Topological meaning of gauge and gravitational anomalies and Gaussian factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss a relation between the 2n-dimensional anomalies and the (2n+2)-dimensional chiral anomalies using the Gaussian factor (heat kernel) regularization. Recently, it was shown that Fujikawa's form of the non-Abelian anomaly is related to a topological object in a direct manner. Their argument seems general and independent of concrete forms of index, anomaly and other details of models. In this paper we extend the analysis to the V, A coupling gauge theories, the gravitational theory and also to the open superstring theory. In application to the gravitational anomaly, we obtain a family of consistent anomalies from the higher dimensional index, which are all equivalent to Fujikawa's form. Our construction of gravitational anomalies leads naturally to counterterms which relate different forms of anomalies to one another. In the case of Type-I superstring theory in 10 dimensions, we show that the gauge anomaly in this theory is related to a index of a kind of Dirac operator in 12 dimensions. Our consideration might provide hints to geometrical understanding of string anomaly. (author)
Two dimensional hydrodynamics with gauge and gravitational anomalies
Banerjee, Rabin; Dey, Shirsendu; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Mitra, Arpan Krishna
2013-01-01
We present new findings in two dimensional chiral and non-chiral hydrodynamics with gauge and gravitational anomalies. Exact constitutive relations for the stress tensor and charge current are obtained. These relations involve arbitrary constants that may be fixed by choosing appropriate boundary conditions corresponding to different vacuum states. For the chiral theory, the constitutive relations may be put in the ideal (chiral) fluid form. For the non-chiral case, the constitutive relations take the ideal fluid form only for the Boulware vacuum. Finally, we make a comparison with the derivative expansion approach.
Gauge and Gravitational Anomalies and Hawking Radiation of Rotating BTZ Black Holes
Setare, M. R.
2006-01-01
In this paper we obtain the flux of Hawking radiation from Rotating BTZ black holes from gauge and gravitational anomalies point of view. Then we show that the gauge and gravitational anomaly in the BTZ spacetime is cancelled by the total flux of a 2-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature of the spacetime.
Gravitational Anomaly and Transport
Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-01-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In quantum systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom loop corrections may break symmetries of original Lagrangian. This phenomenon, referred to as quantum anomaly, appears to be due to the need of regularization, i.e., the definition of the theory in ultraviolet domain. Such a definition unavoidably contradicts certain symmetries of the classical theory. In particular, it leads to nonconservation of the corresponding Noether currents. In the present review the origin of anomalies and their role in the structure of modern field-theoretical models are discussed. Anomalies in internal currents of gauge theories are of special importance. They may induce a loss of invariance with respect to either infinitesimal or global gauge transformations, resulting in nonself-contented theory. Anomaly cancellation condition severely restricts the field content and the choice of interactions in realistic models. The methods of anomally calculations are discussed in details. The special attention is played to nonconservation of axial and chiral fermionic currents. The elementary concept of the hierarchy of anomalies is presented. A special section treats global anomalies, in particular the Witten's SU(2) one, and analogous phenomenon in odd-dimensional Yang-Mills theories
Gravitational Anomaly and Transport
Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-benitez, Francisco
2011-01-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational ...
Blagojevic?, Milutin; Hehl, Friedrich W.
2012-01-01
During the last five decades, gravity, as one of the fundamental forces of nature, has been formulated as a gauge field theory of the Weyl-Cartan-Yang-Mills type. The resulting theory, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity, encompasses Einstein's gravitational theory as well as the teleparallel theory of gravity as subcases. In general, the spacetime structure is enriched by Cartan's torsion and the new theory can accommodate fermionic matter and its spin in a perfectly nat...
Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Second Order Transport and Gravitational Anomaly*,**
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Megías Eugenio
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We study the transport properties of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies. The computation is performed in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence for a 5 dim holographic model with Chern-Simons terms in the action. We find new anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients, as well as new contributions to the existing ones coming from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. Consequences for the shear waves dispersion relation are analyzed.
Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.
Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-07-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593
Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.
Anomaly Cancellation Condition in Lattice Gauge Theory
Suzuki, Hiroshi
2000-01-01
We study the gauge anomaly ${\\cal A}$ defined on a 4-dimensional infinite lattice while keeping the lattice spacing finite. We assume that (I) ${\\cal A}$ depends smoothly and locally on the gauge potential, (II) ${\\cal A}$ reproduces the gauge anomaly in the continuum theory in the classical continuum limit, and (III) U(1) gauge anomalies have a topological property. It is then shown that the gauge anomaly ${\\cal A}$ can always be removed by local counterterms to all orders ...
Konishi anomaly approach to gravitational F-terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study gravitational corrections to the effective superpotential in theories with a single adjoint chiral multiplet, using the generalized Konishi anomaly and the gravitationally deformed chiral ring. We show that the genus one correction to the loop equation in the corresponding matrix model agrees with the gravitational corrected anomaly equations in the gauge theory. An important ingredient in the proof is the lack of factorization of chiral gauge invariant operators in presence of a supergravity background. We also find a genus zero gravitational correction to the superpotential, which can be removed by a field redefinition. (author)
Kahn's anomaly approach to gravitational F-terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study gravitational corrections to the effective superpotential in theories with a single adjoint chiral multiplet, using the generalized Konishi anomaly and the gravitationally deformed chiral ring. We show that the genus one correction to the loop equation in the corresponding matrix model agrees with the gravitational corrected anomaly equations in the gauge theory. An important ingredient in the proof is the lack of factorization of chiral gauge invariant operators in presence of a supergravity background. We also find a genus zero gravitational correction to the superpotential, which can be removed by a field redefinition. (author)
Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena
Landsteiner, Karl
2011-01-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficie...
Holographic Gravitational Anomaly and Chiral Vortical Effect
Landsteiner, Karl; Melgar, Luis; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-01-01
We analyze a holographic model with a pure gauge and a mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term in the action. These are the holographic implementations of the usual chiral and the mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies in four dimensional field theories with chiral fermions. We discuss the holographic renormalization and show that the gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term does not induce new divergences. In order to cancel contributions from the extrinsic curvature at a boundary at finite distance a new type of counterterm has to be added however. This counterterm can also serve to make the Dirichlet problem well defined in case the gauge field strength vanishes on the boundary. A charged asymptotically AdS black hole is a solution to the theory and as an application we compute the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical conductivities via Kubo formulas. We find that the characteristic term proportional to T^2 is present also at strong coupling and that its numerical value is not renormalized compared to the wea...
Blagojevi?, Milutin
2012-01-01
During the last five decades, gravity, as one of the fundamental forces of nature, has been formulated as a gauge field theory of the Weyl-Cartan-Yang-Mills type. The resulting theory, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity, encompasses Einstein's gravitational theory as well as the teleparallel theory of gravity as subcases. In general, the spacetime structure is enriched by Cartan's torsion and the new theory can accommodate fermionic matter and its spin in a perfectly natural way. The present reprint volume contains articles from the most prominent proponents of the theory and is supplemented by detailed commentaries of the editors. This guided tour starts from special relativity and leads, in its first part, to general relativity and its gauge type extensions a la Weyl and Cartan. Subsequent stopping points are the theories of Yang-Mills and Utiyama and, as a particular vantage point, the theory of Sciama and Kibble. Later, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory and its generalizations are explored and specific topi...
Review on possible gravitational anomalies
Amador, X E
2005-01-01
This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15).
Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The book concludes with thirteen appendices, covering mainly technical issues but also including Ashtekhar variables and Chern-Simons theory. Irritatingly, there is a separate bibliography for each chapter (which leads to much duplication) but commendably, the author highlights selected sources for suitable further reading. Also to be welcomed wholeheartedly are well-chosen worked examples and exercises, ranging from easy to fairly challenging, in each chapter. This is aly challenging, in each chapter. This is a properly bound paperback, hardly inexpensive, but well up to IOP's impeccable production standards. Could this be the ideal textbook for a research student or even an established researcher from another field to pick up the latest developments in field theory? Unfortunately this is not the whole story. The back cover also asserts, while talking about gauge invariance, that 'It is less known that the principle of equivalence, one of the basic dynamical properties of the gravitational interaction, can be expressed as a (spacetime) gauge symmetry'. On page 10 this is qualified to be a local symmetry. On pages 62-3 this hidden result is revealed. As every relativist knows, the principle of equivalence implies that for each spacetime point p a chart (normal coordinates at p) can be chosen so that the metric tensor takes its Minkowski value and its (partial) derivatives vanish at p. In other words every (pseudo-)Riemannian manifold is locally flat, the 'less known' result. So what else can the author tell us about gravity? There is little to fault in the first two sections of the book, trying to express gravity as a nonlinear spin-2 theory on Minkowski spacetime, apart from the obvious objection. A well-known and highly-recommendable textbook by S Weinberg 1972 Gravitation and Cosmology (New York: Wiley), carries out, at a more elementary level, a similar programme with the same defect. Such local theories cannot predict global changes whereby spacetime has a different topology to the Minkowski one. (The unconvinced reader should investigate references to black holes in Weinberg's text.) As speaker after speaker at the S W Hawking 60th Birthday Conference last week emphasized, when trying to unify gravity with quantum theory, it is perilous to neglect geometry. Because the later chapters on supersymmetry, supergravity, Kaluza-Klein and string theories are more fashionable, I need to point out an important caveat. Excluding textbooks and conference volumes, all (English language) citations in the supersymmetry/supergravity chapter are at least 16 years old. Apart from one 2000 article (on teleparallel theory) this age gap drops by three years for the chapter on Kaluza-Klein theory, and it does not change any further for the string theory chapter. There have been more recent significant advances in our understanding and interpretation of these theories but, alas, they are not chronicled here. I raised a question as to the value of this book at the end of the first paragraph, and I want to answer it within the context of the
Anomaly cancellation condition in lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that, to all orders of powers of the gauge potential, a gauge anomaly ? defined on 4-dimensional infinite lattice can always be removed by a local counterterm, provided that ? depends smoothly and locally on the gauge potential and that ? reproduces the gauge anomaly in the continuum theory in the classical continuum limit: The unique exception is proportional to the anomaly in the continuum theory. This follows from an analysis of nontrivial local solutions to the Wess-Zumino consistency condition in lattice gauge theory. Our result is applicable to the lattice chiral gauge theory based on the Ginsparg-Wilson Dirac operator, when the gauge field is sufficiently weak parallel-U(n,?) - 1-parallel < ?', where U(n,?) is the link variable and ?' a certain small positive constant. (author)
Singlet deflected anomaly/gauge mediation
Blas, J.; Delgado, A.
2011-01-01
We study an extension of the standard anomaly/gauge mediation scenario where the messenger fields have direct interactions with an extra gauge singlet. This realizes a phenomenologically viable NMSSM-like scenario free of the mu-b_mu problem. Current cosmological constraints imply a small size for the anomaly-mediation contributions, unless some source of R-parity violation is permitted. In the latter case the allowed regions in the parameter space can be substantially large...
The ABJ anomaly in regularized gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leveque, Benjamin; Kopper, Christoph [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique (France)
2012-07-01
We analyse the triangular anomaly in Pauli-Villars regularized axial U(1) gauge theory and within the Standard Model, using well-defined euclidean functional integrals. In axial U(1) gauge theory, we prove the presence of the anomaly and explain its relation to the IR non-analyticity of the fermion triangle. In the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, we confirm the cancelation of the anomaly to one-loop order in the regularized theory. We expose the theoretical tools based on which we aim to extend this result to all loop orders.
Singlet deflected anomaly/gauge mediation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study an extension of the standard anomaly/gauge mediation scenario where the messenger fields have direct interactions with an extra gauge singlet. This realizes a phenomenologically viable NMSSM-like scenario free of the ?-b? problem. Current cosmological constraints imply a small size for the anomaly-mediation contributions, unless some source of R-parity violation is permitted. In the latter case the allowed regions in the parameter space can be substantially larger than in the corresponding gauge-mediation scenario.
Gravitational Anomaly Cancellation and Modular Invariance
Han, Fei
2010-01-01
In this paper, by combining modular forms and characteristic forms, we obtain general anomaly cancellation formulas of any dimension. For $4k+2$ dimensional manifolds, our results include the gravitational anomaly cancellation formulas of Alvarez-Gaum\\'e and Witten in dimensions 2, 6 and 10 (\\cite{AW}) as special cases. In dimension $4k+1$, we derive anomaly cancellation formulas for index gerbes. In dimension $4k+3$, we obtain certain results about eta invariants, which are interesting in spectral geometry.
Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries
Stewart, J
2002-01-01
The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...
Global gravitational anomaly cancellation for five-branes
Monnier, Samuel
2013-01-01
We show that the global mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly of the worldvolume theory of the M5-brane vanishes, when the anomaly inflow from the bulk is taken into account. This result extends to the type IIA and heterotic E8 x E8 five-branes. As a by-product, we provide a definition of the chiral fermionic fields for generic non-spin M5-brane worldvolume and determine the coupling between the self-dual field and the M-theory C-field.
Unification of Gravitation and Gauge Fields
Huang, Xin-bing
2004-01-01
In this letter, I indicate that complex daor field should also have spinor suffixes. The gravitation and gauge fields are unified under the framework of daor field. I acquire the elegant coupling equation of gravitation and gauge fields, from which Einstein's gravitational equation can be deduced.
(Extra)Ordinary Gauge/Anomaly Mediation
Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nakai, Yuichiro; Sakai, Manabu
2011-01-01
We study anomaly mediation models with gauge mediation effects from messengers which have a general renormalizable mass matrix with a supersymmetry-breaking spurion. Our models lead to a rich structure of supersymmetry breaking terms in the visible sector. We derive sum rules among the soft scalar masses for each generation. Our sum rules for the first and second generations are the same as those in general gauge mediation, but the sum rule for the third generation is differ...
Noncommutative chiral gravitational anomalies in two dimensions
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
H, García-Compeán; C, Soto-Campos.
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Se examinan las anomalías gravitacionales en un espacio no conmutativo. El análisis es general e independiente de alguna teoría de gravedad no conmutativa específica y depende sólo de cómo la gravedad se acople a los fermiones quirales. El cálculo de Delbourgo-Salam de la correccción gravitacional a [...] la anomalía axial ABJ se estudia en detalle en este contexto. Finalmente se muestra que la anomalía gravitacional en dos dimensiones no admite correcciones no conmutativas en el parámetro ?. Abstract in english Gravitational anomalies in a noncommutative space are examined. The analysis is generic and independent of a particular noncommutative theory of gravity, and it depends only on how gravity is noncommutatively coupled to chiral fermions. Delbourgo-Salam computation of the gravitational correction of [...] the axial ABJ-anomaly is studied in detail in this context. Finally, we show that the two-dimensional gravitational anomaly does not permit noncommutative corrections in the parameter ?.
Anomalies on orbifolds with gauge symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We embed two 4D chiral multiplets of opposite representations in the 5D N = 2 SU(N+K) gauge theory compactified on an orbifold S1/(Z2 x Z'2). There are two types of orbifold boundary conditions in the extra dimension to obtain the 4D N = 1 SU(N) x SU(K) x U(1) gauge theory from the bulk: in type-I, one has the bulk gauge group at y = 0 and the unbroken gauge group at y = ? R/2 while in type-II, one has the unbroken gauge group at both fixed points. In both types of orbifold boundary conditions, we consider the zero mode(s) as coming from a bulk (K+N)-plet and brane fields at the fixed point(s) with the unbroken gauge group. We check the consistency of this embedding of fields by the localized anomalies and the localized FI terms. We show that the localized anomalies in type-I are cancelled exactly by the introduction of a bulk Chern-Simons term. On the other hand, in some class of type-II, the Chern-Simons term is not enough to cancel all localized anomalies even if they are globally vanishing. We also find that for the consistent embedding of brane fields, there appear only the localized log FI terms at the fixed point(s) with a U(1) factor. (author)
Gauge invariant gravitation theory. 1. Gravitational field source and spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that gauge invariance occurs as the consequence of physical field (fields with certain spin) description by the values, transformed as irreducible representations of homogeneous Lorentz group. Gauge-invariant lagrangian of the field of 2 spin was constructed. It was proved that gravitational field represented the superposition of gauge-invariant fields of 2 and 0 spins. Occurrence of the zero spin field is directly related with nonpreservation of the (gauge-invariant) source of gravitational field
Anomalies in supersymmetric gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A problem on that either supersymmetry property is always preserved after renormalization in supersymmetrical calibrated theories is investigated. Another problem on superanomalies has been considered for the general theory when fields of the matter are presented with arbitrary chiral multiplets. It is shown that superanomalies are absent in the general supercalibration theory in the absence of calibration anomalies. The proof is carried out on the basis of analysis of the Word identities corresponding to the calibration invariance and superinvariance of the theory in the Vess-Zumino calibration
Gravitational anomaly and hydrodynamics in AdS/CFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using a holographic model with a pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons terms in the action, we analyze the anomalous induced current of a vortex in the relativistic fluid via the chiral vortical effect, which is analogous to the anomalous current induced by a magnetic field via the chiral magnetic effect. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid characterized by a term proportional to T2. The numerical value of this term is not renormalized compared to the weak coupling result [1]. We also address on a general formalism to unify the two inequivalent implementations to the chemical potential for an anomalous symmetry presented in [2]. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Anomaly-Free Gauged R-Symmetry
Dreiner, Herbi
1995-01-01
We review the gauging of an R-symmetry in local and global susy. We then construct the first anomaly-free models. We break the R-symmetry and susy at the Planck scale and discuss the low-energy effects. We include a solution to the mu-problem, and the prediction of observable effects at HERA. The models also nicely allow for GUT-scale baryogenesis and R-parity violation without the sphaleron interactions erasing the baryon-asymmetry.
Gauge Anomalies and Neutrino Seesaw Models
Neves Cebola, Luis Manuel
Despite the success of the Standard Model concerning theoretical predictions, there are several experimental results that cannot be explained and there are reasons to believe that there exists new physics beyond it. Neutrino oscillations, and hence their masses, are examples of this. Experimentally it is known that neutrinos masses are quite small, when compared to all Standard Model particle masses. Among the theoretical possibilities to explain these tiny masses, the seesaw mechanism is a simple and well-motivated framework. In its minimal version, heavy particles are introduced that decouple from the theory in the early universe. To build consistent theories, classical symmetries need to be preserved at quantum level, so that there are no anomalies. The cancellation of these anomalies leads to constraints in the parameters of the theory. One attractive solution is to realize the anomaly cancellation through the modication of the gauge symmetry. In this thesis we present a short review of some features of t...
Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?
Iorio, Lorenzo
2015-03-01
Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.
Divergences and anomalies for coupled gravitational and Majorana spin-1/2 fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show how to avoid the known difficulties of computing one-loop counterterms in gravitating systems with fermionic fields or some non-minimal interactions. The one-loop counterterms and the axial anomaly are calculated for the system of coupled gravitational and Majorana spin-1/2 fields with and without torsion. It is shown that the system is non-renormalizable in all cases. New terms containing the spinor background are found in the anomaly of the axial current. The dependence of the axial current and the axial anomaly on the gauge is studied. (orig.)
Axial Anomaly in Lattice Abelian Gauge Theory in Arbitrary Dimensions
Fujiwara, Takanori; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Wu, Ke
1999-01-01
Axial anomaly of lattice abelian gauge theory in hyper-cubic regular lattice in arbitrary even dimensions is investigated by applying the method of exterior differential calculus. The topological invariance, gauge invariance and locality of the axial anomaly determine the explicit form of the topological part. The anomaly is obtained up to a multiplicative constant for finite lattice spacing and can be interpreted as the Chern character of the abelian lattice gauge theory.
Hawking Radiation via Gravitational Anomalies in Non-spherical Topologies
Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios; Skamagoulis, Petros
2008-01-01
We study the method of calculating the Hawking radiation via gravitational anomalies in gravitational backgrounds of constant negative curvature. We apply the method to topological black holes and also to topological black holes conformally coupled to a scalar field.
Quantum gravitational anomaly as a dark matter
Kazinski, P O
2015-01-01
The general properties of a perfect relativistic fluid resulting from the quantum gravitational anomaly are investigated. It is found that, in the limit of a weak gravitational field, this fluid possesses a polytropic equation of state characterized by two universal constants: the polytropic constant and the natural polytropic index. Based on the astrophysical data, the estimates for the polytropic constant are given. It is shown that this fluid can describe a considerable part of the cold dark matter. The quantum theory of such a fluid is constructed in the framework of the background field method. The Ward identities associated with the entropy and vorticity conservation laws are derived. The leading gradient corrections to the pressure of the perfect fluid are found and the restrictions on their form are obtained. These restrictions guarantee, in particular, the absence of ghosts in the model. The second order nonlinear corrections to the equations of motion of a perfect relativistic fluid are analyzed and...
Gravitation as Gauge theory of Poincare Group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The geometrical approach to gauge theories, based on fiber-bundles, is shown in detail. Several gauge formalisms for gravitation are examined. In particular, it is shown how to build gauge theories for non-semisimple groups. A gravitational theory for the Poincare group, with all the essential characteristics of a Yang-Mills theory is proposed. Inonu-Wigner contractions of gauge theories are introduced, which provide a Lagrangian formalism, equivalent to a Lagrangian de Sitter theory supplemented by weak constraints. Yang and Einstein theories for gravitation become particular cases of a Yang-Mills theory. The classical limit of the proposed formalism leads to the Poisson equation, for the static case. (Author)
Modification of Gravitational Anomaly Method in Hawking Radiation
Morita, Takeshi
2009-01-01
We discuss an ambiguity of the derivation of the Hawking radiation through the gravitational anomaly method and propose modifications of this method such that it reproduces the correct thermal fluxes. In this modified gravitational anomaly method, we employ the two-dimensional conformal field theory technique.
Anomaly cancellations in supersymmetric D = 10 gauge theory and superstring theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper discusses how supersymmetric ten-dimensional Yang-Mills theory coupled to N = 1, D = 10 supergravity has gauge and gravitational anomalies that can be partially cancelled by the addition of suitable local interactions. The remaining pieces of all the anomalies cancel if the gauge group is SO(32) or E8 x E8. These cancellations are automatically incorporated in the type I superstring theory based on SO(32). A superstring theory for E8 x E8 has not yet been constructed
Anomaly cancellations in supersymmetric D = 10 gauge theory and superstring theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Supersymmetric ten-dimensional Yang-Mills theory coupled to N = 1, D = 10 supergravity has gauge and gravitational anomalies that can be partially cancelled by the addition of suitable local interactions. The remaining pieces of all the anomalies cancel if the gauge group is SO(32) or E/sub 8/ X E/sub 8/. These cancellations are automatically incorporated in the type I superstring theory based on SO(32). A superstring theory for E/sub 8/ X E/sub 8/ has not yet been constructed
Higher order symmetries: covariant approach and quantum gravitational anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: (author)The higher order symmetries are investigated in a covariant Hamiltonian formulation. The covariant phase-space approach is extended to include the presence of external gauge fields and scalar potentials. The special role of the Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. Some non-trivial examples involving Runge-Lenz type conserved quantities are explicitly worked out. The relationship between hidden symmetries in a curved space background and the corresponding quantum operators that commute with the fundamental wave operator in a first-quantized field theory is investigated. It is shown that the conformal Killing tensors do not in general produce symmetry operators for the Klein-Gordon equation. In the case of the standard Killing tensors under a few notable favorable circumstances the existence of such operators is possible. However conformal Killing tensors are sources of gravitational anomalies even if they are square of conformal Killing-Yano tensors
Baryon asymmetry, supersymmetry and gravitational anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, the authors discuss two independent issues about the baryon asymmetry of the universe. First, assuming that it is generated by an unspecified source at high temperatures, the authors study the effects of non-perturbative SU(2)w dynamics above the electroweak scale, in the context of supersymmetric models. The authors find that there is a substantial difference with the nonsupersymmetric case with the net effect of relaxing previous bounds on B and L violating interactions. In particular, supersymmetry allows neutrino masses as large as 10 eV, consistent with solar neutrino data as well as what is required for hot dark matter to explain COBE results on large scale density perturbations. It is also consistent with neutrino oscillations measureable at future accelerator experiments. Second, the authors argue that the existence of a mixed lepton number-gravitational anomaly in the standard model will induce B -- L violating interactions. These transitions would be catalyzed by Einstein-Yang-Mills instantons or sphalerons and could create a primordial B -- L asymmetry at Planck temperatures or lower. Gravity could then be the ultimate source of the baryon asymmetry. The authors analyze the viability of the presently known gravitational instantons and sphalerons to realize this scenario. 8 refs
On the Poincare Gauge Theory of Gravitation
S. A. Ali; C. Cafaro; Capozziello, S; Corda, Ch.
2009-01-01
We present a compact, self-contained review of the conventional gauge theoretical approach to gravitation based on the local Poincare group of symmetry transformations. The covariant field equations, Bianchi identities and conservation laws for angular momentum and energy-momentum are obtained.
Gravitational and Inertial Anomalies and Seismic Prediction
Kokus, Martin
2013-04-01
Recent measurements of forces and motions on the earth's surface taken during eclipses and other configurations of the earth, moon and sun contradict general relativity, the accepted theory of gravity. These phenomena could help explain correlations between seismic behavior and the positions of the earth, moon and sun which so far have no accepted explanation. For decades there have been strong correlations between seismic activity and the positions of the earth, moon and sun as well as the level of solar activity. While a few of the weaker correlations can be explained with tidal triggering models, the stronger and more predominate relationships have no explanation within accepted theories of gravity and/or geology. Measurements taken with a variety of pendulums have shown an anomalous precession that varies with lunar phase and lunar sidereal period. More pronounced anomalies are observed during eclipses. Not only is there a more pronounced anomalous precession, but there is also an anomalous decrease in vertical gravity during the eclipse. A few researchers have even observed similar anomalies during planetary occultations. The main observation can be interpreted as a unexplained torque which twists one way before an eclipse and the opposite afterwards. In the northern hemisphere the torque would be counterclockwise prior to the eclipse when viewed from above and clockwise after. Various tectonic models have North America rotating counterclockwise. As it does, it compresses an area lying along a line roughly perpendicular to the San Andreas and running through its intersection with the Garlock fault. Strong earthquakes occur in this area just prior to eclipses. This is very near in time to when the anomalous counterclockwise torsion would be maximized. This paper summarizes measurements of anomalous gravitation and inertia. Tectonic forces that would result from them are calculated. Over 200 papers that show a positive correlation between earth-lunar-solar position and seismic activity are also summarized. Possible connections between anomalous periods in seismicity and anomalous gravity and inertia are described.
Maps for currents and anomalies in noncommutative gauge theories
Banerjee, Rabin(S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098, India); Kumar, Kuldeep
2004-01-01
We derive maps relating currents and their divergences in non-abelian U(N) noncommutative gauge theory with the corresponding expressions in the ordinary (commutative) description. For the U(1) theory, in the slowly-varying-field approximation, these maps are also seen to connect the star-gauge-covariant anomaly in the noncommutative theory with the standard Adler--Bell--Jackiw anomaly in the commutative version. For arbitrary fields, derivative corrections to the maps are e...
Anomaly cancellation condition in abelian lattice gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the general solution of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition in abelian lattice gauge theories, without taking the classical continuum limit. We find that, if the anomaly density is a local pseudo-scalar field on the lattice, the non-trivial anomaly is always proportional to the anomaly coefficient in the continuum theory. The possible extension of this result to non-abelian theories is briefly discussed. (author)
Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?
Iorio, Lorenzo
2014-01-01
Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gra...
Hawking Radiation from Rotating Black Holes and Gravitational Anomalies
Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro
2006-01-01
We study the Hawking radiation from Rotating black holes from gravitational anomalies point of view. First, we show that the scalar field theory near the Kerr black hole horizon can be reduced to the 2-dimensional effective theory. Then, following Robinson and Wilczek, we derive the Hawking flux by requiring the cancellation of gravitational anomalies. We also apply this method to Hawking radiation from higher dimensional Myers-Perry black holes. In the Appendix, we present ...
A new anomaly-free gauged supergravity in six dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new anomaly-free gauged N = 1 supergravity model in six dimensions. The gauge group is E7 - G2 x U(1)R, with all hyperinos transforming in the product representation (56, 14). The theory admits monopole compactifications to R4 x S2, leading to D = 4 effective theories with broken supersymmetry and massless fermions. (author)
Ghost number anomaly in the Polyakov's light-cone gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The conformal (Weyl) anomaly of the ghost-anti-ghost system in the two-dimentional quantum gravity is calculated. A background covariant formalism allows us to treat the Polyakov's light-cone gauge in a systematic way. The anomaly gives a contribution to the central charge, -28, which agrees with the result of Kniznik, Polyakov and Zamolodchikov. The ghost number anomaly is also calculated, and the metric corrections to the naive ghost number current are given. It is suggested that a general scalar density in the light-cone gauge carries a screening ghost number. (author)
Algebraic structure of chiral anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I will describe first the algebraic aspects of chiral anomalies, exercising however due care about the topological delicacies. I will illustrate the structure and methods in the context of gauge anomalies and will eventually make contact with results obtained from index theory. I will go into two sorts of generalizations: on the one hand, generalizing the algebraic set up yields e.g. gravitational and mixed gauge anomalies, supersymmetric gauge anomalies, anomalies in supergravity theories; on the other hand most constructions applied to the cohomologies which characterize anomalies easily extend to higher cohomologies. Section II is devoted to a description of the general set up as it applies to gauge anomalies. Section III deals with a number of algebraic set ups which characterize more general types of anomalies: gravitational and mixed gauge anomalies, supersymmetric gauge anomalies, anomalies in supergravity theories. It also includes brief remarks on ? models and a reminder on the full BRST algebra of quantized gauge theories
Holomorphic Anomaly in Gauge Theories and Matrix Models
Huang, Min-xin(Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, China); Klemm, Albrecht
2006-01-01
We use the holomorphic anomaly equation to solve the gravitational corrections to Seiberg-Witten theory and a two-cut matrix model, which is related by the Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture to the topological B-model on a local Calabi-Yau manifold. In both cases we construct propagators that give a recursive solution in the genus modulo a holomorphic ambiguity. In the case of Seiberg-Witten theory the gravitational corrections can be expressed in closed form as quasimodular function...
The physical observer II: Gauge and diff anomalies
Larsson, T A
2008-01-01
In a companion paper we studied field theory in the presence of a physical observer with quantum dynamics. Here we describe the most striking consequence of this assumption: new gauge and diff anomalies arise. The relevant cocycles depend on the observer's spacetime trajectory and can hence not appear in QFT, where this quantity is never introduced. Diff anomalies necessarily arise in every locally nontrivial, non-holographic theory of quantum gravity. Cancellation of the divergent parts of the anomalies only works if spacetime has four dimensions.
Gravitation, gauge theories and the early universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This volume contains chapters on various aspects of gravitation, gauge theory and the early universe. The work begins with an introduction into relativity, particle physics and classical quantum theory. This is followed by reviews of the latest developments in each of these fields, such as black-hole thermodynamics, electroweak theory, grand unification, and the renormalization group. The concluding part of the work comprises discussions of current research topics, such as the problem of the big-bang cosmology, quantum fields in curved spacetimes, quantum cosmology, Kaluza-Klein theories, supersymmetry, supergravity and superstrings. In addition, special articles on relevant mathematical topics are included. (author). 239 refs.; 60 figs.; 18 tabs
Poincare gauge theory of gravitation and its Hamiltonian formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poincare gauge approach to the theory of gravitation is formulated. It has a very close resemblance to the usual procedure for gauging internal symmetries. By using Dirac's systematic method for systems with constraints, Einstein-Cartan form of Poincare gauge theory is put into Hamiltonian form, by means of a time gauge and by treating tetrad and connection coefficients as independent variables. (author)
The Gauge Anomaly and the Seiberg-Witten Map
Martín, C P
2003-01-01
The consistent form of the gauge anomaly is worked out at first order in $\\theta$ for the noncommutative three-point function of the ordinary gauge field of certain noncommutative chiral gauge theories defined by means of the Seiberg-Witten map. We obtain that for any compact simple Lie group the anomaly cancellation condition of this three-point function reads $\\traza \\T^a \\T^b \\T^c = 0$, if one restricts the type of noncommutative counterterms that can be added to the classical action to restore the gauge symmetry to those which are renormalizable by power-counting. On the other hand, if the power-counting remormalizability paradigm is relinquished and one admits noncommutative counterterms (of the gauge fields, its derivatives and $\\theta$) which are not power-counting renormalizable, then, the anomaly cancellation condition for the noncommutative three-point function of the ordinary gauge field becomes the ordinary one: $\\traza \\T^a \\{\\T^b,\\T^c\\} = 0$.
Global gauge anomalies in two-dimensional bosonic sigma models
Gawedzki, Krzysztof; Waldorf, Konrad
2010-01-01
We revisit the gauging of rigid symmetries in two-dimensional bosonic sigma models with a Wess-Zumino term in the action. Such a term is related to a background closed 3-form H on the target space. More exactly, the sigma-model Feynman amplitudes of classical fields are associated to a bundle gerbe with connection of curvature H over the target space. Under conditions that were unraveled more than twenty years ago, the classical amplitudes may be coupled to the topologically trivial gauge fields of the symmetry group in a way which assures infinitesimal gauge invariance. We show that the resulting gauged Wess-Zumino amplitudes may, nevertheless, exhibit global gauge anomalies that we fully classify. The general results are illustrated on the example of the WZW and the coset models of conformal field theory. The latter are shown to be inconsistent in the presence of global anomalies. We introduce a notion of equivariant gerbes that allow an anomaly-free coupling of the Wess-Zumino amplitudes to all gauge field...
Anomaly cancellation and conformality in quiver gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abelian quiver gauge theories provide non-supersymmetric candidates for the conformality approach to physics beyond the standard model. Written as N=0, U(N)n gauge theories, however, they have mixed U(1)pU(1)q2 and U(1)pSU(N)q2 triangle anomalies. It is shown how to construct explicitly a compensatory term ?Lcomp which restores gauge invariance of Leff=L+?Lcomp under U(N)n. It can lead to a negative contribution to the U(1)?-function and hence to one-loop conformality at high energy for all dimensionless couplings
Gauge Anomaly associated to the Majorana Fermion in $8k+1$ dimensions
Hayakawa, M; Hayakawa, Masashi; Suzuki, Hiroshi
2006-01-01
By an elementary method, we show that odd number of Majorana fermions in $8k+1$ dimensions suffer from a gauge anomaly which is analogous to the Witten global gauge anomaly. The anomaly cannot be removed without sacrificing the perturbative gauge invariance. Our construction of higher-dimensional examples ($k\\geq1$) makes use of the $\\SO(8)$ instanton.
Harada-Tsutsui Gauge Recovery Procedure: From Abelian Gauge Anomalies to the Stueckelberg Mechanism
Lima, Gabriel Di Lemos Santiago
2013-01-01
Revisiting a path-integral procedure of recovering gauge invariance from anomalous effective actions developed by Harada and Tsutsui, it is shown that there are two ways to achieve gauge symmetry: one already presented by the authors, which is shown to preserve the anomaly in the sense of standard conservation law, and another one which is anomaly-free, preserving current conservation. It is also shown that the aplication of Harada-Tsutsui technique to other models which are not anomalous but do not exhibit gauge invariance allows the identification of the gauge invariant formulation of the Proca model, also done by the referred authors, with the Stueckelberg model, leading to the interpretation of the gauge invariant map as a generalization of the Stueckelberg mechanism.
Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies: Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the spectral sequencies technique, it is studied the local polynomial cohomology space of the operator S deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(x)deltasub(lambda) -deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x), which is isomorphic to the local functional cohomology of the operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time. In the Faddeev-Popov (PHI II) charge-one sector, it is found that all the anomalies have the form ?(x) deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x)?-circumflex(x), where Csup(lambda)(x) is the ghost field, and ?-circumflex(x) is a PHI II charge-zero anomaly
Gravitational F-terms through anomaly equations and deformed chiral rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study effective gravitational F-terms, obtained by integrating an U(N) adjoint chiral superfield ? coupled to the N = 1 gauge chiral superfield W? and supergravity, to arbitrary orders in the gravitational background. The latter includes in addition to the N = 1 Weyl superfield G???, the self-dual graviphoton field strength F?? of the parent, broken N = 2 theory. We first study the chiral ring relations resulting from the above non-standard gravitational background and find agreement, for gauge invariant operators, with those obtained from the dual closed string side via Bianchi identities for N = 2 supergravity coupled to vector multiplets. We then derive generalized anomaly equations for connected correlators on the gauge theory side, which allow us to solve for the basic one-point function 2/(z - ?)> to all orders in F2. By generalizing the matrix model loop equation to the generating functional of connected correlators of resolvents, we prove that the gauge theory result coincides with the genus expansion of the associated matrix model, after identifying the expansion parameters on the two sides. (author)
Muon g-2 Anomaly and Dark Leptonic Gauge Boson
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hye-Sung [W& M
2014-11-01
One of the major motivations to search for a dark gauge boson of MeV-GeV scale is the long-standing muon g-2 anomaly. Because of active searches such as fixed target experiments and rare meson decays, the muon g-2 favored parameter region has been rapidly reduced. With the most recent data, it is practically excluded now in the popular dark photon model. We overview the issue and investigate a potentially alternative model based on the gauged lepton number or U(1)_L, which is under different experimental constraints.
Could the Pioneer anomaly have a gravitational origin?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If the Pioneer anomaly has a gravitational origin, it would, according to the equivalence principle, distort the motions of the planets in the Solar System. Since no anomalous motion of the planets has been detected, it is generally believed that the Pioneer anomaly can not originate from a gravitational source in the Solar System. However, this conclusion becomes less obvious when considering models that either imply modifications to gravity over long distances or gravitational sources localized to the outer Solar System, given the uncertainty in the orbital parameters of the outer planets. Following the general assumption that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a spherically symmetric space-time metric, we derive the metric disturbance that is needed in order to account for the Pioneer anomaly. We then analyze the residual effects on the astronomical observables of the three outer planets that would arise from this metric disturbance, given an arbitrary metric theory of gravity. Providing a method for comparing the computed residuals with actual residuals, our results imply that the presence of a perturbation to the gravitational field necessary to induce the Pioneer anomaly is in conflict with available data for the planets Uranus and Pluto, but not for Neptune. We therefore conclude that the motion of the Pioneer spacecraft must be nongeodesic. Since our results are model-independent within the class of metric theories of gravity, they can be applied to rories of gravity, they can be applied to rule out any model of the Pioneer anomaly that implies that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a perturbed space-time metric, regardless of the origin of this metric disturbance
Observation of the Chern-Simons gauge anomaly
Mittal, Sunil; Fan, Jingyun; Vaezi, Abolhassan; Hafezi, Mohammad
2015-01-01
Topological Quantum Field Theories (TQFTs) are powerful tools to describe universal features of topological orders. A hallmark example of a TQFT is the 2+1 D Chern-Simons (CS) theory which describes topological properties of both integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. The gauge invariant form of the CS theory with boundaries, encompassing both edge and bulk terms, provides an unambiguous way to relate bulk topological invariants to the edge dynamics. This bulk-edge correspondence is manifested as a gauge anomaly of the chiral dynamics at the edge, and provides a direct insight into the bulk topological order. Such an anomaly has never been directly observed in an experiment. In this work, we experimentally implement the integer quantum Hall model in a photonic system, described by the corresponding CS theory. By selectively manipulating and probing the edge, we exploit the gauge anomaly of the CS theory, for the first time. The associated spectral edge flow allows us to unambiguously measure topological...
Freed-Witten anomaly and D-brane gauge theories
Ruffino, Fabio Ferrari
2012-01-01
We discuss the different nature of the gauge theories on a D-brane or a stack of D-branes, in type II superstring theory, as follows from the Freed-Witten anomaly. Usually on a D-brane world-volume there is a standard gauge theory, described by the A-field thought of as a connection on a complex vector bundle. Actually, this is a particular case, even if it is the most common one. In order to get a complete picture, within the framework provided by the geometry of gerbes with connection, it is necessary to give a joint geometrical description of the A-field and the B-field, via the language of Cech hypercohomology. The Freed-Witten anomaly, which is a global world-sheet anomaly, imposes some constraints on such fields: we will show for each case what is the nature of the corresponding gauge theory on the D-brane or stack of D-branes.
Anomaly-free gauged R-symmetry in local supersymmetry
Dreiner, H; Dreiner, Herbi; Chamseddine, A H
1995-01-01
We discuss local \\R-symmetry as a potentially powerful new model building tool. We first review and clarify that a U(1) \\R-symmetry can only be gauged in local and not in global supersymmetry. We then determine the anomaly-cancellation conditions for the gauged \\R-symmetry. For the standard superpotential these equations have {\\it no} solution, independently of how many Standard Model singlets are added to the model. There is also no solution when we increase the number of families and/or the number of pairs of Higgs doublets. When the Green-Schwarz mechanism is employed to cancel the anomalies solutions only exist for a large number of singlets, or if we allow irrational \\R-numbers. We do find an anomaly-free family-independent model with an extra SU(3)_c octet chiral superfield. We then consider in detail the conditions for an anomaly-free {\\it family dependent} U(1)_R and find four simple solutions. For these solutions we consider the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry and the R-symmetry in the context ...
Hawking radiation of a vector field and gravitational anomalies
Murata, Keiju; Miyamoto, Umpei
2007-01-01
Recently, the relation between Hawking radiation and gravitational anomalies has been used to estimate the flux of Hawking radiation for a large class of black objects. In this paper, we extend the formalism, originally proposed by Robinson and Wilczek, to the Hawking radiation of vector particles (photons). It is explicitly shown, with Hamiltonian formalism, that the theory of an electromagnetic field on d-dimensional spherical black holes reduces to one of an infinite numb...
NS5-branes in IIA supergravity and gravitational anomalies
Cariglia, M; Cariglia, Marco; Lechner, Kurt
2002-01-01
We construct a gravitational-anomaly-free effective action for the coupled system of IIA D=10 dynamical supergravity interacting with an NS5-brane. The NS5-brane is considered as elementary in that the associated current is a delta-function supported on its worldvolume. Our approach is based on a Chern-kernel which encodes the singularities of the three-form field strength near the brane in an SO(4)-invariant way and provides a solution for its Bianchi identity in terms of a two-form potential. A dimensional reduction of the recently constructed anomaly-free effective action for an elementary M5-brane in D=11 is seen to reproduce our ten-dimensional action. The Chern-kernel approach provides in particular a concrete realization of the anomaly cancellation mechanism envisaged by Witten.
Gravitational anomalies and one dimensional behaviour of black holes
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2015-01-01
It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the Black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to that through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyse the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change ($\\dot{S}$) and the power ($P$) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress-tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of $\\dot{S}$ on power is $\\dot{S}\\propto P^{1/2}$ which is identical to that for the information flow in one dimensional system. This is established by using the ($1+1$) dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the ($1+3$) dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to one dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in later situation its value decreases.
Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)
Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Torsten
2009-05-13
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)
Gravitation, gauge theories and differential geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this article is to outline various mathematical ideas, methods, and results, primarily from differential geometry and topology, and to show where they can be applied to Yang-Mills gauge theories and Einstein's theory of gravitation.We have several goals in mind. The first is to convey to physicists the bases for many mathematical concepts by using intuitive arguments while avoiding the detailed formality of most textbooks. Although a variety of mathematical theorems will be stated, we will generally give simple examples motivating the results instead of presenting abstract proofs. Another goal is to list a wide variety of mathematical terminology and results in a format which allows easy reference. The reader then has the option of supplementing the descriptions given here by consulting standard mathematical references and articles such as those listed in the bibliography. Finally, we intend this article to serve the dual purpose of acquainting mathematicians with some basic physical concepts which have mathematical ramifications; physical problems have often stimuladed new directions in mathematical thought. (orig./WL)
Hawking Radiation and Covariant Anomalies
Banerjee, Rabin(S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098, India); Kulkarni, Shailesh
2007-01-01
Generalising the method of Wilczek and collaborators we provide a derivation of Hawking radiation from charged black holes using only covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies. The reliability and universality of the anomaly cancellation approach to Hawking radiation is also discussed.
Anomaly-free formulation of chiral gauge theory and quantum holonomy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the quantization of a fermion field coupled to external gauge fields. Defining the S-matrix carefully by means of the time-dependent Bogoliubov transformation, we show a possibility of an anomaly-free formulation of chiral gauge theories. In this formulation the gauge anomaly is canceled by the non-trivial quantum holonomy of the fermionic Fock vacuum. (author)
Bradlyn, Barry
2015-01-01
We show that the topological central charge of a topological phase can be directly accessed from the ground-state wavefunctions for a system on a surface as a Berry curvature produced by adiabatic variation of the metric on the surface, at least up to addition of another topological invariant that arises in some cases. For trial wavefunctions that are given by conformal blocks (chiral correlation functions) in a conformal field theory (CFT), we carry out this calculation analytically, using the hypothesis of generalized screening. The topological central charge is found to be that of the underlying CFT used in the construction, as expected. The calculation makes use of the gravitational anomaly in the chiral CFT. It is also shown that the Hall conductivity can be obtained in an analogous way from the U($1$) gauge anomaly.
Addressing the LHC flavour anomalies with horizontal gauge symmetries
Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian
2015-01-01
We study the impact of an additional $U(1)'$ gauge symmetry with flavour-dependent charges for quarks and leptons on the LHC flavour anomalies observed in $B \\to K^* \\mu^+\\mu^-$, $R(K) = B \\to K \\mu^+\\mu^-/B \\to K e^+e^-$, and $h \\to \\mu\\tau$. In its minimal version with two scalar doublets, the resulting model naturally explains the deviations from the Standard Model observed in $B \\to K^* \\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $R(K)$. The CMS access in $h \\to \\mu\\tau$ can be explained by introducing a third scalar doublet, which gives rise to a prediction for $\\tau \\to 3\\mu$. We investigate constraints from flavour observables and direct LHC searches for $pp \\to Z' \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$. Our model successfully generates the measured fermion-mixing matrices and does not require vector-like fermions, unlike previous attempts to explain these anomalies.
Holomorphic Anomaly in Gauge Theories and Matrix Models
Huang, M; Huang, Min-xin; Klemm, Albrecht
2007-01-01
We use the holomorphic anomaly equation to solve the gravitational corrections to Seiberg-Witten theory and a two-cut matrix model, which is related by the Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture to the topological B-model on a local Calabi-Yau manifold. In both cases we construct propagators that give a recursive solution in the genus modulo a holomorphic ambiguity. In the case of Seiberg-Witten theory the gravitational corrections can be expressed in closed form as quasimodular functions of Gamma(2). In the matrix model we fix the holomorphic ambiguity up to genus two. The latter result establishes the Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture at that genus and yields a new method for solving the matrix model at fixed genus in closed form in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions.
On the gravitational waves on the background of anomaly-induced inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the very early Universe matter can be described as a conformal invariant ultra-relativistic perfect fluid, which does not contribute, on classical level, to the evolution of the isotropic and homogeneous metric. However, in this situation the vacuum effects of quantum matter fields become important. The vacuum effective action depends, essentially, on the particle content of the underlying gauge model. If we suppose that there is some desert in the particle spectrum, just below the Planck mass, then the effect of conformal trace anomaly is dominating at the corresponding energies. With some additional constraints on the gauge model (which favor extended or supersymmetric versions of the Standard Model rather than the minimal one), one arrives at the stable inflation. In this article we report about the calculation of the gravitational waves in this model. The result for the perturbation spectrum is close to the one for the conventional inflaton model, and is in agreement with the existing Cobe data
Holomorphic Anomaly in Gauge Theory on ALE space
Krefl, Daniel
2011-01-01
We consider four-dimensional Omega-deformed N=2 supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory on A1 space and its lift to five dimensions. We find that the partition functions can be reproduced via special geometry and the holomorphic anomaly equation. Schwinger type integral expressions for the boundary conditions at the monopole/dyon point in moduli space are inferred. The interpretation of the five-dimensional partition function as the partition function of a refined topological string on A1x(local P1xP1) is suggested.
Gauge field, strings, solitons, anomalies and the speed of life
Niemi, Antti J
2014-01-01
It's been said that "mathematics is biology's next microscope, only better; biology is mathematics' next physics, only better". Here we aim for something even better. We try to combine mathematical physics and biology into a picoscope of life. For this we merge techniques which have been introduced and developed in modern mathematical physics, largely by Ludvig Faddeev to describe objects such as solitons and Higgs and to explain phenomena such as anomalies in gauge fields. We propose a synthesis that can help to resolve the protein folding problem, one of the most important conundrums in all of science. We apply the concept of gauge invariance to scrutinize the extrinsic geometry of strings in three dimensional space. We evoke general principles of symmetry in combination with Wilsonian universality and derive an essentially unique Landau-Ginzburg energy that describes the dynamics of a generic string-like configuration in the far infrared. We observe that the energy supports topological solitons, that perta...
Muon g-2 Anomaly and Dark Leptonic Gauge Boson
Lee, Hye-Sung
2014-01-01
One of the major motivations to search for a dark gauge boson of MeV-GeV scale is the long-standing muon g-2 anomaly. Because of active searches such as fixed target experiments and rare meson decays, the muon g-2 favored parameter region has been rapidly reduced. With the most recent data, it is practically excluded now in the popular dark photon model. We overview the issue and investigate a potentially alternative model based on the gauged lepton number or U(1)_L. The muon g-2 favored parameter region of the U(1)_L survives all the constraints that were critical in the dark photon case, yet it is disfavored by the new constraints from the large flux neutrino experiments.
Absence of anomalies in two-dimensional nonabelian chiral gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the appropriate quantization procedure for the gauge fields, we explicitly show that two-dimensional nonabelian gauge theories with chiral coupling to massless fermions are free of anomalies. (orig.)
Gauge fields, strings, solitons, anomalies, and the speed of life
Niemi, A. J.
2014-10-01
Joel Cohen proposed that "mathematics is biology's next microscope, only better; biology is mathematics' next physics, only better." Here, we aim for something even better. We try to combine mathematical physics and biology into a picoscope of life. For this, we merge techniques that were introduced and developed in modern mathematical physics, largely by Ludvig Faddeev, to describe objects such as solitons and Higgs and to explain phenomena such as anomalies in gauge fields. We propose a synthesis that can help to resolve the protein folding problem, one of the most important conundrums in all of science. We apply the concept of gauge invariance to scrutinize the extrinsic geometry of strings in three-dimensional space. We evoke general principles of symmetry in combination with Wilsonian universality and derive an essentially unique Landau-Ginzburg energy that describes the dynamics of a generic stringlike configuration in the far infrared. We observe that the energy supports topological solitons that relate to an anomaly similarly to how a string is framed around its inflection points. We explain how the solitons operate as modular building blocks from which folded proteins are composed. We describe crystallographic protein structures by multisolitons with experimental precision and investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of proteins under temperature variations. We simulate the folding process of a protein at in vivo speed and with close to picoscale accuracy using a standard laptop computer. With picobiology as next pursuit of mathematical physics, things can only get better.
Effective QED actions: Representations, gauge invariance, anomalies, and mass expansions
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We analyze and give explicit representations for the effective Abelian vector gauge field actions generated by charged fermions with particular attention to the thermal regime in odd dimensions, where spectral asymmetry can be present. We show, through ?-function regularization, that both small and large gauge invariances are preserved at any temperature and for any number of fermions at the usual price of anomalies: helicity (parity) invariance will be lost in even (odd) dimensions, and in the latter even at zero mass. Gauge invariance dictates a very general 'Fourier' representation of the action in terms of the holonomies that carry the novel, large gauge-invariant, information. We show that large (unlike small) transformations and hence their Ward identities are not perturbative order-preserving, and clarify the role of (properly redefined) Chern-Simons terms in this context. From a powerful representation of the action in terms of massless heat kernels, we are able to obtain rigorous gauge-invariant expansions, for both small and large fermion masses, of its separate parity even and odd parts in arbitrary dimension. The representation also displays both the nonperturbative origin of a finite renormalization ambiguity and its physical resolution by requiring decoupling at infinite mass. Finally, we illustrate these general results by explicit computation of the effective action for some physical examples of field configurations in the three-dimensional case, whertions in the three-dimensional case, where our conclusions on finite temperature effects may have physical relevance. Non-Abelian results will be presented separately. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Gauge and Averaging in Gravitational Self-force
Gralla, Samuel E
2011-01-01
A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law. For a class of gauges satisfying a "parity condition" ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle-average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolv...
Overcoming the Gauge Problem for the Gravitational Self-Force
Canizares, Priscilla
2014-01-01
The gravitational waves emitted by binary systems with extreme-mass ratios carry unique astrophysical information that can only be detected by space-based detectors like eLISA. To that end, a very accurate modelling of the system is required. The gravitational self-force program, which has been fully developed in the Lorenz gauge, is the best approach we have so far. However, the computations required would be done more efficiently if we could work in other gauges, like the Regge-Wheeler (RW) one in the case of Schwarzschild black holes. In this letter we present a new scheme, based on the Particle-without-Particle formulation of the field equations, where the gravitational self-force can be obtained from just solving individual wave-type equations like the master equations of the RW gauge. This approach can help to tackle the yet unsolved Kerr case.
Gauge Theory of the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field
Bock, Robert D
2015-01-01
We develop a gauge theory of the combined gravitational-electromagnetic field by expanding the Poincar\\'e group to include clock synchronization transformations. We show that the electromagnetic field can be interpreted as a local gauge theory of the synchrony group. According to this interpretation, the electromagnetic field equations possess nonlinear terms and electromagnetic gauge transformations acquire a space-time interpretation as local synchrony transformations. The free Lagrangian for the fields leads to the usual Einstein-Maxwell field equations with additional gravitational-electromagnetic coupling terms. The connection between the electromagnetic field and the invariance properties of the Lagrangian under clock synchronization transformations provides a strong theoretical argument in favor of the thesis of the conventionality of simultaneity. This suggests that clock synchronization invariance (or equivalently, invariance under transformations of the one-way speed of light) is a fundamental invar...
Linearization stability of gravitational and gauge fields
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Conditions are given for the linearization stability of the Yang--Mills and the Einstein--Yang--Mills equations on a spacetime with a compact Cauchy surface. There are sufficient conditions on the Cauchy surface, and necessary and sufficient conditions on the spacetime; the latter are identified with global infinitesimal symmetries of the principal fiber bundle associated with the Yang--Mills (gauge) field. For each system a splitting theorem for the initial data is given and the Cauchy problem is discussed
Gravitational self-force from radiation-gauge metric perturbations
Pound, Adam; Barack, Leor
2014-01-01
Calculations of the gravitational self-force (GSF) in curved spacetime require as input the metric perturbation in a sufficiently regular gauge. A basic challenge in the program to compute the GSF for orbits around a Kerr black hole is that the standard procedure for reconstructing the perturbation is formulated in a class of radiation gauges, in which the particle singularity is non-isotropic and extends away from the particle's location. Here we present two practical schemes for calculating the GSF using a radiation-gauge reconstructed metric as input. The schemes are based on a detailed analysis of the local structure of the particle singularity in the radiation gauges. We identify 3 types of radiation gauges: two containing a radial string-like singularity emanating from the particle, either in one direction ("half-string" gauges) or both directions ("full-string" gauges); and a third type containing no strings but with a jump discontinuity across a surface intersecting the particle. Based on a flat-space...
Non-commutative Differential Calculus and the Axial Anomaly in Abelian Lattice Gauge Theories
Fujiwara, Takanori; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Wu, Ke
1999-01-01
The axial anomaly in lattice gauge theories has a topological nature when the Dirac operator satisfies the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. We study the axial anomaly in Abelian gauge theories on an infinite hypercubic lattice by utilizing cohomological arguments. The crucial tool in our approach is the non-commutative differential calculus~(NCDC) which makes the Leibniz rule of exterior derivatives valid on the lattice. The topological nature of the ``Chern character'' on the latt...
Spectral Cauchy Characteristic Extraction: Gravitational Waves and Gauge Free News
Handmer, Casey; Szilagyi, Bela; Winicour, Jeff
2015-04-01
We present a fast, accurate spectral algorithm for the characteristic evolution of the full non-linear vacuum Einstein field equations in the Bondi framework. Developed within the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), we demonstrate how spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction produces gravitational News without confounding gauge effects. We explain several numerical innovations and demonstrate speed, stability, accuracy, exponential convergence, and consistency with existing methods. We highlight its capability to deliver physical insights in the study of black hole binaries.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the gauge gravitation theory
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The specificity of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the gauge theory of gravity is that Dirac fermion fields possess only exact Lorentz symmetries. As a consequence, different tetrad gravitational fields h and h' define nonisomorphic representations of cotangent vectors to a space-time manifold X4 by Dirac's ?-matrices on fermion fields. One needs these representations in order to construct the Dirac operator. Dirac fermion fields therefore must be considered only in a pair with a certain tetrad gravitational field. We describe the complex of such fermion-gravitational pairs by means of a spinor fibre bundle over the generalized coordinate space X4 x (GL+(4, R)/SO(3,1)). We show that gravitational fields h fail to form an affine space modelled after any vector space of deviations h-h' of some background field h. They therefore fail to be quantized in accordance with the familiar quantum field theory. However, one can consider nongravitational deviations ? of h such that h+? is not a gravitational field. These deviations form a vector space, i.e. they satisfy the superposition principle. Their Lagrangian, however, differs from familiar Lagrangians of gravitation theory. For instance, it contains mass-like terms. (author). 19 refs
Hawking Radiation from Black Holes of Constant Negative Curvature via Gravitational Anomalies
Skamagoulis, Petros
2010-01-01
I derive the Hawking flux from black holes of constant negative curvature and from a black hole of constant negative curvature conformally coupled to a scalar field, using the covariant gravitational anomalies method.
A Note on Transverse Axial Vector and Vector Anomalies in U(1) Gauge Theories
Sun, W M; Chen, X S; Wang, F; Sun, Wei-Min; Zong, Hong-Shi; Chen, Xiang-Song; Wang, Fan
2003-01-01
We reexamine the problem of transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in four-dimensional U(1) gauge theories studied in [10] using perturbative method. It is found that there are no transverse anomalies for both axial vector and vector current. A comparison between our results and those of [10] is given.
A note on transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in U(1) gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in four-dimensional U(1) gauge theories studied in [Phys. Lett. B 507 (2001) 351] is reexamined by means of perturbative method. The absence of transverse anomalies for both axial vector and vector current is verified. We also show that the Pauli-Villars regularization and dimensional regularization gives the same result on the transverse anomaly of both axial vector and vector current
A Note on Transverse Axial Vector and Vector Anomalies in U(1) Gauge Theories
Sun, Wei-min; Zong, Hong-shi; Chen, Xiang-song; Wang, Fan
2003-01-01
The transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in four-dimensional U(1) gauge theories studied in [10] is reexamined by means of perturbative methods. The absence of transverse anomalies for both axial vector and vector current is verified. We also show that the Pauli-Villars regularization and dimensional regularization give the same result on the transverse anomaly of both axial vector and vector current.
Gravitational Gauge Theory and the Existence of Time
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General relativity may be formulated as a gauge theory more than one way using the quotient manifold approach. We contrast the structures that arise in four gravitational gauge theories, three of which give satisfactory gauge theoris of general relativity. Of particular interest is the quotient of the conformal group of a flat space by its Weyl subgroup, which always has natural symplectic and metric structures in addition to the requisite manifold. This quotient space admits canonically conjugate, orthogonal, metric submanifolds distinct from the original space if and only if the original flat space has signature n, -n or 0. In the Euclidean cases, the resultant configuration space must be Lorentzian. This gives a 1-1 mapping between Euclidean and Lorentzian submanifolds, with induced Euclidean gravity or general relativity, respectively
Axial and gauge anomalies in the field-antifield quantization of the generalized Schwinger model
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In the generalized Schwinger model the vector and axial vector currents are linearly coupled, with arbitrary coefficients, to the gauge connection. Therefore it represents an interesting example of a theory where both gauge anomalies and anomalous divergences of global currents show up in general. We derive results for these two kinds of quantum corrections inside the field-antifield framework. (author)
The covariant form of the gauge anomaly on noncommutative R2n
Martín, C P
2002-01-01
The covariant form of the non-Abelian gauge anomaly on noncommutative R2n is computed for U(N) groups. Its origin and properties are analyzed. Its connection with the consistent form of the gauge anomaly is established. We show along the way that bi-fundamental $U(N)\\times U(M)$ chiral matter carries no mixed anomalies, and interpret this result as a consequence of the half-dipole structure which characterizes the charged non-commutative degrees of freedom.
Space-time dependent couplings In N = 1 SUSY gauge theories: Anomalies and central functions
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We consider N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories in which the couplings are allowed to be space-time dependent functions. Both the gauge and the superpotential couplings become chiral superfields. As has recently been shown, a new topological anomaly appears in models with space-time dependent gauge coupling. Here we show how this anomaly may be used to derive the NSVZ ?-function in a particular, well-determined renormalisation scheme, both without and with chiral matter. Moreover we extend the topological anomaly analysis to theories coupled to a classical curved superspace background, and use it to derive an all-order expression for the central charge c, the coefficient of the Weyl tensor squared contribution to the conformal anomaly. We also comment on the implications of our results for the central charge a expected to be of relevance for a four-dimensional C-theorem. (author)
Conformal Gauge Relativity - On the Geometrical Unification of Gravitation and Gauge Fields
Musante, Juan Andres
2010-01-01
A Lagrangian depending on geometric variables (metric, affine connection, gauge group generators) is given which maintains compatibility with General Relativity. It generates the dynamics for Electromagnetism and other Gauge Fields along with Gravitation, at the time it gives a geometric foundation for the stress-energy tensor of continuous matter. The geometric-invariance principle under this integration is exposed and the resulting field equations are obtained. The theory is developed over the tangent space of a four-dimensional real manifold and the generators become those from the Homogenous Lorentz group.
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Homogeneous scaling of the group space of the Poincare group, P10, is shown to induce scalings of all geometric quantities associated with the local action of P10. The field equations for both the translation and the Lorentz rotation compensating fields reduce to O(1) equations if the scaling parameter is set equal to the general relativistic gravitational coupling constant 8?Gc-4. Standard expansions of all field variables in power series in the scaling parameter give the following results. The zeroth-order field equations are exactly the classical field equations for matter fields on Minkowski space subject to local action of an internal symmetry group (classical gauge theory). The expansion process is shown to break P10-gauge covariance of the theory, and hence solving the zeroth-order field equations imposes an implicit system of P10-gauge conditions. Explicit systems of field equations are obtained for the first- and higher-order approximations. The first-order translation field equations are driven by the momentum-energy tensor of the matter and internal compensating fields in the zeroth order (classical gauge theory), while the first-order Lorentz rotation field equations are driven by the spin currents of the same classical gauge theory. Field equations for the first-order gravitational corrections to the matter fields and the gauge fields for the internal symmetry group are obtained. Direct Poincare gauge theory is thus shown to satisfy the first two of the three-part acid test of any unified field theory. Satisfaction of the third part of the test, at least for finite neighborhoods, seems probable
Anomalies of E8 gauge theory on String manifolds
Sati, Hisham
2008-01-01
In this note we revisit the subject of anomaly cancelation in string theory and M-theory on manifolds with String structure and give three observations. First, that on String manifolds there is no E8 x E8 global anomaly in heterotic string theory. Second, that the description of the anomaly in the phase of the M-theory partition function of Diaconescu-Moore-Witten extends from the Spin case to the String case. Third, that the cubic refinement law of Diaconescu-Freed-Moore fo...
On anomalies of E8 gauge theory on String manifolds
Sati, Hisham
2008-01-01
In this note we revisit the subject of anomaly cancelation in string theory and M-theory on manifolds with String structure and give three observations. First, that on String manifolds there is no E8 x E_8 global anomaly in heterotic string theory. Second, that the description of the anomaly in the phase of the M-theory partition function of Diaconescu-Moore-Witten extends from the Spin case to the String case. Third, that the cubic refinement law of Diaconescu-Freed-Moore for the phase of the M-theory partition function extends to String manifolds.
Axial anomaly in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm gauge field
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The axial anomaly for Euclidean Dirac fermions in the presence of a background Aharonov-Bohm gauge potential was computed. The non-perturbative result depends on the self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac operator. The role of the quantum mechanical parameters involved in the expression for the axial anomaly is discussed. A derivation of the effective action by means of the stereographic projection is also considered. (authors). 14 refs
Chiral anomalies in higher-derivative supersymmetric 6D gauge theories
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We show that the recently constructed higher-derivative 6D SYM theory involves internal chiral anomaly breaking gauge invariance. The anomaly is cancelled when adding to the theory an adjoint matter hyper-multiplet. One shows that as the effective charge grows at high energies, the theories are not consistently defined nonperturbatively. Constructing a nontrivial 6D theory that would be internally consistent both perturbatively and nonperturbatively remains a major challenge. (author)
Continuous and discrete global anomalies and the null-cone of supersymmetric gauge theories
Dotti, G
2003-01-01
A stronger version of an anomaly matching theorem is proven. It allows to anticipate the matching of continuous and discrete global anomalies, and can be applied at field configurations where the gauge group is not necessarily completely broken. The theorem is used to show that discrete anomaly matching is mathematically unrelated to continuous anomaly matching and thus offer a truly independent test on a given spectrum. It is also applied to the wide class of theories with unconstrained basic gauge invariants, including theories with an affine moduli space and theories in a Coulomb phase, for which an interesting connection is found between anomaly matching and the geometry of the null-cone, the union set of orbits of the complexified gauge group $G^c$ having zero in its boundary. The existence of $G^c$ orbits of maximum dimension in the null-cone implies the matching of continuous anomalies (between the elementary fields and the basic invariants), whereas the distance to the origin of weight space of a hype...
The global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory
Monnier, Samuel
2014-01-01
We derive a formula for the global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory on an arbitrary compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Along the way, we uncover interesting links between the theory of determinant line bundles of Dirac operators, Siegel theta functions and a functor constructed by Hopkins and Singer. We apply our result to type IIB supergravity and show that in the naive approximation where the Ramond-Ramond fields are treated as differential cohomology classes, the global gravitational anomaly vanishes on all 10-dimensional spin manifolds. We sketch a few other important physical applications.
Chiral Imprint of a Cosmic Gauge Field on Primordial Gravitational Waves
Bielefeld, Jannis
2014-01-01
A cosmological gauge field with isotropic stress-energy introduces parity violation into the behavior of gravitational waves. We show that a primordial spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves develops a preferred handedness, left- or right-circularly polarized, depending on the abundance and coupling of the gauge field during the radiation era. A modest abundance of the gauge field would induce parity-violating correlations of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization patterns that could be detected by current and future experiments.
Chiral imprint of a cosmic gauge field on primordial gravitational waves
Bielefeld, Jannis; Caldwell, Robert R.
2015-06-01
A cosmological gauge field with isotropic stress-energy introduces parity violation into the behavior of gravitational waves. We show that a primordial spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves develops a preferred handedness, left or right circularly polarized, depending on the abundance and coupling of the gauge field during the radiation era. A modest abundance of the gauge field would induce parity-violating correlations of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization patterns that could be detected by current and future experiments.
Hawking radiation from gravity's rainbow via gravitational anomaly
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Based on the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and Wilczek, we investigates Hawking radiation from the modified Schwarzschild black hole from gravity's rainbow from the anomaly point of view. Unlike the general Schwarzschild space—time, the metric of this black hole depends on the energies of probes. The obtained result shows to restore the underlying general covariance at the quantum level in the effective field, the covariant compensating flux of energy—momentum tensor, which is related to the energies of the probes, should precisely equal to that of a (1 + 1)-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature
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We show that ghosts in gauge theories can be interpreted as Maurer-Cartan forms in the infinite dimensional group G of gauge transformations. We examine the cohomology of the Lie algebra of G and identify the coboundary opeator with the BRS operator. We describe the anomalous terms encountered in the renormalization of gauge theories (triangle anomalies) as elements of these cohomology groups. (orig.)
Stochastic quantization and gauge-fixing of the linearized gravitational field
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Due to the indefiniteness of the Euclidean gravitational action the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme fails in the case of the gravitational field. Therefore we apply a recently proposed modification of stochastic quantization that works in Minkowski space and preserves all the advantages of the original Parisi-Wu method; in particular no gauge-fixing is required. Additionally stochastic gauge-fixing may be introduced and is also studied in detail. The graviton propagators obtained with and without stochastic gauge-fixing all exhibit a noncausal contribution, but apart from this effect the gauge-invariant quantities are the same as those of standard quantization. (Author)
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-01-01
We prove the Adler-Bardeen theorem in a large class of general gauge theories, including nonrenormalizable ones. We assume that the gauge symmetries are general covariance, local Lorentz symmetry and Abelian and non-Abelian Yang-Mills symmetries, and that the local functionals of vanishing ghost number satisfy a variant of the Kluberg-Stern--Zuber conjecture. We show that if the gauge anomalies are trivial at one loop, for every truncation of the theory there exists a subtraction scheme where they manifestly vanish to all orders, within the truncation. Outside the truncation the cancellation of gauge anomalies can be enforced by fine-tuning local counterterms. The framework of the proof is worked out by combining a recently formulated chiral dimensional regularization with a gauge invariant higher-derivative regularization. If the higher-derivative regularizing terms are placed well beyond the truncation, and the energy scale $\\Lambda$ associated with them is kept fixed, the theory is super-renormalizable and...
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We show that certain one-loop corrections to superstring effective four-dimensional lagrangians, involving non-harmonic field-dependent renormalization of gauge couplings, can be consistently written in a standard N=1 supergravity form, preserving target-space duality. The preservation of target-space duality is due both to a four-dimensional Green-Schwarz mechanism and to local terms, coming from non-local chiral superfields, originated by mixed gauge-?-model anomaly diagrams. In some models, the Green-Schwarz mechanism is sufficient to achieve complete anomaly cancellation. In more general models automorphic functions, generated by the integration over the heavy string modes, are required to preserve target-space duality. (orig.)
Pitts, J. Brian
2009-01-01
The problem of finding a covariant expression for the distribution and conservation of gravitational energy-momentum dates to the 1910s. A suitably covariant infinite-component localization is displayed, reflecting Bergmann's realization that there are infinitely many conserved gravitational energy-momenta. Initially use is made of a flat background metric (or rather, all of them) or connection, because the desired gauge invariance properties are obvious. Partial gauge-fixin...
Kong, Liang
2014-01-01
Gravitational anomalies can be realized on the boundary of topologically ordered states in one higher dimension and are described by topological orders in one higher dimension. In this paper, we try to develop a general theory for both topological order and gravitational anomaly in any dimensions. (1) We introduce the notion of BF category to describe the braiding and fusion properties of topological excitations that can be point-like, string-like, etc. A subset of BF categories -- closed BF categories -- classify topological orders in any dimensions, while generic BF categories classify (potentially) anomalous topological orders that can appear at a boundary of a gapped quantum liquid in one higher dimension. (2) We introduce topological path integral based on tensor network to realize those topological orders. (3) Bosonic topological orders have an important topological invariant: the vector bundles of the degenerate ground states over the moduli spaces of closed spaces with different metrics. They may full...
Gravitational waves from Abelian gauge fields and cosmic strings at preheating
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Primordial gravitational waves provide a very important stochastic background that could be detected soon with interferometric gravitational wave antennas or indirectly via the induced patterns in the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The detection of these waves will open a new window into the early Universe, and therefore it is important to characterize in detail all possible sources of primordial gravitational waves. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical methods to study the production of gravitational waves from out-of-equilibrium gauge fields at preheating. We then consider models of preheating after hybrid inflation, where the symmetry breaking field is charged under a local U(1) symmetry. We analyze in detail the dynamics of the system in both momentum and configuration space. We show that gauge fields leave specific imprints in the resulting gravitational wave spectra, mainly through the appearance of new peaks at characteristic frequencies that are related to the mass scales in the problem. We also show how these new features in the spectra correlate with stringlike spatial configurations in both the Higgs and gauge fields that arise due to the appearance of topological winding numbers of the Higgs around Nielsen-Olesen strings. We study in detail the time evolution of the spectrum of gauge fields and gravitational waves as these strings evolve and decay before entering a turbulent regime where the gravitational wave elent regime where the gravitational wave energy density saturates.
