considered by Einstein with respect to his asymmetrical field theories is related to the gravitational and gauge field copy phenomenon. It is shown that gauge field copies arise out of a straightforward generalization of the ? - map. The connection between Einstein's work on the ?-transformation and the copy phenomenon is obtained with the help of the Frobenius Theorem on the existence of foliations on a differentiable manifold. A problem like the one above is usually treated within the language of (intrinsic) Differential Geometry; General Relativity and classical unified field theories are traditionally developed in a classical style, that gap, a long introduction is prepared where the same structures are studied from the traditional and from the more recent point of view. (author)

1984-01-01

376

Relativistic Transverse Gravitational Redshift  

Science.gov (United States)

The parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism is a tool for quantitative analysis of the weak gravitational field based on the field equations of general relativity. This formalism and its ten parameters provide the practical theoretical foundation for the evaluation of empirical data produced by space-based missions designed to map and better understand the gravitational field (e.g., GRAIL, GRACE, GOCE). Accordingly, mission data is interpreted in the context of the canonical PPN formalism; unexpected, anomalous data are explained as similarly unexpected but apparently real physical phenomena, which may be characterized as ``gravitational anomalies," or by various sources contributing to the total error budget. Another possibility, which is typically not considered, is a small modeling error in canonical general relativity. The concept of the idealized point-mass spherical equipotential surface, which originates with Newton's law of gravity, is preserved in Einstein's synthesis of special relativity with accelerated reference frames in the form of the field equations. It was not previously realized that the fundamental principles of relativity invalidate this concept and with it the idea that the gravitational field is conservative (i.e., zero net work is done on any closed path). The ideal radial free fall of a material body from arbitrarily-large range to a point on such an equipotential surface (S) determines a unique escape-velocity vector of magnitude v collinear to the acceleration vector of magnitude g at this point. For two such points on S separated by angle d? , the Equivalence Principle implies distinct reference frames experiencing inertial acceleration of identical magnitude g in different directions in space. The complete equivalence of these inertially-accelerated frames to their analogous frames at rest on S requires evaluation at instantaneous velocity v relative to a local inertial observer. Because these velocity vectors are not parallel, a symmetric energy potential exists between the frames that is quantified by the instantaneous ? {v} = v\\cdot{d}? between them; in order for either frame to become indistinguishable from the other, such that their respective velocity and acceleration vectors are parallel, a change in velocity is required. While the qualitative features of general relativity imply this phenomenon (i.e., a symmetric potential difference between two points on a Newtonian `equipotential surface' that is similar to a friction effect), it is not predicted by the field equations due to a modeling error concerning time. This is an error of omission; time has fundamental geometric properties implied by the principles of relativity that are not reflected in the field equations. Where b is the radius and g is the gravitational acceleration characterizing a spherical geoid S of an ideal point-source gravitational field, an elegant derivation that rests on first principles shows that for two points at rest on S separated by a distance d points of magnitude z = gd2/bc^2, which over 1 km at Earth sea level yields z ˜{10-17}. It can be tested with a variety of methods, in particular laser interferometry. A more sophisticated derivation yields a considerably more complex predictive formula for any two points in a gravitational field.

Mayer, A. F.

2012-12-01

377

Mansouri-Chang gravitation theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I examine the new gauge theory of gravitation theory proposed recently by Mansouri and Chang. It appears that the predictions of the theory are indistinguishable from those of general relativity with regard to the usual tests. With the aid of the symbolic manipulation computer system, MACSYMA, I find that the theory possesses a remarkable similarity to Einstein's theory with respect to vacuum solutions. While the field equations are greatly different, a question arises whether there are any solutions of the new equations which are not Einstein vacuum spaces

1978-01-30

378

Relaxing Lorentz invariance in general perturbative anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyze the role of Lorentz symmetry in the perturbative nongravitational anomalies for a single family of fermions. The theory is assumed to be translational-invariant, power-counting renormalizable and based on a local action, but is allowed to have general Lorentz violating operators. We study the conservation of global and gauge currents associated with general internal symmetry groups and find, by using a perturbative approach, that Lorentz symmetry does not participate in the clash of symmetries that leads to the anomalies. We first analyze the triangle graphs and prove that there are regulators for which the anomalous part of the Ward identities exactly reproduces the Lorentz-invariant case. Then we show, by means of a regulator independent argument, that the anomaly cancellation conditions derived in Lorentz-invariant theories remain necessary ingredients for anomaly freedom.

2008-10-15

379

Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions  

CERN Document Server

We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

Bakas, Ioannis

2011-01-01

380

Anomaly Structure of Supergravity and Anomaly Cancellation  

CERN Document Server

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1)_K transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Butter, Daniel

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The Weyl anomaly and the nature of the background geometry  

CERN Multimedia

The Weyl anomaly problem is treated within a purely geometrical context. Arguments are given that hint at a possible classical origin of the conformal anomaly in the Riemannian nature of the background geometry where the matter fields play out their dynamics. Some considerations allowing for a possible resolution of the Weyl anomaly problem are briefly outlined. Following the spirit of the standard model of the fundamental interactions, it is argued that the Weyl anomaly should be a consequence of the breaking of the gauge symmetry at some stage during the evolution of the universe.

Quirós, I

2000-01-01

382

Recent developments in the path integral approach to anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief summary of the path integral approach to anomalous identities, some of the recent developments in this approach are discussed. The topics discussed include (i) Construction of the effective action by means of the covariant current, (ii) Gauss law constraint in anomalous gauge theories, (iii) Path integral approach to anomalies in superconformal transformations, (iv) Conformal and ghost number anomalies in string theory in analogy with the instanton calculation, (v) Covariant local Lorentz anomaly and its connection with the mathematical construction of the consistent anomaly. (author)

1986-01-01

383

Finite gauge field theory and quantum gravity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A quantum field theory which is Poincare invariant, gauge invariant, finite and unitary to all orders of perturbation theory is applied to quantum chromodynamics. Quantum gravity is finite and unitary to all orders of perturbation theory. The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for a black hole is investigated in a conical Rindler space approximation to a black hole event horizon. A renormalization of the gravitational coupling constant is performed leading to a finite Bekenstein-Hawking entropy at the horizon. (author)

Moffat, J.W. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

1999-07-01

384

Gauge cosmic chiral strings in general relativity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cylindrically symmetric self-gravitating configurations of string (vortex) type are considered within the framework of the chiral SU(2) model with the inclusion of the Yang-Mills proper gauge field. In the approximation of the large topological charge n the solutions to the field equations are found, with the magnetic field of the vortex being longitudinal. The linear energy density of the vortex configuration is estimated.

