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Caso probable de fiebre manchada ( Rickettsia felis) transmitida por pulgas / Probable case of flea-borne spotted fever ( Rickettsia felis )  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Rickettsia felis es el agente etiológico de la fiebre manchada transmitida por pulgas, cuyo principal vector y reservorio es Ctenocephalides felis . Típicamente, la enfermedad se presenta como fiebre aguda asociada a cefalea, astenia, exantema máculo-papular generalizado y, en algunos casos, con esc [...] ara de inoculación. En los últimos años, R. felis ha venido adquiriendo un papel importante en la etiología del síndrome febril agudo, calificándola como una enfermedad emergente y subdiagnosticada. La inmunofluorescencia indirecta es actualmente el método diagnóstico de referencia. Sin embargo, esta técnica presenta limitaciones relacionadas con la reacción cruzada que existe entre las diferentes especies del género Rickettsia . En el presente reporte se describe el caso de un paciente de 16 años con síndrome febril agudo secundario a infección probable por R. felis . Abstract in english Rickettsia felis is the etiologic agent of flea-borne spotted fever, with Ctenocephalides felis as its main vector and reservoir. Typically, the disease presents as acute fever associated with headache, asthenia, generalized maculo-papular rash, and in some cases, an inoculation eschar. In recent ye [...] ars, R. felis has acquired an important role in the etiology of the acute febrile syndrome; it is indeed an emerging infectious disease, albeit underdiagnosed. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is currently the reference diagnostic method. However, this technique has limitations related to the cross reactivity among different species of rickettsiae. Herein, we describe a case of a 16 year-old patient with an acute febrile syndrome secondary to probable infection with R. felis.

Álvaro A, Faccini-Martínez; Elkin G, Forero-Becerra; Jesús A, Cortés-Vecino; Luis J, Polo-Teran; Jorge H, Jácome; Jimmy J, Vargas; Gustavo, Valbuena; Marylin, Hidalgo.

2013-09-01

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Infección por rickettsia en capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) de São Paulo, Brasil: evidencia serológica de infección por Rickettsia bellii y Rickettsia parkeri / Rickettsial infection in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from São Paulo, Brazil: serological evidence for infection by Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia parkeri  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. En Brasil, los capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) son importantes huéspedes para garrapatas del género Amblyomma, las cuales transmiten rickettsiosis a humanos y animales. Por lo tanto, estos roedores pueden ser potenciales centinelas para detectar infección por rickettsia. Objetivo [...] s. Este trabajo evaluó la infección por rickettsia en capibaras de diferentes regiones del estado de São Paulo, donde las rickettsiosis nunca han sido reportadas. Materiales y métodos. Se examinarion los sueros de 73 capibaras de seis localidades en São Paulo con la prueba de immunofluorescencia indirecta con antígenos de Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri y Rickettsia bellii. Los bazos de los capibaras se extrajeron y se analizaron por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para un fragmento del gene gltA de rickettsia. Las garrapatas se recolectaron de los capibaras y se identificaron hasta especie. Resultados. Diecinueve (26,0%), 25 (34,2%) y 50 (68,5%) sueros de los capibaras reaccionaron con R. rickettsii, R. parkeri y R. bellii, respectivamente. De los 50 sueros que reaccionaron con antígenos de R. bellii, 25 presentaron títulos, por lo menos, cuatro veces mayores que los otros dos antígenos. Estos sueros fueron considerados homólogos de R. bellii. Usando el mismo criterio, tres sueros de los capibaras se consideraron homólogos de R. parkeri. Ningún suero se consideró homólogo de R. rickettsii. No se detectó ADN de rickettsia en bazo. Las garrapatas recolectadas de los capibaras fueron identificadas como Amblyomma dubitatum y Amblyomma cajennense. Conclusiones. Este trabajo reporta la primera evidencia de infección natural por R. bellii en vertebrados y, también, la primera evidencia de infección por R. parkeri en capibaras. Se sabe que R. parkeri infecta y produce enfermedad en humanos; sin embargo, no hay evidencia de infección humana por R. bellii. Abstract in english Introduction. In Brazil, capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are important hosts for Amblyomma ticks, which in turn can transmit rickettsiae to humans and animals. Therefore, capybaras are potential sentinels for rickettsial infection. Objective. The present study evaluated rickettsial infection i [...] n capybaras in different areas of the state of São Paulo, where rickettsiosis has never been reported. Materials and methods. Blood sera from 73 capybaras from six localities in São Paulo were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay using Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia bellii antigens. Capybara spleens were tested by PCR, targeting a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Ticks were collected from each capybara sample and taxonomically identified to species. Results. A total of 94 positively reacting capybara samples, 19 (26.0%), 25 (34.2%), and 50 (68.5%) capybara sera reacted to R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. bellii, respectively. Twenty-five capybara sera showed titers to R. bellii at least four-fold higher than to any of the other two antigens. These sera were considered homologous to R. bellii. Using the same criteria, 3 capybara sera were considered homologous to R. parkeri. No sera were be considered homologous to R. rickettsii. No rickettsial DNA was detected in capybara spleen samples. Ticks collected on capybaras were Amblyomma dubitatum and Amblyomma cajennense. Conclusions. The first evidence is reported of R. bellii natural infection in vertebrate hosts, and the first evidence of R. parkeri infection in capybaras. While R. parkeri is known to infect and cause disease in humans, no similar evidence for human infection has been indicated by R. bellii.

Richard C, Pacheco; Mauricio C, Horta; Jonas, Moraes-Filho; Alexandre C, Ataliba; Adriano, Pinter; Marcelo B, Labruna.

2007-09-01

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TUBERCULOSIS GANGLIONAR RETROPERITONEAL Y MESENTERICA: CASO CLINICO  

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Full Text Available Se describen las características del compromiso ganglionar por Mycobacterium tuberculosis en un paciente con SIDA en quien se demuestra alteraciones de linfonódulos retroperitoneales y mesentéricos en tomografía computada. Se discute las diferencias con el compromiso secundario a infección por Mycobacterium avium intracellulare y además el diagnóstico diferencial con otras formas de compromiso ganglionarThe changes of retroperitoneal lymph nodes in CT in a patient with AIDS are described. Differences with the compromise with M avium-intracellulare are discussed an also the differential diagnosis with other lymph node pathologies

Rafael Martínez F

2004-01-01

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Serological evidence of Rickettsia parkeri as the etiological agent of rickettsiosis in Uruguay / Evidência sorológica de Rickettsia parkeri como agente etiológico de rickettsiose no Uruguai  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese São relatados três novos casos humanos de rickettsiose no Uruguai. Os três casos clínicos apresentam manifestações clínicas semelhantes às descritas em casos de infecção por Rickettsia parkeri previamente relatados nos Estados Unidos, tais como: febre moderada ([...] a, escara de inoculação no sítio de fixação do carrapato, linfadenopatia regional e ausência de letalidade. Testes sorológicos de absorção de anticorpos com antígenos de R. parkeri e Rickettsia rickettsii, associados à reação de imunofluorescência indireta, sugerem que os pacientes de dois casos foram infectados por R. parkeri. Evidências clínicas e epidemiológicas, associadas com nossas análises sorológicas, sugerem que R. parkeri é o agente etiológico de casos humanos de febre maculosa no Uruguai, uma doença que tem sido reconhecida naquele país como rickettsiose cutâneo-ganglionar. Abstract in english We report three new rickettsiosis human cases in Uruguay. The three clinical cases presented clinical manifestations similar to previous reported cases of Rickettsia parkeri in the United States; that is mild fever ([...] l lymphadenopathy, and no lethality. Serological antibody-absorption tests with purified antigens of R. parkeri and Rickettsia rickettsii, associated with immunofluorescence assay indicated that the patients in two cases were infected by R. parkeri. Epidemiological and clinical evidences, coupled with our serological analysis, suggest that R. parkeri is the etiological agent of human cases of spotted fever in Uruguay, a disease that has been recognized in that country as cutaneous-ganglionar rickettsiosis.

Ismael A., Conti-Díaz; Jonas, Moraes-Filho; Richard C., Pacheco; Marcelo B., Labruna.

2009-12-01

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Pancreatoduodenectomía durante el embarazo por adenocarcinoma de ampolla de Vater y posterior resección de recurrencia ganglionar con buen resultado a corto y largo plazo / Pancreatoduodenectomy for ampullary adenocarcinoma and and re-intervention for ganglinonar recurrency  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mujer de 30 años con 13 semanas de su segunda gestación que se presentó con síntomas de anemia severa, hemorragia digestiva alta, dolor epigástrico y baja de peso. Mediante endoscopía alta se diagnosticó un adenocarcinoma bien diferenciado de ampolla de Vater. Se le practicó pancreato-duodenectomía [...] a las 16 semanas de su embarazo sin complicaciones. Durante el seguimiento se identificó recurrencia ganglionar loco-regional 4 meses después por lo que se le realizó parto por cesárea a las 34 semanas con neonato saludable de 2500 gr. Se decidió reintervención para resección de enfermedad ganglionar la cual se realizó con éxito. Lleva 36 meses de seguimiento sin evidencia de recidiva de la enfermedad. Su hija ha tenido un desarrollo normal. Abstract in english A 30 years old woman in the 13 week of her second pregnancy who had severe anemia, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and weight loss. She was given the endoscopic diagnosis of a well differentiated ampullary adenocarcinoma. She underwent a pancreato duodenectomy during the 16 week of pregnancy without [...] complications. After 4 months of follow up we identified a ganglionar local recurrence so that´s why she underwent a cesarean in the 34 week of pregnancy. The product was a healthy 2500 gr. newborn. We decided a reoperation for the resection of the recurrence and it was carried out successfully. Currently the patient has 36 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence and her baby has a normal grow up.

Gustavo, Reaño Paredes; José, De Vinatea De Cárdenas; Fernando, Revoredo Rego; Fritz, Kometter Barrios; Luis, Villanueva Alegre; José, Arenas Gamio; Mónica, Uribe León.

2014-07-01

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Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay / Rickettsia parkeri: patógeno rickettsial transmitido por garrapatas en áreas endémicas de rickettsiosis por fiebre manchada en el sur de Uruguay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Inicialmente, Rickettsia conorii fue señalada como el agente causal de la fiebre manchada en Uruguay, diagnosticada mediante pruebas serológicas. Posteriormente, Rickettsia parkeri fue detectada mediante técnicas moleculares en garrapatas Amblyomma triste colectadas sobre humanos. El vector natural [...] de R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, no ha sido estudiado en cuanto a rickettsias en Uruguay. Para abordar este tema, 180 R. sanguineus fueron colectados sobre perros y 245 A. triste sobre vegetación en tres localidades consideradas endémicas para fiebres manchadas en el sur de Uruguay. El ADN de las garrapatas fue extraído en pools y sometido a una primera PCR utilizando cebadores que amplifican un fragmento del gen gltA, presente en prácticamente todas las especies de Rickettsia. Las muestras positivas fueron sometidas a una segunda PCR con cebadores que amplifican un fragmento del gen ompA, presente sólo en rickettsias del grupo de las fiebres manchadas (GFM). No se detectó ADN rickettsial en R. sanguineus. Sin embargo, muestras de A. triste fueron positivas a rickettsiales en dos de las tres localidades estudiadas, con prevalencias de pools positivos del 11.8 y 37.5% respectivamente. La secuenciación del ADN evidenció la presencia de R. parkeri. Basados en estos resultados junto a los anteriores y la agresividad de A. triste hacia los humanos, se concluye que esta garrapata es vector de rickettsiosis humana por R. parkeri en Uruguay. Abstract in english At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been [...] studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging) collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.

José M., Venzal; Agustín, Estrada-Peña; Aránzazu, Portillo; Atilio J., Mangold; Oscar, Castro; Carlos G. De, Souza; María L., Félix; Laura, Pérez-Martínez; Sonia, Santibánez; José A., Oteo.

2012-06-01

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Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay Rickettsia parkeri: patógeno rickettsial transmitido por garrapatas en áreas endémicas de rickettsiosis por fiebre manchada en el sur de Uruguay  

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Full Text Available At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.Inicialmente, Rickettsia conorii fue señalada como el agente causal de la fiebre manchada en Uruguay, diagnosticada mediante pruebas serológicas. Posteriormente, Rickettsia parkeri fue detectada mediante técnicas moleculares en garrapatas Amblyomma triste colectadas sobre humanos. El vector natural de R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, no ha sido estudiado en cuanto a rickettsias en Uruguay. Para abordar este tema, 180 R. sanguineus fueron colectados sobre perros y 245 A. triste sobre vegetación en tres localidades consideradas endémicas para fiebres manchadas en el sur de Uruguay. El ADN de las garrapatas fue extraído en pools y sometido a una primera PCR utilizando cebadores que amplifican un fragmento del gen gltA, presente en prácticamente todas las especies de Rickettsia. Las muestras positivas fueron sometidas a una segunda PCR con cebadores que amplifican un fragmento del gen ompA, presente sólo en rickettsias del grupo de las fiebres manchadas (GFM. No se detectó ADN rickettsial en R. sanguineus. Sin embargo, muestras de A. triste fueron positivas a rickettsiales en dos de las tres localidades estudiadas, con prevalencias de pools positivos del 11.8 y 37.5% respectivamente. La secuenciación del ADN evidenció la presencia de R. parkeri. Basados en estos resultados junto a los anteriores y la agresividad de A. triste hacia los humanos, se concluye que esta garrapata es vector de rickettsiosis humana por R. parkeri en Uruguay.

José M. Venzal

2012-06-01

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Fiebre manchada por rickettsias en el Delta del Paraná: Una enfermedad emergente / Rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta: An emerging disease  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se comunica un caso de fiebre manchada por rickettsia autóctono del delta del Paraná correspondiente a la provincia de Buenos Aires. Luego de cinco días de haber permanecido en una región cercana a la localidad de ingeniero Otamendi, partido de Campana, el paciente presentó un síndrome febril agudo [...] caracterizado por hipertermia con escalofríos y sudoración, mialgias, cefalea, astenia y discreta odinofagia, seguido a las 72 horas por un exantema maculopapuloso congestivo con elementos purpúricos, de distribución universal. En la región preauricular izquierda se observaba una lesión papuloerosiva, producida cinco días antes de iniciada la fiebre por una garrapata adquirida en el lugar. El cuadro clínico remitió rápidamente con la administración de doxiciclina. Por inmunofluorescencia indirecta se identificaron anticuerpos reactivos contra el grupo de rickettsias causantes de fiebres manchadas (CDC, Atlanta, EE.UU.). Se realizan consideraciones sobre la especie de rickettsia, el vector involucrado y la posibilidad que la enfermedad fuera debida a Rickettsia parkeri. Abstract in english We describe a case of rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta region of Buenos Aires province in Argentina. The patient developed an acute febrile syndrome characterized by myalgias, headache, asthenia and moderate odynophagia, followed by a diffuse macular, papular, and purpuric exanthema. Th [...] e patient had been bitten recently by a tick on the left preauricular region and an erosive papular lesion was evident at the bite site. An indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay identified antibodies reactive with spotted fever group rickettsiae in the patient's serum. The patient improved rapidly with doxycycline. Several considerations relating to the identity of the rickettsial species and tick vector are discussed, including the possibility that this patient's illness may have been caused by Rickettsia parkeri.

Alfredo, Seijo; Marisa, Picollo; William, Nicholson; Christopher, Paddock.

2007-12-01

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Fiebre manchada por rickettsias en el Delta del Paraná: Una enfermedad emergente Rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta: An emerging disease  

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Full Text Available Se comunica un caso de fiebre manchada por rickettsia autóctono del delta del Paraná correspondiente a la provincia de Buenos Aires. Luego de cinco días de haber permanecido en una región cercana a la localidad de ingeniero Otamendi, partido de Campana, el paciente presentó un síndrome febril agudo caracterizado por hipertermia con escalofríos y sudoración, mialgias, cefalea, astenia y discreta odinofagia, seguido a las 72 horas por un exantema maculopapuloso congestivo con elementos purpúricos, de distribución universal. En la región preauricular izquierda se observaba una lesión papuloerosiva, producida cinco días antes de iniciada la fiebre por una garrapata adquirida en el lugar. El cuadro clínico remitió rápidamente con la administración de doxiciclina. Por inmunofluorescencia indirecta se identificaron anticuerpos reactivos contra el grupo de rickettsias causantes de fiebres manchadas (CDC, Atlanta, EE.UU.. Se realizan consideraciones sobre la especie de rickettsia, el vector involucrado y la posibilidad que la enfermedad fuera debida a Rickettsia parkeri.We describe a case of rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta region of Buenos Aires province in Argentina. The patient developed an acute febrile syndrome characterized by myalgias, headache, asthenia and moderate odynophagia, followed by a diffuse macular, papular, and purpuric exanthema. The patient had been bitten recently by a tick on the left preauricular region and an erosive papular lesion was evident at the bite site. An indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay identified antibodies reactive with spotted fever group rickettsiae in the patient's serum. The patient improved rapidly with doxycycline. Several considerations relating to the identity of the rickettsial species and tick vector are discussed, including the possibility that this patient's illness may have been caused by Rickettsia parkeri.

Alfredo Seijo

2007-12-01

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Serological evidence of Rickettsia parkeri as the etiological agent of rickettsiosis in Uruguay Evidência sorológica de Rickettsia parkeri como agente etiológico de rickettsiose no Uruguai  

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Full Text Available We report three new rickettsiosis human cases in Uruguay. The three clinical cases presented clinical manifestations similar to previous reported cases of Rickettsia parkeri in the United States; that is mild fever (São relatados três novos casos humanos de rickettsiose no Uruguai. Os três casos clínicos apresentam manifestações clínicas semelhantes às descritas em casos de infecção por Rickettsia parkeri previamente relatados nos Estados Unidos, tais como: febre moderada (< 40 ºC, mal-estar, cefaléia, exantema, escara de inoculação no sítio de fixação do carrapato, linfadenopatia regional e ausência de letalidade. Testes sorológicos de absorção de anticorpos com antígenos de R. parkeri e Rickettsia rickettsii, associados à reação de imunofluorescência indireta, sugerem que os pacientes de dois casos foram infectados por R. parkeri. Evidências clínicas e epidemiológicas, associadas com nossas análises sorológicas, sugerem que R. parkeri é o agente etiológico de casos humanos de febre maculosa no Uruguai, uma doença que tem sido reconhecida naquele país como rickettsiose cutâneo-ganglionar.

Ismael A. Conti-Díaz

2009-12-01

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Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay Rickettsia parkeri: patógeno rickettsial transmitido por garrapatas en áreas endémicas de rickettsiosis por fiebre manchada en el sur de Uruguay  

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At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging) collected in three endemic localitie...

Venzal, Jose? M.; Agustín Estrada-Peña; Aránzazu Portillo; Mangold, Atilio J.; Oscar Castro; Souza, Carlos G.; Fe?lix, Mari?a L.; Laura Pérez-Martínez; Sonia Santibánez; Oteo, Jose? A.

2012-01-01

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Fatal Brazilian spotless fever caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in a dark-skinned patient Febre maculosa brasileira sem exantema causada por Rickettsia rickettsii em um paciente de cor negra  

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Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is the most important and frequent rickettsial disease in Brazil. A fatal case of BSF is reported in a 32-year-old black man, who died of irreversible shock after five days of fever, severe headache and abdominal pain with no rash. Spleen, kidney and heart samples collected at autopsy were positive for Rickettsia rickettsii by PCR and sequencing. The authors emphasize the need for a high index of diagnostic suspicion for spotted fever in black patients. Absence of a skin rash should not dissuade clinicians from considering the possibility of BSF and initiating empirical therapy.Febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é a mais importante e frequente doença rickettsial no Brasil. Relatamos um caso fatal de FMB em um homem negro de 32 anos de idade que morreu de choque irreversível após cinco dias de febre, cefaléia intensa, dor abdominal, e sem evidência de exantema. Amostras de baço, rim e coração coletadas na necropsia foram positivas para Rickettsia rickettsii por PCR e sequenciamento. Os autores ressaltam a necessidade de um alto índice de suspeita diagnóstica para febre maculosa em pacientes negros. Ausência de exantema não deve dissuadir os clínicos de considerar a possibilidade de FMB e iniciar a terapêutica empírica.

Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça Favacho

2011-06-01

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Fatal Brazilian spotless fever caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in a dark-skinned patient / Febre maculosa brasileira sem exantema causada por Rickettsia rickettsii em um paciente de cor negra  

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Full Text Available Febre maculosa brasileira (FMB) é a mais importante e frequente doença rickettsial no Brasil. Relatamos um caso fatal de FMB em um homem negro de 32 anos de idade que morreu de choque irreversível após cinco dias de febre, cefaléia intensa, dor abdominal, e sem evidência de exantema. Amostras de baç [...] o, rim e coração coletadas na necropsia foram positivas para Rickettsia rickettsii por PCR e sequenciamento. Os autores ressaltam a necessidade de um alto índice de suspeita diagnóstica para febre maculosa em pacientes negros. Ausência de exantema não deve dissuadir os clínicos de considerar a possibilidade de FMB e iniciar a terapêutica empírica. Abstract in english Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is the most important and frequent rickettsial disease in Brazil. A fatal case of BSF is reported in a 32-year-old black man, who died of irreversible shock after five days of fever, severe headache and abdominal pain with no rash. Spleen, kidney and heart samples colle [...] cted at autopsy were positive for Rickettsia rickettsii by PCR and sequencing. The authors emphasize the need for a high index of diagnostic suspicion for spotted fever in black patients. Absence of a skin rash should not dissuade clinicians from considering the possibility of BSF and initiating empirical therapy.

Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça, Favacho; Tatiana, Rozental; Simone Berger, Calic; Maria Aparecida Mota, Scofield; Elba Regina Sampaio de, Lemos.

2011-06-01

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Ecoepidemiología de la infección por rickettsias en roedores, ectoparásitos y humanos en el noroeste de Antioquia, Colombia / Ecoepidemiology of rickettsial infection in rodents, ectoparasites and humans in northeastern Antioquia, Colombia  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Las rickettsias son bacterias patógenas usualmente transmitidas por ectoparásitos, como garrapatas, piojos o pulgas. En la última década se presentaron tres brotes de rickettsiosis con casos fatales en la región noroccidental de Antioquia y en un municipio limítrofe de Córdoba. Objetiv [...] o. Describir la ecología y la epidemiología de las infecciones por Rickettsia spp. en el Urabá antioqueño. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron muestras de 354 roedores y se recolectaron 839 ectoparásitos de estos en los municipios de Apartadó, Turbo y Necoclí. Asimismo, se obtuvieron 220 sueros humanos. Estas muestras fueron estudiadas por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) e inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) para la detección de infección por rickettsias. Resultados. Por IFI se detectaron anticuerpos antirickettsias en 130 (43 %) de los roedores y en 53 (24 %) de los sueros humanos estudiados. Además, se amplificaron secuencias del gen gltA específicas del género Rickettsia en 23 (6,8 %) muestras de hígado de roedores, las cuales mostraron una similitud del 98,7 % con R. prowazekii . Una secuencia de gltA obtenida de larvas de garrapatas del género Amblyomma sp., tuvo una identidad mayor de 99 % con las secuencias de R. tamurae . Conclusión. Estos resultados demuestran la circulación de rickettsias en roedores, ectoparásitos y humanos en los municipios estudiados. Abstract in english Introduction: Rickettsia spp. are tick, flea or lice-borne pathogenic bacterium, usually carried by rodents. In the last decade three outbreaks of rickettsial disease including fatalities, occurred in the provinces of Antioquia and Córdoba in northwestern Colombia. Objective: The purpose of this stu [...] dy was to perform an ecological and epidemiological description of the Rickettsia spp infection in the recently affected region of Colombia. Materials and methods: Samples were obtained from 354 rodents and their parasites captured in the municipalities of Apartadó, Turbo and Necoclí. Likewise, 220 human sera were also collected, for detection of infection by Rickettsia spp. Results: Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that 130 (43%) of the rodents and 53 (24%) of the humans produced antibodies to Rickettsia spp. Additionally, rickettsial DNA was amplified by PCR from 23 (6.8%) rodent liver samples using primers directed to the genus specific gltA gene. While gltA sequences from rodent samples exhibited a 98.7% similitude with R . prowazekii, a sequence amplified from larvae of Amblyomma sp exhibited identities of >99% similarity with R. tamurae . Conclusion: These results demonstrate the presence of rickettsia in rodents, ectoparasites and humans throughout the municipalities studied.

Juan Carlos, Quintero; Andrés Felipe, Londoño; Francisco J, Díaz; Piedad, Agudelo-Flórez; Margarita, Arboleda; Juan David, Rodas.

2013-09-01

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AFECTACIÓN GANGLIONAR EN PACIENTE CON ENDOMETRIOSIS PROFUNDA RECTOVAGINAL  

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Full Text Available Se describe un raro caso de endometriosis rectovaginal con compromiso ganglionar en mujer de 33 años. La presencia de tejido endometrial en ganglios linfáticos pélvicos es rara y ha sido confirmada en la literatura en mujeres que han sido sometidas a cirugía por endometriosis. La presencia de endometriosis en los ganglios linfáticos pélvicos es muy improbable que surja de novo y sugiere extensión de la enfermedad.A rare case of rectovaginal endometriosis with lymph node involvement is described in a 33-year-old patient. The presence of endometrial tissue in pelvic lymph nodes is rare and has been confirmed in the literature in subjects who underwent surgery for endometriosis. Involvement of pelvic lymph nodes by endometriosis seems unlikely to arise de novo and probably suggests lymphatic spread of the disease.

Israel Ortega Sánchez

2009-01-01

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Identificación de una nueva área de infección por Rickettsias del grupo typhi: estudio de un brote de tifus en Huánuco  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Investigar un brote de síndrome febril en el distrito de Punchao mediante una evaluación clínica, laboratorial y entomológica para conocer los factores asociados a la aparición de dicho brote. Materiales y métodos: Debido al reporte de tres pacientes con cuadro clínico febril asociado a c [...] efalea, mialgias y postración en la semana epidemiológica Nº41 del año 2000, procedentes del distrito de Punchao, Humalíes, Huánuco y ante la información de presentación inusual de pacientes febriles en la última semana en dicho lugar, se decidió investigar la naturaleza y características del brote. Se definió como caso a todo paciente con cuadro febril agudo y uno de estos síntomas: cefalea, mialgias o postración; procediéndose a la búsqueda activa de éstos y a la evaluación de presencia de anticuerpos para rickettsias en suero mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI). Se capturaron roedores y se colectaron ectoparásitos en las viviendas (roedores, animales domésticos y humanos), a fin de identificar la presencia de Rickettsias en ellos mediante IFI, aislamiento o PCR. Resultados: No se logró el aislamiento del agente causal. Se evidenció circulación de la Rickettsia sp. (serología positiva) tanto en humanos (en casos y en no casos) como en roedores. Se evidenció mayor presencia de malos hábitos de aseo y condiciones inadecuadas de saneamiento básico en los casos (respecto a los no casos) y una disminución de los casos luego del inicio de las medidas de control. Conclusiones: Las evidencias encontradas permitieron identificar un brote de tifus en Punchao, no pudiéndose determinar la especie involucrada debido a que no se aisló el agente causal. Abstract in english Objectives: To assess an outbreak of febrile syndrome in Punchao district through a clinical, laboratorial and entomological evaluation and to find out the factors associated to the occurrence of such outbreak. Materials and methods: Due to the report of three patients from Punchao, Huamalíes (Huanu [...] co) presenting with fever associated to headache, myalgia and postration, on the 41st epidemiological week 2000; and because of an inusual presentation of feverish patients in the last week in such site; we decided to investigate the nature and characteristics of the outbreak. We define as case every patient with a time of illness less than 15 days with fever and one of these symptoms: headache, myalgias and postration and we started actively to look for these cases and to assess the presence of anti-Rickettsias antibodies in serum using IFI. We captured rodents and collected ectoparasites in houses (in rodents, domestic animals and humans), with the purpose of identifying Rickettsias using IFI, isolation and/or PCR. Results: We could not isolate the causal agent. The circulation of Rickettsia (positive serology) in humans (cases and no cases) and in rodents was confirmed. A greater presence of bad habits of cleanliness and inadequate conditions of basic sanitation in cases (in relation to no cases) and a decrease in the number of cases after the beginning of control measures, was evident. Conclusions: The evidences found allowed the identification of a typhus outbreak in Punchao; however, the determination of the involucrated species was not possible because the causal agent was not isolated.

Rosa, Mostorino E; Elizabeth, Anaya R; Leonardo, Mendoza U; Angel, Rosas A.

2003-03-01

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First identification of natural infection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, in the State of Rio de Janeiro / Primeira identificação de infecção natural por Rickettsia rickettsii no carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus no Rio de Janeiro  

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Full Text Available A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB) é uma zoonose causada por Rickettsia rickettsii e transmitida por carrapatos do gênero Amblyomma, mais freqüentemente pela espécie Amblyomma cajennense. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a primeira detecção molecular de R. rickettsii em Rhipicephalus sanguineu [...] s naturalmente infectado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Carrapatos foram coletados de cães, procedentes de uma região rural do município de Resende, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (22º30'9.46"S, 44º42'44.29"WO), onde ocorreram cinco casos humanos de FMB em 2006. Todos os carrapatos foram identificados segundo chave dicotômica, utilizando-se lupa estereoscópica e separados de acordo com estágio, espécie e sexo. Para a extração de DNA utilizou-se o kit comercial QIAamp DNA (QIAGEN ®). O DNA foi submetido à técnica de PCR utilizando 04 conjuntos de iniciadores para a amplificação dos genes: Rr190.70p/Rr190.602n (OmpA, 532bp), BG1-21/BG2-20 (OmpB, 650bp), Tz15/Tz16 (17 kDa gene que codifica a proteína, 246bp) e RPCs .877p/RpCS.1258n (gltA, 381bp). Os produtos da PCR foram separados por eletroforese em gel agarose 1% corados com brometo de etídio e visualizados sob luz ultravioleta e, aqueles que apresentaram bandas amplificadas foram purificados utilizando-se o kit comercial QIAquick ® e seqüenciados pelo ABI PRISM®. As seqüências nucleotídicas foram geradas usando Bioedit®, editado em software e comparados os correspondentes homólogos com as sequências disponíveis através GenBank, utilizando Discontiguous Mega Blast (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). Confirmou-se R. rickettsii (GenBank FJ356230) no seqüenciamento de apenas um espécime, adulto de carrapato R. sanguineus. A caracterização molecular de R. rickettsii em exemplar de carrapato R. sanguineus confirma que esta espécie pode ter importante papel na transmissão de R. rickettsii para humanos no território brasileiro. Abstract in english The Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma, more frequently, Amblyomma cajennense. The aim of this paper was to report the first molecular detection of R. rickettsii on R. sanguineus naturally infected in Ri [...] o de Janeiro, Brazil. Ticks were collected from dogs in a rural region of Resende municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (22º30'9.46"S, 44º42'44.29"WO), where occurred five human cases of BSF in 2006. The ticks were identified under a stereoscopic microscope and separated in pools by stages, species and sex. DNA extraction was carried out using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN®). The DNA was submitted to PCR amplification using 04 set of primers: Rr190.70p/Rr190.602n (OmpA, 532bp), BG1-21/BG2-20 (OmpB, 650bp), Tz15/Tz16 (17 kDa protein-encoding gene, 246bp) and RpCS.877p/RpCS.1258n (gltA, 381bp). PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 1% agarose gels and visualized under ultraviolet light with ethidium bromide. PCR products of the expected sizes were purified by QIAquick® and sequenced by ABI PRISM®. The generated nucleotide sequences were edited with using Bioedit® software and compared with the corresponding homologous sequences available through GenBank, using Discontiguous Mega Blast (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). It was confirmed R. rickettsii by sequencing of the material (GenBank FJ356230). The molecular characterization of R. rickettsii in the tick R. sanguineus emphasizes the role of dogs as carriers of ticks from the environment to home. Moreover, this result suggests that there is a considerable chance for active participation of R. sanguineus as one of tick species in the transmission of R. ricketsii to human being in the Brazilian territory.

Nathalie C., Cunha; Adivaldo H., Fonseca; Jania, Rezende; Tatiana, Rozental; Alexsandra R.M., Favacho; Jairo D., Barreira; Carlos L., Massard; Elba R.S., Lemos.

2009-02-01

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First identification of natural infection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, in the State of Rio de Janeiro Primeira identificação de infecção natural por Rickettsia rickettsii no carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus no Rio de Janeiro  

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Full Text Available The Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is a zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma, more frequently, Amblyomma cajennense. The aim of this paper was to report the first molecular detection of R. rickettsii on R. sanguineus naturally infected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ticks were collected from dogs in a rural region of Resende municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (22º30'9.46"S, 44º42'44.29"WO, where occurred five human cases of BSF in 2006. The ticks were identified under a stereoscopic microscope and separated in pools by stages, species and sex. DNA extraction was carried out using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN®. The DNA was submitted to PCR amplification using 04 set of primers: Rr190.70p/Rr190.602n (OmpA, 532bp, BG1-21/BG2-20 (OmpB, 650bp, Tz15/Tz16 (17 kDa protein-encoding gene, 246bp and RpCS.877p/RpCS.1258n (gltA, 381bp. PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 1% agarose gels and visualized under ultraviolet light with ethidium bromide. PCR products of the expected sizes were purified by QIAquick® and sequenced by ABI PRISM®. The generated nucleotide sequences were edited with using Bioedit® software and compared with the corresponding homologous sequences available through GenBank, using Discontiguous Mega Blast (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. It was confirmed R. rickettsii by sequencing of the material (GenBank FJ356230. The molecular characterization of R. rickettsii in the tick R. sanguineus emphasizes the role of dogs as carriers of ticks from the environment to home. Moreover, this result suggests that there is a considerable chance for active participation of R. sanguineus as one of tick species in the transmission of R. ricketsii to human being in the Brazilian territory.A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose causada por Rickettsia rickettsii e transmitida por carrapatos do gênero Amblyomma, mais freqüentemente pela espécie Amblyomma cajennense. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a primeira detecção molecular de R. rickettsii em Rhipicephalus sanguineus naturalmente infectado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Carrapatos foram coletados de cães, procedentes de uma região rural do município de Resende, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (22º30'9.46"S, 44º42'44.29"WO, onde ocorreram cinco casos humanos de FMB em 2006. Todos os carrapatos foram identificados segundo chave dicotômica, utilizando-se lupa estereoscópica e separados de acordo com estágio, espécie e sexo. Para a extração de DNA utilizou-se o kit comercial QIAamp DNA (QIAGEN ®. O DNA foi submetido à técnica de PCR utilizando 04 conjuntos de iniciadores para a amplificação dos genes: Rr190.70p/Rr190.602n (OmpA, 532bp, BG1-21/BG2-20 (OmpB, 650bp, Tz15/Tz16 (17 kDa gene que codifica a proteína, 246bp e RPCs .877p/RpCS.1258n (gltA, 381bp. Os produtos da PCR foram separados por eletroforese em gel agarose 1% corados com brometo de etídio e visualizados sob luz ultravioleta e, aqueles que apresentaram bandas amplificadas foram purificados utilizando-se o kit comercial QIAquick ® e seqüenciados pelo ABI PRISM®. As seqüências nucleotídicas foram geradas usando Bioedit®, editado em software e comparados os correspondentes homólogos com as sequências disponíveis através GenBank, utilizando Discontiguous Mega Blast (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Confirmou-se R. rickettsii (GenBank FJ356230 no seqüenciamento de apenas um espécime, adulto de carrapato R. sanguineus. A caracterização molecular de R. rickettsii em exemplar de carrapato R. sanguineus confirma que esta espécie pode ter importante papel na transmissão de R. rickettsii para humanos no território brasileiro.

Nathalie C. Cunha

2009-02-01

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Epidemiología de rickettsiosis por Rickettsia parkeri y otras especies emergentes o re-emergentes asociadas a la antropización en Latinoamérica / Epidemiology of rickettsioses by Rickettsia parkeri andother emerging and reemerging species associated with anthropization in Latin America  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe la importancia regional de Rickettsia parkeri y sus respectivos vectores. Se hace énfasis en los factores de antropización que favorecen la aparición de hospedadores alternativos para las garrapatas en los entornos domésticos y peridomésticos, generando modificaciones en la epidemiología [...] del agente etiológico. También se menciona las modificaciones ecológicas que pueden favorecen el incremento de poblaciones de reservorios para las garrapatas incrementando el riesgo para el ser humano de sufrir enfermedades rickettsiales. Abstract in english A description of the regional importance of Rickettsia parkeri and their vectors is presented. There is emphasis on the factors of anthropization that favor the development of alternative hosts for ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments, generating changes in the epidemiology of the etiolog [...] ical agent. The environmental changes that can promote the increase in populations of tick reservoirs, increasing the risk for humans for rickettsial diseases, is also mentioned.

José M, Venzal.

2013-07-01

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First identification of natural infection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, in the State of Rio de Janeiro Primeira identificação de infecção natural por Rickettsia rickettsii no carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus no Rio de Janeiro  

OpenAIRE

The Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma, more frequently, Amblyomma cajennense. The aim of this paper was to report the first molecular detection of R. rickettsii on R. sanguineus naturally infected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ticks were collected from dogs in a rural region of Resende municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (22º30'9.46"S, 44º42'44.29"WO), where occurred five human cases of BSF...

Cunha, Nathalie C.; Fonseca, Adivaldo H.; Jania Rezende; Tatiana Rozental; Favacho, Alexsandra R. M.; Barreira, Jairo D.; Massard, Carlos L.; Lemos, Elba R. S.

2009-01-01

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Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel.  

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DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae. PMID:24615133

Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit

2014-05-01

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Factores predictores de metástasis ganglionar en el carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: son necesarios factores pronósticos confiables de metástasis ganglionar para adaptar el tratamiento quirúrgico inicial de pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia y factores pronósticos asociados con metástasis ganglionar en pacientes operado [...] s por carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides. Lugar de apicación: práctica privada. Diseño: retrospectivo observacional. Pobación: entre enero de 2000 y agosto de 2010, a 600 pacientes con 639 tumores (39 bilaterales) se les realizó tiroidectomía total y linfadenectomía terapéutica sólo cuando se demostró metástasis por biopsia ganglionar. Método: revisión de historias clínicas e informes patológicos. Resutados: 145 enfermos (22.7 %) tuvieron ganglios histológicamente positivos. El análisis multivariado mostró que la edad menor de 45 años (p = 0.001), adenopatías palpables (p = 0.0001), multicentricidad (p = 0.005) e invasión extracapsular (p = 0.0001) fueron factores de riesgo independientes de metástasis ganglionar. Estos factores, en conjunto, tuvieron una alta especificidad (97 %)y una baja sensibilidad (40 %). Se encontraron metástasis en ganglios yugulares con ganglios centrales negativos ("skip" metástasis) en 29 casos (5.54 %). Concusiones: a pesar de que algunos de los factores estudiados tuvieron valor pronóstico, se requieren variables adicionales para definir mejor el manejo quirúrgico. Abstract in english Background: reliable prognostic factors of lymph node metástasis are needed to adapt initial surgical treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Objetive: to determine the frequency and predictive factors associated with lymph node metástasis in patients operated on for differentia [...] ted thyroid carcinoma. Setting: prívate practice. Design: retrospective observational. Popuation: between January 2000 and August 2010, 600 patients with 639 tumours (39 bilateral) underwent total thyroidectomy and therapeutic neck dissection only when there was biopsy proved lymph node metástasis. Method: review of clinical records and pathological reports. Resuts: 145 patients (22.7 %) had histologically positive lymph nodes. Multivariate analysis showed that lessthan 45 years (p = 0.001), palpable adenopathy (p = 0.0001), multicentricity (p = 0.005) and extracapsular invasión (p = 0.0001) were independent risk factors of lymph node metástasis. These factors, together, had high specificity (97 %) but low sensibility (40 %). Metástasis in jugular lymph nodes with normal central nodes (skip metástasis) was found in 29 (5.54 %) cases. Concusions: even though some of the factors studied proved to be of prognostic valué, additional variables are needed to better define surgical management.

Jorge E, Falco; Alvaro, Otero Muñoz; Manuel R, Montesinos.

2012-12-01

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Micosis ganglionar: reporte de 7 casos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia Lima-Perú y revisión de la literatura / Lymph node Mycosis: report of 7 cases at the Hospital NacionalCayetano Heredia Lima-Perú and Review of the Literature  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Describir las características clínicas, micológicas e histopatológicas de una serie de pacientes con micosis ganglionar y determinar si las afecciones ganglionares por hongos o micosis ganglionares pueden imitar otras patologías ganglionares infecciosas y no infecciosas. Material y Método [...] s: Se evaluaron 154 pacientes atendidos en el Departamento de enfermedades infecciosas y transmisibles del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima entre enero del 2003 y enero del 2004. Estos pacientes participaron en un estudio de validación de una prueba diagnóstica para tuberculosis ganglionar pero tuvieron un diagnóstico definido de micosis ganglionar. Resultados: De 154 pacientes con linfadenopatía evaluados durante el tiempo de estudio, 7 tuvieron micosis ganglionar, dos de ellos eran pacientes inmunocompetentes y los cinco restantes inmunosuprimidos, uno por linfoma y los otros por VIH. Conclusiones: Las afecciones ganglionares por hongos o micosis ganglionares pueden ser grandes imitadoras de otras patologías ganglionares infecciosas y no infecciosas. (Rev Med Hered 2004;15:211-217). Abstract in english Objective: Describe clinical, mycological and histopathological characteristics of a series of patients with lymph node mycosis. Material and Methods: All patients here described were attended at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima between January 2003 and January 2004. These patients par [...] ticipated in a study on the accuracy of a diagnostic test for tuberculosis but got a definite diagnosis of lymph node mycosis. Results: Of 154 patients with lymphadenopathy evaluated during the study period, 7 were diagnosed with lymph node mycosis. Two were immunocompetent patients and 5 had immune suppression, one because of lymphoma and 4 because of HIV infection. Conclusions: There can be a strong resemblance between lymph node mycosis and lymphadenopathy caused by other infectious and non infectious diseases. (Rev Med Hered 2004;15:211-217).

Fernando, Osores Plenge; Ciro, Maguiña Vargas; Juan Carlos, Ferrufino Llach; Rosario, Velando Mitma; Juan, Agapito Panta; Kristien, Verdonck Bosteels; Oscar, Nolasco Cardenas; Jorge, Arevalo Zelada; Beatriz, Bustamante Rufino; Eduardo, Gottuzo Herencia.

2004-10-01

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Tropism and pathogenicity of rickettsiae  

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Full Text Available Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria that cause febrile exanthematous illnesses such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, epidemic and murine typhus, etc. Although the vector ranges of each Rickettsia species are rather restricted; i.e., ticks belonging to Arachnida and lice and fleas belonging to Insecta usually act as vectors for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively, it would be interesting to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the vector tropism of rickettsiae. This review discusses the factors determining the vector tropism of rickettsiae. In brief, the vector tropism of rickettsiae species is basically consistent with their tropism towards cultured tick and insect cells. The mechanisms responsible for rickettsiae pathogenicity are also described. Recently, genomic analyses of rickettsiae have revealed that they possess several genes that are homologous to those affecting the pathogenicity of other bacteria. Analyses comparing the genomes of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of rickettsiae have detected many factors that are related to rickettsial pathogenicity. It is also known that a reduction in the rickettsial genome has occurred during the course of its evolution. Interestingly, Rickettsia species with small genomes, such as Rickettsia prowazekii, are more pathogenic to humans than those with larger genomes. This review also examines the growth kinetics of pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of spotted fever group rickettsiae in mammalian cells. The growth of nonpathogenic species is restricted in these cells, which is mediated, at least in part, by autophagy. The superinfection of nonpathogenic rickettsiae-infected cells with pathogenic rickettsiae results in an elevated yield of the nonpathogenic rickettsiae and the growth of the pathogenic rickettsiae. Autophagy is restricted in these cells. These results are discussed in this review.

TsuneoUchiyama

2012-06-01

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O estadiamento ganglionar na actualidade / Node staging today  

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Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A necessidade de realizar Esvaziamento Ganglionar Axilar quando o Gânglio Sentinela está metastizado, em doentes com Cancro da Mama, está a ser questionada. A maior parte dos doentes não apresenta metástases adicionais em Gânglios Não Sentinela e, em muito casos, a decisão de realizar tratamentos ad [...] juvantes não necessita da informação adicional fornecida pelo estudo dos gânglios axilares. A publicação recente do ensaio randomizado ACOSOG Z0011veio relançar a discussão sobre a necessidade e a utilidade do Esvaziamento Ganglionar Axilar. Abstract in english The need to perform an Axillary Dissection when the Sentinel Node is metastasized, in Breast Cancer patients, is being questioned. Most part of the patients do not have any additional metastasis in the Non Sentinel Nodes and, in many cases, the decision to perform adjuvant treatments is not dependen [...] t on the axillary nodes analysis. The recent publication of the randomized trial ACOSOG Z0011 launched the discussion on the need and usefulness of the axillary lymph node dissection.

José Luís, Fougo; Fernando, Osório; Susy, Costa; André, Magalhães.

2013-12-01

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Rickettsia spp. in Ticks, Poland  

OpenAIRE

Ticks are recognized as the main vectors and reservoirs of spotted fever group rickettsiae. We searched for the most prevalent Rickettsia spp. in Poland and found R. slovaca and R. helvetica bacteria in ticks in southern and central Poland; R. raoulti was found in ticks in all parts of Poland.

Chmielewski, Tomasz; Podsiadly, Edyta; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Tylewska-wierzbanowska, Stanislawa

2009-01-01

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Fatty Acid Composition of Rickettsiae  

OpenAIRE

The fatty acid compositions of selected strains of rickettsiae were studied by gas-liquid chromatography. The profiles of all the rickettsiae except Coxiella burnetii were qualitatively similar. The fatty acid composition of C. burnetii was similar to that of certain Legionella species.

Tzianabos, Theodore; Moss, C. Wayne; Mcdade, Joseph E.

1981-01-01

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Febre maculosa: isolamento de Rickettsia em amostra de biópsia de pele / Spotted fever: Rickettsia isolation in skin biopsy sample  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Presença de Rickettsia na pele de doente de Febre Maculosa foi evidenciada por inoculação intraperitoneal em cobaio. O diagnóstico sorológico por imunoflüorescência indireta revelou diferença de título de anticorpos específicos para Rickettsia rickettsii, de 4 vezes entre a 1º e a 3º amostra. Imunog [...] lobulina M (IgM) específica foi detectada nas amostras de sangue, evidência de infecção em atividade ou recente. Foi também detectada a presença de anticorpos específicos para R. rickettsii no soro dos cobaios inoculados. Abstract in english A 2 years old child living in an area of the State of São Paulo, known in the past as endemic for rickettsiosis developed clinical evidences of spotted fever after a tick bite. Rickettsiae were isolated from guinea pigs inoculated with a skin homogenate. In sera tested by indirect immunofluorescence [...] with Rickettsia rickettsii standard antigen, IgG specific antibody titers raised from 1:512 in the first sample to 1:2048 in the third one; IgM specific antibody titer was 1:128 in the three samples. Also positive were sera obtained from the inoculated guinea pigs. In the last 20 years no other case of rickettsial spotted fever has been confirmed by isolation of the agent in Brasil. To our knowlwdge, there are no previous reports of isolation of Rickettsiae through inoculation of skin biopsy homogenates.

Heloisa Helana B., Melles; Silvia, Colombo; Marcos Vinícius da, Silva.

1992-02-01

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Vaciamiento ganglionar en carcinoma escamoso transglótico / Ganglionic drainage in scaly transglotic carcinoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El manejo de los ganglios cervicales es fundamental en el tratamiento y pronóstico de los pacientes con carcinoma escamoso de laringe. Existe consenso en realizar vaciamiento ganglionar cervical en ausencia de adenopatías clínicas (NO) cuando el riesgo de adenopatías metastásicas ocult [...] as supera el 20%. El carcinoma laríngeo transglótico (CTG) se caracteriza por presentar una incidencia de metástasis cervicales ocultas de 30% a 40%. Objetivo: Evaluar los hallazgos histopatológicos en los ganglios cervicales de los pacientes portadores de CTG, analizando la incidencia de metástasis ocultas y su asociación con factores de riesgo. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo mediante la revisión de las fichas clínicas de pacientes portadores de CTG, sin tratamiento previo, manejados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital San Juan de Dios entre los años 1994 y 2002. Resultados: Se evaluaron 20 pacientes, 4 (20%) se presentaron con adenopatías clínicas, realizándose en 2 casos vaciamiento radical y en los 2 restantes disección funcional. Los pacientes NO fueron 16 y se les efectuó un vaciamiento funcional bilateral. Se detectaron metástasis ocultas en 12,5% de los pacientes NO. Conclusión: Los carcinomas de ubicación transglótica NO no se beneficiarían de un vaciamiento ganglionar cervical Abstract in english Introduction: The handling of the cervical ganglion is basic in the treatment and prognosis of patients with scaly carcinoma of the larynx. There is consensus on doing ganglionic cervical drainage in the absence of clinical adenopathies (NO) when the risk of hidden metastasic adenopathies is over 20 [...] %. Laryngeal transglotic carcinoma (LTC) is characterized for presenting an incidence of hidden cervical metastasis of 30 to 40%. Objective: To evaluate histopathological findings in the LTC patients' cervical ganglions, analyzing the incidence of hidden metastasis and their association with risk factors. Material and methods: Retrospective study through revision of the clinical files ofLTC carrier patients, without previous treatment, surgically treated at the San Juan de Dios Hospital between years 1994 and 2002. Results: 20 patients were evaluated, 4 (20%) presented clinical adenopathies, undergoing in 2 cases radical drainage and in the other 2, functional dissection. The NO patients were 16 and a bilateral functional drainage was made. Hidden metastasis were detected in 12,5% on the NO patients. Conclusion: Carcinomas of NO transglotic location did not benefit from a cervical ganglionic drainage

Juan, Carlos Bravo Y; Mariela C, Torrente A; Loreto A, Nicklas D.