Hawking radiation from the Schwarzschild black hole with a global monopole via gravitational anomaly
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This paper derives the Hawking flux from the Schwarzschild black hole with a global monopole by using Robinson and Wilczek's method. Adopting a dimensional reduction technique, it can describe the effective quantum field in the (3 + 1)-dimensional global monopole background by an infinite collection of the (1 + 1)-dimensional massless fields if neglecting the ingoing modes near the horizon, where the gravitational anomaly can be cancelled by the (1 + 1)-dimensional black body radiation at the Hawking temperature
Rose, Luigi Delle
2013-01-01
The principal goal of the physics of the fundamental interactions is to provide a consistent description of the nature of the subnuclear forces, which manifest in our universe, together with the gravitational force, in a unified framework. This attempt, which is far from being complete, is characterized by two milestones, the Standard Model of the elementary particles and the Einstein's theory of General Relativity. The coupling of a quantum field theory, such as the Standard Model, to a weak gravitational background provides significant information concerning the coupling of matter to gravity and allows to study in a systematic way the origin of the conformal anomaly. For this reason, the computation of correlation functions in a weak gravitational background is of remarkable interest and the consequences of this analysis are also of phenomenological relevance. For instance, they concern the appearance in the spectrum of the theory of a composite state, the dilaton, which is identified, in perturbation theor...
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Using anomalous viewpoint, we study the Hawking radiation from a kind of topological Kerr Anti-de-Sitter (Kerr-AdS) black hole with one rotational parameter. We employ the covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies. The result supports the Robinson–Wilczek opinion and shows that the Hawking temperature can be correctly determined by cancelling covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies at the horizon
Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models
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Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free ZN symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z6 symmetry, proton hexality P6, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LHuLHu. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1)X FN models in which the Z3 symmetry baryon triality, B3, arises from U(1)X breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B3-conserving FN models. (orig.)
Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luhn, C.
2006-05-15
Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free Z{sub N} symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z{sub 6} symmetry, proton hexality P{sub 6}, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LH{sub u}LH{sub u}. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1){sub X} FN models in which the Z{sub 3} symmetry baryon triality, B{sub 3}, arises from U(1){sub X} breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B{sub 3}-conserving FN models. (orig.)
On the relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation
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One sees the basic ideas of the gauge gravitation theory still not generally accepted in spite of more than twenty years of its history. The chief reason lies in the fact that the gauge character of gravity is connected with the whole complex of problems of Einstein General Relativity: about the reference system definition, on the (3+1)-splitting, on the presence (or absence) of symmetries in GR, on the necessity (or triviality) of general covariance, on the meaning of equivalence principle, which led Einstein from Special to General Relativity |1|. The real actuality of this complex of interconnected problems is demonstrated by the well-known work of V. Fock, who saw no symmetries in General Relativity, declared the unnecessary Equivalence principle and proposed even to substitute the designation ''chronogeometry'' instead of ''general relativity'' (see also P. Havas). Developing this line, H. Bondi quite recently also expressed doubts about the ''relativity'' in Einstein theory of gravitation. All proposed versions of the gauge gravitation theory must clarify the discrepancy between Einstein gravitational field being a pseudo-Riemannian metric field, and the gauge potentials representing connections on some fiber bundles and there exists no group, whose gauging would lead to the purely gravitational part of connection (Christoffel symbols or Fock-Ivenenko-Weyl spinorial coefficients). (author)
Trace anomaly and quasi-particles in finite temperature SU(N) gauge theory
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We consider deconfined matter in SU(N) gauge theory as an ideal gas of transversely polarized quasi-particle modes having a temperature-dependent mass m(T). Just above the transition temperature, the mass is assumed to be determined by the critical behavior of the energy density and the screening length in the medium. At high temperature, it becomes proportional to T as the only remaining scale. The resulting (trace anomaly based) interaction measure ?=(?-3P)/T4 and energy density are found to agree well with finite temperature SU(3) lattice calculations. (orig.)
Anomaly, gauge and gaugino mediation in brane worlds with messenger matter.
Nelson, Ann E; Weiner, Neal J
2002-06-10
Theories in which supersymmetry is broken on another brane, which is separated from the minimal supersymmetry standard model (MSSM) matter fields in an extra dimension, are attractive because they may solve the supersymmetric flavor problem. We consider the effects in such theories of new messenger fields with standard model gauge charges and with direct couplings to the supersymmetry breaking sector. The effect on the masses of the MSSM superpartners can be dramatic. In particular, the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation and the stable slepton problem of gaugino mediation can be cured. PMID:12059352
From Gauge Anomalies to Gerbes and Gerbal Representations: Group Cocycles in Quantum Theory
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J. Mickelsson
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper I shall discuss the role of group cohomology in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. First, I recall how cocycles of degree 1 and 2 appear naturally in the context of gauge anomalies. Then we investigate how group cohomology of degree 3 comes from a prolongation problem for group extensions and we discuss its role in quantum field theory. Finally, we discuss a generalization to representation theory where a representation is replaced by a 1-cocycle or its prolongation by a circle, and point out how this type of situations come up in the quantization of Yang-Mills theory.
Chiral symmetry breaking and nonperturbative scale anomaly in gauge field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nonperturbative dynamics of chiral and scale symmetry breaking in asymtotically free and non-asymptotically free (with an ultraviolet stable fixed point) vector-like gauge theories is investigated. In the two-loop approximation analytical expressions for the chiral and gluon condensates are obtained. The hypothesis about a soft behaviour at small distances of composite operators in non-asymptotically free gauge theories with a fixed point is put forward and substantiated. It is shown that in these theories the form of the scale anomaly depends on the type of the phase in coupling constant to which it relates. A new dilaton effective lagrangian for glueball and chiral fields is suggested. The mass relation for the single scalar fermion-antifermion bound state is obtained. The important ingredient of this approach is a large (d? 2) dynamical dimension of composite chiral fields. The application of this approach to QCD and technicolour models is discussed
Anomalies of density, stresses, and the gravitational field in the interior of mars
Chuikova, N. A.; Nasonova, L. P.; Maksimova, T. G.
2012-03-01
We determined the possible compensation depths for relief harmonics of different degrees and orders. The relief is shown to be completely compensated within the depth range of 0 to 1400 km. The lateral distributions of compensation masses are determined at these depths and the maps are constructed. The possible nonisostatic vertical stresses in the crust and mantle of Mars are estimated to be 64 MPa in compression and 20 MPa in tension. The relief anomalies of the Tharsis volcanic plateau and symmetric feature in the eastern hemisphere could have arisen and been maintained dynamically due to two plumes in the mantle substance that are enriched with fluids. The plumes that originate at the core of Mars can arise and be maintained by the anomalies of the inner gravitational field achieving +800 mGal in the region of plume formation, - 1200 mGal above the lower mantle-core transition layer, and -1400 mGal at the crust.
Anomalies of Density, Stresses, and the Gravitational Field in the Interior of Mars
Chuikova, N A; Maksimova, T G; 10.3103/S0027134912020075
2012-01-01
We determined the possible compensation depths for relief harmonics of different degrees and orders. The relief is shown to be completely compensated within the depth range of 0 to 1400 km. The lateral distributions of compensation masses are determined at these depths and the maps are constructed. The possible nonisostatic vertical stresses in the crust and mantle of Mars are estimated to be 64 MPa in compression and 20 MPa in tension. The relief anomalies of the Tharsis volcanic plateau and symmetric feature in the eastern hemisphere could have arisen and been maintained dynamically due to two plumes in the mantle substance that are enriched with fluids. The plumes that originate at the core of Mars can arise and be maintained by the anomalies of the inner gravitational field achieving +800 mGal in the region of plume formation, - 1200 mGal above the lower mantle-core transition layer, and -1400 mGal at the crust.
Hawking Radiation of Black Rings from Anomalies
Chen, Bin; He, Wei
2007-01-01
We derive Hawking radiation of 5-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find as in the black hole case, the problem could reduce to a (1+1) dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral,dipole and charged black rings.
Linearization stability of couples gravitational and gauge fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The work of Fischer, Marsden, and Moncrief on linearization stability of vacuum spacetimes is extended to the case of gravity coupled with a sourceless gauge field. (Linearization stability concerns the validity of first order perturbation theory. A nonlinear equation is said to be linearization stable when solutions of the linearized equation are tangent to curves of solutions of the original nonlinear equation.) For a spacetime with a compact Cauchy surface and a gauge field with matrix gauge group whose Lie algebra admits an adjoint action invariant nondegenerate metric, conditions for linearization stability of the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills field equations are obtained. These conditions are sufficient conditions on the Cauchy surface and necessary and sufficient conditions on the spacetime. Roughly speaking, the results state that linearization stability can be guaranteed when the fields are not ''too symmetrical.'' Thus a generic solution, which lacks symmetry, is linearization stable. The proof of the main results uses the ellipticity of the adjoint operator to the linearized constraints, elliptic operator theory, and the implicit function theorem for Banach spaces. The spacetime results are most geometrically and concisely stated in terms of the principal fiber bundle formulation of gauge fields. Linearization instability, the kernel of the adjoint operator, and nontrivial infinitesimal symmetries on the bundle for the gravity and gauge fields are identified.e gravity and gauge fields are identified. Comparisons to related work, including the Atiyah-Hitchin-Singer work on the moduli space of self-dual gauge fields, are made
The Huygens principle and cosmological gravitational waves in the Regge-Wheeler gauge
Malec, E; Malec, Edward; Wylezek, Grzegorz
2005-01-01
We study the propagation of axial gravitational waves in Friedman universes. The evolution equation is obtained in the Regge-Wheeler gauge. The gravitational waves obey the Huygens principle in the radiation dominated era, but in the matter dominated universe their propagation depends on their wavelengths, with the scale fixed essentially by the Hubble radius. Short waves practically satisfy the Huygens principle while long waves can backscatter off the curvature of a spacetime.
The Huygens principle and cosmological gravitational waves in the Regge-Wheeler gauge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malec, Edward; Wylezek, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow, Reymonta 4 (Poland)
2005-09-07
We study the propagation of axial gravitational waves in Friedmann universes. The evolution equation is obtained in the Regge-Wheeler gauge. The gravitational waves obey the Huygens principle in the radiation-dominated era, but in the matter-dominated universe their propagation depends on their wavelengths, with the scale fixed essentially by the Hubble radius. Short waves practically satisfy the Huygens principle while long waves can backscatter off the curvature of a spacetime.
The Huygens principle and cosmological gravitational waves in the Regge-Wheeler gauge
Malec, Edward; Wylezek, Grzegorz
2005-01-01
We study the propagation of axial gravitational waves in Friedman universes. The evolution equation is obtained in the Regge-Wheeler gauge. The gravitational waves obey the Huygens principle in the radiation dominated era, but in the matter dominated universe their propagation depends on their wavelengths, with the scale fixed essentially by the Hubble radius. Short waves practically satisfy the Huygens principle while long waves can backscatter off the curvature of a spacet...
Online-Offline, 1999
1999-01-01
This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…
Gravitational and gauge couplings in Chern-Simons fractional spin gravity
Boulanger, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Mauricio
2015-01-01
We propose an extension of Vasiliev's supertrace operation for the enveloping algebra of Wigner's deformed oscillator algebra to the fractional spin algebra given in arXiv:1312.5700. The resulting three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory unifies the Blencowe-Vasiliev higher spin gravity with fractional spin fields and internal gauge potentials. For integer or half-integer fractional spins, infinite dimensional ideals arise and decouple, leaving finite dimensional gauge algebras gl(2l+1) or gl(l|l+1) and various real forms thereof. We derive the relation between gravitational and internal gauge couplings.
Gauge theory duals of black hole – black string transitions of gravitational theories on a circle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the black hole – black string phase transitions of gravitational theories compactified on a circle using the holographic duality conjecture. The gauge theory duals of these theories are maximally supersymmetric and strongly coupled 1 + 1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theories compactified on a circle, in the large N limit. We perform the strongly coupled finite temperature gauge theory calculations on a lattice, using the recently developed exact lattice supersymmetry methods based on topological twisting and orbifolding. The spatial Polyakov line serves as relevant order parameter of the confinement – deconfinement phase transitions in the gauge theory duals
Gauge theories of gravitation a reader with commentaries
Blagojevic, Milutin
2013-01-01
In the last five decades, the gauge approach to gravity has represented a research area of increasing importance for our understanding of the physics of fundamental interactions. A full clarification of the gauge dynamics of gravity is expected to be the last missing link to the hidden structure of a consistent unification of all the fundamental interactions, based on the gauge principle. The aim of the present reprint volume, with commentaries by Milutin Blagojevi & 263; and Friedrich W Hehl, is to introduce graduate and advanced undergraduate students of theoretical or mathematical physics, or any other interested researcher, to the field of classical gauge theories of gravity. This is not just an ordinary reprint volume; it is a guide to the literature on gauge theories of gravity. The reader is encouraged first to study the introductory commentaries and to become familiar with the basic content of the reprints and related ideas, then he/she can choose to read a specific reprint or reprints, and after ...
Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.
2011-10-01
In Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) from orbifold and various string constructions the generic vector-like particles do not need to form complete SU(5) or SO(10) representations. To realize them concretely, we present orbifold SU(5) models, orbifold SO(10) models where the gauge symmetry can be broken down to flipped SU(5) × U(1) X or Pati-Salam SU(4) C × SU(2) L × SU(2) R gauge symmetries, and F-theory SU(5) models. Interestingly, these vector-like particles can be at the TeV-scale so that the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass can be lifted, or play the messenger fields in the Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (GMSB). Considering GMSB, ultraviolet insensitive Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB), and the deflected AMSB, we study the general gaugino mass relations and their indices, which are valid from the GUT scale to the electroweak scale at one loop, in the SU(5) models, the flipped SU(5) × U(1) X models, and the Pati-Salam SU(4) C × SU(2) L × SU(2) R models. In the deflected AMSB, we also define the new indices for the gaugino mass relations, and calculate them as well. Using these gaugino mass relations and their indices, we may probe the messenger fields at intermediate scale in the GMSB and deflected AMSB, determine the supersymmetry breaking mediation mechanisms, and distinguish the four-dimensional GUTs, orbifold GUTs, and F-theory GUTs.
Kaluza-Klein electric monopole in a six-dimensional Poincare gauge theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We found a solution to the six-dimensional Poincare gauge theory that can be interpreted as the gravitational field and the electric field of an electric monopole in four-dimensional spacetime. The extra dimensions are curled up into a compact space of a size characterized by the Planck length. (orig.)
Ahmed, D A
1998-01-01
"Quantum Topology" deals with the general quantum theory as the theory of the functional quantum space; space time and energy momentum forms form a connected manifold; a functional quantum space on the quantum level. The general quantum theory derives from the topology of the quantum space. "Quantum Topodynamics" derives from quantum topology, it deals with the set that underlies the assumed one structure of the topology, group and logic structure of the quantum space. The underlying structure was founded on the Fourier representation of the functional space. "Differential Topology in Quantum Space" deals with the method of analysis approperiate for the quantum space; based on the Fourier representation of the functional space. "Gauge Theory of Gravitation" deals with gravitation as a quantum topological phenomenon; by introducing the effect of gravitation into the quantum space through a phase angle; this displays its unity with the rest of the gauge interactions and shows that the manifold is compact.
Pitts, J Brian
2009-01-01
The problem of finding a covariant expression for the distribution and conservation of gravitational energy-momentum dates to the 1910s. A suitably covariant infinite-component localization is displayed, reflecting Bergmann's realization that there are infinitely many gravitational energy-momenta. Initially use is made of a flat background metric (or rather, all of them) or connection, because the desired gauge invariance properties are obvious. Partial gauge-fixing then yields an appropriate covariant quantity without any background metric or connection; one version is the collection of pseudotensors of a given type, such as the Einstein pseudotensor, in_every_ coordinate system. This solution to the gauge covariance problem is easily adapted to any pseudotensorial expression (Landau-Lifshitz, Goldberg, Papapetrou or the like) or to any tensorial expression built with a background metric or connection. Thus the specific functional form can be chosen on technical grounds such as relating to Noether's theorem ...
Higgs and gravitational scalar fields together induce Weyl gauge
Scholz, Erhard
2014-01-01
A common biquadratic potential for the Higgs field $h$ and an additional scalar field $\\phi$, non minimally coupled to gravity, is considered in locally scale symmetric approaches to standard model fields in curved spacetime. A common ground state of the two scalar fields exists and couples both fields to gravity, more precisely to scalar curvature $R$. In Einstein gauge ($\\phi = const$, often called "Einstein frame"), also $R$ is scaled to a constant. This condition makes perfect sense, even in the general case, in the Weyl geometric approach. There it has been called {\\em Weyl gauge}, because it was first considered by Weyl in the different context of his original scale geometric theory of gravity of 1918. Now it seems to get new meaning as a combined effect of electroweak theory and gravity, and their common influence on atomic frequencies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dynamics of metric perturbations is explored in the gravity theory with anomaly-induced quantum corrections. Our first purpose is to derive the equation for gravitational waves in this theory on the general homogeneous and isotropic background, and then verify the stability of such background with respect to metric perturbations. The problem under consideration has several interesting applications. Our first purpose is to explore the stability of the classical cosmological solutions in the theory with quantum effects taken into account. There is an interesting literature about stability of Minkowski and de Sitter spaces and here we extend the consideration also to the radiation and matter dominated cosmologies. Furthermore, we analyze the behavior of metric perturbations during inflationary period, in the stable phase of the Modified Starobinsky inflation
The trumpet solution from spherical gravitational collapse with puncture gauges
Thierfelder, Marcus; Hilditch, David; Bruegmann, Bernd; Rezzolla, Luciano
2010-01-01
We investigate the stationary end-state obtained by evolving a collapsing spherical star with the gauges routinely adopted to study puncture black holes. We compare the end-state of the collapse with the trumpet solution found in the evolution of a single wormhole slice and show that the two solutions closely agree. We demonstrate that the agreement is caused by the use of the Gamma-driver shift condition, which allows the matter to fall inwards into a region of spacetime that is not resolved by the numerical grid, and which simultaneously finds the stationary coordinates of the trumpet outside the matter.
Axial vacuum symmetry of the unified gauge theories with the gravitational mechanism of instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of stable-state determination is considered in unified gauge theories involving gravitation. The gravitational fields are examined at a classical level. The self-consistent set of field equations is studied in the semiclassical approach. A new determination of stable states is given. If the conditions of the determination are not satisfied then the vacuum state may be metastable. For the case of axial symmetry the metastable Z-type states are shown to cancel if these states are symmetric. (author)
Stochastic quantization of gauge, gravitational and string fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu and its application to gauge fields are briefly reviewed. The method is then generalized so as to make it applicable to Einstein gravity. The generalization is based on the existence of a preferred metric in field configuration space and involves Ito's calculus. In the nonlinear case the indefiniteness of the Euclidean Einstein action necessitates to generalize the stochastic formalism further to Lorentzian space-times. The formalism is shown to imply the path integral measure of De Witt, a causal Feynman propagator, and a consistent stochastic perturbation theory. Finally it is shown how stochastic quantization resolves the indefiniteness problem in free bosonic string field theory. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The vacuum equations for Bianchi I cosmology in the conformal Poincare -gauge theory of gravitation are considered. All possible cases are investigated. It is shown that do not exist the solutions which are different from the Kasner line element. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Vielbein formulation of Weyl geometry with torsion and the conformal gauge field theory in an integrable Weyl spacetime are proposed. A formula of the movement mass, m = K?(x), is obtained, where K is proved to mean gravitational charge and ?(x) inertial factor. When the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken, the Einstein gravity emerges. And the cosmological constant vanishes if and only if 0 = 0
Gauge theory and gravitation: an approach to a fiber bundle formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The thesis is composed of two different parts. A formal complete and rigorous mathematical part-of topics of differential manilfolds, exterior calculus, riemannian geometry, principal fiber bundle (p.f.) with connections and linear connections and a second part of application of this mathematical formalism concerning physical theories, particularly the Maxwell eletromagnetism (EM), gauge theory of Yang-Mills (Y-M), the GRT, and the gravitation theory of Einstein-Cartan. (E.C.)
Pitts, J. Brian
2009-01-01
The problem of finding a covariant expression for the distribution and conservation of gravitational energy-momentum dates to the 1910s. A suitably covariant infinite-component localization is displayed, reflecting Bergmann's realization that there are infinitely many conserved gravitational energy-momenta. Initially use is made of a flat background metric or connection (or rather, all of them), because the desired gauge invariance properties are obvious. Partial gauge-fixin...
Schradin, Leslie J., III
We introduce the Standard Model, list a large sector of the low energy data, and present extensions to the Standard Model including grand unification, supersymmetry, and orbifold extra dimensions. These foundations underly the research presented in this dissertation, which is from three separate projects. Texture models are Ansatze for the undiagonalized Yukawa matrices in which some of the matrix elements have been chosen to vanish. Recent precise measurements of sin 2beta from the B-factories (BABAR and BELLE) and a better known strange quark mass from lattice QCD make precision tests of predictive texture models possible. We show that in a set of these models, their maximal sin 2beta values rule them out at the 3sigma level. While at present sin 2beta and |Vub/Vcb| are equally good for testing N-zero texture models, in the near future the former will surpass the latter in constraining power. We construct a supersymmetric SO(10) x D3 grand unified model with an orbifold extra dimension S1/(Z2 x Z2'). The model uses 11 parameters to fit the 13 independent low energy observables of the charged fermion Yukawa matrices and predicts the values of two quark mass combinations, mu/mc and mdmsmb, to each be approximately 1sigma above their experimental values. The remaining observables are successfully fit at the 5% level. This model is shown to have a gauge anomaly on one of the fixed points and we discuss the alterations in field content necessary to repair it. Extra dimensional orbifold theories have gauge anomaly structures which are more complicated than those of Minkowski space. We review previous work done by von Gersdorff and Quiros to derive general expressions for orbifold gauge anomalies. These equations are applied to a supersymmetric 6D orbifold model with E6 gauge symmetry presented by Kobayashi, Raby, and Zhang in order to verify the gauge anomaly cancellations. From this illustration we conclude that the constraining power of orbifold gauge anomalies on the field content of the theory is about as great as the usual case in Minkowski space and depends highly on the gauge groups and number of dimensions present.
Numerical evolution of plane gravitational waves in the Friedrich-Nagy gauge
Frauendiener, Jörg; Stevens, Chris
2014-05-01
The first proof of well posedness of an initial boundary value problem for the Einstein equations was given in 1999 by Friedrich and Nagy. They used a frame formalism with a particular gauge for formulating the equations. This "Friedrich-Nagy" gauge has never been implemented for use in numerical simulations before because it was deemed too complicated. In this paper we present an implementation of the Friedrich-Nagy gauge for systems with two commuting spacelike Killing vectors. We investigate the numerical performance of this formulation for plane wave space-times, reproducing the well-known Khan-Penrose solution for colliding impulsive plane waves and exhibiting a gravitational wave "ping-pong."
BRS cohomology and topological anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The occurrence of non-abelian anomalies in gauge theories and gravitation, first discovered via perturbative techniques, is now completely explained from the mathematical point of view by means of the family index theorem of Atiyah and Singer. Here we make contact between this approach and BRS cohomology, by showing that they yield the same non-abelian anomalies, provided a certain restriction to ''local'' functionals is not introduced from the very beginning. In particular, this solves the ''unicity'' problem for this kind of anomalies. Local BRS cohomology is still relevant for the abelian case. (orig.)
On-shell Supersymmetry Anomalies and the Spontaneous Breaking of Gauge Symmetry
Dixon, J. A.
1993-01-01
A search for supersymmetry anomalies requires an examination of the BRS cohomology of supersymmetric Yang-Mills coupled to chiral matter, and the physically interesting (on-shell) anomalies are those which cannot be eliminated using the equations of motion. An analysis of this cohomology problem shows that the simplest situation where a physically interesting supersymmetry anomaly can arise is when: 1. the anomaly occurs in the renormalization of a composite antichiral spino...
Does the Neptunian system of satellites challenge a gravitational origin for the Pioneer anomaly?
Iorio, Lorenzo
2009-01-01
If the Pioneer Anomaly was a genuine dynamical effect of gravitational origin, it should also affect the orbital motions of the solar system's bodies moving in the space regions in which the PA manifested itself in its presently known form, i.e. as a constant and uniform acceleration approximately directed towards the Sun with a non-zero magnitude (8.74+/-1.33) x 10^-10 m s^-2 after 20 au from the Sun. We preliminarily investigate its effects on the orbital motions of the Neptunian satellites Triton, Nereid and Proteus, located at about 30 au from the Sun, both analytically and numerically. The analytical calculations show that the PA-induced radial and transverse perturbations of Triton are of the order of a few km yr^-1, those of Nereid are about 10+/-100 km yr^-1, while Proteus experiences radial and transverse shifts of the order of 0.1 km yr^-1. The out-of-plane perturbations are negligible, apart from that of Nereid which amounts to about 20 km yr^-1. The corresponding orbital uncertainties obtained fro...
Busack, Hans-Juergen
2007-01-01
All anomalous velocity increases until now observed during the Earth flybys of the spacecrafts Galileo, NEAR, Rosetta, Cassini and Messenger have been correctly calculated by computer simulation using an asymmetric potential term in addition to the Newtonian potential. The specific characteristic of this term is the lack of coupling to the rotation of the Earth or to the direction of other gravitational sources such as the Sun or Moon. Instead, the asymmetry is oriented in the direction of the Earth's motion within an assumed unique reference frame. With this assumption, the simulation results of the Earth flybys Galileo1, NEAR, Rosetta1 and Cassini hit the observed nominal values, while for the flybys Galileo2 and Messenger, which for different reasons are measured with uncertain anomaly values, the simulated anomalies are within plausible ranges. Furthermore, the shape of the simulated anomaly curve is in qualitative agreement with the measured Doppler residuals immediately following the perigee of the firs...
Hawking radiation from the dilaton—(anti) de Sitter black hole via covariant anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adopting the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and Wilczek recently, this paper discusses Hawking radiation from the dilaton—(anti) de Sitter black hole. To save the underlying gauge and general covariance, it introduces covariant fluxes of gauge and energy-momentum tensor to cancel the gauge and gravitational anomalies. The result shows that the introduced compensating fluxes are equivalent to those of a 2-dimensional blackbody radiation at Hawking temperature with appropriate chemical potential. (general)
Dietrich, Tim; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano
2015-02-01
We reexamine the gravitational collapse of rotating neutron stars to black holes by new 3 +1 numerical relativity simulations employing the Z4c formulation of Einstein equations, the moving puncture gauge conditions, and a conservative mesh refinement scheme for the general relativistic hydrodynamics. The end state of the collapse is compared to the vacuum spacetime resulting from the evolution of spinning puncture initial data. Using a local analysis for the metric fields, we demonstrate that the two spacetimes actually agree. Gravitational waveforms are analyzed in some detail. We connect the emission of radiation to the collapse dynamics using simplified spacetime diagrams, and discuss the similarity of the waveform structure with the one of black hole perturbation theory.
Dietrich, Tim
2014-01-01
We reexamine the gravitational collapse of rotating neutron stars to black holes by new 3+1 numerical relativity simulations employing the Z4c formulation of Einstein equations, the moving puncture gauge conditions, and a conservative mesh refinement scheme or the general relativistic hydrodynamics. The end state of the collapse is compared to the vacuum spacetime resulting from the evolution of spinning puncture initial data. Using a local analysis for the metric fields, we demonstrate that the two spacetimes atually agree. Gravitational waveforms are analyzed in some detail. We connect the emission of radiation to the collapse dynamics using simplified spacetime diagrams, and discuss the similarity of the waveform structure with the one of black hole perturbation theory.
Information Geometry of Hydrodynamics with Global Anomalies
Surówka, Piotr
2015-01-01
We construct information geometry for hydrodynamics with global gauge and gravitational anomalies in $1+1$ and $3+1$ dimensions. We introduce the metric on a parameter space and show that turning on non-zero rotations leads to a curvature on the statistical manifold. We calculate the curvature invariant and analyze its divergences, which occur at the transition points of the system. The transition points are universal and expressed in terms of ratios of anomaly coefficients.
Covariant Lorentz anomalies in higher dimensional space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The covariant Lorentz anomalies are evaluated by both the path integral and the topological methods, when Weyl fermions couple with the gauge and gravitational fields. In 2,4,6-dimensional curved space, the difference between the results obtained by the two methods is removed by counterterms and the equivalence of both methods is proved. It is shown that the Lorentz anomalies in flat space of arbitrary dimensions are eliminated. (author)
Heineman Prize Lecture: Anomaly Cancellation: A Retrospective
Schwarz, John
2002-04-01
The mechanism by which gauge and gravitational anomalies cancel in certain string theories is reviewed. A few new tricks are introduced to make the derivation a little simpler, and the string-theoretic interpretation a little clearer, than in the original 1984 work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We extend a previous analysis on the derivation of the dilaton Wess–Zumino (WZ) action in d = 4, based on the method of Weyl gauging, to six dimensions. As in the previous case, we discuss the structure of the same action in dimensional regularization using six-dimensional Weyl invariants, extracting the dilaton interactions in the most general scheme, with the inclusion of the local anomaly terms. As an application, we present the WZ action for the (2,0) tensor multiplet, which has been investigated in the past in the context of the AdS7/CFT6 holographic anomaly matching. We then extend to d = 6 the investigation of fully traced correlation functions of energy–momentum tensor’s, formerly presented in d = 4, showing that their hierarchy is functionally related only to the first six correlators. We give the explicit expressions of these in the most general scheme, up to rank-4. (paper)
Stabilizing the Axion by Discrete Gauge Symmetries
Babu, K. S.; Gogoladze, Ilia; Wang, Kai
2002-01-01
The axion solution to the strong CP problem makes use of a global Peccei-Quinn U(1) symmetry which is susceptible to violations from quantum gravitational effects. We show how discrete gauge symmetries can protect the axion from such violations. PQ symmetry emerges as an approximate global symmetry from discrete gauge symmetries. Simple models based on Z_N symmetries with N =11,12, etc are presented realizing the DFSZ axion and the KSVZ axion. The discrete gauge anomalies ar...
Marchuk, N. G.
1999-01-01
We suggest model equations, which, from some point of view, describe local interaction of three physical fields: a field of matter, an electromagnetic field and a gravitational field. A base of the model is a field of matter described by the wave function of fermion satisfying the equation similar to Dirac equation for electron. Electromagnetic and gravitational fields appear as the gauge fields for this equation. We have found the connection between these fields and the cur...
Anomaly cancellation and gauge group of the standard model in NCG
Alvarez, Enrique; Martín, C P; Alvarez, Enrique
1995-01-01
It is well known that anomaly cancellation {\\it almost} determines the hypercharges in the standard model. A related (and somewhat more stronger) phenomenon takes place in Connes' NCG framework: unimodularity (a technical condition on elements of the algebra) is {\\it strictly} equivalent to anomaly cancellation (in the absence of right-handed neutrinos); and this in turn reduces the symmetry group of the theory to the standard SU(3)\\times SU(2) \\times U(1).
Hawking radiation from Kerr–Newman de Sitter black hole via anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, Hawking radiation from the Kerr–Newman de Sitter black hole is studied via gauge anomaly and gravitational anomaly. The obtained results of Hawking radiation from the event horizon and the cosmological horizon accord with those by other methods. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Morris-Thorne wormhole and vacuum equations in the conformal Poincare-gauge theory of gravitation are considered. It is shown that wormholes cannot be realized as configurations of a '' usual '' matter. It is obtained also that dynamic vacuum solutions for spherical symmetric case coincide with the corresponding GR solutions. (authors)
Classical field theory on electrodynamics, non-Abelian gauge theories and gravitation
Scheck, Florian
2012-01-01
The book describes Maxwell's equations first in their integral, directly testable form, then moves on to their local formulation. The first two chapters cover all essential properties of Maxwell's equations, including their symmetries and their covariance in a modern notation. Chapter 3 is devoted to Maxwell theory as a classical field theory and to solutions of the wave equation. Chapter 4 deals with important applications of Maxwell theory. It includes topical subjects such as metamaterials with negative refraction index and solutions of Helmholtz' equation in paraxial approximation relevant for the description of laser beams. Chapter 5 describes non-Abelian gauge theories from a classical, geometric point of view, in analogy to Maxwell theory as a prototype, and culminates in an application to the U(2) theory relevant for electroweak interactions. The last chapter 6 gives a concise summary of semi-Riemannian geometry as the framework for the classical field theory of gravitation. The chapter concludes wit...
Bashinsky, Sergei
2015-01-01
We study a finite basic structure that possibly underlies the observed elementary quantum fields with gauge and gravitational interactions. Realistic wave functions of locally interacting quantum fields emerge naturally as fitting functions for the generic distribution of many quantifiable properties of arbitrary static objects. We prove that in any quantum theory with the superposition principle, evolution of a current state of fields unavoidably continues along alternate routes with every conceivable Hamiltonian for the fields. This applies to the emergent quantum fields too. Yet the Hamiltonian is unambiguous for isolated emergent systems with sufficient local symmetry. The other emergent systems, without specific physical laws, cannot be inhabitable. The acceptable systems are eternally inflating universes with reheated regions. We see how eternal inflation perpetually creates new short-scale physical degrees of freedom and why they are initially in the ground state. In the emergent quantum worlds probabi...
Pitts, J Brian
2009-01-01
The problem of finding a covariant expression for the distribution and conservation of gravitational energy-momentum dates to the 1910s. A suitably covariant infinite-component localization is displayed, reflecting Bergmann's realization that there are infinitely many conserved gravitational energy-momenta. Initially use is made of a flat background metric or connection (or rather, all of them), because the desired gauge invariance properties are obvious. Partial gauge-fixing then yields an appropriate covariant quantity without any background metric or connection; one version is the collection of pseudotensors of a given type, such as the Einstein pseudotensor, in_every_ coordinate system. This solution to the gauge covariance problem is easily adapted to any pseudotensorial expression or to any tensorial expression built with a background metric or connection. Thus the specific functional form can be chosen on technical grounds such as relating to Noether's theorem and yielding expected values of conserved ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine the adiabatic approximation in the study of a relativistic two-body problem with the gravitational radiation reaction. We recently pointed out that the usual metric perturbation scheme using a perturbation of the stress-energy tensor may not be appropriate for study of the dissipative dynamics of the bodies due to the radiation reaction. Over a time scale during which the usual perturbation scheme is valid, the orbits may not deviate substantially relative to the orbits of the background orbits. As a result, one can eliminate the orbital deviation through a gauge transformation. This is called the gauge problem of the gravitational radiation reaction exerted on the bodies, and it has been reported that a careful gauge fixing may be necessary to produce a physically reasonable prediction for the evolution of the system. We recently proposed a possible approach to solve this problem with a linear black hole perturbation. This paper proposes a non-linear generalization of that method for a general application of this problem. We show that, under a specific gauge condition, the method actually allows us to avoid the gauge problem. (author)
Note on Anomaly Cancellation on SO(32) heterotic 5-brane
Imazato, Harunobu; Yata, Masaya
2010-01-01
We show that the gauge, gravitational (tangent-bundle) and their mixed anomalies arising from the localized modes near a 5-brane in the SO(32) heterotic string theory cancel with the anomaly inflow from the bulk with the use of Green-Schwarz mechanism on the brane, similarly to the E_8 x E_8 5-brane case. We also compare our result with Mourad's analysis performed in the small-instanton limit.
Note on Anomaly Cancellation on SO(32) Heterotic 5-BRANE
Imazato, Harunobu; Mizoguchi, Shun'ya; Yata, Masaya
We show that the gauge, gravitational (tangent-bundle) and their mixed anomalies arising from the localized modes near a 5-brane in the SO(32) heterotic string theory cancel with the anomaly inflow from the bulk with the use of the Green-Schwarz mechanism on the brane, similarly to the E8×E8 5-brane case. We also compare our result with Mourad's analysis performed in the small-instanton limit.
Anomalies of Density, Stresses, and the Gravitational Field in the Interior of Mars
Chuikova, N. A.; Nasonova, L. P.; Maksimova, T. G.