2009-05-01

385

Determination of covariant Schwinger terms in anomalous gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A functional integral method is used to determine equal time commutators between the covariant currents and the covariant Gauss-law operators in theories which are affected by an anomaly. By using a differential geometrical setup we show how the derivation of consistent- and covariant Schwinger terms can be understood on an equal footing. We find a modified consistency condition for the covariant anomaly. As a by-product the Bardeen-Zumino functional, which relates consistent and covariant anomalies, can be interpreted as connection on a certain line bundle over all gauge potentials. Finally the commutator anomalies are calculated for the two- and four dimensional case. (Author) 13 refs

1991-01-01

386

Lattice gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a description of a pure Yang-Mills theory on a lattice, the author considers a three-dimensional pure U(1) lattice gauge theory. Thereafter he discusses the exact relation between lattice gauge theories with the gauge groups SU(2) and SO(3). Finally he presents Monte Carlo data on phase transitions in SU(2) and SO(3) lattice gauge models. (HSI)

1981-08-20

387

Confining gauge theories without Goldstone bosons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the possibility that in the Wilson lattice definition of confining gauge theories without Goldstone bosons one may systematically adjust the lightest vector mass to zero while keeping the isosinglet scalar mass, which arises by the chiral anomaly, nontachyonic. We discuss a Weyl fermion theory and find the lightest vector particle to be an isoscalar (at least in strong coupling) so that there is no collision with known theorems. We discuss how an abelian gauge symmetry can arise as an infrared attractor and point out a difference between the Weyl fermion theory and one flavour QCD. Attention is also drawn to a physical motivation. (orig.)

1991-09-26

388

Universality in two-dimensional gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories with massless fermions in arbitrary representations of a gauge group G. It is shown that the physics (spectrum and interactions) of the massive states in such models is independent of the detailed structure of the model, and only depends on the gauge group G and an integer k measuring the total anomaly. The massless physics, which does depend on the details of the model, decouples (almost) completely from that of the massive one. As an example, we discuss the equivalence of QCD2 coupled to fermions in the adjoint, and fundamental representations. ((orig.))

1995-05-29

389

Scalar lattice gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scalar lattice gauge theories are models for scalar fields with local gauge symmetries. No fundamental gauge fields, or link variables in a lattice regularization, are introduced. The latter rather emerge as collective excitations composed from scalars. For suitable parameters scalar lattice gauge theories lead to confinement, with all continuum observables identical to usual lattice gauge theories. These models or their fermionic counterpart may be helpful for a realization of gauge theories by ultracold atoms. We conclude that the gauge bosons of the standard model of particle physics can arise as collective fields within models formulated for other “fundamental” degrees of freedom

2013-11-01

390

Gravity duals of supersymmetric gauge theories on three-manifolds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study gravity duals to a broad class of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories defined on a general class of three-manifold geometries. The gravity backgrounds are based on Euclidean self-dual solutions to four-dimensional gauged supergravity. As well as constructing new examples, we prove in general that for solutions defined on the four-ball the gravitational free energy depends only on the supersymmetric Killing vector, finding a simple closed formula when the solution has ...

Farquet, Daniel; Lorenzen, Jakob; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James

2014-01-01

391

More on axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that the gauge and metric field contribution to the axial anomaly of a four-dimensional massless Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropy scaling exponent z is identical to the relativistic case, hereby extending the results found in arXiv:1103.5693 to arbitrary values of z. This is in accordance with the fact that the axial anomaly is an infra-red phenomenon in disguise. We also provide some new models that realize baryon and lepton number violation in non-relativist...

Bakas, Ioannis

2011-01-01

392

Global worldsheet anomalies from M-theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an M-theory proof of the anomaly of Freed and Witten which in general shifts the quantisation law for the U(1) gauge field on a D6-brane. The derivation requires an understanding of how fields on the D6-brane lift to M-theory, together with a localisation formula which we prove using a U(1)-index theorem. We also show how the anomaly is related to the K-theory classification of Ramond-Ramond fields. In addition we discuss the M-theory origin of the D6-brane effective action, and illustrate the general arguments with a concrete example. (author)

2004-08-01

393

Cancellation of quadratically divergent mass corrections in globally supersymmetric spontaneously broken gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The one-loop quadratically divergent mass corrections in globally supersymmetric gauge theories with spontaneously broken abelian and non-abelian gauge symmetry are studied. Quadratically divergent mass corrections are found to persist in an abelian model with an ABJ anomaly. However, additional supermultiplets necessary to cancel the ABJ anomaly, turn out to be sufficient to eliminate the quadratic divergences as well, rendering the theory natural. Quadratic divergences are shown to vanish also in the case of an anomaly free model with spontaneously broken non-abelian gauge symmetry. (orig.)

1982-05-17

394

Scalar lattice gauge theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scalar lattice gauge theories are models for scalar fields with local gauge symmetries. No fundamental gauge fields, or link variables in a lattice regularization, are introduced. The latter rather emerge as collective excitations composed from scalars. For suitable parameters scalar lattice gauge theories lead to confinement, with all continuum observables identical to usual lattice gauge theories. These models or their fermionic counterpart may be helpful for a realization...

Wetterich, C.

2012-01-01

395

Navigation of Spacetime Ships in Unified Gravitational and Electromagnetic Waves  

CERN Multimedia

On the basis of a "local" principle of equivalence of general relativity, we consider a navigation in a kind of "4D-ocean" involving measurements of conformally invariant physical properties only. Then, applying the Pfaff theory for PDE to a particular conformally equivariant system of differential equations, we show the dependency of any kind of function describing "spacetime waves", with respect to 20 parametrizing functions. These latter, appearing in a linear differential Spencer sequence and determining gauge fields of deformations relatively to "ship-metrics" or to "flat spacetime ocean metrics", may be ascribed to unified electromagnetic and gravitational waves. The present model is based neither on a classical gauge theory of gravitation or a gravitation theory with torsion, nor on any Kaluza-Klein or Weyl type unifications, but rather on a post-Newtonian approach of gravitation in a four dimensional conformal Cosserat spacetime.

Rubin, J L

2002-01-01

396

Anomalies to All Orders  

CERN Multimedia

I give an account of my involvement with the chiral anomaly, and with the nonrenormalization theorem for the chiral anomaly and the all orders calculation of the trace anomaly, as well as related work by others. I then briefly discuss implications of these results for more recent developments in anomalies in supersymmetric theories.

Adler, S L

2004-01-01

397

Calculation of Newton's gravitational constant in infrared-stable Yang-Mills theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Newton's gravitational constant G is calculated in a class of scale-invariant gauge theories with an infrared fixed point. The sign of G depends on the coefficients in the renormalization-group ? function

1982-02-01

398

GAUGE INVARIANCE AND ANOMALOUS GAUGE BOSON COUPLINGS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the S--matrix pinch technique we obtain to one loop order, gauge independent $\\gamma W^-W^+$ and $Z W^-W^+$ vertices in the context of the standard model, with all incoming momenta off--shell. We show that the vertices so constructed satisfy simple QED--like Ward identities. These gauge invariant vertices give rise to expressions for the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole form factors of the W gauge boson, which, unlike previous treatments, satisfy the crucial pro...