2006-08-01

30

Rickettsiae in Gulf Coast Ticks, Arkansas, USA  

OpenAIRE

To determine the cause of spotted fever cases in the southern United States, we screened Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) collected in Arkansas for rickettsiae. Of the screened ticks, 30% had PCR amplicons consistent with Rickettsia parkeri or Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii.

Trout, Rebecca; Steelman, C. Dayton; Szalanski, Allen L.; Williamson, Phillip C.

2010-01-01

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Seroprevalencia de la infección por Borrelia burgdorgferi y Rickettsia conorii en población humana y canina de la zona básica de salud de San Andrés del Rabanedo (León, España) / Seroprevalence of the infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii in human and canine population in the basic health area of San Andrés del Rabanedo (León, Spain)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Se estudia la seroprevalencia de la infección por Borrelia burgdorferi y Rickettsia conorii en población humana y canina para conocer la situación de ambas en humanos, al mismo tiempo que la significación del perro, como indicador de la circulación de estos agentes entre aquéllos, en la [...] Zona de Salud de San Andrés del Rabanedo, León. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio en 98 sueros humanos y 95 caninos (de diversas razas y aptitudes) frente a B. burgdorferi (títulos de positividad > a 1/128 y > a 1/64 o superiores, respectivamente) y 104 sueros humanos y 84 caninos frente a R. conorii (positividad a título > a 1/64 o superiores en ambas especies) mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI). RESULTADOS: Se halló positividad a las dos infecciones, tanto en personas como en perros. Frente a B. burgdorferi fue superior en humanos que en perros y frente a R. conorii fue superior en éstos que en humanos. En personas fue del 4,08% frente a B. burgdorferi y 1% frente a R. conorii; en perros fue del 2,10% frente a B. burgdorferi y del 14,28% frente a R. conorii. Los valores más altos se hallaron en los meses de primavera-verano, salvo en el caso de B. burgdorferi en perros. La seroprevalencia fue mayor en perros dedicados al cuidado de ganado (ovino) que en los de caza y guarda. CONCLUSIONES: Los porcentajes de seroprevalencia hallados en nuestro trabajo, tanto en seres humanos como en caninos, considerados en el ámbito territorial de una zona geográfica semi-rural de la provincia de León, han sido iguales o inferiores a los reseñados para otras provincias, incluida la totalidad de la de León. En perros se halló mayor seroprevalencia frente a R. conorii que frente a B. burgdorferi, lo que indica que es el agente más extendido en nuestra Provincia, como han señalado otros autores. Los valores hallados en seres humanos frente a B. burgdorferi han sido más altos que en perros; la existencia de reacciones cruzadas con otros microorganismos ha podido influenciar estos resultados. Por ello, consideramos necesario realizar más estudios de prevalencia de estas infecciones para una vigilancia epidemiológica adecuada y control de estas zoonosis, dada su repercusión en salud pública. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Positive results in infections of borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii in human and canine population is studied in order to uderstand the situation of both in humans, and at the same time discover the importance of the dog as an indicator of these agents amongst those in the Heal [...] th Area of San Andrés del Rabanedo, León. METHODS: A study was made of 98 human serums and 95 canine serums (dogs of different breeds and capabilities) as regards B. burgdorferi (positive results > at 1/128 and > at 1/64 or above, respectively) and 104 human serums and 84 canine serums as regards R. conorii (postive results at range > at 1/64 or above in both species) by means of indirect Immunofluorescence (IFI). RESULTS: Positivity in both infections was discovered in both humans and dogs. With regard to B. burgdorferi it was higher in humans than in dogs and with regard to R. conorii it was higher in dogs than in humans. In humans it was 4,08% as regards B. burgdorferi and 1% with respect to R. conorii; in dogs it was 2,10% as regards B. burgdorferi and 14,28% regarding R. conorii. The highest values were discovered in the Spring-Summer months except in the case of B. burgdorferi in dogs. Serum prevalence was greater in dogs used to guard other animals (sheep) than those involved in hunting and security. CONCLUSIONS: The percentages of positive results discovered in our work, in humans as well as dogs, estimated in the territorial area of a geographical zone in a semi-rural León province, were equal or inferior to those discovered in other provinces, including ours. In dogs there were larger positive results regarding R. conorii than B. burgdorferi, which indicates that it is the most extended agent within our Province, as other authors have pointed out. The values discover

Jaime, Rojo Vázquez.

1997-03-01

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Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum Ticks, Germany  

OpenAIRE

To the Editor: Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group cause worldwide emerging human infections known as tick-borne rickettsioses (1). Data on the occurrence and prevalence of Rickettsia in Germany are still limited (2). Six Rickettsia species have been reported to date (2). R. helvetica, R. felis, R. massiliae, and R. monacensis were detected with a relatively low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in southern Germany (2); R. raoultii was identified with high prevalence in the ...

Rumer, Leonid; Graser, Elmara; Hillebrand, Timo; Talaska, Thomas; Dautel, Hans; Mediannikov, Oleg; Roy-chowdhury, Panchali; Sheshukova, Olga; Donoso Mantke, Oliver; Niedrig, Matthias

2011-01-01

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Isolamento de Rickettsia em cultura de células vero / Isolation of Rickettsia in vero cell culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Embora o diagnóstico da febre maculosa baseie-se em sinais e sintomas característicos, o mesmo requer confirmação laboratorial, pois existem alguns diagnósticos diferenciais possíveis como meningococcemia, leptospirose, infecção por enterovírus e febre tifóide. A confirmação laboratorial pode ser fe [...] ita através da pesquisa de anticorpos específicos, possível somente alguns dias após o aparecimento da doença, através do isolamento do agente em amostras de sangue e/ou biópsia de pele, e ainda, de amostras de carrapatos coletados do paciente ou de animais reservatório. O isolamento a partir de sangue ou biópsia de pele resulta em diagnóstico precoce da doença, pois na fase de rickettsemia ainda não há anticorpos detectáveis no sangue. Assim, com o objetivo de facilitar o diagnóstico precoce da febre maculosa, estabelecemos um método de isolamento de rickettsia em cultura de células vero. Para a padronização foi inoculada amostra padrão de Rickettsia rickettsii, cepa Sheyla Smith, cedida pelo CDC. A identificação foi feita através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta. A presença de microrganismos verdes fluorescentes visualizados no interior do citoplasma das células caracterizou o crescimento do agente. Posteriormente, a metodologia foi confirmada pelo isolamento do agente da febre maculosa em amostras de biópsia de pele de paciente proveniente de área endêmica no Estado de São Paulo, bem como, de amostras de carrapato do gênero Amblyomma, considerado o reservatório e transmissor da doença no Brasil. Abstract in english The diagnosis of spotted fever is based on characteristic signs and symptoms but requires laboratorial confirmation because of the possible differencial diagnosis from other diseases like leptospirosis, enterovirosis, meningococcemia and tiphoid fever. Laboratorial confirmation may be done by detect [...] ion of specific antibodies which is possible only 5-10 days after the onset of the symptoms or by the isolation of Rickettsiae from blood and/or skin biopsy and from ticks collected in the patient or in the animal reservoir. The isolation of Rickettsiae from blood or skin biopsy results in an early diagnosis of spotted fever since in the rickettsiemic phase of the disease there is no detectable level of antibodies in the serum. With the purpose of facilitating the diagnosis of Spotted Fever we have standardized the isolation of Rickettsiae in cell culture by a method that is less time consuming and that reduces the biological risks than isolation in guinea pigs. vero cell cultures were inoculated with the Sheyla Smith strain of Rickettsia rickettsii provided by CDC (Atlanta-USA). The identification was performed by indirect immunofluorescence technique. The presence of green fluorescent organisms characterized the growth of the agent. Ulterior confirmation of the methodology was done by isolation of the spotted fever agent from skin biopsy of a patient from an endemic area and from Amblyomma ticks that are the reservoir and vector of the Brazilian spotted fever.

Heloisa Helena Barbosa, Melles; Silvia, Colombo; Elba Regina Sampaio de, Lemos.

1999-10-01

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Rickettsia felis: un patógeno emergente en Latinoamérica / Rickettsia felis: an emerging pathogen in Latin America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El primer caso humano infectado con Rickettsia felis fue descrito en un paciente diagnosticado con tifus murino en Estados Unidos en 1994. Los reportes acerca de la presencia de R. felis se han incrementado en los últimos años y ya se ha reportado en la mayoría de los países de América Latina. Los s [...] íntomas y signos de la enfermedad causada por R. felis son inespecíficos y es importante que cada país lo incluya en el diagnóstico diferencial con respecto a otras enfermedades que tienen las mismas manifestaciones clínicas. Abstract in english The first human case of Rickettsia felis was described in 1994, in a patient diagnosed with murine typhus in the United States. Reports about the presence of R. felis have increased in the last years, and it has been reported in most countries of Latin America. Signs and symptoms of disease caused b [...] y R. felis are unspecific, and it is important for each country to include it in the differential diagnosis with other diseases that show the same clinical manifestations.

Jorge E, Zavala Castro.

2013-07-01

35

Secretome of obligate intracellular Rickettsia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae) is comprised of obligate intracellular parasites, with virulent species of interest both as causes of emerging infectious diseases and for their potential deployment as bioterrorism agents. Currently, there are no effective commercially available vaccines, with treatment limited primarily to tetracycline antibiotics, although others (e.g. josamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin) are also effective. Much of the recent research geared toward understanding mechanisms underlying rickettsial pathogenicity has centered on characterization of secreted proteins that directly engage eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review all aspects of the Rickettsia secretome, including six secretion systems, 19 characterized secretory proteins, and potential moonlighting proteins identified on surfaces of multiple Rickettsia species. Employing bioinformatics and phylogenomics, we present novel structural and functional insight on each secretion system. Unexpectedly, our investigation revealed that the majority of characterized secretory proteins have not been assigned to their cognate secretion pathways. Furthermore, for most secretion pathways, the requisite signal sequences mediating translocation are poorly understood. As a blueprint for all known routes of protein translocation into host cells, this resource will assist research aimed at uniting characterized secreted proteins with their apposite secretion pathways. Furthermore, our work will help in the identification of novel secreted proteins involved in rickettsial 'life on the inside'. PMID:25168200

Gillespie, Joseph J; Kaur, Simran J; Rahman, M Sayeedur; Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen; Sears, Khandra T; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F

2014-08-28

36

Evolution and diversity of Rickettsia bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsia are intracellular symbionts of eukaryotes that are best known for infecting and causing serious diseases in humans and other mammals. All known vertebrate-associated Rickettsia are vectored by arthropods as part of their life-cycle, and many other Rickettsia are found exclusively in arthropods with no known secondary host. However, little is known about the biology of these latter strains. Here, we have identified 20 new strains of Rickettsia from arthropods, and constructed a multi-gene phylogeny of the entire genus which includes these new strains. Results We show that Rickettsia are primarily arthropod-associated bacteria, and identify several novel groups within the genus. Rickettsia do not co-speciate with their hosts but host shifts most often occur between related arthropods. Rickettsia have evolved adaptations including transmission through vertebrates and killing males in some arthropod hosts. We uncovered one case of horizontal gene transfer among Rickettsia, where a strain is a chimera from two distantly related groups, but multi-gene analysis indicates that different parts of the genome tend to share the same phylogeny. Conclusion Approximately 150 million years ago, Rickettsia split into two main clades, one of which primarily infects arthropods, and the other infects a diverse range of protists, other eukaryotes and arthropods. There was then a rapid radiation about 50 million years ago, which coincided with the evolution of life history adaptations in a few branches of the phylogeny. Even though Rickettsia are thought to be primarily transmitted vertically, host associations are short lived with frequent switching to new host lineages. Recombination throughout the genus is generally uncommon, although there is evidence of horizontal gene transfer. A better understanding of the evolution of Rickettsia will help in the future to elucidate the mechanisms of pathogenicity, transmission and virulence.

Stone Graham N

2009-02-01

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Rickettsia as obligate and mycetomic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsiae are well known as intracellular pathogens of animals, humans, and plants and facultative and unorganized symbionts of invertebrates. No close relative of mitochondria has yet been associated with nutritional or developmental dependency of its host cell or organism. We have found a mycetomic Rickettsia that is a strict obligatory symbiont of the parthenogenetic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera). These rickettsiae show an evolutionary transition from a solitary to a primary mycetomic bacterium adapted to the development of its host. These intracellular and intranuclear bacteria reside in specialized cells in several tissues. Their distribution changes markedly with the development of their host. The most advanced phenotype is a paired mycetome in the abdomen, described for the first time for Rickettsia and this host order. The mycetomic rickettsiae of two parthenogenetic book lice species are in the spotted fever group and in the basal limoniae group. While mycetomic bacteria are well known for their metabolic or light-emitting functions, these rickettsiae have an essential role in the early development of the oocyte. Removal of the Rickettsia stops egg production and reproduction in the book louse. In two phylogenetically distant psocopteran species, Rickettsia are shown to be associated with four transitional stages from free bacteria, infected cells, through single mycetocytes to organ-forming mycetomes. PMID:17012243

Perotti, M Alejandra; Clarke, Heather K; Turner, Bryan D; Braig, Henk R

2006-11-01

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Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Germany  

OpenAIRE

To explore increased risk for human Rickettsia spp. infection in Germany, we investigated recreational areas and renatured brown coal surface-mining sites (also used for recreation) for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks. R. raoultii (56.7%), R. slovaca (13.3%), and R. helvetica (>13.4%) were detected in the respective tick species.

Silaghi, Cornelia; Hamel, Dietmar; Thiel, Claudia; Pfister, Kurt; Pfeffer, Martin

2011-01-01

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PCR MÚLTIPLE ANIDADA PARA DETECCIÓN DE FITOPLASMAS Y RICKETTSIA ASOCIADOS CON LOS SÍNTOMAS DEL COGOLLO ARREPOLLADO (BTS) EN PAPAYO / NESTED PCR MULTIPLEX FOR THE DETECTION OF THE PHYTOPLASMAS AND RICKETTSIA ASSOCIATED WITH BUNCHY TOP SYMPTOM (BTS) IN PAPAYO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Recientemente, los grupos fitoplasmas 16SrI «Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris»,16SrII «Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia» y rickettsia se asociaron a síntomas del cogollo arrepollado (BTS) del papayo en Cuba. El ADN de muestras de plantas de papayo positivas a fitoplasmas y rickettsia se empleó para [...] optimizar y evaluar un ensayo de PCR múltiple anidada. Se usaron los iniciadores de PCR genéricos para fitoplamas R16mF2/R16mR1en la primera amplificación y en la segunda amplificación una mezcla PBTF1/PBTR1 (específicos para rickettsia) y R16F2n/BPVNr/p86r (específicos para los grupos de fitoplasmas 16SrI y 16SrII). El ensayo de diagnóstico por PCR múltiple anidado permitió la detección simultánea de fitoplasmas y rickettsia en muestras de plantas de papayo de condiciones de campo. Abstract in english Recently, the phytoplasmas groups 16SrI `Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' and 16SrII group `Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' and rickettsia were associated with Bunchy Top Symptoms (BTS) of papayo in Cuba. The ADN samples from papaya plants positive to phytoplasma and rickettsia were used for eva [...] luate and optimize nPCR multiplex. Generic primers for amplification of phytoplasma R16mF2/R16mR1 were used in the first reaction. A mixture composed of PBTF1/PBTR1and R16F2n/BPVNr/p86r for rickettsia and phytoplasma (16SrI and 16SrII groups) amplifications were used in the second reaction. The diagnostic assay by the nPCR multiplex permitted the simultaneous detection of phytoplasmas and rickettsias in samples of papaya plants from the field.

K, Acosta; Y, Martínez; L, Zamora; A, Fernández; M.E, Santos-Cervantes; N.E, Leyva-López.

2011-12-01

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Rickettsia species infecting Amblyomma ticks from an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever in Brazil / Rickettsia infectando carrapatos Amblyomma de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa Brasileira no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho relata infecção por Rickettsia em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e Amblyomma dubitatum, colhidos numa área do Estado de Minas Gerais, onde a febre maculosa brasileira (FMB) é considerada endêmica. Para esse estudo, 400 adultos de A. cajennense, 200 adultos de A. dubitatum, 2.000 larva [...] s e 2.000 ninfas de Amblyomma spp. foram colhidas de equinos e da vegetação. Os carrapatos foram testados para infecção por rickettsia através de reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) direcionada a fragmentos de três genes de rickettsia (gltA, ompA, e ompB). Apenas 2 A. cajennense adultos de vida livre, e 4 grupos de ninfas de Amblyomma spp. continham DNA de rickettsia. Os produtos de PCR dos dois adultos de A. cajennense foram idênticos às sequências correspondentes de Rickettsia rickettsii cepa Sheila Smith. Sequências de DNA dos produtos provenientes dos quatro grupos de ninfas de Amblyomma spp. revelaram um novo genótipo, próximo (99,4%) à sequência correspondente de Rickettsia tamurae. Neste trabalho foram achados 2 carrapatos A. cajennense infectados por R. rickettsii que corroboram o caráter endêmico da área de estudo, em que casos de FMB ocorreram recentemente. Em adição, foi reportado, pela primeira vez, um novo genótipo de Rickettsia no Brasil. Abstract in english This study reports rickettsial infection in Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in an area of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where Brazilian spotted fever is considered endemic. For this purpose, 400 adults of A. cajenennse and 200 adults of A. dubitatum, plus 2,000 larv [...] ae and 2,000 nymphs of Amblyomma spp. were collected from horses and from the vegetation. The ticks were tested for rickettsial infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols targeting portions of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB). Only two free-living A. cajennense adult ticks, and four pools of free-living Amblyomma spp. nymphs were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. PCR products from the two A. cajennense adult ticks were shown to be identical to corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii strain Sheila Smith. DNA sequences of gltA-PCR products of the four nymph pools of Amblyomma spp. revealed a new genotype, which was shown to be closest (99.4%) to the corresponding sequence of Rickettsia tamurae. Our findings of two R. rickettsii-infected A. cajennense ticks corroborate the endemic status of the study area, where human cases of BSF were reported recently. In addition, we report for the first time a new Rickettsia genotype in Brazil.

Elizângela, Guedes; Romário Cerqueira, Leite; Richard Campos, Pacheco; Iara, Silveira; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna.

2011-12-01

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Ganglionic Cells Apoptosis in Retinal Layer of Rat Offspring due to Gestational Diabetes / Células Ganglionares Apoptóticas en la Capa de la Retina de Crías de Ratas Debido a la Diabetes Gestacional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Estudios previos en un modelo animal han demostrado los efectos adversos de la diabetes gestacional en la densidad neuronal del hipocampo. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de la diabetes gestacional en la densidad de las células ganglionares de la retina, en el espesor de la capa de la retina y [...] en la densidad de las células apoptóticas ganglionares, en crías de ratas de 28 días. En este estudio experimental, 10 ratas Wistar fueron asignadas aleatoriamente en grupos control y diabéticos. La diabetes gestacional se indujo a partir de la administración de 40 mg/kg/peso corporal de estreptozotocina en el primer día de la gestación, por vía intraperitoneal. Al grupo control se administró un volumen equivalente de solución salina normal. En el día 28 luego del nacimiento, se seleccionaron aleatoriamente seis crías procedentes de los grupos con diabetes gestacional y controles, se eutanasiaron y se tomaron muestras de los ojos, en forma de secciones de 6 micrómetros, las cuales se tiñeron con H & E. La densidad de las células ganglionares y el número final de células dUTP positivas (TUNEL) se evaluaron a nivel de la capa ganglionar de la retina, en un área de 20.000 mm2. La densidad de las células ganglionares se redujo un 27,4% en la descendencia con diabetes gestacional en comparación con los controles (22,5±1,5 vs. 31,0±0,9, P Abstract in english Previous studies have shown the adverse effects of gestational diabetes on hippocampal neuronal density in animal models. This study was conducted to determine the effect of gestational diabetes on retinal ganglionic cell density, the thickness of the retinal layer and apoptotic ganglionic cell dens [...] ity in 28-day-old of rat offspring. In this experimental study, 10 Wistar rat dams were randomly allocated in control and diabetic groups. Gestational diabetes was induced by 40 mg/kg/body weight of streptozotocin at the first day of gestation, intraperitoneally, dams in control group received an equivalent volume normal saline. At postnatal day 28, six offspring of each gestational diabetes and controls were randomly selected, sacrificed and sections (6 micrometer) were taken from the eye and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The density of ganglionic cells and the number of dUTP end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were evaluated in 20000 mm2 area of ganglion layer of the retina. The ganglionic cells density were reduced (27.4%) in gestational diabetic offspring in compared to controls (22.5±1.5 vs. 31.0±0.9, P

Simin, Najafdari; Noorallah, Rezaei; Majid Malekzadeh, Shafaroodi; Soraya, Ghafari; Mohammad Jafar, Golalipour.

1131-11-01

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Absence of Rickettsia rickettsii and occurrence of other spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Tennessee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most common tick-borne illness in Tennessee. Little is known about the occurrence of R. rickettsii, the causative agent, in ticks in Tennessee. To better understand the prevalence and distribution of rickettsial agents in ticks, we tested 1,265 Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Ixodes adult and nymphal ticks. Additionally, we tested 231 Amblyomma americanum larvae. Ticks were collected from 49 counties from humans, wild animals, domestic canines, and flannel drags. Spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 32% of adult and nymphal ticks. A total minimum infection rate of 85.63 was found in larval pools tested. Three rickettsial species, Rickettsia montana, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Rickettsia cooleyi were identified by molecular analysis. Rickettsia rickettsii was not detected. This study suggests that some RMSF cases reported in Tennessee may be caused by cross-reactivity with other SFGR antigenically related to R. rickettsii. PMID:20810834

Moncayo, Abelardo C; Cohen, Sara B; Fritzen, Charissa M; Huang, Eileen; Yabsley, Michael J; Freye, James D; Dunlap, Brett G; Huang, Junjun; Mead, Daniel G; Jones, Timothy F; Dunn, John R

2010-09-01

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Absence of Rickettsia rickettsii and Occurrence of Other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks from Tennessee  

Science.gov (United States)

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most common tick-borne illness in Tennessee. Little is known about the occurrence of R. rickettsii, the causative agent, in ticks in Tennessee. To better understand the prevalence and distribution of rickettsial agents in ticks, we tested 1,265 Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Ixodes adult and nymphal ticks. Additionally, we tested 231 Amblyomma americanum larvae. Ticks were collected from 49 counties from humans, wild animals, domestic canines, and flannel drags. Spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 32% of adult and nymphal ticks. A total minimum infection rate of 85.63 was found in larval pools tested. Three rickettsial species, Rickettsia montana, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Rickettsia cooleyi were identified by molecular analysis. Rickettsia rickettsii was not detected. This study suggests that some RMSF cases reported in Tennessee may be caused by cross-reactivity with other SFGR antigenically related to R. rickettsii. PMID:20810834

Moncayo, Abelardo C.; Cohen, Sara B.; Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Eileen; Yabsley, Michael J.; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett G.; Huang, Junjun; Mead, Daniel G.; Jones, Timothy F.; Dunn, John R.

2010-01-01

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Rickettsia Species in Ticks Removed from Humans in Istanbul, Turkey  

OpenAIRE

A total of 167 ticks collected from humans in Istanbul (Turkey) in 2006 were screened for Rickettsia species, and nested PCRs targeting gltA and ompA rickettsial fragment genes were carried out. Rickettsia monacensis (51), R. aeschlimannii (8), R. conorii subsp. conorii (3), R. helvetica (2), R. raoultii (1), R. africae (1), R. felis (1), and other Rickettsia spp. (2), were detected. To our knowledge, these Rickettsia species (except R. conorii) had never been reported in ticks removed from h...

Gargili, Aysen; Palomar, Ana M.; Midilli, Kenan; Portillo, Ara?nzazu; Kar, S?rr?; Oteo, Jose? A.

2012-01-01

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Rickettsia bellii infecting Amblyomma sabanerae ticks in El Salvador  

OpenAIRE

Four Amblyomma sabanerae ticks collected from a turtle (Kinosternon sp.) in San Miguel, El Salvador, were found by molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. We provide the first report of Rickettsia bellii in Central America, and the first report of a Rickettsia species in El Salvador.

Barbieri, Ama?lia R. M.; Romero, Luis; Labruna, Marcelo B.

2012-01-01

46

Genome Sequence of Rickettsia gravesii, Isolated from Western Australian Ticks  

OpenAIRE

Rickettsia gravesii is a new Rickettsia species closely related to the human pathogen Rickettsia massiliae. Here, we describe the genome sequence of R. gravesii strain BWI-1, isolated from Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum ticks collected from humans on Barrow Island, Western Australia.

Sentausa, Erwin; Abdad, Mohammad Yazid; Robert, Catherine; Stenos, John; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-edouard

2013-01-01

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Detection of “Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Argentina”and Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Northern Argentina  

OpenAIRE

Ixodid ticks were collected from vegetation and from humans, wild and domestic mammals in a rural area in the semi-arid Argentine Chaco in late spring 2006 to evaluate their potential role as vectors of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) rickettsiae. A total of 233 adult ticks, identified as Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma pseudoconcolor, was examined for Rickettsia spp. We identified an SFG rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, “Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Argentina”, in A....

Tomassone, L.; Nun?ez, P.; Ceballos, L. A.; Gu?rtler, R. E.; Kitron, U.; Farber, M.

2010-01-01

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Detección molecular de Rickettsia massiliae y Anaplasma platys en garrapatas Rhipicephalus sanguineus y caninos domésticos del municipio de Bahía Blanca (Argentina) / Molecular detection of Rickettsia massiliae and Anaplasma platys infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and dogs, Bahía Blanca (Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis son causadas por bacterias gramnegativas, intracelulares obligadas y transmitidas principalmente por artrópodos. Objetivo: Detectar y caracterizar molecularmente estos patógenos en garrapatas y caninos domésticos del municipio de Bahía Bla [...] nca (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina). Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron 56 muestras sanguíneas de caninos, 75 garrapatas Rhipicephalus sanguineus y 7 Amblyomma tigrinum. Las muestras fueron analizadas por RPC para Rickettsia (espacio intergénico 23S-5S ARNr), Ehrlichia y Anaplasma (16S ARNr), y Anaplasma platys (16S ARNr). Resultados: Se detectó positividad a Rickettsia en 12% de R. sanguineus, identificándose por secuenciación a Rickettsia massiliae. Las muestras sanguíneas de los caninos resultaron en 37,5% positivas a A. platys. También se caracterizaron molecularmente por la amplificación del fragmento del gen citrato sintasa (gltA) (género Rickettsia) y del gen groESL (A. platys). Se construyeron árboles filogenéticos utilizando el método del vecino más cercano (neighbor-joining) revelando que las secuencias obtenidas son similares a las de otras regiones geográficas. Conclusión: Los resultados indican la presencia de R. massiliae en garrapatas R. sanguineus en una segunda zona urbana de Sudamérica y la infección por A. platys en caninos, siendo la región más austral de Argentina donde ha sido notificada. Abstract in english Background: Rickettsioses, ehrlichioses and anaplasmoses are caused by Gram negative obligate intracellular bacteria and transmitted mainly by arthropods. Aim: To detect and perform the molecular characterization of these pathogens in ticks and domestic dogs in Bahia Blanca City (Buenos Aires, Argen [...] tina). Methods: Fifty six blood samples from dogs and 82 ticks (75 Rhipicephalus sanguineus and 7 Amblyomma tigrinum) were studied. The samples were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia (intergenic space 23S-5S rRNA), Ehrlichia/Anaplasma (16S rRNA), and Anaplasma platys (16S rRNA). Results: 12% of R. sanguineus resulted positive for Rickettsia, identified by sequencing as Rickettsia massiliae; and 37.5% of the canine blood samples analyzed were positive for A. platys. Molecular characterization was also performed by amplification of the fragment of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) (Rickettsia genus) and the groESL gene (A. platys). Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining method. These trees revealed that sequences obtained are similar to those from other geographical regions. Conclusion: The results indicate the presence of R. massiliae in R. sanguineus ticks for the second time in an urban area of South America and A. platys infection in dogs, being the southernmost region of Argentina where it has been notified.

Gabriel L, Cicuttin; Pablo, Vidal; M, Nazarena De Salvo; Fernando J, Beltrán; Federico E, Gury Dohmen.

2014-10-01

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Molecular detection of Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in camels and Hyalomma spp. ticks from Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we aimed to identify and genetically characterize spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks, domestic one-humped camels, and horses from farms and Bedouin communities in southern Israel. A total of 618 ixodid ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma turanicum, Hyalomma excavatum, and Hyalomma impeltatum) collected from camels and horses, as well as 152 blood samples from 148 camels and four horses were included in the study. Initial screening for rickettsiae was carried out by targeting the gltA gene. Positive samples were further analyzed for rickettsial ompA, 17kDa, ompB, and 16S rRNA genes. Rickettsia aeschlimannii DNA was detected in the blood of three camels and 14 ticks (H. dromedarii, H. turanicum, and H. excavatum). Rickettsia africae was found in six ticks (H. turanicum, H. impeltatum, H. dromedarii, and H. excavatum). In addition, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in one H. turanicum tick. These findings represent the first autochthonous detection of R. africae in Israel. Previous detections of R. africae in Asia were reported from the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) and Istanbul, only. Furthermore, we report for the first time the finding of R. aeschlimannii in H. turanicum and H. excavatum ticks, as well as the first identification of R. sibirica mongolitimonae in H. turanicum ticks. The tick species identified to harbor R. africae and other SFG rickettsiae have been reported to occasionally feed on people, and, therefore, physicians should be aware of the possible exposure of local communities and travelers, especially those in contact with camels, to these tick-borne rickettsial pathogens. PMID:24107206

Kleinerman, Gabriela; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; van Straten, Michael; Berlin, Dalia; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Abdeen, Ziad; Nasereddin, Abed; Harrus, Shimon

2013-12-01

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Spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks in Cyprus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In two surveys conducted from March 1999 to March 2001 and from January 2004 to December 2006, a total of 3,950 ticks (belonging to ten different species) were collected from seven domestic and wild animals (goat, sheep, cattle, dog, fox, hare, and mouflon) from different localities throughout Cyprus. In order to establish their infection rate with Spotted Fever Rickettsiae (SFG), ticks were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting gltA and ompA genes, followed by sequencing analysis. When tick pools tested positive, individual ticks were then tested one by one, and of the 3,950 ticks screened, rickettsial DNA was identified in 315 ticks (infection rate, 8%). Five SFG Rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rickettsia sibirica mongolotimonae in Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, and a Rickettsia endosymbiont of Haemaphysalis sulcata (later described as Rickettsia hoogstraalii) in Haemaphysalis punctata. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and ompB, were targeted to characterize a new genotype of "Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae" genotype in R. turanicus, designated here as "Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae" Cretocypriensis. These results confirm the presence of a spectrum of SFG Rickettsiae on the island. Further studies are necessary to gain better knowledge on the epidemiology of SFG Rickettsiae in Cyprus. PMID:21833539

Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Ioannou, Ioannis; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Dimitriou, Theodoros; Kassinis, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Byron; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2012-02-01

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Seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. Ehrlichia sp. en trabajadores rurales del departamento de Sucre, Colombia Seroprevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. in rural workers of Sucre, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. Determinar la seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. en trabajadores de áreas rurales del departamento de Sucre. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio escriptivo, prospectivo, de corte transversal, que pretendió determinar la seroprevalencia e Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. en 90 trabajadores de áreas rurales del departamento de Sucre. Se estableció la presencia de anticuerpos séricos anti-IgM específicos anti-Leptospira por la técnica de ELISA indirecta. Para la determinación de Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. se uso la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. La población evaluada estaba compuesta por 27 (30% ordeñadores, 21 (23% jornaleros, 18 (20% profesionales del campo y 24 (27% que realizaban otras actividades. Ventidós (24% muestras resultaron positivas en alguna de las pruebas. De éstas, 12 (13,3% fueron positivas para Leptospira sp., 7 (7,8% para Rickettsia sp. y 3 (3,3% ara Ehrlichia sp. Conclusión. Este fue el primer estudio que se llevó a cabo en el departamento de Sucre y permitió demostrar que existe una prevalencia importante de Leptospira p.,Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp.. Los factores de riesgo ocupacional fueron factores determinantes en la seropositividad.Objective. To determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. in agricultural workers of Sucre. Methods. A descriptive prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in ninety rural workers of Sucre. Presence of serum antibodies anti-IgM specific anti-Leptospira by indirect ELISA was established. For the determination of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia indirect inmunoflorescence was used. Results.The population was composed by 27 (30% milkers, 21 (23% day workers, 18 farm professionals (20% and 24 (26% workers in others activities. A total of 22 (24% samples were positive to some test. Twelve (13.3% were positive to Leptospira sp., seven (7.8% to Rickettsia sp. and three (3.3% o Ehrlichia sp.. Conclusions. This is the first study carried out in Sucre; there is an important prevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp..The occupational risk factors were decisive in the seropositivity.

Rodrigo Ríos

2008-06-01

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Tuberculosis ganglionar cervical: ¿Pensamos en ella, o nos sorprende? / Neck node tuberculosis: Do we consider it... or does it pop up?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Revisamos las características clínicas, diagnóstico y manejo de la tuberculosis (TB) cervical, así como resaltamos su importancia por su carácter epidémico. Presentamos dos pacientes afectados por tumoraciones laterocervicales subagudas, escasa sintomatología y excelente evolución tras su diagnóstic [...] o de TB ganglionar cervical y tratamiento antibiótico. La TB es una enfermedad que en la actual sociedad globalizada, puede encontrarse prácticamente cualquier especialista, por lo que debemos mantener un alto nivel de alerta y conocerla con detalle, para poder orientar su diagnóstico y facilitar su tratamiento precoz. Abstract in english We review tuberculosis clinical features, diagnosis and management as well as remark the importance of its epidemic nature. Study based on 2 patients suffering from eye-catching subacute neck lumps, sparsely symptomatic and excellent evolution after neck node TB diagnosis and antibiotic therapy TB r [...] epresents a disease that, given our present time globalization, may be faced by many different specialists. That is why we must be on alert and be aware of its profile, in order to guess the right diagnosis and offer therapy.

Miguel Alberto, Rodríguez-Pérez; Fernando, Aguirre-García.

2012-04-01

53

First report on the occurrence of Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor silvarum in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are among both the longest known and most recently recognized infectious diseases. Although new spotted fever group rickettsiae have been isolated in many parts of the world including China, Little is known about the epidemiology of Rickettsia pathogens in ticks from Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. Methods In an attempt to assess the potential risk of rickettsial infection after exposure to ticks in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, a total of 200 Dermacentor silvarum ticks collected in Xinyuan district were screened by polymerase chain reaction based on the outer membrane protein A gene. Results 22 of the 200 specimens (11% were found to be positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of OmpA sequences identified two rickettsial species, Rickettsia raoultii (4.5% and Rickettsia slovaca (6.5%. Conclusions This study has reported the occurrence of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia slovaca in Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China and suggests that Dermacentor silvarum could be involved in the transmission of rickettsial agents in China. Further studies on the characterization and culture of rickettsial species found in Dermacentor silvarum should be performed to further clarify this. Additionally, the screening of human specimens for rickettsial disease in this region will define the incidence of infection.

Tian Zhan-Cheng

2012-01-01

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Human Infections with Rickettsia raoultii, China  

OpenAIRE

We used molecular methods to identify Rickettsia raoultii infections in 2 persons in China. These persons had localized rashes around sites of tick bites. R. raoultii DNA was detected in 4% of Dermacentor silvarum ticks collected in the same area of China and in 1 feeding tick detached from 1 patient.

Jia, Na; Zheng, Yuan-chun; Ma, Lan; Huo, Qiu-bo; Ni, Xue-bing; Jiang, Bao-gui; Chu, Yan-li; Jiang, Rui-ruo; Jiang, Jia-fu; Cao, Wu-chun

2014-01-01

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Antibodies against rickettsiae from spotted fever groups in horses from two mesoregions in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil / Anticorpos contra rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em equinos de duas mesorregiões de Santa Catarina, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Bactérias do gênero Rickettsia são agentes da Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB), uma doença zoonótica, de difícil diagnóstico, rápida evolução e que pode levar o indivíduo à morte. Anticorpos contra Rickettsia spp. em equinos foram pesquisados, por meio da Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI?6 [...] 4), em 150 amostras de sangue colhidas de animais em duas mesorregiões de Santa Catarina (Planalto Serrano e Vale do Itajaí). A ocorrência de anticorpos contra Rickettsia spp. observada em equinos de duas mesorregiões de Santa Catarina foi de 18,66%, ocorrendo reações cruzadas em todas as amostras positivas para, no mínimo, duas das espécies testadas. Isoladamente, de acordo com as espécies, 25 (16,66%) amostras foram positivas para R. rickettsii, 15 (10%) para R. parkeri, 22 (14,66%) para R. amblyommii, 23 (15,33%) para R. rhipicephali, 16 (10,66%) para R. bellii e 19 (12,66%) para R. felis. Somente dois animais resultaram em um sorodiagnóstico conclusivo, um para Rickettsia bellii e outro para R. rickettsii, nas diluições máximas de 1:4096 e 1:512, respectivamente. A ocorrência de anticorpos contra Rickettsia spp. em equinos de duas mesorregiões de Santa Catarina indica a circulação de agentes da FMB nestes animais sentinela e ratificam a importância do estudo da febre maculosa no estado de Santa Catarina. Abstract in english Bacteria of the Rickettsia genus are agents of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF), a zoonotic disease which is difficult to diagnose, evolves quickly and can result in death. Antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in horses were studied, by means of Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFAT ?64), in 150 blood [...] samples taken from animals in two Santa Catarina mesoregions (Planalto Serrano and Vale do Itajaí). The overall occurrence of Rickettsia spp. antibodies in horses was 18.66%, with cross-reactivity occurring in all positive samples for at least two of the species tested. Separately, according to the species, 25 (16.66%) samples were positive for R. rickettsii, 15 (10%) for R. parkeri, 22 (14.66%) for R. amblyommii, 23 (15.33%) for R. rhipicephali, 16 (10.66%) for R. bellii and 19 (12.66%) for R. felis. Only two animals resulted in a conclusive serodiagnosis, one for R. bellii and the other for R. rickettsii, at maximum dilutions of 1:4096 and 1:512, respectively. The occurrence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in horses from two mesoregions in the state of Santa Catarina indicates the movement of BSF agents in these sentinel animals and confirms the importance of studying spotted fever in the state of Santa Catarina.

A.P., Medeiros; A.B., Moura; A.P., Souza; V., Bellato; A.A., Sartor; A., Vieira-Neto; J., Moraes-Filho; M.B., Labruna.

1713-17-01

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Serologic evidence of human Rickettsia infection found in three locations in Panamá / Evidencia serológica de infecciones de Rickettsia en humanos provenientes de tres localidades de Panamá  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción. Desde mediados del siglo pasado, se conocen en Panamá casos de rickettsiosis, cuando fueron reportados brotes de tifus en ratones y de fiebres manchadas. A partir de entonces, poca información se tiene sobre su prevalencia en este país, lo cual se debe principalmente a que son confundi [...] dos con otras enfermedades. Objetivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar la presencia de rickettsiosis en humanos provenientes de tres localidades de Panamá, que corresponden a zonas agropecuarias, cercanas a bosques, o que trabajaban en zoológicos. Materiales y métodos. Se escogieron tres localidades para este estudio: Tortí (provincia de Panamá), El Valle de Antón (provincia de Coclé) y el Parque Municipal Summit en Ciudad de Panamá. Los voluntarios firmaron un consentimiento informado, además de responder un cuestionario. De cada voluntario se extrajo sangre venosa, la que fue analizada por medio de inmunoflorescencia indirecta, utilizando kits comerciales y láminas sensibilizadas con antígenos cultivados de Rickettsia rickettsii y Rickettsia amblyommii . Resultados. Se tomaron muestras de 97 voluntarios, 25 en Tortí, 37 en El Valle de Antón y 35 en el Parque Municipal Summit. De estos, 38 (39 %) de las muestras fueron positivas en algunas de las dos técnicas practicadas: 8 (32 %) en Tortí, 18 (48 %) en El Valle y 12 (34 %) en el Parque Municipal Summit. Conclusión. Se demuestra una alta prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Rickettsia del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en las tres áreas de estudio, además de presentarse evidencia de títulos para Rickettsia del grupo tifus en El Valle de Antón. Estas zonas podrían considerarse como endémicas por rickettsiosis, ya que existen condiciones que permiten el mantenimiento de las mismas. Abstract in english Introduction: Since the middle of last century, cases of rickettsiosis have been found in Panamá when outbreaks of murine typhus and spotted fever were reported. Since then, little information exists about its prevalence in this country, since it is most often is misdiagnosed as another disease. Obj [...] ectives: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the presence of Rickettsia infections in humans in three locations in Panamá. These locations are agricultural areas, near forested areas or those who work in zoo. Materials and methods: Three locations where chosen for this study: Tortí, El Valle de Antón and workers in the Summit Municipal Park in Panamá City. All volunteers signed an informed consent and answered a questionnaire. The samples were analyzed for the detection of rickettsial spotted fever and typhus group by the indirect immunofluorescence (using commercial kits) and antigens of Rickettsia rickettsii and R. amblyommii. Results: Blood samples were taken from 97 volunteers in Tortí (25), El Valle de Anton (37) and Summit Municipal Park (35). Of these, a total of 38 (39%) samples reacted to one of the two methods: eight (32%) in Tortí, 18 (48%) in El valle and 12 (34%) in Summit Municipal Park. Conclusion: The results show a high prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia belonging to the spotted fever group in each of the three study areas, in addition to presenting evidence of the typhus group Rickettsia in El Valle de Anton. These areas could be considered endemic for rickettsiosis as there are conditions for maintaining them.

Sergio E, Bermúdez; Cirilo R, Lyons; Gleydis G, García; Yamitzel L, Zaldíva; Amanda, Gabster; Griselda B, Arteaga.

2013-09-01

57

Factores predictivos de metástasis Ganglionares axilares, en Cáncer de mama menor de 2 centímetros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Demostrar que existen factores clínicopatológicos para predecir metástasis ganglionares axilares en tumores de mama de más o menos 20 mm, de diámetro y también que la disección axilar es un procedimiento innecesario en la mayoría de estas pacientes, que puede omitirse con seguridad en aqu [...] ellas pacientes con factores pronósticos favorables. MÉTODOS: Se realiza un estudio retrospectivo, revisándose los reportes macroscópicos, microscópicos, e inmunohistoquímica en los bloques celulares de pacientes con carcinoma mamario de tamaño hasta 20 mm tratadas en el Instituto Oncológico "Dr. Luis Razzeti", entre enero 2000 y diciembre de 2003, determinándose factores que influyen en la aparición de metástasis axilares, realizándose análisis de uni y multivariables. RESULTADOS: El trabajo consistió en una población de 121 pacientes, con una edad media de 57 años, 50 (41,32 %) que presentaron metástasis ganglionar axilar; los factores que se relacionaron con ganglios axilares positivos en el análisis de univariables fueron: grado histológico y nuclear, invasión linfovascular, índice mitótico elevado y tumores aneuploides (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To identify and study that existing pathologically factors and clinical predict nodal metastases axillaries in mammary tumors with diameter size more and minor of 20 mm, so demonstrated in the axillaries dissection is an unnecessary procedure in most of these patients, and can omit with [...] surely in patients with favorable predictive factors. METHODS: We realize a retrospective study, review the macroscopic and microscopic reports, and the inmunohistochemestry in the cellular blocks of patients with breast carcinoma with size until 20 mm treated in the Oncology Institute "Dr. Luis Razetti", between January and December of 2000 - 2003, determining factors that influence in the appearance of lymph nodes axillaries positives, making unvaried and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: These work consisted in the studied of 121 patients with mean age 57 years, 50 (41, 32 %) presented axillaries disease nodes metastases; the factors that were related to positive lymph nodes in the unavailable analysis were: histological and nuclear grade, linfovascular invasion, mitotic index high, aneuploid tumors (P

Alí Josué, Godoy Briceño; Luís, Betancourt; David, Parada; Sergio Osorio, Morales.

2007-12-01

58

Spotted-Fever Group Rickettsia in Dermacentor variabilis, Maryland  

OpenAIRE

Three-hundred ninety-two adult Dermacentor variabilis were collected from six Maryland counties during the spring, summer, and fall of 2002. Infection prevalence for spotted fever group Rickettsia was 3.8%, as determined by polymerase chain reaction. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis followed by sequencing indicated that all infections represented a single rickettsial taxon, Rickettsia montanensis.

Ammerman, Nicole C.; Swanson, Katherine I.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Schwartz, Timothy R.; Seaberg, Eric C.; Glass, Gregory E.; Norris, Douglas E.

2004-01-01

59

Rickettsia and bartonella species in fleas from reunion island.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. PMID:25646263

Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

2015-03-01

60

Whole-Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis" Strain NMRCii, Isolated from Fleas of Western Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein we present the draft genome sequence and annotation of "Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis" strain NMRCii. "Ca. Rickettsia asemboensis" is phylogenetically related to but distinct from the flea-borne spotted fever pathogen Rickettsia felis. "Ca. Rickettsia asemboensis" was initially identified in and subsequently isolated from Ctenocephalides cat and dog fleas from Kenya. PMID:25767219

Jima, Dereje D; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Yang, Yu; Maina, Alice N; Snesrud, Erik C; Otiang, Elkanah; Njenga, Kariuki; Jarman, Richard G; Richards, Allen L; Hang, Jun

2015-01-01

61

Whole-Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis” Strain NMRCii, Isolated from Fleas of Western Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein we present the draft genome sequence and annotation of “Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis” strain NMRCii. “Ca. Rickettsia asemboensis” is phylogenetically related to but distinct from the flea-borne spotted fever pathogen Rickettsia felis. “Ca. Rickettsia asemboensis” was initially identified in and subsequently isolated from Ctenocephalides cat and dog fleas from Kenya. PMID:25767219

Jima, Dereje D.; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Yang, Yu; Maina, Alice N.; Snesrud, Erik C.; Otiang, Elkanah; Njenga, Kariuki; Jarman, Richard G.

2015-01-01

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Infection of Ixodes scapularis ticks with Rickettsia monacensis expressing green fluorescent protein: A model system  

OpenAIRE

Ticks (Acari:Ixodidae) are ubiquitous hosts of rickettsiae (Rickettsiaceae:Rickettsia), obligate intracellular bacteria that occur as a continuum from nonpathogenic arthropod endosymbionts to virulent pathogens of both arthropod vectors and vertebrates. Visualization of rickettsiae in hosts has traditionally been limited to techniques utilizing fixed tissues. We report epifluorescence microscopy observations of unfixed tick tissues infected with a spotted fever group endosymbiont, Rickettsia ...

Baldridge, Gerald D.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Burkhardt, Nicole; Baldridge, Abigail S.; Nelson, Curtis M.; Oliva, Adela S.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

2006-01-01

63

Rickettsiae in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne rickettsiae are an important topic in the field of emerging infectious diseases. In the study, we screened a total of 1473 field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks (1294 nymphs, 99 males, and 80 females) for the presence of human pathogenic rickettsiae (Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis, 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis', and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) in natural and urban ecosystems using molecular techniques. The minimum infection rate (MIR) for Rickettsia spp. was found to be 2.9% in an urban park and 3.4% in a natural forest ecosystem; for 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis', we observed MIRs of 0.4% in the city park and 4.4% in the natural habitat, while for A. phagocytophilum the MIR was 9.4% and 1.9%, respectively. Our study provides the first data on the occurrence of human pathogenic rickettsiae in questing I. ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic. PMID:24252265

Venclikova, Kristyna; Rudolf, Ivo; Mendel, Jan; Betasova, Lenka; Hubalek, Zdenek

2014-03-01

64

Serological cross-reaction and cross-protection in guinea pigs infected with Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia montana.  

OpenAIRE

Antisera produced in guinea pigs inoculated with Rickettsia rickettsii or Rickettsia montana were cross-reactive but sufficiently specific to identify the primary infecting agent. Guinea pigs immunized with R. montana were protected from fatal infection with R. rickettsii, although a few (25%) developed mild fever of short duration.

Feng, W. C.; Waner, J. L.

1980-01-01

65

A Novel Rickettsia Species Detected in Vole Ticks (Ixodes angustus) from Western Canada  

OpenAIRE

The genomic DNA of ixodid ticks from western Canada was tested by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia. No rickettsiae were detected in Ixodes sculptus, whereas 18% of the I. angustus and 42% of the Dermacentor andersoni organisms examined were PCR positive for Rickettsia. The rickettsiae from each tick species were characterized genetically using multiple genes. Rickettsiae within the D. andersoni organisms had sequences at four genes that matched those of R. peacockii. In contrast, the Ricket...

Anstead, Clare A.; Chilton, Neil B.