2012-01-01
We determined the possible compensation depths for relief harmonics of different degrees and orders. The relief is shown to be completely compensated within the depth range of 0 to 1400 km. The lateral distributions of compensation masses are determined at these depths and the maps are constructed. The possible nonisostatic vertical stresses in the crust and mantle of Mars are estimated to be 64 MPa in compression and 20 MPa in tension. The relief anomalies of the Tharsis vo...
Exact results in two-dimensional chiral hydrodynamics with gravitational anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An exact formulation of two-dimensional chiral hydrodynamics with diffeomorphism and conformal anomalies is provided. The constitutive relation involving the stress tensor is computed. It reveals a one parameter class of solutions which is a new result. For a particular value of this parameter, the results found in the gradient expansion scheme are reproduced. Moreover, the constitutive relation is analogous to the corresponding relation for an ideal fluid, appropriately modified to include the chirality property, which has also been derived here. (orig.)
Osburn, Thomas; Evans, Charles; Hopper, Seth
2014-01-01
We present an algorithm for calculating the metric perturbations and gravitational self-force for extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) with eccentric orbits. The massive black hole is taken to be Schwarzschild and metric perturbations are computed in Lorenz gauge. The perturbation equations are solved as coupled systems of ordinary differential equations in the frequency domain. Accurate local behavior of the metric is attained through use of the method of extended homogeneous solutions and mode-sum regularization is used to find the self-force. We focus on calculating the self-force with sufficient accuracy to ensure its error contributions to the phase in a long term orbital evolution will be $\\delta\\Phi \\lesssim 10^{-2}$ radians. This requires the orbit-averaged force to have fractional errors $\\lesssim 10^{-8}$ and the oscillatory part of the self-force to have errors $\\lesssim 10^{-3}$ (a level frequently easily exceeded). Our code meets this error requirement in the oscillatory part, extending the reach...
Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio
2010-01-01
It is shown that on curved backgrounds, the Coulomb gauge Faddeev-Popov operator can have zero modes even in the abelian case. These zero modes cannot be eliminated by restricting the path integral over a certain region in the space of gauge potentials. The conditions for the existence of these zero modes are studied for static spherically symmetric spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions. For this class of metrics, the general analytic expression of the metric components in term...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The lectures given cover the topological effects in gauge field theories, fermionic chiral anomalies, and some relationships between the two. Gauge field theories in three and four space-time dimensions are considered. Topological terms as external U(1) functional gauge potential connections in field space are discussed. Both the structure and physical impact of anomalies are described. 17 refs
Osburn, Thomas; Forseth, Erik; Evans, Charles R.; Hopper, Seth
2014-11-01
We present an algorithm for calculating the metric perturbations and gravitational self-force for extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) with eccentric orbits. The massive black hole is taken to be Schwarzschild, and metric perturbations are computed in Lorenz gauge. The perturbation equations are solved as coupled systems of ordinary differential equations in the frequency domain. Accurate local behavior of the metric is attained through use of the method of extended homogeneous solutions, and mode-sum regularization is used to find the self-force. We focus on calculating the self-force with sufficient accuracy to ensure its error contributions to the phase in a long-term orbital evolution will be ? ? ?1 0-2 rad . This requires the orbit-averaged force to have fractional errors ?1 0-8 and the oscillatory part of the self-force to have errors ?1 0-3 (a level frequently easily exceeded). Our code meets this error requirement in the oscillatory part, extending the reach to EMRIs with eccentricities of e ?0.8 , if augmented by use of fluxes for the orbit-averaged force, or to eccentricities of e ?0.5 when used as a stand-alone code. Further, we demonstrate accurate calculations up to orbital separations of a ?100 M , beyond that required for EMRI models and useful for comparison with post-Newtonian theory. Our principal developments include (1) use of fully constrained field equations, (2) discovery of analytic solutions for even-parity static modes, (3) finding a preconditioning technique for outer homogeneous solutions, (4) adaptive use of quad precision, (5) jump conditions to handle near-static modes, and (6) a hybrid scheme for high eccentricities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the Implicit Regularization Technique is useful to display quantum symmetry breaking in a complete regularization independent fashion. Arbitrary parameters are expressed by finite differences between integrals of the same superficial degree of divergence whose value is fixed on physical grounds (symmetry requirements or phenomenology). We study Weyl fermions on a classical gravitational background in two dimensions and show that, assuming Lorentz symmetry, the Weyl and Einstein Ward identities reduce to a set of algebraic equations for the arbitrary parameters which allows us to study the Ward identities on equal footing. We conclude in a renormalization independent way that the axial part of the Einstein Ward identity is always violated. Moreover whereas we can preserve the pure tensor part of the Einstein Ward identity at the expense of violating the Weyl Ward identities we may as well violate the former and preserve the latter
Souza, L A M; Nemes, M C; Souza, Leonardo A. M.; Sampaio, Marcos
2006-01-01
We show that the Implicit Regularization Technique is useful to display quantum symmetry breaking in a complete regularization independent fashion. Arbitrary parameters are expressed by finite differences between integrals of the same superficial degree of divergence whose value is fixed on physical grounds (symmetry requirements or phenomenology). We study Weyl fermions on a classical gravitational background in two dimensions and show that, assuming Lorentz symmetry, the Weyl and Einstein Ward identities reduce to a set of algebraic equations for the arbitrary parameters which allows us to study the Ward identities on equal footing. We conclude in a renormalization independent way that the axial part of the Einstein Ward identity is always violated. Moreover whereas we can preserve the pure tensor part of the Einstein Ward identity at the expense of violating the Weyl Ward identities we may as well violate the former and preserve the latter.
Interpretation of a Short-Term Anomaly in the Gravitational Microlensing Event MOA-2012-BLG-486
Hwang, K -H; Bond, I A; Sumi, T; Han, C; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bozza, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Tsapras, Y; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Fukunaga, D; Harris, P; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Namba, S; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yamai, N; Yock, P C M; Yonehara, A; de Almeida, L Andrade; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Jablonski, F; Jung, Y K; Kavka, A; Lee, C -U; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shin, I -G; Yee, J C; Albrow, M D; Bachelet, E; Batista, V; Brillant, S; Caldwell, J A R; Cassan, A; Cole, A; Corrales, E; Coutures, Ch; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Fouqué, P; Greenhill, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kane, S R; Kubas, D; Marquette, J -B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Williams, A; Wouters, D; Bramich, D M; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Browne, P; Hundertmark, M; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Street, R A
2013-01-01
A planetary microlensing signal is generally characterized by a short-term perturbation to the standard single lensing light curve. A subset of binary-source events can produce perturbations that mimic planetary signals, thereby introducing an ambiguity between the planetary and binary-source interpretations. In this paper, we present analysis of the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486, for which the light curve exhibits a short-lived perturbation. Routine modeling not considering data taken in different passbands yields a best-fit planetary model that is slightly preferred over the best-fit binary-source model. However, when allowed for a change in the color during the perturbation, we find that the binary-source model yields a significantly better fit and thus the degeneracy is clearly resolved. This event not only signifies the importance of considering various interpretations of short-term anomalies, but also demonstrates the importance of multi-band data for checking the possibility of false-positive pla...
Interpretation of a short-term anomaly in the gravitational microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A planetary microlensing signal is generally characterized by a short-term perturbation to the standard single lensing light curve. A subset of binary-source events can produce perturbations that mimic planetary signals, thereby introducing an ambiguity between the planetary and binary-source interpretations. In this paper, we present the analysis of the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486, for which the light curve exhibits a short-lived perturbation. Routine modeling not considering data taken in different passbands yields a best-fit planetary model that is slightly preferred over the best-fit binary-source model. However, when allowed for a change in the color during the perturbation, we find that the binary-source model yields a significantly better fit and thus the degeneracy is clearly resolved. This event not only signifies the importance of considering various interpretations of short-term anomalies, but also demonstrates the importance of multi-band data for checking the possibility of false-positive planetary signals.
Interpretation of a short-term anomaly in the gravitational microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, K.-H.; Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Bond, I. A. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand); Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica " E. R. Caianiello," Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy); Beaulieu, J.-P. [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Dr, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Abe, F.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001 (New Zealand); Chote, P.; Harris, P. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington (New Zealand); Fukui, A. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; ?FUN Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others
2013-11-20
A planetary microlensing signal is generally characterized by a short-term perturbation to the standard single lensing light curve. A subset of binary-source events can produce perturbations that mimic planetary signals, thereby introducing an ambiguity between the planetary and binary-source interpretations. In this paper, we present the analysis of the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486, for which the light curve exhibits a short-lived perturbation. Routine modeling not considering data taken in different passbands yields a best-fit planetary model that is slightly preferred over the best-fit binary-source model. However, when allowed for a change in the color during the perturbation, we find that the binary-source model yields a significantly better fit and thus the degeneracy is clearly resolved. This event not only signifies the importance of considering various interpretations of short-term anomalies, but also demonstrates the importance of multi-band data for checking the possibility of false-positive planetary signals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present new exact spherically symmetric solutions of the Wu-Yang-t'Hooft monopole and Julia-Zee dyon type of the SO(3)-Yang-Mills-(Higgs-)fields coupled to gravitation through a particular quadratic Poincare gauge field theory. The space-time metrics are of the Reissner-Nordstroem, DeSitter, and AntiDeSitter form with non-vanishing torsion always being present. Due to a free function occurring, the solutions given admit arbitrary vector torsion. We conclude that the local Cauchy-Kowalevski problem is not well posed even in the limit of vanishing Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. (author)
Gauge invariance and string interactions in a generalized theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gauge invariance of the Lagrangian in the nonsymmetric extension of general relativity is investigated. The skew parts of the nonsymmetric Hermitian g/sub munu/, in the weak-field approximation, act as gauge potentials that correspond to the exchange of massless scalar mesons between one-dimensionally extended objects (strings) in space-time. For open strings a massive vector particle, associated with the torsion, is also exchanged between the end points of the strings
Trace anomalies from quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The one-loop anomalies of a d-dimensional quantum field theory can be computed by evaluating the trace of the path integral jacobian matrix J, regulated by an operator exp(-?R) and taking the limit ? to zero. Sometime ago Alvarez-Gaume and Witten made the observation that one can simplify this evaluation by replacing the operators which appear in J and R by quantum mechanical operators with the same (anti)commutation relations. By rewriting this quantum mechanical trace as a path integral with periodic boundary conditions at time t=0 and t=? for a one-dimensional supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model, they obtained the chiral anomalies for spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 fields and selfdual antisymmetric tensors in d dimensions. One can also apply these ideas to the trace anomalies. Recently a bosonic configuration-space path integral for a particle moving in curved space was proposed by the first author, and the corresponding hamiltonian R was found from the Schroedinger equation. The factors ?g in the path-integral measure were exponentiated by using scalar ghosts, and the trace anomaly for a scalar field in an external gravitational field in d=2 was obtained. Here we treat the general case of trace anomalies for external gravitational and Yang-Mills fields. We do not introduce a supersymmetric sigma model, but keep the original Dirac matrices ?? and internal symmetry generators Ta in the path integral. As a result, we get a matrix-valued action S.t, we get a matrix-valued action S. Gauge covariance of the path integral then requires us to define the exponential of the action by time ordering. The computations are simplified by using Riemann normal coordinates. We also replace the scalar ghosts by vector ghosts in order to exhibit the cancellation of all divergences at finite ? more clearly. Finally we compute the trace anomalies in d=2 and d=4. (orig.)
One-loop effective actions and 2D hydrodynamics with anomalies
Ng, Gim Seng; Surówka, Piotr
2015-06-01
We revisit the study of a 2D quantum field theory in the hydrodynamic regime and develop a formalism based on Euclidean one-loop partition functions that is suitable to analyze transport properties due to gauge and gravitational anomalies. To do so, we generalize the method of a modified Dirac operator developed for zero-temperature anomalies to finite temperature, chemical potentials and rotations.
One-loop effective actions and 2D hydrodynamics with anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gim Seng Ng
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We revisit the study of a 2D quantum field theory in the hydrodynamic regime and develop a formalism based on Euclidean one-loop partition functions that is suitable to analyze transport properties due to gauge and gravitational anomalies. To do so, we generalize the method of a modified Dirac operator developed for zero-temperature anomalies to finite temperature, chemical potentials and rotations.
Jensen, Kristan
2014-01-01
We initiate a systematic study of `t Hooft anomalies in Galilean field theories, focusing on two questions therein. In the first, we consider the non-relativistic theories obtained from a discrete light-cone quantization (DLCQ) of a relativistic theory with flavor or gravitational anomalies. We find that these anomalies survive the DLCQ, becoming mixed flavor/boost or gravitational/boost anomalies. We also classify the pure Weyl anomalies of Schr\\"odinger theories, which are Galilean conformal field theories (CFTs) with $z=2$. There are no pure Weyl anomalies in even spacetime dimension, and the lowest-derivative anomalies in odd dimension are in one-to-one correspondence with those of a relativistic CFT in one dimension higher. These results classify many of the anomalies that arise in the field theories dual to string theory on Schr\\"odinger spacetimes.
Beauchesne, Hugues; Gregoire, Thomas
2015-01-01
Stringent experimental constraints have raised the lower limit on the masses of squarks to TeV levels, while compatibility with the mass of the Higgs boson provides an upper limit. This two-sided bound has lead to the emergence of Mini-Split theories where gauginos are not far removed from the electroweak scale while scalars are somewhat heavier. This small hierarchy modifies the spectrum of standard anomaly and gauge mediation, leading to Mini-Split deflected anomaly and gauge mediation models. In this paper, we study LHC constraints on these models and their prospects at a 100 TeV collider. Current constraints on their parameter space come from ATLAS and CMS supersymmetry searches, the known mass of the Higgs boson, and the absence of a color-breaking vacuum. Prospects at a 100 TeV collider are obtained from these same theoretical constraints in conjunction with background estimates. As would be expected from renormalization group effects, a slightly lighter third generation of squarks is assumed. Higgsinos...
Path integral quantization of gravitational interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some of the local symmetry properties of quantum field theory in curved space-time and quantized gravitational interactions are discussed. We concentrate on local symmetry properties, and thus the asymptotically flat space-time is assumed, whenever necessary, in the hope that the precise boundary conditions will not modify the short distance structure in quantum theory. We adopt the DeWitt-Faddeev-Popov prescription of the Feynman path integral with a complete gauge fixing. The topics discussed include: (i) A brief review of the path integral derivation of chiral anomalies in flat space-time. (ii) The specification of the gravitational path integral measure, which avoids all the ''fake'' gravitational anomalies, and the applications of this path integral prescription to 1) effective potential in generalized Kaluza-Klein theory, 2) 4-dimensional conformal anomalies, 3) conformal symmetry in pure conformal gravity, 4) bosonic string theory as a gravitational theory in d = 2, 5) Virasoro condition and the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the path integral formalism, 6) gravitational anomalies and the definition of the energy-momentum tensor. (author)
Fisenko, S. I.
2001-01-01
Parity nonconservation in the beta-decay processes is considered as fundamental property of weak interactions. Nevertheless, this property can be treated as anomaly, because in fundamental interactions of the rest types parity is conserved. Analogously, anomaly in the short-duration strong-current pulse discharges is well known. The essence of this phenomenon consists in generation of local high-temperature plasma formations (LHTF) with the typical values of its thermodynami...
Consistency condition calculations of supersymmetry anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using differential geometry in superspace it is shown how consistency conditions are solved for coupled supersymmetry, gauge and Lorentz anomalies in normal space-time. Anomaly cancellation mechanisms in d=10 are shown to remove possible supersymmetry anomalies as well as gauge and Lorentz anomalies. (orig.)
Corda, C
2006-01-01
Recently, with the ``bounching photon'' treatment, the gauge invariance of the response of an interferometer to scalar gravitational waves (SGWs) has been demonstred in its full frequency dependence in three different gauges well known in literature, while in previous works it was been shown only in the low frequencies approximation. In this paper the analysis of the response function for SGWs is generalized in its full angular dependence and directly in the gauge of the local observer, which is the gauge of a laboratory enviroment on Earth. The result is used for anlyzing the cross - correlation between the two LIGO interferometers in their advanced configuration for a potential detection of a stochastic bacground of SGWs. An inferior limit for the integration time of a potential detection is released.
Search for light massive gauge bosons as an explanation of the $(g-2)_\\mu$ anomaly at MAMI
Merkel, H; Gayoso, C Ayerbe; Beranek, T; Beri?i?, J; Bernauer, J C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Correa, L; Debenjak, L; Denig, A; Distler, M O; Esser, A; Fonvieille, H; Friš?i?, I; de la Paz, M Gómez Rodríguez; Hoek, M; Kegel, S; Kohl, Y; Middleton, D G; Mihovilovi?, M; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pochodzalla, J; Rohrbeck, M; Ron, G; Majos, S Sánchez; Schlimme, B S; Schoth, M; Schulz, F; Sfienti, C; Širca, S; Thiel, M; Tyukin, A; Weber, A; Weinriefer, M
2014-01-01
A massive, but light abelian U(1) gauge boson is a well motivated possible signature of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. In this paper, the search for the signal of such a U(1) gauge boson in electron-positron pair-production at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) is described. Exclusion limits in the mass range of 40 MeV up to 300 MeV with a sensitivity in the mixing parameter of down to $\\epsilon^2 = 8\\times 10^{-7}$ are presented. A large fraction of the parameter space has been excluded where the discrepancy of the measured anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with theory might be explained by an additional U(1) gauge boson.
Simple evaluation of chiral anomalies in the path-integral approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We comment on the relation between Schwinger's proper-time method and the one-dimensional supersymmetric path-integral method in the evaluation of chiral anomalies in gauge and gravitational interactions. For this purpose, we introduce a modified one-dimensional path integral which is directly related to the proper-time method by a Legendre transformation. This modified scheme provides a simple way of evaluating chiral anomalies. The one-dimensional path-integral method is also shown to work for the trace anomaly in four-dimensional flat space-time
On the simple evaluation of chiral anomalies in the path integral approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We comment on the relation between the Schwinger's proper time method and the one-dimensional supersymmetric path integral method in the evaluation of chiral anomalies in gauge and gravitational interactions. For this purpose, we introduce a modified one-dimensional path integral which is directly related to the proper time method by a Legendre transformation. This modified scheme provides a simple way of evaluating chiral anomalies. The one-dimensional path integral method is also shown to work for the trace anomaly in 4-dimensional flat space-time. (author)
The global anomaly of the self-dual field in general backgrounds
Monnier, Samuel
2013-01-01
We prove a formula for the global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory in the presence of background gauge fields, assuming the results of arXiv:1110.4639. Along the way, we also clarify various points about the self-dual field theory. In particular, we give a general definition of the theta characteristic entering its partition function and settle the issue of its possible metric dependence. We treat the cohomological version of type IIB supergravity as an example of the formalism. We show the apparent existence of a mixed gauge-gravitational global anomaly, occurring when the B-field and Ramond-Ramond 2-form gauge fields have non-trivial Wilson lines, and suggest a way in which it could cancel.
Without gravity, you would float into space. Gravity pulls matter together: it holds us onto the Earth, it holds the Earth in orbit around the sun and it holds our solar system in orbit about the centre of the galaxy. Everything with mass feels the attraction of gravity. The strength of the attraction between 2 objects depends on their masses. Despite its omnipresence, gravity is the weakest of the 4 forces. It is insignificant at the scale of human beings: when a group of visitors walks past, gravity doesn't pull you towards them! At even smaller scales, the gravitational pull between the electron and the proton is about 1040 times weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them. Text for the interactive: Why does the same mass weigh more on the Earth than on the moon ?
Anomalies, ambiguities and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that anomalies only change trivially if a covariant term is added to the gauge connection. As a result, for the superstring, the anomalies can be cancelled if the anti-symmetric tensor field strength H is modified by the Chern-Simons form of any spin-connection, possibly with torsion. The low-energy effective field theory is, then, not uniquely determined by requiring anomaly cancellation and supersymmetry. Implications for string compactifications are considered. (orig.)
The conformal anomaly and the neutral currents sector of the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We elaborate on the structure of the graviton-gauge-gauge vertex in the electroweak theory, obtained by the insertion of the complete energy-momentum tensor (T) on 2-point functions of neutral gauge currents (VV'). The vertex defines the leading contribution to the effective action which accounts for the conformal anomaly and related interaction between the Standard Model and gravity. The energy-momentum tensor is derived from the curved spacetime Lagrangian in the linearized gravitational limit, and with the inclusion of the term of improvement of a conformally coupled Higgs sector. As in the previous cases of QED and QCD, we find that the conformal anomaly induces an effective massless scalar interaction between gravity and the neutral currents in each gauge invariant component of the vertex. This is described by the exchange of an anomaly pole. We show that for a spontaneously broken theory the anomaly can be entirely attributed to the poles only for a conformally coupled Higgs scalar. In the exchange of a graviton, the trace part of the corresponding interaction can be interpreted as due to an effective dilaton, using a local version of the effective action. We discuss the implications of the anomalous Ward identity for the TVV' correlator for the structure of the gauge/gauge/effective dilaton vertex in the effective action. The analogy between these effective interactions and those related to the radion in theories with large extra dimensionion in theories with large extra dimensions is pointed out.
Lorentz anomaly in arbitrary dimensions
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It is shown that the Lorentz invariance is broken in gauge theories of chiral Weyl fermions in flat space-time via one-loop quantum corrections. Abelian gauge fields contribute to this anomaly in even dimensions larger than or equal to four and non-Abelian gauge fields do in even dimensions larger than or equal to six. The anomaly is proportional to D/2 - 1 power to the charge, where D is a number of space-time dimensions
Global anomalies and chiral p-forms
Monnier, Samuel
2012-01-01
This is a short review of the papers arXiv:1109.2904 and arXiv:1110.4639. After a reminder about local and global gravitational anomalies, we sketch the derivation of the global gravitational anomaly of the self-dual field theory (also known as chiral p-form). We then show that "cohomological" type IIB supergravity is free of global gravitational anomalies on all ten-dimensional spin manifolds
Agresti, Juri; De Pietri, Roberto; Lusanna, Luca; Martucci, Luca
2004-05-01
In the framework of the rest-frame instant form of tetrad gravity, where the Hamiltonian is the weak ADM energy {\\hat E}ADM, we define a special completely fixed 3-orthogonal Hamiltonian gauge, corresponding to a choice of non-harmonic 4-coordinates, in which the independent degrees of freedom of the gravitational field are described by two pairs of canonically conjugate Dirac observables (DO) r_{\\bar a}(\\tau ,\\vec \\sigma ), \\pi_{\\bar a}(\\tau ,\\vec \\sigma ), \\bar a = 1,2. We define a Hamiltonian linearization of the theory, i.e. gravitational waves, without introducing any background 4-metric, by retaining only the linear terms in the DO's in the super-hamiltonian constraint (the Lichnerowicz equation for the conformal factor of the 3-metric) and the quadratic terms in the DO's in {\\hat E}ADM. We solve all the constraints of the linearized theory: this amounts to work in a well defined post-Minkowskian Christodoulou-Klainermann space-time. The Hamilton equations imply the wave equation for the DO's r_{\\bar a}(\\tau ,\\vec \\sigma ), which replace the two polarizations of the TT harmonic gauge, and that linearized Einstein's equations are satisfied. Finally we study the geodesic equation, both for time-like and null geodesics, and the geodesic deviation equation.
Invariant Regularization of Supersymmetric Chiral Gauge Theory
Suzuki, Hiroshi
1999-01-01
We present a regularization scheme which respects the supersymmetry and the maximal background gauge covariance in supersymmetric chiral gauge theories. When the anomaly cancellation condition is satisfied, the effective action in the superfield background field method automatically restores the gauge invariance without counterterms. The scheme also provides a background gauge covariant definition of composite operators that is especially useful in analyzing anomalies. We pr...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ideas on structure of gravitation theory and unification of gravitation and space-time with ordinary matter is developed. It is shown that realization of relativity and equivalence principles leads directly to the gauge theory (GT) of Lorentz group with spontaneously broken symmetry. This theory is a minimal gauge model and coinsides with Einstein-Kartan theory of gravitation with torsion. It is shown that in standard GT with Poincare group it is impossible to attach the importance of translation group gauge field to a tetrad gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is the second of two companion papers on computing the self-force in a radiation gauge; more precisely, the method uses a radiation gauge for the radiative part of the metric perturbation, together with an arbitrarily chosen gauge for the parts of the perturbation associated with changes in black-hole mass and spin and with a shift in the center of mass. In a test of the method delineated in the first paper, we compute the conservative part of the self-force for a particle in circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. The gauge vector relating our radiation gauge to a Lorenz gauge is helically symmetric, implying that the quantity h??u?u? must have the same value for our radiation gauge as for a Lorenz gauge; and we confirm this numerically to one part in 1014. As outlined in the first paper, the perturbed metric is constructed from a Hertz potential that is in a term obtained algebraically from the retarded perturbed spin-2 Weyl scalar, ?0ret. We use a mode-sum renormalization and find the renormalization coefficients by matching a series in L=l+1/2 to the large-L behavior of the expression for the self-force in terms of the retarded field h??ret; we similarly find the leading renormalization coefficients of h??u?u? and the related change in the angular velocity of the particle due to its self-force. We show numerically that orce. We show numerically that the singular part of the self-force has the form f?S=??-1>, the part of ???-1 that is axisymmetric about a radial line through the particle. This differs only by a constant from its form for a Lorenz gauge. It is because we do not use a radiation gauge to describe the change in black-hole mass that the singular part of the self-force has no singularity along a radial line through the particle and, at least in this example, is spherically symmetric to subleading order in ?.
Ohanian, Hans C
2015-01-01
In the construction of a fundamental conformally-invariant gravitational theory for very early times in the universe or for very short distance scales, we need to invoke a symmetry-breaking mechanism so this theory can be transmuted into the conformally-noninvariant conventional Einstein theory that we see in the universe today at macroscopic distance scales. I here propose a simple and consistent way to achieve this breaking of conformal symmetry by the Higgs mechanism applied to a massless complex scalar field coupled to a massless vector field. Upon symmetry breaking, these scalar and vector fields acquire masses of the order of the Planck mass. Before symmetry breaking, the massless vector field obeys equations similar to those of the electromagnetic field, but it is distinct from it. This new vector field can be regarded as the Weyl gauge-vector for the transport of lengths in the conformal geometry.
Agresti, J; Lusanna, L; Martucci, L; Agresti, Juri; Pietri, Roberto De; Lusanna, Luca; Martucci, Luca
2003-01-01
In the framework of the rest-frame instant form of tetrad gravity, where the Hamiltonian is the weak ADM energy ${\\hat E}_{ADM}$, we define a special completely fixed 3-orthogonal Hamiltonian gauge, corresponding to a choice of {\\it non-harmonic} 4-coordinates, in which the independent degrees of freedom of the gravitational field are described by two pairs of canonically conjugate Dirac observables (DO) $r_{\\bar a}(\\tau ,\\vec \\sigma)$, $\\pi_{\\bar a}(\\tau ,\\vec \\sigma)$, $\\bar a = 1,2$. We define a Hamiltonian linearization of the theory, i.e. gravitational waves, {\\it without introducing any background 4-metric}, by retaining only the linear terms in the DO's in the super-hamiltonian constraint (the Lichnerowicz equation for the conformal factor of the 3-metric) and the quadratic terms in the DO's in ${\\hat E}_{ADM}$. {\\it We solve all the constraints} of the linearized theory: this amounts to work in a well defined post-Minkowskian Christodoulou-Klainermann space-time. The Hamilton equations imply the wave ...
Electric charge quantization without anomalies?
Foot, R.
1994-01-01
In gauge theories like the standard model, the electric charges of the fermions can be heavily constrained from the classical structure of the theory and from the cancellation of anomalies. We argue that the anomaly conditions are not quite as well motivated as the classical constraints, since it is possible that new fermions could exist which cancel potential anomalies. For this reason we examine the classically allowed electric charges of the known fermions and we point ou...
Bardeen, J M
2002-01-01
We investigate how the accuracy and stability of numerical relativity simulations of 1D colliding plane waves depends on choices of equation formulations, gauge conditions, boundary conditions, and numerical methods, all in the context of a first-order 3+1 approach to the Einstein equations, with basic variables some combination of first derivatives of the spatial metric and components of the extrinsic curvature tensor. Hyperbolic schemes, specifically variations on schemes proposed by Bona and Masso and Anderson and York, are compared with variations of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation. Modifications of the three basic schemes include raising one index in the metric derivative and extrinsic curvature variables and adding a multiple of the energy constraint to the extrinsic curvature evolution equations. Redundant variables in the Bona-Masso formulation may be reset frequently or allowed to evolve freely. Gauge conditions which simplify the dynamical structure of the system are imposed during each time s...
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General expression for the one-loop effective potential with an accuracy up to terms linear in the scalar curvature has been obtained for an arbitrary massless theory solving directly the renormalization group equations. A possibility of the first-order phase transition, induced by the curvature, has been investigated for the gauge theories. It is shown that the theory of scalar field interacting with the quantum R2 gravity the phase transition results in the induced Einstein gravity
Geometrical formulation of gauge theories
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We review some basic aspects of the geometry of gauge theories. Particularly, we introduce the concepts gauge potential, field intensity, matter field, gauge groups and symmetry of a physical configuration and we discuss the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the gauge theories of gravitation. 26 refs
Antibracket, antifields and gauge-theory quantization
Gomis, Joaquim; París, Jordi; Samuel, Stuart
1995-08-01
The antibracket formalism for gauge theories, at both the classical and quantum level, is reviewed. Gauge transformations and the associated gauge structure are analyzed in detail. The basic concepts involved in the antibracket formalism are elucidated. Gauge-fixing, quantum effects, and anomalies within the field-antifield formalism are developed. The concepts, issues and constructions are illustrated using eight gauge-theory models.
Antibracket, antifields and gauge-theory quantization
Gomis, J P; Samuel, S; Gomis, Joaquim; Paris, Jordi; Samuel, Stuart
1994-01-01
The antibracket formalism for gauge theories, at both the classical and quantum level, is reviewed. Gauge transformations and the associated gauge structure are analyzed in detail. The basic concepts involved in the antibracket formalism are elucidated. Gauge-fixing, quantum effects, and anomalies within the field-antifield formalism are developed. The concepts, issues and constructions are illustrated using eight gauge-theory models.
Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space
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Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen's monograph 'Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space' collects in one volume the results of the authors' 15-year research programme on anomalies that arise in Feynman diagrams of quantum field theories on curved manifolds. The programme was spurred by the path-integral techniques introduced in Alvarez-Gaume and Witten's renowned 1983 paper on gravitational anomalies which, together with the anomaly cancellation paper by Green and Schwarz, led to the string theory explosion of the 1980s. The authors have produced a tour de force, giving a comprehensive and pedagogical exposition of material that is central to current research. The first part of the book develops from scratch a formalism for defining and evaluating quantum mechanical path integrals in nonlinear sigma models, using time slicing regularization, mode regularization and dimensional regularization. The second part applies this formalism to quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1 and 3/2 and to self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields. The book concludes with a discussion of gravitational anomalies in 10-dimensional supergravities, for both classical and exceptional gauge groups. The target audience is researchers and graduate students in curved spacetime quantum field theory and string theory, and the aims, style and pedagogical level have been chosen with this audience in mind. Path integrals are treated as calculational tools, and the notation and terminology are throughout taiotation and terminology are throughout tailored to calculational convenience, rather than to mathematical rigour. The style is closer to that of an exceedingly thorough and self-contained review article than to that of a textbook. As the authors mention, the first part of the book can be used as an introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics, although in a classroom setting perhaps more likely as supplementary reading than a primary class text. Readers outside the core audience, including this reviewer, will gain from the book a heightened appreciation of the central role of regularization as a defining ingredient of a quantum field theory and will be impressed by the agreement of results arising from different regularization schemes. The readers may in particular enjoy the authors' 'brief history of anomalies' in quantum field theory, as well as a similar historical discussion of path integrals in quantum mechanics. (book review)
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This book is divided into the following chapters: Contents: Geometry and Gravitation; The Formalism of General Relativity; Gravitational Field Equations; The Three Classical Tests of Einstein's Theory; Elements of Cosmology; Relativistic Cosmological Models; Non-Static Models of the Universe; Gravitational Waves; Dense and Collapsed Matter; The Einstein-Cartan Theory; The Strong Gravity Theory; Gauge Theory of Gravity; Supergravity; Gravitational Theory in the Language of Exterior Forms
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Scheck, Florian [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik
2010-07-01
Stringent presentation of field theory, mediates the connection from the classicalelectrodynamics up to modern gauge theories. The compact presentation is ideal for the bachelor study. New chapter on general relativity theory. Deepens the learned by numerous application from laser physic, metamaterials and different more. Theoretical physics 3. Classical field theory. On electrodynamics, non-Abelian, and gravitation is the third of five volumes on theoretical physics by professor Scheck. The cycle theoretical physics comprehends: Volume 1: Mechanics. From Newtons law to the deterministic chaos. Volume 2: Nonrelativistic quantum theory. From the hydrogen atom to the many-particle systems. Volume 3: Classical field theory. From the electrodynamics to the gauge theories. Volume 5: From the laws of thermodynamics to the quantum statistics. This textbook mediates modern theoretical physics in string presentation illustrated by many examples. It contains numerous problems with solution hints ore exemplary, complete solutions. The third edition was revised in many single topics, especially the chapter on general relativity theory was supplemented by an extensive analysis of the Schwarzschild solution. [German] Stringente Darstellung der Feldtheorie, vermittelt den Zusammenhang von der klassischen Elektrodynamik bis zu modernen Eichtheorien. Die kompakte Darstellung ist ideal fuer das Bachelor-Studium. Neues Kapitel zur Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie. Vertieft das Erlernte durch zahlreiche Anwendungsbeispiele aus Laserphysik, Metamaterialien uvm. Theoretische Physik 3. Klassische Feldtheorie. Von Elektrodynamik, nicht-Abelschen Eichtheorien und Gravitation ist der dritte von fuenf Baenden zur Theoretischen Physik von Professor Scheck. Der Zyklus Theoretische Physik umfasst: Band 1: Mechanik. Von den Newtonschen Gesetzen zum deterministischen Chaos. Band 2: Nichtrelativistische Quantentheorie. Vom Wasserstoffatom zu den Vielteilchensystemen. Band 3: Klassische Feldtheorie. Von der Elektrodynamik zu den Eichtheorien Band 4: Quantisierte Felder. Von den Symmetrien zur Quantenelektrodynamik Band 5: Theorie der Waerme. Von den Hauptsaetzen der Thermodynamik zur Quantenstatistik Dieses Lehrbuch vermittelt moderne Theoretische Physik in stringenter, durch viele Beispiele illustrierter Darstellung. Es enthaelt zahlreiche Aufgaben mit Loesungshinweisen oder exemplarischen, vollstaendigen Loesungen. Die dritte Auflage wurde in vielen Einzelheiten ueberarbeitet, insbesondere das Kapitel ueber Allgemeine Relativitaetstheorie wurde um eine ausfuehrliche Analyse der Schwarzschild-Loesung ergaenzt. (orig.)
Holographic renormalization of cascading gauge theories
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We perform a holographic renormalization of cascading gauge theories. Specifically, we find the counterterms that need to be added to the gravitational action of the backgrounds dual to the cascading theory of Klebanov and Tseytlin, compactified on an arbitrary four-manifold, in order to obtain finite correlation functions (with a limited set of sources). We show that it is possible to truncate the action for deformations of this background to a five-dimensional system coupling together the metric and four scalar fields. Somewhat surprisingly, despite the fact that these theories involve an infinite number of high-energy degrees of freedom, we find finite answers for all one-point functions (including the conformal anomaly). We compute explicitly the renormalized stress tensor for the cascading gauge theories at high temperature and show how our finite answers are consistent with the infinite number of degrees of freedom. Finally, we discuss ambiguities appearing in the holographic renormalization we propose for the cascading gauge theories; our finite results for the one-point functions have some ambiguities in curved space (including the conformal anomaly) but not in flat space
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From a generalization of the covariant derivative, nonlocal gauge theories are developed. These theories enjoy local gauge invariance and associated Ward identities, a corresponding locally conserved current, and a locally conserved energy-momentum tensor, with the Ward identities implying the masslessness of the gauge field as in local theories. Their ultraviolet behavior allows the presence as well as the absence of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, the latter in analogy with lattice theories
Discrete R symmetries and anomalies
Dine, Michael; Monteux, Angelo
2014-01-01
We comment on aspects of discrete anomaly conditions focussing particularly on R symmetries. We review the Green-Schwarz cancellation of discrete anomalies, providing a heuristic explanation why, in the heterotic string, only the "model-independent dilaton" transforms non-linearly under discrete symmetries; this argument suggests that, in other theories, multiple fields might play a role in anomaly cancellations, further weakening any anomaly constraints at low energies. We provide examples in open string theories of non-universal discrete anomalies at low energies. We then consider the fact that R symmetries are necessarily broken at low energies. We exhibit dynamical models, in which fields charged under the Standard Model gauge group (for example, a doublet and a triplet) gain roughly equal masses, but where the doublet and the triplet possess different discrete charges and the low-energy anomaly conditions fail.