Papavassiliou, Joannis; Philippides, Kostas

1995-01-01

399

On the integrability of spherical gravitational waves in vacuum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The general class of Robinson-Trautman metrics that describe gravitational radiation in the exterior of bounded sources in four space-time dimensions is shown to admit zero curvature formulation in terms of appropriately chosen two-dimensional gauge connections. The result, which is valid for either type II or III metrics, implies that the gravitational analogue of the Lienard-Wiechert fields of Maxwell equations form a new integrable sector of Einstein equations for any val...

Bakas, Ioannis

2005-01-01

400

Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry and gravitational force  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yang-Mills gauge formulation of gravity involving fermions and maximum four-dimensional symmetry leads to the result that the gravitational force between antifermions is different from that between fermions. Such a gravitational asymmetry may provide a natural mechanism for cosmic matter-antimatter separation in the evolution of the universe. Also, CP and T invariances are violated by gravity. The results do not contradict previous experiments. (author)

1980-05-24

 
 
 
 
401

Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry and gravitational force  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yang-Mills gauge formulation of gravity involving fermions and maximum four-dimensional symmetry leads to the result that the gravitational force between antifermions is different from that between fermions. Such a gravitational asymmetry may provide a natural mechanism for cosmic matter-antimatter separation in the evolution of the universe. Also, CP and T invariances are violated by gravity. The results do not contradict previous experiments.

Hsu, J.P. (Southeastern Massachusetts Univ., North Dartmouth (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1980-05-24

402

Covariant Quiver Gauge Theories  

CERN Document Server

We consider dimensional reduction of gauge theories with arbitrary gauge group in a formalism based on equivariant principal bundles. For the classical gauge groups we clarify the relations between equivariant principal bundles and quiver bundles, and show that the reduced quiver gauge theories are all generically built on the same universal symmetry breaking pattern. The formalism enables the dimensional reduction of Chern-Simons gauge theories in arbitrary odd dimensionalities. The reduced model is a novel Chern-Simons-Higgs theory consisting of a Chern-Simons term valued in the residual gauge group plus a higher order gauge and diffeomorphism invariant coupling of Higgs fields with the gauge fields. We study the moduli spaces of solutions, which in some instances provide geometric representations of certain quiver varieties as moduli spaces of flat invariant connections. As physical applications, we consider dimensional reductions involving non-compact gauge supergroups as a means for systematically induci...

Szabo, Richard J

2014-01-01

403

The gravitational field at spatial infinity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper treats the formulation of the gravitational field variables and the equations obeyed by them at spatial infinity. The variables consist of a three-dimensional tensor and a scalar, which satisfy separate field equations, which in turn can be obtained from two distinct Lagrangians. Aside from Lorentz rotations, the symmetry operations include an Abelian gauge group and an Abelian Lie group, leading to a number of conservation laws and to differential indentities between the field equations

1986-01-01

404

Searching for S-duality in Gravitation  

CERN Document Server

We overview some attempts to find S-duality analogues of non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, in the context of gravity theories. The case of MacDowell-Mansouri gauge theory of gravity is discussed. Three-dimensional dimensional reductions from the topological gravitational sector in four dimensions, enable to recuperate the 2+1 Chern-Simons gravity and the corresponding S-dual theory, from the notion of self-duality in the four-dimensional theory.

García-Compéan, H; Ramírez, C

2000-01-01

405

Ghost properties of generalized theories of gravitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate theories of gravitation, in which spacetime is non-Riemannian and the metric g/sub munu/ is nonsymmetric, for ghosts and tachyons, using a spin-projection operator formalism. Ghosts are removed not by gauge invariance but by a Lagrange multiplier W/sub ..mu../, which occurs due to the breaking of projective invariance in the theory. Unified theories based on a Lagrangian containing a term lambdag/sup munu/g/sub / are proved to contain ghosts or tachyons.

Mann, R.B.; Moffat, J.W.

1982-10-15

406

General relativity and quintessence explain the Pioneer anomaly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The anomalous time depending blueshift, the so-called "Pioneer anomaly", that was detected in the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10/11, Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft may not result from a real change of velocity. Rather, the Pioneer anomaly may be understood within the framework of general relativity as a time depending gravitational frequency shift accounting for the time dependence of the density of the dark energy when the latter is identified with quintessence. Thus, in...

Mbelek, J. P.

2004-01-01

407

Hidden QCD in Chiral Gauge Theories  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The 't Hooft and Corrigan-Ramond limits of massless one-flavor QCD consider the two Weyl fermions to be respectively in the fundamental representation or the two index antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. We introduce a limit in which one of the two Weyl fermions is in the fundamental representation and the other in the two index antisymmetric representation of a generic SU(N) gauge group. This theory is chiral and to avoid gauge anomalies a more complicated chiral theory is needed. This is the generalized Georgi-Glashow model with one vector like fermion. We show that there is an interesting phase in which the considered chiral gauge theory, for any N, Higgses via a bilinear condensate: The gauge interactions break spontaneously to ordinary massless one-flavor SU(3) QCD. The additional elementary fermionic matter is uncharged under this SU(3) gauge theory. It is also seen that when the number of colors reduce to three it is exactly this hidden QCD which is revealed.

Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco

2005-01-01

408

Hidden QCD in Chiral Gauge Theories  

CERN Multimedia

The 't Hooft and Corrigan-Ramond limits of massless one-flavor QCD consider the two Weyl fermions to be respectively in the fundamental representation or the two index antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. We introduce a limit in which one of the two Weyl fermions is in the fundamental representation and the other in the two index antisymmetric representation of a generic SU(N) gauge group. This theory is chiral and to avoid gauge anomalies a more complicated chiral theory is needed. This is the generalized Georgi-Glashow model with one vector like fermion. We show that there is an interesting phase in which the considered chiral gauge theory, for any N, Higgses via a bilinear condensate: The gauge interactions break spontaneously to ordinary massless one-flavor SU(3) QCD. The additional elementary fermionic matter is uncharged under this SU(3) gauge theory. It is also seen that when the number of colors reduce to three it is exactly this hidden QCD which is revealed.

Ryttov, T A; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco

2006-01-01

409

Strain gauge installation tool  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tool and a method for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool.

Conard, Lisa Marie (Swissvale, PA)

1998-01-01

410

Strain gauge installation tool  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tool and a method for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maintaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool.

Conard, Lisa Marie

1997-12-01

411

Non-minimal Gauge Mediation and Moduli Stabilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we consider U(1)-gauged Polony'i model with two spurions coupled to a twisted closed string modulus. This offers a consistent setup for metastable SUSY breakdown which allows for moduli stabilization and naturally leads to gauge or hybrid gauge/gravitational mediation mechanism. Due to the presence of the second spurion one can arrange for a solution of the \\mu and B_\\mu problems in a version of modified Giudice-Masiero mechanism, which works both in the limit ...