2013-01-01

66

Detection of "Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Argentina"and Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Northern Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ixodid ticks were collected from vegetation and from humans, wild and domestic mammals in a rural area in the semi-arid Argentine Chaco in late spring 2006 to evaluate their potential role as vectors of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) rickettsiae. A total of 233 adult ticks, identified as Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma pseudoconcolor, was examined for Rickettsia spp. We identified an SFG rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, "Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Argentina", in A. parvum and A. pseudoconcolor by PCR assays targeting gltA, ompA, ompB and 17-kDa outer membrane antigen rickettsial genes. Rickettsia bellii was detected in a host-seeking male of A. tigrinum. Amblyomma parvum is widespread in the study area and is a potential threat to human health. PMID:20186466

Tomassone, L; Nuñez, P; Ceballos, L A; Gürtler, R E; Kitron, U; Farber, M

2010-09-01

67

Detection of “Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Argentina”and Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Northern Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

Ixodid ticks were collected from vegetation and from humans, wild and domestic mammals in a rural area in the semi-arid Argentine Chaco in late spring 2006 to evaluate their potential role as vectors of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) rickettsiae. A total of 233 adult ticks, identified as Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma pseudoconcolor, was examined for Rickettsia spp. We identified an SFG rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, “Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Argentina”, in A. parvum and A. pseudoconcolor by PCR assays targeting gltA, ompA, ompB and 17-kDa outer membrane antigen rickettsial genes. Rickettsia bellii was detected in a host-seeking male of A. tigrinum. Amblyomma parvum is widespread in the study area and is a potential threat to human health. PMID:20186466

Tomassone, L.; Nuñez, P.; Ceballos, L. A.; Gürtler, R. E.; Kitron, U.; Farber, M.

2011-01-01

68

Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor marginatus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from Slovak Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsiae, obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, responsible for mild to severe diseases in humans are associated with arthropod vectors. Dermacentor marginatus and Dermacentor reticulatus are known vectors of Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii distributed across Europe. A total of 794 D. marginatus, D. reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus adult ticks were collected from the vegetation, removed from horses, sheep, goats and dogs in Slovakia. The DNA of Rickettsia sp. was found in 229 ticks by PCR amplifying parts of gltA, ompA and sca4 genes. Next analyses of Rickettsia-positive samples by PCR-RFLP and/or sequencing showed D. reticulatus ticks were more infected with R. raoultii and D. marginatus were more infected with R. slovaca. The prevalence of R. raoultii was 8.1-8.6% and 22.3-27% in D. marginatus and D. reticulatus, respectively. The prevalence of R. slovaca was 20.6-24.3% in D. marginatus and 1.7-3.4% in D. reticulatus. Intracellular growth of R. raoultii isolate from D. marginatus tick was evaluated by rOmpA-based quantitative SybrGreen PCR assay. The highest point of multiplication was recorded on the 7th and 8th day postinfection in Vero and L929 cells, respectively. R. raoultii was transmitted during feeding of R. raoultii-positive ticks to guinea pigs and subsequently rickettsial infection was recorded in all organs, the highest infection was in spleen, liver and heart. Our study describes the detection and isolation of tick-borne pathogens R. raoultii and R. slovaca, show that they are spread in Slovakia and highlight their risk for humans. PMID:22392435

Spitalská, Eva; Stefanidesová, Katarína; Kocianová, Elena; Boldiš, Vojtech

2012-06-01

69

Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the high seroprevalence for the rickettsiae that cause spotted fevers and the multiple pathogenic rickettsiae is known, the data on the distribution of rickettsial diseases in Africa are often incomplete. We collected ticks from domestic or wild animals (generally a source of bushmeat) that were in contact with humans in 2 neighboring countries of tropical West Africa, Guinea and Liberia. In total, 382 ticks representing 6 species were collected in Liberia and 655 ticks representing 7 species were collected in Guinea. We found rickettsiae in 9 different species of ticks from both countries. Rickettsia africae was found in 93-100% of Amblyomma variegatum, in 14-93% of Rhipicephalus (B.) geigyi, Rh. (B.) annulatus, and Rh. (B.) decoloratus, and in several Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Haemaphysalis paraleachi. A genetic variant of R. africae was found in Amblyomma compressum. R. massiliae was found in 10/61 (16%) of Rh. senegalensis ticks and in 2% of Haemaphysalis paraleachi ticks collected from dogs. We identified a new rickettsia in one of 44 (2%) Ixodes muniensis collected from a dog in Liberia. As this rickettsia is not yet isolated, we propose the provisional name "Candidatus Rickettsia liberiensis" (for the West African country where the host tick was collected). PMID:22309858

Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Zolia, Yah; Balde, Mamadou Cellou; Kohar, Henry; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

2012-02-01

70

Rickettsia monacensis sp. nov., a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia, from Ticks (Ixodes ricinus) Collected in a European City Park  

OpenAIRE

We describe the isolation and characterization of Rickettsia monacensis sp. nov. (type strain, IrR/MunichT) from an Ixodes ricinus tick collected in a city park, the English Garden in Munich, Germany. Rickettsiae were propagated in vitro with Ixodes scapularis cell line ISE6. BLAST analysis of the 16S rRNA, the citrate synthase, and the partial 190-kDa rickettsial outer membrane protein A (rOmpA) gene sequences demonstrated that the isolate was a spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia closely r...

Simser, Jason A.; Palmer, Ann T.; Fingerle, Volker; Wilske, Bettina; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

2002-01-01

71

Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa  

OpenAIRE

Fleas are associated with many bacterial diseases such as rickettsioses, bartonelloses and plague. These diseases may be severe, and little is known about their prevalence. Accordingly, we believe that our data shed light on the problem of unexplained fevers in tropical and subtropical African areas. Using molecular tools, we surveyed and studied selected flea-borne agents, namely Rickettsia spp. (R. felis and R. typhi), Bartonella spp. and Y. pestis, in fleas collected in Ituri (Linga and Re...

Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2014-01-01

72

Zoonotic surveillance for rickettsiae in domestic animals in Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic and human diseases. Arthropod vectors, such as fleas, mites, ticks, and lice, transmit rickettsiae to vertebrates during blood meals. In humans, the disease can be life threatening. This study was conducted amidst rising reports of rickettsioses among travelers to Kenya. Ticks and whole blood were collected from domestic animals presented for slaughter at major slaughterhouses in Nairobi and Mombasa that receive animals from nearly all counties in the country. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 1019 cattle, 379 goats, and 299 sheep and were screened for rickettsiae by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay (Rick17b) using primers and probe that target the genus-specific 17-kD gene (htrA). The ticks were identified using standard taxonomic keys. All Rick17b-positive tick DNA samples were amplified and sequenced with primers sets that target rickettsial outer membrane protein genes (ompA and ompB) and the citrate-synthase encoding gene (gltA). Using the Rick17b qPCR, rickettsial infections in domestic animals were found in 25/32 counties sampled (78.1% prevalence). Infection rates were comparable in cattle (16.3%) and sheep (15.1%) but were lower in goats (7.1%). Of the 596 ticks collected, 139 had rickettsiae (23.3%), and the detection rates were highest in Amblyomma (62.3%; n=104), then Rhipicephalus (45.5%; n=120), Hyalomma (35.9%; n=28), and Boophilus (34.9%; n=30). Following sequencing, 104 out of the 139 Rick17b-positive tick DNA had good reverse and forward sequences for the 3 target genes. On querying GenBank with the generated consensus sequences, homologies of 92-100% for the following spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia africae (93.%, n=97), Rickettsia aeschlimannii (1.9%, n=2), Rickettsia mongolotimonae (0.96%, n=1), Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis (0.96%, n=1), Candidatus Rickettsia kulagini (0.96% n=1), and Rickettsia spp. (1.9% n=2). In conclusion, molecular methods were used in this study to detect and identify rickettsial infections in domestic animals and ticks throughout Kenya. PMID:23477290

Mutai, Beth K; Wainaina, James M; Magiri, Charles G; Nganga, Joseph K; Ithondeka, Peter M; Njagi, Obadiah N; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L; Waitumbi, John N

2013-06-01

73

Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and Ctenocephalides felis fleas from southeastern Tunisia by reverse line blot assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia. PMID:24226919

Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Bouattour, Ali

2014-01-01

74

Intraocular inflammation as the main manifestation of Rickettsia conorii infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Archimedes LD Agahan1,3, Jenice Torres1, Graciana Fuentes-Páez1, Hernan Martínez-Osorio1, Antonio Orduña2, Margarita Calonge11Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Unit, Institute of Applied Ophthalmobiology (IOBA, 2Microbiology Department, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of the Philippines, Philippine General Hospital, Manila, PhilippinesObjective: To report the clinical features and management of seven cases of intraocular inflammation caused by Rickettsia infection and review published literature.Methods: Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia spp. infection was diagnosed based on the following criteria: (1 positive serology according to the European Guidelines, (2 titer normalization after specific treatment, and (3 complete resolution of ophthalmic disease and accompanying symptoms after antibiotic therapy.Results: Seven patients were referred for uveitis of unknown etiology. All came from regions where Mediterranean spotted fever is prevalent. One patient met the European guidelines criteria for Rickettsia spp. infection, while the other six cases met the criteria for R. conorii infection. The main symptoms were visual loss, floaters, eye redness, photophobia, and ocular pain. Predominant ophthalmic signs included vasculitis, choroiditis, vitritis, and macular edema. All patients required antibiotic treatment that resulted in the remission of the infection. Doxycycline was the first choice and the only antibiotic used to treat four patients. One patient needed ciprofloxacin as a second antibiotic after not responding to doxycycline. Two patients had doxycycline as a second antibiotic after not responding primarily to sulfonamides (which had been given after 2–3 days of doxycycline gastric intolerance; one of these patients needed ciprofloxacin as a third antibiotic.Conclusion: Intraocular inflammation can occur as the main manifestation of Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia spp. infection. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis for uveitis especially for patients living in countries where this infection is endemic in the world. Antibiotic treatment remains effective in the management of Rickettsia infection.Keywords: intraocular inflammation, Mediterranean spotted fever, Rickettsia conorii, uveitis

Orduña A

2011-09-01

75

Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Sweden  

OpenAIRE

In the present study further characterization of the amplified sequence of the citrate synthase gene of the spotted fever group Rickettsia isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in Sweden showed that it has 100% homology with the deposited sequence of the citrate synthase gene of Rickettsia helvetica. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern of an amplified 382-bp product of the citrate synthase sequence, defined by primers RpCS877 and RpCS1258, yielded fragments for our isolat...

Nilsson, Kenneth; Lindquist, Olle; Liu, Ai Jie; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Friman, Go?ran; Pa?hlson, Carl

1999-01-01

76

Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species  

OpenAIRE

Background - Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variabilit...

Sprong, H.; Wielinga, P. R.; Fonville, M.; Reusken, C.; Brandenburg, A. H.; Borgsteede, F. H. M.

2009-01-01

77

Detección de Rickettsia spp. en Garrapatas de Myrmecophaga tridactyla de Vida Libre en la Sabana Inundable de Casanare‚ Colombia -resumen-  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las bacterias del género Rickettsia son organismos con distribución mundial‚ causantes de algunas enfermedades zoonóticas de gran importancia en salud pública. Sin embargo‚ en Colombia son pocos los estudios enfocados a conocer su distribución y los vectores involucrados. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar la presencia de Rickettsia spp.‚ en garrapatas colectadas en nueve osos palmeros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla de vida libre en el municipio de Pore‚ Casanare‚ entre los años 2013 y 2014. Los osos palmeros fueron capturados con el método de búsqueda activa‚ para posteriormente ser anestesiados utilizando un dardo con una combinación anestésica consistente en Ketamina 12 mg/kg y Xilacina 0‚5 mg/kg por vía intramuscular. Las garrapatas fueron colectadas directamente de los individuos‚ con ayuda de pinzas. En total se obtuvieron 204 ectoparásitos‚ que fueron almacenados en alcohol al 70%‚ y posteriormente fueron identificados como pertenecientes a la especie Amblyomma cajennense. Las garrapatas se organizaron en 68 pool de tres individuos y fueron analizadas por medio de la técnica de PCR en tiempo real. Se detectaron 12 pool de garrapatas positivos a este microorganismo (17‚6%. Los resultados preliminares de este estudio muestran que Rickettsia spp.‚ bacteria intracelular importante en salud pública‚ se encuentra circulante entre ectoparásitos de animales silvestres en la sabana inundable del municipio de Pore‚ Casanare. Dado que diversos estudios han reportado que los rickettsiales tienen una mayor incidencia en ambientes húmedos‚ se recomienda continuar con los estudios en mamíferos silvestres y sus garrapatas en la sabana natural inundable.

César Rojano-Bolaño

2014-12-01

78

Detection of an undescribed Rickettsia sp. in Ixodes boliviensis from Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ixodes boliviensis is a tick of carnivores that is common on domestic dogs. The only Rickettsia that has been detected previously in this species is 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae'. We report the detection of an undescribed Rickettsia sp., named strain IbR/CRC, in I. boliviensis collected from dogs in Costa Rica. Analyses of gltA, ompA, and htrA partial sequences place Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC in the group of R. monacensis, also close to an endosymbiont of Ixodes scapularis and other undescribed rickettsiae. It was not possible to isolate Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC in Vero E6 or C6/36 cell lines. Isolation and further characterization of Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC and the other undescribed rickettsiae are required to determine their taxonomic status and pathogenic potential. PMID:25132535

Troyo, Adriana; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Carranza, Marco; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Taylor, Lizeth

2014-10-01

79

TRANSCRIPTION OF THE RICKETTSIA FELIS OMPA GENE IN NATURALLY INFECTED FLEAS  

OpenAIRE

Rickettsia felis is maintained transovarially in Ctenocephalides felis fleas in a widespread geographic distribution and is transmitted to humans and animals, including opossums. This rickettsia is phylogenetically a member of the spotted fever group, most closely related to Rickettsia akari and R. australis. An unusual feature of this rickettsia is that the gene for the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is interrupted by stop codons. To determine if this putatively dying gene is expressed, mRN...

Zavala-castro, Jorge E.; Small, Melissa; Keng, Colette; Bouyer, Donald H.; Zavala-vela?zquez, Jorge; Walker, David H.

2005-01-01

80

Rickettsia felis Infection in a Common Household Insect Pest, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae)? †  

OpenAIRE

Many species of Rickettsia are well-known mammalian pathogens transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. However, molecular surveys are continually uncovering novel Rickettsia species, often in unexpected hosts, including many arthropods that do not feed on blood. This study reports a systematic molecular characterization of a Rickettsia infecting the psocid Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae), a common and cosmopolitan household pest. Surprisingly, the psocid Rickettsia is sho...

Behar, Adi; Mccormick, Laurie J.; Perlman, Steve J.

2010-01-01

81

A novel Rickettsia species detected in Vole Ticks (Ixodes angustus) from Western Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genomic DNA of ixodid ticks from western Canada was tested by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia. No rickettsiae were detected in Ixodes sculptus, whereas 18% of the I. angustus and 42% of the Dermacentor andersoni organisms examined were PCR positive for Rickettsia. The rickettsiae from each tick species were characterized genetically using multiple genes. Rickettsiae within the D. andersoni organisms had sequences at four genes that matched those of R. peacockii. In contrast, the Rickettsia present within the larvae, nymphs, and adults of I. angustus had novel DNA sequences at four of the genes characterized compared to the sequences available from GenBank for all recognized species of Rickettsia and all other putative species within the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data revealed that the rickettsiae in I. angustus do not belong to the spotted fever, transitional, or typhus groups of rickettsiae but are most closely related to "Candidatus Rickettsia kingi" and belong to a clade that also includes R. canadensis, "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae," and "Candidatus Rickettsia monteiroi." PMID:24077705

Anstead, Clare A; Chilton, Neil B

2013-12-01

82

ISOLATION OF Rickettsia bellii FROM Amblyomma ovale AND Amblyomma incisum TICKS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL / AISLAMIENTO DE Rickettsia bellii A PARTIR DE GARRAPATAS Amblyomma ovale Y Amblyomma incisum PROCEDENTES DEL SUR DE BRASIL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Aislar Rickettsias mediante cultivo celular a partir de muestras de garrapatas Amblyomma ovale y Amblyomma incisum del estado de São Paulo Materiales y métodos. A. ovale y A. incisum adultas de vida libre fueron colectadas en una área de selva tropical Atlántica en el estado de São Paulo, [...] Brazil. Cada garrapata fue sometida a la prueba de hemolinfa, las garrapatas positivas en esta prueba fueron evaluadas con la técnica de shell vial con el propósito de aislar rickettsias en cultivo de células Vero. Pasajes celulares de los aislados fueron identificados genotípicamente por la reacción en cadena por la polimerasa (PCR) dirigidos a fragmentos de tres genes de rickettsias (gltA, htrA y ompA), seguido por secuenciación de ADN. Resultados. Un total de 388 A. incisum y 50 A. ovale fueron colectadas. Por la prueba de hemolinfa, únicamente una A. incisum y una A. ovale fueron positivas. Las Rickettsias fueron exitosamente aisladas de estas garrapatas. Sin embargo, el cultivo continuo en células Vero fue posible sólo para la garrapata A. ovale, debido a contaminación bacteriana en el primer pasaje celular de la muestra de A. incisum. Los productos de PCR fueron obtenidos con los primers gltA y htrA para los dos aislados, no obstante, ningún producto fue obtenido con los primers ompA. Por análisis BLAST, secuencias parciales de gltA y htrA procedentes de los aislados de A. ovale y A. incisum fueron similares a las secuencias correspondientes a R. bellii. Conclusiones. Este es el primer reporte de R. bellii infectando A. incisum y el primer establecimiento exitoso de un aislado de A. ovale. Abstract in english Objective. To isolate and characterize rickettsiae from the ticks Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma incisum collected in the state of São Paulo. Materials and methods. Adult, free-living A. ovale and A. incisum were collected in an Atlantic rainforest area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Each tick wa [...] s tested using the hemolymph assay; samples from positive ticks were placed in shell vials in order to isolate rickettsiae and subsequently grown in Vero cells. Amplification of three rickettsial genes (gltA, htrA and ompA) was attempted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for each isolate obtained. Amplicons were subsequently sequenced. Results. A total of 388 A. incisum and 50 A. ovale were collected. Only one A. incisum and one A. ovale were hemolymph-test positive. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from these ticks; however establishment in Vero cell culture was successful only for the isolate from A. ovale. Bacterial contamination in the first cell passage of the A. incisum isolate precluded successful isolation of the organism. PCR products were obtained with the gltA and htrA primers for the two isolates, but no product was obtained with the ompA primers. By BLAST analysis, partial gltA and htrA sequences of isolates from A. ovale and A. incisum were similar to the corresponding sequences of R. bellii. Conclusions. This is the first report of R. bellii infecting A. incisum and the first successful isolation from A. ovale.

Richard, Pacheco; Simone, Rosa; Leonardo, Richtzenhain; Matias P. J., Szabó; Marcelo B, Labruna.

1273-12-01

83

Genotypic characterization of Rickettsiae by DNA probes generated from Rickettsia Prowazekii DNA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Southern blot analysis of HindIII-cleaved rickettsial DNA was used for genotypic characterization of the typhus group (TG) species (R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. canada) and a few species were of the spotted fever group (SFG)rickettsiae (R. sibirica, R. conorii, R. akari). Four different DNA probes were employed. PBH11 and PBH13 probes were morphospecific HindIII fragment of R prowazekii DNA. MW218 probe contained the gene for 51 K antigen and MW264 probe contained the citrate synthase gene of R. prowazekii. All the probes hybridized with the tested TG and SFG rickettsial DNAs, forming from 1 to 5 bands, but they did not with R. tsutsudamushi or C. burnetii DNAs. All the probes demonstrated specific hybridization pattern with TG species and R. akari. PBH11. PBH13 and MW264 probes clearly distinguished R. sibirica and R. conorii from the other tested rickettsiae, but not from each other. However, these two species differed slightly with MW218 probe. Several strains of each species were analyzed in this way and except for strains of R. conorii identical intra-species pattern were obtained. These data lead us to consider the obtained hybridization patterns as criteria for genotypic identification. (author)

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Comparação entre tomografia computadorizada e mediastinoscopia na avaliação do envolvimento ganglionar mediastínico no carcinoma brônquico não de pequenas células / Comparison between computed tomography and mediastinoscopy in the assessment of mediastinal nodal involvement in non-small cell bronchial carcinoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar o rendimento da tomografia computadorizada torácica, em relação à mediastinoscopia, na detecção de metástases ganglionares mediastinais em pacientes portadores de carcinoma brônquico analisando o rendimento dessa e identificando as regiões mais problemáticas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A [...] nalisamos 195 pacientes portadores de carcinoma brônquico, buscando-se comparar os achados entre tomografia computadorizada torácica e mediastinoscopia com biópsia. RESULTADOS: Em relação às metástases nodais mediastinais, 33,9% tinham doença metastática ganglionar peribrônquica e/ou hilar ipsilateral, 46,1% possuíam metástases mediastinais ipsilaterais e/ou subcarinais e 20% apresentavam doença metastática mediastinal e/ou hilar contralateral, escalênica ou supraclavicular. As regiões com melhores valores de sensibilidade foram traqueobrônquica direita, paratraqueal direita alta e paratraqueal esquerda alta. As regiões nodais com melhores resultados de especificidade foram paratraqueal esquerda alta, paratraqueal direita alta e regiões traqueobrônquicas. CONCLUSÃO: A tomografia computadorizada torácica mostrou-se importante ferramenta diagnóstica na detecção de anormalidades em gânglios mediastinais; entretanto, a natureza neoplásica desses gânglios deve ser conferida por mediastinoscopia, ou até mesmo por toracotomia, a fim de que a correta decisão quanto ao tratamento possa ser tomada. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the yielding of chest computed tomography in comparison with mediastinoscopy for detection of mediastinal nodal metastases in patients with bronchial carcinoma, and identifying the most problematic regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have analyzed 195 patients with bronchial ca [...] rcinoma, comparing the findings of chest computed tomography and mediastinoscopy with biopsy. RESULTS: As regards mediastinal nodal metastasis, 33.9% of patients presented peribronchial and/or ipsilateral hilar nodal metastases, 46.1% ipsilateral and/or subcarinal mediastinal metastases, and 20% contralateral mediastinal and/or hilar, scalenic or supraclavicular metastatic disease. Higher sensitivity values were found in the following regions: right tracheobronchial, right upper paratracheal, and left upper paratracheal. Higher specificity values were found in the following nodal regions: left upper paratracheal, right upper paratracheal and tracheobronchial. CONCLUSION: Chest computed tomography has shown to be an important diagnostic tool for detection of mediastinal lymph nodes abnormalities. However, the neoplastic nature of such mediastinal nodes should be confirmed by means of mediastinoscopy or even thoracotomy, aiming at making the correct decision regarding the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Décio Valente, Renck; Daniel Brito de, Araújo; Nilton Haertel, Gomes; Rodrigo, Mendonça.

2007-02-01

85

Comparação entre tomografia computadorizada e mediastinoscopia na avaliação do envolvimento ganglionar mediastínico no carcinoma brônquico não de pequenas células Comparison between computed tomography and mediastinoscopy in the assessment of mediastinal nodal involvement in non-small cell bronchial carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o rendimento da tomografia computadorizada torácica, em relação à mediastinoscopia, na detecção de metástases ganglionares mediastinais em pacientes portadores de carcinoma brônquico analisando o rendimento dessa e identificando as regiões mais problemáticas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Analisamos 195 pacientes portadores de carcinoma brônquico, buscando-se comparar os achados entre tomografia computadorizada torácica e mediastinoscopia com biópsia. RESULTADOS: Em relação às metástases nodais mediastinais, 33,9% tinham doença metastática ganglionar peribrônquica e/ou hilar ipsilateral, 46,1% possuíam metástases mediastinais ipsilaterais e/ou subcarinais e 20% apresentavam doença metastática mediastinal e/ou hilar contralateral, escalênica ou supraclavicular. As regiões com melhores valores de sensibilidade foram traqueobrônquica direita, paratraqueal direita alta e paratraqueal esquerda alta. As regiões nodais com melhores resultados de especificidade foram paratraqueal esquerda alta, paratraqueal direita alta e regiões traqueobrônquicas. CONCLUSÃO: A tomografia computadorizada torácica mostrou-se importante ferramenta diagnóstica na detecção de anormalidades em gânglios mediastinais; entretanto, a natureza neoplásica desses gânglios deve ser conferida por mediastinoscopia, ou até mesmo por toracotomia, a fim de que a correta decisão quanto ao tratamento possa ser tomada.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the yielding of chest computed tomography in comparison with mediastinoscopy for detection of mediastinal nodal metastases in patients with bronchial carcinoma, and identifying the most problematic regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have analyzed 195 patients with bronchial carcinoma, comparing the findings of chest computed tomography and mediastinoscopy with biopsy. RESULTS: As regards mediastinal nodal metastasis, 33.9% of patients presented peribronchial and/or ipsilateral hilar nodal metastases, 46.1% ipsilateral and/or subcarinal mediastinal metastases, and 20% contralateral mediastinal and/or hilar, scalenic or supraclavicular metastatic disease. Higher sensitivity values were found in the following regions: right tracheobronchial, right upper paratracheal, and left upper paratracheal. Higher specificity values were found in the following nodal regions: left upper paratracheal, right upper paratracheal and tracheobronchial. CONCLUSION: Chest computed tomography has shown to be an important diagnostic tool for detection of mediastinal lymph nodes abnormalities. However, the neoplastic nature of such mediastinal nodes should be confirmed by means of mediastinoscopy or even thoracotomy, aiming at making the correct decision regarding the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Décio Valente Renck

2007-02-01

86

Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Rickettsia‚ Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Fauna Silvestre ex situ e in situ de algunas Regiones de Colombia -resumen-  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las enfermedades causadas por bacterias del orden de los Rickettsiales son trasmitidas por ectoparásitos originados en vida silvestre‚ sin embargo‚ en Colombia no existe una línea base del conocimiento en este sentido. Estos microorganismos intracelulares son causantes de enfermedades transmisibles en pacientes humanos; convirtiéndolas en zoonosis de tipo emergente. Este estudio ha permitido determinar la presencia de microorganismos del orden de los Rickettsiales (Ehrlichia spp.‚ Anaplasma spp.‚ y Rickettsia spp. en ejemplares silvestres de centros de conservación ex situ (Zoológicos‚ CAV y CAVR y en algunas regiones en condiciones in situ del país. De igual manera se identifica la infección de estos microorganismos en ectoparásitos vectores relacionados. Por medio de la técnica PCRrt‚ se detectó la presencia de Rickettsia spp.‚ Anaplasma spp.‚ y Ehrlichia spp.‚ en suero obtenido de mamíferos‚ y garrapatas colectadas de reptiles y mamíferos del Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna silvestre de la Corporación Autónoma Regional de los Valles del Sinú y San Jorge CAV-CVS en Montería (Córdoba‚ en osos hormigueros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla en Pore (Casanare‚ y en garrapatas obtenidas en ejemplares de titi gris (Saguinus leucopus y su hábitat en la vereda La Parroquia en Mariquita (Tolima. En Montería‚ los resultados obtenidos en mamíferos demostraron la ausencia de Rickettsia spp. en 72 muestras de suero‚ sin embargo se detectó un pool de garrapatas de la especie Amblyomma ovale positivo a este microorganismo‚ siendo el primer reporte en Colombia de ectoparásitos de Puma concolor positivos a Rickettsia spp.‚ mientras que en reptiles se detectaron 18 pools de garrapatas positivos a Rickettsia spp (90 %. En las garrapatas colectadas de nueve osos palmeros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla de vida libre se detectaron 12 pool de garrapatas positivos a este microorganismo (17‚6 %‚ y en ejemplares de titi gris fue positivo a Rickettsia spp en un pool de garrapatas (50%. Para Anaplasma spp. se detectaron 2 pools de garrapatas positivos a este microorganismo (3‚6% pertenecientes a dos osos palmeros del Casanare. Ningún animal estudiado‚ o ectoparásito ha tenido presencia de Ehrlichia spp. Los resultados obtenidos a la fecha muestran que los microorganismos del orden de los rickettsiales se encuentran circulantes entre garrapatas de animales silvestres en centros de conservación ex situ y en algunas regiones en condiciones in situ. La vigilancia epidemiológica de estos agentes y sus vectores es la clave de una respuesta oportuna y eficiente para prevenir las epidemias causadas por estos patógenos.

Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá

2014-12-01

87

A ocorrência de riquetsioses do grupo Rickettsia rickettsii Occurrence of rickettsiosis of the group Rickettsia rickettsii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizada revisão da literatura com objetivo de atualizar as informações sobre a ocorrência de riquetsioses do grupo Rickettsia rickettsii. Verificou-se que nos EUA e Europa, a incidência da febre maculosa, vem aumentando desde 1970 até hoje. No Brasil, foi relatado um caso presuntivo, no estado da Bahia, em 1979. Com relação a prevenção, controle e tratamento dessa doença é salientada a importância de informações relacionadas com indivíduos expostos a picadas de carrapatos, notificação de novos casos, fatores ecológicos, técnicas laboratoriais mais específicas para a identificação do agente etiológico, e a antibioticoterapia mais eficiente. A vacinação é ainda referida como meio mais favorável na prevenção da doença, devendo ser administrada aos indivíduos de alto risco. No Brasil, faltam informações precisas sobre a ocorrência de R. rickettsii.A search of the literature to update the available information on the occurrence of rickettsiosis caused by the Rickettsia rickettsii group was made. It was verified that the incidence of spotted fever has had an increase in the U.S.A. and Europe since 1970. In Brazil, a presumptive case was reported in the State of Bahia, in 1979. Regarding the prevention, control and treatment of this disease, importance is given to data related to individuals exposed to tick bites, report of new cases, ecological factors, more specific laboratorial procedures for the identification of the etiological agent, and a more efficient antibiotic therapy. Vaccination is still regarded as the most adequate means for the prevention of the disease, and should be aimed at groups of individuals at high risk. In Brazil, there is a lack of more precise information on the occurrence of R. rickettsii.

Dalva A. Portari Mancini

1983-12-01

88

Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsiae in different regions of Serbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assayed the presence of antibodies specific for Rickettsia typhi, R. akari, and R. conorii in sera of persons from several localities in Serbia with different geographic, climatic, and lifestyle characteristics. Sera from 140 patients with unclear clinical symptoms and 273 healthy persons were tested for the presence of rickettsiae-specific antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In this study, for the first time we detected the presence of rickettsiae from the spotted fever group in Serbia. We detected the presence of antibodies against R. conorii in the samples from all tested localities. The proportion of positive cases was low in the plain agricultural areas but reached up to 23% in the mountain areas. We also observed a significant number of cases positive for antibodies against R. akari. Antibodies specific for the antigens of R. typhi were detected in only 2 samples from the municipality of Pec (Kosovo region). These findings contribute to the prevalence of Rickettsia species in Southeast Europe. Our study also revealed a dramatic lack of awareness of rickettsioses among medical personnel and pointed to the need for urgent measures that would help improve the current situation in the region. PMID:18240971

Samardzic, Svetomir; Marinkovic, Tatjana; Marinkovic, Dragan; Djuricic, Bosiljka; Ristanovic, Elizabeta; Simovic, Tatjana; Lako, Branislav; Vukov, Biljana; Bozovic, Bojana; Gligic, Ana

2008-04-01

89

Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma americanum Ticks, Tennessee and Georgia, USA  

OpenAIRE

To determine the geographic distribution of the newly recognized human pathogen Rickettsia parkeri, we looked for this organism in ticks from Tennessee and Georgia, USA. Using PCR and sequence analysis, we identified R. parkeri in 2 Amblyomma americanum ticks. This rickettsiosis may be underdiagnosed in the eastern United States.

Cohen, Sara B.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Garrison, Laurel E.; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett G.; Dunn, John R.; Mead, Daniel G.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.

2009-01-01

90

Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA  

OpenAIRE

We report evidence that Amblyomma maculatum tick populations are well established in southeastern Virginia. We found that 43.1% of the adult Gulf Coast ticks collected in the summer of 2010 carried Rickettsia parkeri, suggesting that persons living in or visiting southeastern Virginia are at risk for infection with this pathogen.

Wright, Chelsea L.; Nadolny, Robyn M.; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Gaff, Holly D.; Hynes, Wayne L.

2011-01-01

91

New Tick Defensin Isoform and Antimicrobial Gene Expression in Response to Rickettsia montanensis Challenge?  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies aimed at elucidating the rickettsia-tick interaction have discovered that the spotted fever group rickettsia Rickettsia montanensis, a relative of R. rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, induces differential gene expression patterns in the ovaries of the hard tick Dermacentor variabilis. Here we describe a new defensin isoform, defensin-2, and the expression patterns of genes for three antimicrobials, defensin-1 (vsnA1), defensin-2, and lysozyme, in ...

Ceraul, Shane M.; Dreher-lesnick, Sheila M.; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Azad, Abdu F.

2007-01-01

92

Rickettsia typhi Possesses Phospholipase A2 Enzymes that Are Involved in Infection of Host Cells  

OpenAIRE

The long-standing proposal that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes are involved in rickettsial infection of host cells has been given support by the recent characterization of a patatin phospholipase (Pat2) with PLA2 activity from the pathogens Rickettsia prowazekii and R. typhi. However, pat2 is not encoded in all Rickettsia genomes; yet another uncharacterized patatin (Pat1) is indeed ubiquitous. Here, evolutionary analysis of both patatins across 46 Rickettsia genomes revealed 1) pat1 and pat...

Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Kaur, Simran Jeet; Sears, Khandra T.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Beier-sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

2013-01-01

93

Rickettsia felis from Cat Fleas: Isolation and Culture in a Tick-Derived Cell Line  

OpenAIRE

Rickettsia felis, the etiologic agent of spotted fever, is maintained in cat fleas by vertical transmission and resembles other tick-borne spotted fever group rickettsiae. In the present study, we utilized an Ixodes scapularis-derived tick cell line, ISE6, to achieve isolation and propagation of R. felis. A cytopathic effect of increased vacuolization was commonly observed in R. felis-infected cells, while lysis of host cells was not evident despite large numbers of rickettsiae. Electron micr...

Pornwiroon, Walairat; Pourciau, Susan S.; Foil, Lane D.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

2006-01-01

94

Detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. from bird ticks in the U.K.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migratory birds are known to play a role in the long-distance transportation of microorganisms. To investigate whether this is true for rickettsial agents, we undertook a study to characterize tick infestation in populations of the migratory passerine bird Riparia riparia (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae), the sand martin. A total of 194 birds were sampled and ticks removed from infested birds. The ticks were identified as female Ixodes lividus (Acari: Ixodidae) using standard morphological and molecular techniques. Tick DNA was assayed to detect Rickettsia spp. using polymerase chain reaction and DNA was sequenced for species identification. A single Rickettsia spp. was detected in 100% of the ticks and was designated Rickettsia sp. IXLI1. Partial sequences of 17-kDa and ompA genes showed greatest similarity to Rickettsia sp. TCM1, an aetiological agent of Japanese spotted fever-like illness, previously described in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Rickettsia sp. IXLI1 fitted neatly into a group containing strains Rickettsia japonica, Rickettsia sp. strain Davousti and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis. In conclusion, this research shows that U.K. migratory passerine birds host ticks infected with Rickettsia species and contribute to the geographic distribution of spotted fever rickettsial agents. PMID:20546129

Graham, R I; Mainwaring, M C; Du Feu, R

2010-09-01

95

Localization of electron-dense tracers during entry of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi into polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The invasion of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, Gilliam strain, into guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the localization and distribution of tracers were followed during the process by electron microscopy. The seven tracers used were: cationized ferritin, ferritin, thorium dioxide (ThO2), carbon particles, latex spheres, paraffin oil, and Escherichia coli. These markers were added to the incubation medium containing the PMNs before or simultaneously with R. tsutsugamushi-infected BHK-21 cells. Both morphologically intact and degenerating rickettsiae were present in the phagosomes in PMNs, but only the viable-appearing rickettsiae were free in the cytoplasm. The intact rickettsiae were singly and selectively phagocytized in tightly enclosed phagosomal membranes which usually excluded the tracers, except when ThO2 or ferritin was used. When ThO2, which labels the plasma membrane of PMNs, was used. ThO2-labeled phagosomal membranes enclosing rickettsiae were observed and short membrane fragments still labeled with this tracer were found in the vicinity of rickettsiae in the cytoplasmic matrix of PMNs. When ferritin or ThO2 was used as a tracer, some of the phagosomes contained rickettsiae still enclosed in an envelope of BHK-21 cytoplasm and cell membrane. Phagolysosomes preloaded with electron-dense markers fused with subsequently formed phagosomes containing degenerated rickettsiae but not with those containing intact rickettsiae. These results support our interpretation that viable rickettsial entry into PMNs is by selective phagocytosis and escape from these phagosomes. PMID:6777300

Rikihisa, Y; Ito, S

1980-10-01

96

Activated complex of L-cells and Rickettsia prowazekii with N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phospholipase A.  

OpenAIRE

The interaction of large numbers of viable Rickettsia prowazekii cells with L-cells results in the expression of a phospholipase A activity with the concomitant release of free fatty acids and lysophosphatides from the phospholipids of the L-cell. About 50% of rickettsiae present in the suspension that was centrifuged onto an L-cell monolayer at 0 degree C to effect this interaction formed a tight L-cell-rickettsiae association from which the rickettsiae could not be removed by simple washing...

Winkler, H. H.; Miller, E. T.

1984-01-01

97

Serosurveillance of Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scrub and murine typhus infections are under-diagnosed causes of febrile illness across the tropics, and it is not known how common they are in Bangladesh. We conducted a prospective seroepidemiologic survey across six major teaching hospitals in Bangladesh by using an IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results indicated recent exposure (287 of 1,209, 23.7% seropositive for Orientia tsutsugamushi and 805 of 1,209, 66.6% seropositive for Rickettsia typhi). Seropositive rates were different in each region. However, there was no geographic clustering of seropositive results for both organisms. There was no difference between those from rural or urban areas. Rickettsia typhi seroreactivity was positively correlated with age. Scrub typhus and murine typhus should be considered as possible causes of infection in Bangladesh. PMID:25092819

Maude, Rapeephan R; Maude, Richard J; Ghose, Aniruddha; Amin, M Robed; Islam, M Belalul; Ali, Mohammad; Bari, M Shafiqul; Majumder, M Ishaque; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Dondorp, Arjen M; Paris, Daniel H; Bailey, Robin L; Faiz, M Abul; Blacksell, Stuart D; Day, Nicholas P J

2014-09-01

98

An update on the detection and treatment of Rickettsia felis  

OpenAIRE

Laya Hun, Adriana TroyoCentro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa RicaAbstract: Rickettsia felis was described as a human pathogen almost two decades ago, and human infection is currently reported in 18 countries in all continents. The distribution of this species is worldwide, determined by the presence of the main arthropod vector, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché). The li...

Hun L; Troyo A

2012-01-01

99

Establishment of a Replicating Plasmid in Rickettsia prowazekii  

OpenAIRE

Rickettsia prowazekii, the causative agent of epidemic typhus, grows only within the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. This obligate intracellular lifestyle has restricted the genetic analysis of this pathogen and critical tools, such as replicating plasmid vectors, have not been developed for this species. Although replicating plasmids have not been reported in R. prowazekii, the existence of well-characterized plasmids in several less pathogenic rickettsial species provides an opportunity t...

Wood, David O.; Hines, Andria; Tucker, Aimee M.; Woodard, Andrew; Driskell, Lonnie O.; Burkhardt, Nicole Y.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

2012-01-01

100

Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.  Created: 6/9/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/24/2010.

2010-06-09

101

Artificial infection of the bed bug with Rickettsia parkeri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a variety of disease agents have been reported from bed bugs, the mechanical and biological disease transmission potential of bed bugs remains unelucidated. In this study we assayed survivability of the mildly pathogenic spotted fever group rickettsia, Rickettsia parkeri, in bed bugs after feeding on R. parkeri-infected chicken blood. Two groups of 15 adult bed bugs each were fed on infected or noninfected blood, and two groups of fourth-instar bed bugs also were fed on either infected or noninfected blood. One group of 15 adult bed bugs received no bloodmeal and was included as an additional control. Two weeks postfeeding, two pools of five live bed bugs from each group were surface sterilized, macerated, and placed in Vero cell cultures in an attempt to grow live organism. The remaining five individual bed bugs from each group were dissected, their salivary glands were removed for immunofluorescence assay (IFA) staining, and the remaining body parts were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Results indicated that no immature (now molted to fifth instar) bed bugs were positive for R. parkeri by IFA or PCR, indicating that organisms did not survive the molting process. After 4 wk of cell culture, no organisms were seen in cultures from any of the treatment or control groups, nor were any cultures PCR positive. However, two of the adult bed bugs were IFA positive for rickettsia-like organisms, and these two specimens were also PCR positive using R. parkeri-specific primers. These IFA and PCR results indicate that remnants of Rickettsia parkeri (possibly whole organisms) survived in the bugs for 2 wk, but the viability of the organisms in these two specimens could not be determined. PMID:22897053

Goddard, Jerome; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Smith, Whitney; Edwards, Kristine T

2012-07-01

102

Rickettsiaceae, rickettsia-like endosymbionts, and the origin of mitochondria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evolutionary data point to a monophyletic origin of mitochondria from the order Rickettsiales. This large group of obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria includes the family Rickettsiaceae and several rickettsia-like endosymbionts (RLEs). Detailed phylogenetic analysis of small subunit (SSU) rRNA and chaperonin 60 (Cpn60) sequences testify to polyphyly of the Rickettsiales, and consistently indicate a sisterhood of Rickettsiaceae and mitochondria that excludes RLEs. Thus RLEs are considered as the nearest extant relatives of an extinct last common ancestor of mitochondria and rickettsiae. Phylogenetic inferences prompt the following assumptions. (1) Mitochondrial origin has been predisposed by the long-term endosymbiotic relationship between rickettsia-like bacteria and proto-eukaryotes, in which many endosymbiont genes have been lost while some indispensable genes have been transferred to the host genome. (2) The obligate dependence of rickettsiae upon a eukaryotic host rests on the import of proteins encoded by these transferred genes. The nature of a proto-eukaryotic cell still remains elusive. The divergence of Rickettsiaceae and mitochondria based on Cpn60, and the evolutionary history of two aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases favor the hypothesis that it was a chimera created by fusion of an archaebacterium and a eubacterium not long before an endosymbiotic event. These and other, mostly biochemical data suggest that all the mitochondrion-related organelles, i.e., both aerobically and anaerobically respiring mitochondria and hydrogenosomes, have originated from the same RLE, while hydrogenosomal energy metabolism may have a separate origin resulting from a eubacterial fusion partner. PMID:11508688

Emelyanov, V V

2001-02-01

103

Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii  

OpenAIRE

We experimentally infected Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). These ticks are a vector for RMSF in Brazil. R. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. However, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to R. rickettsii infection. Therefore, ...

Labruna, Marcelo B.; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Soares, Joa?o F.; Martins, Thiago F.; Soares, Herbert S.; Moraes-filho, Jonas; Nieri-bastos, Fernanda A.; Almeida, Aliny P.; Pinter, Adriano

2011-01-01

104

Growth of Rickettsia felis in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsia felis is an obligate, intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium and a member of the transitional group rickettsiae. This bacterium has been shown to grow in vitro in amphibian, tick, and mosquito cell lines. Here, we present data to show the growth of R. felis strain LSU in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, an embryonic, hemocytic cell line with phagocytic properties. R. felis LSU was isolated from Ixodes scapularis E6 (ISE6) cells and used to infect S2 cells, grown at 25°C. By 19 days postinfection, the S2 cells were 100% infected with R. felis as determined by Acridine Orange and Diff-Quik staining. A species-specific R. felis qPCR assay was used to demonstrate that the kinetics associated with the S2 cell culture infection involved a lag/adaptation phase, followed by continued growth to 20 days postinfection. Moreover, R. felis organisms were observed in the S2 cells using transmission electron microscopy and a polyclonal antibody against spotted fever rickettsiae. The ability to use D. melanogaster S2 cells for growing rickettsial agents is a useful tool owing to the ease of manipulation of the S2 cultures and the wide-ranging possibility of Drosophila resources available for future studies. PMID:24528095

Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Macaluso, Kevin R; Richards, Allen L

2014-02-01

105

Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Ethiopia, information on the transmission of human zoonotic pathogens through ixodid ticks remains scarce. To address the occurrence and molecular identity of spotted fever group rickettsiae using molecular tools, a total of 767 ixodid ticks belonging to thirteen different species were collected from domestic animals from September 2011 to March 2014. Rickettsia africae DNA was detected in 30.2% (16/53) Amblyommma variegatum, 28.6% (12/42) Am. gemma, 0.8% (1/119) Am. cohaerens, 18.2% (4/22) Amblyomma larvae, 6.7% (2/60) Amblyomma nymphs, 0.7% (1/139) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and 25% (1/4) nymphs of Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus. A markedly low prevalence of R. africae was recorded in both Am. cohaerens and Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus (pEthiopia is presented herein. Altogether, these results suggest that the transmission of spotted fever group rickettsiae through ixodid ticks is a potential risk for human health in different parts of Ethiopia. Clinicians in this country should consider these pathogens as a potential cause of febrile illness in patients. PMID:25262832

Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2015-02-01

106

Anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies in free-ranging and captive capybaras from southern Brazil / Anticorpos anti-Rickettsia spp. em capivaras de vida livre e de cativeiro no Sul do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As capivaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) estão entre os principais hospedeiros do carrapato Amblyomma spp., o qual pode transmitir algumas espécies de riquétsias para seres humanos e animais. Como são frequentemente infestadas por carrapatos vetores potenciais, as capivaras podem ser usadas como sen [...] tinelas para riquetsioses, como a Febre Maculosa Brasileira. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a soroprevalência de Rickettsia spp. por meio da reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI) em 21 capivaras de vida livre e 10 capivaras de cativeiro do Zoológico do Refúgio Biológico Bela Vista, Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguaçu, Brasil. Antígenos de seis espécies de riquétsias já identi[1]icadas no Brasil (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii e R. felis) foram utilizados para a RIFI. Carrapatos de cada capivara foram coletados para posterior identi[1]icação taxonômica. Um total de 19 (61,3%) amostras reagiu a pelo menos uma das espécies testadas. Foi encontrada soropositividade em 14 (45,2%), 12 (38,7%), 5 (16,1%), 4 (12,9%), 3 (9,7%) e 3 (9,7%) animais para R. rickettsii, R. bellii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. felis e R. rhipicephali, respectivamente. Duas capivaras de cativeiro apresentaram títulos sugestivos de infecção por R. rickettsii e uma amostra apresentou reação homóloga frente à R. parkeri. Apenas uma capivara de vida livre apresentou evidência de infecção por R. bellii. Os carrapatos coletados sobre as capivaras foram identificados como Amblyomma dubitatum e Amblyomma sp. Os resultados evidenciam a circulação de riquétsias na região, sugerindo uma potencial participação da capivara no ciclo de vida desta bactéria. Abstract in english Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) are among the main hosts of Amblyomma spp. ticks, which is able to transmit Rickettsia species to human beings and animals. Since they are often infested with potential vector ticks, capybaras may be used as sentinels for rickettsiosis, such as the Brazilian Spo [...] tted Fever. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in 21 free-ranging and 10 captive animals from the Zoological Park of the 'Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary' (BVBS), Itaipu Binational, Foz do Iguaçu, Southern Brazil. Antigens of six rickettsial species already identified in Brazil (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis) were used for IFA. Ticks from each capybara were collected for posterior taxonomic identification. A total of 19 (61.3%) samples reacted to at least one of tested species. Seropositivity was found in 14 (45.2%), 12 (38.7%), 5 (16.1%), 4 (12.9%), 3 (9.7%) and 3 (9.7%) animals for R. rickettsii, R. bellii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. felis and R. rhipicephali, respectively. Two captive capybaras presented suggestive titers of R. rickettsii infection and one sample showed homologous reaction to R. parkeri. Only one free-ranging capybara presented evidence R. bellii infection. Ticks collected on capybaras were identified as Amblyomma dubitatum e Amblyomma sp. Results evidenced the rickettsial circulation in the area, suggesting a potential role of capybaras on bacterial life cycle.

Fernanda S., Fortes; Leonilda C., Santos; Zalmir S., Cubas; Ivan R., Barros-Filho; Alexander W., Biondo; Iara, Silveira; Marcelo B., Labruna; Marcelo B., Molento.

1014-10-01

107

Comparison of different media for preservation and transport of viable rickettsiae.  

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Rickettsiae tend to have a rapid decrease of viability outside living cells. Therefore, the transport of samples containing viable rickettsiae for culturing in cell culture for diagnostic purposes is challenging. The viability of rickettsiae in different transport media (commercially available transport medium COPAN "UTM-RT transport medium for viruses, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and ureaplasma," minimal essential medium (MEM) with and without 10% foetal calf serum) at various time points at 4 °C and at ambient temperature (22 °C) was compared. Rickettsia honei was used as model organism. After 2 weeks of storage at room temperature, no viable rickettsiae were detectable any more while storage at 4 °C kept rickettsiae viable for up to 4 weeks. The commercially available COPAN medium showed similarly good or slightly better stabilizing effects on rickettsiae compared with MEM + 10% foetal calf serum, pure MEM demonstrated the poorest results. It is important to transport and store media with potentially rickettsiae-containing samples at 4 °C to prevent inactivation. MEM + 10% foetal calf serum can be used if no commercial medium is available with similarly good results. PMID:24265938

Frickmann, Hagen; Dobler, Gerhard

2013-09-01

108

Molecular characterization of a novel Rickettsia species from Ixodes scapularis in Texas.  

OpenAIRE

A novel Rickettsia species of undetermined pathogenicity was detected in Ixodes scapularis. DNA sequencing showed the highest nucleotide sequence similarities with R. australis for the 17 kDa gene, R. helvetica for gltA, and R. montana for rompA. The new organism, provisionally designated as genotype Cooleyi, is highly divergent in three conserved genes from recognized Rickettsia species.

Billings, A. N.; Teltow, G. J.; Weaver, S. C.; Walker, D. H.