Discrete R Symmetries and Anomalies
Dine, Michael
2014-01-01
We comment on aspects of discrete anomaly conditions focussing particularly on $R$ symmetries. We review the Green-Schwarz cancellation of discrete anomalies, providing a heuristic explanation why, in the heterotic string, only the "model-independent dilaton" transforms non-linearly under discrete symmetries; this argument suggests that, in other theories, multiple fields might play a role in anomaly cancellations, further weakening any anomaly constraints at low energies. We provide examples in open string theories of non-universal discrete anomalies at low energies. We then consider the fact that $R$ symmetries are necessarily broken at low energies. We exhibit dynamical models, in which fields charged under the Standard Model gauge group (for example, a doublet and a triplet) gain roughly equal masses, but where the doublet and the triplet possess different discrete charges and the low-energy anomaly conditions fail.
Wardell, Barry
2015-01-01
With a view to developing a formalism that will be applicable at second perturbative order, we devise a new practical scheme for computing the gravitational self-force experienced by a point mass moving in a curved background spacetime. Our method works in the frequency domain and employs the effective-source approach, in which a distributional source for the retarded metric perturbation is replaced with an effective source for a certain regularized self-field. A key ingredient of the calculation is the analytic determination of an appropriate puncture field from which the effective source and regularized residual field can be calculated. In addition to its application in our effective-source method, we also show how this puncture field can be used to derive tensor-harmonic mode-sum regularization parameters that improve the efficiency of the traditional mode-sum procedure. To demonstrate the method, we calculate the first-order-in-the-mass-ratio self-force and redshift invariant for a point mass on a circula...
Initial-boundary-value problem of the self-gravitating scalar field in the Bondi-Sachs gauge
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It is shown that, in the Bondi-Sachs gauge that fixes the speed of incoming light rays to the value 1, the Einstein equations coupled to a scalar field in spherical symmetry are cast into a symmetric-hyperbolic system of equations for the scalar field, lapse and shift as fundamental variables. In this system of equations, the lapse and shift are incoming characteristic fields, and the scalar field has three components: incoming, outgoing and static. A constraint-preserving boundary condition is prescribed by imposing the projection of the Einstein equation normal to the boundary at the outer value of the radial coordinate. The boundary condition specifies one of the two incoming metric fields. The remaining incoming metric field and the incoming scalar field component need to be specified arbitrarily. Numerical simulations of the scattering of the scalar field by a black hole in the nonlinear regime are presented that illustrate interesting facts about black-hole physics and the behavior of the characteristic variables of the problem
Anomalies, Becchi-Rouet-Stora cohomology, and effective theories
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A survey is made of the known Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) cohomology and potential anomalies in ''nonrenormalizable'' effective gauge theories with and without supersymmetry. The probable existence of higher-dimension Abelian anomalies is mentioned. Supersymmetric theories have complicated BRS cohomology, but at least for N=1 and D=4, it appears that this does not give rise to corresponding anomalies so long as the gauge anomalies are eliminated
Overlap lattice fermion in a gravitational field
Hayakawa, M; Suzuki, H; Hayakawa, Masashi; So, Hiroto; Suzuki, Hiroshi
2006-01-01
We construct a lattice Dirac operator of the overlap-type which describes the propagation of the Dirac fermion in an external gravitational field. The local Lorentz symmetry is manifestly realized as a lattice gauge symmetry, while the general coordinate invariance is expected to be restored only in the continuum limit. Our doubler-free Dirac operator obeys the conventional Ginsparg-Wilson relation and possesses a gamma_5 hermiticity with respect to the inner product which is suggested from the general coordinate invariance. The lattice index theorem in the presence of a gravitational field holds and the classical continuum limit of the index density reproduces the Dirac genus. Reduction to a single Majorana fermion is possible for $8k+2$ and $8k+4$ dimensions, but not for $8k$ dimensions as being consistent with the existence of the global gravitational/gauge anomalies in the latter dimensions. Other Lorentz representations, such as the spinor-vector and the bi-spinor representations, can also be treated. Ma...
What's wrong with anomalous chiral gauge theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is argued on general ground and demonstrated in the particular example of the Chiral Schwinger Model that there is nothing wrong with apparently anomalous chiral gauge theory. If quantised correctly, there should be no gauge anomaly and chiral gauge theory should be renormalisable and unitary, even in higher dimensions and with non-Abelian gauge groups. Furthermore, it is claimed that mass terms for gauge bosons and chiral fermions can be generated without spoiling the gauge invariance. 19 refs
Gaugino-Assisted Anomaly Mediation
Kaplan, David Elazzar; Kribs, Graham D.
2000-01-01
We present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or ``hidden'') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny h...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
On the base of investigating hierarchic systems (HS) in the field of gravitational radiation (GR) the next hypothesis is proposed: on the availability of the GR field appear nonequilibrium phenomena in which is preserved information on the direction and value of the macroscopic velocity of HS motion in a whole. 6 refs
Gravitation and electromagnetism
Sidharth, B. G.
2002-01-01
Maxwell's equations comprise both electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The transverse part of the vector potential belongs to magnetism, the longitudinal one is concerned with gravitation. The Coulomb gauge indicates that longitudinal components of the fields propagate instantaneously. The delta-function singularity of the field of the divergence of the vector potential, referred to as the dilatation center, represents an elementary agent of gravitation. Viewing a parti...
Conformal a-anomaly of some non-unitary 6d superconformal theories
Beccaria, M
2015-01-01
We compute conformal anomaly a-coefficient for some non-unitary (higher derivative or non-gauge-invariant) 6d conformal fields and their supermultiplets. We use the method based on a connection between 6d determinants on S^6 and 7d determinants on AdS_7. We find, in particular, that (1,0) supermultiplet containing 4-derivative gauge-invariant conformal vector has precisely the value of a-anomaly as attributed in \\href{http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.03807}{arXiv:1506.03807} (on the basis of R-symmetry and gravitational 't Hooft matching) to the standard (1,0) vector multiplet. We also show that higher derivative (2,0) 6d conformal supergravity coupled to exactly 26 (2,0) tensor multiplets has vanishing a-anomaly. This is the 6d counterpart of the known fact of cancellation of the conformal anomaly in the 4d system of N=4 conformal supergravity coupled to 4 vector N=4 multiplets. In the case when 5 of tensor multiplets are chosen to be ghost-like and the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken by a quadratic scal...
Mieck, Bernhard
2009-01-01
An effective field theory of BCS quark pairs is derived from an ordinary QCD type path integral with SU(3) non-Abelian gauge fields. We consider the BCS quark pairs as constituents of nuclei and as the remaining degrees of freedom in a coset decomposition SO(M,M)/U(M)xU(M) of a corresponding total self-energy. The underlying dimension 'M=24' is determined by the product of '2' isospin degrees of freedom, by the 4x4 Dirac gamma matrices with factor '4' and the '3' colour degr...
Anomaly-induced charges in baryons
Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji; Iida, Hideaki; Ishii, Takaaki; Maezawa, Yu
2011-01-01
We show that quantum chiral anomaly of QCD in magnetic backgrounds induces a novel structure of electric charge inside baryons. To illustrate the anomaly effect, we employ the Skyrme model for baryons, with the anomaly-induced gauged Wess-Zumino term (\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) E_i B_i. Due to this term, the Skyrmions giving a local pion condensation ((\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) \
Black hole spectra in holography: Consequences for equilibration of dual gauge theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex Buchel
2015-07-01
Full Text Available For a closed system to equilibrate from a given initial condition there must exist an equilibrium state with the energy equal to the initial one. Equilibrium states of a strongly coupled gauge theory with a gravitational holographic dual are represented by black holes. We study the spectrum of black holes in Pilch–Warner geometry. These black holes are holographically dual to equilibrium states of strongly coupled SU(N N=2? gauge theory plasma on S3 in the planar limit. We find that there is no energy gap in the black hole spectrum. Thus, there is a priori no obstruction for equilibration of arbitrary low-energy states in the theory via a small black hole gravitational collapse. The latter is contrasted with phenomenological examples of holography with dual four-dimensional CFTs having non-equal central charges in the stress–energy tensor trace anomaly.
Regularized determinants and non-perturbative definition of chiral anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a non-perturbative regularization scheme for fermions interacting with external gauge fields. It is used to obtain the axial anomalies in theories with (classical) global and local axial-vector symmetries. The main result is that in the latter case, this regularization automatically produces the consistent anomaly, provided the cut-off operator is vector gauge covariant. (orig.)
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We develop a systematic method to construct the gauged BRST symmetry for any theory. In this framework, it results as the combination of two basic symmetries of the gauge-fixed theory one considers: the BRST symmetry and the ghost number symmetry, this later being promoted to a local one. From this, we can derive a general relation between the BRST and the ghost number Noether currents. We then take advantage of the present method to elaborate a geometrical algorithm leading to the obtention of the gauged BRST symmetry for a large class of theories, in arbitrary dimensions of space. These involve systems of antisymmetric tensor gauge fields of arbitrary rank, eventually coupled to gravity. This algorithm allows us to derive algebraically the expressions for the possible consistent anomalies of the BRST Noether current algebras; various examples are explicitely discussed. The gauged BRST symmetry for the free bosonic string is also constructed and used to exhibit the link between the trace anomaly and the nilpotency anomaly of the BRST charge operator. In particular, when the Beltrami parametrization is introduced, we show that the corresponding BRST symmetry can be gauged in a way compatible with the holomorphic factorization. A further use of Ward-Slavnov identities constraining the BRST and ghost number current algebra allows us to recover the well-known local counterterm necessary, at the one-loop level, to render the BRST current a good conformal operator
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There is at present considerable interest among physicists in various anomalies that occur in gauge theories and their relation to the index theory of the Dirac operator. Numerous papers have appeared on the subject and it is the purpose of this paper to provide a general introduction and guide to the subject. The author concentrates on the main ideas since the detailed calculations are fully available in the literature. He begins by a brief review of the index theorem in its simplest form. This also enables him to establish the notation and terminology he uses which (inevitably) tends to differ slightly from that used in physics. He then goes on to describe a more general version of the index theorem, dealing with parameters. It is this version which is related to the anomalies that turn up in relation to the difficulties of defining gauge invariant determinants. After dealing with determinants he returns to the index theory explaining further refinements all of which help to throw further light on anomalies
Ward identities and gauge independence in general chiral gauge theories
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-01-01
Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, we study the Ward identities and the equations of gauge dependence in potentially anomalous general gauge theories, renormalizable or not. A crucial new term, absent in manifestly nonanomalous theories, is responsible for interesting effects. We prove that gauge invariance always implies gauge independence, which in turn ensures perturbative unitarity. Precisely, we consider potentially anomalous theories that are actually free of gauge anomalies thanks to the Adler-Bardeen theorem. We show that when we make a canonical transformation on the tree-level action, it is always possible to re-renormalize the divergences and re-fine-tune the finite local counterterms, so that the renormalized $\\Gamma $ functional of the transformed theory is also free of gauge anomalies, and is related to the renormalized $\\Gamma $ functional of the starting theory by a canonical transformation. An unexpected consequence of our results is that the beta functions of the couplings may depend on...
6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching
Intriligator, Kenneth
2014-10-01
6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then ? I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.
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In the gauge proposed a large number of derivatives of the axial gravitational superfield Hsup(m) vanish at a given point in superspace. The remaining derivatives of Hsup(m) are the values at z0 of the basic superfields R, anti R, G, W, anti W in terms of which torsion and curvature are expressible. The normal gauge simplifies significantly many considerations and calculations in supergravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viktor T. Toth
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 × 10–9 Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of aP = (8.74 ± 1.33 × 10–10 m/s2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.
Astrometric solar system anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY
2009-01-01
There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.
Theory of gravitational interactions
Gasperini, Maurizio
2013-01-01
This reference textbook is an up-to-date and self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field. A second, advanced part then discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the gauge theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap which is present in the context of the traditional approach to general relativity, and which usually makes students puzzled about the role of gravity. The necessary notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, leaving more room for those aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational interactions of spinors, and the supersymmetric and higher-dimensional generalization of the Einstein equations. Theory of Gravitational Interactions will be o...
Super-Virasoro Anomaly, Super-Weyl Anomaly and the Super-Liouville Action for 2D Supergravity
Fujiwara, Takanori; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tadao
1996-01-01
The relation between super-Virasoro anomaly and super-Weyl anomaly in $N=1$ NSR superstring coupled with 2D supergravity is investigated from canonical theoretical view point. The WZW action canceling the super-Virasoro anomaly is explicitly constructed. It is super-Weyl invariant but nonlocal functional of 2D supergravity. The nonlocality can be remedied by the super-Liouvlle action, which in turn recovers the super-Weyl anomaly. The final gravitational effective action tur...
Calculation of the commutator anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is well-known that, for the non-Abelian gauge theory coupled to the chiral fermions, which is described by a Lagrangian, the anomaly of the non-Abelian current is given by the descent form of the Chern-Simon five form; D*Ja = (-1/24?2)tr[d(AdA + 1/2A3)], where A = A?dx? = -itaA?adx?. Recently, Faddeev argued that, for such an anomalous system, the gauge symmetry would be represented in a generalized sense of projective representation; V(g1)V(g2)?(A) = exp[i?2(g1, g2; A)] X V(g1g2)?(A), where ?(A) is the wave functional and the phase factor ?2 depends on both the group elements and the gauge field configuration A. Here, it is convenient to consider the infinitesimal version of the above argument. The generator of infinitesimal gauge transformation in the temporal gauge A0 = 0 is given by Ga(x) = ?iEia + gfabcAibEic - g?-bar?0ta?, and the infinitesimal form of the previous product rule can be written as the equal time commutation relation; [Ga(x), Gb(y)] = ifabcGc(x)?3(x-y) + ab(x,y,A), where is related to ?2. In this equation, the first term is what is expected as the normal commutation relation of the generator, while the second term is an anomaly, which is designated here as the commutator anomaly. Then the present study concentrates on operations to determine the anomaly term. (Nogami, A.)
He, Hong-jian; Wang, Xu-feng; Xianyu, Zhong-zhi
2010-01-01
Gravity is the weakest force in nature, and the gravitational interactions with all standard model (SM) particles can be well described by perturbative expansions of the Einstein-Hilbert action as an effective theory, all the way up to energies below the fundamental Planck scale. We use Vilkovisky-DeWitt method to derive the first gauge-invariant nonzero gravitational power-law corrections to the running of gauge couplings, which make both Abel and non-Abel gauge interaction...
Robert W. Sault; Jeffrey Sheridan
2013-01-01
While conducting medical aid in Mozambique, a 41 year old African male presented to our eye clinic complaining of visual impairment. The male was found to have Peters’ anomaly type 2, a rare congenital ocular malformation leading to sensory amblyopia and glaucoma.
Gauge Invariant Spectral Cauchy Characteristic Extraction
Handmer, Casey J; Winicour, Jeffrey
2015-01-01
We present gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction. We compare gravitational waveforms extracted from a head-on black hole merger simulated in two different gauges by two different codes. We show rapid convergence, demonstrating both gauge invariance of the extraction algorithm and consistency between the legacy Pitt null code and the much faster Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC).
Photons in synthetic gauge fields
Hafezi, Mohammad
2015-03-01
Electronic transport is localized in low-dimensional disordered media. The addition of gauge fields to disordered media leads to fundamental changes in the transport properties. We implement a synthetic gauge field for photons using silicon-on-insulator technology. By determining the distribution of transport properties, we confirm that waves are localized in the bulk and localization is suppressed in edge states. Furthermore, we measure corresponding topological invariants and investigate the chiral gauge anomaly in the context of Chern-Simon theory. Our system provides a new platform for investigating the transport properties of photons in the presence of synthetic gauge fields.
To theory of gravitational interaction
Minkevich, A. V.
2008-01-01
Some principal problems of general relativity theory and attempts of their solution are discussed. The Poincare gauge theory of gravity as natural generalization of Einsteinian gravitation theory is considered. The changes of gravitational interaction in the frame of this theory leading to the solution of principal problems of general relativity theory are analyzed.
Anomaly Inflow and Membranes in QCD Vacuum
Thacker, H B
2012-01-01
We study the membrane-like structure of topological charge density and its fluctuations in the QCD vacuum. Quark zero modes are localized on the membranes and the resultant gauge anomaly is cancelled by the gauge variation of a Chern-Simons type effective action in the bulk via the anomaly inflow mechanism. The coupling between brane fluctuations, described by the rotations of its normal vector, and the Chern-Simons current provides the needed anomaly inflow to the membrane. This coupling is also related to the axial U(1) anomaly which can induce brane punctures, and consequently quark-antiquark annihilation across the brane. As the Chern-Simons current has a long-range character, together with membranes it might lead to a solution to the confinement problem.
Global symmetries and 't Hooft anomalies in brane tilings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the relation between gauge theories and brane configurations described by brane tilings. We identify U(1)B (baryonic), U(1)M (mesonic), and U(1)R global symmetries in gauge theories with gauge symmetries in the brane configurations. We also show that U(1)MU(1)B2 and U(1)RU(1)B2 't Hooft anomalies are reproduced as gauge transformations of the classical brane action
Galilean Theories of Gravitation
De Pietri, R; Pauri, M
1992-01-01
A generalization of Newtonian gravitation theory is obtained by a suitable limiting procedure from the ADM action of general relativity coupled to a mass-point. Three particular theories are discussed and it is found that two of them are invariant under an extended Galilei gauge group.
Connections between Schwinger terms and anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present examples of a new type of Schwinger terms appearing in commutators of energy-momentum tensor. We demonstrate them in two-dimensional flat Minkowski space. The Schwinger terms which correspond to gravitational anomaly appear in different places from those of conformal anomaly. Nevertheless, they still preserve the Jacobi identity. We also discuss the relation between anomalies and the Schwinger terms. In any-dimensional curved space-time Faddeev's cohomological technique works well. Therefore we can derive the Schwinger terms in curved space-time. (author)
Anomaly-induced charges in baryons
Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji; Iida, Hideaki; Ishii, Takaaki; Maezawa, Yu
2012-06-01
We study the Skyrme model of baryons with quantum chiral anomaly of QCD in magnetic backgrounds, and suggest a possible induction of a novel structure of electric charge inside the baryons. Due to the anomaly-induced gauged Wess-Zumino term ˜(?0+multipion)E?·B?, the Skyrmions giving a local pion condensation ?(?0+multipion)??0 would produce a local charge source, in the background magnetic field B??0. Since the appearance of the total additional electric charge on the baryon looks unrealistic and surprising, we discuss the validity of our detailed evaluation of the anomaly effects.
Non-abelian Tensor-multiplet Anomalies
Harvey, J. A.; Minasian, R.; Moore, G.
1998-01-01
We use the anomaly cancellation of the M-theory fivebrane to derive the R-symmetry anomalies of the $A_{N}$ $(0,2)$ tensor-multiplet theories. This result leads to a simple derivation of black hole entropy in $d=4, \\CN=2$ compactifications of $M$-theory. We also show how the formalism of normal bundle anomaly cancellation clarifies the Kaluza-Klein origin of Chern-Simons terms in gauged supergravity theories. The results imply the existence of interesting 1/N corrections in ...
Axial anomaly in the reduced model: Higher representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The axial anomaly arising from the fermion sector of U(N) or SU(N) reduced model is studied under a certain restriction of gauge field configurations (the 'U(1) embedding' with N = Ld). We use the overlap-Dirac operator and consider how the anomaly changes as a function of a gauge-group representation of the fermion. A simple argument shows that the anomaly vanishes for an irreducible representation expressed by a Young tableau whose number of boxes is a multiple of L2 (such as the adjoint representation) and for a tensor-product of them. We also evaluate the anomaly for general gauge-group representations in the large N limit. The large N limit exhibits expected algebraic properties as the axial anomaly. (author)
QCD Flux Tubes and Anomaly Inflow
Xiong, Chi
2013-01-01
We apply the Callan-Harvey anomaly inflow mechanism to the study of QCD (chromoelectric) flux tubes, quark (pair)-creation and chiral magnetic effect, using new variables from the Cho-Faddeev-Niemi decomposition of the gauge potential. A phenomenological description of chromoelectric flux tubes is obtained by studying a gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective Lagrangian, derived from the original QCD Lagrangian. At the quantum level, quark condensates in the QCD vacuum may form ...
Krnjaic, Gordan; Stolarski, Daniel
2012-01-01
We present a UV complete model with a gauged flavor symmetry which approximately realizes holomorphic Minimal Flavor Violation (MFV) in R-parity violating (RPV) supersymmetry. Previous work has shown that imposing MFV as an ansatz easily evades direct constraints and has interesting collider phenomenology. The model in this work spontaneously breaks the flavor symmetry and features the minimum "exotic" field content needed to cancel anomalies. The flavor gauge bosons exhibit...
Low Scale Flavor Gauge Symmetries
Grinstein, Benjami?n; Redi, Michele; Villadoro, Giovanni
2010-01-01
We study the possibility of gauging the Standard Model flavor group. Anomaly cancellation leads to the addition of fermions whose mass is inversely proportional to the known fermion masses. In this case all flavor violating effects turn out to be controlled roughly by the Standard Model Yukawa, suppressing transitions for the light generations. Due to the inverted hierarchy the scale of new gauge flavor bosons could be as low as the electroweak scale without violating any ex...
Application of Noncommutative Differential Geometry on Lattice to Anomaly
Fujiwara, Takanori; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Wu, Ke
1999-01-01
The chiral anomaly in lattice abelian gauge theory is investigated by applying the geometric and topological method in noncommutative differential geometry(NCDG). A new kind of double complex and descent equation are proposed on infinite hypercubic lattice in arbitrary even dimensional Euclidean space, in the framework of NCDG. Using the general solutions to proposed descent equation, we derive the chiral anomaly in Abelian lattice gauge theory. The topological origin of ano...
The Faddeev-Mickelsson anomaly and lifting bundle gerbes
Hekmati, Pedram; Stevenson, Danny; Vozzo, Raymond F
2011-01-01
In gauge theory, the Faddeev-Mickelsson anomaly arises as a prolongation problem for the action of the gauge group on a bundle of projective Fock spaces. In this paper, we study this anomaly from the point of view of bundle gerbes and give several equivalent descriptions of the obstruction. These include lifting bundle gerbes with non-constant band and bundle gerbes related to the caloron correspondence.
Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies: Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Faddeev-Popov charge-zero and charge-one sectors of the cohomology space of the differential operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time are studied. It will be used, with some modification, a technique introduced some years ago by Dixon. In this paper it is shown that the cohomology of the operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) on the local functional space is isomorphic to the cohomology of the operator S deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(x) deltasub(lambda) -deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x) on the domain of local polynomial functions
Canonical quantization of gravitational field and Gribov ambiguities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gravitational field is quantized within the canonical formalism in harmonic gauge. The gauge compensating term of the effective Lagrangian is obtained, and at the same time the Gribov ambiguities can be avoided. (Auth.)
Entropy for gravitational Chern-Simons terms by squashed cone method
Guo, Wu-zhong
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the entropy of gravitational Chern-Simons terms for the horizon with non-vanishing extrinsic curvatures, or the holographic entanglement entropy for arbitrary entangling surface. In 3D we find no anomaly of entropy appears. But the squashed cone method can not be used directly to get the correct result. For higher dimensions the anomaly of entropy would appear, still, we can not use the squashed cone method directly. That is becasuse the Chern-Simons action is not gauge invariant. To get a reasonable result we suggest two methods. One is by adding a boundary term to recover the gauge invariance. This boundary term can be derived from the variation of the Chern-Simons action. The other one is by using the Chern-Simons relation $d\\bm{\\Omega_{4n-1}}=tr(\\bm{R}^{2n})$. We notice that the entropy of $tr(\\bm{R}^{2n})$ is a total derivative locally, i.e. $S=d s_{CS}$. We propose to identify $s_{CS}$ with the entropy of gravitational Chern-Simons terms $\\Omega_{4n-1}$. In the first method ...
Torsional Anomalies, Hall Viscosity, and Bulk-boundary Correspondence in Topological States
Hughes, Taylor L; Parrikar, Onkar
2013-01-01
We study the transport properties of topological insulators, encoding them in a generating functional of gauge and gravitational sources. Much of our focus is on the simple example of a free massive Dirac fermion, the so-called Chern insulator, especially in 2+1 dimensions. In such cases, when parity and time-reversal symmetry are broken, it is necessary to consider the gravitational sources to include a frame and an independent spin connection with torsion. In 2+1 dimensions, the simplest parity-odd response is the Hall viscosity. We compute the Hall viscosity of the Chern insulator using a careful regularization scheme, and find that although the Hall viscosity is generally divergent, the difference in Hall viscosities of distinct topological phases is well-defined and determined by the mass gap. Furthermore, on a 1+1-dimensional edge between topological phases, the jump in the Hall viscosity across the interface is encoded, through familiar anomaly inflow mechanisms, in the structure of anomalies. In parti...
Energy-momentum tensor for a Casimir apparatus in a weak gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The influence of the gravity acceleration on the regularized energy-momentum tensor of the quantized electromagnetic field between two plane-parallel conducting plates is derived. We use Fermi coordinates and work to first order in the constant acceleration parameter. A perturbative expansion, to this order, of the Green functions involved and of the energy-momentum tensor is derived by means of the covariant geodesic point-splitting procedure. In correspondence to the Green functions satisfying mixed and gauge-invariant boundary conditions, and Ward identities, the energy-momentum tensor is covariantly conserved and satisfies the expected relation between gauge-breaking and ghost parts, while a new simple formula for the trace anomaly is obtained to first order in the constant acceleration. A more systematic derivation is therefore obtained of the theoretical prediction according to which the Casimir device in a weak gravitational field will experience a tiny push in the upwards direction
Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.
Yilmaz, H.
Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.
The Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity
Butter, Daniel
2014-01-01
On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a $U(1)$ gauge transformation and under the T-duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three K\\"ahler moduli $T^i$ obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields...
Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.)
Energy-Momentum and Gauge Conservation Laws
Giachetta, G.; Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.
1998-01-01
We treat energy-momentum conservation laws as particular gauge conservation laws when generators of gauge transformations are horizontal vector fields on fibre bundles. In particular, the generators of general covariant transformations are the canonical horizontal prolongations of vector fields on a world manifold. This is the case of the energy-momentum conservation laws in gravitation theories. We find that, in main gravitational models, the corresponding energy-momentum f...
Gravitational model of the three elements theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gravitational model of the three elements theory is an alternative theory to dark matter. It uses a modification of Newton's law in order to explain gravitational mysteries. The results of this model are explanations for the dark matter mysteries, the Pioneer anomaly, and the disparities of the measurements of G. Concerning the earth flyby anomalies, the theoretical order of magnitude is the same as the experimental one. A very small change of the perihelion advance of the planet orbits is calculated by this model. Meanwhile, this gravitational model is perfectly compatible with restricted relativity and general relativity, and is part of the three element theory, a unifying theory. (author)
Gaugino-Assisted Anomaly Mediation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or ''hidden'') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, we consider this the simplest working model of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. We identify the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches. We also discuss mechanisms for generating the ? term and constraints on additional bulk fields. (author)
6d, N=(1,0) Coulomb Branch Anomaly Matching
Intriligator, Kenneth
2014-01-01
6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d N=(1,0) theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, $\\Delta I_8={1\\over 2}X_4^2$. Then $\\Delta I_8$ is cancelled by making $X_4$ an electric / magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in $X_4$ to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for N=(2,0) theories. We also consider the N=(1,0) SCFTs from N small $E_8$ instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.
Emergent gravity and chiral anomaly in Dirac semimetals in the presence of dislocations
Zubkov, M A
2015-01-01
We consider the recently discovered Dirac semimetals with two Dirac points $\\pm{\\bf K}$. In the presence of elastic deformations each fermion propagates in a curved space, whose metric is defined by the expansion of the effective Hamiltonian near the Dirac point. Besides, there is the emergent electromagnetic field that is defined by the shift of the Dirac point. We consider the case, when the deformations are caused by the dislocations. The dislocation carries singular torsion and the quantized flux of emergent magnetic field. Both torsion singularity and emergent magnetic flux may be observed in the scattering of quasiparticles on the dislocation due to Stodolsky and Aharonov - Bohm effects. We discuss quantum anomalies in the quasiparticle currents in the presence of emergent gauge and gravitational fields and the external electromagnetic field. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in the presence of external electric field the quasiparticles/holes are pumped from vacuum along the dislocation. The appea...
Holonomies, anomalies and the Fefferman-Graham ambiguity in AdS3 gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the Chern-Simons formulation of (2+1)-gravity, we derive, for the general asymptotic metrics given by the Fefferman-Graham-Lee theorems, the emergence of the Liouville mode associated to the boundary degrees of freedom of (2+1)-dimensional anti-de-Sitter geometries. Holonomies are described through multi-valued gauge and Liouville fields and are found to algebraically couple the fields defined on the disconnected components of spatial infinity. In the case of flat boundary metrics, explicit expressions are obtained for the fields and holonomies. We also show the link between the variation under diffeomorphisms of the Einstein theory of gravitation and the Weyl anomaly of the conformal theory at infinity
Axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field and noncommutative anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly of a 3+1 dimensional QED is calculated in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown that in the regime with the lowest Landau level (LLL) dominance a dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 dimensions occurs in the longitudinal sector of the low energy effective field theory. In the chiral limit, the resulting anomaly is therefore comparable with the axial anomaly of a two-dimensional massless Schwinger model. It is further shown that the UA(1) anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field is closely related to the nonplanar axial anomaly of a conventional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory
Gauge conditions and gauge transformations
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The principal problems of gauge fixation in field theories are discussed. It is stressed the importance of the Dirac extended gauge group and of the weak gauge invariance of the physical quantities. The importance of distinguishing of dynamical gauges from non-dynamical ones is pointed out. Mainly in electrodynamics the role of the physical degrees of freedom in some popular gauges is analysed. It is shown the key role of the Fock gauge. The principal difference between local and global gauge transformations and their physical sense is elucidated. 148 refs., 3 figs
More about the axial anomaly on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the axial anomaly defined on a finite-size lattice by using a Dirac operator which obeys the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. When the gauge group is U(1), we show that the basic structure of axial anomaly on the infinite lattice, which can be deduced by a cohomological analysis, persists even on (sufficiently large) finite-size lattices. For non-Abelian gauge groups, we propose a conjecture on a possible form of axial anomaly on the infinite lattice, which holds to all orders in perturbation theory. With this conjecture, we show that a structure of the axial anomaly on finite-size lattices is again basically identical to that on the infinite lattice. Our analysis with the Ginsparg-Wilson-Dirac operator indicates that, in appropriate frameworks, the basic structure of axial anomaly is quite robust and it persists even in a system with finite ultraviolet and infrared cutoffs
Interference, gravity and gauge fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phase shift due to gravitational field and all gauge fields in the interference of two coherent beams is obtained. In the case of gravitation, it is shown, for a particle with arbitrary spin, that there exists a phase shift due to the coupling of spin to space-time curvature. This and the corresponding phase shift for gauge fields are analogous to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The classical limit for particles moving in gravitational and gauge fields is obtained from the phase shift. For gravitation, in the absence of torsion, this is the Mathisson-Papapetrou equation, which is thereby shown to be the classical limit of the Dirac and Bargmann-Wigner wave equations, generalized to curved space-time. In the presence of torsion, a modification of this equation, given by Hehl, is obtained. It is pointed out that gravity is not a pure gauge field and that it must be placed in the more general category of an ''interference field'' which contains both gravity and gauge fields as special cases. The field equations for gauge fields and gravity are obtained from the heuristic assumption that a particle acts on a field in a manner which depends on how it responds to the field via the phase shift. For gauge fields, they contain the Yang-Mills equations as a special case. For gravity, a modification of Einstein's field equations is obtained, which corresponds to the Lagrangian (1/16?K).(2?+R) + (1/32?f)Rsub(??rho)sup(?) Rsup(??rho)sub(?), where the Riemann tensor containswhere the Riemann tensor contains torsion and K, f, ? are constants (? may be zero). The relevance of the phase shift, due to rotation, to the quantization of vortices in superfluid helium is pointed out. This suggests that the curl of the superfluid velocity may obey a system of equations analogous to Maxwell's equations and the analogue of the magnetic monopole for superfluid helium is also introduced. (author)
Recent developments in the path integral approach to anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
After a brief summary of the path integral approach to anomalous identities, some of the recent developments in this approach are discussed. The topics discussed include (i) Construction of the effective action by means of the covariant current, (ii) Gauss law constraint in anomalous gauge theories, (iii) Path integral approach to anomalies in superconformal transformations, (iv) Conformal and ghost number anomalies in string theory in analogy with the instanton calculation, (v) Covariant local Lorentz anomaly and its connection with the mathematical construction of the consistent anomaly. (author)
Gravity, Gauge Theories and Geometric Algebra
Lasenby, Anthony; Doran, Chris; Gull, Stephen
2004-01-01
A new gauge theory of gravity is presented. The theory is constructed in a flat background spacetime and employs gauge fields to ensure that all relations between physical quantities are independent of the positions and orientations of the matter fields. In this manner all properties of the background spacetime are removed from physics, and what remains are a set of `intrinsic' relations between physical fields. The properties of the gravitational gauge fields are derived fr...
Gauge Invariant Effective Action in Abelian Chiral Gauge Theory on the Lattice
Suzuki, Hiroshi
1999-01-01
L\\"uscher's recent formulation of Abelian chiral gauge theories on the lattice, in the vacuum (or perturbative) sector in infinite volume, is reinterpreted in terms of the lattice covariant regularization. The gauge invariance of the effective action and the integrability of the gauge current in anomaly-free cases become transparent. The real part of the effective action is simply one-half that of the Dirac fermion and, when the Dirac operator behaves properly in the continu...
Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions
Bakas, Ioannis
2011-01-01
We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...
Real Representation in Chiral Gauge Theories on the Lattice
Suzuki, Hiroshi
2000-01-01
The Weyl fermion belonging to the real representation of the gauge group provides a simple illustrative example for L\\"uscher's gauge-invariant lattice formulation of chiral gauge theories. We can explicitly construct the fermion integration measure globally over the gauge-field configuration space in the arbitrary topological sector; there is no global obstruction corresponding to the Witten anomaly. It is shown that this Weyl formulation is equivalent to a lattice formulat...
Gauge boson mass without a Higgs field: a simple model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simple, anomaly-free chiral gauge theory can be perturbatively quantized and renormalized in such a way as to generate fermion and gauge boson masses. This development exploits certain freedoms inherent in choosing the unperturbed Lagrangian and in the renormalization procedure. Apart from its intrinsic interest, such a mechanism might be employed in electroweak gauge theory to generate fermion and gauge boson masses without a Higgs sector. 38 refs
Precision Sparticle Predictions and Anomaly Mediation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the sparticle spectra that arise when anomaly mediation is the source of supersymmetry-breaking and the tachyonic slepton problem is solved by a Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) D-term. We also show how this can lead to a minimal viable extension of anomaly mediation, in which the gauge symmetry associated with this D-term is broken at very high energies, leaving as its footprint in the low energy theory only the required D-terms and seesaw neutrino masses
Weatherall, James Owen
2015-01-01
I consider two usages of the expression "gauge theory". On one, a gauge theory is a theory with excess structure; on the other, a gauge theory is any theory appropriately related to classical electromagnetism. I make precise one sense in which one formulation of electromagnetism, the paradigmatic gauge theory on both usages, may be understood to have excess structure, and then argue that gauge theories on the second usage, including Yang-Mills theory and general relativity, do not generally have excess structure in this sense.