Jelinski, T.; Lalak, Z.; Pawelczyk, J.

2009-01-01

412

A first look at Weyl anomalies in shape dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the more popular objections towards shape dynamics is the suspicion that anomalies in the spatial Weyl symmetry will arise upon quantization. The purpose of this short paper is to establish the tools required for an investigation of the sort of anomalies that can possibly arise. The first step is to adapt to our setting Barnich and Henneaux's formulation of gauge cohomology in the Hamiltonian setting, which serve to decompose the anomaly into a spatial component and time component. The spatial part of the anomaly, i.e., the anomaly in the symmetry algebra itself ([?, ?] ? ? instead of vanishing) is given by a projection of the second ghost cohomology of the Hamiltonian BRST differential associated to ?, modulo spatial derivatives. The temporal part, [?, H] ? ? is given by a different projection of the first ghost cohomology and an extra piece arising from a solution to a functional differential equation. Assuming locality of the gauge cohomology groups involved, this part is always local. Assuming locality for the gauge cohomology groups, using Barnich and Henneaux's results, the classification of Weyl cohomology for higher ghost numbers performed by Boulanger, and following the descent equations, we find a complete characterizations of anomalies in 3+1 dimensions. The spatial part of the anomaly and the first component of the temporal anomaly are always local given these assumptions even in shape dynamics. The part emerging from the solution of the functional differential equations explicitly involves the shape dynamics Hamiltonian, and thus might be non-local. If one restricts this extra piece of the temporal anomaly to be also local, then overall no Weyl anomalies, either temporal or spatial, emerge in the 3+1 case.

Gomes, Henrique

2013-11-01

413

Gravitational Holography  

Science.gov (United States)

The asymptotic number of states in an appropriately defined region in any theory of quantum gravity which reduces to Einstein gravity at large distances is equal to one quarter of the area in Planck units. A non-redundant description therefore requires only a hologram at the boundary of the region. The holographic properties of the states in quantum gravity lead to a mixing of the usual concepts of ultraviolet and infrared. This mixing is at odds with various properties of local quantum field theory such as the Heisenberg uncertainty relation as well as the upper bound on the fixed angle inclusive cross section in very high energy collisions. The holographic properties of gravity also imply that quantum contributions to the vacuum energy are finite and parametrically at most of order the classical value from which the infrared curvature scale is determined. Gravitational holography therefore provides a technically natural solution to the cosmological constant problem which plaques any local quantum field theory description of gravity.

Thomas, Scott

2006-10-01

414

Perturbative BRST current algebra anomalies for the free bosonic string  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gauged version of the BRST symmetry for a general class of gauge-fixed actions for the bosonic string is used to study the possible anomalies of the corresponding BRST current algebra. One finds that they are rigidly linked to the trace anomaly of the initial theory. A similar analysis is performed for the BRST current algebra associated with the 'conformal-factorized theory' obtained by introducing Beltrami differentials. One finds that the factorization is maintained in the anomalous current algebra theory; again, all the current-algebra anomalies are rigidly linked to the 'holomorphy' anomaly. None of these current algebras is anomalous in the critical dimension.

Ader, J.P.; Bouda, A.; Wallet, J.C.

1988-12-08

415

Geometrical aspects of chiral anomalies in the overlap  

CERN Multimedia

The set of one dimensional lowest energy eigenspaces used to construct the overlap induces a two form on gauge orbit space which is the locally exact curl of Berry's connection. If anomalies do not cancel, examples of two dimensional closed sub-manifolds of orbit space are produced over which the integral of the above two form does not vanish. Based on these observations, a natural definition of covariant currents is obtained, a simple way to calculate chiral anomalies on the lattice is found, and indications for how to construct an ideal regularization of chiral gauge theories are seen to emerge.

Neuberger, H

1999-01-01

416

The quantization of the electric charge in gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantization of the electric charges of the gauge bosons, the Higgs bosons and the fermions in gauge theories was studied. The intimate relation of the quantization of the electric charge with the spontaneous symmetry breaking, anomaly cancellation and majorana mass of fermions was investigated. Specific examples for the standard model and the SU(5) X U(1)_Z model are discussed. It is found that in these models the electric charges of particles are dynamically quantized. 10 refs

1989-01-01

417

Supersymmetric gauge theories with a free algebra of invariants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the low-energy dynamics of all N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories whose basic gauge invariant fields are unconstrained. This set includes all theories whose matter Dynkin index is less than the index of the adjoint representation. We study the dynamically generated superpotential in these theories, and show that there is a W=0 branch if and only if anomaly matching is satisfied at the origin. An interesting example studied in detail is SO(13) with a spinor, a theory ...

Dotti, Gustavo; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Skiba, Witold

1998-01-01

418

Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings and the gauge hierarchy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gauge hierarchy problem is reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 39 refs

1990-06-03

419

Weyl-Gauging and Conformal Invariance  

CERN Document Server

Scale-invariant actions are investigated in curved space to clarify the relation between scale-, Weyl- and conformal invariance. The global Weyl-group is gauged. Then the class of actions is determined for which Weyl-gauging may be replaced by a suitable coupling to the curvature (Ricci gauging). It is shown that this class is exactly the class of actions which are conformally invariant in flat space. The procedure yields a simple algebraic criterion for conformal invariance and produces the improved energy-momentum tensor in conformally invariant theories in a systematic and elegant way. It also provides a simple and fundamental connection between Weyl-anomalies and central extensions in conformal field theories. The cases of spin zero, spin one-half and spin one theories are investigated for any dimension. An example of a quadratic action for which scale-invariance does not imply conformal invariance is given.

O'Raifeartaigh, Lochlainn; Wiesendanger, C

1996-01-01

420

Renormalization of gauge theories without cohomology  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the renormalization of gauge theories without assuming cohomological properties. We define a renormalization algorithm that preserves the Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation at each step and automatically extends the classical action till it contains sufficiently many independent parameters to reabsorb all divergences into parameter-redefinitions and canonical transformations. The construction is then generalized to the master functional and the field-covariant proper formalism for gauge theories. Our results hold in all manifestly anomaly-free gauge theories, power-counting renormalizable or not. The extension algorithm allows us to solve a quadratic problem, such as finding a sufficiently general solution of the master equation, even when it is not possible to reduce it to a linear (cohomological) problem.

Anselmi, Damiano

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
421

Vanishing of the chiral anomaly for antisymmetric tensor field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gauge antisymmetric tensor field (which is equivalent to a massless scalar field on-mass-shell). It is demonstarted that the total chiral current which accounts for the cirality of the vector ghost fields does not possess anomaly. The relation between the number of zero modes of the antisymmetric tensor field and the anomaly in the chiral current of the vector field is also analyzed

1988-01-01

422

Classical geometrical interpretation of ghost fields and anomalies in Yang-Mills theory and quantum gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reinterpretation of the BRS equations of Quantum Field Theory as the Maurer Cartan equation of a classical principal fiber bundle leads to a simple gauge invariant classification of the anomalies in Yang Mills theory and gravity

1985-03-28

423

Bourdon Tube Gauge  

Science.gov (United States)

A Bourdon tube gauge animation. The objective is to describe how a Bourdon Tube Gauge measures vacuum. This simulation is from Module 101 of the vacuum technology and gas control cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML).