1998-01-01

109

Primary isolation of spotted fever group rickettsiae from Amblyomma cooperi collected from Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in Brazil  

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Full Text Available This paper reports the first isolation of a spotted fever group rickettsia from an Amblyomma cooperi ixodid collected from a capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in an endemic area of spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Isolation was performed in Vero cell culture and submitted to immunofluorescence, using antibody from Rickettsia rickettsii-positive human serum.

Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos

1996-06-01

110

Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in ticks collected from European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus, Linnaeus, 1758).  

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The role of wild mammals in the dissemination and maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still under investigation. European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are often heavily infested by tick and flea species that are known to harbor and transmit different Rickettsia spp. We investigated ixodid ticks sampled from European hedgehogs for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 471 Ixodes ricinus and 755 I. hexagonus were collected from 26 German and 7 British European hedgehogs. These were tested by a genus-specific real-time PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). The rickettsia minimum infection rate was 11.7% with an increase detected with each parasitic tick stage. No significant difference in Rickettsia prevalence in the 2 Ixodes species was detected. Using sequencing of partial ompB, Rickettsia helvetica was the only species identified. More than half of the hedgehogs carried Rickettsia-positive ticks. In addition, tissue samples from 2/5 hedgehogs (where tissue DNA was available) were PCR-positive. These results show that European hedgehogs are exposed to R. helvetica via infected ticks and might be involved in the natural transmission cycle of this Rickettsia species. PMID:23337491

Speck, Stephanie; Perseke, Lea; Petney, Trevor; Skuballa, Jasmin; Pfäffle, Miriam; Taraschewski, Horst; Bunnell, Toni; Essbauer, Sandra; Dobler, Gerhard

2013-04-01

111

A Typhus Group-Specific Protease Defies Reductive Evolution in Rickettsiae ? † ‡  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenomics reveals extreme gene loss in typhus group (TG) rickettsiae relative to the levels for other rickettsial lineages. We report here a curious protease-encoding gene (ppcE) that is conserved only in TG rickettsiae. As a possible determinant of host pathogenicity, ppcE warrants consideration in the development of therapeutics against epidemic and murine typhus. PMID:19820087

Ammerman, Nicole C.; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Neuwald, Andrew F.; Sobral, Bruno W.; Azad, Abdu F.

2009-01-01

112

Caracterização de Rickettsia spp. circulante em foco silencioso de febre maculosa brasileira no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil / Characterization of Rickettsia spp. circulating in a silent peri-urban focus for Brazilian spotted fever in Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar Rickettsia spp. circulante em artrópodes vetores no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil, por meio da PCR, e investigar a presença de anticorpos para riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa em cães e eqüinos. 2.610 ectoparasitos foram coletados e iden [...] tificados taxonomicamente. Amostras de DNA obtidas desses vetores foram submetidas à PCR e seqüenciamento. Em pulgas do gênero Ctenocephalides e em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense foram identificadas seqüências com 100% de homologia com R. felis. Em carrapatos Rhipicephalus sanguineus uma seqüência apresentou 99% de homologia com R. felis e uma seqüência obtida de A. cajennense apresentou 97% de homologia com R. honei e R. rickettsii. Soros de cães (73) e de eqüinos (18) foram submetidos à imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) usando-se antígeno de R. rickettsii. Apenas três dos soros de eqüinos (17%) mostraram-se positivos. A detecção molecular de riquetsias potencialmente patogênicas ao homem em vetores e a presença de sororeatividade para riquetsias do grupo da febre maculosa em eqüinos, demonstram o risco de transmissão de riquetsioses nessa área e a necessidade de se manter um sistema contínuo de vigilância epidemiológica. Abstract in english The present study was intended to characterize Rickettsia spp. circulating in arthropod vectors in Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, by PCR and to investigate the presence of antibodies against the spotted fever Rickettsiae group (SFRG) in dogs and horses. 2,610 arthropods were collected and taxonomi [...] cally identified. DNA samples obtained from these vectors were submitted to PCR and cycle-sequenced. Ctenocephalides and Amblyomma cajennense showed sequences presenting 100.0% homology with R. felis. A sequence obtained from Rhipicephalus sanguineus showed 99.0% homology with R. felis, and a sequence from A. cajennense showed 97.0% homology with R. honei and R. rickettsii. Canine (73) and equine (18) serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) using R. rickettsii antigen. Only three of the equine sera tested (17.0%) had positive antibody titers. Molecular detection of rickettsiae species potentially pathogenic to humans in arthropod vectors and the presence of seroreactivity to SFRG in horses show the risk of transmission of rickettsiosis in this area and the need to maintain continuous epidemiological surveillance for rickettsial diseases.

Luciane Daniele, Cardoso; Renata Nascimento, Freitas; Cláudio Lísias, Mafra; Cristiane Vilas Boas, Neves; Fátima Cristina Bacellar, Figueira; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna; Solange M., Gennari; David Hughes, Walker; Márcio Antônio Moreira, Galvão.

2006-03-01

113

Caracterização de Rickettsia spp. circulante em foco silencioso de febre maculosa brasileira no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil Characterization of Rickettsia spp. circulating in a silent peri-urban focus for Brazilian spotted fever in Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar Rickettsia spp. circulante em artrópodes vetores no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil, por meio da PCR, e investigar a presença de anticorpos para riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa em cães e eqüinos. 2.610 ectoparasitos foram coletados e identificados taxonomicamente. Amostras de DNA obtidas desses vetores foram submetidas à PCR e seqüenciamento. Em pulgas do gênero Ctenocephalides e em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense foram identificadas seqüências com 100% de homologia com R. felis. Em carrapatos Rhipicephalus sanguineus uma seqüência apresentou 99% de homologia com R. felis e uma seqüência obtida de A. cajennense apresentou 97% de homologia com R. honei e R. rickettsii. Soros de cães (73 e de eqüinos (18 foram submetidos à imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI usando-se antígeno de R. rickettsii. Apenas três dos soros de eqüinos (17% mostraram-se positivos. A detecção molecular de riquetsias potencialmente patogênicas ao homem em vetores e a presença de sororeatividade para riquetsias do grupo da febre maculosa em eqüinos, demonstram o risco de transmissão de riquetsioses nessa área e a necessidade de se manter um sistema contínuo de vigilância epidemiológica.The present study was intended to characterize Rickettsia spp. circulating in arthropod vectors in Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, by PCR and to investigate the presence of antibodies against the spotted fever Rickettsiae group (SFRG in dogs and horses. 2,610 arthropods were collected and taxonomically identified. DNA samples obtained from these vectors were submitted to PCR and cycle-sequenced. Ctenocephalides and Amblyomma cajennense showed sequences presenting 100.0% homology with R. felis. A sequence obtained from Rhipicephalus sanguineus showed 99.0% homology with R. felis, and a sequence from A. cajennense showed 97.0% homology with R. honei and R. rickettsii. Canine (73 and equine (18 serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA using R. rickettsii antigen. Only three of the equine sera tested (17.0% had positive antibody titers. Molecular detection of rickettsiae species potentially pathogenic to humans in arthropod vectors and the presence of seroreactivity to SFRG in horses show the risk of transmission of rickettsiosis in this area and the need to maintain continuous epidemiological surveillance for rickettsial diseases.

Luciane Daniele Cardoso

2006-03-01

114

Evidencia serológica de la presencia de Rickettsias del grupo de la fiebre manchada en la Amazonía del Perú / Serological evidence of spotted fever group-related Rickettsia transmission in the Peruvian Amazon jungle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de demostrar la existencia de transmisión de Rickettsias del grupo de la fiebre manchada en la Amazonía peruana, se tomaron muestras de sangre a pacientes febriles agudos en establecimientos de salud de la ciudad de Iquitos, la ciudad más poblada de la Amazonía del Perú. Las muestras [...] fueron procesadas mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta para medir anticuerpos totales e IgG específica para el grupo de fiebre de las manchadas. Entre enero y julio de 2006, se obtuvieron muestras de 250 pacientes. El 37% de las muestras tuvieron títulos positivos de IgG, demostrando así haber tenido contacto con el agente, de ellas, nueve fueron clasificadas como casos agudos, en los que se descartó otras infecciones endémicas como dengue, malaria y leptospirosis. Los casos presentaron una enfermedad febril acompañada de síntomas como tos, sarpullido y hemoptisis. Cuatro casos fueron hospitalizados, dos fueron graves y uno de ellos falleció. En conclusión, existe evidencia serológica de la circulación de Rickettsias del grupo de las fiebre manchada en la Amazonía peruana, por su frecuencia y potencial gravedad debería ser tomada en cuenta como diagnóstico diferencial del síndrome febril agudo en esta región. Abstract in english Blood samples were taken from acutely ill febrile patients in health centers in Iquitos, the most densely populated city in Peruvian Amazon jungle, in order to prove the transmission of spotted fever group-related Rickettsia transmission. Samples were processed using indirect immunofluorescence for [...] measuring total antibodies and specific IgG for the spotted fever group. Between January and July 2006, 250 patients had samples taken. 37% had positive IgG titers showing that these patients had contact with the agent; and out of them, nine were adjudicated as acute cases, where other endemic conditions were ruled out, such as dengue fever, malaria, and leptospirosis. Cases identified had a febrile illness with the following concomitant symptoms and signs: cough, skin rash, and hemoptysis. Four patients were hospitalized, two had severe illness, and one of them ultimately died. We conclude that there is evidence of spotted fever group-related Rickettsia circulation in the Peruvian Amazon jungle, so this condition should be taken into account as a differential diagnosis for acute febrile syndrome in this region.

Moisés, Sihuincha M; Elizabeth, Anaya F; Victoria, Carranza V; Salomón, Durand V.

2006-10-01

115

Methodology for a medical expert system on fuzzy analog ganglionar lattices. Non-approximate reasoning with multiple antecendents of different relative importance and limited uncertainty.  

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This work presents an Expert System based on fuzzy analog ganglionar lattices. Its reasoning scheme is designed analogously to the expert's mental organization and it is realized on an (analog) operator called the ganglionar lattice. It is a connectionist system that uses the medical knowledge to define its architecture. The operator evokes some similarities to higher order neural networks and performs as the knowledge base and inference engine of the expert system, in a unified manner. A main feature of this operator is that it exhibits the variables corresponding to all intermediate concepts identified by the expert; this characteristic is shown to be most valuable for assessing, explicating and prospecting in medical applications. Further, it is capable of (i) evaluating a consequent for a variety of non-approximate reasonings with multiple antecendents of different relative importance under limited uncertainty; (ii) explicating the conclusions at different levels of abstraction to suit the user; and (iii) prospecting for the best 'a priori' sequence of unevaluated antecedents, from which to choose following tests. These procedures are based on the objective criterion of the consequent's uncertainty decrease (entropy). All results are produced in numerical form and may be translated into restricted natural language. A simple example of this technology is fully developed. Finally the method's potentials are discussed for future applications. PMID:8776711

Holzmann, C A; Ehijo, A; Perez, C A

116

Rickettsia felis infection in a common household insect pest, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae).  

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Many species of Rickettsia are well-known mammalian pathogens transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. However, molecular surveys are continually uncovering novel Rickettsia species, often in unexpected hosts, including many arthropods that do not feed on blood. This study reports a systematic molecular characterization of a Rickettsia infecting the psocid Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae), a common and cosmopolitan household pest. Surprisingly, the psocid Rickettsia is shown to be Rickettsia felis, a human pathogen transmitted by fleas that causes serious morbidity and occasional mortality. The plasmid from the psocid R. felis was sequenced and was found to be virtually identical to the one in R. felis from fleas. As Liposcelis insects are often intimately associated with humans and other vertebrates, it is speculated that they acquired R. felis from fleas. Whether the R. felis in psocids causes disease in vertebrates is not known and warrants further study. PMID:20139311

Behar, Adi; McCormick, Laurie J; Perlman, Steve J

2010-04-01

117

Molecular and Functional Analysis of the lepB Gene, Encoding a Type I Signal Peptidase from Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia typhi  

OpenAIRE

The type I signal peptidase lepB genes from Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia typhi, the etiologic agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and murine typhus, respectively, were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis of the cloned lepB genes from R. rickettsii and R. typhi shows open reading frames of 801 and 795 nucleotides, respectively. Alignment analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences reveals the presence of highly conserved motifs that are important for the catalytic activity ...

Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Simser, Jason A.; Macaluso, Kevin R.; Azad, Abdu F.

2003-01-01

118

Gene gain and loss events in Rickettsia and Orientia species  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome degradation is an ongoing process in all members of the Rickettsiales order, which makes these bacterial species an excellent model for studying reductive evolution through interspecies variation in genome size and gene content. In this study, we evaluated the degree to which gene loss shaped the content of some Rickettsiales genomes. We shed light on the role played by horizontal gene transfers in the genome evolution of Rickettsiales. Results Our phylogenomic tree, based on whole-genome content, presented a topology distinct from that of the whole core gene concatenated phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the gene repertoires involved have different evolutionary histories. Indeed, we present evidence for 3 possible horizontal gene transfer events from various organisms to Orientia and 6 to Rickettsia spp., while we also identified 3 possible horizontal gene transfer events from Rickettsia and Orientia to other bacteria. We found 17 putative genes in Rickettsia spp. that are probably the result of de novo gene creation; 2 of these genes appear to be functional. On the basis of these results, we were able to reconstruct the gene repertoires of "proto-Rickettsiales" and "proto-Rickettsiaceae", which correspond to the ancestors of Rickettsiales and Rickettsiaceae, respectively. Finally, we found that 2,135 genes were lost during the evolution of the Rickettsiaceae to an intracellular lifestyle. Conclusions Our phylogenetic analysis allowed us to track the gene gain and loss events occurring in bacterial genomes during their evolution from a free-living to an intracellular lifestyle. We have shown that the primary mechanism of evolution and specialization in strictly intracellular bacteria is gene loss. Despite the intracellular habitat, we found several horizontal gene transfers between Rickettsiales species and various prokaryotic, viral and eukaryotic species. Open peer review Reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Eugene V. Koonin and Patrick Forterre. For the full reviews please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

Raoult Didier

2011-02-01

119

[Lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae].  

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Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was first isolated 20 years ago in Asia but has now been identified on three continents. Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus pusillus ticks are vectors but only a small number of cases have been reported to date, mainly on the Mediterranean coast. This bacterium induces the lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, a still unfamiliar rickettsiosis that is mainly characterized by fever with a rope-like lymphangitis and/or lymphadenopathy and skin eschar occurring after tick bites. These features are especially evocative if they occur in spring. Sequellae are very rare and treatment with doxycycline is recommended. PMID:24034636

Foissac, M; Socolovschi, C; Raoult, D

2013-01-01

120

Detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia in Haemaphysalis longicornis from Hebei Province, China.  

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DNA samples from 737 tick pools, representing 6,850 Haemaphysalis longicornis and 51 Dermacentor nuttalli collected from Hebei Province, China, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of spotted fever group Rickettsia. Fifty (6.9%) of 724 H. longicornis in the tick pool were positive, but no positive samples were found in 13 D. nuttalli. Sequence analysis of the partial outer membrane protein A (ompA) genes from the 10 positive samples showed 97.4-99.8% identity, but were different from the homologous sequence of Rickettsia previously deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of ompA genes indicated that the Rickettsia detected in this study belonged to a novel haplotype, and formed a clade distinct from Rickettsia heilongjiangii, Rickettsia sibirica, and Rickettsia hulinii in China. The new strain, named Candidatus Rickettsia hebeiii, appears to represent a distinct lineage and could constitute a new species with a minimum prevalence of about 0.7% in H. longicornis from Hebei Province, China. PMID:21506802

Zou, Yaxue; Wang, Qiuyue; Fu, Zhixin; Liu, Pengpeng; Jin, Hongtao; Yang, Huanhuan; Gao, Hongwei; Xi, Zhang; Liu, Quan; Chen, Lifeng

2011-10-01

121

Characterization of the symbiont Rickettsia in the mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae).  

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Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is an omnivorous insect used for biological control. Augmentative release and conservation of N. tenuis have been used for pest control in tomato crops. Intracellular bacterial symbionts of arthropods are common in nature and have diverse effects on their hosts; in some cases they can dramatically affect biological control. Fingerprinting methods showed that the symbiotic complex associated with N. tenuis includes Wolbachia and Rickettsia. Rickettsia of N. tenuis was further characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA and gltA bacterial genes, measuring its amount in different developmental stages of the insect by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and localizing the bacteria in the insect's body by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The Rickettsia in N. tenuis exhibited 99 and 96% similarity of both sequenced genes to Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia reported from Bemisia tabaci, respectively. The highest amount of Rickettsia was measured in the 5th instar and adult, and the symbionts could be detected in the host gut and ovaries. Although the role played by Rickettsia in the biology of N. tenuis is currently unknown, their high amount in the adults and localization in the gut suggest that they may have a nutritional role in this insect. PMID:25062354

Caspi-Fluger, A; Inbar, M; Steinberg, S; Friedmann, Y; Freund, M; Mozes-Daube, N; Zchori-Fein, E

2014-12-01

122

Effects of dorsal root ganglion destruction by adriamycin in patients with postherpetic neuralgia / Efeitos da destruição da raiz dorsal ganglionar pela adriamicina em pacientes com neuralgia pós-herpética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da destruição da raiz dorsal ganglionar em pacientes com neuralgia pós-herpética. MÉTODOS: Setenta e dois pacientes selecionados com neuralgia pós-herpética foram randomicamente distribuídos em dois grupos (n=36). Grupo A foi o grupo controle (tratado por injeção) e o [...] grupo B foi o grupo com destruição da raiz dorsal do gânglio pela adriamicina. Os escores da Escala Analógica Visual (VAS), SAS, SF-MPQ escores, efeitos clínicos e segurança terapêutica foram avaliados as antes da terapia, uma semana, três e seis meses após a terapia. Quarenta e quatro pacientes foram avaliados pela análise de intenção-em-tratar. RESULTADOS: A média dos escores de dor na escala de Likert foi significativamente reduzida em cada ponto no grupo B. Pacientes no grupo B relataram efetividade clínica aos seis meses com excelente resposta (16), boa resposta (12), melhora mais insatisfatória ou sem modificações (8). Escores VAS a cada tempo após o procedimento foram melhores em comparação ao pré-operatório. No grupo A não foi observada diferença significativa. Pacientes mostraram melhora nos escores de dormir no grupo B. Houve diferença significante no T2 no grupo A que T1. Não houve diferença significante no grupo A nos tempos T3 e T4 após a cirurgia em relação a antes. Comparação entre os grupos: houve diferença significante entre os grupos A e B a cada tempo após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÕES: A destruição da raiz dorsal ganglionar pela adriamicina sob perspectiva guiada pelo C-arm, a cirurgia pontual foi acurada sem qualquer reação adversa ou complicação séria, que pode efetivamente aliviar a dor em pacientes com neuralgia pós-herpética, mas os efeitos de longo prazo necessitam mais estudos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dorsal root ganglion destruction in patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). METHODS: Seventy-two patients with PHN selected were randomly divided into two groups (n=36). Group A was the control group (treated by injection) and group B was the group of dorsa [...] l root ganglion destruction by adriamycin. Visual analog scale scores (VAS), SAS, SF-MPQ scores. Clinical effects and therapy safety were evaluated before therapy, one week, three and six months after therapy. Forty-four patients were available for intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: The average pain scores on the Likert scale were significantly reduced at each point in group B. Patients in group B reported clinical effectiveness at six months as excellent response, good response, improved but unsatisfactory or unchanged 16, 12 and 8.VAS scores at each time point after the operation were lower than that before operation and in group A, there was significant difference. Patients showed significant improvement in sleep scores in group B. There was significant difference at T2 in group A than T1. There was no significant difference in group A at T3, T4 after the operation than that before operation. Between group comparison: there was significant difference between group A and group B at each time point after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Dorsal root ganglion destruction by adriamycin under guidance of C-arm perspective, the puncture operation was accurate without any adverse reaction or serious complications, which could effectively relieve pain of patients with postherpetic neuralgia, but the long-term effects needed further study.

He, Chun-jing; Luo, yi-ran; Nie, hao-xiong.

2012-06-01

123

Characterization of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Flea and Tick Specimens from Northern Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae was obtained from flea pools and individual ticks collected at three sites in northwestern Peru within the focus of an outbreak of febrile disease in humans attributed, in part, to SFG rickettsia infections. Molecular identification of the etiologic agents from these samples was determined after partial sequencing of the 17-kDa common antigen gene (htrA) as well as pairwise nucleotide sequence homology with one or more of the following genes: gltA, ompA, and ompB. Amplification and sequencing of portions of the htrA and ompA genes in pooled samples (2 of 59) taken from fleas identified the pathogen Rickettsia felis. Four tick samples yielded molecular evidence of SFG rickettsiae. Fragments of the ompA (540-bp) and ompB (2,484-bp) genes were amplified from a single Amblyomma maculatum tick (tick 124) and an Ixodes boliviensis tick (tick 163). The phylogenetic relationships between the rickettsiae in these samples and other rickettsiae were determined after comparison of their ompB sequences by the neighbor-joining method. The dendrograms generated showed that the isolates exhibited close homology (97%) to R. aeschlimannii and R. rhipicephali. Significant bootstrap values supported clustering adjacent to this nodule of the SFG rickettsiae. While the agents identified in the flea and tick samples have not been linked to human cases in the area, these results demonstrate for the first time that at least two SFG rickettsia agents were circulating in northern Peru at the time of the outbreak. Furthermore, molecular analysis of sequences derived from the two separate species of hard ticks identified a possibly novel member of the SFG rickettsiae. PMID:15528680

Blair, Patrick J.; Jiang, Ju; Schoeler, George B.; Moron, Cecilia; Anaya, Elizabeth; Cespedes, Manuel; Cruz, Christopher; Felices, Vidal; Guevara, Carolina; Mendoza, Leonardo; Villaseca, Pablo; Sumner, John W.; Richards, Allen L.; Olson, James G.

2004-01-01

124

Rickettsia spp. and coinfections with other pathogenic microorganisms in hard ticks from northern Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsia species are the causative agent of different forms of spotted fever and thus, monitored in a number of prevalence studies. The current study examined the status of ticks from the city of Hanover, Northern Germany, regarding the presence of Rickettsia spp. and coinfections with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In total, 1,089 questing Ixodes ricinus L. ticks were analyzed using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. A duplex quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of Rickettsia spp. and Ixodes spp.-DNA as positive control for successful DNA-isolation was established. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 363 (33.3%) of the 1,089 investigated ticks. Quantification of Rickettsia showed that larvae contained up to 50,000 bacteria, nymphs up to 85 million and adults up to 200 million per tick. Species differentiation was possible in 178 out of 363 Rickettsia positive samples and resulted in a predominant occurrence of R. helvetica (98.9%, 176/178), whereas R. monacensis was rarely found (1.1%, 2/178). Besides detection of Rickettsia, positive ticks were compared with results from previous studies to examine coinfections with B. burgdorferi sl and A. phagocytophilum. The resulting coinfection rates were 9.1% (99/1,089) for B. burgdorferi sl and 2.8% (11/391) for A. phagocytophilum. Triple-infection with Rickettsia spp., B. burgdorferi sl, and A. phagocytophilum occurred in 5 (1.3%) out of 391 ticks. The current study is the first presenting quantitative data concerning the load of Ixodes ticks with Rickettsia individuals. PMID:22679887

Schicht, Sabine; Schnieder, Thomas; Strube, Christina

2012-05-01

125

Dissemination of spotted fever rickettsia agents in Europe by migrating birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migratory birds are known to play a role as long-distance vectors for many microorganisms. To investigate whether this is true of rickettsial agents as well, we characterized tick infestation and gathered ticks from 13,260 migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1127 Ixodes spp. ticks were removed from these birds and the extracted DNA from 957 of them was available for analyses. The DNA was assayed for detection of Rickettsia spp. using real-time PCR, followed by DNA sequencing for species identification. Rickettsia spp. organisms were detected in 108 (11.3%) of the ticks. Rickettsia helvetica, a spotted fever rickettsia associated with human infections, was predominant among the PCR-positive samples. In 9 (0.8%) of the ticks, the partial sequences of 17kDa and ompB genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia monacensis, an etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever-like illness, previously described in southern Europe as well as to the Rickettsia sp.IrITA3 strain. For 15 (1.4%) of the ticks, the 17kDa, ompB, gltA and ompA genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia sp. strain Davousti, Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, all closely phylogenetically related, the former previously found in Amblyomma tholloni ticks in Africa and previously not detected in Ixodes spp. ticks. The infestation prevalence of ticks infected with rickettsial organisms was four times higher among ground foraging birds than among other bird species, but the two groups were equally competent in transmitting Rickettsia species. The birds did not seem to serve as reservoir hosts for Rickettsia spp., but in one case it seems likely that the bird was rickettsiemic and that the ticks had acquired the bacteria from the blood of the bird. In conclusion, migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Rickettsia species and contribute to the geographic distribution of spotted fever rickettsial agents and their diseases. PMID:20052286

Elfving, Karin; Olsen, Björn; Bergström, Sven; Waldenström, Jonas; Lundkvist, Ake; Sjöstedt, Anders; Mejlon, Hans; Nilsson, Kenneth

2010-01-01

126

Establishment of a Replicating Plasmid in Rickettsia prowazekii  

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Rickettsia prowazekii, the causative agent of epidemic typhus, grows only within the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. This obligate intracellular lifestyle has restricted the genetic analysis of this pathogen and critical tools, such as replicating plasmid vectors, have not been developed for this species. Although replicating plasmids have not been reported in R. prowazekii, the existence of well-characterized plasmids in several less pathogenic rickettsial species provides an opportunity to expand the genetic systems available for the study of this human pathogen. Competent R. prowazekii were transformed with pRAM18dRGA, a 10.3 kb vector derived from pRAM18 of R. amblyommii. A plasmid-containing population of R. prowazekii was obtained following growth under antibiotic selection, and the rickettsial plasmid was maintained extrachromosomally throughout multiple passages. The transformant population exhibited a generation time comparable to that of the wild type strain with a copy number of approximately 1 plasmid per rickettsia. These results demonstrate for the first time that a plasmid can be maintained in R. prowazekii, providing an important genetic tool for the study of this obligate intracellular pathogen. PMID:22529927

Wood, David O.; Hines, Andria; Tucker, Aimee M.; Woodard, Andrew; Driskell, Lonnie O.; Burkhardt, Nicole Y.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

2012-01-01

127

Quantitative study of Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus organs.  

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Rickettsia massiliae, belonging to the spotted fever group of Rickettsia, is a human pathogen causing a similar course of disease to that caused by R. conorii, the originally recognized etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever. In view of this similarity, we performed an ultrastructural study of R. massiliae in organs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, in order to advance knowledge of the complex dynamics at the tick-pathogen interface in rickettsioses. Adult R. massiliae-infected Rh. sanguineus ticks were fed on uninfected Hartley strain guinea pigs, and five females were collected daily throughout their feeding period up to day 6, and analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and electron microscopy. An increase in rickettsial content was observed in the salivary glands, particularly in the first two days of feeding, and a plateau was observed between days 3 and 6. Rickettsial organisms were observed in all tick organs analyzed, in higher numbers in the fed state, and statistically significant differences were observed in measurements of the periplasmic layer of R. massiliae in salivary glands of fed and unfed Rh. sanguineus ticks, with increased thickness in the former case. This study provides insight into the interface between R. massiliae and Rh. sanguineus ticks, highlighting the need for analysis of R. massiliae to fully ascertain its place as an important pathogenic agent of a spotted fever rickettsiosis. PMID:25108779

Milhano, Natacha; Popov, Vsevolod; Vilhena, Manuela; Bouyer, Donald H; de Sousa, Rita; Walker, David H

2014-10-01

128

Survey of rickettsiae in humans, dogs, horses, and ticks in Northern Paraná, BrazilLevantamento de riquétsias em humanos, cães, cavalos e carrapatos no Norte do Paraná, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever is a disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, and is transmitted to humans and animals by Amblyomma spp. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiology of spotted fever group rickettsiae in rural areas of Northern Parana. In Alvorada do Sul municipality, 88 humans, 83 dogs, and 18 horses were sampled, and in Arapongas municipality, 138 humans, 90 dogs and 18 horses were studied. All the sera were tested by IFA in which R. rickettsii and R. parkeri were used as antigens, considering titers ? 64 positive. Ticks collected from dogs and horses were tested by PCR. In Alvorada do Sul, 24% and 16.1% of humans, 55.6% and 22.2% of horses and, 22.9% and 18.1% of dogs were seropositive for R rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. In Arapongas, 9.4% and 4.3% of the humans, 5.6% and 5.6% of horses and, 13.3% and 12.2% of the dogs were seropositive for R. rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. PCR detected seven ticks with gltA sequences that showed similarity with R. bellii. The presence of antibodies to R. parkeri and R. rickettsii in dogs, horses and humans demonstrates a potential risk for spotted fever group rickettsiae in these areas.Febre Maculosa Brasileira é uma doença causada por Rickettsia rickettsii, e é transmitida para humanos e animais por Amblyomma spp. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia de riquétsias do grupo da febre em áreas rurais do Norte do Paraná. No município de Alvorada do Sul, 88 pessoas, 83 cães e 18 cavalos foram amostrados, e no município de Arapongas, 138 seres humanos, 90 cães e 18 cavalos foram estudados. Todos os soros foram testados por IFI com R. rickettsii e R. parkeri como antígenos, considerando-se os títulos ? 64 positivos. Carrapatos coletados de cães e cavalos foram testados por PCR. Em Alvorada do Sul, 24% e 16,1% dos seres humanos, 55,6% e 22,2% de cavalos e, 22,9% e 18,1% de cães foram soropositivos para R. rickettsii e R. parkeri, respectivamente. Em Arapongas, 9,4% e 4,3% dos seres humanos, 5,6% e 5,6% de cavalos e, 13,3% e 12,2% dos cães foram soropositivos para R. rickettsii e R. parkeri, respectivamente. A PCR detectou 7 carrapatos com seqüências gltA que mostrou semelhança com R. bellii. A presença de anticorpos para R. rickettsii e R. parkeri em cães, cavalos e seres humanos demonstra um risco potencial para riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa nestas áreas.

John Stephen Dumler

2011-10-01

129

Detection of rickettsia parkeri from within Piura, Peru, and the first reported presence of Candidatus rickettsia andeanae in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic farm animals (n=145) were sampled for the presence of ectoparasites in northwestern Peru during March, 2008. Ninety domestic animals (62%) were positive for the presence of an ectoparasite(s) and produced a total collection of the following: 728 ticks [Amblyomma maculatum, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Otobius megnini], 12 lice (Haematopinus suis), and 3 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). A Rickettsia genus-specific qPCR assay was performed on nucleic acid preparations of the collected ectoparasites that resulted in 5% (37/743, 35 ticks and 2 fleas) of the ectoparasites positive for the presence of Rickettsia. DNA from the positive individual ticks was tested with 2 other qPCR assays for the presence of the ompB gene in Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae or Rickettsia parkeri. Candidatus R. andeanae was found in 25 A. maculatum ticks and in two Rh. sanguineus ticks, whereas R. parkeri was detected in 6 A. maculatum ticks. Two A. maculatum were co-infected with both Candidatus R. andeanae and R. parkeri. Rickettsia felis was detected in 2 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, by multilocus sequence typing of the 17-kD antigen and ompA genes. These findings expand the geographic range of R. parkeri to include Peru as well as expand the natural arthropod vector of Candidatus R. andeanae to include Rhipicephalus sanguineus. PMID:23488453

Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Florin, David; Felices, Vidal; Pozo, Edwar J; Graf, Paul C F; Burrus, Roxanne G; Richards, Allen L

2013-07-01

130

Molecular detection of Rickettsia species in Amblyomma ticks collected from snakes in Thailand.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 5, ?. 6 (2014), s. 632-640. ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick * Rickettsia spp. * Amblyomma varanense * Amblyomma helvolum * Snake * Thailand Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.878, year: 2013

Sumrandee, C.; Hirunkanokpun, S.; Doornbos, K.; Kitthawee, S.; Baimai, V.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Trinachartvanit, W.; Ahantarig, A.

2014-01-01

131

Coexistência de linfadenite axilar tuberculosa e metástase ganglionar de carcinoma lobular de mama: relato de um caso Coexistence of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis and ganglionic metastasis in mammary lobular carcinoma: a case report  

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Full Text Available Relato do caso de uma mulher com 83 anos apresentando nódulo e retração de pele na mama direita com oito meses de evolução. Ao exame físico verificou-se nódulo sólido de 5 cm, localizado no quadrante súpero-lateral de mama direita, associado a presença de retração de pele correspondente e linfonodos axilares não coalescentes ipsilaterais. O resultado da mamografia evidenciou nódulo de 4 cm de diâmetro irregular no quadrante súpero-lateral da mama direita (bi-rads V. Estádio clínico: T2N1M0 (IIB. O tratamento cirúrgico incluiu mastectomia radical modificada (à Maden com dissecção axilar níveis I, II e III. Avaliação histopatológica demonstrou a presença de carcinoma lobular infiltrativo que mediu 2,5 cm (T2, presença de linfadenite granulomatosa causada por tuberculose em linfonodos dos níveis I, II e III, associados a metástase de carcinoma lobular em um único nível linfático, nível I. Estádio patológico: pT2pN1aM0. A paciente recebeu tratamento para tuberculose ganglionar com rifampicina, isoniazida e pirazinamida por um ano. Foram solicitados receptores hormonais, os quais mostraram-se positivos, sendo feito terapia adjuvante com tamoxifeno. Durante o primeiro ano de seguimento a paciente evoluiu bem, sem sinais de recidiva local ou metástases a distância.Report of a case of an 83-year-old woman presenting a nodule and skin retraction in the right breast for eight months. On physical examination, a solid nodule of 5 cm was observed, located in the upper-lateral quadrant of the right breast, associated with skin retraction and ipsilateral lymph nodes. Mammographic findings showed irregularly limited nodules of 4 cm in the upper-lateral quadrant of the right breast (bi-rads V. Clinical staging: T2N1M0 (IIB. Surgical treatment included a modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection levels I, II, and III. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated the presence of an infiltrating lobular carcinoma measuring 2.5 cm (T2, presence of granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by tuberculosis in level I, II, and III lymph nodes, associated with lobular carcinoma metastasis in a single level I lymph node. Pathologic staging: pT2pN1aM0. The treatment for the axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis was done with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide for one year. Hormone receptors were positive, and adjuvant therapy was initiated with tamoxifen. During the first year of follow-up the patient had no signal of local recurrence or distant metastases.

José Juvenal Linhares

2005-07-01

132

Coexistência de linfadenite axilar tuberculosa e metástase ganglionar de carcinoma lobular de mama: relato de um caso / Coexistence of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis and ganglionic metastasis in mammary lobular carcinoma: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Relato do caso de uma mulher com 83 anos apresentando nódulo e retração de pele na mama direita com oito meses de evolução. Ao exame físico verificou-se nódulo sólido de 5 cm, localizado no quadrante súpero-lateral de mama direita, associado a presença de retração de pele correspondente e linfonodos [...] axilares não coalescentes ipsilaterais. O resultado da mamografia evidenciou nódulo de 4 cm de diâmetro irregular no quadrante súpero-lateral da mama direita (bi-rads V). Estádio clínico: T2N1M0 (IIB). O tratamento cirúrgico incluiu mastectomia radical modificada (à Maden) com dissecção axilar níveis I, II e III. Avaliação histopatológica demonstrou a presença de carcinoma lobular infiltrativo que mediu 2,5 cm (T2), presença de linfadenite granulomatosa causada por tuberculose em linfonodos dos níveis I, II e III, associados a metástase de carcinoma lobular em um único nível linfático, nível I. Estádio patológico: pT2pN1aM0. A paciente recebeu tratamento para tuberculose ganglionar com rifampicina, isoniazida e pirazinamida por um ano. Foram solicitados receptores hormonais, os quais mostraram-se positivos, sendo feito terapia adjuvante com tamoxifeno. Durante o primeiro ano de seguimento a paciente evoluiu bem, sem sinais de recidiva local ou metástases a distância. Abstract in english Report of a case of an 83-year-old woman presenting a nodule and skin retraction in the right breast for eight months. On physical examination, a solid nodule of 5 cm was observed, located in the upper-lateral quadrant of the right breast, associated with skin retraction and ipsilateral lymph nodes. [...] Mammographic findings showed irregularly limited nodules of 4 cm in the upper-lateral quadrant of the right breast (bi-rads V). Clinical staging: T2N1M0 (IIB). Surgical treatment included a modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection levels I, II, and III. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated the presence of an infiltrating lobular carcinoma measuring 2.5 cm (T2), presence of granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by tuberculosis in level I, II, and III lymph nodes, associated with lobular carcinoma metastasis in a single level I lymph node. Pathologic staging: pT2pN1aM0. The treatment for the axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis was done with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide for one year. Hormone receptors were positive, and adjuvant therapy was initiated with tamoxifen. During the first year of follow-up the patient had no signal of local recurrence or distant metastases.

José Juvenal, Linhares; Eduardo Camargo, Millen; Marcelo, Antonini; Pedro César, Fagundes; Pedro Gustavo, Falcão; Joaquim Teodoro de, Araújo Neto.

2005-07-01

133

Plasmids of the pRM/pRF Family Occur in Diverse Rickettsia Species? †  

OpenAIRE

The recent discoveries of the pRF and pRM plasmids of Rickettsia felis and R. monacensis have contravened the long-held dogma that plasmids are not present in the bacterial genus Rickettsia (Rickettsiales; Rickettsiaceae). We report the existence of plasmids in R. helvetica, R. peacockii, R. amblyommii, and R. massiliae isolates from ixodid ticks and in an R. hoogstraalii isolate from an argasid tick. R. peacockii and four isolates of R. amblyommii from widely separated geographic locations c...

Baldridge, Gerald D.; Burkhardt, Nicole Y.; Felsheim, Roderick F.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

2007-01-01

134

Geographic Association of Rickettsia felis-Infected Opossums with Human Murine Typhus, Texas  

OpenAIRE

Application of molecular diagnostic technology in the past 10 years has resulted in the discovery of several new species of pathogenic rickettsiae, including Rickettsia felis. As more sequence information for rickettsial genes has become available, the data have been used to reclassify rickettsial species and to develop new diagnostic tools for analysis of mixed rickettsial pathogens. R. felis has been associated with opossums and their fleas in Texas and California. Because R. felis can caus...

Boostrom, Ardys; Beier, Magda S.; Macaluso, Jackie A.; Macaluso, Kevin R.; Sprenger, Daniel; Hayes, Jack; Radulovic, Suzan; Azad, Abdu F.

2002-01-01

135

Typhus and typhuslike rickettsiae associated with opossums and their fleas in Los Angeles County, California.  

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The recent discovery of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) infected with a typhuslike rickettsia (designated the ELB agent) raises the question of whether similar rickettsial infections exist in wild cat flea populations. We verified the presence of the ELB agent and Rickettsia typhi in urban and suburban areas of Los Angeles, Calif. Opossums trapped in close proximity to the residences of human murine typhus cases in Los Angeles county and other areas within the city of Los Angeles were teste...

Williams, S. G.; Sacci, J. B.; Schriefer, M. E.; Andersen, E. M.; Fujioka, K. K.; Sorvillo, F. J.; Barr, A. R.; Azad, A. F.

1992-01-01

136

Rickettsia monteiroi sp. nov., infecting the tick Amblyomma incisum in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free-living adult Amblyomma incisum ticks were collected in an Atlantic rainforest area at Intervales State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. From an A. incisum specimen, rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Rickettsial isolation was confirmed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and PCRs targeting portions of the rickettsial genes gltA, htrA, rrs, and sca1 on infected cells. Fragments of 1,089, 457, 1,362, and 443 nucleotides of the gltA, htrA, rrs, and sca1 genes, respectively, were sequenced. By BLAST analysis, the partial sequence of rrs of the A. incisum rickettsial isolate was closest to the corresponding sequence of Rickettsia bellii (99.1% similarity). The gltA partial sequence was closest to the corresponding sequences of "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae" (96.1% similarity) and Rickettsia canadensis (95.8% similarity). The htrA partial sequence was closest to the corresponding sequence of R. canadensis (89.8% similarity). The sca1 partial sequence was closest to the corresponding sequence of R. canadensis (95.2% similarity). Since our rickettsial isolate was genetically distinct from other Rickettsia species, we propose a new species designated Rickettsia monteiroi sp. nov. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that R. monteiroi belongs to the canadensis group within the genus Rickettsia, together with the species R. canadensis and "Candidatus R. tarasevichiae". Little or no antibody cross-reaction was observed between sera of R. monteiroi-inoculated guinea pigs and R. bellii-, Rickettsia rickettsii-, or R. canadensis-inoculated guinea pigs. PMID:21685169

Pacheco, Richard C; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Marcili, Arlei; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J; Szabó, Matias P J; Catroxo, Márcia H B; Bouyer, Donald H; Labruna, Marcelo B

2011-08-01

137

Analysis of Fluorescent Protein Expression in Transformants of Rickettsia monacensis, an Obligate Intracellular Tick Symbiont  

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We developed and applied transposon-based transformation vectors for molecular manipulation and analysis of spotted fever group rickettsiae, which are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect ticks and, in some cases, mammals. Using the Epicentre EZ::TN transposon system, we designed transposons for simultaneous expression of a reporter gene and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) resistance marker. Transposomes (transposon-transposase complexes) were electroporated into Rickettsia m...

Baldridge, Gerald D.; Burkhardt, Nicole; Herron, Michael J.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

2005-01-01

138

Characterization of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Flea and Tick Specimens from Northern Peru  

OpenAIRE

Evidence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae was obtained from flea pools and individual ticks collected at three sites in northwestern Peru within the focus of an outbreak of febrile disease in humans attributed, in part, to SFG rickettsia infections. Molecular identification of the etiologic agents from these samples was determined after partial sequencing of the 17-kDa common antigen gene (htrA) as well as pairwise nucleotide sequence homology with one or more of the following genes: ...

Blair, Patrick J.; Jiang, Ju; Schoeler, George B.; Moron, Cecilia; Anaya, Elizabeth; Cespedes, Manuel; Cruz, Christopher; Felices, Vidal; Guevara, Carolina; Mendoza, Leonardo; Villaseca, Pablo; Sumner, John W.; Richards, Allen L.; Olson, James G.

2004-01-01

139

Primary isolation of spotted fever group rickettsiae from Amblyomma cooperi collected from Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This paper reports the first isolation of a spotted fever group rickettsia from an Amblyomma cooperi ixodid collected from a capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) in an endemic area of spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Isolation was performed in Vero cell culture an [...] d submitted to immunofluorescence, using antibody from Rickettsia rickettsii-positive human serum.

Elba Regina Sampaio de, Lemos; Heloísa Helena Barbosa, Melles; Sílvia, Colombo; Raimundo Diogo, Machado; José Rodrigues, Coura; Maria Angélica Arpon, Guimarães; Selênio R, Sanseverino; Aline, Moura.

1996-06-01

140

Feeding by Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Enhances Rickettsia parkeri (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection in the Skin  

OpenAIRE

Rickettsia parkeri Luckman (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), a member of the spotted fever group of Rickettsia, is the tick-borne causative agent of a newly recognized, eschar-associated rickettsiosis. Because of its relatively recent designation as a pathogen, few studies have examined the pathogenesis of transmission of R. parkeri to the vertebrate host. To further elucidate the role of tick feeding in rickettsial infection of vertebrates, nymphal Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) w...

Grasperge, Britton J.; Morgan, Timothy W.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Peterson, Karin E.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

141

Spotted fever group rickettsiae or Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes cookei (Ixodidae) in Connecticut.  

OpenAIRE

Immatures and females of Ixodes cookei, a hard-bodied tick, were collected from woodchucks and other mammals in the northeastern United States and examined for spotted fever group rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi. Of the 93 nymphs analyzed by a hemolymph test, 4 (4.3%) harbored rickettsiae. Six (15%) of 40 females were also infected. All infected ticks were collected from woodchucks in Connecticut. Indirect fluorescent antibody staining of midgut tissues from 128 nymphs revealed B. burgdo...

Magnarelli, L. A.; Swihart, R. K.

1991-01-01

142

Detection of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wild and domestic mammals from the Private Reserve Cerro Chucanti and neighboring towns, Panamá (2007-2010 Detección de Rickettsia sp. en ectoparásitos de animales domésticos y silvestres de la Reserva Natural Privada Cerro Chucantí y comunidades aledañas, Panamá (2007-2010  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Ectoparasites are the main vectors of rickettsiosis. In Panama, have limited data on the arthropods that may be considered vectors or reservoirs.
Objectives. The aim is to present data on the presence of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wildlife and domestic animals in the Private Natural Reserve Cerro Chucantí and neighboring villages.
Materials and methods. We evaluated 9 humans, 95 domestic mammals and 48 wild. From these, were 21 species of ectoparasites, including fleas, lice, ticks and mites, which were preserved in 95% ethanol. Genetic material was extracted from ticks and fleas to be analyzed by molecular techniques in the detection of Rickettsia.
Results. A total of 425 were carried out PCR reactions, of which 270 were positive and 155 negative. The positive, 86 PCR amplified for the gltA gene (55% of positives of these also amplified 41 (26% for ompA. DNA of Rickettsia amblyommii was found in horses ticks (Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor nitens, dogs ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and free living nymph in forest. Adicionally, DNA of R. felis was found in dogs fleas Ctenocephalides felis.
Conclusions. Detected the presence of R. amblyommii and R. felis in ticks and fleas of domestic animals of the villages near Cerro Chucanti, even if they were unable to find genetic material from Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wildlife.

Introducción. Los ectoparásitos son los principales vectores de rickettsiosis. En Panamá se tienen escasos datos sobre los artrópodos que pudieran ser considerados vectores o reservorios.
Objetivos. Presentar datos sobre la presencia de Rickettsia en ectoparásitos de fauna silvestre y animales domésticos en la Reserva Natural Privada Cerro Chucantí y poblados vecinos.
Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 9 personas, 95 mamíferos domésticos y 48 silvestres. Los animales domésticos fueron revisados con anuencia del propietario, mientras que para la captura de fauna silvestre se capturaron con trampas Sherman y Tomahawk. De estos se extrajeron 21 especies de ectoparásitos: pulgas, piojos, garrapatas y otros ácaros, los cuales fueron preservados en etanol al 95%. Se extrajo material genético de garrapatas y pulgas para ser analizados por técnicas moleculares en la detección de Rickettsia.
Resultados. Se realizaron 425 reacciones de PCR, de los cuales 270 resultaron negativos y 155 positivos. De los positivos, 86 amplificaron para el gen gltA (55% de los positivos, de estos también amplificaron 41 (26% para ompA. Se encontró material genético de Rickettsia amblyommii, en garrapatas de caballos (Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor nitens, de perros (Rhipicephalus sanguineus y ninfas de Amblyomma recolectadas en el bosque. Adicionalmente se detectó ADN de R. felis en pulgas Ctenocephalides felis de perros.
Conclusiones. Se pudo detectar la presencia de R. amblyommii y R. felis en garrapatas y pulgas de animales domésticos de los poblados cercanos a Cerro Chucanti, aun cuando no se pudo encontrar material genético de Rickettsia en ectoparásitos de fauna silvestre.