Krnjaic, Gordan
2013-01-01
We present a UV complete model with a gauged flavor symmetry which approximately realizes holomorphic Minimal Flavor Violation (MFV) in R-parity violating (RPV) supersymmetry. Previous work has shown that imposing MFV as an ansatz easily evades direct constraints and has interesting collider phenomenology. The model in this work spontaneously breaks the flavor symmetry and features the minimum "exotic" field content needed to cancel anomalies. The flavor gauge bosons exhibit an inverted hierarchy so that those associated with the third generation are the lightest. This allows low energy flavor constraints to be easily satisfied and leaves open the possibility of flavor gauge bosons accessible at the LHC. The usual MSSM RPV operators are all forbidden by the new gauge symmetry, but the model allows a purely "exotic" operator which violates both R-parity and baryon number. Since the exotic fields mix with MSSM-like right handed quarks, diagonalizing the full mass matrix after flavor-breaking transforms this ope...
Gravitation and inertia; a rearrangement of vacuum in gravity
Ter-Kazarian, Gagik
2010-01-01
We address the gravitation and inertia in the framework of 'general gauge principle', which accounts for 'gravitation gauge group' generated by hidden local internal symmetry implemented on the flat space. We connect this group to nonlinear realization of the Lie group of 'distortion' of local internal properties of six-dimensional flat space, which is assumed as a toy model underlying four-dimensional Minkowski space. The agreement between proposed gravitational theory and ...
A Pseudospectral Method for Gravitational Wave Collapse
Hilditch, David; Weyhausen, Andreas; Bruegmann, Bernd
2015-01-01
We present a new pseudospectral code, bamps, for numerical relativity written with the evolution of collapsing gravitational waves in mind. We employ the first order generalized harmonic gauge formulation. The relevant theory is reviewed and the numerical method is critically examined and specialized for the task at hand. In particular we investigate formulation parameters, gauge and constraint preserving boundary conditions well-suited to non-vanishing gauge source function...
SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies (with dates)
Greg Shirah
2003-02-03
Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).
... anomaly? People born with Poland anomaly have several physical and cosmetic disabilities, which can be treated if correctly diagnosed. ... development of teenagers, who are especially aware of physical differences. However, if surgery is performed too early, while the individual is ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravitational lensing has developed into one of the most powerful tools for the analysis of the dark universe. This review summarizes the theory of gravitational lensing, its main current applications and representative results achieved so far. It has two parts. In the first, starting from the equation of geodesic deviation, the equations of thin and extended gravitational lensing are derived. In the second, gravitational lensing by stars and planets, galaxies, galaxy clusters and large-scale structures is discussed and summarized. (topical review)
A first look at Weyl anomalies in shape dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the more popular objections towards shape dynamics is the suspicion that anomalies in the spatial Weyl symmetry will arise upon quantization. The purpose of this short paper is to establish the tools required for an investigation of the sort of anomalies that can possibly arise. The first step is to adapt to our setting Barnich and Henneaux's formulation of gauge cohomology in the Hamiltonian setting, which serve to decompose the anomaly into a spatial component and time component. The spatial part of the anomaly, i.e., the anomaly in the symmetry algebra itself ([?, ?] ? ? instead of vanishing) is given by a projection of the second ghost cohomology of the Hamiltonian BRST differential associated to ?, modulo spatial derivatives. The temporal part, [?, H] ? ? is given by a different projection of the first ghost cohomology and an extra piece arising from a solution to a functional differential equation. Assuming locality of the gauge cohomology groups involved, this part is always local. Assuming locality for the gauge cohomology groups, using Barnich and Henneaux's results, the classification of Weyl cohomology for higher ghost numbers performed by Boulanger, and following the descent equations, we find a complete characterizations of anomalies in 3+1 dimensions. The spatial part of the anomaly and the first component of the temporal anomaly are always local given these assumptions even in shape dynamics. The part emerging from the solution of the functional differential equations explicitly involves the shape dynamics Hamiltonian, and thus might be non-local. If one restricts this extra piece of the temporal anomaly to be also local, then overall no Weyl anomalies, either temporal or spatial, emerge in the 3+1 case
Quaternion gauge theory of dyonic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Outlining the idea of quaternion non-Abelian gauge formalism and that of the structural symmetry between generalized fields of dyons and gravito-dyons, it is shown that this formulation characterizes the Abelian and non-Abelian structure of dyons in terms of pure real and imaginary unit quaternions. Extending this formalism to the case of gravito-dyons it has been shown that pure imaginary unit quaternions advocate the curvature in the theory of gravito-dyons and hence the SL(2,c) gauge group of gravitation plays the same role as that of SU(2) gauge group does in non-Abelian gauge theory. Furthermore, we have unified the theories of electromagnetism and gravitation in terms of single parameter ? by means of quaternion-gauge formalism and the corresponding field equations have also been derived in a unique and consistent way. (author)
Renormalization of Einsteinian gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The renormalization structure of pure Einsteinian gravitation in linear gauges is discussed in the framework of the well known hypothesis of locality concerning the form of the general solution of the Ward identities for the counter terms. It is noteworthy that the renormalization leads, in general, to a deformation of the original gauge algebra (of the general covariance transformations) which makes the algebra open and requires a corresponding generalization of the quantization procedure. It is also shown that the renormalization, which has a complicated nature off the mass shell, including a nontrivial functional redefinition of the variables, simplifies on the mass shell, i.e., for the S matrix, and acquires the usual form of the addition to the bare action of gauge-invariant counter terms and a multiplicative renormalization of the field. It is shown (in the single-loop approximation) that a felicitous choice of the gauge (here, the harmonic gauge) can also significantly simplify the structure of the renormalization off the mass shell
Anomaly extraction from the path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa's recently proposed derivation of the anomaly from the path integral is examined. It is attempted to give a better understanding of his work. In particular, evasions of his result are discussed; for example it is shown how chiral U(1) axial invariance can be maintained by employing a gauge variant regularization prescription. A brief connection with the point-splitting method is also made. (orig.)
Eliminating the chiral anomaly via symplectic embedding approach
Mendes, A C R; Oliveira, W
2009-01-01
The quantization of the chiral Schwinger model $(\\chi QED_{2})$ with one-parameter class Faddeevian regularization is hampered by the chiral anomaly, i.e., the Gauss law commutator exhibits Faddeev's anomaly. To overcome this kind of problem, we propose to eliminate this anomaly by embedding the theory through a new gauge-invariant formalism based on the enlargement of the phase space with the introduction of Wess-Zumino(WZ) fields and the symplectic approach. This process opens up a possibility to formulate different, but dynamically equivalent, gauge invariant versions for the model and also gives a geometrical interpretation to the arbitrariness presents on the BFFT and iterative conversion methods. Further, we observe that the elimination of the chiral anomaly imposes a condition on the chiral parameters present on the original model and on the WZ sector.
Target Spaces from Chiral Gauge Theories
Melnikov, Ilarion V; Sethi, Savdeep; Stern, Mark
2012-01-01
Chiral gauge theories in two dimensions with (0,2) supersymmetry are central in the study of string compactifications. Remarkably little is known about generic (0,2) theories. We consider theories with branches on which multiplets with a net gauge anomaly become massive. The simplest example is a relevant perturbation of the gauge theory that flows to the CP(n) model. To compute the effective action, we derive a useful set of Feynman rules for (0,2) supergraphs. From the effective action, we see that the infra-red geometry reflects the gauge anomaly by the presence of a boundary at finite distance. In generic examples, there are boundaries, fluxes and branes; the resulting spaces are non-Kahler.
Gravitational wave detector response in terms of spacetime Riemann curvature
Koop, Michael J
2013-01-01
Gravitational wave detectors are typically described as responding to gravitational wave metric perturbations, which are gauge-dependent and --- correspondingly --- unphysical quantities. This is particularly true for ground-based interferometric detectors, like LIGO, space-based detectors, like LISA and its derivatives, spacecraft doppler tracking detectors, and pulsar timing arrays detectors. The description of gravitational waves, and a gravitational wave detector's response, to the unphysical metric perturbation has lead to a proliferation of false analogies and descriptions regarding how these detectors function, and true misunderstandings of the physical character of gravitational waves. Here we provide a fully physical and gauge invariant description of the response of a wide class of gravitational wave detectors in terms of the Riemann curvature, the physical quantity that describes gravitational phenomena in general relativity. In the limit of high frequency gravitational waves, the Riemann curvature...
Supersymmetric chiral effective action and nonabelian anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The definition of the one-loop supersymmetric effective action for chiral superfields coupled to a nonabelian gauge superfield is carefully discussed. The variation of the odd parity part is not always integrable after regularisation, if anomalies are present. When this is compensated by a local additional term, so as to obtain an integrable variation, a supersymmetric expression for the nonabelian anomaly, satisfying the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, is simply obtained. The nonabelian anomaly is shown to be reproduced by relating it to the index for a Dirac-like operator defined on a two-dimensional disc in the space of gauge superfields. The integrated odd parity part of the effective action is further identified formally with the spectral asymmetry of a related Dirac-like operator involving one additional boson coordinate. The results are also expressed in terms of superforms which allow a connection to be made to general topological discussions of the anomaly. This depends on an analysis of the cohomology of superforms over flat superspace. (orig.)
Sparticle Masses, $\\mu $ Problem and Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking
Shafi, Qaisar(Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, U.S.A.); Tavartkiladze, Zurab
2004-01-01
Within the MSSM framework and with purely anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking the slepton masses turn out to be tachyonic. We resolve this problem by introducing an anomaly free U(1) gauge symmetry which provides positive $D$-term contributions to sparticle masses squared that are flavor conserving at one loop. Two realistic examples based on SU(5) are presented. With U(1) spontaneously broken at a scale $\\sim 10^{16}$ GeV, the right handed neutrinos acquire masses $\\sta...
Seiberg-Witten maps and commutator anomalies in noncommutative electrodynamics
Banerjee, Rabin(S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098, India); Kumar, Kuldeep
2005-01-01
We exploit the Seiberg-Witten maps for fields and currents in a U(1) gauge theory relating the noncommutative and commutative (usual) descriptions to obtain the O(\\theta) structure of the commutator anomalies in noncommutative electrodynamics. These commutators involve the (covariant) current-current algebra and the (covariant) current-field algebra. We also establish the compatibility of the anomalous commutators with the noncommutative covariant anomaly through the use of ...
Central Charge and Entangled Gauge Fields
Huang, Kuo-Wei
2014-01-01
Entanglement entropy of gauge fields is calculated using the partition function in curved spacetime with boundary. Deriving a Gibbons-Hawking like term from a BRST action produces a Wald entropy like codimension-2 surface term. It is further suggested that boundary degrees of freedom localized on the entanglement surface generated from the gauge redundancy could be used to resolve a subtle mismatch in a universal conformal anomaly-entanglement entropy relation.
Gravitational Model of the Three Elements Theory
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Frederic Lassiaille
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The gravitational model of the three elements theory is an alternative theory to dark matter. It uses a modification of Newton’s law in order to explain gravitational mysteries. The results of this model are explanations for the dark matter mysteries, and the Pioneer anomaly. The disparity of the gravitational constant measurements might also be explained. Concerning the Earth flyby anomalies, the theoretical order of magnitude is the same as the experimental one. A very small change of the perihelion advance of the planet orbits is calculated by this model. Meanwhile, this gravitational model is perfectly compatible with restricted relativity and general relativity, and is part of the three element theory, a unifying theory.
Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron
2015-02-01
We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.
D=4 Super Yang Mills, D=5 gauged supergravity and D=4 conformal supergravity
Liu, H; Liu, Hong
1998-01-01
We consider the role of N=4 conformal supergravity in the relation between N=4 SYM theory and D=5 gauged supergravity expanded near the Anti de Sitter background. We discuss the structure of the SYM effective action in conformal supergravity background, in particular, terms related to conformal anomaly. Solving the leading-order Dirichlet problem for the metric perturbation in AdS background we explicitly compute the bilinear graviton term in the D=5 Einstein action, demonstrating its equivalence to the linearized Weyl tensor squared part of the gravitational effective action induced by SYM theory. We also compute the graviton-dilaton-dilaton 3-point function which is found to have the form consistent with conformal invariance of the boundary theory.
Vanishing Vierbein in Gauge Theories of Gravitation
Jadczyk, Arkadiusz
1999-01-01
Comment: Latex format. 15 pages, 2 figures in gif format, available also for downloads at http://www.cassiopaea.org/images/traj.gif and http://www.cassiopaea.org/images/bubble.gif respectively. This paper has been published as a preprint 1n 1982. After so many years I decided to make it available for a wider public, to include 1984 referee report with my comments, and also to add reference to a more recent work on degenerate metric, where this paper is quoted
S-matrix theory for gravitational field
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Major results of the investigation conducted on the quantum theory of the gravitational field and reported to the conference are summarized. The S matrix has been constructed in the most general class of gauges including relativistic ones. The causes of the failure to apply the proper-time regularization technique to gravitational interaction are considered. The corrected and improved proper-time method makes it possible to obtain the universal expression for one-loop divergences in and arbitrary system of gravitational fields. Under the assumption of mass-shell renormalizability the quantum theory of the gravitational field is asymptotically free
Anomalies of BRS and anti-BRS ward-identities in N=1 supersymmetric theory
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The requirement of BRS and anti-BRS symmetries in N = 1 supersymmetric theory leads to Ward-identities independent of the gauge parameter. The cohomology conditions are immediately satisfied. This yields a supersymmetric formula of the chiral anomaly
Topological anomalies for Seifert 3-manifolds
Imbimbo, Camillo
2014-01-01
We study globally supersymmetric 3d gauge theories on curved manifolds by describing the coupling of 3d topological gauge theories, with both Yang-Mills and Chern-Simons terms in the action, to background topological gravity. In our approach the Seifert condition for manifolds supporting global supersymmetry is elegantly deduced from the topological gravity BRST transformations. A cohomological characterization of the geometrical moduli which affect the partition function is obtained. In the Seifert context Chern-Simons topological (framing) anomaly is BRST trivial. We compute explicitly the corresponding local Wess-Zumino functional. As an application, we obtain the dependence on the Seifert moduli of the partition function of 3d supersymmetric gauge theory on the squashed sphere by solving the anomalous topological Ward identities, in a regularization independent way and without the need of evaluating any functional determinant.
Axial Anomaly and Chiral Asymmetry in Magnetized Relativistic Matter
Shovkovy, Igor A.
2011-01-01
The generation of a chiral shift parameter in the normal ground state of magnetized relativistic matter is discussed. The chiral shift contributes to the axial current density, but does not modify the conventional axial anomaly relation. The analysis based on gauge invariant regularization schemes suggests that this finding is also valid in gauge theories. We argue that the chiral shift parameter can affect observable properties of compact stars. In the regime of heavy ion c...
On Schwinger terms in nonabelian chiral gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiral fermionic currents, coupled with nonabelian background gauge fields, are known to have Schwinger terms in their commutators. It is shown that if the gauge group is semisimple, the anomaly is completely determined by these Schwinger terms. Violation of Jacobi identities can also be demonstrated using them. (orig.)
Shnir, Ya.; Zhilin, G.
2014-05-01
We discuss the U(1) gauged version of the 3+1 dimensional Faddeev-Skyrme model supplemented by the Maxwell term. We show that there exist axially symmetric static solutions coupled to the noninteger toroidal flux of magnetic field, which revert to the usual Hopfions Am,n of lower degrees Q=mn in the limit of the gauge coupling constant vanishing. The masses of the static gauged Hopfions are found to be less than the corresponding masses of the usual ungauged solitons A1,1 and A2,1, respectively; they become lighter as the gauge coupling increases. The dependence of the solutions on the gauge coupling is investigated. We find that in the strong coupling regime the gauged Hopfion carries two magnetic fluxes, which are quantized in units of 2?, carrying n and m quanta, respectively. The first flux encircles the position curve and the second one is directed along the symmetry axis. Effective quantization of the field in the gauge sector may allow us to reconsider the usual arguments concerning the lower topological bound in the Faddeev-Skyrme-Maxwell model.
Shnir, Ya
2014-01-01
We discuss the $U(1)$ gauged version of the 3+1 dimensional Faddeev-Skyrme model supplemented by the Maxwell term. We show that there exist axially symmetric static solutions coupled to the non-integer toroidal flux of magnetic field, which revert to the usual Hopfions ${\\cal A}_{m,n}$ of lower degrees $Q=mn$ in the limit of the gauge coupling constant vanishing. The masses of the static gauged Hopfions are found to be less than the corresponding masses of the usual ungauged solitons ${\\cal A}_{1,1}$ and ${\\cal A}_{2,1}$ respectively, they become lighter as gauge coupling increases. The dependence of the solutions on the gauge coupling is investigated. We find that in the strong coupling regime the gauged Hopfion carries two magnetic fluxes, which are quantized in units of $2\\pi$, carrying $n$ and $m$ quanta respectively. The first flux encircles the position curve and the second one is directed along the symmetry axis. Effective quantization of the field in the gauge sector may allow us to reconsider the usu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravitational waves propagate through space in the same way as electromagnetic waves, but the utmost weakness of the coupling between the matter and gravitational radiation field makes them very difficult to observe. There is no realistic event for an accretion on a neutron star or a black hole producing a gravitational radiation able to be detected. Only one possibility is left, the gravitational collapse itself. A gain of six orders of magnitude on the sensitivity of the detectors now available should allow such observation
He, Hong-Jian; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi
2010-01-01
Gravity is the weakest force in nature, and the gravitational interactions with all standard model (SM) particles can be well described by perturbative expansions of the Einstein-Hilbert action as an effective theory, all the way up to energies below the fundamental Planck scale. We use Vilkovisky-DeWitt method to derive the first gauge-invariant nonzero gravitational power-law corrections to the running of gauge couplings, which make both Abel and non-Abel gauge interactions asymptotically free. We further demonstrate that the graviton-induced universal power-law runnings always assist the three SM gauge forces to reach unification at the Planck scale, irrespective of the detail of logarithmic corrections. We also compute the power-law corrections to the SM Higgs sector and derive modified triviality bound on the Higgs boson mass.
Penner Type Ensemble for Gauge Theories Revisited
Krefl, Daniel
2012-01-01
The Penner type beta-ensemble for Omega-deformed N=2 SU(2) gauge theory with two massless flavors arising as a limiting case from the AGT conjecture is considered. The partition function can be calculated perturbatively in a saddle-point approximation. A large N limit reproduces the gauge theory partition function expanded in a strong coupling regime, for any beta and beyond tree-level, confirming previous results obtained via special geometry and the holomorphic anomaly equation. The leading terms and gap of the gauge theory free energy at the monopole/dyon point follow as a corollary.
Anomaly Cancellation and Modularity. II: $E_8\\times E_8$ case
Han, Fei; Zhang, Weiping
2012-01-01
In this paper we show that both of the Green-Schwarz anomaly factorization formula for the gauge group $E_8\\times E_8$ and the Ho\\v{r}ava-Witten anomaly factorization formula for the gauge group $E_8$ can be derived through modular forms of weight 14. This answers a question of J. H. Schwarz. We also establish generalizations of these factorization formulas and obtain a new Ho\\v{r}ava-Witten type factorization formula.
Network Traffic Anomaly Detection
Huang, Hong; Al-azzawi, Hussein; Brani, Hajar
2014-01-01
This paper presents a tutorial for network anomaly detection, focusing on non-signature-based approaches. Network traffic anomalies are unusual and significant changes in the traffic of a network. Networks play an important role in today's social and economic infrastructures. The security of the network becomes crucial, and network traffic anomaly detection constitutes an important part of network security. In this paper, we present three major approaches to non-signature-ba...
David, T J
1982-01-01
The Poland anomaly is usually a non-genetic malformation syndrome. This paper reports two second cousins who both had a typical left sided Poland anomaly, and this constitutes the first recorded case of this condition affecting more than one member of a family. Despite this, for the purposes of genetic counselling, the Poland anomaly can be regarded as a sporadic condition with an extremely low recurrence risk.
Unsupervised network anomaly detection
Mazel, Johan
2011-01-01
Anomaly detection has become a vital component of any network in today's Internet. Ranging from non-malicious unexpected events such as flash-crowds and failures, to network attacks such as denials-of-service and network scans, network traffic anomalies can have serious detrimental effects on the performance and integrity of the network. The continuous arising of new anomalies and attacks create a continuous challenge to cope with events that put the network integrity at risk. Moreover, the i...
Elmfors, Per
1998-01-01
The anomaly equation can be derived from the ultraviolet properties of quantum field theory and should, therefore, not depend on infrared properties, such as the presence of a thermal heat bath. There is also an infrared explanation of anomalies which is related to fermionic zero modes. I show how the anomaly equation can be satisfied in a high temperature plasma in spite of the fact that all propagating fermionic excitations have a thermal mass.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider global anomalies for heterotic string theory formulated on orbifolds. The vanishing of certain characteristic glasses in group cohomology provides sufficient conditions for the absence of global anomalies. For abelian orbifolds level matching implies these cohomology conditions, so suffices for the absence of anomalies. For nonabelian orbifolds level matching does not suffice, and there are additional constraints. We give some examples to illustrate these new constraints. (orig.)
Gauge theories on curved lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The continuum limit of certain lattice models are Yang-Mills theories in a curved background metric. Curved spatial lattice Wilson loops are defined in a natural way. The first few terms of the induced gravitational action of the SU(N) gauge theory are computed in the strong coupling expansion. Unfortunately, very high orders in the expansion are essential to gain interesting information. (orig.)
Loup, Fernando
2007-01-01
We use the 5D Extra Dimensional Force according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Formalisms to study the behaviour of the Chung-Freese Superluminal BraneWorld compared to the Alcubierre Warp Drive and we arrive at some interesting results from the point of view of the Alcubierre ansatz although we used a diferent Shape Function f(rs) with a behaviour similar to the Natario Warp Drive. We introduce here the Casimir Warp Drive. We also demonstrate that in flat 5D Minkowsky Spacetime or weak Gravitational Fields we cannot tell if we live in a 5D or a 4D Universe according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Dimensional Reduction but in the extreme conditions of Strong Gravitational Fields we demonstrate that the effects of the 5D Extra Dimension becomes visible and perhaps the study of the extreme conditions in Black Holes can tell if we live in a Higher Dimensional Universe. We use a 5D Maartens-Clarkson Schwarzschild Cosmic Black ...
Differential formalism aspects of the gauge classical theories
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The classical aspects of the gauge theories are shown using differential geometry as fundamental tool. Somme comments are done about Maxwell Electro-dynamics, classical Yang-Mills and gravitation theories. (L.C.)
QCD in the axial gauge: boundary terms and Poincare invariance
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Quantum chromodynamics is investigated in the axial gauge with particular attention to boundary terms. The Poincare algebra has anomalies and closes only in the gauge-invariant physical sector. A simple method is proposed for dealing with the boundary condition Esup(a)3?0 as x3?infinity in a Hamiltonian formalism. It is found that the gauge potentials have physically meaningful non-trivial asymptotic behavior related to instanton effects. This presents an obstacle to perturbation theory. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravitational waves are propagating fluctuations of gravitational fields, that is, '' ripples '' in space-time, generated mainly by moving massive bodies. These distortions of space-time travel with the speed of light. Every body in the path of such a wave feels a tidal gravitational force that acts perpendicular to the wave's direction of propagation; these forces change the distance between points, and the size of the changes is proportional to the distance between these points thus gravitational waves can be detected by devices which measure the induced length changes. The frequencies and the amplitudes of the waves are related to the motion of the masses involved. Thus, the analysis of gravitational waveforms allows us to learn about their source and, if there are more than two detectors involved in observation, to estimate the distance and position of their source on the sky. (author)
Gravitation on a Spherically Symmetric Metric Manifold
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Crothers S. J.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available The usual interpretations of solutions for Einstein's gravitational field satisfying the spherically symmetric condition contain anomalies that are not mathematically permissible. It is shown herein that the usual solutions must be modified to account for the intrinsic geometry associated with the relevant line elements.
Gravitation on a Spherically Symmetric Metric Manifold
Crothers S. J.
2007-01-01
The usual interpretations of solutions for Einstein's gravitational field satisfying the spherically symmetric condition contain anomalies that are not mathematically permissible. It is shown herein that the usual solutions must be modified to account for the intrinsic geometry associated with the relevant line elements.
An introduction to covariant quantization of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravitation is the gauge field theory describing massless self-interacting spin 2+ bosons, just as Yang-Mills fields describe massless self-interacting spin 1- bosons and quantum electrodynamics massless non-self-interacting spin 1- bosons. During the past five years important developments have been made in the general theory of covariant quantization of gauge fields, the main results obtained being of course the renormalization of field theories which unify the weak and electromagnetic interactions. For gravitation, however, advancement in understanding quantized gauge theories has had significant consequences. In this review some of the applications of these new ideas about covariant quantization to gravitation as a theory of particle physics are discussed. (Auth.)
Zielinski, Janusz. B.
2015-01-01
The external gravitational field of the Earth is not axially symmetric but is irregular, described by series of the spherical harmonic functions. In the local inertial coordinate system the field is rotating following the rotation of the Earth. In the Newtonian interpretation the field is rotating stiffly with the Earth but according to the Einstein's General Relativity interpretation the propagation speed of the gravitation is finite and the gravitational anomalies are propagated in space with the speed of light. Consequently the anomalous field at the altitude h should be twisted by angle ? = h ?/cg comparing to the ground level (? - the speed of the Earth's rotation, cg - speed of the gravitational signal). This effect is difficult to measure because of the decreasing of anomaly values with the distance. However, with the modern techniques like GNSS positioning and gradiometry the torsion could be measured.
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
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Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein's theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein's field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, $R_{mu u} = 0$, violates his Principle of Equivalence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein's pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein's gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
Determination of covariant Schwinger terms in anomalous gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A functional integral method is used to determine equal time commutators between the covariant currents and the covariant Gauss-law operators in theories which are affected by an anomaly. By using a differential geometrical setup we show how the derivation of consistent- and covariant Schwinger terms can be understood on an equal footing. We find a modified consistency condition for the covariant anomaly. As a by-product the Bardeen-Zumino functional, which relates consistent and covariant anomalies, can be interpreted as connection on a certain line bundle over all gauge potentials. Finally the commutator anomalies are calculated for the two- and four dimensional case. (Author) 13 refs
Gauge and Gravity Amplitude Relations
Carrasco, John Joseph M
2015-01-01
In these lectures I talk about simplifications and universalities found in scattering amplitudes for gauge and gravity theories. In contrast to Ward identities, which are understood to arise from familiar symmetries of the classical action, these structures are currently only understood in terms of graphical organizational principles, such as the gauge-theoretic color-kinematics duality and the gravitational double-copy structure, for local representations of multi-loop S-matrix elements. These graphical principles make manifest new relationships in and between gauge and gravity scattering amplitudes. My lectures will focus on arriving at such graphical organizations for generic theories with examples presented from maximal supersymmetry, and their use in unitarity-based multi-loop integrand construction.
Framing Anomaly in the Effective Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Gromov, Andrey; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G; Fradkin, Eduardo
2014-01-01
We consider the geometric part of the effective action for Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to the obtain correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee and gravitational Chern- Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.
Origin of Weyl Anomaly as Pair Production in Dirac Sea
Habara, Yoshinobu; Ninomiya, Masao
2015-01-01
Using Dirac sea picture for both left and right moving Weyl fermion (massless fermions) in $1+1$ dimensional world with a general relativity metric field we calculate the Weyl anomaly. That is to say we calculate the trace of the energy-momentum tensor $T_{\\mu}^{\\> \\mu}$ arising from the fermions. With the gauge choice ansatz $g_{\\mu \
Anomaly Conditions for Non-Abelian Finite Family Symmetries
Luhn, Christoph; Ramond, Pierre
2008-01-01
Assuming that finite family symmetries are gauged, we derive discrete anomaly conditions for various non-Abelian groups. We thus provide new constraints for flavor model building, in which discrete non-Abelian symmetries are employed to explain the tri-bimaximal mixing pattern in the lepton sector.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
From the viewpoint of gauge gravitational theories, the path dependent gravitational phase factors define the Lorentz transformations between the local inertial coordinate systems of different positions. With this point we show that the spectral shifts in the curved spacetime, such as the gravitational and cosmological redshifts, can be understood as Doppler shifts. All these shifts are interpreted in a unified way as being originated from the relative motion of the free falling observers instantaneously static with the wave source and the receiver respectively. The gravitational phase factor of quantum systems in the curved spacetime is also discussed. (paper)
Li, Mingzhe
2014-01-01
From the viewpoint of the integral formalism of gauge gravitational theories, the path dependent gravitational phase factors define the Lorentz transformations between the local inertial coordinate systems of different positions. With this point we show that the spectral shifts in the curved spacetime, such as the gravitational and cosmological redshifts, can be understood as Doppler shifts. All these shifts are interpreted in a unified way as being originated from the relative motion of the free falling observers instantaneously static with the wave source and the receiver respectively. The gravitational phase factor of quantum systems in the curved spacetime is also discussed.
A Pseudospectral Method for Gravitational Wave Collapse
Hilditch, David; Bruegmann, Bernd
2015-01-01
We present a new pseudospectral code, bamps, for numerical relativity written with the evolution of collapsing gravitational waves in mind. We employ the first order generalized harmonic gauge formulation. The relevant theory is reviewed and the numerical method is critically examined and specialized for the task at hand. In particular we investigate formulation parameters, gauge and constraint preserving boundary conditions well-suited to non-vanishing gauge source functions. Different types of axisymmetric twist-free moment of time symmetry gravitational wave initial data are discussed. A treatment of the axisymmetric apparent horizon condition is presented with careful attention to regularity on axis. Our apparent horizon finder is then evaluated in a number of test cases. Moving on to evolutions, we investigate modifications to the generalized harmonic gauge constraint damping scheme to improve conservation in the strong field regime. We demonstrate strong-scaling of our pseudospectral penalty code. We em...
Characteristic classes of gauge systems
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We define and study invariants which can be uniformly constructed for any gauge system. By a gauge system we understand an (anti-)Poisson supermanifold provided with an odd Hamiltonian self-commuting vector field called a homological vector field. This definition encompasses all the cases usually included into the notion of a gauge theory in physics as well as some other similar (but different) structures like Lie or Courant algebroids. For Lagrangian gauge theories or Hamiltonian first class constrained systems, the homological vector field is identified with the classical BRST transformation operator. We define characteristic classes of a gauge system as universal cohomology classes of the homological vector field, which are uniformly constructed in terms of this vector field itself. Not striving to exhaustively classify all the characteristic classes in this work, we compute those invariants which are built up in terms of the first derivatives of the homological vector field. We also consider the cohomological operations in the space of all the characteristic classes. In particular, we show that the (anti-)Poisson bracket becomes trivial when applied to the space of all the characteristic classes, instead the latter space can be endowed with another Lie bracket operation. Making use of this Lie bracket one can generate new characteristic classes involving higher derivatives of the homological vector field. The simplest characteristic classes are illustrated by the acteristic classes are illustrated by the examples relating them to anomalies in the traditional BV or BFV-BRST theory and to characteristic classes of (singular) foliations
Translation gauge fields and space-time dislocations
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Gauge fields of Poincare translations define particular nongravitation structure on a space-time, which can be treated as sui generis space-time dislocations. Their source is the canonical energy-momentum tensor of matter, and these dislocations can introduce some corrections to standard values of gravitation effects, e.g. the Yukawa type corrections to the Newtonian gravitation potential. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An introduction to the unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is given. The ingredients of gauge theories and symmetries and conservation laws lead to discussion of local gauge invariance and QED, followed by weak interactions and quantum flavor dynamics. The construction of the standard SU(2)xU(1) model precedes discussion of the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions and weak neutral current couplings in this model. Presentation of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous breaking of a local symmetry leads to a spontaneous breaking scheme for the standard SU(2)xU(1) model. Consideration of quarks, leptons, masses and the Cabibbo angles, of the four quark and six quark models and CP violation lead finally to grand unification, followed by discussion of mixing angles in the Georgi-Glashow model, the Higgses of the SU(5) model and proton/ neutron decay in SU(5). (JIW)
Composite gauge bosons of transmuted gauge symmetry
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It is shown that effective gauge theories of composite gauge bosons describing the dynamics of composite quarks and leptons can be transmuted from the subcolor gauge theory describing that of subquarks due to the condensation of subquarks and that the equality of effective gauge coupling constants can result as in a grand unified gauge theory. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In these notes the author provides some background on the theory of gauge fields, a subject of increasing popularity among particle physicists (and others). Detailed motivations and applications which are covered in the other lectures of this school are not presented. In particular the application to weak interactions is omitted by referring to the introduction given by J. Ilipoulos a year ago (CERN Report 76-11). The aim is rather to stress those aspects which suggest that gauge fields may play some role in a future theory of strong interactions. (Auth.)
Poincare gauge theory from higher derivative matter lagrangean
Mukherjee, Pradip(Department of Physics, Barasat Government College, West Bengal, Barasat, India)
2009-01-01
Starting from matter lagrangean containing higher order derivative than the first, we construct the Poincare gauge theory by localising the Poincare symmetry of the matter theory. The construction is shown to follow the usual geometric procedure of gravitational coupling, thereby buttressing the geometric interpretation of the Poincare gauge theory.
Conformal anomaly actions for dilaton interactions
Rose, Luigi Delle; Serino, Mirko
2014-01-01
We discuss, in conformally invariant field theories such as QCD with massless fermions, a possible link between the perturbative signature of the conformal anomaly, in the form of anomaly poles of the 1-particle irreducible effective action, and its description in terms of Wess-Zumino actions with a dilaton. The two descriptions are expected to capture the UV and IR behaviour of the conformal anomaly, in terms of fundamental and effective degrees of freedom respectively, with the dilaton effective state appearing in a nonlinear realization. As in the chiral case, conformal anomalies seem to be related to the appearance of these effective interactions in the 1PI action in all the gauge-invariant sectors of the Standard Model. We show that, as a consequence of the underlying anomalous symmetry, the infinite hierarchy of recurrence relations involving self-interactions of the dilaton is entirely determined only by the first four of them. This relation can be generalized to any even space-time dimension.
Conformal anomaly actions for dilaton interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rose Luigi Delle
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss, in conformally invariant field theories such as QCD with massless fermions, a possible link between the perturbative signature of the conformal anomaly, in the form of anomaly poles of the 1-particle irreducible effective action, and its descrip- tion in terms of Wess-Zumino actions with a dilaton. The two descriptions are expected to capture the UV and IR behaviour of the conformal anomaly, in terms of fundamental and effective degrees of freedom respectively, with the dilaton effective state appearing in a nonlinear realization. As in the chiral case, conformal anomalies seem to be related to the appearance of these effective interactions in the 1PI action in all the gauge-invariant sectors of the Standard Model. We show that, as a consequence of the underlying anomalous symmetry, the infinite hierarchy of recurrence relations involving self-interactions of the dilaton is entirely determined only by the first four of them. This relation can be generalized to any even space-time dimension.
Katz, Joseph
2005-01-01
Observers at rest in a stationary spacetime flat at infinity can measure small amounts of rest-mass+internal energies+kinetic energies+pressure energy in a small volume of fluid attached to a local inertial frame. The sum of these small amounts is the total "matter energy" for those observers. The total mass-energy minus the matter energy is the binding gravitational energy. Misner, Thorne and Wheeler evaluated the gravitational energy of a spherically symmetric static spa...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show explicitly that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law in electrodynamics. Some of the physical implications of gravitational induction are briefly discussed
Bini, Donato; Cherubini, Christian; Chicone, Carmen; Mashhoon, Bahram
2008-11-01
We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show explicitly that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law in electrodynamics. Some of the physical implications of gravitational induction are briefly discussed.