2011-07-14

424

Gauging quantum states  

CERN Document Server

We present a mapping of quantum many body states with a global symmetry to states with local gauge symmetry. The prescription implements the principle of minimal coupling at the level of individual quantum states as opposed to Hamiltonians or Lagrangians. Using the formalism of projected entangled-pair states (PEPS), we construct an associated gauging map for Hamiltonians and show how this results in a frustration free gauge theory Hamiltonian. This procedure reproduces the minimal coupling scheme for the matter terms and automatically generates gauge dynamics closely related to the Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian at zero coupling constant. We can then introduce gauge dynamics at finite values of the coupling constant by applying a local filtering operation. The gauging procedure transforms an injective PEPS for the matter fields into a G-injective PEPS for the combined gauge-matter system, which potentially has topological order. This scheme results in a low-parameter family of gauge invariant states of which we ...

Haegeman, Jutho; Schuch, Norbert; Cirac, J Ignacio; Verstraete, Frank

2014-01-01

425

On the localization of the gravitational energy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Using a formalism introduced by Feynman, Deser, Grishchuk, Petrov and Popova, the pseudotensors, such as de.ned by Einstein, Tolman, Landau/Lifshitz and Møller, are expessed as gauge dependent tensors in a background space, as the gravitational energy-momentum tensor of Deser, Grishchuk, Petrov and [...] Popova. Using a result obtained by Virbhadra for the energy density in the Reissner-Nordström spacetime, it is shown that the action of these gauge transformations on the above tensorial expressions is the same as the action of the coordinate transformations on the equivalent pseudotensorial expressions, meaning that these tensors can be set to zero at a point by a suitable choice of gauge transformation.

N., Pinto Neto; P. I., Trajtenberg.

426

Gauge Mediation in Supergravity and Gravitino Dark Matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gravitinos and hidden sector fields often cause a cosmological disaster in supersymmetric models. We find that a model with gravitational gauge mediation solves such a problem quite naturally. The (mu)-problem is also absent in the model. Moreover, the ab...

M. Ibe R. Kitano

2006-01-01

427

Gauged Galileons From Branes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show how the coupling of SO(N) gauge fields to galileons arises from a probe brane construction. The galileons arise from the brane bending modes of a brane probing a co-dimension N bulk, and the gauge fields arise by turning on certain off-diagonal components in the zero mode of the bulk metric. By construction, the equations of motion for both the galileons and gauge fields remain second order. Covariant gauged galileons are derived as well.

Goon, Garrett; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin; Trodden, Mark

2011-01-01

428

Gauged galileons from branes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show how the coupling of SO(N) gauge fields to galileons arises from a probe brane construction. The galileons arise from the brane bending modes of a brane probing a co-dimension N bulk, and the gauge fields arise by turning on certain off-diagonal components in the zero mode of the bulk metric. By construction, the equations of motion for both the galileons and gauge fields remain second order. Covariant gauged galileons are derived as well.

Goon, Garrett L.; Hinterbichler, Kurt [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Joyce, Austin, E-mail: joyceau@sas.upenn.edu [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Trodden, Mark [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

2012-07-24

429

The use of finite energy sum rules for the calculation of the induced gravitational constant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use the finite energy sum rules for the calculation of the induced gravitational constant in gauge theories of the QCD type. The induced gravitational constant is determined by the gluon vacuum condensate. Namely, (16?Gsub(ind))-1=(11/576?)2>sup(1/2). (orig.)

1985-10-31

430

The use of finite energy sum rules for the calculation of the induced gravitational constant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors use the finite energy sum rules for the calculation of the induced gravitational constant in gauge theories of the QCD type. The induced gravitational constant is determined by the gluon vacuum condensate. Namely, (16?G/sub ind/)/sup -1/ = (11/576?) /sup 1/2/ for the QCD with eta/sub f/=3 massless quarks

1985-01-01

431

The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP-violation, the Witten effect [a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP-non-conservation] is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a theta R-tilde R term in the Lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (author)

1984-01-01

432

The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (orig.)

1985-07-22

433

Gravitational analogue of the Witten effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.

Foda, O. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

1985-07-22

434

The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect  

Science.gov (United States)

In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing ?-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of ? R˜ R term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to ?. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.

Foda, Omar

435

Gauge Gravity: a forward-looking introduction  

CERN Document Server

This article is a review of modern approaches to gravity that treat the gravitational interaction as a type of gauge theory. The purpose of the article is twofold. First, it is written in a colloquial style and is intended to be a pedagogical introduction to the gauge approach to gravity. I begin with a review of the Einstein-Cartan formulation of gravity, move on to the Macdowell-Mansouri approach, then show how gravity can be viewed as the symmetry broken phase of an (A)dS-gauge theory. This covers roughly the first half of the article. Armed with these tools, the remainder of the article is geared toward new insights and new lines of research that can be gained by viewing gravity from this perspective. Drawing from familiar concepts from the symmetry broken gauge theories of the standard model, we show how the topological structure of the gauge group allows for an infinite class of new solutions to the Einstein-Cartan field equations that can be thought of as degenerate ground states of the theory. We argu...

Randono, Andrew

2010-01-01

436

Anomaly Cancellation and Modularity. II: $E_8\\times E_8$ case  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we show that both of the Green-Schwarz anomaly factorization formula for the gauge group $E_8\\times E_8$ and the Ho\\v{r}ava-Witten anomaly factorization formula for the gauge group $E_8$ can be derived through modular forms of weight 14. This answers a question of J. H. Schwarz. We also establish generalizations of these factorization formulas and obtain a new Ho\\v{r}ava-Witten type factorization formula.

Han, Fei; Zhang, Weiping

2012-01-01

437

Scale Invariant Theory of Gravitation in Einstein-Rosen Space-Time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the perfect fluid distribution in the scale invariant theory of gravitation, when the space-time described by Einstein-Rosen metric with a time dependent gauge function. The cosmological equations for this space-time with gauge function are solved and some physical properties of the model are studied.

Pradyumn Kumar Sahoo

2010-09-01

438

Some Friedmann cosmological solutions in the scale covariant theory of gravitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scale covariant theory of gravity admits the possibility of a time varying gravitational constant but contains a gauge function for which there is no independent equation. The circumstances under which explicit forms for a gauge function may be derived within the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models are investigated and several forms are derived.