Sergio Eduardo Bermúdez

2011-12-01

143

Identification and localization of a Rickettsia sp. in Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insects that harbor "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum," an obligatory symbiotic bacterium which is housed in a special organ called the bacteriome. These insects are also home for a diverse facultative microbial community which may include Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Fritchea, Wolbachia, and Cardinium spp. In this study, the bacteria associated with a B biotype of the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci were characterized using molecular fingerprinting techniques, and a Rickettsia sp. was detected for the first time in this insect family. Rickettsia sp. distribution, transmission and localization were studied using PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH). Rickettsia was found in all 20 Israeli B. tabaci populations screened but not in all individuals within each population. A FISH analysis of B. tabaci eggs, nymphs, and adults revealed a unique concentration of Rickettsia around the gut and follicle cells, as well as a random distribution in the hemolymph. We postulate that the Rickettsia enters the oocyte together with the bacteriocytes, leaves these symbiont-housing cells when the egg is laid, multiplies and spreads throughout the egg during embryogenesis and, subsequently, disperses throughout the body of the hatching nymph, excluding the bacteriomes. Although the role Rickettsia plays in the biology of the whitefly is currently unknown, the vertical transmission on the one hand and the partial within-population infection on the other suggest a phenotype that is advantageous under certain conditions but may be deleterious enough to prevent fixation under others. PMID:16672513

Gottlieb, Yuval; Ghanim, Murad; Chiel, Elad; Gerling, Dan; Portnoy, Vitaly; Steinberg, Shimon; Tzuri, Galil; Horowitz, A Rami; Belausov, Eduard; Mozes-Daube, Neta; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Gershon, Moshe; Gal, Shunit; Katzir, Nurit; Zchori-Fein, Einat

2006-05-01

144

Detection of a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia in the gophertortoise tick.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gophertortoise tick, Amblyomma tuberculatum (Marx), is distributed throughout the southeastern United States, and its immature life stages have been reported to occasionally bite humans. Here we report detection of a novel spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia in A. tuberculatum ticks collected in the southern United States. Among questing ticks collected in Georgia, 10 pools of larvae were identified as gophertortoise ticks, A. tuberculatum. Each of these samples was positive for SFG Rickettsiae. The restriction fragment-length polymorphism profiles were identical to each other, but distinct from those of other rickettsiae previously found in Amblyomma spp. ticks. Partial genetic characterization of the novel agent was achieved by sequencing the 17 kDa, gltA, ompB, ompA, rpoB, and sca4 genes. Analysis of a concatenated tree of four genes (gltA, ompB, ompA, and sca4) demonstrates close relatedness of the detected Rickettsia to several SFG Rickettsia spp. The identical rickettsial DNA was detected in 50 and 70% of adult A. tuberculatum ticks from Mississippi and Florida, respectively. The results indicate wide distribution of a novel Rickettsia, capability for transovarial transmission, and high prevalence in tested tick populations. PMID:22679890

Zemtsova, Galina E; Gleim, Elizabeth; Yabsley, Michael J; Conner, L Mike; Mann, Tom; Brown, Mary D; Wendland, Lori; Levin, Michael L

2012-05-01

145

Multimethylation of Rickettsia OmpB catalyzed by lysine methyltransferases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methylation of rickettsial OmpB (outer membrane protein B) has been implicated in bacterial virulence. Rickettsial methyltransferases RP789 and RP027-028 are the first biochemically characterized methyltransferases to catalyze methylation of outer membrane protein (OMP). Methylation in OMP remains poorly understood. Using semiquantitative integrated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, we characterize methylation of (i) recombinantly expressed fragments of Rickettsia typhi OmpB exposed in vitro to trimethyltransferases of Rickettsia prowazekii RP027-028 and of R. typhi RT0101 and to monomethyltransferases of R. prowazekii RP789 and of R. typhi RT0776, and (ii) native OmpBs purified from R. typhi and R. prowazekii strains Breinl, RP22, and Madrid E. We found that in vitro trimethylation occurs at relatively specific locations in OmpB with consensus motifs, KX(G/A/V/I)N and KT(I/L/F), whereas monomethylation is pervasive throughout OmpB. Native OmpB from virulent R. typhi contains mono- and trimethyllysines at locations well correlated with methylation in recombinant OmpB catalyzed by methyltransferases in vitro. Native OmpBs from highly virulent R. prowazekii strains Breinl and RP22 contain multiple clusters of trimethyllysine in contrast to a single cluster in OmpB from mildly virulent R. typhi. Furthermore, OmpB from the avirulent strain Madrid E contains mostly monomethyllysine and no trimethyllysine. The native OmpB from Madrid E was minimally trimethylated by RT0101 or RP027-028, consistent with a processive mechanism of trimethylation. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of methylation of an OMP at the molecular level and may lead to uncovering the link between OmpB methylation and rickettsial virulence. PMID:24497633

Abeykoon, Amila; Wang, Guanghui; Chao, Chien-Chung; Chock, P Boon; Gucek, Marjan; Ching, Wei-Mei; Yang, David C H

2014-03-14

146

Spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia raoultii--case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of rickettsial eschar-associated spotted fever, most probable due to Rickettsia raoultii, an emerging pathogen, which was previously described in patients with tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), also called Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). The pathogenicity of R. raoultii is not well established. The survey of ticks from Poland (Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus) revealed that R. raoultii occur in all regions of Poland and predominate over other rickettsiae of spotted fever group--R. slovaca and R. helvetica. A 17-year-old otherwise healthy girl was admitted to Department of Zoonotic and Tropical Diseases because of fever, eschar and rash. Multiple disseminated small lesions were present on the skin of her head, trunk and limbs, also palms and soles, and mucosa of her lips. The majority of them had necrotic center slightly elevated with redness around, single ones had vesicular appearance. The lymph nodes on the right side of her neck were enlarged. Laboratory investigations revealed: leukopenia (with 22% of bands in differential), thromocytopenia, slightly elevated C-Reactive Protein, as well as procalcytonin. The quick improvement was observed with a treatment with ceftriaxone and doxycycline. Two weeks after the onset of disease, IgG serum antibodies titer of 128 reacting with R. rickettsii antigen only was detected. IFA tests with six SFG rickettsial species demonstrated the strongest reaction with R. raoultii group antigens in a titer of 64. The case we report, resembling boutonneuse fever, with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and septic parameters indicates possible higher virulence of R. raoultii than it was previously observed. PMID:23101229

Switaj, Karolina; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Borkowski, Piotr; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanislawa; Olszynska-Krowicka, Maria

2012-01-01

147

Molecular detection of the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, three tick-borne pathogenic Rickettsia species have been reported in different regions of Argentina, namely, R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. massiliae. However, there are no reports available for the presence of tick-borne pathogens from the northeastern region of Argentina. This study evaluated the infection with Rickettsia species of Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from vegetation and feeding from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in northeastern Argentina. From a total of 374 A. dubitatum ticks collected and evaluated by PCR for the presence of rickettsial DNA, 19 were positive for the presence of Rickettsia bellii DNA, two were positive for Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI, and one was positive for the pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the presence of the human pathogen Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI in Argentina. Moreover, our findings posit A. dubitatum as a potential vector for this pathogenic strain of Rickettsia. PMID:25700048

Monje, Lucas D; Nava, Santiago; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Correa, Ana I; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

2015-02-01

148

The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly Against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context dependent roles such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies leading to host death and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects. PMID:25217020

Hendry, Tory A; Hunter, Martha S; Baltrus, David A

2014-09-12

149

[Analysis of fatty acid composition of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated in China by gas chromatography].  

Science.gov (United States)

In present paper, fatty acid composition of seven Chinese isolates of SFG rickettsiae and six prototype strains of SFG rickettsiae were analyzed by GC-MS. Tested prototype strains of SFG rickettsiae were R. sibirica (strains 232 and 246), R. conorii (Simko), R. rickettsi (R), R. akari (Kaplan), R. australis (W58); Chinese isolates were An-84, Se-85, W-88 (human strain), MT-84, FT-84 (D. nuttalli strain), TO-85 (ova of nuttalli) and Chinese reference strain -JH-74 (D. nuttalli). They were propagated in yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs and purified by centrifugation in a 30%-36%-42% discontinuous renografin density gradient. The fatty acid composition of selected strains of SFG rickettsiae was analyzed by gas chromatography, and then comparison being carried out by single linkage on mini-computer. Identification of the strains was performed based on the results obtained from GC-MS. Results showed that the fatty acid profiles of all the isolates from China were quantitatively similar to that of R. sibirica and quite different from other prototype strains of SFG rickettsiae. PMID:8256442

Zhou, L; Fan, M; Chen, J; Cai, H; Zhou, F; Zhu, H

1993-08-01

150

Rhipicephalus sanguineus: vector of a new spotted fever group rickettsia in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rickettsia related to but distinct from the spotted fever agent, Rickettsia rickettsii, has been detected in 167 (18.9%) of 884 Rhipicephalus sanguineus taken off dogs in central and northern Mississippi. The organisms could readily be isolated in male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), where it produced massive infections in the tissues of tunica vaginalis. It was practically nonpathogenic for male guinea pigs, although inoculation of these animals with infected tunica vaginalis of voles afforded in 30 of 38 instances solid immunity to challenge with virulent R. rickettsii. The Rhipicephalus rickettsia grew well in monolayers of chicken embryo fibroblast, Vero, mouse L, and HeLa cells. Cytopathogenic effects were minimal unless large concentrations of rickettsiae were used as inocula. It also could be established in embryonated hen eggs but only after injection of massive doses of L cell-propagated organisms. Serological tests (complement fixation, microagglutination and/or micro immunofluorescence) indicated that the newly described Rickettsia belongs to the spotted fever group but differs from R. rickettsii, R. akari, and R. conorii. Antigenic differences were also demonstrated by direct fluorescence microscopy as well as by vaccine potency and mouse-toxin neutralization tests. PMID:806533

Burgdorfer, W; Sexton, D J; Gerloff, R K; Anacker, R L; Philip, R N; Thomas, L A

1975-07-01

151

Identification of rickettsiae from wild rats and cat fleas in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsioses are emerging zoonotic diseases reported worldwide. In spite of the serological evidence of spotted fever group rickettsioses in febrile patients in Malaysia, limited studies have been conducted to identify the animal reservoirs and vectors of rickettsioses. This study investigated the presence of rickettsiae in the tissue homogenates of 95 wild rats and 589 animal ectoparasites. Using PCR assays targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA), rickettsial DNA was detected in the tissue homogenates of 13 (13.7%) wild rats. Sequence analysis of the gltA amplicons showed 98.6-100% similarity with those of Rickettsia honei/R. conorii/R. raoultii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae). Sequence analysis of outer membrane protein A gene (ompA) identified Rickettsia sp. TCM1 strain from two rats. No rickettsia was detected from Laelaps mites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa ticks, and Felicola subrostratus lice in this study. R. felis was identified from 32.2% of 177 Ctenocephalides felis fleas. Sequence analysis of the gltA amplicons revealed two genotypes of R. felis (Rf31 and RF2125) in the fleas. As wild rats and cat fleas play an important role in the enzoonotic maintenance of rickettsiae, control of rodent and flea populations may be able to reduce transmission of rickettsioses in the local setting. PMID:25171613

Tay, S T; Mokhtar, A S; Low, K C; Mohd Zain, S N; Jeffery, J; Abdul Aziz, N; Kho, K L

2014-08-01

152

Detection of spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks from Zhejiang Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick species distribution and prevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks were investigated in Zhejiang Province, China in 2010 and 2011. PCR was used to detect SFGR and positive amplicons were sequenced, compared to published sequences and phylogenic analysis was performed using MEGA 4.0. A total of 292 adult ticks of ten species were captured and 7.5 % (22/292) of the ticks were PCR-positive for SFG Rickettsia. The PCR-positive rates were 5.5 % (6/110) for Haemaphysalis longicornis, 3.6 % (1/28) for Amblyomma testudinarium and 16 % (15/94) for Ixodes sinensis, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA genes detected in ticks indicated that there are two dominating groups of SFGR. Sequences of group one were closely related to Rickettsia monacensis, whereas sequences of group two were closest related to Rickettsia heilongjiangensis and Rickettsia japonica, which are human pathogens. Our findings underline the importance of these ticks in public health surveillance in Zhejiang Province, China. PMID:25633265

Sun, Jimin; Lin, Junfen; Gong, Zhenyu; Chang, Yue; Ye, Xiaodong; Gu, Shiping; Pang, Weilong; Wang, Chengwei; Zheng, Xiaohua; Hou, Juan; Ling, Feng; Shi, Xuguang; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Zhiping; Lv, Huakun; Chai, Chengliang

2015-03-01

153

Thoracic radiographic findings in dogs infected with Rickettsia rickettsii  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixteen beagle dogs were injected intradermally with Rickettsia rickettsii. The dogs were divided into four groups (n = 4): 1) infected, non-treated control; 2) infected, treated with doxycycline; 3) infected, treated with doxycycline and an anti-inflammatory dose of corticosteroid; and 4) infected, treated with doxycycline and an immunosuppressive dose of corticosteroid. Thoracic radiographs were made and ocular fluorescein angiography was performed on days 6, 10, 17 post-inoculation. A mild interstitial lung opacity was noted in 4/16 dogs on day 6, 5/16 on day 10 and 3/16 on day 17 post-inoculation. Increased retinal vascular permeability was noted in 8/16 dogs on day 6, 3/16 on day 10 and 1/16 on day 17 post-inoculation. Correlation between the presence of radiographic and retinal lesions was not significant (p = 0.08). Eleven, naturally infected, dogs with thoracic radiographs and a final diagnosis of RMSF were also evaluated. Four of the 11 dogs had an unstructured interstitial pattern. Dogs with acute, experimentally-infected or naturally-occurring RMSF may have subtle pulmonary changes characterized by an unstructured interstitial pattern

154

Rickettsia-like mitochondrial motility in Drosophila spermiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is generally accepted that mitochondria and chloroplasts are descended in evolution from bacteria, the potential contributions of their endosymbiont ancestors to specialized cellular pathways in development remain largely unexplored. Here we show that a motile behavior of mitochondria in Drosophila spermiogenesis is strikingly similar to the actin-based "comet tail" motility of several bacteria. A combination of electron and fluorescence microscopy demonstrates major reorganization and movement of mitochondria ahead of, and in close association with, dense conical arrays of actin filaments in the sperm individualization complex, which mediates the resolution of male germline syncytia into separate gametes. Because of several other parallels between the movement of the individualization complex and the motility behavior of some rickettsiae, the bacterial family from which mitochondria are most likely descended, this motility phenomenon is a strong candidate for a true vestige of endosymbiont behavior in contemporary mitochondria. The potential conservation of an ancient endosymbiont motility mechanism within a highly conserved feature of gametogenesis, the resolution of germline syncytia, may indicate a formative role for the endosymbiotic ancestor of mitochondria in the evolution of this developmental pathway. PMID:12823454

Bazinet, Christopher; Rollins, Janet E

2003-01-01

155

Rickettsia africae in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from sub-Saharan Algeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are caused by obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. In recent years, several species and subspecies of rickettsias have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. We report here the detection of Rickettsia africae, the agent responsible for African tick-bite fever, by amplification of fragments of gltA and ompA genes and multi-spacer typing from Hyalomma dromedarii ticks collected from the camel Camelus dromedarius in the Adrar and Béchar region (sub-Saharan Algeria). To date, R. africae has been associated mainly with Amblyomma spp. The role of H. dromedarii in the epidemiology of R. africae requires further investigation. PMID:23164496

Kernif, Tahar; Djerbouh, Amel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Ayach, Bouhous; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

2012-12-01

156

Tick cell culture isolation and growth of Rickettsia raoultii from Dutch Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick cell lines play an important role in research on ticks and tick-borne pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. In an attempt to derive continuous Dermacentor reticulatus cell lines, embryo-derived primary cell cultures were set up from eggs laid by field ticks originally collected as unfed adults in The Netherlands and maintained for up to 16 months. After several months, it became evident that cells in the primary cultures were infected with a Rickettsia-like intracellular organism. Supernatant medium containing some D. reticulatus cells was inoculated into cultures of 2 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines, BME/CTVM2 and BME/CTVM23, where abundant growth of the bacteria occurred intracellularly on transfer to both cell lines. Bacterial growth was monitored by light (live, inverted microscope, Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears) and transmission electron microscopy revealing heavy infection with typical intracytoplasmic Rickettsia-like bacteria, not present in uninfected cultures. DNA was extracted from bacteria-infected and uninfected control cultures, and primers specific for Rickettsia 16S rRNA, ompB, and sca4 genes were used to generate PCR products that were subsequently sequenced. D. reticulatus primary cultures and both infected tick cell lines were positive for all 3 Rickettsia genes. Sequencing of PCR products revealed 99-100% identity with published Rickettsia raoultii sequences. The R. raoultii also grew abundantly in the D. nitens cell line ANE58, poorly in the D. albipictus cell line DALBE3, and not at all in the D. andersoni cell line DAE15. In conclusion, primary tick cell cultures and cell lines are useful systems for isolation and propagation of fastidious tick-borne microorganisms. In vitro isolation of R. raoultii from Dutch D. reticulatus confirms previous PCR-based detection in field ticks, and presence of the bacteria in the tick eggs used to initiate the primary cultures confirms that transovarial transmission of this Rickettsia occurs. PMID:23140894

Alberdi, M Pilar; Nijhof, Ard M; Jongejan, Frans; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

2012-12-01

157

Índice ganglionar y número de linfonodos metastásicos como factores pronósticos en cáncer de colon Lymph node index as a prognostic factor for survival in stage III colon cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: El índice ganglionar (IG se ha propuesto como un factor pronóstico mejor que el número de LN positivos en cáncer de colon estadio III. El objetivo es comparar estos factores en una serie clínica. Pacientes y Método: Se incluyen todos los pacientes estadio III resecados con intención curativa (R0. Se compara la sobrevida según el número de LN positivos y el IG mediante el análisis de las curvas ROC. Resultados: Se trata de 115 pacientes con un promedio de edad de 67,9 años (extremos 25-91, el 63,4% mujeres. El compromiso en profundidad del tumor fue T2 en 3 casos, T3 en 93 casos y T4 en 19. El promedio de ganglios positivos fue 3,4 (extremos 1-34. El índice ganglionar promedio fue 0,237 (DE: 0,197; extremos 0,031-0,882 y la mediana fue 0,1666. El 74% de los pacientes tenía 1 a 3 ganglios positivos (N1 y el 26% 4 o más ganglios positivos (N2. El seguimiento promedio fue de 67 meses (extremos 5-216, durante el cual fallecen 29 pacientes. El área bajo la curva ROC del número de LN afectados (0,703; IC 95%:0,58-082 fue levemente mayor que el área bajo la curva ROC del IG (0,690; IC 95%:0,57-0,81 (p = 0,63. Al compararlas en forma dicotómica, el IG (OR: 19,96; IC 95%:1,51-253,6 muestra una mayor capacidad de discriminación que el número de LN afectados (OR: 2,55; IC 95%: 0,86-7,55. Conclusión: El número de LN metastásicos y el IG son factores pronósticos relevantes en la planificación de la adyuvancia del cáncer de colon estadio III.Background: The lymph node ratio in malignant tumors corresponds to the ratio between the number of involved lymph nodes and the number of examined lymph nodes. This ratio may be a good prognostic index in stage III colon cancer. Aim: To compare the lymph node ratio with the absolute number of positive lymph nodes as prognostic factors in stage III colon cancer. Material and Methods: Analysis of 115 patients aged 25 to 91 years (63% women with a stage III colon cancer operated between 1991 and 2007. Survival according to the absolute number of positive lymph nodes and the lymph node index was calculated. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves obtained after a COX regression analysis of survival, was used to analyze the prognostic value of each parameter. Results: Lymph node involvement was classified as T2 in three, T3 in 93 and T4 in 19 patients. The mean number of positive lymph nodes was 3.4 (range 1 to 34 and the mean lymph node index was 0.237 ± 0.197 (range 0.031-0.882. Seventy four percent of patients had one to three positive lymph nodes and 24% had more than three. During a mean follow up of 67 months (range 5-216, 29 patients died. In survival analysis, the area under the ROC curve for the number of involved lymph nodes (0.703, 95 confidence intervals (CI 0.58-0.82 was slightly better than the area for lymph node index (0.69, 95% CI 0.57-0.81. Using a dichotomy analysis, a lymph node index over 0.31 had a higher discriminating value for survival (odds ratio (OR 19.96 91% CI 1.51-253.6 than the presence of 12 or more involved lymph nodes (OR 2.55 95% CI 0.86-7.55. Conclusions: The lymph node index and the absolute number of involved lymph nodes are prognostic factors in stage III colon cancer.

GUILLERMO BANNURA C

2011-10-01

158

Molecular evidence of Rickettsia felis infection in dogs from northern territory, Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in dogs from a remote indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT was determined using molecular tools. Blood samples collected from 130 dogs in the community of Maningrida were subjected to a spotted fever group (SFG-specific PCR targeting the ompB gene followed by a Rickettsia felis-specific PCR targeting the gltA gene of R. felis. Rickettsia felis ompB and gltA genes were amplified from the blood of 3 dogs. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in indigenous community dogs in NT.

Rees Robert L

2011-10-01

159

Serological studies of antigenic similarity between Japanese spotted fever rickettsiae and Weil-Felix test antigens.  

OpenAIRE

Acute and convalescent-phase sera obtained from 10 patients infected with a Japanese strain of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia were tested by the indirect immunoperoxidase test, the Weil-Felix test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoblotting. By the Weil-Felix test, the reactivity of these sera to the OX2 antigen was higher than those to the OX19 antigen, as is the case with sera from persons infected with other SFG rickettsiae. By ELISA, the titers of immunoglobuli...

Amano, K.; Hatakeyama, H.; Okuta, M.; Suto, T.; Mahara, F.

1992-01-01

160

Selection of Alpha/Beta Interferon- and Gamma Interferon-Resistant Rickettsiae by Passage of Rickettsia prowazekii in L929 Cells  

OpenAIRE

The ability of endogenously produced alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) to inhibit rickettsial growth in infected L929 cell cultures was evaluated by comparing the growth of Rickettsia prowazekii Madrid E in untreated cultures and cultures treated with anti-mouse IFN (alpha + beta) serum. The endogenously produced IFN was neutralized, and rickettsial growth was enhanced in the antiserum-treated cultures. This inhibitory effect of endogenously produced IFN-alpha/beta was used to select ric...

1991-01-01

161

Evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil / Evidência de rickettsiae do grupo da febre maculosa no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available De fevereiro a setembro de 1999, foram realizadas, semanalmente, coletas de carrapatos de cães no Município de Piraí/RJ. Quatrocentos e setenta e quatro ixodídeos foram taxonomicamente identificados, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, sete Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus e 155 Amblyomma sp. O t [...] este de hemolinfa associado à coloração de Giemsa revelou que duas espécies de 163 carrapatos testados (R. sanguineus e A. sp.) continham microrganismos com morfologia semelhante à rickettsia do grupo da febre maculosa. No teste de imunofluorescência direta, mais específico, foi verificada a presença de rickettsia do grupo da febre maculosa em uma espécie de R. sanguineus. Considerando que informações sobre rickettsioses no Brasil são limitadas, principalmente com relação aos vetores envolvidos na perpetuação da doença, estes resultados preliminares nos mostram a necessidade da realização deste tipo de estudo, permitindo, desta forma, aumentar nossos conhecimentos a respeito desta zoonose. Abstract in english Ticks were obtained from dogs from February to September of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the County of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro. Four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, seven Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 Amblyomma sp. [...] An hemolymph test associated with Giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (R. sanguineus and Amblyomma sp), containing rickettsia-like organisms. Direct immunofluorescence verified the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia in one specimen of R. sanguineus. Considering the limited information on rickettsiosis in Brazil, principally in relation to the vectors involved in perpetuating it in foci, these preliminary results give us an idea on the importance of infection in ticks, allowing to expand our knowledge on this zoonosis.

Tatiana, ROZENTAL; Maria Cristina, BUSTAMANTE; Marinete, AMORIM; Nicolau Maués, SERRA-FREIRE; Elba Regina Sampaio de, LEMOS.

162

Selection of alpha/beta interferon- and gamma interferon-resistant rickettsiae by passage of Rickettsia prowazekii in L929 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of endogenously produced alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) to inhibit rickettsial growth in infected L929 cell cultures was evaluated by comparing the growth of Rickettsia prowazekii Madrid E in untreated cultures and cultures treated with anti-mouse IFN (alpha + beta) serum. The endogenously produced IFN was neutralized, and rickettsial growth was enhanced in the antiserum-treated cultures. This inhibitory effect of endogenously produced IFN-alpha/beta was used to select rickettsiae resistant to IFN-alpha/beta. Rickettsiae were screened for resistance to IFN-alpha/beta after being cultured in untreated L929 cells for several weeks to several months. Two isolates derived from R. prowazekii Madrid E and two isolates derived from plaque-purified R. prowazekii Madrid E were plaque-purified twice, grown in embryonated hen eggs, and evaluated for resistance to IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma. Compared with the parental rickettsial strain, all four isolates were significantly resistant to IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma. In addition, they were as resistant or more resistant to IFN-gamma when compared with two previously described IFN-gamma resistant isolates that were selected in IFN-gamma-treated L929 cells. One of the two isolates from IFN-gamma-treated L929 cells was also resistant to IFN-alpha/beta; the other isolate was similar to the parental Madrid E strain in sensitivity to IFN-alpha/beta. PMID:2119343

Turco, J; Winkler, H H

1990-10-01

163

Tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in ticks feeding on the common nightingale including a novel strain of Rickettsia sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined 77 Ixodes ricinus ticks found on 33 out of 120 common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) sampled in the Czech Republic in 2008 for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia spp. We detected Borrelia garinii (in 4% of ticks), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia helvetica (3%), a novel strain of Rickettsia sp. (sister taxon of R. bellii; 1%), and Babesia sp. EU1 (1%). Thus, we conclude that nightingales are unlikely to be important reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens. PMID:22906497

Dubska, Lenka; Literak, Ivan; Kverek, Pavel; Roubalova, Eva; Kocianova, Elena; Taragelova, Veronika

2012-09-01

164

Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in Rat Fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii  

OpenAIRE

Rickettsia typhi (prevalence 1.9%) and R. felis (prevalence 24.8%) DNA were detected in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from mice on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The low prevalence of R. typhi on Oahu suggests that R. felis may be a more common cause of rickettsiosis than R. typhi in Hawaii.

Eremeeva, Marina E.; Warashina, Wesley R.; Sturgeon, Michele M.; Buchholz, Arlene E.; Olmsted, Gregory K.; Park, Sarah Y.; Effler, Paul V.; Karpathy, Sandor E.

2008-01-01

165

Rickettsia bellii in ticks Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844, from birds in Peru.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 3, ?. 4 (2012), s. 254-256. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia bellii * ticks * Amblyomma calcaratum * birds * Peru Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Cárdenas-Callirgos, J. M.; ?apek, Miroslav; Labruna, M. B.

2012-01-01

166

A novel fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Rickettsia spp. in archival samples  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A novel, sensitive and specific method for detecting Rickettsia spp. in archival samples is described. The method involves the use of fluorescently marked oligonucleotide probes for in situ hybridization. Specific hybridization of Ricekttsia was found without problems of cross-reactions with bacterial species shown to cross-react serologically.

Svendsen, Claus Bo; Boye, Mette

2009-01-01

167

Rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study investigated rickettsial infection in animals, humans, ticks, and fleas collected in five areas of the state of São Paulo. Eight flea species (Adoratopsylla antiquorum antiquorum, Ctenocephalides felis felis, Polygenis atopus, Polygenis rimatus, Polygenis roberti roberti, Polygenis tripus [...] , Rhopalopsyllus lugubris, and Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi), and five tick species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Ixodes loricatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) were collected from dogs, cats, and opossums. Rickettsia felis was the only rickettsia found infecting fleas, whereas Rickettsia bellii was the only agent infecting ticks, but no animal or human blood was shown to contain rickettsial DNA. Testing animal and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence assay against four rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, and R. bellii), some opossum, dog, horse, and human sera reacted to R. rickettsii with titers at least four-fold higher than to the other three rickettsial antigens. These sera were considered to have a predominant antibody response to R. rickettsii. Using the same criteria, opossum, dog, and horse sera showed predominant antibody response to R. parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Our serological results suggest that both R. rickettsii and R. parkeri infected animals and/or humans in the studied areas.

Maurício C, Horta; Marcelo B, Labruna; Adriano, Pinter; Pedro M, Linardi; Teresinha T S, Schumaker.

2007-11-01

168

Rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated rickettsial infection in animals, humans, ticks, and fleas collected in five areas of the state of São Paulo. Eight flea species (Adoratopsylla antiquorum antiquorum, Ctenocephalides felis felis, Polygenis atopus, Polygenis rimatus, Polygenis roberti roberti, Polygenis tripus, Rhopalopsyllus lugubris, and Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi, and five tick species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Ixodes loricatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were collected from dogs, cats, and opossums. Rickettsia felis was the only rickettsia found infecting fleas, whereas Rickettsia bellii was the only agent infecting ticks, but no animal or human blood was shown to contain rickettsial DNA. Testing animal and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence assay against four rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, and R. bellii, some opossum, dog, horse, and human sera reacted to R. rickettsii with titers at least four-fold higher than to the other three rickettsial antigens. These sera were considered to have a predominant antibody response to R. rickettsii. Using the same criteria, opossum, dog, and horse sera showed predominant antibody response to R. parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Our serological results suggest that both R. rickettsii and R. parkeri infected animals and/or humans in the studied areas.

Maurício C Horta

2007-11-01

169

First detection of spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks in Serbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks can transmit multiple pathogenic bacteria responsible for diseases in animals and humans such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and spotted fever group Rickettsia sp. The current study aimed to investigate the presence of Rickettsiae in ticks collected from seven localities in Serbia. One hundred thirty-one (131) questing ticks belonging to 5 tick species (Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis Concinna, and Ixodes ricinus) were collected in 2007 and 2009. Ticks were tested by polymerase chain reaction, amplifying gltA, ompA, and 17-kd genes, and sequencing analysis, revealing the presence of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis in I. ricinus ticks only (infection rates 7.7% and 15.4% for R. helvetica and R. monacensis, respectively). R. helvetica has been isolated from I. ricinus ticks and has been implicated in fatal perimyocarditis. R. monacensis was first identified in I. ricinus samples collected in Germany and has recently been implicated in human infection. The results of the current study make fundamental the need to evaluate the incidence of infection with R. helvetica and R. monacensis among the resident population. PMID:21142961

Radulovi?, Zeljko; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Milutinovi?, Marija; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2011-02-01

170

Seroepidemiological survey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the endemic area of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis in Uruguay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis is a vector-borne zoonosis that occurs in some countries of the American continent. Following the first description and determination of the pathogenicity to humans in 2004 in USA, this bacterium has been reported in several South American countries. Human cases have been diagnosed in both Uruguay and Argentina in the past years. This study consisted in a serosurvey of 1000 domestic dogs living in the endemic area of rickettsiosis in Uruguay, where Amblyomma triste is the tick vector. Sera were analyzed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), against antigens of three different rickettsial species: R. rhipicephali, R. felis and R. parkeri. It was determined that 20.3% of the dogs had antibodies that reacted to at least one of the three species tested, taking as cut off ?64 titers. Furthermore, 140 of the seropositive dogs (14%) had a titer at least 4 times higher to R. parkeri than those of any of the other species, thus, it was considered that the immune response was stimulated by that species in particular. This is the first serological survey in primary hosts for adults of A. triste in Uruguay, and therefore the first prevalence values are reported. Adult A. triste ticks collected from the environment as well as from dogs were analyzed by PCR in order to confirm the current circulation of the agent in the area. In this matter, two out of 28 ticks from dogs, and 3 out of 53 ticks from the environment were positive, and the corresponding sequence analysis revealed 100% similarity with R. parkeri strain maculatum. PMID:25735816

Lado, Paula; Costa, Francisco B; Verdes, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

2015-06-01

171

Detecção de riquétsias em carrapatos do gênero Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) coletados em parque urbano do município de Campinas, SP / Rickettsiae detection in Amblyomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected in the urban area of Campinas city, SP  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Município de Campinas situa-se em região endêmica para febre maculosa brasileira do Estado de São Paulo, onde vários casos desta doença vem ocorrendo. Capivaras têm sido associadas ao ciclo dessa riquetsiose por apresentarem sorologia positiva e serem hospedeiras de carrapatos Amblyomma spp princi [...] pais vetores da doença. Carrapatos foram coletados no parque urbano do Lago do Café, Campinas, SP, local associado a casos humanos suspeitos de febre maculosa brasileira, sobre a vegetação e das capivaras ali presentes, e pesquisados quanto à presença de riquétsias pela reação em cadeia da polimerase e pelo teste de hemolinfa. Adultos de Amblyomma cajennense e Amblyomma cooperi albergavam Rickettsia bellii, não patogênica, identificada pela análise das seqüências de nucleotídeos do gene gltA, porém, não foram constatadas riquétsias do Grupo da Febre Maculosa. Estes resultados associados à ausência de um isolado de riquétsias do Grupo da Febre Maculosa de capivaras indicam que seu papel, enquanto reservatório, necessita de maior investigação. Abstract in english The city of Campinas is located in an endemic area for brazilian spotted fever in São Paulo State, where several cases have recently occurred. Capybaras have been associated with the cycle of this disease, for they present positive serology and serve as host for ticks of the genus Amblyomma, the mai [...] n vectors of brazilian spotted fever. Ticks were colleted both from Capybaras and from the vegetation in the city park Lago do Café, located in the urban area of Campinas city, SP, a site associated with suspected human cases of brazilian spotted fever. The ticks collected were examinaded for the presence of rickettsiae using polymerase chain reaction and the haemolymph test. Through analysis of the gene gltA nucleotide sequence, adults of Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma cooperi were found to be infected with the non pathogenic Rickettsia bellii. However, no rickettsiae of the spotted fever group were detected. These results indicate that the role of capybaras as reservoirs of rickettsiae of the Spotted Fever group is still uncertain and further studies are required.

Dora Amparo, Estrada; Teresinha Tizu Sato, Schumaker; Celso Eduardo de, Souza; Elias José, Rodrigues Neto; Arício Xavier, Linhares.

2006-02-01

172

Pesquisa de Rickettsia spp em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e Amblyomma dubitatum no Estado de São Paulo / Survey of Rickettsia spp in the ticks Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum in the State of São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi pesquisada a presença de riquétsias em 3.545 carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e 2.666 Amblyomma dubitatum. Através do teste de hemolinfa, reação em cadeia pela polimerase e isolamento de rickettsia em cultivo celular, todos os Amblyomma cajennense foram negativos, sendo que 634 (23,8%) Amblyomma [...] dubitatum mostraram-se infectados com Rickettsia bellii. Abstract in english The presence of rickettsial infection was surveyed in 3,545 Amblyomma cajennense ticks and 2,666 Amblyomma dubitatum ticks. Using the hemolymph test, polymerase chain reaction and isolation of Rickettsia in cell cultures, all of the Amblyomma cajennense were negative, whereas 634 (23.8%) of the Ambl [...] yomma dubitatum ticks were shown to be infected with Rickettsia bellii.

Richard Campos, Pacheco; Maurício Cláudio, Horta; Adriano, Pinter; Jonas, Moraes-Filho; Thiago Fernandes, Martins; Marcello Schiavo, Nardi; Savina Silvana Aparecida Lacerra de, Souza; Celso Eduardo de, Souza; Matias Pablo Juan, Szabó; Leonardo José, Richtzenhain; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna.

2009-06-01

173

Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents. PMID:25454606

Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

2015-03-01

174

Índice ganglionar y número de linfonodos metastásicos como factores pronósticos en cáncer de colon / Lymph node index as a prognostic factor for survival in stage III colon cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El índice ganglionar (IG) se ha propuesto como un factor pronóstico mejor que el número de LN positivos en cáncer de colon estadio III. El objetivo es comparar estos factores en una serie clínica. Pacientes y Método: Se incluyen todos los pacientes estadio III resecados con intención c [...] urativa (R0). Se compara la sobrevida según el número de LN positivos y el IG mediante el análisis de las curvas ROC. Resultados: Se trata de 115 pacientes con un promedio de edad de 67,9 años (extremos 25-91), el 63,4% mujeres. El compromiso en profundidad del tumor fue T2 en 3 casos, T3 en 93 casos y T4 en 19. El promedio de ganglios positivos fue 3,4 (extremos 1-34). El índice ganglionar promedio fue 0,237 (DE: 0,197; extremos 0,031-0,882) y la mediana fue 0,1666. El 74% de los pacientes tenía 1 a 3 ganglios positivos (N1) y el 26% 4 o más ganglios positivos (N2). El seguimiento promedio fue de 67 meses (extremos 5-216), durante el cual fallecen 29 pacientes. El área bajo la curva ROC del número de LN afectados (0,703; IC 95%:0,58-082) fue levemente mayor que el área bajo la curva ROC del IG (0,690; IC 95%:0,57-0,81) (p = 0,63). Al compararlas en forma dicotómica, el IG (OR: 19,96; IC 95%:1,51-253,6) muestra una mayor capacidad de discriminación que el número de LN afectados (OR: 2,55; IC 95%: 0,86-7,55). Conclusión: El número de LN metastásicos y el IG son factores pronósticos relevantes en la planificación de la adyuvancia del cáncer de colon estadio III. Abstract in english Background: The lymph node ratio in malignant tumors corresponds to the ratio between the number of involved lymph nodes and the number of examined lymph nodes. This ratio may be a good prognostic index in stage III colon cancer. Aim: To compare the lymph node ratio with the absolute number of posit [...] ive lymph nodes as prognostic factors in stage III colon cancer. Material and Methods: Analysis of 115 patients aged 25 to 91 years (63% women) with a stage III colon cancer operated between 1991 and 2007. Survival according to the absolute number of positive lymph nodes and the lymph node index was calculated. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves obtained after a COX regression analysis of survival, was used to analyze the prognostic value of each parameter. Results: Lymph node involvement was classified as T2 in three, T3 in 93 and T4 in 19 patients. The mean number of positive lymph nodes was 3.4 (range 1 to 34) and the mean lymph node index was 0.237 ± 0.197 (range 0.031-0.882). Seventy four percent of patients had one to three positive lymph nodes and 24% had more than three. During a mean follow up of 67 months (range 5-216), 29 patients died. In survival analysis, the area under the ROC curve for the number of involved lymph nodes (0.703, 95 confidence intervals (CI) 0.58-0.82) was slightly better than the area for lymph node index (0.69, 95% CI 0.57-0.81). Using a dichotomy analysis, a lymph node index over 0.31 had a higher discriminating value for survival (odds ratio (OR) 19.96 91% CI 1.51-253.6) than the presence of 12 or more involved lymph nodes (OR 2.55 95% CI 0.86-7.55). Conclusions: The lymph node index and the absolute number of involved lymph nodes are prognostic factors in stage III colon cancer.

GUILLERMO, BANNURA C; CLAUDIO, VARGAS S; ALEJANDRO, BARRERA E; CARLOS, MELO L; JAIME, CONTRERAS P.

2011-10-01

175

Implication of the Bacterial Endosymbiont Rickettsia spp. in Interactions of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus  

OpenAIRE

Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. We report here that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies, altered TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions. A B. tabaci strain infected with Rickettsia acquired more TYLCV from infected plants, retained the virus longer, and exhibited nearly double the transmission e...

Kliot, Adi; Cilia, Michelle; Czosnek, Henryk; Ghanim, Murad

2014-01-01

176

Interaction of Rickettsia felis with histone H2B facilitates the infection of a tick cell line  

OpenAIRE

Haematophagous arthropods are the primary vectors in the transmission of Rickettsia, yet the molecular mechanisms mediating the rickettsial infection of arthropods remain elusive. This study utilized a biotinylated protein pull-down assay together with LC-MS/MS to identify interaction between Ixodes scapularis histone H2B and Rickettsia felis. Co-immunoprecipitation of histone with rickettsial cell lysate demonstrated the association of H2B with R. felis proteins, including outer-membrane pro...

Thepparit, Chutima; Bourchookarn, Apichai; Petchampai, Natthida; Barker, Steven A.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

2010-01-01

177

The Rickettsial OmpB ?-Peptide of Rickettsia conorii Is Sufficient To Facilitate Factor H-Mediated Serum Resistance  

OpenAIRE

Pathogenic species of the spotted fever group Rickettsia are subjected to repeated exposures to the host complement system through cyclic infections of mammalian and tick hosts. The serum complement machinery is a formidable obstacle for bacteria to overcome if they endeavor to endure this endozoonotic cycle. We have previously demonstrated that that the etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, Rickettsia conorii, is susceptible to complement-mediated killing only in the presence of sp...

Riley, Sean P.; Patterson, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Juan J.

2012-01-01

178

Quantitative Analyses of Variations in the Injury of Endothelial Cells Elicited by 11 Isolates of Rickettsia rickettsii  

OpenAIRE

Eleven isolates of spotted fever group rickettsiae from the blood of patients or ixodid ticks from North and South America were characterized. All isolates were identified as Rickettsia rickettsii using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 532-bp rOmpA gene fragment obtained by PCR. The ability of the R. rickettsii isolates to elicit cytopathic effects and parameters of oxidative injury were examined in cultured human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells. Cytopathic effects were dete...

Eremeeva, Marina E.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Silverman, David J.

2001-01-01

179

The Genome Sequence of Rickettsia felis Identifies the First Putative Conjugative Plasmid in an Obligate Intracellular Parasite  

OpenAIRE

We sequenced the genome of Rickettsia felis, a flea-associated obligate intracellular ?-proteobacterium causing spotted fever in humans. Besides a circular chromosome of 1,485,148 bp, R. felis exhibits the first putative conjugative plasmid identified among obligate intracellular bacteria. This plasmid is found in a short (39,263 bp) and a long (62,829 bp) form. R. felis contrasts with previously sequenced Rickettsia in terms of many other features, including a number of transposases, severa...

Ogata, Hiroyuki; Renesto, Patricia; Audic, Ste?phane; Robert, Catherine; Blanc, Guillaume; Fournier, Pierre-edouard; Parinello, Hugues; Claverie, Jean-michel; Raoult, Didier

2005-01-01

180

Sympatric occurrence of Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks and Rickettsia and Babesia species in Slovakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vojka nad Dunajom in the south-west of the Slovak Republic is a locality with sympatric occurrence of 3 species of ticks. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in this area and determined the prevalence of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing adults of these tick species considered as potential risk for humans and animals. Ticks were collected by blanket dragging over the vegetation from September 2011 to October 2012. All ticks were subjected to DNA extraction and individually assayed with PCR-based methods targeting the gltA, sca4, 23S rRNA genes of Rickettsia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. D. reticulatus was the dominant species occurring in this area (67.7%, n=600), followed by I. ricinus (31.8%, n=282) and H. concinna (0.5%, n=4) ticks. Rickettsial infection was determined in 10.8% (n=65) and 11.7% (n=33) of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks, respectively. Babesia spp. infection was confirmed in 1.8% (n=11) of D. reticulatus and 0.4% (n=1) of I. ricinus ticks. DNA of 6 different pathogenic tick-borne species, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii, Babesia canis, and Babesia venatorum were identified in this locality with sympatric occurrence of I. ricinus, D. reticulatus, and H. concinna ticks. PMID:24973275

Svehlová, Andrea; Berthová, Lenka; Sallay, Balázs; Boldiš, Vojtech; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Spitalská, Eva

2014-09-01

181

First detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary study was conducted to determine the presence of spotted fever rickettsiae in two species of British tick (Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus). The 16S rRNA gene of Rickettsia spp. was detected in 39/401 (9·7%) of ticks tested, including 22/338 (6·5%) I. ricinus and 17/63 (27%) D. reticulatus. Some positive I. ricinus samples showed 100% homology with Rickettsia helvetica (10/22), and most positive D. reticulatus showed 100% homology with R. raoultii (13/17). Five other Rickettsia spp. were detected exhibiting 96-99% homology. Ticks positive for rickettsiae were collected from various hosts and from vegetation from eight counties across Great Britain. The distribution of R. helvetica in various engorged and unfed stages of I. ricinus suggests that R. helvetica is widespread. R. raoultii was found in questing adult D. reticulatus in Wales and England. This is the first evidence of potentially pathogenic spotted fever rickettsiae in British ticks. PMID:21087541

Tijsse-Klasen, E; Jameson, L J; Fonville, M; Leach, S; Sprong, H; Medlock, J M

2011-04-01

182

Factors influencing in vitro infectivity and growth of Rickettsia peacockii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), an endosymbiont of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni (Acari, Ixodidae)  

OpenAIRE

Rickettsia peacockii, a spotted fever group rickettsia, is a transovarially transmitted endosymbiont of Rocky Mountain wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni. This rickettsia, formerly known as the East Side Agent and restricted to female ticks, was detected in a chronically infected embryonic cell line, DAE100, from D. andersoni. We examined infectivity, ability to induce cytopathic effect (CPE) and host cell specificity of R. peacockii using cultured arthropod and mammalian cells. Aposymbiotic D...

Kurtti, Timothy J.; Simser, Jason A.; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Palmer, Ann T.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

2005-01-01

183

Rickettsia Symbiont in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum: Novel Cellular Tropism, Effect on Host Fitness, and Interaction with the Essential Symbiont Buchnera  

OpenAIRE

In natural populations of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, a facultative bacterial symbiont of the genus Rickettsia has been detected at considerable infection frequencies worldwide. We investigated the effects of the Rickettsia symbiont on the host aphid and also on the coexisting essential symbiont Buchnera. In situ hybridization revealed that the Rickettsia symbiont was specifically localized in two types of host cells specialized for endosymbiosis: secondary mycetocytes and sheath cells...

Sakurai, Makiko; Koga, Ryuichi; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Meng, Xian-ying; Fukatsu, Takema

2005-01-01

184

Aproximación clínica y principales rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas presentes en Latinoamérica / Clinical approach and main tick-borne rickettsiosis present in Latin America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas son infecciones potencialmente letales, que en Latinoamérica tienen carácter emergente y re-emergente. Hasta hace escasos años, la única rickettsiosis transmitida por garrapatas era causada por Rickettsia rickettsii, pero en la actualidad existen otras e [...] species como R. parkeri y R. massiliae que están provocando enfermedad en humanos en la región. Por otro lado, se están describiendo candidatos a nuevas especies de Rickettsia, que aunque no han probado su patogenicidad deben considerarse como potencialmente patógenos. Dado que el diagnóstico microbiológico puede tardar días o semanas, resulta fundamental una alta sospecha clínica y la instauración precoz de un tratamiento adecuado. En esta revisión se detalla la distribución y principales manifestaciones clínicas de las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas en Latinoamérica. Se ha incluido una sección sobre la infección por R. felis, por haberse encontrado esta especie en garrapatas, y no haberse aclarado el papel de este vector en su ciclo epidemiológico. Abstract in english Tick-borne rickettsial diseases are potentially life threatening infections that in Latin America have an emerging and reemerging character. Until few years ago, Rickettsia rickettsia was the only tick-borne rickettsia present in America; but nowadays several other species such as R. parkeri and R. [...] massiliae are causing disease in humans in the region. In addition, new species are being described; although their pathogenicity has not been confirmed they should be considered as potential pathogens. Since the microbiological diagnosis of rickettsioses can take days or weeks, a high clinical suspicion and early start of appropriate treatment are crucial. In this review the distribution and main clinical manifestations of tick-borne rickettsial diseases in Latin America are detailed. Since R. felis has been found in ticks and the role of this vector has not been clarified, we have included a section about this pathogen.

Katia, Abarca; José A, Oteo.

2014-10-01

185

Orientia, rickettsia, and leptospira pathogens as causes of CNS infections in Laos : a prospective study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi), murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi), and leptospirosis are common causes of febrile illness in Asia; meningitis and meningoencephalitis are severe complications. However, scarce data exist for the burden of these pathogens in patients with CNS disease in endemic countries. Laos is representative of vast economically poor rural areas in Asia with little medical information to guide public health policy. We assessed whether these pathogens are important causes of CNS infections in Laos. METHODS: Between Jan 10, 2003, and Nov 25, 2011, we enrolled 1112 consecutive patients of all ages admitted with CNS symptoms or signs requiring a lumbar puncture at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos. Microbiological examinations (culture, PCR, and serology) targeted so-called conventional bacterial infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, S suis) and O tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi/Rickettsia spp, and Leptospira spp infections in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We analysed and compared causes and clinical and CSF characteristics between patient groups. FINDINGS: 1051 (95%) of 1112 patients who presented had CSF available for analysis, of whom 254 (24%) had a CNS infection attributable to a bacterial or fungal pathogen. 90 (35%) of these 254 infections were caused by O tsutsugamushi, R typhi/Rickettsia spp, or Leptospira spp. These pathogens were significantly more frequent than conventional bacterial infections (90/1051 [9%] vs 42/1051 [4%]; p<0·0001) by use of conservative diagnostic definitions. CNS infections had a high mortality (236/876 [27%]), with 18% (13/71) for R typhi/Rickettsia spp, O tsutsugamushi, and Leptospira spp combined, and 33% (13/39) for conventional bacterial infections (p=0·076). INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that R typhi/Rickettsia spp, O tsutsugamushi, and Leptospira spp infections are important causes of CNS infections in Laos. Antibiotics, such as tetracyclines, needed for the treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus, are not routinely advised for empirical treatment of CNS infections. These severely neglected infections represent a potentially large proportion of treatable CNS disease burden across vast endemic areas and need more attention. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust UK.

Dittrich, Sabine; Rattanavong, Sayaphet

2015-01-01

186

Detection of Babesia Sp. EU1 and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from migratory birds at Curonian Spit, North-Western Russia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To reveal the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Babesia sp. in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks from migratory birds, 236 specimens represented 8 species of Passeriformes and were collected at Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad enclave of North-Western Russia. The ticks (total 126) being detached from four bird species, Turdus philomelos, Fringilla coelebs, Parus major, and Sturnus vulgaris, were investigated by PCR using the primers Rp CS.877p/Rp CS.1258n for the detection of Rickettsia and BJ1/BN2 for Babesia spp. Babesia spp. were detected in 2 of 126 (1.6%) ticks. The partial sequence of 18S rDNA had 100% similarity to human pathogenic Babesia sp. EU1. The SFG rickettsiae were detected in 19 of 126 (15.1%) ticks collected from the above-mentioned bird species. BLAST analysis of SFG rickettsia gltA assigned sequences to human pathogenic Rickettsia helvetica (10.3%), Rickettsia monacensis (3.9%), and Rickettsia japonica (0.8%) with 98%-100% sequence similarity. The SFG rickettsiae and Babesia sp. EU1 in ticks collected from the passerines in Russia were detected for the first time. The survey indicates that migratory birds may become a reservoir for Babesia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. Future investigations need to characterize the role of birds in the epidemiology of these human pathogens in the region. PMID:20553110

Movila, Alexandru; Reye, Anna L; Dubinina, Helen V; Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Toderas, Ion; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Alekseev, Andrey N

2011-01-01

187

Evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Ticks were obtained from dogs from February to September of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the County of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro. Four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, seven Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 Amblyomma sp. An hemolymph test associated with Giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (R. sanguineus and Amblyomma sp, containing rickettsia-like organisms. Direct immunofluorescence verified the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia in one specimen of R. sanguineus. Considering the limited information on rickettsiosis in Brazil, principally in relation to the vectors involved in perpetuating it in foci, these preliminary results give us an idea on the importance of infection in ticks, allowing to expand our knowledge on this zoonosis.