Holonomy Attractor Connecting Spaces of Different Curvature Responsible for ``Anomalies''
Binder, Bernd
2009-03-01
In this lecture paper we derive Magic Angle Precession (MAP) from first geometric principles. MAP can arise in situations, where precession is multiply related to spin, linearly by time or distance (dynamic phase, rolling, Gauss law) and transcendentally by the holonomy loop path (geometric phase). With linear spin-precession coupling, gyroscopes can be spun up and down to very high frequencies via low frequency holonomy control induced by external accelerations, which provides for extreme coupling strengths or "anomalies" that can be tested by the powerball or gyrotwister device. Geometrically, a gyroscopic manifold with spherical metric is tangentially aligned to a precession wave channel with conic or hyperbolic metric (like the relativistic Thomas precession). Transporting triangular spin/precession vector relations across the tangential boundary of contact with SO(3) Lorentz symmetry, we get extreme vector currents near the attractor fixed points in precession phase space, where spin currents remain intact while crossing the contact boundaries between regions of different curvature signature (?1, 0, +1). The problem can be geometrically solved by considering a curvature invariant triangular condition, which holds on surfaces with different curvature that are in contact and locally parallel. In this case two out of three angles are identical, whereas the third angle is different due to holonomy. If we require that the side length ratio corresponding to these angles are invariant we get a geodesic chaotic attractor, which is a cosine map cos(x)˜Mx in parameter space providing for fixed points, limit cycle bifurcations, and singularities. The situation could be quite natural and common in the context of vector currents in curved spacetime and gauge theories. MAP could even be part of the electromagnetic interaction, where the electric charge is the geometric U(1) precession spin current and gauge potential with magnetic effects given by extra rotations under the SO(3). MAP can be extended to a neural network, where the synaptic connection of the holonomy attractor is just the mathematical condition adjusting and bridging spaces with positive (spherical) and negative (hyperbolic) curvature allowing for lossless/supra spin currents. Another strategy is to look for existing spin/precession anomalies and corresponding nonlinear holonomy conditions at the most fundamental level from the quark level to the cosmic scale. In these sceneries the geodesic attractor could control holonomy and curvature near the fixed points. It was proposed in 2002 that this should happen with electrons in atomic orbits showing a Berry phase part of the Rydberg or Sommerfeld fine structure constant and in 2003 that this effect could be responsible for (in)stabilities in the nuclear range and in superconductors. In 2008 it was shown that the attractor is part of the chaotic mechanical dynamics successfully at work in the Gyro-twister fitness device, and in 2007-2009 that there could be some deep relevance to "anomalies" in many scenarios even on the cosmic scales. Thus, we will point to and discuss some possible future applications that could be utilized for metric engineering: generating artificial holonomy and curvature (DC effect) for propulsion, or forcing holonomy waves (AC effect) in hyperbolic space-time, which are just gravitational waves interesting for communication.
Canonical Gauges in the Path Integral for Parametrized Systems
Ferraro, Rafael; Simeone, Claudio(Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina)
1995-01-01
It is well known that --differing from ordinary gauge systems-- canonical gauges are not admissible in the path integral for parametrized systems. This is the case for the relativistic particle and gravitation. However, a time dependent canonical transformation can turn a parametrized system into an ordinary gauge system. It is shown how to build a canonical transformation such that the fixation of the new coordinates is equivalent to the fixation of the original ones; this ...
Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris L. Fryer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author summarizes the works presented at the meeting on skyrmions and anomalies. He divides the principal issues of this workshop into five categories: QCD effective lagrangians, chiral bags and the Cheshire cat principle, strangeness problem, phenomenology, mathematical structure
Supersymmetric gauge theories from string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis presents various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain sub-cycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. Even if the Calabi-Yau geometry is too complicated to evaluate the geometric integrals explicitly, one can then always use matrix model perturbation theory to calculate the effective superpotential. The second part of this work covers the generation of four-dimensional super-symmetric gauge theories, carrying several important characteristic features of the standard model, from compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity on G2-manifolds. If the latter contain conical singularities, chiral fermions are present in the four-dimensional gauge theory, which potentially lead to anomalies. We show that, locally at each singularity, these anomalies are cancelled by the non-invariance of the classical action through a mechanism called 'anomaly inflow'. Unfortunately, no explicit metric of a compact G2-manifold is known. Here we construct families of metrics on compact weak G2-manifolds, which contain two conical singularities. Weak G2-manifolds have properties that are similar to the ones of proper G2-manifolds, and hence the explicit examples might be useful to better understand the generic situation. Finally, we reconsider the relation between eleven-dimensional supergravity and the E8 x E8-heterotic string. This is done by carefully studying the anomalies that appear if the supergravity theory is formulated on a ten-manifold times the interval. Again we find that the anomalies cancel locally at the boundaries of the interval through anomaly inflow, provided one suitably modifies the classical action. (author)
de Diego, Jose A
2008-01-01
Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.
Volume anomaly in ferrimagnetism
Pascard, H.; Globus, A.
1981-01-01
The volume anomaly ?V/V due to the magnetic energy corresponding to the exchange interactions is experimentally determined for YIG. The experimental values (from 77 K to Tc) agree with the values deduced from the theoretical expression based on the Néel's theories of volume anomaly and of ferrimagnetism. These results are compared with those obtained by other authors on ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials with localized magnetic moments : a reduced curve is obtained.
Gauge Symmetry Breaking: Higgs-less Mass Generation and Radiation Phenomena
Calixto Molina, Manuel
2004-01-01
Gauge symmetries generally appear as a constraint algebra, under which one expects all physical states to be singlets. However, quantum anomalies and boundary conditions introduce central charges and change this picture, thus causing gauge/diffeomorphism modes to become physical. We expose a cohomological (Higgs-less) generation of mass in U(N)-gauge invariant Yang-Mills theories through non-trivial representations of the gauge group. This situation is also present in black ...
SADM potentiometer anomaly investigations
Wood, Brian; Mussett, David; Cattaldo, Olivier; Rohr, Thomas
2005-07-01
During the last 3 years Contraves Space have been developing a Low Power (1-2kW) Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) aimed at small series production. The mechanism was subjected to two test programmes in order to qualify the SADM to acceptable levels. During the two test programmes, anomalies were experienced with the Potentiometers provided by Eurofarad SA and joint investigations were undertaken to resolve why these anomalies had occurred. This paper deals with the lessons learnt from the failure investigation on the two Eurofarad (rotary) Potentiometer anomaly. The Rotary Potentiometers that were used were fully redundant; using two back to back mounted "plastic tracks". It is a pancake configuration mounted directly to the shaft of the Slip Ring Assembly at the extreme in-board end of the SADM. It has no internal bearings. The anomaly initially manifested itself as a loss of performance in terms of linearity, which was first detected during Thermal Vacuum testing. A subsequent anomaly manifested itself by the complete failure of the redundant potentiometer again during thermal vacuum testing. This paper will follow and detail the chain of events following this anomaly and identifies corrective measures to be applied to the potentiometer design and assembly process.
Canonical quantization and cosmological particle production in non-abelian gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A canonical quantization scheme for non-abelian gauge fields in an external, classical gravitational field is formulated and applied to the problem of cosmological Higgs and gauge boson production. Via interaction, the mass of the Higgs field not only leads to additional Higgs production, but also enables the production of massless gauge bosons. (orig.)
An Anomaly Associated with Ward—Takahashi Identity for Pseudo-Tensor Current in QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the quantum anomaly for the transverse Ward—Takahashi relations in the four-dimensional gauge theory QED by using Fujikawa's method in which the anomaly is fundamentally a variation of the functional integral measure under transformation. A regulator which leads to a finite result for the anomaly is proposed. It is shown that a novel anomaly associated with transverse Ward—Takahashi identity of pseudo-tensor current is derived due to a set of infinitesimal transverse transformation of field variables
The cancellation of worldsheet anomalies in the D=10 Green--Schwarz heterotic string sigma--model
Lechner, K.; Tonin, M.
1996-01-01
We determine the two--dimensional Weyl, Lorentz and $\\kappa$--anomalies in the $D=10$ Green--Schwarz heterotic string sigma--model, in an $SO(1,9)$-Lorentz covariant background gauge, and prove their cancellation.
The cancellation of world-sheet anomalies in the D=10 Green-Schwarz heterotic string sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We determine the two-dimensional Weyl, Lorentz and ?-anomalies in the D=10 Green-Schwarz heterotic string sigma model, in an SO(1,9) Lorentz-covariant background gauge, and prove their cancellation. (orig.)
Chiao, Raymond Y; Inan, Nader; Kang, Bong-Soo; Martinez, Luis A; Minter, Stephen J; Muñoz, Gerardo; Singleton, Douglas
2013-01-01
A thought experiment is proposed to demonstrate the existence of a gravitational, vector Aharonov-Bohm effect. A connection is made between the gravitational, vector Aharonov-Bohm effect and the principle of local gauge invariance for nonrelativistic quantum matter interacting with weak gravitational fields. The compensating vector fields that are necessitated by this local gauge principle are shown to be incorporated by the DeWitt minimal coupling rule. The nonrelativistic Hamiltonian for weak, time-independent fields interacting with quantum matter is then extended to time-dependent fields, and applied to problem of the interaction of radiation with macroscopically coherent quantum systems, including the problem of gravitational radiation interacting with superconductors. But first we examine the interaction of EM radiation with superconductors in a parametric oscillator consisting of a superconducting wire placed at the center of a high Q superconducting cavity driven by pump microwaves. We find that the t...
Krnjaic, Gordan; Stolarski, Daniel
2013-04-01
We present a UV complete model with a gauged flavor symmetry which approximately realizes holomorphic Minimal Flavor Violation (MFV) in R-parity violating (RPV) supersymmetry. Previous work has shown that imposing MFV as an ansatz easily evades direct constraints and has interesting collider phenomenology. The model in this work spontaneously breaks the flavor symmetry and features the minimum "exotic" field content needed to cancel anomalies. The flavor gauge bosons exhibit an inverted hierarchy so that those associated with the third generation are the lightest. This allows low energy flavor constraints to be easily satisfied and leaves open the possibility of flavor gauge bosons accessible at the LHC. The usual MSSM RPV operators are all forbidden by the new gauge symmetry, but the model allows a purely exotic operator which violates both R-parity and baryon number. Since the exotic fields mix with MSSM-like right handed quarks, diagonalizing the full mass matrix after flavor-breaking transforms this operator into the trilinear baryon number violating operator overline{U}overline{D}overline{D} with flavor coefficients all suppressed by three powers of Yukawa couplings. There is a limit where this model realizes exact MFV; we compute corrections away from MFV, show that they are under theoretical control, and find that the model is viable in large regions of parameter space.
Heterotic Flux Geometry from Chiral Gauge Dynamics
Quigley, Callum
2013-01-01
Chiral gauge theories in two dimensions with (0,2) supersymmetry admit a much broader, and more interesting, class of vacuum solutions than their better studied (2,2) counterparts. In this thesis, we will explore some of the possibilities that are offered by this additional freedom by including field-dependent theta-angles and FI parameters. The moduli spaces that will result from this procedure correspond to heterotic string backgrounds with non-trivial H-flux and NS-brane sources. Along the way, a remarkable relationship between (0,2) gauge anomalies and H-flux will emerge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is a report of the author's recent work on the global initial value problem for Einstein's equations in the spherically symmetric case with a massless scalar field as the material model. This work is a mathematical study of the dynamics of gravitational collapse and the formation of black holes
Anomaly Extraction in Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mr. Naushad Mujawar
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The application detects anomaly in network using techniques like histogram, cloning voting, filtering. To extract anomalous flows, one could build a model describing normal flow characteristics and use the model to identify deviating flows. We can compare flows of packets on network with previous flows, like new flows that were not previously observed or flows with significant increase/decrease in their volume. Identify an anomalous flow that combines and consolidates information from multiple histogram-based anomaly detectors [1] [4] [8]. Compared to other possible approaches. Build a histogram based detector that (i applies histogram cloning[1][4], i.e., maintains multiple randomized histograms to obtain additional views of network traffic[3]; and (ii uses the Kullback-Leibler (KL distance to detect anomalies.
Ward Identities and Renormalization of General Gauge Theories
Grigore, D R
2004-01-01
We introduce the concept of general gauge theory which includes Yang-Mills models. In the framework of the causal approach and show that the anomalies can appear only in the vacuum sector of the identities obtained from the gauge invariance condition by applying derivatives with respect to the basic fields. Then we provide a general result about the absence of anomalies in higher orders of perturbation theory. This result reduces the renormalizability proof to the study of lower orders of perturbation theory. For the Yang-Mills model one can perform this computation explicitly and obtains its renormalizability in all orders.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper evaluates MR imaging in the assessment of mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs). Twenty-nine patients underwent prospective MR imaging with 1.5-T or 0.35- T MR units. Spin-echo T1-weighted (500/20) and T2-weighted (2,500/60) images were obtained. The anomalies evaluated included uterine agenesis and hypoplasia and unicornuate, didelphic, bicornuate, and septate uteri. Findings were correlated with hysterosalpingography, laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, or laparotomy in all patients. The image parameters recorded were external fundal contour, intercornual distance, uterine signal and signal intensity metrial/myometrial width and ratio, and the extent and signal intensity of any septum
Gauging Non-local Quark Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gauge effective quark model with non-local interactions is considered. It is shown how this approach regularize the theory in such a way that the anomalies are preserved and charges are properly quantized. With non-local interactions the effective action is finite to all orders in the loop expansion and there is no need to introduce the quark momentum cut-off parameter
Utilitarian supersymmetric gauge model of particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A remarkabale U(1) gauge extension of the supersymmetric standard model was proposed 8 years ago. It is anomaly free, has no ? term, and conserves baryon and lepton numbers automatically. The phenomenology of a specific version of this model is discussed. In particular, leptoquarks are predicted, with couplings to the heavy singlet neutrinos, the scalar partners of which may be components of dark matter. The Majorana neutrino mass matrix itself may have two zero subdeterminants.
Utilitarian Supersymmetric Gauge Model of Particle Interactions
Ma, Ernest
2010-01-01
A remarkable U(1) gauge extension of the supersymmetric standard model was proposed eight years ago. It is anomaly-free, has no mu term, and conserves baryon and lepton numbers automatically. The phenomenology of a specific version of this model is discussed. In particular, leptoquarks are predicted, with couplings to the heavy singlet neutrinos, the scalar partners of which may be components of dark matter. The Majorana neutrino mass matrix itself may have two zero subdeterminants.
Non-minimal gauge mediation and moduli stabilization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Letter we consider U(1)A-gauged Polonyi model with two spurions coupled to a twisted closed string modulus. This offers a consistent setup for metastable SUSY breakdown which allows for moduli stabilization and naturally leads to gauge or hybrid gauge/gravitational mediation mechanism. Due to the presence of the second spurion one can arrange for a solution of the ? and B? problems in a version of modified Giudice-Masiero mechanism, which works both in the limit of pure gauge mediation and in the mixed regime of hybrid mediation.
Graviton as a pair of collinear gauge bosons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan Stieberger
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We show that the mixed gravitational/gauge superstring amplitudes describing decays of massless closed strings – gravitons or dilatons – into a number of gauge bosons, can be written at the tree (disk level as linear combinations of pure open string amplitudes in which the graviton (or dilaton is replaced by a pair of collinear gauge bosons. Each of the constituent gauge bosons carry exactly one half of the original closed string momentum, while their ±1 helicities add up to ±2 for the graviton or to 0 for the dilaton.
Introduction to gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In these lectures we present the key ingredients of theories with local gauge invariance. We introduce gauge invariance as a starting point for the construction of a certain class of field theories, both for abelian and nonabelian gauge groups. General implications of gauge invariance are discussed, and we outline in detail how gauge fields can acquire masses in a spontaneous fashion. (orig./HSI)
On the conformal anomaly of k-strings
Giudice, P; Lottini, S
2007-01-01
We discuss the long distance behaviour of the flux tube associated to baryon vertices and argue that, if the gauge system admits stable k-strings, the conformal field theory describing this string in the IR has conformal anomaly c=(d-2)\\sigma_k/\\sigma, where \\sigma_k is the k-string tension and \\sigma that of the fundamental representation. We check this result in a 3D Z_4 gauge model at finite temperature, where a string effect directly related to "c" can be clearly identified.
The quantization of the electric charge in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantization of the electric charges of the gauge bosons, the Higgs bosons and the fermions in gauge theories was studied. The intimate relation of the quantization of the electric charge with the spontaneous symmetry breaking, anomaly cancellation and majorana mass of fermions was investigated. Specific examples for the standard model and the SU(5) X U(1)Z model are discussed. It is found that in these models the electric charges of particles are dynamically quantized. 10 refs
Electroweak phase transition in a model with gauged lepton number
Aranda, Alfredo; Vaquera-Araujo, Carlos A
2014-01-01
In this work we study the electroweak phase transition in a model with gauged lepton number. Here, a family of vector-like leptons is required in order to cancel the gauge anomalies. Furthermore, these leptons can play an important role in the transition process. We find that this framework is able to provide a strong transition, but only for a very limited number of cases.
Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings and the gauge hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gauge hierarchy problem is reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 39 refs
Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings and the gauge hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gauge hierarchy problem is reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and the acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 39 refs. (author)
Virasoro algebra anomalies and deformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors relate the anomalies of string theories to the mathematical obstructions of Dirac's canonical quantisation. The cohomological features of the deformation approach to the quantisation procedure determine the topological nature of such anomalies. (author)
Bilateral morning glory disc anomaly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deb Nilanjana
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Morning glory disc anomaly (MGDA is usually known to be unilateral. We report an unusual case of a bilateral form of the disorder with an aim to distinguish it from other bilateral optic nerve head anomalies.
Bilateral morning glory disc anomaly.
Deb Nilanjana; Das Rita; Roy I.
2003-01-01
Morning glory disc anomaly (MGDA) is usually known to be unilateral. We report an unusual case of a bilateral form of the disorder with an aim to distinguish it from other bilateral optic nerve head anomalies.
Antifield dependence of anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that generally the consistency equation for anomalies of quantum field theories has solutions which depend nontrivially on the sources of the (generalized) BRS-transformations of the fields. Explicit previously unknown examples of such solutions are given for Yang-Mills and super Yang-Mills theories. (orig.)
On global anomalies in type IIB string theory
Sati, Hisham
2011-01-01
We study global gravitational anomalies in type IIB string theory with nontrivial middle cohomology. This requires the study of the action of diffeomorphisms on this group. Several results and constructions, including some recent vanishing results via elliptic genera, make it possible to consider this problem. Along the way, we describe in detail the intersection pairing and the action of diffeomorphisms, and highlight the appearance of various structures, including the Rochlin invariant and its variants on the mapping torus.
On global anomalies in type IIB string theory
Sati, Hisham
2011-01-01
We study global gravitational anomalies in type IIB string theory with nontrivial middle cohomology. This requires the study of the action of diffeomorphisms on this group. Several results and constructions, including some recent vanishing results via elliptic genera, make it possible to consider this problem. Along the way, we describe in detail the intersection pairing and the action of diffeomorphisms, and highlight the appearance of various structures, including the Roch...
Framing Anomaly in the Effective Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Gromov, Andrey; Abanov, Alexander; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-03-01
While the classical Chern-Simons theory is topological, it's quantum version is not as it depends on the metric of the base manifold through the path integral measure. This phenomenon is known as the framing anomaly. It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions of fractional quantum Hall systems (FQH). In the lowest order in gradients the effective action includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and generates a ``finite size correction'' to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses of non-Abelian FQH states.
Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P
2001-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.
A flyby anomaly for Juno? Not from standard physics
Iorio, L.
2014-12-01
An empirical formula recently appeared in the literature to explain the observed anomalies of about ? ? ? ? 1 - 10 mm s-1 in the geocentric range-rates ? ? of the Galileo, NEAR and Rosetta spacecraft at some of their past perigee passages along unbound, hyperbolic trajectories.It predicts an anomaly of the order of 6 mm s-1 for the recent flyby of Juno, occurred on 9 October 2013.Data analyses to confirm or disproof it are currently ongoing.We numerically calculate the impact on the geocentric Juno's range rate of some classical and general relativistic dynamical effects which are either unmodeled or mismodeled to a certain level in the software used to process the data.They are: (a) the first even zonal harmonic coefficient J2 of the multipolar expansion of the terrestrial gravitational potential causing orbital perturbations both at the (a?) Newtonian (J2) and at the (a?) first post-Newtonian level (J2c-2) (b) the post-Newtonian gravitoelectric (GE) Schwarschild-like component of the Earth's gravitational field (c) the post-Newtonian gravitomagnetic (GM) Lense-Thirring effect.The magnitudes of their mismodeled and nominal range-rate signatures are: (a?) ????J2 ? 1 ? m s-1 (a?) ???J2c-2 ? 0.015 ? m s-1 (b) ???GE ? 25 ? m s-1 (c) ???GM ? 0.05 ? m s-1. If a flyby anomaly as large as a few mm s-1 will be finally found also for Juno, it will not be due to any of these standard gravitational effects. It turns out that a Rindler-type radial extra-acceleration of the same magnitude as in the Pioneer anomaly would impact the Juno's range-rate at a ???Rin ? 1.5 ? m s-1 level. Regardless of the quest for the flyby anomaly, all such effects are undetectable.
Bini, Donato; Cherubini, Christian; Chicone, Carmen; Mashhoon, Bahram
2008-01-01
We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show {\\it explicitly} that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz...
Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our Universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle—the graviton—that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms ‘feeling’ laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials—both Abelian and non-Abelian—in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms. (review article)
Determination of Gravitational Counterterms Near Four Dimensions from RG Equations
Hamada, Ken-ji
2014-01-01
The finiteness condition of renormalization gives a restriction on the form of the gravitational action. By reconsidering the Hathrell's RG equations for massless QED in curved space, we determine the gravitational counterterms and the conformal anomalies as well near four dimensions. As conjectured for conformal couplings in 1970s, we show that at all orders of the perturbation they can be combined into two forms only: the square of the Weyl tensor in $D$ dimensions and $E_...
Torsion, Parity-odd Response and Anomalies in Topological States
Parrikar, Onkar; Leigh, Robert G
2014-01-01
We study the response of a class of topological systems to electromagnetic and gravitational sources, including torsion and curvature. By using the technology of anomaly polynomials, we derive the parity-odd response of a massive Dirac fermion in $d=2+1$ and $d=4+1$, which provides a simple model for a topological insulator. We discuss the covariant anomalies of the corresponding edge states, from a Callan-Harvey anomaly-inflow, as well as a Hamiltonian spectral flow point of view. We also discuss the applicability of our results to other systems such as Weyl semi-metals. Finally, using dimensional reduction from $d=4+1$, we derive the effective action for a $d=3+1$ time-reversal invariant topological insulator in the presence of torsion and curvature, and discuss its various physical consequences.
Covariant anomalies in cohomology approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a new cohomology approach to the covariant anomalies. As a general solution of a covariant condition, we obtain a set of differential forms from which the covariant (current and commutator) anomalies are derived algebraically. We also derive a generalized Bardeen-Zumino relation between the covariant and consistent anomalies. (orig.)
Spectral action, Weyl anomaly and the Higgs-Dilaton potential
Andrianov, A. A.; Kurkov, M. A.; LIZZI, FEDELE
2011-01-01
We show how the bosonic spectral action emerges from the fermionic action by the renormalization group flow in the presence of a dilaton and the Weyl anomaly. The induced action comes out to be basically the Chamseddine-Connes spectral action introduced in the context of noncommutative geometry. The entire spectral action describes gauge and Higgs fields coupled with gravity. We then consider the effective potential and show, that it has the desired features of a broken and ...
Consistent and covariant anomalies in six-dimensional supergravity
Riccioni, Fabio; Sagnotti, Augusto
1998-01-01
In this note we clarify some issues in six-dimensional (1,0) supergravity coupled to vector and tensor multiplets. In particular, we show that, while the low-energy equations embody tensor-vector couplings that contribute only to gauge anomalies, the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor is properly non-vanishing. In addition, we show how to revert to a supersymmetric formulation in terms of covariant non-integrable field equations that embody corresponding covariant anom...
Vanishing of the chiral anomaly for an antisymmetric tensor field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a gauge antisymmetric tensor field (which is equivalent to a massless scalar field on-mass-shell). We demonstrate that the total chiral current which accounts for the chirality of the vector ghost fields is not anomalous. We also dwell on the relation between the number of zero modes of the antisymmetric tensor field and the anomaly in the chiral current of the vector field. (orig.)
The Chiral Magnetic Effect and Anomaly-Induced Transport
Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2013-01-01
The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is the phenomenon of electric charge separation along the external magnetic field that is induced by the chirality imbalance. The CME is a macroscopic quantum effect - it is a manifestation of the chiral anomaly creating a collective motion in Dirac sea. Because the chirality imbalance is related to the global topology of gauge fields, the CME current is topologically protected and hence non-dissipative even in the presence of strong interact...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the minimal Higgs sector is often extended by introducing multidimensional Higgs representations in order to obtain realistic models. However these constructions should remain anomaly-free, which significantly constrains their structure. We review the necessary conditions for the cancellation of anomalies in general and discuss in detail the different possibilities for supersymmetric SU(5) models. Alternative anomaly-free combinations of Higgs representations, beyond the usual vectorlike choice, are identified, and it is shown that their corresponding ? functions are not equivalent. Although the unification of gauge couplings is not affected, the introduction of multidimensional representations leads to different scenarios for the perturbative validity of the theory up to the Planck scale.
The ? transformation and gravitational copies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An Abelian symmetry already considered by Einstein with respect to his asymmetrical field theories is related to the gravitational and gauge field copy phenomenon. It is shown that gauge field copies arise out of a straightforward generalization of the ? - map. The connection between Einstein's work on the ?-transformation and the copy phenomenon is obtained with the help of the Frobenius Theorem on the existence of foliations on a differentiable manifold. A problem like the one above is usually treated within the language of (intrinsic) Differential Geometry; General Relativity and classical unified field theories are traditionally developed in a classical style, that gap, a long introduction is prepared where the same structures are studied from the traditional and from the more recent point of view. (author)
Background-Independent Gravitational Waves
Agresti, J; Lusanna, L; Martucci, L; Agresti, Juri; Pietri, Roberto De; Lusanna, Luca; Martucci, Luca
2003-01-01
A Hamiltonian linearization of the rest-frame instant form of tetrad gravity (gr-qc/0302084), where the Hamiltonian is the weak ADM energy ${\\hat E}_{ADM}$, in a completely fixed (non harmonic) 3-orthogonal Hamiltonian gauge is defined. For the first time this allows to find an explicit solution of all the Hamiltonian constraints and an associated linearized solution of Einstein's equations. It corresponds to background-independent gravitational waves in a well defined post-Minkowskian Christodoulou-Klainermann space-time.
Cosmic strings in a product Abelian gauge field theory
Yang, Yisong
2014-08-01
It is shown that multiply distributed cosmic strings arise in the product Abelian gauge field theory of Tong and Wong where vortices generated from an extra gauge sector are used to realize magnetic impurities. It is seen that, in view of the fully coupled Einstein and gauge-matter equations, the presence of such cosmic strings in the form of topological defects is essential for gravitation. Asymptotic behavior of the string solutions can be precisely described to allow the derivation of a necessary and sufficient condition for the gravitational metric to be geodesically complete and an explicit calculation of the deficit angle proportional to the string tension, both stated in terms of string numbers, energy levels of broken symmetries, and the universal gravitational constant.
Gauged BRST symmetry and the occurence of higher cocycles in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The BRST symmetry of Yang Mills theories can be gauged via the introduction of an anticommuting single gauge field. There follows the construction of a local BRST operation which allows an algebraic analysis of the BRST current algebra. This construction provides, in particular, a field theory interpretation of most higher cocycles which accompany the usual chiral anomaly
Anomaly mediation, Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms and precision sparticle spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the sparticle spectra that arise when anomaly mediation is the source of supersymmetry-breaking and the tachyonic slepton problem is solved by a Fayet-Iliopoulos D-term. We also show how this can lead to a minimal viable extension of anomaly mediation, in which the gauge symmetry associated with this D-term is broken at very high energies, leaving as its footprint in the low energy theory only the required D-terms and seesaw neutrino masses
Anomaly Mediation, Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms and precision sparticle spectra
Hodgson, R; Jones, D R T; Ross, Graham G
2005-01-01
We consider the sparticle spectra that arise when anomaly mediation is the source of supersymmetry-breaking and the tachyonic slepton problem is solved by a Fayet-Iliopoulos D-term. We also show how this can lead to a minimal viable extension of anomaly mediation, in which the gauge symmetry associated with this D-term is broken at very high energies, leaving as its footprint in the low energy theory only the required D-terms and seesaw neutrino masses.
Hidden QCD in Chiral Gauge Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco
2005-01-01
The 't Hooft and Corrigan-Ramond limits of massless one-flavor QCD consider the two Weyl fermions to be respectively in the fundamental representation or the two index antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. We introduce a limit in which one of the two Weyl fermions is in the fundamental representation and the other in the two index antisymmetric representation of a generic SU(N) gauge group. This theory is chiral and to avoid gauge anomalies a more complicated chiral theory is needed. This is the generalized Georgi-Glashow model with one vector like fermion. We show that there is an interesting phase in which the considered chiral gauge theory, for any N, Higgses via a bilinear condensate: The gauge interactions break spontaneously to ordinary massless one-flavor SU(3) QCD. The additional elementary fermionic matter is uncharged under this SU(3) gauge theory. It is also seen that when the number of colors reduce to three it is exactly this hidden QCD which is revealed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Metin SALTIK
1996-03-01
Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A mathematical study of the dynamics of gravitational collapse and the formation of black holes is presented. The global initial value problems for Einstein's equations in the spherically symmetric case with a massless scalar field, and for arbitrarily large initial data are examined. The required equations and theorems for the solution of the problem are presented. The asymptotic behavior of the global generalized solutions as the retarded time approaches infinity is studied. It is shown that when the final Bondi mass is different from zero, as the retarded time approaches infinity, a black hole forms surrounded by a vacuum
Sarkar, Utpal
2006-01-01
A simple algorithm to calculate the group theory factor entering in anomalies at four and six dimensions for SU(N) and SO(N) groups in terms of the Casimir invariants of their subgroups is presented. Explicit examples of some of the lower dimensional representations of $SU(n), n \\leq 5$ and SO(10) groups are presented, which could be used for model building in four and six dimensions.
Echocardiography in Ebstein's anomaly
Gussenhoven, W. J.
1984-01-01
In this thesis the value of echocardiography is evaluated for the diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve. This congenital heart defect, first described in 1866 by Wilhelm Ebstein, is characterized by an apical displacement of the septal and inferior tricuspid valve leaflets and by dysplasia of the tricuspid valve apparatus. Since the publication of Ebstein, this congenital heart defect had been recognized and documented several times but only on the basis of p...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In general, quantum corrections to matter-supergravity couplings uniquely determine what are acceptable auxiliary fields for N = 1 supergravity, and partially determine those for N = 2. This is because one-loop corrections produce anomalies in not only the local superscale transformations, but also in the local (Poincare) supersymmetry transformations themselves, except for special cases: in particular, for N = 1 the n = 1/3 minimal set of auxiliary fields is uniquely chosen. (orig.)
Connection between generation number and anomaly-cancellation in supersymmetric models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Supersymmetric theories in which the number of generations of quarks and leptons is related by gauge anomaly-cancellations to the spectrum of Higgs fields are constructed. Models yielding at least three generations with the minimal Higgs spectrum assumed are discussed in detail. This mechanism requires an extension of the Standard Model gauge group such that an ordinary quark-lepton generation is not anomaly-free. Models of SU(3) weak isospin, separate isospin groups for quarks and leptons, and chiral colour are also discussed
Fluids, Anomalies and the Chiral Magnetic Effect: A Group-theoretic Formulation
Nair, V P; Roy, Shubho
2011-01-01
It is possible to formulate fluid dynamics in terms of group-valued variables. This is particularly suited to the cases where the fluid has nonabelian charges and is coupled to nonabelian gauge fields. We explore this formulation further in this paper. An action for a fluid of relativistic particles (with and without spin) is given in terms of the Lorentz and Poincare (or de Sitter) groups. Considering the case of particles with flavor symmetries, a general fluid action which also incorporates all flavor anomalies is given. The chiral magnetic and chiral vorticity effects as well as the consequences of the mixed gauge-gravity anomaly are discussed.
Induced quantum curvature and three-dimensional gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effects of quantum holonomy in three-dimensional gauge theories with massless fermions is examined and different definitions of the fermion determinant are discussed. The source of a global gauge and parity anomaly is identified in Schroedinger picture quantization as an induced holonomy that arises from the fermionic sector of the theory. In certain fermion representations this holonomy leads to a global obstruction ot imposing either gauge or parity invariance through the implementation of Gauss' law constraint. However, such obstructions can be removed by exploiting renormalization ambiguities inherent in the definition of composite operators. (orig.)
Electroweak gauge-boson production at small transverse momentum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilhelm, Daniel [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)
2012-07-01
Using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), one can factorize the cross section for electroweak gauge-boson production at hadron colliders and resum large logarithms to all orders. The naive factorization is broken by a collinear anomaly (CA), which leads to infrared safety at vanishing transverse momentum.
Comments on Background Independence and Gauge Redundancies
Rozali, Moshe
2008-01-01
We describe the definition and the role background independence and the closely related notion of diffeomorphism invariance play in modern string theory. These important concepts are transformed by a new understanding of gauge redundancies and their implementation in non-perturbative quantum field theory and quantum gravity. This new understanding also suggests a new role for the so-called background-independent approaches to directly quantize the gravitational field. This a...
The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP-violation, the Witten effect [a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP-non-conservation] is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a theta R-tilde R term in the Lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (author)
Algebraic structure and topological origin of anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These notes are organized as follows. Section II is devoted to the introduction of Faddeev Popov ghosts and the Slavnov operation in the expression of the Wess Zumino consistency condition. The ''Russian formula'' is then established and shown to provide solutions of the desired type - all solutions in four dimensional renormalizable theories. Section III is devoted to the derivation of the Cartan homotopy formula in the general non commutative form given by B. Zumino. The Wess Zumino lagrangian is then exhibited by a simple application of the formula. Section IV provides a description of the Alvarez Gaume - Witten gravitational anomalies as an application of the above mentioned formulae which was carried out by T. Schucker, F. Langouche and myself after the school was over. Section V gives a sketchy view of Ramadas and Atiyah-Singer's constructions
Trace anomalies and lambdaphi4 theory in curved space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown for a conformally invariant lambdaphi4 theory in a weakly curved background, how to extend previous results to obtain full information about the trace anomaly in perturbation theory, including the ''topological'' term in the gravitation part of the anomaly. There is a strong connection among renormalisability of the curved space theory, finiteness of the energy-momentum tensor, and the role of normal products. Combined with a renormalization-group analysis this provides an efficient means of calculating some terms in the anomaly to high orders of perturbation theory. In particular, the first lambda-dependent coefficient of the topological part of the anomaly appears at O(lambda4) and can be deduced from simple flat-space results without the calculation of any further Feynman diagrams. Some techniques based on an absorptive-part argument are developed in order to compute other anomalous coefficients, and a direct 5-loop calculation confirms the indirect renomralisation-group derivation of a non-vanishing R2 anomaly at O(lambda5). All the essential information can be obtained from the massless theory. The underlying ideas are applicable to other theories, and similar results for massless QED are obtained in a subsequent paper
Conformal anomalies in quantum chromodynamics and the path-integral method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The foundation of the path-integral derivation of anomalies is investigated. The combined use of zeta-function regularization and the background-field method clarifies the generality as well as limitations of the path-integral method and reveals the way to treat nonlinear systems. As an application, a detailed study of conformal anomalies in quantum chromodynamics is presented. By virtue of background gauge covariance the conformal Ward-Takahashi identities are cast into an equivalent background covariant form suited for the actual calculation of the anomaly
A gravitational effective action on a finite triangulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct a function of the edge-lengths of a triangulated surface whose variation under a rescaling of all the edges that meet at a vertex is the defect angle at that vertex. We interpret this function as a gravitational effective action on the triangulation, and the variation as a trace anomaly
The trace anomaly and massless scalar degrees of freedom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gianotti, Maurizio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mottola, Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The trace anomaly of quantum fields in electromagnetic or gravitational backgrounds implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. Considering first the axial anomaly and using QED as an example, we compute the full one-loop triangle amplitude of the fermionic stress tensor with two current vertices, {open_square}T{sup {mu}{nu}}J{sup {alpha}}J{sup {beta}}, and exhibit the scalar pole in this amplitude associated with the trace anomaly, in the limit of zero electron mass m{yields}0. To emphasize the infrared aspect of the anomaly, we use a dispersive approach and show that this amplitude and the existence of the massless scalar pole is determined completely by its ultraviolet finite terms, together with the requirements of Poincare invariance of the vacuum, Bose symmetry under interchange of J{sup {alpha}} and J{sup {beta}}, and vector current and stress-tensor conservation. We derive a sum rule for the appropriate positive spectral function corresponding to the discontinuity of the triangle amplitude, showing that it becomes proportional to {delta}(k{sup 2}) and therefore contains a massless scalar intermediate state in the conformal limit of zero electron mass. The effective action corresponding to the trace of the triangle amplitude can be expressed in local form by the introduction of two scalar auxiliary fields which satisfy massless wave equations. These massless scalar degrees of freedom couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects.