Aroonkumar Beesham

1991-06-01

439

Numerically generated black-hole spacetimes: Interaction with gravitational waves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present results from a new two-dimensional numerical relativity code used to study the interaction of gravitational waves with a black hole. The initial data correspond to a single black hole superimposed with time-symmetric gravitational waves (Brill waves). A gauge-invariant method is presented for extracting the gravitational waves from the numerically generated spacetime. We show that the interaction between the gravitational wave and the black hole excites the quasinormal modes of the black hole. An extensive comparison of these results is made to black-hole perturbation theory. For low-amplitude initial gravitational waves, we find excellent agreement between the theoretically predicted scrl=2 and scrl=4 wave forms and the wave forms generated by the code. Additionally, a code test is performed wherein the propagation of the wave on the black-hole background is compared to the evolution predicted by perturbation theory

1992-05-15

440

Applications of noncovariant gauges in the algebraic renormalization procedure  

CERN Multimedia

This volume is a natural continuation of the book Algebraic Renormalization, Perturbative Renormalization, Symmetries and Anomalies, by O Piguet and S P Sorella, with the aim of applying the algebraic renormalization procedure to gauge field models quantized in nonstandard gauges. The main ingredient of the algebraic renormalization program is the quantum action principle, which allows one to control in a unique manner the breaking of a symmetry induced by a noninvariant subtraction scheme. In particular, the volume studies in-depth the following quantized gauge field models: QED, Yang-Mills t

Boresch, A; Schweda, Manfred

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Gamma rays and positrons from a decaying hidden gauge boson  

CERN Document Server

We study a scenario that a hidden gauge boson constitutes the dominant component of dark matter and decays into the standard model particles through a gauge kinetic mixing. Interestingly, gamma rays and positrons produced from the decay of hidden gauge boson can explain both the EGRET excess of diffuse gamma rays and the HEAT anomaly in the positron fraction. The spectra of the gamma rays and the positrons have distinctive features; the absence of line emission of the gamma ray and a sharp peak in the positron fraction. Such features may be observed by the GLAST and PAMELA satellites.

Chen, Chuan-Ren; Yanagida, T T

2008-01-01

442

Interpolating Axial Anomaly Induced Amplitudes  

CERN Multimedia

We propose an interpolating formula for the amplitude induced by the axial anomaly, concentrating on the $\\pi^0\\gamma^{\\ast}\\gamma^{\\ast}$ transition form factor. The QCD corrections to this amplitude are generally described by two major contributions coming from the $q\\bar{q}$ bound state and the background continuous spectrum, respectively. For the first contribution, we include the lowest vector bound state using the realization of the dynamical gauge boson of hidden local symmetry. The second contribution is included as the triangle quark loop in which a constituent mass is adopted as a internal quark mass and the amplitudes are smeared out around the threshold. Using the resulting form factor, we fit the experimental data for the $\\pi^0\\gamma$ and the $\\omega\\pi^0$ transition form factors and show that our result describes the experimental data well.

Bando, M; Bando, Masako; Harada, Masayasu

1994-01-01

443

Geometric gauge unification of the four fundamental interactions of elementary particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high-dimensional unified field theory of all fundamental forces between elementary particles is formulated with emphasis on the gauge theoretic treatment of gravitation. Firstly, the de Sitter gauge theory of gravitation is incorporated into the Kaluza-Klein scheme. The global SO(4,1) symmetry requirement leads to a uniformly curved spacetime, whereas the localization of the symmetry results in a generally curved ten-dimensional geometry. Gravitation is then described by the gauge fields A/sub ?//sup a/ as well as the metric fields g/sub ? nu/. The dual description of the gravitational fields is essential in casting the gauge theory of gravitation into the Kaluza-Klein scheme. On the other hand, this formulation brings about the Yang term as a source to Einstein's field equation. A test particle placed in this gravitational geometry is found not to follow a geodesic path in spacetime. This dilemma may be resolved by requiring that the gravitational charge, an analogue of the electric charge, carried by the particle is always zero. In fact, with this requirement and a built-in constraint in the 10-dimensional geometry, the contribution from the Yang term vanishes identically. Thus, secondly, a unified treatment of all fundamental forces is developed by extending the Kaluza-Klein scheme to a (10 + n)-dimensional scheme. Upon localization of the de Sitter symmetry, the Lorentz group SO(3,1) has locally been preserved

1982-01-01

444

On the gauge aspects of gravity  

CERN Document Server

We give a short outline, in Sec.\\ 2, of the historical development of the gauge idea as applied to internal (U(1),\\, SU(2),\\dots) and external (R^4,\\,SO(1,3),\\dots) symmetries and stress the fundamental importance of the corresponding conserved currents. In Sec.\\ 3, experimental results with neutron interferometers in the gravitational field of the earth, as inter- preted by means of the equivalence principle, can be predicted by means of the Dirac equation in an accelerated and rotating reference frame. Using the Dirac equation in such a non-inertial frame, we describe how in a gauge- theoretical approach (see Table 1) the Einstein-Cartan theory, residing in a Riemann-Cartan spacetime encompassing torsion and curvature, arises as the simplest gravitational theory. This is set in contrast to the Einsteinian approach yielding general relativity in a Riemannian spacetime. In Secs.\\ 4 and 5 we consider the conserved energy-momentum current of matter and gauge the associated translation subgroup. The Einsteinian ...

Gronwald, F

1996-01-01

445

Elliptic operators in the functional quantisation for gauge field theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given a gauge theory with gauge group G acting on a path space X, G and X being both infinite dimensional manifolds modelled on spaces of sections of vector bundles on a compact riemannian manifold without boundary, it is shown that when the action of G on X is smooth, free and proper, the same ellipticity condition on an operator naturally given by the geometry of the problem yields both the existence of a principal fibre bundle structure induced by the canonical projection ?:X ? X/G and the existence of the Faddeev-Popov determinant arising in the functional quantisation of the gauge theory. This holds for certain gauge theories with anomalies like bosonic closed string theory in non-critical dimension and also holds for a class of gauge theories which includes Yang-Mills theory. (orig.)

1994-01-01

446

Anomalies of nuclear criticality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the development of nuclear energy, a number of apparent anomalies have become evident in nuclear criticality. Some of these have appeared in the open literature and some have not. Yet, a naive extrapolation or application of existing data, without knowledge of the anomalies, could lead to potentially serious consequences. This report discusses several of these anomalies.

Clayton, E.D.

1979-06-01

447

Gauge-Fixing and Residual Symmetries in Gauge/Gravity Theories with Extra Dimensions  

CERN Document Server

We study compactified pure gauge/gravitational theories with gauge-fixing terms and show that these theories possess quantum mechanical SUSY-like symmetries between unphysical degrees of freedom. These residual symmetries are global symmetries and generated by quantum mechanical N=2 supercharges. Also, we establish new one-parameter family of gauge choices for higher-dimensional gravity, and calculate as a check of its validity one graviton exchange amplitude in the lowest tree-level approximation. We confirm that the result is indeed $\\xi$-independent and the cancellation of the $\\xi$-dependence is ensured by the residual symmetries. We also give a simple interpretation of the vDVZ-discontinuity, which arises in the lowest tree-level approximation, from the supersymmetric point of view.