ROZENTAL Tatiana

2002-01-01

188

The first molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in the ticks of camels from southern Algeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected ticks from camels in 4 regions of southern Algeria (El Oued, Bechar, Ghardia, and Adrar) from February to October in 2008 and in April of 2011. A total of 307 ticks representing multiple species (including Hyalomma dromedarii, H. marginatum rufipes, H. impeltatum, and H. impressum), was tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia DNA using gltA real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The presence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii was confirmed with a new qPCR using species-specific primers and Taqman probes based on the sca2 genes. The R. aeschlimannii sequence was further confirmed by detecting the gltA and outer membrane protein (ompA) genes in H. m. rufipes, H. impeltatum, and H. dromedarii ticks. These findings represent the first report of the detection of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected from camels from southern Algeria. PMID:23168055

Djerbouh, Amel; Kernif, Tahar; Beneldjouzi, Assia; Socolovschi, Cristina; Kechemir, Nadia; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Bitam, Idir

2012-12-01

189

Coinfection with Rickettsia helvetica and Herpes simplex virus 2 in a Young Woman with Meningoencephalitis  

OpenAIRE

Herpes virus type 2 DNA was detected by PCR in the cerebrospinal fluid in a young woman presenting with headache, stiff neck and pleocytosis, and serological findings consistent with reactivation. Since she was exposed to ticks, Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis were excluded. Further investigation in an ongoing project, using PCR and sequencing of the amplified products, showed the presence of Rickettsia helvetica in the cerebrospinal fluid. The bacteria were also isolated in Vero cel...

Amp Hlson, Carl P.; Katarina Wallménius; Kenneth Nilsson

2011-01-01

190

Characterization of Mutations in the rpoB Gene in Naturally Rifampin-Resistant Rickettsia Species  

OpenAIRE

Rickettsiae are gram-negative, obligately intracellular bacteria responsible for arthropod-borne spotted fevers and typhus. Experimental studies have delineated a cluster of naturally rifampin-resistant spotted fever group species. We sequenced the 4,122- to 4,125-bp RNA polymerase ?-subunit-encoding gene (rpoB) from typhus and spotted fever group representatives and obtained partial sequences for all naturally rifampin-resistant species. A single point mutation resulting in a phenylalanine-...

Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

1999-01-01

191

Localization of electron-dense tracers during entry of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi into polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

OpenAIRE

The invasion of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, Gilliam strain, into guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the localization and distribution of tracers were followed during the process by electron microscopy. The seven tracers used were: cationized ferritin, ferritin, thorium dioxide (ThO2), carbon particles, latex spheres, paraffin oil, and Escherichia coli. These markers were added to the incubation medium containing the PMNs before or simultaneously with R. tsutsugamushi-infected BH...

Rikihisa, Y.; Ito, S.

1980-01-01

192

Detection of Rickettsia and a novel Haemaphysalis shimoga symbiont bacterium in ticks in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we identified two Haemaphysalis species present at the Khao Yai National Park in Thailand and investigated the presence of rickettsia in these ticks. A total of 166 Haemaphysalis specimens were collected randomly under leaves along visitor paths at five locations in the park. Male and female adults of two different Haemaphysalis species, H. shimoga and H. lagrangei, were identified. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed Rickettsia bacteria in these two Haemaphysalis species; this study represents the first time such presence has been reported in Thailand. The infection rates of Rickettsia were in both H. shimoga (7.41%) and H. lagrangei (10.17%) at these locations in addition to two pools of Haemahysalis nymphs (28.57%). Furthermore, 25.93% of H. shimoga showed positive results that matched Haemaphysalis longicornis symbionts (92% sequence identity) and the Coxeilla burnetti 16S ribosomal RNA gene (90% sequence identity). We propose that this is a novel H. shimoga symbiont bacterium in Thailand and might be a novel Coxeilla-like agent or Coxeilla sp. found in H. shimoga. In contrast, we did not observe any Wolbachia bacteria, which also belong to the order Rickettsiales, in the same group of Haemaphysalis ticks. Furthermore, PCR was used to detect three other genera of bacteria, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia, none of which were identified in the Haemaphysalis ticks studied. PMID:21318277

Ahantarig, Arunee; Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Sumrandee, Chalao; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Baimai, Visut

2011-05-01

193

ISOLATION OF Rickettsia bellii FROM Amblyomma ovale AND Amblyomma incisum TICKS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

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Full Text Available Objective. To isolate and characterize rickettsiae from the ticks Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma incisum collected in the state of São Paulo. Materials and methods. Adult, free-living A. ovale and A. incisum were collected in an Atlantic rainforest area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Each tick was tested using the hemolymph assay; samples from positive ticks were placed in shell vials in order to isolate rickettsiae and subsequently grown in Vero cells. Amplification of three rickettsial genes (gltA, htrA and ompA was attempted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for each isolate obtained. Amplicons were subsequently sequenced. Results. A total of 388 A. incisum and 50 A. ovale were collected. Only one A. incisum and one A. ovale were hemolymph-test positive. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from these ticks; however establishment in Vero cell culture was successful only for the isolate from A. ovale. Bacterial contamination in the first cell passage of the A. incisum isolate precluded successful isolation of the organism. PCR products were obtained with the gltA and htrA primers for the two isolates, but no product was obtained with the ompA primers. By BLAST analysis, partial gltA and htrA sequences of isolates from A. ovale and A. incisum were similar to the corresponding sequences of R. bellii. Conclusions. This is the first report of R. bellii infecting A. incisum and the first successful isolation from A. ovale.

Richard Pacheco

2008-08-01

194

Spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2006-2008, a total of 260 adult ticks were collected from domestic and wild animals in different regions of the state of Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil, including areas where human cases of Brazilian spotted fever have been reported. Collected ticks belonging to nine species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tigrinum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rickettsial infection. Overall, eight (3.1%) ticks were found to be infected with Rickettsia species. After sequencing the PCR products, we determined that the sequences generated from three A. aureolatum, one A. ovale and one R. sanguineus from the municipality of Blumenau, one A. ovale from the municipality of Águas Mornas and one A. ovale from the municipality of Urussanga were identical to the corresponding partial rickettsial ompA gene sequence of Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest. The sequence generated from one A. longirostre from Blumenau was 100% identical to the corresponding partial rickettsial ompA gene sequence of Rickettsia amblyommii strain AL. Because R. parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest was recently shown to have caused two cases of human spotted fever in other states of Brazil, the role of this rickettsial agent as a possible etiological agent of spotted fever in SC is discussed. PMID:22241112

Medeiros, Alessandra Pereira; Souza, Antonio Pereira de; Moura, Anderson Barbosa de; Lavina, Marcia Sangaletti; Bellato, Valdomiro; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

2011-12-01

195

Spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During 2006-2008, a total of 260 adult ticks were collected from domestic and wild animals in different regions of the state of Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil, including areas where human cases of Brazilian spotted fever have been reported. Collected ticks belonging to nine species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tigrinum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for rickettsial infection. Overall, eight (3.1% ticks were found to be infected with Rickettsia species. After sequencing the PCR products, we determined that the sequences generated from three A. aureolatum, one A. ovale and one R. sanguineus from the municipality of Blumenau, one A. ovale from the municipality of Águas Mornas and one A. ovale from the municipality of Urussanga were identical to the corresponding partial rickettsial ompA gene sequence of Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest. The sequence generated from one A. longirostre from Blumenau was 100% identical to the corresponding partial rickettsial ompA gene sequence of Rickettsia amblyommii strain AL. Because R. parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest was recently shown to have caused two cases of human spotted fever in other states of Brazil, the role of this rickettsial agent as a possible etiological agent of spotted fever in SC is discussed.

Alessandra Pereira Medeiros

2011-12-01

196

Vector competence of the tick Ixodes sinensis (Acari: Ixodidae) for Rickettsia monacensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundCases of Mediterranean Spotted Fever like rickettsioses, caused by Rickettsia monacensis, have become more common in the last 10 years. In China, natural infection of R. monacensis in various tick species has been confirmed but the vector(s) of R. monacensis have not been recorded.MethodsThe prevalence of R. monacensis in >1500 Ixodidae ticks from central and southern China was determined using centrifugation-shell vial culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques. The predominant species, Ixodes sinensis, harbored a natural infection of R. monacensis and was assumed to be a vector candidate of R. monacensis. Experimental transmissions were initialized by infecting Rickettsia-free tick colonies with R. monacensis using capillary tube feeding (CTF) or immersion techniques. Transstadial and transovarial transmissions, and transmission from ticks to mice, were conducted under laboratory conditions.Results R. monacensis was isolated and identified from hemolymph of Ixodes sinensis using molecular techniques. Transovarial transmission of R. monacensis from infected ¿I. sinensis to offspring was documented and infected offspring successfully passed Rickettsia to mice. Transstadial transmission rates were 58% in larva to nymph and 56% in nymph to adult stages. Infected nymphs and adults were also able to infect mice.Conclusions I. sinensis is a competence vector for R. monacensis as demonstrated by natural infection and transmission studies. PMID:25406413

Ye, Xiaodong; Sun, Yi; Ju, Wendong; Wang, Xin; Cao, Wuchun; Wu, Mingyu

2014-11-19

197

Spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available During 2006-2008, a total of 260 adult ticks were collected from domestic and wild animals in different regions of the state of Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil, including areas where human cases of Brazilian spotted fever have been reported. Collected ticks belonging to nine species (Amblyomma aureolatu [...] m, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tigrinum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rickettsial infection. Overall, eight (3.1%) ticks were found to be infected with Rickettsia species. After sequencing the PCR products, we determined that the sequences generated from three A. aureolatum, one A. ovale and one R. sanguineus from the municipality of Blumenau, one A. ovale from the municipality of Águas Mornas and one A. ovale from the municipality of Urussanga were identical to the corresponding partial rickettsial ompA gene sequence of Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest. The sequence generated from one A. longirostre from Blumenau was 100% identical to the corresponding partial rickettsial ompA gene sequence of Rickettsia amblyommii strain AL. Because R. parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest was recently shown to have caused two cases of human spotted fever in other states of Brazil, the role of this rickettsial agent as a possible etiological agent of spotted fever in SC is discussed.

Alessandra Pereira, Medeiros; Antonio Pereira de, Souza; Anderson Barbosa de, Moura; Marcia Sangaletti, Lavina; Valdomiro, Bellato; Amélia Aparecida, Sartor; Fernanda Aparecida, Nieri-Bastos; Leonardo José, Richtzenhain; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna.

2011-12-01

198

Detection of Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to determine natural infections by Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in Italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. Ticks from dogs living in southern Italy were all identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=25), ticks from central Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=8) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9), ticks from northern Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=45), Dermacentor marginatus (n=3), and one I. ricinus. Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia canis were the only pathogens detected in 7 (8%), 4 (4%), and 2 (2%) out of 91 ticks, respectively. L. infantum was detected in I. ricinus from central Italy and in Rh. sanguineus from northern and central Italy. Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae were detected in Rh. sanguineus ticks from central and southern Italy (Sicily), respectively. Bab. canis was detected in D. marginatus ticks from northern Italy. PMID:23182545

Trotta, Michele; Nicetto, Martina; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Caldin, Marco; Furlanello, Tommaso; Solano-Gallego, Laia

2012-12-01

199

Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. infections in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hanover (Germany): revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiales (A. phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp.) in 2100 I. ricinus ticks collected at 10 different sampling sites every month during the tick season 2010 in the city of Hanover, northern Germany. At the same time, the results served as a fifth-year-follow-up study to monitor whether changes or stagnation of tick infection rates - possibly due to climate change--were obvious or not. To detect infections with A. phagocytophilum and/or Rickettsia spp., tick samples were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Differentiation of Rickettsia species was accomplished using real-time pyrosequencing technology. Overall, 4.5% (94/2100) of the collected ticks were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum and 26.2% (551/2100) were positive for Rickettsia spp. infections. Species differentiation of Rickettsia-positive ticks via real-time pyrosequencing was possible in 48.6% (268/551) of samples, which were all identified as R. helvetica. Coinfections with both pathogens were found in 1.0% (20/2100) of ticks. Statistically significant seasonal fluctuations between sampling months as well as local differences between sampling sites were detected for Rickettsia spp. infection rates. For A. phagocytophilum infections, only significant seasonal variations were found. When comparing infection rates of Hanoverian ticks in 2010 to those in 2005, infection rates of A. phagocytophilum-infected nymphs increased statistically significant (P=0.008, power: 0.762) from 2.3% in 2005 (Schicht et al., 2011) to 4.5% in 2010. Rickettsia spp. infections in female ticks decreased significantly (P=0.049, power: 0.491) from 41.8% in 2005 (Schicht et al., 2012) to 32.4% in 2010. Comparison of the remaining tick stages showed no statistically significant differences. PMID:23838023

Tappe, Julia; Strube, Christina

2013-09-01

200

Molecular and functional analysis of the lepB gene, encoding a type I signal peptidase from Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia typhi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The type I signal peptidase lepB genes from Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia typhi, the etiologic agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and murine typhus, respectively, were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis of the cloned lepB genes from R. rickettsii and R. typhi shows open reading frames of 801 and 795 nucleotides, respectively. Alignment analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences reveals the presence of highly conserved motifs that are important for the catalytic activity of bacterial type I signal peptidase. Reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the lepB gene of R. rickettsii is cotranscribed in a polycistronic message with the putative nuoF (encoding NADH dehydrogenase I chain F), secF (encoding protein export membrane protein), and rnc (encoding RNase III) genes in a secF-nuoF-lepB-rnc cluster. The cloned lepB genes from R. rickettsii and R. typhi have been demonstrated to possess signal peptidase I activity in Escherichia coli preprotein processing in vivo by complementation assay. PMID:12867468

Rahman, M Sayeedur; Simser, Jason A; Macaluso, Kevin R; Azad, Abdu F

2003-08-01

201

Prevalence of Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp.) in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hamburg, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

To narrow the gap of missing knowledge on Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in ticks in northwestern Germany and, at the same time, to provide first prevalence data on these pathogens in the city of Hamburg, a total of 1,400 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at ten different public green areas from April until October 2011. Ticks were examined using probe-based quantitative real-time PCR. A percentage of 3.6% (51/1,400) ticks were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum infections divided into 2.1% (3/141) adults [1.7% (1/60) females and 2.5% (2/81) males] and 3.8% (48/1,259) nymphs. The percentage of infected ticks per sampling site varied statistically significantly from 0.7% (1/140) to 12.1% (17/140), whereas between sampling months, no statistically significant differences were observed (2.0-6.5%, 4-13/140). The overall Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 52.5% (735/1,400). In adult ticks, Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 56% (79/141) divided into 61.7% (37/60) infected females and 51.9% (42/81) infected males. Nymphs showed an infection rate of 52.1% (656/1,259). In contrast to A. phagocytophilum infections, no statistically significant differences in Rickettsia spp. infection rates among sampling sites (44.3-63.6%, 62-89/140) were observed, whereas seasonal variations were obvious: the percentage of Rickettsia-positive ticks was significantly lower in April (36.5%, 73/200) and May (29.5%, 59/200) compared to the summer and fall months (55.0-64.5%, 110-129/200). Rickettsia species differentiation via real-time pyrosequencing revealed Rickettsia helvetica as the only occurring species. Co-infections with both Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.0% (28/1,400) of the ticks. The present study revealed that in the city of Hamburg, the tick infection rate with A. phagocytophilum is comparable with other German data, whereas the Rickettsia spp. infection rate of 52.5% is by far the highest prevalence detected in Germany so far. As the city of Hamburg has 1.8 million inhabitants and attracts millions of tourists every year, the potential health risk should not be underestimated. PMID:24728556

May, Kathrin; Strube, Christina

2014-06-01

202

Detection of anti: Rickettsia spp. antibodies in domestic chickens of extensive breeding in an endemic area for spotted fever in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil / Detecção de anticorpos anti: Rickettsia spp. em galinhas domésticas de criação extensiva em uma área endêmica para febre maculosa no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo pesquisar anticorpos anti-Rickettsia spp. em soros de galinhas domésticas (Gallus gallus domesticus) de criação extensiva, provenientes de área considerada endêmica para febre maculosa no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas 300 amostras de sangue e os soros ob [...] tidos foram testados para anticorpos anti-Rickettsia spp. pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). A ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Rickettsia spp. observada foi de 1,33% (4/300), com títulos variando de 64 a 256 para Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri e/ou Rickettsia bellii. Os resultados sugerem que essas galinhas domésticas não participam como reservatório e/ou hospedeiro amplificador na epidemiologia da febre maculosa na área endêmica. O presente estudo consiste na primeira pesquisa sorológica em Gallus gallus domesticus para rickettsia do grupo da febre maculosa no Brasil. Abstract in english The goal of this study was to investigate anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies in sera of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) of extensive breeding in Cerro Largo county, considered an endemic area for spotted fever in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Three hundred blood samples were coll [...] ected and anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in the sera obtained. The occurrence of anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies detected in this study was 1.33% (4/300), with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 256 for Rickettsia rickettsiii, R. parkeri and/or R. bellii. The results suggest these domestic chickens do not participate as a reservoir and/or amplifying host in the epidemiology of spotted fever in that endemic area. The present study consists in the first serological survey in Gallus gallus domesticus to Rickettsiae-spotted fever group in Brazil.

Jonas Fernandes, Maciel; Felipe da Silva, Krawczak; Caroline Sobotyk de, Oliveira; Jonas, Moraes-Filho; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna; Sônia de Avila, Botton; Fernanda Silveira Flores, Vogel; Luis Antonio, Sangioni.

2037-20-01

203

[Isolation and identification of the W-88 strain of spotted fever group rickettsiae from a human case in Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia].  

Science.gov (United States)

One strain of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae was isolated from a patient with febrile and headache who was missdiagnosed as common cold. The rickettsia was isolated by inoculation of yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs with the patient's blood. The isolate was named as W-88 following the initial letter of the patient's name. It is the first time to report the isolation of SFG rickettsiae from human being who lived in city in China. In this study we compared the antigens of W-88 strain with seven prototype strains of SFG rickettsiae and six Chinese strains of SFG rickettsiae with one species-specific monoclonal antibody and one group reactive monoclonal antibody by indirect-immunofluorescence assay. The results demonstrated that W-88 strain and other Chinese strains JH-74, An-84, FT-84, MT-84, Se-85, To-85 of SFG rickettsiae were found identical to Rickettsia sibirica (strains 232 and 246) and differ from other prototypes of SFG rickettsiae. PMID:2225005

Bi, D Z

1990-08-01

204

Isolation of "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae" (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in embryonic cells of naturally infected Amblyomma maculatum (Ixodida: Ixodidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch, has become increasingly important in public health for its role as a vector of the recently recognized human pathogen, Rickettsia parkeri. More recently, these ticks were also found to harbor a novel spotted fever group rickettsia, "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae." First identified in Peru, and subsequently reported in ticks collected in the United States, Chile, and Argentina, "Ca. R. andeanae" remains largely uncharacterized, in part because of the lack of a stable isolate. Although the isolation of "Ca. R. andeanae" was recently described in DH82, Vero, and Drosophila S2 cells, its stability in these cell lines was not shown. To evaluate "Ca. R. andeanae" transmission and pathogenicity in vertebrates, as well as further describe biological characteristics of this candidate species to fulfill criteria for its establishment as a new species, availability of a stable isolate is essential. Here we describe the propagation of "Ca. R. andeanae" by using a primary culture derived from naturally infected A. maculatum embryos. Subsequent passage of the "Ca. R. andeanae" isolate to ISE6 (Ixodes scapularis embryonic) and Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelial) cell lines demonstrated limited propagation of the rickettsiae. Treatment of the infected primary cells with tetracycline resulted in cultures negative for "Ca. R. andeanae" by polymerase chain reaction and microscopy. Establishment of an isolate of "Ca. R. andeanae" will promote further investigation into the significance of this tick-associated rickettsia, including its role in spotted fever and interactions with the sympatric species, R. parkeri in A. PMID:24180118

Ferrari, F A G; Goddard, J; Moraru, G M; Smith, W E C; Varela-Stokes, A S

2013-09-01

205

Assessment of Prevalence and Distribution of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Manitoba, Canada, in the American Dog Tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the distribution and prevalence of the spotted fever group rickettsiae in Canada. We conducted active surveillance for tick-associated rickettsiae in 10 localities in Manitoba. A total of 1044 adult American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae), were collected and screened for spotted fever group rickettsiae. Rickettsia montanensis was the only species of rickettsia detected. The mean prevalence of infection was 9.8% (range, 0.00-21.74% among localities). The proportion of infected male and female ticks was not significantly different; however, tick populations near the northern limit of D. variabilis distribution in Manitoba had a lower prevalence of infection compared to tick populations from more southern localities in the province. PMID:25700040

Yunik, Matthew E M; Galloway, Terry D; Lindsay, L Robbin

2015-02-01

206

Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) em Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) no estado de São Paulo  

OpenAIRE

Samples of 10 and 14 Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas were collected on dogs from Pedreira and Mogi das Cruzes municipalities, respectively, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, for detection of Rickettsia spp. Individual fleas were submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting the 17-kDa and the 190-kDa (OmpA) genes of Rickettsiae. This later gene is specific for spotted fever group. Nine fleas from Pedreira (90%) and four fleas from Mogi das Cruzes (28%) were positive for the 17-kDa gene...

Horta, M. C.; Pinter, A.; Cortez, A.; Soares, R. M.; Gennari, S. M.; Schumaker, T. T. S.; Labruna, M. B.

2005-01-01

207

Prevalence of vectors of the spotted fever group Rickettsiae and murine typhus in a Bedouin town in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of the vectors of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and of murine typhus was carried out in Rahat, a Bedouin town in the Negev Desert, where the diseases are endemic. Houses with known cases of spotted fever group Rickettsiae or murine typhus were compared with those without reported clinical cases. A neighboring Jewish community, Lehavim, where no cases of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and murine typhus were reported in recent years, was used as a control. In the houses of patients with spotted fever group Rickettsiae in Rahat, an average of 7.4 times more ticks were found than in control houses. Out of 190 ticks isolated from sheep and goats or caught by flagging in Rahat, 90% were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), 7.9% Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev, and 2.1% were Hyalomma sp. In the houses of patients with murine typhus, three times more rats were caught and, on the average, each rat was infested with 2.2 times more fleas than rats in the control houses. Out of 323 fleas collected from 35 Norwegian rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout), 191 were Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild and 132 Echidnophaga murina Tiraboschi. Thus, there was a six to seven times higher probability of encountering a tick or flea vector where infections had occurred than in control houses in Rahat. The percentage of rats seropositive to Rickettsia typhi was similar in study and control households (78.3 and 76.2, respectively). In the control settlement, Lehavim, only three Mus musculus L. were caught, which were not infested with ectoparasites and their sera were negative for murine typhus. Out of 10 dogs examined in this settlement, 15 R. sanguineus and eight specimens of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouché) were isolated. No rats were caught in this settlement. These data indicate that there is a correlation among the density of domestic animals, their ectoparasites, and the incidence of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and murine typhus in Rahat. PMID:11372975

Mumcuoglu, K Y; Ioffe-Uspensky, I; Alkrinawi, S; Sarov, B; Manor, E; Galun, R

2001-05-01

208

Importation of exotic ticks and tick-borne spotted fever group rickettsiae into the United States by migrating songbirds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Birds are capable of carrying ticks and, consequently, tick-transmitted microorganisms over long distances and across geographical barriers such as oceans and deserts. Ticks are hosts for several species of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), which can be transmitted to vertebrates during blood meals. In this study, the prevalence of this group of rickettsiae was examined in ticks infesting migratory songbirds by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). During the 2009 and 2010 spring migration season, 2064 northward-migrating passerine songbirds were examined for ticks at Johnson Bayou, Louisiana. A total of 91 ticks was removed from 35 individual songbirds for tick species identification and spotted fever group rickettsia detection. Ticks were identified as Haemaphysalis juxtakochi (n=38, 42%), Amblyomma longirostre (n=22, 24%), Amblyomma nodosum (n=17, 19%), Amblyomma calcaratum (n=11, 12%), Amblyomma maculatum (n=2, 2%), and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (n=1, 1%) by comparing their 12S rDNA gene sequence to homologous sequences in GenBank. Most of the identified ticks were exotic species originating outside of the United States. The phylogenetic analysis of the 71 ompA gene sequences of the rickettsial strains detected in the ticks revealed the occurrence of 6 distinct rickettsial genotypes. Two genotypes (corresponding to a total of 28 samples) were included in the Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii clade (less than 1% divergence), 2 of them (corresponding to a total of 14 samples) clustered with Rickettsia sp. "Argentina" with less than 0.2% sequence divergence, and 2 of them (corresponding to a total of 27 samples), although closely related to the R. parkeri-R. africae lineage (2.50-3.41% divergence), exhibited sufficient genetic divergence from its members to possibly constitute a new rickettsial genotype. Overall, there does not seem to be a specific relationship between exotic tick species, the rickettsiae they harbor, or the reservoir competence of the corresponding bird species. PMID:24252263

Mukherjee, Nabanita; Beati, Lorenza; Sellers, Michael; Burton, Laquita; Adamson, Steven; Robbins, Richard G; Moore, Frank; Karim, Shahid

2014-03-01

209

Serosurvey for tick-borne diseases in dogs from the Eastern Amazon, Brazil / Pesquisa Sorologica por doencas transmitidas por carrapatos em caes da Amazonia oriental, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Ehrliquiose canina e babesiose canina são as doenças parasitárias transmitidas por carrapatos de maior prevalência em cães do Brasil. Poucos estudos pesquisaram doenças transmitidas por carrapatos na região da Amazônia brasileira. Um total de 129 amostras de sangue foram colhidas de cães da Amazônia [...] oriental brasileira. Setenta e dois cães eram de áreas rurais de 19 municípios do Estado do Pará, e 57 amostras foram colhidas de cães errantes vadios da área urbana do município de Santarém-PA. As amostras de soro foram submetidas ao ensaio de imunofluorescência indireta, com antígenos de Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, e seis espécies de Rickettsia. A frequência de cães com anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, e anti-Rickettsia spp. foi de 42,6%, 16,2% e 31,7%, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli foram detectados em 59,6% dos cães urbanos, e em 29,1% dos cães rurais (P Abstract in english Canine ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are the most prevalent tick-borne diseases in Brazilian dogs. Few studies have focused attention in surveying tick-borne diseases in the Brazilian Amazon region. A total of 129 blood samples were collected from dogs living in the Brazilian eastern Amazon. Seventy-t [...] wo samples from dogs from rural areas of 19 municipalities and 57 samples from urban stray dogs from Santarém municipality were collected. Serum samples were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) with antigens of Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and six Rickettsia species. The frequency of dogs containing anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, and anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies was 42.6%, 16.2%, and 31.7%, respectively. Anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies were detected in 59.6% of the urban dogs, and in 29.1% of the rural dogs (P

Mariana Granziera, Spolidorio; Antonio Humberto Hamad, Minervino; Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco, Valadas; Herbert Sousa, Soares; Kedson Alessandri Lobo, Neves; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna; Mucio Flavio Barbosa, Ribeiro; Solange Maria, Gennari.

2013-06-25

210

Experimental infection of dogs with a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii: clinical and laboratory findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of an acute, severe disease called Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States or Brazilian spotted fever (BSF in Brazil. In addition to these two countries, the disease has also been reported to affect humans in Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Argentina. Like humans, dogs are also susceptible to R. rickettsii infection. However, despite the wide distribution of R. rickettsii in the Western Hemisphere, reports of R. rickettsii-induced illness in dogs has been restricted to the United States. The present study evaluated the pathogenicity for dogs of a South American strain of R. rickettsii. Three groups of dogs were evaluated: group 1 (G1 was inoculated ip with R. rickettsii; group 2 (G2 was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks; and the control group (G3 was infested by uninfected ticks. During the study, no clinical abnormalities, Rickettsia DNA or R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies were detected in G3. In contrast, all G1 and G2 dogs developed signs of rickettsial infection, i.e., fever, lethargy, anorexia, ocular lesions, thrombocytopenia, anemia and detectable levels of Rickettsia DNA and R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies in their blood. Rickettsemia started 3-8 days after inoculation or tick infestation and lasted for 3-13 days. Our results indicate that a Brazilian strain of R. rickettsii is pathogenic for dogs, suggesting that canine clinical illness due to R. rickettsii has been unreported in Brazil and possibly in the other South American countries where BSF has been reported among humans.

Eliane M Piranda

2008-11-01

211

Experimental infection of dogs with a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii: clinical and laboratory findings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of an acute, severe disease called Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States or Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in Brazil. In addition to these two countries, the disease has also been reported to affect humans in Mexico, Costa Rica, [...] Panama, Colombia and Argentina. Like humans, dogs are also susceptible to R. rickettsii infection. However, despite the wide distribution of R. rickettsii in the Western Hemisphere, reports of R. rickettsii-induced illness in dogs has been restricted to the United States. The present study evaluated the pathogenicity for dogs of a South American strain of R. rickettsii. Three groups of dogs were evaluated: group 1 (G1) was inoculated ip with R. rickettsii; group 2 (G2) was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks; and the control group (G3) was infested by uninfected ticks. During the study, no clinical abnormalities, Rickettsia DNA or R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies were detected in G3. In contrast, all G1 and G2 dogs developed signs of rickettsial infection, i.e., fever, lethargy, anorexia, ocular lesions, thrombocytopenia, anemia and detectable levels of Rickettsia DNA and R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies in their blood. Rickettsemia started 3-8 days after inoculation or tick infestation and lasted for 3-13 days. Our results indicate that a Brazilian strain of R. rickettsii is pathogenic for dogs, suggesting that canine clinical illness due to R. rickettsii has been unreported in Brazil and possibly in the other South American countries where BSF has been reported among humans.

Eliane M, Piranda; João Luis H, Faccini; Adriano, Pinter; Tais B, Saito; Richard C, Pacheco; Mitika K, Hagiwara; Marcelo B, Labruna.

2008-11-01

212

Detection of Rickettsia japonica in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR product.  

OpenAIRE

PCR was applied to the detection of Rickettsia japonica, the causative agent of Oriental spotted fever (OSF), in ticks collected at two sites of the Muroto area on Shikoku Island, a major area in Japan where OSF is endemic. Primer pair Rr190.70p and Rr190.602n of the R. rickettsii 190-kDa antigen gene sequence of Regnery and others (R.L. Regnery, C.L. Spruill, and B.D. Plikaytis, J. Bacteriol. 173:1576-1589, 1991) primed the DNA extracted from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks but not those ext...

Uchida, T.; Yan, Y.; Kitaoka, S.

1995-01-01

213

Dissemination of Spotted Fever Rickettsia Agents in Europe by Migrating Birds  

OpenAIRE

Migratory birds are known to play a role as long-distance vectors for many microorganisms. To investigate whether this is true of rickettsial agents as well, we characterized tick infestation and gathered ticks from 13,260 migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1127 Ixodes spp. ticks were removed from these birds and the extracted DNA from 957 of them was available for analyses. The DNA was assayed for detection of Rickettsia spp. using real-time PCR, followed by DNA sequencing for s...

Elfving, Karin; Olsen, Bjo?rn; Bergstro?m, Sven; Waldenstro?m, Jonas; Lundkvist, A?ke; Sjo?stedt, Anders; Mejlon, Hans; Nilsson, Kenneth

2010-01-01

214

Functional Characterization of a Phospholipase A2 Homolog from Rickettsia typhi? † ‡  

OpenAIRE

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) has long been proposed to be involved in rickettsial entry into host cells, escape from the phagosome to evade destruction by lysosomal exposure, and lysis of the host cells. However, the corresponding rickettsial gene(s) encoding a protein with PLA2 activity has not been identified or functionally characterized. Here, we report that the Rickettsia typhi genome possesses two genes encoding patatin-like PLA2 proteins, RT0590 and RT0522. Sequence analysis of RT0522 and R...

Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Sears, Khandra T.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Azad, Abdu F.

2010-01-01

215

Borrelia lusitaniae and spotted fever group rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Tuscany, central Italy  

OpenAIRE

Prevalence of infection by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae was estimated in host-seeking ticks in an area in Tuscany, central Italy, where Lyme borreliosis was reported in a forestry worker. B. burgdorferi s.l. was identiÞed by polymerase chain reaction in 16.7% (95% CI=10.3, 24.8) of Ixodes ricinus (L.) nymphs and 39.6% (95% CI=26.5, 54.0) of adults. Borrelia lusitaniae accounted for 82.9% of positive samples, followed by Borrelia garinii (...

Amore, Giuseppina; Bertolotti, Luigi; Tramuta, Clara; Nebbia, Patrizia; Mannelli, Alessandro; Grego, Elena; Tomassone, Laura

2006-01-01

216

Isolation and characterization of the dnaA gene of Rickettsia prowazekii  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dnaA gene encoding the initiator protein of DNA replication was isolated from the obligate intracellular bacterium, Rickettsia prowazekii. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of R. prowazekii DnaA with other bacterial DnaA proteins revealed extensive similarity. However, the rickettsial sequence is unique in the number of basic lysine residues found within a highly conserved portion of the putative DNA binding region, suggesting that the rickettsial protein may recognize a DNA sequence that differs from the consensus DnaA box sequence identified in other bacteria. Consensus DnaA box sequences, found upstream of many bacterial dnaA genes, were not identified upstream of rickettsial dnaA gene. In addition, gene organization within this region differed from that of other bacteria. The putative start of transcription of the rickettsial dnaA gene was localized to a site 522 nucleotides upstream of the DnaA start codon. Key words: Rickettsia prowazekii; dnaA gene; initiator protein (authors)

217

Evidence of antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsiae in small mammals and quail from Mississippi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsia parkeri is a recently recognized human pathogen primarily associated with the Gulf Coast tick Amblyomma maculatum, with immature stages of this tick reported from wild vertebrates. To better understand the role of vertebrates in the natural history of this bacterium, we evaluated small mammals and ground-dwelling birds for evidence of infection with R. parkeri or exposure to the organism. We sampled small mammals (n=39) and passerines (n=47) in both north-central and southeast Mississippi, while northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) samples (n=31) were obtained from farms in central Mississippi. Blood from all sampled animals was tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), and for antibodies to SFGR using R. parkeri antigen. Ectoparasite samples were removed from animals and included mites, lice, fleas, and immature ticks. Of 39 small mammal samples collected, 7 were positive for antibodies to SFGR; none tested positive by PCR for DNA of SFGR. Of 47 passerine blood samples collected, none were positive for DNA of SFGR by PCR, nor did any show serological evidence of exposure. Finally, none of 31 northern bobwhite samples tested were positive for SFGR DNA, while 7 were seropositive for rickettsial antibodies. Detection of seropositive rodents and quail suggests a role for these host species in the natural history of SFGR, possibly including R. parkeri, but the extent of their role has not yet been elucidated. PMID:23199266

Moraru, Gail Miriam; Goddard, Jerome; Murphy, Alexandria; Link, Diana; Belant, Jerrold L; Varela-Stokes, Andrea

2013-01-01

218

Feeding by Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) enhances Rickettsia parkeri (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) infection in the skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsia parkeri Luckman (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), a member of the spotted fever group of Rickettsia, is the tick-borne causative agent of a newly recognized, eschar-associated rickettsiosis. Because of its relatively recent designation as a pathogen, few studies have examined the pathogenesis of transmission of R. parkeri to the vertebrate host. To further elucidate the role of tick feeding in rickettsial infection of vertebrates, nymphal Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) were fed on C3H/HeJ mice intradermally inoculated with R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain). The ticks were allowed to feed to repletion, at which time samples were taken for histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for rickettsial quantification, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of Itgax, Mcp1, and Il1beta. The group of mice that received intradermal inoculation of R. parkeri with tick feeding displayed significant increases in rickettsial load and IHC staining, but not in cytokine expression, when compared with the group of mice that received intradermal inoculation of R. parkeri without tick feeding. Tick feeding alone was associated with histopathologic changes in the skin, but these changes, and particularly vascular pathology, were more pronounced in the skin of mice inoculated previously with R. parkeri and followed by tick feeding. The marked differences in IHC staining and qPCR for the R. parkeri with tick feeding group strongly suggest an important role for tick feeding in the early establishment of rickettsial infection in the skin. PMID:25118419

Grasperge, Britton J; Morgan, Timothy W; Paddock, Christopher D; Peterson, Karin E; Macaluso, Kevin R

2014-07-01

219

Rickettsia Sca2 has evolved formin-like activity through a different molecular mechanism  

Science.gov (United States)

Sca2 (surface cell antigen 2) is the only bacterial protein known to promote both actin filament nucleation and profilin-dependent elongation, mimicking eukaryotic formins to assemble actin comet tails for Rickettsia motility. We show that Sca2’s functional mimicry of formins is achieved through a unique mechanism. Unlike formins, Sca2 is monomeric, but has N- and C-terminal repeat domains (NRD and CRD) that interact with each other for processive barbed-end elongation. The crystal structure of NRD reveals a previously undescribed fold, consisting of helix–loop–helix repeats arranged into an overall crescent shape. CRD is predicted to share this fold and might form together with NRD, a doughnut-shaped formin-like structure. In between NRD and CRD, proline-rich sequences mediate the incorporation of profilin-actin for elongation, and WASP-homology 2 (WH2) domains recruit actin monomers for nucleation. Sca2’s ?-helical fold is unusual among Gram-negative autotransporters, which overwhelmingly fold as ?-solenoids. Rickettsia has therefore “rediscovered” formin-like actin nucleation and elongation. PMID:23818602

Madasu, Yadaiah; Suarez, Cristian; Kast, David J.; Kovar, David R.; Dominguez, Roberto

2013-01-01

220

Spotted fever group rickettsiae identified in Dermacentor marginatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks in Algeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our study was carried out using Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from cattle from Tizi-Ouzou and Dermacentor marginatus ticks collected from the vegetation of the Blida region, a tourist site, both regions situated in northern Algeria. The results of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) specific for a partial sequence of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) indicate that Rickettsia spp. were present in 11/23 (48%) and 4/9 (44%) of the examined ticks from Tizi-Ouzou and Blida, respectively. The sequences of Rickettsia helvetica and Ri. monacensis were found in I. ricinus ticks using gltA primers. In addition, Ri. slovaca was detected based on the sequences of the gltA and the outer membrane protein (OmpA) genes in D. marginatus ticks. DNA sequencing to identify the species revealed for the first time the presence of Ri. helvetica in I. ricinus ticks and Ri. slovaca in D. marginatus ticks from Algeria and confirmed the presence of Ri. monacensis. PMID:23168054

Kernif, Tahar; Messaoudene, Dalila; Ouahioune, Soraya; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Bitam, Idir

2012-12-01

221

Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from California collected in 1995 and 1996.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 1,246 ixodid ticks collected in 1995 and 1996 from seven California counties were examined for the presence of Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae by using a nested PCR technique. Of 1,112 adult Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls ticks tested, nine pools, each containing five ticks, were positive (minimum percentage of ticks harboring detectable ehrlichiae, 0.8%). Positive ticks were limited to four of the seven counties (Sonoma, El Dorado, Santa Cruz, and Orange). In Santa Cruz County, three positive pools were identified at the home of an individual with prior confirmed human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. In El Dorado County, positive ticks were found at sites where cases of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a horse and a llama had recently occurred. Among 47 nymphal I. pacificus ticks collected in Sonoma County, one positive pool was identified. Fifty-seven adult Dermacentor occidentalis Marx and 30 adult D. variabilis Say ticks, collected chiefly in southern California, were negative. These data, although preliminary, suggest that the prevalence of E. phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae in ixodid ticks of California may be lower than in cognate vector populations (i.e., I. scapularis Say = I. dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman, and Corwin) in the eastern and midwestern United States. PMID:9230373

Barlough, J E; Madigan, J E; Kramer, V L; Clover, J R; Hui, L T; Webb, J P; Vredevoe, L K

1997-08-01

222

Surveillance of Egyptian fleas for agents of public health significance: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Yersinia pestis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serologic surveys in Egypt have documented human and animal exposure to vector-borne bacterial pathogens, but the presence and distribution of these agents in arthropods has not been determined. Between July 2002 and July 2003, fleas were collected from 221 mammals trapped in 17 cities throughout Egypt. A total of 987 fleas were collected, representing four species (Ctenocephalides felis, Echidnophaga gallinacea, Leptopsylla segnis, and Xenopsylla cheopis); 899 of these fleas were X. cheopis from rats (Rattus spp.). Fleas were tested for DNA from Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Yersinia pestis. Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was detected in X. cheopis and L. segnis from rats from nine cities. A spotted-fever group Rickettsia sp. similar to "RF2125" was detected in E. gallinacea, and two unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in two X. cheopis. Novel Bartonella genotypes were detected in X. cheopis and L. segnis from three cities. Coxiella burnetii was detected in two fleas. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Y. pestis were not detected. PMID:16837707

Loftis, Amanda D; Reeves, Will K; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Moriarity, John R; Dasch, Gregory A

2006-07-01

223

Case report: Co-infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: is fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever underdiagnosed?  

Science.gov (United States)

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A ?-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections. PMID:25331804

Raczniak, Gregory A; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J

2014-12-01

224

Infection of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Rickettsia spp. alters its interactions with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here we report that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies...

225

Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne diseases caused by parasites from the Order Rickettsiales. The most prevalent rickettsial disease in Brazil is Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF). This work intends the molecular detection of those agents in ectoparasites from an endemic area of BSF in the state of Espír [...] ito Santo. A total of 502 ectoparasites, among them Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum (A. cooperi), Riphicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens and Ctenocephalides felis, was collected from domestic animals and the environment and separated in 152 lots according to the origin. Rickettsia sp. was detected in pools of all collected species by amplification of 17kDa protein-encoding gene fragments. The products of PCR amplification of three samples were sequenced, and Rickettsia felis was identified in R. sanguineus and C. felis. These results confirm the presence of Rickettsia felis in areas previously known as endemic for BSF, disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil.

KA, Oliveira; LS, Oliveira; CCA, Dias; A, Silva Jr; MR, Almeida; G, Almada; DH, Bouyer; MAM, Galvão; CL, Mafra.

2008-03-01

226

Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne diseases caused by parasites from the Order Rickettsiales. The most prevalent rickettsial disease in Brazil is Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF. This work intends the molecular detection of those agents in ectoparasites from an endemic area of BSF in the state of Espírito Santo. A total of 502 ectoparasites, among them Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum (A. cooperi, Riphicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens and Ctenocephalides felis, was collected from domestic animals and the environment and separated in 152 lots according to the origin. Rickettsia sp. was detected in pools of all collected species by amplification of 17kDa protein-encoding gene fragments. The products of PCR amplification of three samples were sequenced, and Rickettsia felis was identified in R. sanguineus and C. felis. These results confirm the presence of Rickettsia felis in areas previously known as endemic for BSF, disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil.

KA Oliveira

2008-03-01

227

Efficacy of several anti-tick treatments to prevent the transmission of Rickettsia conorii under natural conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of several anti-tick treatments to prevent the transmission of Rickettsia was evaluated under natural conditions of tick pressure in a kennel. Only Amitraz (Preventic) provided total control on transmission (no dogs were infected), whereas with Frontline, Advantix, or Scalibor, the rate of infection varied among the dogs. PMID:17114765

Estrada-Peña, A; Venzal Bianchi, J M

2006-10-01

228

Serosurvey for tick-borne diseases in dogs from the Eastern Amazon, Brazil Pesquisa Sorológica por doenças transmitidas por carrapatos em cães da Amazônia oriental, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Canine ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are the most prevalent tick-borne diseases in Brazilian dogs. Few studies have focused attention in surveying tick-borne diseases in the Brazilian Amazon region. A total of 129 blood samples were collected from dogs living in the Brazilian eastern Amazon. Seventy-two samples from dogs from rural areas of 19 municipalities and 57 samples from urban stray dogs from Santarém municipality were collected. Serum samples were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA with antigens of Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and six Rickettsia species. The frequency of dogs containing anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, and anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies was 42.6%, 16.2%, and 31.7%, respectively. Anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies were detected in 59.6% of the urban dogs, and in 29.1% of the rural dogs (P Ehrliquiose canina e babesiose canina são as doenças parasitárias transmitidas por carrapatos de maior prevalência em cães do Brasil. Poucos estudos pesquisaram doenças transmitidas por carrapatos na região da Amazônia brasileira. Um total de 129 amostras de sangue foram colhidas de cães da Amazônia oriental brasileira. Setenta e dois cães eram de áreas rurais de 19 municípios do Estado do Pará, e 57 amostras foram colhidas de cães errantes vadios da área urbana do município de Santarém-PA. As amostras de soro foram submetidas ao ensaio de imunofluorescência indireta, com antígenos de Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, e seis espécies de Rickettsia. A frequência de cães com anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, e anti-Rickettsia spp. foi de 42,6%, 16,2% e 31,7%, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli foram detectados em 59,6% dos cães urbanos, e em 29,1% dos cães rurais (P < 0.05. Para E. canis, a soroprevalência foi parecida entre os cães urbanos (15,7% e rurais (16,6%. Para Rickettsia spp., cães rurais apresentaram prevalência (P < 0.05 significativamente maior (40,3% do que os cães urbanos (21,1%. Esse primeiro estudo sobre agentes transmitidos por carrapatos entre cães da Amazônia oriental brasileira indica que estes animais estão expostos a vários agentes. Estes incluem Babesia principalmente na área urbana, Riquétsias do grupo da Febre Maculosa principalmente nas áreas rurais, e Erliquia em cães de ambas as áreas, rural e urbana.

Mariana Granziera Spolidorio

229

Epidemiology of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in a spotted fever-endemic area of southern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed in Vila Itoupava, an area of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, in which a tick-borne spotted fever illness has been endemic since 2003. Notably, both the etiological agent and the vector of these spotted fever cases remain unknown. During January 2011, humans, domestic dogs, and their ticks were sampled in households that are typically surrounded by highly preserved Atlantic rainforest fragments. Ticks collected from dogs were Amblyomma ovale (34% prevalence), Amblyomma aureolatum (18.9%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.8%). A total of 7.8% (6/77) A. ovale and 9.3% (4/43) A. aureolatum were infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent recently shown to cause spotted fever illness in southeastern Brazil. Overall, 67.3% (35/52) of the dogs were seroreactive to spotted fever group rickettsiae, mostly with highest endpoint titers to R. parkeri. Among humans, 46.7% (7/15) reacted serologically to rickettsiae at low to moderate endpoint titers. Because canine seroreactivity to R. parkeri was strongly associated with frequent contact with forests (the preferred habitat for A. ovale and A. aureolatum), it is concluded that sampled dogs have been infected by strain Atlantic rainforest through the parasitism of these tick species. The present study provides epidemiological evidence that the spotted fever in the study area has been caused by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, transmitted to humans by either A. ovale or A. aureolatum. Further studies encompassing direct diagnostic methods on clinical specimens from patients are needed to confirm the above epidemiological evidence. PMID:25108786

Barbieri, Amalia R M; Filho, Jonas M; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Souza, Julio C; Szabó, Matias P J; Labruna, Marcelo B

2014-10-01

230

Effects of homologous and heterologous immunization on the reservoir competence of domestic dogs for Rickettsia conorii (israelensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae cause serious infections in humans. Several antigenically related rickettsial agents may coexist within the same geographical area, and humans or vertebrate hosts may be sequentially exposed to multiple SFG agents. We assessed whether exposure of a vertebrate reservoir to one SFG Rickettsia will affect the host's immune response to a related pathogen and the efficiency of transmission to uninfected ticks. Two pairs of dogs were each infected with either Rickettsia massiliae or Rickettsia conorii israelensis, and their immune response was monitored twice weekly by IFA. The four immunized dogs and a pair of naïve dogs were each challenged with R. conorii israelensis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs. Uninfected Rh. sanguineus larvae were acquisition-fed on the dogs on days 1, 7, and 14 post-challenge. These ticks were tested for the presence of rickettsial DNA after molting to the nymphal stage. The naive dogs became infected with R. conorii israelensis and were infectious to ticks for at least 3 weeks, whereas reservoir competence of dogs previously infected with either R. massiliae or R. conorii was significantly diminished. This opens an opportunity for decreasing the efficiency of transmission and propagation of pathogenic Rickettsia in natural foci by immunizing the primary hosts with closely related nonpathogenic SFG bacteria. However, neither homologous immunization nor cross-immunization significantly affected the efficiency of R. conorii transmission between cofeeding infected nymphs and uninfected larvae. At high densities of ticks, the efficiency of cofeeding transmission may be sufficient for yearly amplification and persistent circulation of a rickettsial pathogen in the vector population. PMID:24201056

Levin, M L; Zemtsova, G E; Montgomery, M; Killmaster, L F

2014-02-01

231

Molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria, West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including in Africa. In this study, 197 Hyalomma ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) collected from 51 camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kano, northern Nigeria, were screened by amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and 17-kDa antigen gene fragments. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments were detected in 43.3% (42/97) of the tick pools tested. Rickettsial ompA gene fragments (189?bp and 630?bp) were detected in 64.3% (n?=?27) and 23.8% (n?=?10) of the gltA-positive tick pools by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The amplicons were 99-100% identical to Rickettsia aeschlimannii TR/Orkun-H and R.?aeschlimannii strain EgyRickHimp-El-Arish in GenBank. Furthermore, 17-kDa antigen gene fragments of 214?bp and 265?bp were detected in 59.5% (n?=?25) and 38.1% (n?=?16), respectively, of tick pools, and sequences were identical to one another and 99-100% identical to those of the R.?aeschlimannii strain Ibadan A1 in GenBank. None of the Hyalomma impressum ticks collected were positive for Rickettsia sp. DNA. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments (133?bp) were detected in 18.8% of camel blood samples, but all samples were negative for the other genes targeted. This is the first report to describe the molecular detection of R.?aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels in Nigeria. PMID:25565180

Kamani, J; Baneth, G; Apanaskevich, D A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

2015-06-01

232

RC1339/APRc from Rickettsia conorii Is a Novel Aspartic Protease with Properties of Retropepsin-Like Enzymes  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of the species Rickettsia are obligate intracellular, gram-negative, arthropod-borne pathogens of humans and other mammals. The life-threatening character of diseases caused by many Rickettsia species and the lack of reliable protective vaccine against rickettsioses strengthens the importance of identifying new protein factors for the potential development of innovative therapeutic tools. Herein, we report the identification and characterization of a novel membrane-embedded retropepsin-like homologue, highly conserved in 55 Rickettsia genomes. Using R. conorii gene homologue RC1339 as our working model, we demonstrate that, despite the low overall sequence similarity to retropepsins, the gene product of rc1339 APRc (for Aspartic Protease from Rickettsia conorii) is an active enzyme with features highly reminiscent of this family of aspartic proteases, such as autolytic activity impaired by mutation of the catalytic aspartate, accumulation in the dimeric form, optimal activity at pH 6, and inhibition by specific HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Moreover, specificity preferences determined by a high-throughput profiling approach confirmed common preferences between this novel rickettsial enzyme and other aspartic proteases, both retropepsins and pepsin-like. This is the first report on a retropepsin-like protease in gram-negative intracellular bacteria such as Rickettsia, contributing to the analysis of the evolutionary relationships between the two types of aspartic proteases. Additionally, we have also shown that APRc is transcribed and translated in R. conorii and R. rickettsii and is integrated into the outer membrane of both species. Finally, we demonstrated that APRc is sufficient to catalyze the in vitro processing of two conserved high molecular weight autotransporter adhesin/invasion proteins, Sca5/OmpB and Sca0/OmpA, thereby suggesting the participation of this enzyme in a relevant proteolytic pathway in rickettsial life-cycle. As a novel bona fide member of the retropepsin family of aspartic proteases, APRc emerges as an intriguing target for therapeutic intervention against fatal rickettsioses. PMID:25144529

Cruz, Rui; Huesgen, Pitter; Riley, Sean P.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Faro, Carlos; Overall, Christopher M.; Martinez, Juan J.; Simões, Isaura

2014-01-01

233

Tuberculosis ganglionar a forma de fiebre de origen desconocido: a propósito de un caso / Ganglionary tuberculosis as fever of unknown origin: apropos of a case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tuberculosis, tanto en su forma pulmonar como extrapulmonar constituye una enfermedad reemergente al nivel mundial, asociada con insuficiencias de los programas de control sanitario o con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. El modo de presentación de las formas extrapulmonares se relacion [...] a con síntomas constitucionales, que incluyen la fiebre y con signos dependientes del órgano afectado. Se presentó el caso de una adenitis granulomatosa en etapa o categoría 3, grupo integrado por aquellos casos nuevos de formas menos grave de tuberculosis extrapulmonar (TBe) con confirmación histopatológica del bacilo. Se enfatizó sobre la presentación a forma de fiebre de origen desconocido (FOD), al reunir los criterios necesarios por haber estado ingresada en otro centro hospitalario por más de 1 mes, sin haber llegado al diagnóstico a pesar de haber sido estudiada, y se resaltó la necesidad imperiosa de la búsqueda de este diagnóstico ante todo paciente con cuadro adénico febril e historia familiar de TB. Abstract in english Tuberculosis, both in its pulmonary and extrapulmonary form is a reemerging disease in the world associated with insufficiencies of the health control programs or with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The mode of presentation of the extrapulmonary forms is related to constitutional symptoms t [...] hat include fever, and to signs depending on the affected organ. The case of a stage III granulomatous adenitis, a group composed of those new cases of less severe forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with histopathological confirmation of the bacillus, was presented. Emphasis was made on the presentation as a FUO, on having the necessary criteria for having been admitted in another hospital for more than a month without a definitive diagnosis despite having been studied. The pressing need to search this diagnosis in every patient with febrile adenic picture and family history of TB was stressed.