Brzezinski, T
1996-01-01
We develop a generalised gauge theory in which the role of gauge group is played by a coalgebra and the role of principal bundle by an algebra. The theory provides a unifying point of view which includes quantum group gauge theory, embeddable quantum homogeneous spaces and braided group gauge theory, the latter being introduced now by these means. Examples include ones in which the gauge groups are the braided line and the quantum plane.
A holomorphic anomaly in the elliptic genus
Murthy, Sameer
2013-01-01
We consider a class of gauged linear sigma models (GLSMs) in two dimensions that flow to non-compact (2,2) superconformal field theories in the infra-red, a prototype of which is the SL(2,\\IR)/U(1) (cigar) coset. We compute the elliptic genus of the GLSMs as a path-integral on the torus using supersymmetric localization. We find that the result is a Jacobi-like form that is non-holomorphic in the modular parameter $\\tau$ of the torus, with mock modular behavior. This agrees with a previously-computed expression in the cigar coset. We show that the lack of holomorphicity of the elliptic genus arises from the contributions of a compact boson with momentum and winding around the torus. This boson has an axionic shift symmetry and plays the role of a compensator field that is needed to cancel the chiral anomaly in the rest of the theory.
Anomaly cancelling terms from the elliptic genus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the heterotic string one-loop diagram in 2n+2 dimensions with one external B?? and n external gravitons and/or gauge bosons. The result is a modular integral over the weight zero terms of the character valued partition function (or elliptic genus) of the theory, and can be directly expressed in terms of the factor which multiplies Tr F2-Tr R2 in the field theory anomaly. The integrands have a non-trivial dependence on the modular parameter ?, reflecting contributions not only from the physical massless states but also from an infinity of 'unphysical' modes. Some of them are identical to integrands which have been discussed recently in relation with Atkin-Lehner symmetry and the cosmological constant. As a corollary we find a method to compute these integrals without using Atkin-Lehner transformations. (orig.)
Elliptic operators in the functional quantisation for gauge field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Given a gauge theory with gauge group G acting on a path space X, G and X being both infinite dimensional manifolds modelled on spaces of sections of vector bundles on a compact riemannian manifold without boundary, it is shown that when the action of G on X is smooth, free and proper, the same ellipticity condition on an operator naturally given by the geometry of the problem yields both the existence of a principal fibre bundle structure induced by the canonical projection ?:X ? X/G and the existence of the Faddeev-Popov determinant arising in the functional quantisation of the gauge theory. This holds for certain gauge theories with anomalies like bosonic closed string theory in non-critical dimension and also holds for a class of gauge theories which includes Yang-Mills theory. (orig.)
Renormalization Ambiguities and Gauge Symmetry in Chern-Simons Theories
López, J. L.
The universality of radiative corrections to the gauge coupling constant k of the Chern-Simons theory is studied in a very general regularization scheme in the background gauge formalism. The effective constant keff induced by radiative corrections can be any real number depending on the balance between the ultraviolet behavior of scalar and pseudoscalar terms in the regularized action. This ambiguity of the effective action is related to the ambiguity in the parity anomaly of three-dimensional Dirac fermions. The effective action also contains a non-analytic term in the gauge field with the same coefficient and opposite gauge transformation in such a way that the effective action is gauge-invariant. The results open the possibility of a connection with non-rational two-dimensional conformal theories for non-integer values of keff.
The Hawking effect in abelian gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In an effort to compare and contrast gravity with other field theories an investigation is made into whether the Hawking effect is a peculiarly gravitational phenomenon. It is found that the effect exists for a particular background abelian gauge field configuration, as well as certain background gravitational field configurations. Specifically, pair production in a uniform electric field is shown to admit a thermal interpretation. In an effort to find out just what is singular about gravity it is found that the Hawking temperature characteristic of a particular gravitational field configuration is independent of the properties of the quantum fields propagating theorem, in direct contrast to the gauge field case. This implies that if the one loop approximation is to be valid the electric field must be ''cold'' relative to the energy scales set by the quantum fields. In gravity, however, because of the existence of a fundamental scale, the Planck length, the gravitational field can be ''hot'' or ''cold'' and a one loop approximation still remain valid. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc
Power coefficient anomaly in JOYO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Power Coefficient Anomaly was appeared in JOYO, which occurred in 75MW Power Ascension Test, Summer 1979. The substance of this anomaly was the non-reproducible power coefficient during the initial power-up from 50MWt to 75MWt and the permanent reactivity loss of -40 cent in isothermal condition. And this anomaly was accompanied the time-dependent changes of power coefficient and the recovery of the reactivity which were never observed before. The cause of this anomaly has not been identified perfectly yet, but the investigation about the cause has reached the stage to focus two candidates as the cause of the anomaly (1. the elongation of fuel stuck 2. the inclination outward of fuel subassemblies), as the results of various approaches to the Anomaly, that is, analyses, plant experiments and fuel post-irradiation tests. Now, the effort of accumulation and investigation of data and analyses is continued in JOYO. (author)
Hedge Funds and Market Anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel T. Lawson
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates whether hedge funds arbitrage market anomalies. A seven-factor model was utilized including traditional Fama and French (1993 and Carhart (1997 factors as well as other factors associated with the anomalies of earnings momentum, equity financing, and asset growth rates. The average hedge fund employs a strategy consistent with the asset growth rate anomaly factor and opposite that of the equity financing factor. On a strategy specific basis, it was found that many sectors of hedge funds successfully arbitrage the asset growth anomaly and a few successfully arbitrage the earnings momentum anomaly. Successful use of the equity financing anomaly was not found. Seven-factor model alphas tend to be positive and significant, indicating funds generate substantial returns unrelated to the seven factors.
Hall viscosity from elastic gauge fields in Dirac crystals
Cortijo, Alberto; Landsteiner, Karl; Vozmediano, María A H
2015-01-01
The combination of Dirac physics and elasticity has been explored at length in graphene where the so--called "elastic gauge fields" have given rise to an entire new field of research and applications: Straintronics. The fact that these elastic fields couple to fermions as the electromagnetic field, implies that many electromagnetic responses will have elastic counterparts not explored before. In this work we will first show that the presence of elastic gauge fields will be the rule rather than the exception in most of the topologically non--trivial materials in two and three dimensions. In particular we will extract the elastic gauge fields associated to the recently observed Weyl semimetals, the "three dimensional graphene". As it is known, quantum electrodynamics suffers from the chiral anomaly whose consequences have been recently explored in matter systems. We will show that, associated to the physics of the anomalies, and as a counterpart of the Hall conductivity, elastic materials will have a Hall visco...
Navigation of Spacetime Ships in Unified Gravitational and Electromagnetic Waves
Rubin, J L
2002-01-01
On the basis of a "local" principle of equivalence of general relativity, we consider a navigation in a kind of "4D-ocean" involving measurements of conformally invariant physical properties only. Then, applying the Pfaff theory for PDE to a particular conformally equivariant system of differential equations, we show the dependency of any kind of function describing "spacetime waves", with respect to 20 parametrizing functions. These latter, appearing in a linear differential Spencer sequence and determining gauge fields of deformations relatively to "ship-metrics" or to "flat spacetime ocean metrics", may be ascribed to unified electromagnetic and gravitational waves. The present model is based neither on a classical gauge theory of gravitation or a gravitation theory with torsion, nor on any Kaluza-Klein or Weyl type unifications, but rather on a post-Newtonian approach of gravitation in a four dimensional conformal Cosserat spacetime.
Hypercharged Anomaly Mediation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that, in string models with the minimal supersymmetric standard model residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio ? between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 3/2 > or approx. 35 TeV. We summarize some of the experimental signatures of this scenario
Normal Bundles, Pfaffians and Anomalies
Bonora, L.; Rinaldi, M
1999-01-01
We deal with the problem of diffeomorphism anomaly in theories with branes. In particular we thoroughly analyze the problem of the residual chiral anomaly of a five-brane immersed in M-theory, paying attention to its global formulation in the five-brane world-volume. We conclude that the anomaly can be canceled by a {\\it local} counterterm in the five-brane world-volume.
Pregnancy outcome and Ebstein's anomaly.
Donnelly, J E; J. M. Brown; Radford, D. J.
1991-01-01
BACKGROUND--Ebstein's anomaly is an uncommon congenital cardiac abnormality that may be associated with cyanosis and arrhythmias. For those female patients with the anomaly who survive to adult life there is little information available about pregnancy, maternal complications, and fetal outcome. This study was designed to address this issue so that these patients can receive appropriate advice and management. METHODS AND RESULTS--Forty two pregnancies in 12 women with Ebstein's anomaly were s...
Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System
Lowry, R. B.; Thunem, N. Y.; Anderson-redick, S.
1990-01-01
The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System was started in 1966 in response to the thalidomide tragedy earlier in the decade. It was one of four provincial surveillance systems on which the federal government relied for baseline statistics of congenital anomalies. The government now collects data from six provinces and one territory. The Alberta Congenital Anomaly Surveillance System originally depended on three types of notification to the Division of Vital Statistics, Department of...
Radionuclide gauges - Gauges designed for permanent installation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this International Standard is to establish the following characteristics for radionuclide gauges designed for permanent installation: a) a classification of the gauges and shielding devices; b) technical construction and performance requirements for radiation protection when using a radioactive source; c) control and test methods to verify the compliance of the gauges with those requirements; d) indications to be shown on the gauges. In addition to the construction requirements above, the gauges shall comply with existing regulations. This International Standard does not apply to gauges which, because of their design, and due to the nature and the low activity of the sources they contain, are not subject to general rules regarding supply and possession of artificial radionuclides nor does it apply to ion generators (smoke detectors, static eliminators, etc.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cassez, Franck; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2012-01-01
Timing anomalies make worst-case execution time analysis much harder, because the analysis will have to consider all local choices. It has been widely recognised that certain hardware features are timing anomalous, while others are not. However, defining formally what a timing anomaly is, has been difficult. We examine previous definitions of timing anomalies, and identify examples where they do not align with common observations. We then provide a definition for consistently slower hardware traces that can be used to define timing anomalies and aligns with common observations.
Emission of gravitational radiation from ultra-relativistic sources
Segalis, Ehud B.; Ori, Amos
2001-01-01
Recent observations suggest that blobs of matter are ejected with ultra-relativistic speeds in various astrophysical phenomena such as supernova explosions, quasars, and microquasars. In this paper we analyze the gravitational radiation emitted when such an ultra-relativistic blob is ejected from a massive object. We express the gravitational wave by the metric perturbation in the transverse-traceless gauge, and calculate its amplitude and angular dependence. We find that in...
Gravitational Chern-Simons Lagrangians and black hole entropy
Bonora, Loriano; Prester, Predrag Dominis; Pallua, Silvio; Smoli?, Ivica
2011-01-01
We analyze the problem of defining the black hole entropy when Chern-Simons terms are present in the action. Extending previous works, we define a general procedure, valid in any odd dimensions both for purely gravitational CS terms and for mixed gauge-gravitational ones. The final formula is very similar to Wald's original formula valid for covariant actions, with a significant modification. Notwithstanding an apparent violation of covariance we argue that the entropy formula is indeed covariant.
System for closure of a physical anomaly
Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S
2014-11-11
Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.
Gauged Wess–Zumino–Witten actions for generalized Poincaré algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If the Chern–Simons theory is the appropriate gauge theory for the gravitational interaction, then these theories must satisfy the correspondence principle, namely they must be related to General Relativity. In this Letter a five-dimensional Chern–Simons action invariant under the generalized Poincaré algebra B5 is constructed and then it is proved that the corresponding gauged Wess–Zumino–Witten term contains the Einstein–Hilbert action. In the same way, we show that a five-dimensional Chern–Simons action, invariant under the Maxwell algebra B4, induces a gauged Wess–Zumino–Witten term that coincides with the four-dimensional topological gravity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that a consistent gauging of the Poincare group is capable of including Einstein's general relativity. This statement holds for matter particles of arbitrary spin, provided the nontrivial part of the vierbein is taken as the fundamental gravitational field, thus giving rise to a known modification of the original theory. Since the gauge approach implies that gravitation is an ordinary field theory over flat space, the standard prescriptions for calculating the asymmetric momentum tensor of both matter and gravitation are available. Applying Belinfante's flat-space symmetrization procedure to the latter, we prove that the symmetrization of the asymmetric matter tensor just gives the dynamically defined symmetric matter tensor, whereas the symmetrization of the asymmetric gravitational momentum tensor leads to another version of the field equations that reveals a deep analogy to the equations of electrodynamics. Furthermore a method is developed that admits an unambiguous calculation of gauge-fixing conditions from a given gauge-breaking term. Besides the harmonic gauge, which can be reproduced by means of this method, new gauge-fixing conditions for local translations and local Lorentz transformations are obtained. These gauge-fixing techniques, as well as the symmetrization procedure, may equally be generalized to the case of nonvanishing torsion
Bowler, M G
1976-01-01
Gravitation and Relativity generalizes Isaac Newton's theory of gravitation using the elementary tools of Albert Einstein's special relativity. Topics covered include gravitational waves, martian electrodynamics, relativistic gravitational fields and gravitational forces, the distortion of reference frames, and the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. Black holes and the geometry of spacetime also receive consideration. This book is comprised of 10 chapters; the first of which briefly reviews special relativity, with the emphasis on the Lorentz covariance of the equations of physics. This
Can gravity appear due to polarization of instantons in the SO(4) gauge theory?
Kuchiev, M Yu
1998-01-01
Conventional non-Abelian SO(4) gauge theory is able to describe gravity provided the gauge field possesses a specific polarized vacuum state. In this vacuum the instantons and anti-instantons have a preferred direction of orientation. Their orientation plays the role of the order parameter for the polarized phase of the gauge field. The interaction of a weak and smooth gauge field with the polarized vacuum is described by an effective long-range action which is identical to the Hilbert action of general relativity. In the classical limit this action results in the Einstein equations of general relativity. Gravitational waves appear as the mode describing propagation of the gauge field which strongly interacts with the oriented instantons. The Newton gravitational constant describes the density of the considered phase of the gauge field. The radius of the instantons under consideration is comparable with the Planck radius.
Framing Anomaly in the Effective Theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Gromov, Andrey; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G.; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-01-01
We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.
Montgomery, Jerry, , Dr.
2005-04-01
Recent analysis of radio metric data from several space probes deployed by NASA indicate that they are being slowed by an anomalous constant acceleration with an average magnitude of 8x10-10m/s^2 oriented with respect to the sun. Analysis of their slowdown, in addition to many other anomalous astrophysical phenomena indicates that a negative curvature of the space-time continuum is produced by the electromagnetic radiation of the sun. The acceleration appears to have a close relation to the wavelength ?at which the sun radiates most intensely. The evidence that supports our hypothesis may also provide solutions to the flat rotation curve of the galaxy, and rogue stars and planets within the galaxy. Calculations using the data concerning the four probes result in the formula -a=c^2? which expresses a negative acceleration that is proportional to the speed of light divided by the peak wavelength, multiplied by a new constant k. The evidence also gives a strong indication that light, in addition to its particle-wave nature, produces gravitational field-like characteristics through interacting with the space-time continuum.
Expanding universe with nonlinear gravitational waves
Ikeda, Taishi; Nambu, Yasusada
2015-01-01
We test the validity of Isaacson's formula which states that high frequency and low amplitude gravitational waves behave as a radiation fluid on average. For this purpose, we numerically construct a solution of the vacuum Einstein equations which contains nonlinear standing gravitational waves. The solution is constructed in a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions. The time evolution is solved in a gauge in which the trace of the extrinsic curvature $K$ of the time slice becomes spatially uniform. Then, the Hubble expansion rate $H$ is defined by $H=-K/3$ and compared with the effective scale factor $L$ defined by the proper volume, area and length of the cubic box. We find that, even when the wave length of the gravitational waves is comparable to the Hubble scale, the deviation from Isaacson's formula $H\\propto L^{-2}$ is at most 3\\% without taking a temporal average and is below 0.1\\% with a temporal average.
Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly
... anomaly? Mutations in the FOXC1 , PAX6 , PITX2 , or CYP1B1 gene can cause Peters anomaly. The FOXC1 , PAX6 , ... of the anterior segment of the eye. The CYP1B1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme that ...
Anomaly mediation deformed by axion
Nakayama, Kazunori; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
2013-01-01
We show that in supersymmetric axion models the axion supermultiplet obtains a sizable F-term due to a non-supersymmetric dynamics and it generally gives the gaugino masses comparable to the anomaly mediation contribution. Thus the gaugino mass relation predicted by the anomaly mediation effect can be significantly modified in the presence of axion to solve the strong CP problem.
Anomaly mediation deformed by axion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that in supersymmetric axion models the axion supermultiplet obtains a sizable F-term due to a non-supersymmetric dynamics and it generally gives the gaugino masses comparable to the anomaly mediation contribution. Thus the gaugino mass relation predicted by the anomaly mediation effect can be significantly modified in the presence of axion to solve the strong CP problem
Seismic data fusion anomaly detection
Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David
2014-06-01
Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.
Axial anomalies by dimensional reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
All Abelian axial anomalies in two and four dimensions can be extracted by means of a generalised GAMMA5 which does not commute with the ordinary ? matrices. The necessary properties of dimensionally reduced GAMMA5 for this to happen are exhibited. The ensuing normal amplitude anomalies can be subtracted away by finite coupling renormalisations. (author)
Modified chiral Lagrangian with anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The study is made of possible introducing anomaly interactions to the effective chiral Lagrangian by adding the divergence of a anomaly current to the divergence of an axial field (which is proportional to the divergence of an axial current). The Lagrangian obtained allows to describe decay of pseudoscalar and vector mesons with a satisfactory accuracy
Modern test of chiral anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiral anomalies are calculated using an effective Lagrangian technique introduced for anomalies by Wess and Zumino and recently reformulated by Witten. Anomalous amplitudes for vector currents decaying into three pseudoscalars are tested by comparison with K/sub l4/ decay and eta ? ?+?-?. 12 references
Axial anomaly in nonrenormalizable theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The anomaly for the axial current in nonrenormalizable theories with electromagnetic coupling is considered. The spinor electrodynamics with Pauli term is examined in detail using the Feynman graph technique and the point-splitting method. The same finite value for the axial anomaly emerges. (author)
Ward identities and the physical interpretation of anomalies in stochastic quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Ward identities are obtained for vector and axial currents through a functional integral representation of the Langevin equations for the stochastic quantization of fermions in an external gauge field. In this approach anomalies appear as due to fluctuations in the evolution of the system to its equilibrium regime. (orig.)
Anomalies of BRS and anti-BRS Ward-identities in N=1 supersymmetric theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The requirement of BRS and anti-BRS symmetries in the N=1 supersymmetric theory leads to Ward-Identities independent of the gauge parameter. The cohomology conditions are immediately satisfied. The determination of a supersymmetric compact formula for the anomaly is not affected by the anti-BRS symmetry. (author). 30 refs
Exploring the web of heterotic string theories using anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruehle, Fabian
2013-07-15
We investigate how anomalies can be used to infer relations among different descriptions of heterotic string theory. Starting from the observation that the construction mechanism of heterotic orbifold compactifications considered up to now prevents them from being resolved into fully smooth Calabi-Yau compactification manifolds, we use a new mechanism to obtain an orbifold which does not suffer from the aforementioned limitations. We explain in general how to resolve orbifolds into smooth Calabi-Yau using toric geometry and gauged linear sigma models. The latter allow for studying the theory in various other regions of the string moduli space as well, which unveils interesting intermediate geometries. By following anomalies through the different regimes, we can match the orbifold theories to their smooth Calabi-Yau counterparts. In the process, we investigate discrete R and non-R orbifold symmetries and propose a mechanism for studying their fate in other regions of the moduli space. Finally, we introduce a novel anomaly cancelation mechanism in gauged linear sigma models, which manifests itself in target space as a description of compactification geometries with torsion and Neveu-Schwarz five branes.
Exploring the web of heterotic string theories using anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate how anomalies can be used to infer relations among different descriptions of heterotic string theory. Starting from the observation that the construction mechanism of heterotic orbifold compactifications considered up to now prevents them from being resolved into fully smooth Calabi-Yau compactification manifolds, we use a new mechanism to obtain an orbifold which does not suffer from the aforementioned limitations. We explain in general how to resolve orbifolds into smooth Calabi-Yau using toric geometry and gauged linear sigma models. The latter allow for studying the theory in various other regions of the string moduli space as well, which unveils interesting intermediate geometries. By following anomalies through the different regimes, we can match the orbifold theories to their smooth Calabi-Yau counterparts. In the process, we investigate discrete R and non-R orbifold symmetries and propose a mechanism for studying their fate in other regions of the moduli space. Finally, we introduce a novel anomaly cancelation mechanism in gauged linear sigma models, which manifests itself in target space as a description of compactification geometries with torsion and Neveu-Schwarz five branes.
Canonical gauges in the path integral for parametrized systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is well known that emdash differing from ordinary gauge systems emdash canonical gauges are not admissible in the path integral for parametrized systems. This is the case for the relativistic particle and gravitation. However, a time dependent canonical transformation can turn a parametrized system into an ordinary gauge system. It is shown how to build a canonical transformation such that the fixation of the new coordinates is equivalent to the fixation of the original ones; this aim can be achieved only if the Hamiltonian constraint allows for an intrinsic global time. Thus the resulting action, describing an ordinary gauge system and allowing for canonical gauges, can be used in the path integral for the quantum propagator associated with the original variables. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Gauge theory of quantum gravity
Nam, Cao H
2014-01-01
The gravity is classically formulated as the geometric curvature of the space-time in general relativity which is completely different from the other well-known physical forces. Since seeking a quantum framework for the gravity is a great challenge in physics. Here we present an alternative construction of quantum gravity in which the quantum gravitational degrees of freedom are described by the non-Abelian gauge fields characterizing topological non-triviality of the space-time. The quantum dynamics of the space-time thus corresponds to the superposition of the distinct topological states. Its unitary time evolution is described by the path integral approach. This result will also be suggested to solve some major problems in physics of the black holes.
Quantum gravitation the Feynman path integral approach
Hamber, Herbert W
2009-01-01
The book covers the theory of Quantum Gravitation from the point of view of Feynman path integrals. These provide a manifestly covariant approach in which fundamental quantum aspects of the theory such as radiative corrections and the renormalization group can be systematically and consistently addressed. The path integral method is suitable for both perturbative as well as non-perturbative studies, and is known to already provide a framework of choice for the theoretical investigation of non-abelian gauge theories, the basis for three of the four known fundamental forces in nature. The book thus provides a coherent outline of the present status of the theory gravity based on Feynman’s formulation, with an emphasis on quantitative results. Topics are organized in such a way that the correspondence to similar methods and results in modern gauge theories becomes apparent. Covariant perturbation theory are developed using the full machinery of Feynman rules, gauge fixing, background methods and ghosts. The ren...
On the localization of the gravitational energy
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
N., Pinto Neto; P. I., Trajtenberg.
2000-03-01
Full Text Available Using a formalism introduced by Feynman, Deser, Grishchuk, Petrov and Popova, the pseudotensors, such as de.ned by Einstein, Tolman, Landau/Lifshitz and Møller, are expessed as gauge dependent tensors in a background space, as the gravitational energy-momentum tensor of Deser, Grishchuk, Petrov and [...] Popova. Using a result obtained by Virbhadra for the energy density in the Reissner-Nordström spacetime, it is shown that the action of these gauge transformations on the above tensorial expressions is the same as the action of the coordinate transformations on the equivalent pseudotensorial expressions, meaning that these tensors can be set to zero at a point by a suitable choice of gauge transformation.
Anterior abdominal wall anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Eliçevik
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Anterior abdominal wall defects consists of omphalocele, gastroschisis, umblical hernia and exstrophy-epispadias complex. This section is written for the diagnosis and treatment of those anomalies which are summarized by figures. Managment of abdominal wall defects requires collaboration between the Pediatricians and Pediatric Surgeons. The pitfalls of preoperative and postoperative care from the respect of Pediatrics and intensive care unit are established. Especially the exstrophy-epispadias complex is a life long diasease, special attention for the diagnosis and treatment of mainly the urogenital and associated malformations must be given on the long term follow-up. Patient transfer to specialized centers of Pediatric Urology, in the field of exstrophy-epispadias-complex is recommended. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45 Suppl: 29-34
On nonrelativistic gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new approach to nonrelativistic gauge theories is presented. The theory admits non-trivial field equations. In contradistinction to the relativistic case the gauge fields in general are massive fields. (author)
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Laurent, Baulieu; Daniel, Zwanziger.
2007-03-01
Full Text Available We define a regularization for the energy divergences in Coulomb gauge. It gives a perturbative algorithm for well-defined computations for the pure non-Abelian Yang-Mills theory in this gauge. [...
Constrained macroscopic limit of the Poincare gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is proposed, at the level of Lagrangians and working with constraints, a macroscopic limit of the Poincare gauge theory of gravitation, PGT. Starting from two different Lagrangians, it is possible to obtain teleparallelism theories and Einstein's General Relativity as macroscopic limits of PGT
Gauge theories, black hole evaporation and cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent work of Linde, which suggests that gauge theories modify the effective gravitational constant, are applied to the theory of black hole evaporation. Considerable modification of the late stages of evaporation are predicted. Contrary to expectations, the black hole never attains a sufficient temperature to enter the antigravity regime, which would represent a failure of cosmic censorship. (orig.)
Anomalous U(1) Models in Four and Five Dimensions and their Anomaly Poles
Armillis, Roberta; Rose, Luigi Delle; Guzzi, Marco
2009-01-01
We show that effective anomalous models in four dimensions in which gauge invariance is restored with Wess-Zumino counterterms or with an anomaly inflow from extra dimensions are both affected by the presence of anomaly poles in certain amplitudes which break unitarity in the ultraviolet. In the case of extra dimensions the breaking takes place after any partial summation of the Kaluza-Klein excitations, showing an intrinsic limitation of the mechanism of inflow, with localized fermions on the branes, respect to the constraints from unitarity. We discuss the origin of these contributions by performing a complete analysis of the anomaly vertex at perturbative level using two independent (but equivalent) representations. We conclude that consistent formulations of anomalous models are not constrained just by gauge invariance, as usually stressed, via the addition of Wess-Zumino terms, but require necessarily the cancellation of these contributions, which are scaleless and prohibit any derivative expansion. We c...
Gravitational and Anti-gravitational Applications
Ellman, Roger
1998-01-01
It is now possible to partially deflect gravitation away from an object so that the gravitational attraction on the object is reduced. That effect makes it possible to extract energy from the gravitational field, which makes the generation of gravito-electric power technologically feasible. Such plants would be similar to hydro-electric plants and would have their advantages of not needing fuel and not polluting the environment. Physically, the action of deflecting away gr...
Mcgarrie, Moritz
2011-01-01
Inspired by four dimensional (de)constructions, we use the framework of "General gauge mediation in five dimensions" to interpolate between gaugino and ordinary gauge mediation. In particular we emphasise that an intermediate hybrid regime of mediation may be obtained in these higher dimensional models as has been obtained in the quiver gauge models.
P.J. Arias; Khoudeir, A.
1999-01-01
A gauge invariant formulation for the massive axion is considered. The axion acquires mass through a topological term which couples a (pseudo)scalar and a third rank antisymmetric tensor. Duality, local and canonical equivalences with the non-gauge invariant proposal are established. The supersymmetric version of the gauge invariant model is constructed.
Scale Invariant Theory of Gravitation in Einstein-Rosen Space-Time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pradyumn Kumar Sahoo
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the perfect fluid distribution in the scale invariant theory of gravitation, when the space-time described by Einstein-Rosen metric with a time dependent gauge function. The cosmological equations for this space-time with gauge function are solved and some physical properties of the model are studied.
New confining N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories which confine in the presence of a tree-level superpotential. We show the confining spectra which satisfy the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions and give a simple method to find the confining superpotential. Using this method we fix the confining superpotentials in the simplest cases, and show how these superpotentials are generated by multi-instanton effects in the dual theory. These new type of confining theories may be useful for model building, since the size of the matter content is not restricted by an index constraint. Therefore, one expects that a large variety of new confining spectra can be obtained using such models
Entanglement and Thermal Entropy of Gauge Fields
Eling, Christopher; Theisen, Stefan
2013-01-01
We consider the universal logarithmic divergent term in the entanglement entropy of gauge fields in the Minkowski vacuum with an entangling sphere. Employing the mapping in arXiv:1102.0440, we analyze the corresponding thermal entropy on open Einstein universe and on the static patch of de Sitter. Using the heat kernel of the vector Laplacian we resolve a discrepancy between the free field calculation and the expected Euler conformal anomaly. The resolution suggests a modification of the well known formulas for the vacuum expectation value of the spin-1 energy-momentum tensor on conformally flat space-times.
Entanglement and thermal entropy of gauge fields
Eling, Christopher; Oz, Yaron; Theisen, Stefan
2013-11-01
We consider the universal logarithmic divergent term in the entanglement entropy of gauge fields in the Minkowski vacuum with an entangling sphere. Employing the mapping in arXiv:1102.0440, we analyze the corresponding thermal entropy on open Einstein universe and on the static patch of de Sitter. Using the heat kernel of the vector Laplacian we resolve a discrepancy between the free field calculation and the expected Euler conformal anomaly. The resolution suggests a modification of the well known formulas for the vacuum expectation value of the spin-1 energy-momentum tensor on conformally flat space-times.
Anomalies and the helicity of the thermal state
Loganayagam, R.
2013-11-01
We study the thermal expectation value of the following observeable at finite temperature T and chemical potential ?: where denote the angular momenta, and denotes the spatial momentum in d spacetime dimensions with d even. We call this observeable the thermal helicity. Using a variety of arguments, we motivate the surprising assertion that thermal helicity per unit volume is a polynomial in T and ?. Further, in field theories without chiral gravitino, we conjecture that this polynomial can be derived from the anomaly polynomial of the theory. We show that this conjecture is related to the recent conjecture on gravitational anomaly induced transport made in arXiv:1201.2812. We support these statements by various sphere partition function computations in free theories.
Less Mundane Explanation of Pioneer Anomaly from Q-Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christianto V.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available There have been various explanations of Pioneer blueshift anomaly in the past few years; nonetheless no explanation has been off ered from the viewpoint of Q-relativity physics. In the present paper it is argued that Pioneer anomalous blueshift may be caused by Pioneer spacecraft experiencing angular shift induced by similar Q-elativity effect which may also affect Jupiter satellites. By taking into consideration "aether drift" effect, the proposed method as described herein could explain Pioneer blueshift anomaly within ~0.26% error range, which speaks for itself. Another new proposition of redshift quantization is also proposed from gravitational Bohr-radius which is consistent with Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.
Fermion on Curved Spaces, Symmetries, and Quantum Anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai Visinescu
2006-11-01
Full Text Available We review the geodesic motion of pseudo-classical spinning particles in curved spaces. Investigating the generalized Killing equations for spinning spaces, we express the constants of motion in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. Passing from the spinning spaces to the Dirac equation in curved backgrounds we point out the role of the Killing-Yano tensors in the construction of the Dirac-type operators. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino space. The gravitational and axial anomalies are studied for generalized Euclidean Taub-NUT metrics which admit hidden symmetries analogous to the Runge-Lenz vector of the Kepler-type problem. Using the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem for manifolds with boundaries, it is shown that the these metrics make no contribution to the axial anomaly.
Gravitational waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Various aspects of gravitational wave propagation in plasmas and vacuum are discussed. First, we analyse single particle trajectories, study the resonant interaction of gravitational waves with photons, and show that photons can be strongly energized by gravitational waves. Second, this exchange of energy between the photons and the gravitational waves is treated statistically, using a kinetic equation for photons. Gravitational wave instabilities induced by intense photon beams are considered. The effects are very much dependent on the gravitational wave dispersion in the plasma medium, and in particular, on its turbulent state
A viable axion from gauged flavor symmetries
Berenstein, David
2010-01-01
We consider a string inspired non-supersymmetric extension of the standard model with gauged anomalous U(1) flavor symmetries. Consistency requires the Green-Schwarz mechanism to cancel mixed anomalies. The additional required scalars provide Stuckelberg masses for the $Z'$ particles associated to the gauged flavor symmetry, so they decouple at low energies. Our models also include a complex scalar field $\\phi$ to generate Froggatt-Nielsen mass terms for light particles giving a partial solution to the fermion mass problem. A residual approximate (anomalous) global symmetry survives at low energies. The associated pseudo-Goldstone mode is the phase of the $\\phi$ scalar field, and it becomes the dominant contribution to the physical axion. An effective field theory analysis that includes neutrino masses gives a prediction for the axion decay constant. We find a simple modeI where the axion decay constant is in the center of the allowed window.
Discrete anomaly and dynamical mass in 2+1 dimension U(1)v x U(1)A model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors note that in (2+1)-dimensional gauge theories with even number of massless fermions, there is anomalous Z2 symmetry if theory is regularized in a parity-invariant way. They then consider a parity invariant U(1)v x U(1)A model, which induces a mutual Chern-Simons term in the effective action due to Z2 anomaly. The effect of the discrete anomaly is studied in the induced spin and in the dynamical fermion mass
Canonical path integral quantization of Einstein's gravitational field
Muslih, Sami I.
2000-01-01
The connection between the canonical and the path integral formulations of Einstein's gravitational field is discussed using the Hamilton - Jacobi method. Unlike conventional methods, it is shown that our path integral method leads to obtain the measure of integration with no $\\delta$- functions, no need to fix any gauge and so no ambiguous deteminants will appear.
On the gravitational scattering of gravitational waves
Sorge, Francesco
2015-02-01
We discuss the scattering of weak gravitational waves from a slowly rotating gravitational source, having mass M and angular momentum J. We start considering the dynamics of a massless spin-2 field {{? }? ? } propagating in the weak gravitational field of the source, writing down the Fierz-Pauli in the presence of a slightly curved background. We adopt a semiclassical framework, where the gravitational background is described as a classical external field; meanwhile, the spin-2 field is treated quantum mechanically. In the weak-coupling limit, in which the typical wavelength of {{? }? ? } satisfies {{? }? }\\gg {{R}s} (where Rs is the Schwarzschild radius of the source), we obtain the cross-section for the scattering process in the Born approximation. We also discuss helicity asymmetry, showing its relationship with the spin-2 field coupling to the derivatives of the background metric. We finally consider the transition to the case of gravitational wave scattering, showing that—under reasonable assumptions—gravitational waves are expected to follow the same behavior. Our results partly agree with those presented through the years by various authors. The present analysis suggests that the scattering of weak gravitational waves in the field of a macroscopic gravitational source still represents an interesting open issue for further careful investigation.
The 1998 PLANET Gravitational Microlensing Season
Depoy, D. L.; Albrow, M. D.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Caldwell, J.; Dominik, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Greenhill, J.; Hill, K.; Kane, S.; Martin, R.; Menzies, J.; Naber, R. M.; Pel, J.-W.; Pogge, R.; Pollard, K.; Sackett, P. D.; Sahu, K. C.; Vermaak, P.; Watson, R.; Williams, A.
1998-12-01
The Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork is an international collaboration that makes coordinated observations of on-going graviational microlensing events from four sites in the southern hemisphere. One of our primary goals is to detect planets around other stars from their microlensing effect. During the 1998 bulge observing season we intensely monitored numerous microlensing events; one event was observed more than 500 times at I and 200 times at V. The frequency and general quality of our photometry gives us excellent sensitivity to second order gravitational microlensing effects (such as those due to the presence of a planet).