Lim, C S; Ohya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sakamoto, Makoto

2008-01-01

448

Metric Perturbation Approach to Gravitational Waves in Isotropic Cosmologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gravitational waves in isotropic cosmologies were recently studied using the gauge-invariant approach of Ellis-Bruni. We now construct the linearised metric perturbations of the background Robertson-Walker space-time which reproduce the results obtained in that study. The analysis carried out here also facilitates an easy comparison with Bardeen.

O Shea, E. M.

2004-01-01

449

Gravitational radiation and relativity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents papers on general relativity and the theory of gravitational fields. Topics considered include gravitational antennas, the structure of the terrestrial planets and tidal friction theory, physical symmetry groups, gravitational collapse, rotation, the Hubble diagram, the problems of cosmology, electromagnetic radiation, and coordinate transformations

1986-01-01

450

Detection of gravitational radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI)

1994-05-24

451

Gravitation in Material Media  

Science.gov (United States)

When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…

Ridgely, Charles T.

2011-01-01

452

Gauge covariance in non-Abelian gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manifestly Lorentz- and gauge-covariant formulation of the canonical Yang-Mills field theory is presented. It is exhibited that a local gauge transformation forms an invariant gauge family to which relevant one-parameter gauges belong. Gauge symmetries prescribed by the theory are realized by combination of a non-Abelian global gauge transformation and an Abelian local gauge transformation. A renormalization scheme is developed in connection with problems inherent in the theory. (author)

1980-01-01

453

II - Conservation of Gravitational Energy Momentum and Poincare-Covariant Classical Theory of Gravitation  

CERN Document Server

Viewing gravitational energy-momentum $p_G^\\mu$ as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energy-momentum $p_I^\\mu$ naturally leads to the gauge theory of volume-preserving diffeormorphisms of an inner Minkowski space ${\\bf M}^{\\sl 4}$. To extract its physical content the full gauge group is reduced to its Poincar\\'e subgroup. The respective Poincar\\'e gauge fields, field strengths and Poincar\\'e-covariant field equations are obtained and point-particle source currents are derived. The resulting set of non-linear field equations coupled to point matter is solved in first order resulting in Lienard-Wiechert-like potentials for the Poincar\\'e fields. After numerical identification of gravitational and inertial energy-momentum Newton's inverse square law for gravity in the static non-relativistic limit is recovered. The Weak Equivalence Principle in this approximation is proven to be valid and spacetime geometry in the presence of Poincar\\'e fields is shown to be curved. Finally, the gravit...

Wiesendanger, C

2011-01-01

454

Dimensional regularization and ?"5. The spurious anomalies problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A change of principles of operation with external diagram pulses ia proposed in dimensional regularization with four-dimensional ?"5-matrix. It is shown that in this case for Abelian gauge theories in one-loop approximation false axial anomalies do not appear. 10 refs

1989-01-01

455

Vacuum stability bounds on higgs mass with gravitational contributions  

Science.gov (United States)

We calculate the gravitational contributions to ?4 theory with general R? gauge-fixing choice and find that the result is gauge independent. Based on weak coupling expansion of gravity and ignoring the possible higher dimensional operators from "integrating out" the impact of gravity, we study the impacts of gravitational effects on vacuum stability. New contributions to the beta function of scalar quartic coupling ? by gravitational effects can modify the RGE running of ? near the Planck scale. Numerical calculations show that the lower bound of higgs mass requiring absolutely vacuum stability can be relaxed for almost 0.6 to 0.8 GeV depending on the choice of top quark mass.

Wang, Fei

2014-07-01

456

Soft photon anomaly and gauge/string duality  

CERN Multimedia

Motivated by the recent DELPHI report on the anomalous photon production in e^+e^- annihilation, we exactly calculate the inclusive cross section of soft photons in the strong coupling limit of N=4 super Yang-Mills. We find that the energy distribution is that of the Bremsstrahlung, while the angular distribution is spherical. Our result elucidates a new non-perturbative source of soft photons not associated with the final state hadronic Bremsstrahlung.

Hatta, Yoshitaka

2010-01-01

457

Equivalence principle and the gauge hierarchy problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the gauge hierarchy problem can be solved in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity very much in the same way as it is solved in the Randall-Sundrum scenario. Our solution involves a fine-tuning of the gravitational sector which can, however, be avoided if a supergravity extension of the dilaton sector is considered. However our mechanism does not require the introduction of extra dimensions or new physics strongly coupled to the standard model in the low energy regime. We do introduce a new scalar field which is, however, coupled only gravitationally to regular matter. The physical reason for the splitting between the weak scale and the Planck scale is a violation of Einstein's equivalence principle

2008-02-15

458

Gravitational science with LISA Pathfinder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate the potential of conducting interesting gravitational science experiments with LISA Pathfinder, by executing well defined de-orbiting manoeuvres following the nominal mission. Preliminary work suggests that the residual control authority of the micropropulsion system is sufficient to follow trajectories that cross the region surrounding the Sun-Earth saddle point, and also include one or multiple Earth flybys. Crossing the saddle point region may allow tests of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), while the flybys may potentially shed some light on the so-called flyby anomaly. We present some sample trajectories and discuss the limitations of the current model. Finally, we discuss the work required to take these ideas from the proof of principle presented here, to a concrete proposal for an extended mission.

Trenkel, C; Kemble, S, E-mail: christian.trenkel@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium Ltd, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2AS (United Kingdom)

2009-03-01

459

Gauge field models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stora's analysis is continued in discussing the nonabelian (Yang-Mills) gauge field models (G.F.M.). The gauge independence of the physical scattering operator is discussed in some details and the connection between its unitary and the Slavnov symmetry outlined. Only the models involving semisimple gauge groups are considered. This greatly simplifies the analysis of the possible quantum corrections to the Quantum Action Principle which is reduced to the study of the cohomology group of the Lie algebra characterizing the gauge theory. The discussion is at the classical level for the algebraic properties of the SU(2) Higgs-Kibble-Englert-Brout-Faddeev-Popov lagrangian and its invariance under Slavnov identity transformations is exhibited. The renormalization of the Slavnov identity in the G.M.F. involving semisimple gauge groups is studied. The unitary and gauge independence of the physical S operator in the SU(2) H.K. model is dealt with

1975-08-17

460

Invariant regularization of anomaly-free chiral theories  

CERN Document Server

We present a generalization of the Frolov-Slavnov invariant regularization scheme for chiral fermion theories in curved spacetimes. The Lagrangian level regularization is explicitly invariant under all the local gauge symmetries of the theory, including local Lorentz invariance. The perturbative scheme works for {\\it arbitrary} representations which satisfy the chiral gauge anomaly and mixed Lorentz-gauge anomaly cancellation conditions. Anomalous theories on the other hand manifest themselves by having divergent fermion loops which remain unregularized by the scheme. Since the invariant scheme is promoted to also include local Lorentz invariance, spectator fields which do not couple to gravity cannot be, and are not, introduced. Furthermore, the scheme is truly Weyl(chiral) in that {\\it all} fields, including the regulators, are left-handed; and {\\it only the left-handed spin connection} is needed. The scheme is therefore well-suited for the perturbative study of all four known forces in a completely chiral ...