Manuel A., Fernández Arias; Alfredo, Vázquez Vigoa; Julieta, Sánchez Ruiz; Julio César, Pérez Suárez.

2007-12-01

234

Rickettsia in Synanthropic and Domestic Animals and Their Hosts from Two Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Po...

Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Barcelos, Rafael M.; Gomes, Gabriel G.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Pena, Da?rlen C. H.; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A.; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Bouyer, Donald H.; Freitas, Renata N.; Walker, David H.; Mafra, Cla?udio L.; Galvao, Ma?rcio A. M.

2010-01-01

235

Hemocytic rickettsia-like organisms in ticks: serologic reactivity with antisera to Ehrlichiae and detection of DNA of agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by PCR.  

OpenAIRE

Ixodid ticks were collected from Connecticut, Massachusetts, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and British Columbia (Canada) during 1991 to 1994 to determine the prevalence of infection with hemocytic (blood cell), rickettsia-like organisms. Hemolymph obtained from these ticks was analyzed by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (FA) staining methods with dog, horse, or human sera containing antibodies to Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia equi, or Rickettsia rickettsii. Of the 693 nymphal an...

Magnarelli, L. A.; Stafford, K. C.; Mather, T. N.; Yeh, M. T.; Horn, K. D.; Dumler, J. S.

1995-01-01

236

Evaluación de dos técnicas para la detección molecular de rickettsia asociada a la enfermedad del cogollo arrepollado del papayo en Cuba / Evaluation of two techniques for the molecular diagnosis of rickettsia associated to papaya bunchy top disease in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue optimizar una técnica de diagnóstico para rickettsia-PBT, bacteria asociada a la enfermedad cogollo arrepollado del papayo (PBT), basada en la hibridación de ácidos nucleicos no radiactiva (HANS-PBT), y comparar la factibilidad de su uso con respecto a la PCR convenci [...] onal. Se optimizó un procedimiento de HANS-PBT que permitió la detección específica de hasta 15 pg de ADN del gen sdhA de rickettsia-PBT. La evaluación de 141 controles caracterizados mediante PCR convencional (PCR-PBT), mostró parámetros de desempeño de la HANS-PBT favorables, con una especificidad diagnóstica (ED) de 97,2% y sensibilidad diagnóstica (SD) de 98,5%. Los análisis simultáneos mediante las dos técnicas de 179 muestras colectadas mayormente en plantaciones del occidente de Cuba evidenciaron la presencia de rickettsia-PBT en 118 plantas. Los parámetros de desempeño de la PCR-PBT y HANS-PBT en la evaluación de estas muestras fueron similares, 96% y 98% de ED, 89% y 75% de SD, respectivamente. Aunque la HANS-PBT mostró valores de sensibilidad menores a la PCR-PBT, es factible su uso para programas de mejoramiento genético o prospecciones en estudios epidemiológicos de la diseminación de la bacteria. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to develop a technique based on non radioactive nucleic acid hybridization for the diagnosis of rickettsia-PBT bacterium associated to the papaya bunchy top disease (NASH-PBT), and to evaluate its use compared with the conventional PCR. The optimized NASH-PBT method allowed [...] the specific detection of 15 pg of sdhA gen DNA of rickettsia-PBT. The validation parameters in the evaluation of 141 controls previously characterized by PCR evidenced the reliability of the technique, showing diagnosis sensitivity (DS) of 97.2% and diagnosis specificity (DE) of 98.5%. The simultaneous analysis by the NASH-PBT and conventional PCR (PCR-PBT) of 179 samples recovered from commercial fields, mostly of the western region of Cuba, evidenced the presence of rickettsia-PBT in 118 plants. The parameters of validations of PCR-PBT and NASH-PBT in the analysis of these samples were 89% and 75% for DS and 96% and 98% for DE, respectively. Despite the lower sensibility value showed respect to NASH-PBT PCR-PBT, its use for genetic improvement programs or surveys in epidemiological studies of this pathogen is realiable.

Lester, Hernández-Rodríguez; Edel, Pérez López; Maritza, Luis Pantoja; Inés, Peña Bárzaga.

2014-08-01

237

High prevalence of Rickettsia africae variants in Amblyomma variegatum ticks from domestic mammals in rural western Kenya: implications for human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging human diseases caused by obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. Despite being important causes of systemic febrile illnesses in travelers returning from sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the reservoir hosts of these pathogens. We conducted surveys for rickettsiae in domestic animals and ticks in a rural setting in western Kenya. Of the 100 serum specimens tested from each species of domestic ruminant 43% of goats, 23% of sheep, and 1% of cattle had immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the SFG rickettsiae. None of these sera were positive for IgG against typhus group rickettsiae. We detected Rickettsia africae-genotype DNA in 92.6% of adult Amblyomma variegatum ticks collected from domestic ruminants, but found no evidence of the pathogen in blood specimens from cattle, goats, or sheep. Sequencing of a subset of 21 rickettsia-positive ticks revealed R. africae variants in 95.2% (20/21) of ticks tested. Our findings show a high prevalence of R. africae variants in A. variegatum ticks in western Kenya, which may represent a low disease risk for humans. This may provide a possible explanation for the lack of African tick-bite fever cases among febrile patients in Kenya. PMID:25325312

Maina, Alice N; Jiang, Ju; Omulo, Sylvia A; Cutler, Sally J; Ade, Fredrick; Ogola, Eric; Feikin, Daniel R; Njenga, M Kariuki; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mpoke, Solomon; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Breiman, Robert F; Knobel, Darryn L; Richards, Allen L

2014-10-01

238

Rickettsia africae infection complicated with painful sacral syndrome in an Italian traveller returning from Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of Rickettsia africae infection complicated with painful sacral syndrome in an Italian traveller returning from Zimbabwe. The patient presented with fever, a tache noire on the left leg, and a neurological syndrome characterized by severe pain of the left leg, predominantly located in the left dorsal thigh and radiating to the calf; she had urinary retention and faecal incontinence. The diagnosis of R. africae was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction on a skin biopsy. The severe left leg pain persisted despite a complete course of doxycycline. A 4-month course of corticosteroids and the addition of carbamazepine was needed to achieve the control of pain. This case highlights the possibility of severe manifestations of R. africae infection and the possibility of a complex pathogenesis of the neurological syndrome, due perhaps to both the direct damage induced by R. africae and an immune-mediated mechanism.

Lorenzo Zammarchi

2014-12-01

239

Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeti [...] ng three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

Fernanda Aparecida, Nieri-Bastos; Marcos Gomes, Lopes; Paulo Henrique Duarte, Cançado; Giselle Ayres Razera, Rossa; João Luiz Horácio, Faccini; Solange Maria, Gennari; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna.

2014-04-01

240

Featured Organism: Reductive Evolution in Bacteria: Buchnera sp., Rickettsia Prowazekii and Mycobacterium Leprae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obligate intracellular bacteria commonly have much reduced genome sizes compared to their nearest free-living relatives. One reason for this is reductive evolution: the loss of genes rendered non-essential due to the intracellular habitat. This can occur because of the presence of orthologous genes in the host, combined with the ability of the bacteria to import the protein or metabolite products of the host genes. In this article we take a look at three such bacteria whose genomes have been fully sequenced. Buchnera is an endosymbiont of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, the relationship between these two organisms being so essential that neither can reproduce in the absence of the other. Rickettsia prowazekii is the causative agent of louse-borne typhus in humans and Mycobacterium leprae infection of humans leads to leprosy. Both of these human pathogens have fastidious growth requirements, which has made them very difficult to study.

Jo Wixon

2001-01-01

241

Solution structure of the cold-shock-like protein from Rickettsia rickettsii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii infection. R. rickettsii can be transmitted to mammals, including humans, through the bite of an infected hard-bodied tick of the family Ixodidae. Since the R. rickettsii genome contains only one cold-shock-like protein and given the essential nature of cold-shock proteins in other bacteria, the structure of the cold-shock-like protein from R. rickettsii was investigated. With the exception of a short ?-helix found between ?-strands 3 and 4, the solution structure of the R. rickettsii cold-shock-like protein has the typical Greek-key five-stranded ?-barrel structure found in most cold-shock domains. Additionally, the R. rickettsii cold-shock-like protein, with a ?G of unfolding of 18.4?kJ?mol(-1), has a similar stability when compared with other bacterial cold-shock proteins. PMID:23143233

Gerarden, Kyle P; Fuchs, Andrew M; Koch, Jonathan M; Mueller, Melissa M; Graupner, David R; O'Rorke, Justin T; Frost, Caleb D; Heinen, Heather A; Lackner, Emily R; Schoeller, Scott J; House, Paul G; Peterson, Francis C; Veldkamp, Christopher T

2012-11-01

242

Genomic Diversification in Strains of Rickettsia felis Isolated from Different Arthropods  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsia felis (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) is the causative agent of an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis with worldwide occurrence. Originally described from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, recent reports have identified R. felis from other flea species, as well as other insects and ticks. This diverse host range for R. felis may indicate an underlying genetic variability associated with host-specific strains. Accordingly, to determine a potential genetic basis for host specialization, we sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU-Lb, which is an obligate mutualist of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Insecta: Psocoptera). We also sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU, the second genome sequence for cat flea-associated strains (cf. R. felis str. URRWXCal2), which are presumably facultative parasites of fleas. Phylogenomics analysis revealed R. felis str. LSU-Lb diverged from the flea-associated strains. Unexpectedly, R. felis str. LSU was found to be divergent from R. felis str. URRWXCal2, despite sharing similar hosts. Although all three R. felis genomes contain the pRF plasmid, R. felis str. LSU-Lb carries an additional unique plasmid, pLbaR (plasmid of L. bostrychophila associated Rickettsia), nearly half of which encodes a unique 23-gene integrative conjugative element. Remarkably, pLbaR also encodes a repeats-in-toxin-like type I secretion system and associated toxin, heretofore unknown from other Rickettsiales genomes, which likely originated from lateral gene transfer with another obligate intracellular parasite of arthropods, Cardinium (Bacteroidetes). Collectively, our study reveals unexpected genomic diversity across three R. felis strains and identifies several diversifying factors that differentiate facultative parasites of fleas from obligate mutualists of booklice. PMID:25477419

Gillespie, Joseph J.; Driscoll, Timothy P.; Verhoeve, Victoria I.; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Husseneder, Claudia; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Azad, Abdu F.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

2015-01-01

243

The Effects of Beta Rays (Tritium) on the Growth of Rickettsiae and Influenza Virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of Rickettsia mooseri (murine typhus) was increased greatly in embryonate eggs containing tritium oxide at levels of 180, 90 and 45 mc/egg and slightly in eggs containing 22.5 mc/egg; the infections in those given 11.2 mc/egg did not differ from the control. The growth of Rickettsia akari (rickettsial pox) was inhibited completely in eggs containing tritium oxide at levels of 180, 90 and 45 mc/egg, and partially in groups containing 22.5 and 11.2 mc/egg. Results similar to the above were obtained following the inoculation of tritium oxide, 1 mc per 108 cells, into monoclayer cultures of KB cells infected with R. mooseri or R. akari. A decrease in the latent period for the release of influenza virus from the chorioallantoic membranes of embryonate eggs followed the injection of tritium oxide prior to infection with virus. A thousand-fold increase of virus in the chorioallantoic fluids of treated eggs was found 2 h after the inoculation of the infective agent. When detectable amounts of virus appeared in the chorioallantoic fluids of the control eggs, 8 h after infection, the ID50 of the tritium-treated eggs was 10-5,6; both series had an ID50 of 10-7.5 24 h after infection. The amounts of virus in the membranes -of the tritium-treated eggs was increased also. This virus was liberated by removing and washing the membranes, drying the membranes by vacuum sublimation at low temperatures and rupturing the cells of the membranes by rehydration with distilled water. (author)

244

Genomic diversification in strains of Rickettsia felis Isolated from different arthropods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsia felis (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) is the causative agent of an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis with worldwide occurrence. Originally described from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, recent reports have identified R. felis from other flea species, as well as other insects and ticks. This diverse host range for R. felis may indicate an underlying genetic variability associated with host-specific strains. Accordingly, to determine a potential genetic basis for host specialization, we sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU-Lb, which is an obligate mutualist of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Insecta: Psocoptera). We also sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU, the second genome sequence for cat flea-associated strains (cf. R. felis str. URRWXCal2), which are presumably facultative parasites of fleas. Phylogenomics analysis revealed R. felis str. LSU-Lb diverged from the flea-associated strains. Unexpectedly, R. felis str. LSU was found to be divergent from R. felis str. URRWXCal2, despite sharing similar hosts. Although all three R. felis genomes contain the pRF plasmid, R. felis str. LSU-Lb carries an additional unique plasmid, pLbaR (plasmid of L. bostrychophila associated Rickettsia), nearly half of which encodes a unique 23-gene integrative conjugative element. Remarkably, pLbaR also encodes a repeats-in-toxin-like type I secretion system and associated toxin, heretofore unknown from other Rickettsiales genomes, which likely originated from lateral gene transfer with another obligate intracellular parasite of arthropods, Cardinium (Bacteroidetes). Collectively, our study reveals unexpected genomic diversity across three R. felis strains and identifies several diversifying factors that differentiate facultative parasites of fleas from obligate mutualists of booklice. PMID:25477419

Gillespie, Joseph J; Driscoll, Timothy P; Verhoeve, Victoria I; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Husseneder, Claudia; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Azad, Abdu F; Macaluso, Kevin R

2015-01-01

245

Experimental infection of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, using experimentally infected dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated if Rickettsia rickettsii-experimentally infected dogs could serve as amplifier hosts for hipicephalus sanguineus ticks. In addition, we checked if Rh. sanguineus ticks that acquired Ri. rickettsii from dogs could transmit the bacterium to susceptible hosts (vector competence), and if these ticks could maintain the bacterium by transstadial and transovarial transmissions. Uninfected larvae, nymphs, and adults of Rh. sanguineus were allowed to feed upon three groups of dogs: groups 1 (G1) and 2 (G2) composed of Ri. rickettsii-infected dogs, infected intraperitoneally and via tick bites, respectively, and group 3 composed of uninfected dogs. After larval and nymphal feeding on rickettsemic dogs, 7.1-15.2% and 35.8-37.9% of the molted nymphs and adults, respectively, were shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to be infected by Ri. rickettsii, confirming that both G1 and G2 dogs were efficient sources of rickettsial infection (amplifier host), resulting in transstadial transmission of the agent. These infected nymphs and adults successfully transmitted Ri. rickettsii to guinea pigs, confirming vector competence after acquisition of the infection from rickettsemic dogs. Transovarial transmission of Ri. rickettsii was observed in engorged females that had been infected as nymphs by feeding on both G1 and G2 dogs, but not in engorged females that acquired the infection during adult feeding on these same dogs. In the first case, filial infection rates were generally <50%. No tick exposed to G3 dogs was infected by rickettsiae in this study. No substantial mortality difference was observed between Ri. rickettsii-infected tick groups (G1 and G2) and uninfected tick group (G3). Our results indicate that dogs can be amplifier hosts of Ri. rickettsii for Rh. sanguineus, although only a minority of immature ticks (<45%) should become infected. It appears that Rh. sanguineus, in the absence of horizontal transmission, would not maintain Ri. rickettsii through successive generations, possibly because of low filial infection rates. PMID:20569011

Piranda, Eliane M; Faccini, João Luiz H; Pinter, Adriano; Pacheco, Richard C; Cançado, Paulo H D; Labruna, Marcelo B

2011-01-01

246

Natural history of tick-borne spotted fever in the USA. Susceptibility of small mammals to virulent Rickettsia rickettsii.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the ecology of spotted fever rickettsiae, one of the as yet unsolved problems concerns the significance of small animals in the distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii in nature. In the Bitter Root Valley of western Montana, a great variety of rodents, rabbits and hares are known to serve as the preferred hosts for the immature stages of the vector tick, Dermacentor andersoni.The authors analyse the susceptibility of various species of small mammals to virulent R. rickettsii and evaluate their efficiency as sources of infection for larval ticks. The results demonstrate that meadow-mice, Columbian ground-squirrels, golden-mantled ground-squirrels, chipmunks and snowshoe hares (the latter to a lesser extent), when bitten by infected ticks, respond with rickettsiaemias of sufficient length and degree to infect normal larval D. andersoni. High infection rates were obtained in ticks that fed during periods of high rickettsial concentrations in the blood. PMID:5296999

Burgdorfer, W; Friedhoff, K T; Lancaster, J L

1966-01-01

247

A Rickettsia parkeri-like agent infecting Amblyomma calcaratum nymphs from wild birds in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In total, 142 birds, mostly passerines, belonging to 42 species were examined for the presence of ticks in 3 locations in Mato Grosso do Sul Brazil during 2006. Seven birds (5%) were infested with 4 nymphs of Amblyomma calcaratum (Ramphocelus carbo, 3 infested/12 examined) and 5 larvae of Amblyomma sp. (Furnarius rufus, 2/5; Turdus leucomelas, 1/6; and Paroaria capitata, 1/8). All 4 nymphs of A. calcaratum tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting rickettsial genes gltA and ompA and by amplicon sequencing were found to be infected with a Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent. A. calcaratum infected with a rickettsial bacterium was found for the first time. PMID:23238243

Ogrzewalska, Maria; Martins, Thiago; Capek, Miroslav; Literak, Ivan; Labruna, Marcelo B

2013-02-01

248

In vitro effectiveness of azithromycin against doxycycline-resistant and -susceptible strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, etiologic agent of scrub typhus.  

OpenAIRE

In an effort to find a potential alternative treatment for scrub typhus, we evaluated the effectiveness of the standard drug doxycycline and the new macrolide azithromycin against a doxycycline-susceptible strain (Karp) and a doxycycline-resistant strain (AFSC-4) of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. The antibiotics were tested in an in vitro assay system in which infected mouse fibroblast cells (L929) were incubated for 3 days in various concentrations of the drugs. Rickettsial growth was evaluated b...

Strickman, D.; Sheer, T.; Salata, K.; Hershey, J.; Dasch, G.; Kelly, D.; Kuschner, R.

1995-01-01

249

Tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in ticks feeding on the common nightingale including a novel strain of Rickettsia sp.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 3, ?. 4 (2012), s. 265-268. ISSN 1877-959X Grant ostatní: MSM(CZ) MSM6215712402 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia garinii * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia helvetica * Babesia sp. EU1 * Common nightingale Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877959X12000556

Dubská, L.; Literák, I.; Kverek, P.; Roubalová, Eva; Kocianova, E.; Taragelova, V.

2012-01-01

250

First record of Ixodes arboricola (Ixodida: Ixodidae) from Turkey with presence of Candidatus Rickettsia vini (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Birds are the specific hosts of many tick species and may contribute to the dissemination of ticks and tick-borne pathogens throughout the world. Determination of ticks infesting birds and their pathogens are important for the detection of natural foci of human pathogens. Unfortunately, there is very limited information about the occurrence of ticks on birds and associated pathogens in Turkey. We performed a tick survey on three passerine bird species; Parus major, Sylvia atricapilla, and Turdus merula. Ticks collected from these birds were identified to species and tested for the presence of Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species. Ixodes arboricola Schulze & Schlottke, Ixodes frontalis Panzer, and Ixodes ricinus L. were found on the birds. This is the first study reporting the presence of I. frontalis and I. arboricola on S. atricapilla and P. major, respectively, in Turkey. In addition, the results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers specific for gltA and ompA genes and DNA sequence analysis of positive PCR products indicated the presence of Candidatus Rickettsia vini in I. arboricola ticks. In conclusion, this is the first record of both I. arboricola and Candidatus Rickettsia vini in Turkey. Therefore, future studies needed to be conducted on the ticks infesting birds and their pathogens to elucidate the role of birds in the dispersal of tick species and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. PMID:25118420

Keskin, Adem; Koprulu, Tugba Kul; Bursali, Ahmet; Ozsemir, Arif Cemal; Yavuz, Kiraz Erciyas; Tekin, Saban

2014-07-01

251

Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae in Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae em Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae no estado de São Paulo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Samples of 10 and 14 Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas were collected on dogs from Pedreira and Mogi das Cruzes municipalities, respectively, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, for detection of Rickettsia spp. Individual fleas were submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting the 17-kDa and the 190-kDa (OmpA genes of Rickettsiae. This later gene is specific for spotted fever group. Nine fleas from Pedreira (90% and four fleas from Mogi das Cruzes (28% were positive for the 17-kDa gene, and eight fleas from Pedreira (80% and four from Mogi das Cruzes (28% were positive for 190-kDa gene. The nucleotide sequence of the 190-kDa products of one flea from Pedreira and one flea from Mogi das Cruzes were 100% identical to each other, and when compared to the GenBank Data, they were 100% identical to the 190-kDa sequence of R. felis. This was the first report of its occurrence in the State of São Paulo.Amostras de 10 e 14 pulgas Ctenocephalides felis felis foram coletadas de cães nos municípios de Pedreira e Mogi das Cruzes, respectivamente, no estado de São Paulo, para pesquisa de Rickettsia spp. As pulgas foram individualmente submetidas à reação em cadeia pela polimerase, tendo como alvo os genes 17-kDa e 190-kDa (OmpA de Rickettsia, sendo esse último específico para o GFM. Nove pulgas de Pedreira (90% e quatro pulgas de Mogi das Cruzes (28% foram positivas para o gene 17-kDa, e oito pulgas de Pedreira (80% e quatro de Mogi das Cruzes (28% foram positivas para o gene 190-kDa. As seqüências de nucleotídeos do gene 190-kDa de uma pulga de Pedreira e de uma pulga de Mogi das Cruzes foram 100% idênticas; quando comparadas com dados existentes no GenBank, foram 100% idênticas com a seqüência parcial do gene 190-kDa de Rickettsia felis. Esse foi o primeiro relato de sua ocorrência no estado de São Paulo.

M.C. Horta

2005-06-01

252

Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in the State of São Paulo, Brazil / Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) em Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) no estado de São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Amostras de 10 e 14 pulgas Ctenocephalides felis felis foram coletadas de cães nos municípios de Pedreira e Mogi das Cruzes, respectivamente, no estado de São Paulo, para pesquisa de Rickettsia spp. As pulgas foram individualmente submetidas à reação em cadeia pela polimerase, tendo como alvo os gen [...] es 17-kDa e 190-kDa (OmpA) de Rickettsia, sendo esse último específico para o GFM. Nove pulgas de Pedreira (90%) e quatro pulgas de Mogi das Cruzes (28%) foram positivas para o gene 17-kDa, e oito pulgas de Pedreira (80%) e quatro de Mogi das Cruzes (28%) foram positivas para o gene 190-kDa. As seqüências de nucleotídeos do gene 190-kDa de uma pulga de Pedreira e de uma pulga de Mogi das Cruzes foram 100% idênticas; quando comparadas com dados existentes no GenBank, foram 100% idênticas com a seqüência parcial do gene 190-kDa de Rickettsia felis. Esse foi o primeiro relato de sua ocorrência no estado de São Paulo. Abstract in english Samples of 10 and 14 Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas were collected on dogs from Pedreira and Mogi das Cruzes municipalities, respectively, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, for detection of Rickettsia spp. Individual fleas were submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting the 17-kDa and the [...] 190-kDa (OmpA) genes of Rickettsiae. This later gene is specific for spotted fever group. Nine fleas from Pedreira (90%) and four fleas from Mogi das Cruzes (28%) were positive for the 17-kDa gene, and eight fleas from Pedreira (80%) and four from Mogi das Cruzes (28%) were positive for 190-kDa gene. The nucleotide sequence of the 190-kDa products of one flea from Pedreira and one flea from Mogi das Cruzes were 100% identical to each other, and when compared to the GenBank Data, they were 100% identical to the 190-kDa sequence of R. felis. This was the first report of its occurrence in the State of São Paulo.

M.C., Horta; A., Pinter; A., Cortez; R.M., Soares; S.M., Gennari; T.T.S., Schumaker; M.B., Labruna.

2005-06-01

253

La radioterapia en el cáncer de próstata localmente avanzado tras estadiaje ganglionar con linfadenectomía / External beam radiotherapy on locally advanced prostate carcinoma following iliac staging lymphadenectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: El cáncer de próstata localmente avanzado supone una condición de alto riesgo de progresión bioquímica post-tratamiento debido a la situación límite que representa. Nos planteamos analizar los factores pronósticos clínicos en función de la probabilidad de progresión tras em [...] plear un tratamiento con fuente radioterapeútica externa en pacientes con este tipo de tumores. Material y métodos: Revisamos retrospectivamente una serie de 128 pacientes sometidos a linfadenectomía pélvica de estadiaje como método de estadiaje previo a la realización de el tratamiento radioterápico. Empleamos las curvas de Kaplan-Meier para estudiar la probabilidad de progresión, el test de rangos logarítmicos para la demostración de posibles diferencias estadísticamente significativas y el modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox para estudiar los posibles factores pronósticos implicados. Resultados: La probabilidad de no progresión a 5 años ha sido del 49,93%; a pesar de apreciar diferencias importantes en los grupos estratificados por las variables predictivas empleadas (PSA total, gleason de biopsia, estadio patológico y % de cilindros afectos en biopsia), ninguna de ellas alcanzó significación estadística, siendo el nivel de PSA t el más próximo a la misma. Conclusiones: La radioterapia externa representa una alternativa válida en el tratamiento del cáncer de próstata localmente avanzado con un tolerable índice de secundarismos. Debe emplearse en tratamiento combinado junto a la hormonoterapia. Parece que el empleo de unas dosis más altas de radiación, posible de manera segura gracias a la radioterapia conformada 3D, permiten alcanzar una mayor eficacia. Es probable que el indicador clínico con mayores implicaciones pronósticas sea el nivel de PSA total. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: Locally advanced prostate cancer supposes a high risk condition of post-treatment progression due to the limit situation that represents. Our purpose was to analyze prognoses factors in function of progression probability after using a treatment with external source radi [...] otherapy on patients with this kind of tumors. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed a set of 128 patients submitted to pelvic staging limphadenectomy prior to accomplish an external radiotherapeutic treatment. We employed the Kaplan-Meier curves to study the probability of progression, logarithmic ranks test were used for detection of possible statistically significant differences and proportional risks Cox model was employed to study possible risk factors of progression (employing astro criteria). Results: 5 years freedom probability from progression was of 49,93%; in spite of appreciating important differences in the groups stratified by the predictive variables used (total PSA, gleason of pathological biopsy, clinical stage and % of cores affection on biopsy), none of them reached statistical meaning, being the level of total PSA the closest to it. Conclusions: The external radiotherapeuthic treatment represents a valid alternative in the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer, with a tolerable index of secondaries. It must be used combined with hormonotherapy. It seems that the use of higher radiation doses, in a safer way thanks to 3D conformed radiotherapy, allows to improve the results. The most powerful clinical predictor of evolution must be the total PSA.

A., Barbagelata López; J.L., Ponce Díaz-Reixa; E., Romero Selas; F., Gómez Veiga; E., Fernández Rosado; M., González Martín.

2006-10-01

254

Validación de la punción aspiración con aguja fina (PAAF) en el diagnóstico de linfadenitis tuberculosa en pacientes con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Ury | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Resumo Introdução: a punção-aspiração com agulha fina (PAAF) de gânglio linfático é uma técnica simples, rápida e de baixo custo para a obtenção de amostras para diagnóstico. Objetivo: o objetivo deste trabalho foi validar a PAAF no diagnóstico de linfadenite tuberculosa (TB) em pacientes infectados [...] pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (VIH), utilizando como "gold standard" o cultivo de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em biopsia ganglionar ou a histopatologia com resposta ao tratamento específico. Material e método: estudo clínico-patológico prospectivo. Foram incluídos pacientes portadores de VIH, com consentimento informado prévio, maiores de 18 anos, com adenomegalias superficiais maiores que 2 cm, atendidos na Cátedra de Doenças Infecciosas entre outubro de 2004 e dezembro de 2006. Em cada gânglio foi realizada PAAF e biopsia. Nas amostras citológicas e histopatológicas foram realizadas as colorações habituais, Ziehl-Neelsen e cultivos para micobacterias. Foi definida como citologia sugestiva de linfadenite TB: 1) linfadenite reativa com necrose; 2) linfadenite reativa com células epitelioides e/ou macrófagos e/ou células gigantes multinucleadas; com ou sem bacilos ácido-álcool resistentes no exame direto com coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen. Resultados: dos 30 pacientes incluídos, 23 apresentaram TB ganglionar. Nos sete pacientes restantes a PAAF descartou o diagnóstico de TB em seis, evitando tratamentos desnecessários, e indicando exame histológico para diagnóstico definitivo. A sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da PAAF para o diagnóstico de linfadenite TB foram respectivamente 95%, 86%, 95% e 86%. O coeficiente de concordância de Kappa entre ambos procedimentos foi de 90%. Conclusões: a PAAF de gânglio linfático em pacientes VIH tem alto rendimento como técnica diagnóstica de TB ganglionar. Permite também selecionar os pacientes que necessitam biopsia ganglionar para diagnóstico definitivo, evitando sua realização sistemática em todos os pacientes com adenomegalias. Abstract in spanish Resumen Introducción: la punción aspiración aguja fina (PAAF) de ganglio linfático es una técnica sencilla, rápida y de bajo costo para la obtención de muestras para diagnóstico. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue validar la PAAF en el diagnóstico de linfadenitis tuberculosa (TB) en pacientes inf [...] ectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), utilizando como "gold standard" el cultivo de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en biopsia ganglionar o la histopatología más la respuesta al tratamiento específico. Material y método: estudio clínico-patológico prospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes VIH infectados, previo consentimiento informado, mayores a 18 años, con adenomegalias superficiales mayores a 2 cm, asistidos en la Cátedra de Enfermedades Infecciosas entre octubre de 2004 y diciembre de 2006. Se realizó PAAF y biopsia del mismo ganglio. En las muestras citológicas e histopatológicas se realizaron tinciones habituales, Ziehl-Neelsen y cultivos para micobacterias. Se definió como citología sugestiva de linfadenitis TB: 1) linfadenitis reactiva con necrosis; 2) linfadenitis reactiva con células epitelioides y/o macrófagos y/o células gigantes multinucleadas; con o sin bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en el directo con tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. Resultados: de 30 pacientes incluidos, 23 correspondieron a una TB ganglionar. En los siete pacientes restantes la PAAF descartó el diagnóstico de TB en seis, evitando tratamientos innecesarios, e indicando estudio histológico para diagnóstico definitivo. La sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y valor predictivo negativo de la PAAF para el diagnóstico de linfadenitis TB fue de 95%, 86%, 95% y 86%, respectivamente. El coeficiente de concordancia de Kappa entre ambos procedimientos fue de 90%. Conclusiones: la PAAF de ganglio linfático en pacientes VIH tiene un

Susana G, Cabrera; Virginia, Ortega; Julio C, Medina; Gabriela, Gualco; Marcelo, Viola; Graciela, Pérez; María L., Musto; Justino, Zeballos; Eduardo, Savio.

2009-09-01

255

In vitro isolation from Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae) and ecological aspects of the Atlantic rainforest Rickettsia, the causative agent of a novel spotted fever rickettsiosis in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, a novel human rickettsiosis, namely Atlantic rainforest spotted fever, was described in Brazil. We herein report results of a survey led around the index case in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in Peruibe municipality, southeastern Brazil. A Rickettsia parkeri-like agent (Rickettsia sp. Atlantic rainforest genotype) and Ricketsia bellii were isolated from adult Amblyomma ovale ticks collected from dogs. Molecular evidence of infection with strain Atlantic rainforest was obtained for 30 (12.9%) of 232 A. ovale adult ticks collected from dogs. As many as 88.6% of the 35 examined dogs had anti-Rickettsia antibodies, with endpoint titres at their highest to R. parkeri. High correlation among antibody titres in dogs, A. ovale infestations, and access to rainforest was observed. Amblyomma ovale subadults were found predominantly on a rodent species (Euryoryzomys russatus). From 17 E. russatus tested, 6 (35.3%) displayed anti-Rickettsia antibodies, with endpoint titres highest to R. parkeri. It is concluded that Atlantic rainforest genotype circulates in this Atlantic rainforest area at relatively high levels. Dogs get infected when bitten by A. ovale ticks in the forest, and carry infected ticks to households. The role of E. russatus as an amplifier host of Rickettsia to A. ovale ticks deserves investigation. PMID:23363571

Szabó, M P J; Nieri-Bastos, F A; Spolidorio, M G; Martins, T F; Barbieri, A M; Labruna, M B

2013-05-01

256

Análisis de las recidivas locorregionales por cáncer de mama / Analysis of locoregional relapses from breast cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: la recidiva locorregional, luego de una intervención quirúrgica por cáncer de mama, es una gran preocupación para el paciente y una frustración para el cirujano actuante. Objetivos: realizar un estudio descriptivo de las variables asociadas a la recurrencia tumoral, en 949 pacientes op [...] eradas. Métodos: se confeccionó una base de datos con las pacientes operadas desde 2005 hasta 2010, se identificaron las variables y análisis univariables y multivariables para determinar si existió asociación estadística. Resultados: se apreció que la incidencia fue de 4,4 %. La intervención quirúrgica previa más frecuente fue la mastectomía radical modificada en 52,4 %, y 26,2 % de los casos que tenían metástasis ganglionares axilares en ese momento. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el carcinoma ductal infiltrante, de alto grado de malignidad. La infiltración vascular y linfática estuvo presente en 42,8 %. El tratamiento definitivo más empleado fue la exéresis de la recidiva más radioterapia. El análisis multivariables solo asoció la metástasis ganglionar con la reaparición de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: la metástasis ganglionar axilar sigue siendo un factor de mal pronóstico en el seguimiento extenso de la paciente. Abstract in english Introduction: locoregional relapses after a breast cancer surgery is a big concern for the patient and a frustration to the performing surgeon. Objectives: to perform a descriptive study of the tumor recurrence-associated variables in 949 surgical patients. Methods: a database containing the data fr [...] om operated patients in the period of 2005 through 2010 was made; the variables were identified and the univariate and multivariate analyses allowed determining the probable statistical association. Results: at was observed that the incidence of locoregional recurrence was 4.4 %. The most common previous surgery was modified radical mastectomy in 52.4 % and 26.2 % of cases with axillary ganglionic metastasis at that time. The most frequent histological type was highly malignant infiltrating bile duct carcinoma. The vascular and lymphatic infiltration occurred in 42.8 % of patients. The most used treatment was removal of recurrence plus radiotherapy. The multivariate analysis was associated only to ganglionic metastasis with the reappearance of disease. Conclusions: axillary ganglionic metastasis is still a factor indicating bad prognosis in the long follow-up of a patient.

Oscar Alberto, Pérez Gutiérrez; Narciso, Montejo Viamontes; Loys, Jorge Lázaro; Rafael, Castro Cruz; Amauris, Estrada González.

2012-12-01

257

Análisis de las recidivas locorregionales por cáncer de mama Analysis of locoregional relapses from breast cancer  

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Full Text Available Introducción: la recidiva locorregional, luego de una intervención quirúrgica por cáncer de mama, es una gran preocupación para el paciente y una frustración para el cirujano actuante. Objetivos: realizar un estudio descriptivo de las variables asociadas a la recurrencia tumoral, en 949 pacientes operadas. Métodos: se confeccionó una base de datos con las pacientes operadas desde 2005 hasta 2010, se identificaron las variables y análisis univariables y multivariables para determinar si existió asociación estadística. Resultados: se apreció que la incidencia fue de 4,4 %. La intervención quirúrgica previa más frecuente fue la mastectomía radical modificada en 52,4 %, y 26,2 % de los casos que tenían metástasis ganglionares axilares en ese momento. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el carcinoma ductal infiltrante, de alto grado de malignidad. La infiltración vascular y linfática estuvo presente en 42,8 %. El tratamiento definitivo más empleado fue la exéresis de la recidiva más radioterapia. El análisis multivariables solo asoció la metástasis ganglionar con la reaparición de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: la metástasis ganglionar axilar sigue siendo un factor de mal pronóstico en el seguimiento extenso de la paciente.Introduction: locoregional relapses after a breast cancer surgery is a big concern for the patient and a frustration to the performing surgeon. Objectives: to perform a descriptive study of the tumor recurrence-associated variables in 949 surgical patients. Methods: a database containing the data from operated patients in the period of 2005 through 2010 was made; the variables were identified and the univariate and multivariate analyses allowed determining the probable statistical association. Results: at was observed that the incidence of locoregional recurrence was 4.4 %. The most common previous surgery was modified radical mastectomy in 52.4 % and 26.2 % of cases with axillary ganglionic metastasis at that time. The most frequent histological type was highly malignant infiltrating bile duct carcinoma. The vascular and lymphatic infiltration occurred in 42.8 % of patients. The most used treatment was removal of recurrence plus radiotherapy. The multivariate analysis was associated only to ganglionic metastasis with the reappearance of disease. Conclusions: axillary ganglionic metastasis is still a factor indicating bad prognosis in the long follow-up of a patient.

Oscar Alberto Pérez Gutiérrez

2012-12-01

258

Detection of Rickettsia japonica in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR product.  

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PCR was applied to the detection of Rickettsia japonica, the causative agent of Oriental spotted fever (OSF), in ticks collected at two sites of the Muroto area on Shikoku Island, a major area in Japan where OSF is endemic. Primer pair Rr190.70p and Rr190.602n of the R. rickettsii 190-kDa antigen gene sequence of Regnery and others (R.L. Regnery, C.L. Spruill, and B.D. Plikaytis, J. Bacteriol. 173:1576-1589, 1991) primed the DNA extracted from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks but not those extracted from Haemaphysalis formosensis, Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis hystricis, or Amblyomma testudinarium ticks. Digestion of the amplification product with the restriction endonucleases PstI and AluI produced the restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern specific to R. japonica. The HindIII and MspI digests gave restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns identical to those of the PCR product from R. japonica DNA. Hemolymph preparations of H. longicornis ticks were demonstrated to contain rod-shaped organisms that were detected by immunofluorescence with the monoclonal antibody specific to R. japonica species. The primer pair did not amplify the DNA of a laboratory colony of H. longicornis ticks originally collected at an area where OSF is not endemic. Our results provided evidence that H. longicornis ticks might be an arthropod reservoir for R. japonica and a vector of OSF. PMID:7790445

Uchida, T; Yan, Y; Kitaoka, S

1995-04-01

259

Propagation and Growth Cycle of Rickettsia quintana in a New Liquid Medium  

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The growth cycle of Rickettsia quintana was studied for the first time in liquid culture. Growth of the microorganism in a transparent broth medium was made possible by the finding that fetal calf serum (FCS), but not calf serum (CS), satisfied the requirement of R. quintana (Fuller strain) for red blood cell lysate. The three constituents of the medium, other than FCS, were autoclavable. The growth cycle was characterized by a lag phase of approximately 24 hr, an exponential growth phase of 72 hr, and a doubling time of approximately 4.5 hr. In FCS medium, titers increased 105-fold over starting titers and reached a peak after 5 days of greater than 108 colony-forming-units (CFU)/ml. Optical density readings at 520 nm (OD520) served as useful estimates of the titers only during the last 30 hr of exponential growth. Before this time, titers were below 3 × 107 CFU/ml and could not be detected at OD520. The growth-promoting activity of FCS appeared to be a normal serum component widely distributed among fetal calves. FCS from five commercial suppliers supported growth of R. quintana. The active factor(s) was: (i) non-dialyzable, (ii) resistant to heating at 56 C for 30 min, and (iii) partially inactivated at 100 C in 2 min and completely lost at 100 C in 10 min. The results emphasize the presence of erythrocyte and serum factors other than hemoglobin which stimulate the growth of R. quintana. PMID:5463680

Mason, Richard A.

1970-01-01

260

Spotted fever group rickettsiae in multiple hard tick species from Fairfax County, Virginia.  

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Spotted fever group rickettsiosis (SFGR) is a potentially fatal disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the United States in recent years. The most well-known and severe type of this disease is Rocky Mountain spotted fever, but there are other mild forms that occur. Recently, human infection with Rickettsia parkeri has been reported and linked with the tick Amblyomma maculatum. In 2010, a population of R. parkeri-infected A. maculatum was discovered in Fairfax County, Virginia, leading to increased surveillance of tick species. In this study, we report the presence of R. parkeri in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, and Dermacentor variabilis in Fairfax County. R. parkeri was discovered in two Rh. sanguineus, one H. leporispalustris, and 17 D. variabilis. These findings suggest that spillover infections of R. parkeri may be occurring in tick species not typically associated with this pathogen; however, vector competence studies need to be conducted to determine if these tick species can serve as potential vectors for human SFGR. PMID:24978651

Henning, Tyler C; Orr, John M; Smith, Joshua D; Arias, Jorge R; Norris, Douglas E

2014-07-01

261

Distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii in ovary cells of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille1806 (Acari: Ixodidae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the fact that the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a great potential to become the vector of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF for humans, the present study aimed to describe the distribution of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of BSF, in different regions of the ovaries of R. sanguineus using histological techniques. The ovaries were obtained from positive females confirmed by the hemolymph test and fed in the nymph stage on guinea pigs inoculated with R. rickettsii. Results The results showed a general distribution of R. rickettsii in the ovary cells, being found in oocytes in all stages of development (I, II, III, IV and V most commonly in the periphery of the oocyte and also in the cytoplasm of pedicel cells. Conclusions The histological analysis of the ovaries of R. sanguineus infected females confirmed the presence of the bacterium, indicating that the infection can interfere negatively in the process of reproduction of the ticks, once alterations were detected both in the shape and cell structure of the oocytes which contained bacteria.

da Silva Costa Luís

2011-11-01

262

Molecular evidence of Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia massiliae in ixodid ticks of carnivores from South Hungary.  

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To monitor the emergence of thermophilic, Mediterranean ixodid tick species and tick-borne pathogens in southern Hungary, 348 ticks were collected from shepherd dogs, red foxes and golden jackals during the summer of 2011. Golden jackals shared tick species with both the dog and the red fox in the region. Dermacentor nymphs were collected exclusively from dogs, and the sequence identification of these ticks indicated that dogs are preferred hosts of both D. reticulatus and D. marginatus nymphs, unlike previously reported. Subadults of three ixodid species were selected for reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) analysis to screen their vector potential for 40 pathogens/groups. Results were negative for Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria spp. Investigation of D. marginatus nymphs revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia massiliae and Borrelia afzelii for the first time in this tick species. These findings broaden the range of those tick-borne agents, which are typically transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, but may also have Dermacentor spp. as potential or alternative vectors. Ehrlichiacanis was also newly detected in Ixodes canisuga larvae from red foxes. In absence of transovarial transmission in ticks this implies that Eurasian red foxes may play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:23439290

Hornok, Sándor; Fuente, José; Horváth, Gábor; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Wijnveld, Michiel; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Jongejan, Frans

2013-03-01

263

Distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii in ovary cells of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille1806) (Acari: Ixodidae)  

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Background Considering the fact that the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a great potential to become the vector of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) for humans, the present study aimed to describe the distribution of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of BSF, in different regions of the ovaries of R. sanguineus using histological techniques. The ovaries were obtained from positive females confirmed by the hemolymph test and fed in the nymph stage on guinea pigs inoculated with R. rickettsii. Results The results showed a general distribution of R. rickettsii in the ovary cells, being found in oocytes in all stages of development (I, II, III, IV and V) most commonly in the periphery of the oocyte and also in the cytoplasm of pedicel cells. Conclusions The histological analysis of the ovaries of R. sanguineus infected females confirmed the presence of the bacterium, indicating that the infection can interfere negatively in the process of reproduction of the ticks, once alterations were detected both in the shape and cell structure of the oocytes which contained bacteria. PMID:22117572

2011-01-01

264

La detección de Bartonella spp. y Rickettsia spp. en pulgas, garrapatas y piojos recolectados en las zonas rurales de Perú / Detection of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. in fleas, ticks and lice collected in rural areas of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Bartonellosis y la Rickettsiosis son enfermedades comúnmente reportadas en Perú. Con el propósito de detectar Bartonella sp. y Rickettsia sp. especímenes de pulgas, garrapatas y piojos de cinco localidades del Perú (Marizagua, Cajaruro, Jamalca, Lonya Grande and El Milagro) fueron colectadas y an [...] alizadas. Para la detección se usó PCR y una posterior confirmación con secuenciamiento de DNA. Los especímenes colectados fueron agrupados en 102 pools (76 Ctenocephalides felis, dos Ctenocephalides canis, 16Pulex irritans, cinco Pediculus humanus, dos Rhiphicephalus sanguineus, y un Boophilus spp.). Bartonella fue detectada en 17 pools (seis de C. felis, nueve de P. irritans, uno de C. canis, y uno de P. humanus). Rickettsia fue detectada en 76 pools (62 de C. felis, 10 de P. irritans, dos de P. humanus, y dos de C. canis). Bartonella clarridgeiae fue detectada en C. felis (5.3% especímenes), C. canis (50%) y P. irritans (12.5%). Bartonella rochalimae fue detectada en C. felis (1.3%) y P. irritans (12.5%). Además, se detectó B. henselae en C. felis (1.3%) y P. humanus (20%). Bartonella spp. también se encontró en P. irritans (31,3%). Además, se detectó R. felis en C. felis (76.3%), C. canis (100%) y P. irritans (37.5%), y Rickettsia spp. se detectó en C. felis (5,3%), P. irritans (25%) y P. humanus (40%). Estos resultados demuestran la circulación de estas bacterias en el Perú Abstract in english Bartonellosis and rickettsiosis are commonly reported in Peru. In order to detect Bartonella sp. and Rickettsia sp. in fleas, ticks and lice, specimens from five distinct locations in Peru (Marizagua, Cajaruro, Jamalca, Lonya Grande and El Milagro) were collected and screened for the presence of the [...] se bacteria using PCR and later confirmation by DNA sequencing. The specimens collected were distributed in 102 pools (76 Ctenocephalides felis, 2 Ctenocephalides canis, 16Pulex irritans, 5 Pediculus humanus, 2 Rhiphicephalus sanguineus, and 1 Boophilus spp.), whereBartonella was detected in 17 pools (6 of C. felis, 9 of P. irritans, 1 of C. canis, and 1 P. humanus). Also, Rickettsia was detected in 76 pools (62 C. felis, 10 P. irritans, 2 P. humanus, and 2 C. canis). Bartonella clarridgeiae was detected in C. felis, C. canis and P. irritans pools at 5.3%, 50% and 12.5%, respectively. Bartonella rochalimae was detected in one C. felis and two P. irritans pools at 1.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Furthermore, B. henselae was detected in one C. felis pool and one P. humanus pool corresponding to 1.3% and 20%, respectively; andBartonella spp. was also found in 5 pools of P. irritans at 31.3%. Additionally, R. felis was detected in C. felis, C. canis and P. irritans pools at 76.3%, 100% and 37.5%, respectively; and Rickettsia spp. was detected in C. felis, P. irritans and P. humanus pools at 5.3%, 25% and 40%, respectively. These results demonstrate the circulation of these bacteria in Peru

Abraham G, Cáceres; Carlos P, Padilla Rojas; Javier, Arias Stella; Gerardo, Huatuco Crisanto; Antero, Gonzales Pérez.