Chang, L N; Chang, Lay Nam; Soo, Chopin

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
461

Short distance properties of cascading gauge theories  

CERN Document Server

We study the short distance (large momentum) properties of correlation functions of cascading gauge theories by performing a tree-level computation in their dual gravitational background. We prove that these theories are holographically renormalizable; the correlators have only analytic ultraviolet divergences, which may be removed by appropriate local counterterms. We find that n-point correlation functions of properly normalized operators have the expected scaling in the semi-classical gravity (large N) limit: they scale as N_{eff}^{2-n} with N_{eff} proportional to ln(k/Lambda) where k is a typical momentum. Our analysis thus confirms the interpretation of the cascading gauge theories as renormalizable four-dimensional quantum field theories with an effective number of degrees of freedom which logarithmically increases with the energy.

Aharony, O; Yarom, A; Aharony, Ofer; Buchel, Alex; Yarom, Amos

2006-01-01

462

Gauged supergravities from Bianchi's group manifolds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We construct maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities by the reduction of D 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds. Such manifolds are classified into two classes, A and B, and eleven types. This Bianchi classification carries over to the gauged supergravities. The class A theories have 1/2 BPS domain wall solutions that uplift to purely gravitational solutions consisting of 7D Minkowski and a 4D Euclidean geometry. These geometries are generically singular. The two regular exceptions correspond to the near-horizon limit of the single- or double-centre Kaluza-Klein monopole. In contrast, the class B supergravities are defined by a set of equations of motion that cannot be integrated to an action and allow for no 1/2 BPS domain walls

2004-05-21

463

Gauge Convariance in Non-Abelian Gauge Theories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manifestly Lorentz- and gauge-covariant formulation of the canonical Yang-Mills field theory is presented. It is exhibited that a local gauge transformation forms an invariant gauge family to which relevant one-parameter gauges belong. Gauge symmetries pr...

K. Yokoyama

1980-01-01

464

Introduction to gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These lecture notes contain the text of five lectures and a Supplement. The lectures were given at the JINR-CERN School of Physics, Tabor, Czechoslovakia, 5-18 June 1983. The subgect of the lecinvariancetures: gauge of electromagnetic and weak interactions, higgs and supersymmetric particles. The Supplement contains reprints (or excerpts) of some classical papers on gauge invariance by V. Fock, F. London, O. Klein and H. Weyl, in which the concept of gauge invariance was introduced and developed

1984-01-01

465

Gauge-fixing problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the gauge theory the conventional Faddeev-Popov's gauge-fixing procedure is shown to be ambiguous even in the Abelian case, and a unique treatment of this procedure is presented. Using this newly proposed procedure, gauge-independent results are given in both Abelian and non-Abelian cases. Especially, in the two space-time dimensions, it is found that the Gribov ambiguity quite drastically changes the whole result.

Shigemoto, K. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics)

1979-08-21

466

Manifestly gauge invariant QED  

CERN Multimedia

We uncover a method of calculation that proceeds at every step without fixing the gauge or specifying details of the regularisation scheme. Results are obtained by iterated use of integration by parts and gauge invariance identities. Calculations can be performed almost entirely diagrammatically. The method is formulated within the framework of an exact renormalisation group for QED. We demonstrate the technique with a calculation of the one-loop beta function, achieving a manifestly universal result, and without gauge fixing.

Arnone, S; Rosten, O J; CERN. Geneva; Arnone, Stefano; Morris, Tim R.; Rosten, Oliver J.

2005-01-01

467

Manifestly gauge invariant QED  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We uncover a method of calculation that proceeds at every step without fixing the gauge or specifying details of the regularisation scheme. Results are obtained by iterated use of integration by parts and gauge invariance identities. Calculations can be performed almost entirely diagrammatically. The method is formulated within the framework of an exact renormalisation group for QED. We demonstrate the technique with a calculation of the one-loop beta function, achieving a manifestly universal result, and without gauge fixing

2005-10-01

468

Manifestly gauge invariant QED  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We uncover a method of calculation that proceeds at every step without fixing the gauge or specifying details of the regularisation scheme. Results are obtained by iterated use of integration by parts and gauge invariance identities. Calculations can be performed almost entirely diagrammatically. The method is formulated within the framework of an exact renormalisation group for QED. We demonstrate the technique with a calculation of the one-loop beta function, achieving a manifestly universal result, and without gauge fixing.

Arnone, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro, 2 - 00185 Rome (Italy); Morris, Tim R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rosten, Oliver J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2005-10-15

469

Primordial magnetic seed field amplification by gravitational waves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using second-order gauge-invariant perturbation theory, a self-consistent framework describing the nonlinear coupling between gravitational waves and a large-scale homogeneous magnetic field is presented. It is shown how this coupling may be used to amplify seed magnetic fields to strengths needed to support the galactic dynamo. In situations where the gravitational wave background is described by an 'almost' Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology we find that the magnitude of the original magnetic field is amplified by an amount proportional to the magnitude of the gravitational wave induced shear anisotropy and the square of the field's initial comoving scale. We apply this mechanism to the case where the seed field and gravitational wave background are produced during inflation and find that the magnitude of the gravitational boost depends significantly on the manner in which the estimate of the shear anisotropy at the end of inflation is calculated. Assuming a seed field of 10-34 G spanning a comoving scale of about 10 kpc today, the shear anisotropy at the end of inflation must be at least as large as 10-40 in order to obtain a generated magnetic field of the same order of magnitude as the original seed. Moreover, contrasting the weak-field approximation to our gauge-invariant approach, we find that while both methods agree in the limit of high conductivity, their corresponding solutions are otherwise only compatible in the limit of infinitely long-wavelength gravitational waves

2005-12-15

470

Extended global symmetries of the bosonic string. Their current algebra and anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantization of the bosonic string is discussed in a class of general homogeneous gauges. The corresponding bosonic string model may be characterized effectively by three global symmetries: the linearized BRS symmetry, the ghost-number symmetry, and the Lagrange-multiplier-field symmetry. In order to discuss the possible gauge (in)dependence of Noether currents and anomalies consistently, we enlarge these rigid symmetries to extended ones. In addition we construct the local version of the above global symmetries in a systematic way, by introducing appropriate external gauge fields. The possible anomalies are analysed with the help of Wess-Zumino consistency relations. (orig.).