2013-08-01

265

A Rickettsia genome overrun by mobile genetic elements provides insight into the acquisition of genes characteristic of an obligate intracellular lifestyle.  

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We present the draft genome for the Rickettsia endosymbiont of Ixodes scapularis (REIS), a symbiont of the deer tick vector of Lyme disease in North America. Among Rickettsia species (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales), REIS has the largest genome sequenced to date (>2 Mb) and contains 2,309 genes across the chromosome and four plasmids (pREIS1 to pREIS4). The most remarkable finding within the REIS genome is the extraordinary proliferation of mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which contributes to a limited synteny with other Rickettsia genomes. In particular, an integrative conjugative element named RAGE (for Rickettsiales amplified genetic element), previously identified in scrub typhus rickettsiae (Orientia tsutsugamushi) genomes, is present on both the REIS chromosome and plasmids. Unlike the pseudogene-laden RAGEs of O. tsutsugamushi, REIS encodes nine conserved RAGEs that include F-like type IV secretion systems similar to that of the tra genes encoded in the Rickettsia bellii and R. massiliae genomes. An unparalleled abundance of encoded transposases (>650) relative to genome size, together with the RAGEs and other MGEs, comprise ~35% of the total genome, making REIS one of the most plastic and repetitive bacterial genomes sequenced to date. We present evidence that conserved rickettsial genes associated with an intracellular lifestyle were acquired via MGEs, especially the RAGE, through a continuum of genomic invasions. Robust phylogeny estimation suggests REIS is ancestral to the virulent spotted fever group of rickettsiae. As REIS is not known to invade vertebrate cells and has no known pathogenic effects on I. scapularis, its genome sequence provides insight on the origin of mechanisms of rickettsial pathogenicity. PMID:22056929

Gillespie, Joseph J; Joardar, Vinita; Williams, Kelly P; Driscoll, Timothy; Hostetler, Jessica B; Nordberg, Eric; Shukla, Maulik; Walenz, Brian; Hill, Catherine A; Nene, Vishvanath M; Azad, Abdu F; Sobral, Bruno W; Caler, Elisabet

2012-01-01

266

Factors influencing in vitro infectivity and growth of Rickettsia peacockii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), an endosymbiont of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni (Acari, Ixodidae)  

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Rickettsia peacockii, a spotted fever group rickettsia, is a transovarially transmitted endosymbiont of Rocky Mountain wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni. This rickettsia, formerly known as the East Side Agent and restricted to female ticks, was detected in a chronically infected embryonic cell line, DAE100, from D. andersoni. We examined infectivity, ability to induce cytopathic effect (CPE) and host cell specificity of R. peacockii using cultured arthropod and mammalian cells. Aposymbiotic DAE100 cells were obtained using oxytetracycline or incubation at 37 °C. Uninfected DAE100 sublines grew faster than the parent line, indicating R. peacockii regulation of host cell growth. Nevertheless, DAE100 cellular defenses exerted partial control over R. peacockii growth. Rickettsiae existed free in the cytosol of DAE100 cells or within autophagolysosomes. Exocytosed rickettsiae accumulated in the medium and were occasionally contained within host membranes. R. peacockii multiplied in other cell lines from the hard ticks D. andersoni, Dermacentor albipictus, Ixodes scapularis, and Ixodes ricinus; the soft tick Carios capensis; and the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni. Lines from the tick Amblyomma americanum, the mosquito Aedes albopictus, and two mammalian cell lines were non-permissive to R. peacockii. High cell densities facilitated rickettsial spread within permissive cell cultures, and an inoculum of one infected to nine uninfected cells resulted in the greatest yield of infected tick cells. Cell-free R. peacockii also were infectious for tick cells and centrifugation onto cell layers enhanced infectivity approximately 100-fold. The ability of R. peacockii to cause mild CPE suggests that its pathogenicity is not completely muted. An analysis of R. peacockii–cell interactions in comparison to pathogenic rickettsiae will provide insights into host cell colonization mechanisms. PMID:16288906

Kurtti, Timothy J.; Simser, Jason A.; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Palmer, Ann T.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

2006-01-01

267

Prevalence of Rickettsia felis in the fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis from two Indian villages in Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.  

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We evaluated the presence of Rickettsia infection among fleas collected on domestic dogs in two Guarani Indian communities in the suburban area of São Paulo Municipality, Brazil. A total of 114 Ctenocephalides felis felis and 47 Ctenocephalides canis were collected from 40 dogs. A total of 41 C. felis felis (36.0%) and 9 C. canis (19.1%) fleas yielded expected bands by PCR, which were all shown by DNA sequencing to be indentical to the corresponding sequence of a fragment of the Rickettsia felis gltA gene deposited in GenBank. The overall prevalence of R. felis was 31.0% (49/161). PMID:17114741

Horta, Mauricio C; Chiebao, Daniela P; de Souza, Daniele B; Ferreira, Fernando; Pinheiro, Sônia R; Labruna, Macelo B; Schumaker, Teresinha T S

2006-10-01

268

Diversity of babesia and rickettsia species in questing ixodes ricinus: a longitudinal study in urban, pasture, and natural habitats.  

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In a previous study, our group investigated the Babesia spp. prevalence in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from nine city parks in South Germany in the years 2009 and 2010. We showed predominant prevalence of B. venatorum (in previous literature also known as Babesia sp. EU1), especially in those parks in a more natural condition and with occurrence of large wild animals, such as roe deer. To obtain longitudinal data and to broaden the knowledge about this pathogen, further investigations were carried out in 2011 and 2012 in four of those city parks. Two additional habitat types were chosen for comparison of prevalence data and species analysis focusing on occurrence of potential reservoir hosts. A total of 10,303 questing I. ricinus were collected in four city parks, a pasture, and a natural area in Bavaria, and a representative number of samples were investigated for prevalence of DNA of Babesia spp. (n=4381) and Rickettsia spp. (n=2186) by PCR. In the natural and pasture area, a significantly higher Babesia spp. prevalence compared to the urban area was detected. The natural area revealed sequences of B. microti, B. venatorum, and B. capreoli. In the pasture and urban habitat, predominantly B. venatorum was found, whereas B. capreoli was less frequent and only one B. microti-infected tick was found. All B. microti sequences were 100% identical to the zoonotic Jena/Germany strain. For Rickettsia spp., the significantly highest prevalence was also detected in the natural and pasture areas, whereas lower prevalence was found in the urban area. Sequence analysis revealed R. helvetica (98%) and R. monacensis (2%). Prevalence rates and occurrence of Babesia spp. and Rickettsia spp. differed in urban, pasture and natural sites, most likely depending on the habitat structure (natural or cultivated) and therefore on the appearance and availability of reservoir hosts like roe deer or small mammals. PMID:23697771

Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Thiel, Claudia; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

2013-08-01

269

Lyme borreliosis spirochetes and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from Pianosa island, Tuscany Archipelago, Italy.  

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A study on tick fauna and tick-borne pathogens was undertaken in Pianosa, an island in the Tuscany Archipelago that constitutes an important stopping and nesting point for migratory birds. Ticks were removed from feral cats and a few terrestrial birds, and host-seeking ticks were collected by dragging. A total of 89 ticks were found on animals: 57 Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado, 1936 and 32 Ixodes acuminatus Neumann, 1901. Host-seeking ticks were 354 Hyalomma spp. larvae and 18 Hyalomma spp. adults, identified as Hyalomma marginatum C.L. Koch, 1844 (n=11) and 7 Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919 (n=7). A sample of adult ticks was subjected to molecular analyses to look for Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Sequence analysis of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and OspA gene of B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive samples showed the presence of Borrelia spielmanii (n=3; 3.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-10.4) and Borrelia valaisiana (n=13; 13.6%, 95% CI 7.0-23.0) in Ixodes ticks from cats and terrestrial birds. Ixodes spp. were also infected by Rickettsia helvetica (n=19; 23.4%, 95% CI 14.7-34.2). Finally, we detected Rickettsia aeschlimannii in 3 out of 12 host-seeking Hyalomma spp. adults tested (25%, 95% CI 5.5-57.2). Our study shows the presence of several tick-borne pathogens in Pianosa. Hyalomma spp. and Ixodes ticks other than I. ricinus seem to be involved in their epidemiological cycle, and birds could contribute to the pathogen dispersal along their migration routes. This is the first finding of B. spielmanii in Italy. We hypothesize the involvement of peridomestic rodents or hedgehogs in its maintenance in Pianosa. PMID:23289398

Tomassone, L; Grego, E; Auricchio, D; Iori, A; Giannini, F; Rambozzi, L

2013-02-01

270

Comparative Genome Sequencing of Rickettsia rickettsii Strains That Differ in Virulence.  

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Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Strains of R. rickettsii differ dramatically in virulence. In a guinea pig model of infection, the severity of disease as assessed by fever response varies from the most virulent, Sheila Smith, to Iowa, which causes no fever. To identify potential determinants of virulence in R. rickettsii, the genomes of two additional strains were sequenced for comparison to known sequences (comparative genome sequencing [CGS]). R. rickettsii Morgan and R strains were compared to the avirulent R. rickettsii Iowa and virulent R. rickettsii Sheila Smith strains. The Montana strains Sheila Smith and R were found to be highly similar while the eastern strains Iowa and Morgan were most similar to each other. A major surface antigen, rickettsial outer membrane protein A (rOmpA), is severely truncated in the Iowa strain. The region of ompA containing 13 tandem repeats was sequenced, revealing only seven shared SNPs (four nonsynonymous) for R and Morgan strains compared to Sheila Smith, with an additional 17 SNPs identified in Morgan. Another major surface antigen and autotransporter, rOmpB, exhibits a defect in processing in the Iowa strain such that the beta fragment is not cleaved. Sequence analysis of ompB reveals identical sequences between Iowa and Morgan strains and between the R and Sheila Smith strains. The number of SNPs and insertions/deletions between sequences of the two Montana strains and the two eastern strains is low, thus narrowing the field of possible virulence factors. PMID:25644009

Clark, Tina R; Noriea, Nicholas F; Bublitz, DeAnna C; Ellison, Damon W; Martens, Craig; Lutter, Erika I; Hackstadt, Ted

2015-04-01

271

The genome sequence of Rickettsia felis identifies the first putative conjugative plasmid in an obligate intracellular parasite.  

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Full Text Available We sequenced the genome of Rickettsia felis, a flea-associated obligate intracellular alpha-proteobacterium causing spotted fever in humans. Besides a circular chromosome of 1,485,148 bp, R. felis exhibits the first putative conjugative plasmid identified among obligate intracellular bacteria. This plasmid is found in a short (39,263 bp and a long (62,829 bp form. R. felis contrasts with previously sequenced Rickettsia in terms of many other features, including a number of transposases, several chromosomal toxin-antitoxin genes, many more spoT genes, and a very large number of ankyrin- and tetratricopeptide-motif-containing genes. Host-invasion-related genes for patatin and RickA were found. Several phenotypes predicted from genome analysis were experimentally tested: conjugative pili and mating were observed, as well as beta-lactamase activity, actin-polymerization-driven mobility, and hemolytic properties. Our study demonstrates that complete genome sequencing is the fastest approach to reveal phenotypic characters of recently cultured obligate intracellular bacteria.

2005-08-01

272

Identification of potential hosts and vectors of scrub typhus and tick-borne spotted fever group rickettsiae in eastern Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scrub typhus and tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are transmitted by chiggers (larval trombiculid mites) and hard ticks, respectively. We assessed exposure to these disease vectors by extensively sampling both chiggers and ticks and their small mammal hosts in eastern Taiwan during 2007 and 2008. The striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius Pallas (Rodentia: Muridae) was the most common of the small mammals (36.1% of 1393 captures) and presented the highest rate of infestation with both chiggers (47.8% of 110 760) and ticks (78.1% of 1431). Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) and immature Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (Ixodida: Ixodidae) were the most abundant chiggers (84.5%) and ticks (>99%) identified, respectively. Immunofluorescent antibody assay revealed high seropositive rates of rodents against Orientia tsutsugamushi Hyashi (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), the aetiological agent of scrub typhus (70.0% of 437 rodents), and tick-borne SFG rickettsiae (91.9% of 418 rodents). The current study represents a first step towards elucidating the potential hosts and vectors in the enzootic transmission of O. tsutsugamushi and tick-borne SFG rickettsiae in Taiwan. Further studies should focus on characterizing pathogens in L. imphalum and R. haemaphysaloides, as well as the proclivity of both vectors to humans. Uncovering the main hosts of adult ticks is also critical for the prevention of SFG rickettsial infections. PMID:21223345

Kuo, C C; Huang, C L; Wang, H C

2011-06-01

273

Associations between coinfection prevalence of Borrelia lusitaniae, Anaplasma sp., and Rickettsia sp. in hard ticks feeding on reptile hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increasing number of studies reveal that ticks and their hosts are infected with multiple pathogens, suggesting that coinfection might be frequent for both vectors and wild reservoir hosts. Whereas the examination of associations between coinfecting pathogen agents in natural host-vector-pathogen systems is a prerequisite for a better understanding of disease maintenance and transmission, the associations between pathogens within vectors or hosts are seldom explicitly examined. We examined the prevalence of pathogen agents and the patterns of associations between them under natural conditions, using a previously unexamined host-vector-pathogen system--green lizards Lacerta viridis, hard ticks Ixodes ricinus, and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia pathogens. We found that immature ticks infesting a temperate lizard species in Central Europe were infected with multiple pathogens. Considering I. ricinus nymphs and larvae, the prevalence of Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Rickettsia was 13.1% and 8.7%, 12.8% and 1.3%, and 4.5% and 2.7%, respectively. The patterns of pathogen prevalence and observed coinfection rates suggest that the risk of tick infection with one pathogen is not independent of other pathogens. Our results indicate that Anaplasma can play a role in suppressing the transmission of Borrelia to tick vectors. Overall, however, positive effects of Borrelia on Anaplasma seem to prevail as judged by higher-than-expected Borrelia-Anaplasma coinfection rates. PMID:20711724

Václav, Radovan; Ficová, Martina; Prokop, Pavol; Betáková, Tatiana

2011-02-01

274

Mechanisms of immunity in typhus infections. IV. Failure of chicken embryo cells in culture to restrict growth of antibody-sensitized Rickettsia prowazeki.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rickettsia prowazeki, pretreated with typhus immune human serum, readily infects, and grows in, chicken embryo cells in culture. This finding is similar to those of previous studies which showed that typhus rickettsiae, pretreated with immune serum, grow in cells of the yolk sac of embryonated hen eggs and in the cells of the midgut of the human body louse. In contrast, identically treated typhus rickettsiae were destroyed by human macrophages in culture. Collectively, these observations seem to support an emerging concept that the fate of antibody-sensitized typhus rickettsiae depends upon the presence or absence of certain specialized properties of the host cell into which they gain entrance-nonphagocytic cells or "nonprofessional" phagocytic cells versus certain kinds of "professional" phagocytes. The phenomena involved probably have an important bearing on the mechanisms of the persisting infection and the nonsterile immunity which characterizes convalescence from typhus fever in man. They also form the basis for certain practical technical innovations in the laboratory. PMID:4206030

Wisseman, C L; Waddell, A D; Walsh, W T

1974-03-01

275

Distribution and infection frequency of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in Maryland populations of the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and culture in an Anopheles gambiae mosquito cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amblyomma americanum (the lone star tick) is a broadly distributed tick that transmits multiple pathogens of humans and domestic animals. 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted-fever group rickettsial species that is potentially associated with human disease. In 2008 and 2009, we assayed over 500 unfed adult ticks from 19 Maryland populations for the presence of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii'. Infection frequencies ranged from 33% to 100%, with an average infection rate of 60% in 2008 and 69% in 2009. Infection frequencies did not differ statistically between sexes. To develop a system in which to study 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' in the laboratory, we used a cell line developed from Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (Sua5B) to isolate and culture 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' from field-collected A. americanum ticks from 2 localities in Maryland. After infection, Sua5B cells were infected for more than 40 passages. Infection was confirmed by Rickettsia-specific PCR, gene sequencing, and Rickettsia-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These data show that 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' is widespread in Maryland A. americanum populations and that Sua5B cells are a useful tool for culturing Rickettsia infections from wild ticks. PMID:22309857

Zhang, Xing; Ren, Xiaoxia; Norris, Douglas E; Rasgon, Jason L

2012-02-01

276

Are Apodemus spp. mice and Myodes glareolus reservoirs for Borrelia miyamotoi, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum?  

Science.gov (United States)

In Europe, in addition to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, other zoonotic pathogens, like B. miyamotoi, a species related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (N. mikurensis), Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported in the ixodid tick Ixodes ricinus. No study was conducted to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. Here, we investigated the role played by wild rodents in the natural transmission cycle of B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, and A. phagocytophilum in Switzerland. In 2011 and 2012, small mammals were captured in an area where these pathogens occur in questing ticks. Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting captured small mammals were analysed after their moult by PCR followed by reverse line blot to detect the different pathogens. Xenodiagnostic larvae were used to evaluate the role of rodents as reservoirs and analysed after their moult. Most of the 108 captured rodents (95.4%) were infested by I. ricinus ticks; 4.9%, 3.9%, 24.0%, and 0% of the rodents were infested by Borrelia, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum-infected larvae, respectively. Borrelia afzelii, B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.8%, 0.17%, 2.6%, 6.8%, and 0% of the ticks attached to rodents, respectively. Borrelia afzelii was transmitted by 4 rodents to 41.2% of the xenodiagnostic ticks, B. miyamotoi by 3 rodents to 23.8%, and N. mikurensis was transmitted by 6 rodents to 41.0% of the xenodiagnostic ticks. None of the tested rodent transmitted Rickettsia spp. or A. phagocytophilum to I. ricinus xenodiagnostic larvae. This study showed that rodents are reservoir hosts for B. miyamotoi and N. mikurensis in Europe. PMID:24582511

Burri, C; Schumann, O; Schumann, C; Gern, L

2014-04-01

277

Adenocarcinoma de páncreas en paciente joven diagnosticado por Ultrasonografía Endoscópica / Pancreatic adenocarcinoma in young patient diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasonography  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adenocarcinoma de páncreas se presenta por lo general en pacientes mayores de 60 años. El hallazgo en gente joven es muy raro. Reportamos el caso de un varón de 29 años diagnosticado y tratado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN), quien presentó como síntomas principales: d [...] orsalgia, ictericia y baja ponderal. La imagen tomográfica mostró una masa ubicada en la cabeza del páncreas asociada a metástasis hepática y ganglionar múltiples. Fue evaluado mediante ultrasonografía endoscópica (USE), realizándose una punción aspiración dirigida con aguja fina (PAAF), para la obtención de muestra correspondiendo a un adenocarcinoma poco diferenciado de páncreas. Se realizó un drenaje biliar endoscópico por PCRE y posteriormente tratamiento con quimioterapia. Se presenta el caso por lo infrecuente de su manifestación en el grupo etáreo señalado y por la importancia de la punción guiada por ultrasonografía endoscópica en el diagnóstico y manejo de dicha patología. Abstract in english Diffuse hemangioma of the rectum is a rare benign vascular lesion. The case of a 30 year-old male with intermittent rectal bleeding with an evolution of 2 years and symptoms related to chronic ferropenic anemia is presented. The rectal endoscopy was interpreted as a malignant neoplastic epithelial l [...] esion spread throughout the rectum. The biopsy indicated that it was a rectal hemangioma. A surgical resection was successfully performed. The study of the surgical specimen concluded that it was a diffuse rectal hemangioma.

Fernando, Barreda Bolaños; Italo, Landeo Aliaga; Sandra, Pando Huarcaya; Fabiola, Bayro Peñaloza.

2008-04-01

278

Tratamiento adyuvante con quimioterapia y radioterapia luego de gastrectomía y disección ganglionar D2 en pacientes con cáncer gástrico en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, Lima, Perú / Adjuvant chemo radiotherapy after gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy in patients with gastric cancer in the National Institute of Cancer, Lima, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: La quimio radioterapia adyuvante es una alternativa de tratamiento especialmente para pacientes con cirugías inferiores a D2. El estudio INT016 estableció la quimio radioterapia adyuvante como el cuidado estándar para adenocarcinoma resecado de alto riesgo del estómago en Estados Unido [...] s, sin embargo, se vio obstaculizado por la cirugía sub óptima. Existe controversia acerca de la eficacia de esta terapia adyuvante en pacientes sometidos a linfandenectomía D2. En nuestra institución la linfandenectomía D2 es la cirugía estándar para cáncer gástrico. Objetivo: Demostrar que la terapia adyuvante de quimio y radioterapia en pacientes con cáncer gástrico sometidos a gastrectomía y disección ganglionar D2 es efectiva. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes con adenocarcinoma gástrico estadío II a IV M0 quienes se sometieron a resección curativa en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, Lima-Perú en el periodo 2001 a 2006. El tratamiento estándar en la Institución es la linfandenectomía D2 y quimio radioterapia adyuvante de acuerdo al INT016. Las curvas de sobrevida fueron estimadas con el método Kaplan-Meier y comparadas con la prueba logrank. Resultados: 84 pacientes fueron incluidos 60,7% hombres y 39,3% mujeres. La edad media fue 49,5 años. Los estadios patológicos fueron T1-T2 (15,5%), T3-T4 (84,5%), N0-N1 (10,7%), N2-N3 (89,3%). Linfandenectomía D2 fue desarrollada en todos los pacientes. Encontramos una sobrevida libre de enfermedad a 3 años de 17% y una sobrevida global de 23,9%. Cuando se analiza por subgrupos, la sobrevida global en los grupos N1, N2 y N3 fueron 66,7%, 58,9% y 18,3%, respectivamente y la sobrevida libre de enfermedad fue 100%, 51,9% y 16,3%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La quimio radioterapia adyuvante podría ser una alternativa para disminuir el riesgo de muerte y recaída a tres años principalmente en pacientes con ganglios positivos N1-N2, quienes se sometieron a resección curativa con linfandenectomía D2, pero la recurrencia fue más frecuente en ganglios positivos N3, la quimioterapia en este grupo de pacientes podría ser una alternativa para disminuir la tasa de recaída. Abstract in english Introduction: Adjuvant chemo radiotherapy is the standard treatment in Western countries in gastric cancer patients submitted to curative resection. INT0116 pivotal trial established adjuvant chemo radiation as the standard care for resected high risk adenocarcinoma of the stomach in US however was [...] hampered by suboptimal surgery. There is controversial data about efficacy of this adjuvant therapy in patients who have undergone D2 lymphadenectomy predominantly. In our hospital D2 lymphadenectomy is standard surgery for gastric cancer. Objective: To prove that chemo and radio therapy post gastrectomy and D2 linphadenectomy in patients’ with gastric cancer is effective. Material and methods: Retrospective study with gastric adenocarcinoma patients stage II to IV M0 who underwent curative resection at INEN (Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas) Lima-Peru between 2001 and 2006. Standard treatment at institution is D2 lymphadenectomy. Chemo radiotherapy according to INT0116 was given like adjuvant therapy. Survival curves were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank test. Results: 84 patients were included 60.7% male and 39.3% female. Mean age was 49.5 years old. The pathologic stages were T1-T2 (15.5%), T3-T4 (84.5%), N0-N1 (10.7%), N2-N3 (89.3%). D2 lymphadenectomy was performed in all patients. The 3-year DFS was 17% and 3-year overall survival was 23.9%. However when we analyzed by subgroups the overall survival, was in group N1 (66.7%) and in group N2 (58.9%) and N3 (18.3%) and 3 years DFS by subgroups were N1 (100%), N2 (51.9%) and N3 (16.3%). Conclusions: Adjuvant chemo radiotherapy decreased risk of death and relapse to three years mainly in patients with node positive N1-N2, who underwent curative resection with D2 lymphadenectomy, but recurrence wa

Paola, Montenegro; Lourdes, Flores; Shirley, Quintana; Luís, Casanova; Eloy, Ruíz; Jorge, León; Raúl, Mantilla.

2013-01-01

279

Epidemiology of Tsutsugamushi disease in relation to the serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi isolated from patients, field mice, and unfed chiggers on the eastern slope of Mount Fuji, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.  

OpenAIRE

A total of 59 strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were isolated from patients (24 isolates), Apodemus speciosus mice (30 isolates), and unfed larvae of Leptotrombidium scutellare (2 isolates) and Leptotrombidium pallidum (3 isolates) in the Gotenba-Oyama District, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. All these isolates were classified into the three serotypes Karp, Kawasaki, and Kuroki based on reactivity with strain-specific monoclonal antibodies. Kawasaki- and Karp-type rickettsiae were isolated fro...

Kawamori, F.; Akiyama, M.; Sugieda, M.; Kanda, T.; Akahane, S.; Uchikawa, K.; Yamada, Y.; Kumada, N.; Furuya, Y.; Yoshida, Y.

1992-01-01

280

Rickettsiae-infected Ticks in an Endemic Area of Spotted Fever in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A study on tick-borne rickettsiosis was developed in the county of Santa Cruz do Escalvado, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where a clinical case of the disease, confirmed by necropsy, had been reported. Of the 1,254 ticks collected, 1,061 belonged to the Amblyomma genus, 57 to the Rhipicephalus sanguineus species, 81 to Boophilus microplus, and 46 to Anocentor nitens. The hemolymph test associated with Giménez staining showed that 18 of the 221 A. cajennense specimens, 1 of the 16 R. sanguineus, 1 of the 22 B. microplus, 3 of the A. nitens, and 1 of the A. ovale contained rickettsia-like microorganisms. Only 3 A. cajennense ticks were positive under direct immunofluorescence. A. cajennense was the only species found on humans

Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos

1997-07-01

281

Rickettsiae-infected Ticks in an Endemic Area of Spotted Fever in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A study on tick-borne rickettsiosis was developed in the county of Santa Cruz do Escalvado, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where a clinical case of the disease, confirmed by necropsy, had been reported. Of the 1,254 ticks collected, 1,061 belonged to the Amblyomma genus, 57 to the Rhipicephalus sang [...] uineus species, 81 to Boophilus microplus, and 46 to Anocentor nitens. The hemolymph test associated with Giménez staining showed that 18 of the 221 A. cajennense specimens, 1 of the 16 R. sanguineus, 1 of the 22 B. microplus, 3 of the A. nitens, and 1 of the A. ovale contained rickettsia-like microorganisms. Only 3 A. cajennense ticks were positive under direct immunofluorescence. A. cajennense was the only species found on humans

Elba Regina Sampaio de, Lemos; Raimundo Diogo, Machado; Fernando Dias de Ávila, Pires; Sérgio Lisboa, Machado; Lígia Maria Cantarino da, Costa; José Rodrigues, Coura.

1997-07-01

282

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Rickettsia spp. infections in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the region of Hanover (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

In a total of 605 Ixodes (I.) ricinus ticks collected in the spring-months March, April and May 2005, quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) revealed 26.6% Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (sl)-positive ticks, i. e. divided by sex and stage into 31.9% positive adults (34.8% females and 29.0% males) and 18.5% positive nymphs. Mono-infections with genospecies from the B. burgdorferi sl-complex were found in over two thirds of the positive individuals, whereas almost one third showed double- or even triple-infections. Genospecies-specific conventional PCR determined B. afzelii as the most frequent genospecies followed by B. garinii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss). Rickettsia spp. were found in 34.2% of the collected ticks, divided into 37.6% adults (42.5% females and 32.8% males) and 29.0% nymphs. Co-infections of Rickettsia-positive ticks with B. burgdorferi sl spirochaetes were present in 10.1% of the ticks. Thereby, adult ticks exhibited a co-infection rate of 13.4% (15.5% females and 11.3% males) and nymphs of 5.0%. Independently of the above mentioned study, 3939 Ixodes ticks, sent in between 2006 and 2010 for B. burgdorferi sl-diagnostic, were examined by qPCR exclusively for B. burgdorferi sl. The resulting B. burgdorferi sl prevalence was 23.1% and 24.4% in 2006 and 2007, respectively, followed by a continuous decrease to 12.8% in 2010. To analyse whether this observed decrease in infection frequency is due to sampling bias, in a current study randomly sampled ticks collected from defined sites equally distributed over the city of Hanover are investigated in a statistically relevant sample size. PMID:22191173

Strube, Christina; Schicht, Sabine; Schnieder, Thomas

2011-01-01

283

Seroprevalence and risk factors to Ehrlichia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sera of 320 dogs from urban and rural areas of a Pantanal region of Brazil were evaluated for rickettsial (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. rhipicephali, R. felis, and R. bellii) and ehrlichial (Ehrlichia canis) infection by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Risk factors for ehrlichiosis or rickettsiosis were also evaluated. Positive reaction against Ehrlichia spp. was detected in 227 (70.9%) dogs, 119 (74.3%) from an urban area and 108 (67.5%) from rural areas (P>0.05). For Rickettsia spp., 152 (47.5%) dogs were positive, 31 (19.3%) from urban and 121 (75.6%) from rural areas (Pdogs were found parasitized by the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, infestations on rural dogs were predominated by Amblyomma cajenennse. Rickettsial infection was significantly higher (Pdogs, in dogs with hunting practice, or in A. cajennense-infested dogs. PMID:22108015

Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Horta, Maurício C; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Pacheco, Richard C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

2011-12-01

284

Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also ...

Tijsse-klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Nijhof, A. M.; Hovius, E. K.; Jongejan, F.; Takken, W.; Reimerink, J. R.; Overgaauw, P. A. M.; Sprong, H.

2011-01-01

285

Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.

Reimerink Johan R

2011-04-01

286

Transmission of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi strains among humans, wild rodents, and trombiculid mites in an area of Japan in which tsutsugamushi disease is newly endemic.  

OpenAIRE

Thirty-two newly isolated strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, 14 from patients with tsutsugamushi disease, 12 from wild rodents, and 6 from trombiculid mites parasitizing rodents in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, were examined for reactivities to 12 monoclonal antibodies by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test to classify their antigenicities. All of the isolates could be classified into one of six groups (KN-1, KN-2, KN-3, GJ-1, R158, and R161) according to their reactivities to the monoclonal an...

Yamashita, T.; Kasuya, S.; Noda, N.; Nagano, I.; Kang, J. S.

1994-01-01

287

Phagocytosis of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, by Cells from the Ticks, Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor andersoni, Infected with An Endosymbiont, Rickettsia peacockii  

OpenAIRE

Tick cell lines were used to model the effects of endosymbiont infection on phagocytic immune responses. The lines tested for their ability to phagocytose the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), were ISE6 and IDE12 from the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) and DAE15 from the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni Stiles. Rickettsia peacockii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), an endosymbiont of D. andersoni, was use...

Mattila, Joshua T.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Kurtti, Timothy J.

2007-01-01

288

Transcriptional regulation of the gltA and tlc genes in Rickettsia prowazekii growing in a respiration-deficient host cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The regulation of the citrate synthase (gltA) and ATP/ADP translocase (tlc) genes of the obligate intracellular bacterium, Rickettsia prowazekii, was analyzed in rickettsia-infected respiration-deficient G14 cells. The level of the gltA mRNAII and the tlc mRNA was much lower in the total RNA isolated from the infected G 14 cells grown in 1 g/1 glucose (low glucose, GL) medium than in that from infected G 14 cells grown in 4.5 g/l glucose (high glucose, GH) medium. However, the level of the gltA mRNAI relative to 16 S rRNA was the same in GL and GH media. An increase in the level of the gltA mRNAII and the tlc mRNA could be observed as early as 2 hrs after shifting from GL to GH medium. We conclude that, under these experimental conditions, the tlc promoter and the gltA promoter P2, but not gltA promoter P1, were transcriptionally regulated. Key words: Rickettsia prowazekii; gltA gene; tlC gene; transcriptional regulation; G 14 cells (authors)

289

Avaliação do protocolo PCR4 de Marchetti em tecidos parafinizados para o diagnóstico da tuberculose cutânea e ganglionar / Evaluation of Marchetti PCR4 amplification assay to the diagnosis of cutaneous and lymph node tuberculosis from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A tuberculose cutaneoganglionar (TbCG) corresponde a 25,4% dos casos de tuberculose (Tb) extrapulmonar no estado do Amazonas. Os métodos tradicionais, bacteriológicos e histopatológicos envolvem algumas dificuldades diagnósticas, e a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) surge como método [...] alternativo, podendo propiciar resultados específicos e em menor tempo. Nesse sentido, verificou-se a acurácia do protocolo PCR4 de Marchetti et al. no diagnóstico da TbCG comparativamente aos métodos bacteriológicos e histopatológicos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizou-se o nested-PCR com oligonucleotídeos para a IS6110 do complexo do M. tuberculosis em 83 amostras parafinizadas, sendo 52 cutâneas e 31 ganglionares, de pacientes clinicamente suspeitos de TbCG. Todos os casos foram avaliados pelos métodos bacteriológicos e histopatológicos. Foi realizada análise da acurácia entre os resultados obtidos na PCR em relação ao cultivo e à histopatologia. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: A positividade da PCR em todos os casos estudados foi de 50,6% (42/83), sendo de 59,6% (31/52) em amostras cutâneas e de 35,5% (11/31) nas ganglionares. Em ambos os grupos foram observados resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos. Algumas hipóteses que podem justificar estes resultados estão relacionadas à presença da IS6110 em micobactérias ambientais da região amazônica e à não-padronização da amostra de DNA amplificado. CONCLUSÃO: O protocolo em avaliação apresentou positividade em percentual semelhante a diferentes protocolos existentes na literatura. Sugere-se o uso da PCR em tecidos parafinizados associada com o cultivo ou com a histopatologia para o diagnóstico definitivo de Tb ganglionar. Para as lesões cutâneas continua sendo necessária a busca de protocolo que amplie a acurácia do método. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Cutaneous lymph node tuberculosis (CLTb) represents 25.4% of all cases of extra-pulmonary Tb in the state of Amazonas. The current methods of diagnose including bacteriological and histopathological assays involve some technical difficulties, and the polymerase chain reaction - PCR arise [...] as an alternative method allowing specific results faster than the others. In this context the accuracy of PCR4 Marchetti et al. protocol was compared with traditional methods. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Nested-PCR for IS6110 (123 pb) were applied on 83 CLTb suspicious formalin fixed and paraffin embedded samples of tissues (52 cutaneous and 31 lymph node), obtained from 1997 to 2002. All cases were evaluated by bacteriological and histopathological methods. Accuracy analyses were carried out between the PCR amplification results and those related on bacteriological and histopathological methods. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Positive results of PCR4 were about 50.6% (59.6% in cutaneous samples and of 35.5% in lymph nodes samples). In both groups were observed false-negative and false-positive results. Some hypotheses that explain those results are related to the presence of IS6110 in environmental mycobacterias in the Amazon region and the absence of standardized DNA concentration to amplification assays. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed protocol was as positive as others ones available in the literature. Definitive Tb diagnostic can be obtained on lymph node paraffin embedded PCR in association with bacteriological or histopathological method. A better accuracy of an amplification assay applied to cutaneous Tb suspicious lesions has to be still under research.

Luciana Botinelly Mendonça, Fujimoto; Júlia Ignez, Salem; Maurício Morishi, Ogusku; Luiz Carlos de Lima, Ferreira.

2007-06-01

290

Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on public health issues.

Mahling Monia

2011-07-01

291

Anticorpos anti-rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em equídeos e caninos no norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil / Anti rickettsia-antibody for spotted fever group in horses and dogs in the North of Paraná Stated, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a zoonosis that can be fatal if not trteated. As there are few studies of the BSF in the Paraná State, the occurrence of BSF was serologically investigated in dogs and horses by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), in the North of that State, in animals that [...] are regarded as sentinels for BSF. A total of 241 samples of sera of equine, four of asinine, and 29 of dogs were collected in nine farms of three municipalities in the North of Paraná: Arapongas, Douradina, and Umuarama. From fifteen samples of equine serum with positive titres for RIFI, eight (53.3 %) had titre of 64 against R. rickettsii, two (13.3 %) 128 against R. rickettsii, and five (33.3 %) were reactants for R. parkeri and R. rickettsii, with titres ranging from 64 to 2048, and 128 to 1024, respectively. The results showed that domestic animals, sentinels for BSF, are under low exposition to ticks infected with spotted fever group Rickettsia, indicating low risk of human infection by these agents in the studied area.

F.H., Otomura; L.A., Sangioni; R.C., Pacheco; M.B., Labruna; J.A., Galhardo; M.G., Ribeiro; U., Teodoro.

2010-06-01

292

Tuberculosis ganglionar cervical simulando una enfermedad de Kikuchi: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura / Cervical lymph node tuberculosis simulating Kikuchi's disease: A case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La linfadenitis cervical tuberculosa es la manifestación más común de tuberculosis en cabeza y cuello. La enfermedad de Kikuchi es una enfermedad rara que consiste en una linfadenitis necrotizante histocitiaria. La presentación clínica en ambas entidades suele consistir en una o más masas cervicales [...] dolorosas, que pueden ser duras o fluctuantes. Los hallazgos por imagen no permiten distinguir de manera absoluta la linfadenitis tuberculosa de la enfermedad de Kikuchi. Por lo tanto es imprescindible para interpretar los hallazgos por imagen no sólo conocer el origen demográfico del paciente, sino su estado inmunológico con respecto a la tuberculosis y el estudio histopatológico y microbiológico de las adenopatías. Abstract in english Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of tuberculosis in the head and neck. Kikuchi's disease is a rare disease that is histocitiaria necrotizing lymphadenitis. The clinical presentation in both entities is usually a painful neck masses or more, which can be hard or flu [...] ctuating. The imaging findings do not distinguish in absolute tuberculous lymphadenitis Kikuchi's disease. Therefore it is essential to interpret the imaging findings not only know the origin of the patient population, but their immune status with regard to Tuberculosis and histopathological and microbiological lymphadenopathy.

Lisbeth, Valoyes G; Iván, García D; Amadeo, Muntané S; Paloma, Mora M; Lucía, Aja R.

293

Molecular identification of Rickettsia parkeri infecting Amblyomma triste ticks in an area of Argentina where cases of rickettsiosis were diagnosed  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Specimens of the hard tick Amblyomma triste were found infected with Rickettsia parkeri in an area of Argentina (General Lavalle, Buenos Aires Province) where cases of human illness attributed to this microorganism have been reported. Molecular detection of R. parkeri was based on polymerase chain r [...] eactions that amplify a ca. 400-bp fragment of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer and a ca. 500-bp fragment of the gene encoding a 190-kDa outer membrane protein. Three (6.97%) of 43 A. triste ticks were determined to be positive for R. parkeri. These results provide strong evidence that A. triste is the vector of R. parkeri in the study area. The findings of this work have epidemiological relevance because human parasitism by A. triste ticks has been frequently recorded in some riparian areas of Argentina and Uruguay and new cases of R. parkeri rickettsiosis might arise in the South American localities where humans are exposed to the bites of this tick species.

Gabriel, Cicuttin; Santiago, Nava.

2013-02-01

294

Comparative susceptibility of larval stages of Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus to infection by Rickettsia rickettsii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study compared the susceptibility of larval stages of Amblyomma cajennense (F.), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) to infection by a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii. Guinea pigs experimentally infected by R. rickettsii were simultaneously infested by larvae of the three tick species. Recovered engorged larvae were allowed to molt to nymphs and held in an incubator at 23 degrees C and 85-90% RH. Subsequent flat nymphs were tested for rickettsial infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Concomitant infestations with sibling ticks on noninfected guinea pigs (control) were done. While 10-60% of the A. cajennense nymphs were shown to be infected by R. rickettsii, both A. aureolatum and R. sanguineus were highly susceptible to R. rickettsii, since 80-100% of their nymphs were shown to be infected in the corresponding trials. Most of the engorged larvae (approximately 70-95%), regardless of being infected or not, successfully molted to nymphs. Mortality rates for engorged larvae tended to be statistically similar (P > 0.05) for ticks recovered from R. rickettsii-infected and noninfected guinea pigs, within each tick species. The only exceptions were the significantly higher mortalities (P guinea pigs. Therefore, A. cajennense was less susceptible to R. rickettsii infection than A. aureolatum and R. sanguineus, while feeding on rickettsemic guinea pigs. These two later species were similarly highly susceptible. PMID:19058642

Labruna, Marcelo B; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Martins, Thiago F; Pinter, Adriano; Horta, Maurício C

2008-11-01

295

Expression Analysis of the T-Cell-Targeting Chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in Mice and Humans with Endothelial Infections Caused by Rickettsiae of the Spotted Fever Group  

OpenAIRE

Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other related diseases are systemic infections caused by rickettsiae. These obligatory intracellular bacteria target the endothelium, offering an appealing model to study the interactions between endothelial cells and T lymphocytes. We investigated the mRNA expression of chemokines known to target CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T-helper 1 cells in the lungs of C3H/HeN mice infected with Rickettsia conorii with the purpose of identifying evidence for a role of chemokine...

Valbuena, Gustavo; Bradford, William; Walker, David H.

2003-01-01

296

Dose-response model of murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi: time post inoculation and host age dependency analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsia typhi (R. mooseri is the causative agent of murine typhus. It is one of the most widely distributed flea-borne diseases with a relatively mild febrile initial illness with six to 14 days of incubation period. The bacterium is gram negative and an obligate intracellular pathogen. The disease is transmitted to humans and vertebrate host through fleabites or via contact with infected feces. This paper develops dose-response models of different routes of exposure for typhus in rodents. Methods Data from published articles were analyzed using parametric dose-response relationship models. Dose-response relationships were fit to data using the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. Results Dose-response models quantifying the effects of different ages of rats and time post inoculation in BALB/c mice were analyzed in the study. Both the adult rats (inoculated intradermally and newborn rats (inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by exponential models and both distributions could be described by a single dose-response relationship. The BALB/C mice inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by Beta-Poisson models. The time post inoculation analysis showed that there was a definite time and response relationship existed in this case. Conclusions Intradermally or subcutaneously inoculated rats (adult and newborn models suggest that less than 1 plaque-forming unit (PFU (1.33 to 0.38 in 95% confidence limits of the pathogen is enough to seroconvert 50% of the exposed population on average. For the BALB/c mouse time post inoculation model, an average dose of 0.28 plaque-forming units (PFU (0.75 to 0.11 in 95% confidence limits will seroconvert 50% of the exposed mice.

Tamrakar Sushil B

2012-03-01

297

Rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas en las Américas: avances clínicos y epidemiológicos, y retos en el diagnóstico / Tick-borne rickettsioses in the Americas: clinical and epidemiological advances, and diagnostic challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Las rickettsiosis son entidades clínicas de tipo zoonótico, causadas por bacterias intracelulares estrictas de los géneros Rickettsia y Orientia, pertenecientes a la familia Rickettsiaceae. Su ecología está determinada por factores ambientales y la presencia de vectores específicos que condicionan e [...] l establecimiento y la epidemiología en diferentes regiones del mundo. En las Américas, durante el siglo XX, únicamente eran reconocidas tres de estas enfermedades: la fiebre manchada de las Montañas Rocosas, el tifus epidémico y el tifus endémico, Sin embargo, a partir del año 2000 se han descrito mas de 10 especies diferentes previamente desconocidas en este continente, tanto en artrópodos como en casos clínicos, hecho que permite clasificarlas como entidades clínicas emergentes y reemergentes. Dadas las manifestaciones clínicas de las enfermedades causadas por rickettsias, siendo la gran mayoría inespecíficas y, por lo mismo, compartidas con otras enfermedades infecciosas, especialmente virales y bacterianas, han sido enmarcadas entre los diagnósticos diferenciales del síndrome febril agudo, tanto en áreas urbanas como tropicales. En la actualidad, se cuenta con métodos diagnósticos directos e indirectos, que son útiles en la identificación del agente infeccioso, en este caso, causante de rickettsiosis. Abstract in english Rickettsioses are a group of zoonotic diseases caused by strict intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia and Orientia which belong to the Rickettsiaceae family. Their ecology is influenced by environmental factors and the presence of specific vectors that determine the establishment and epidem [...] iology in different world regions. In America, during the 20 th century, only three of these diseases were recognized: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, epidemic typhus and endemic typhus. However, since 2000, more than 10 different species that had previously been unknown in this continent have been described, both in arthropods and in clinical cases, fact that classifies them as emerging and re-emerging diseases. Given the clinical manifestations of the diseases caused by rickettsias, being the majority unspecific and, therefore, shared with other infectious diseases, especially viral and bacterial, they have been framed within the differential diagnoses of acute febrile syndrome in urban and tropical areas. Nowadays, there are direct and indirect diagnostic methods, which are useful in the definition of the infectious agent, in this case, the cause of rickettsioses.

Marylin, Hidalgo; Álvaro A, Faccini-Martínez; Gustavo, Valbuena.

2013-09-01

298

Linfadenopatía por silicona en una paciente con prótesis mamarias Silicone-induced lymphadenopathy in a patient suffering from mammary prosthesis: a case report  

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Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 47 años, con adenopatías axilares izquierdas, sin antecedentes médicos y a quien se le habían colocado implantes mamarios 8 años antes con fines estéticos. Se realizó resección ganglionar y la patología reportó células gigantes multinucleadas tipo cuerpo extraño, con abundantes vacuolas citoplasmáticas y linfocitos polimorfonucleares con lo que se estableció el diagnóstico de adenopatía por silicona y se procedió a la remoción y cambio de la prótesis. La biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina (BACAF de los ganglios linfáticos que drenan el sitio donde se localiza la prótesis puede hacer el diagnóstico de linfadenopatía por silicona y a la vez permite descartar la presencia de un proceso maligno que pudiera coincidir en algunas pacientes.This is a case report of a 47-year old woman having no antecedents of disease, but a surgical history of silicone breast-implants 8 years beforehand. The patient’s complaint concerned the left axillary lymph nodes. A ganglion resection was done and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB revealed giant multinucleated cells having abundant cytoplasmatic vacuoles and polymorphonuclear lymphocytes leading to a diagnosis of silicon-induced adenopathy. The prosthesis was then removed and changed. Lymph node FNAB is able to diagnose silicone lymphadenopathy and excludes malignant neoplasm.

Germán García-Soto

2006-06-01

299

Linfadenopatía por silicona en una paciente con prótesis mamarias / Silicone-induced lymphadenopathy in a patient suffering from mammary prosthesis: a case report  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 47 años, con adenopatías axilares izquierdas, sin antecedentes médicos y a quien se le habían colocado implantes mamarios 8 años antes con fines estéticos. Se realizó resección ganglionar y la patología reportó células gigantes multinucleadas tipo cuerpo extraño, [...] con abundantes vacuolas citoplasmáticas y linfocitos polimorfonucleares con lo que se estableció el diagnóstico de adenopatía por silicona y se procedió a la remoción y cambio de la prótesis. La biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina (BACAF) de los ganglios linfáticos que drenan el sitio donde se localiza la prótesis puede hacer el diagnóstico de linfadenopatía por silicona y a la vez permite descartar la presencia de un proceso maligno que pudiera coincidir en algunas pacientes. Abstract in english This is a case report of a 47-year old woman having no antecedents of disease, but a surgical history of silicone breast-implants 8 years beforehand. The patient’s complaint concerned the left axillary lymph nodes. A ganglion resection was done and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) revealed giant [...] multinucleated cells having abundant cytoplasmatic vacuoles and polymorphonuclear lymphocytes leading to a diagnosis of silicon-induced adenopathy. The prosthesis was then removed and changed. Lymph node FNAB is able to diagnose silicone lymphadenopathy and excludes malignant neoplasm.

Germán, García-Soto; Jorge, Castaño; Ronald, Smith-Meneses.

2006-06-01

300

Pecoma pélvico del ligamento ancho con metástasis ganglionares: presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura / Pelvic PEcoma of the broad ligament with lymph node metastasis: Case report and bibliographic review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Describimos y documentamos el primer caso de PEComa publicado en España según la base de datos Pub Med. Y revisamos la bibliografía existente sobre este tipo de tumores. Métodos/Resultados: Se Trata de una paciente de 39 años con un tumor pélvico de 9 cms. descubierto en una revisión gine [...] cológica rutinaria. El TAC muestra múltiples adenopatías periaórticas que se extienden hasta vena renal izquierda El diagnóstico de PEComa se obtiene por punción con aguja gruesa. Se realiza exéresis del tumor junto a anexo izquierdo y linfadenectomía aortoiliaca. El resultado patológico confirma el diagnóstico tras la inmunohistoquímica con actina de músculo liso y HMB-45. No recibió tratamiento adyuvante. Tras un año de seguimiento la paciente no muestra en el TAC signos de recidiva. Se realiza una amplia búsqueda bibliográfica en Pub Med encontrando 73 referencias a este tipo de tumor cuyas conclusiones se exponen en este articulo. Conclusiones: El tumor de celulas epitelioides perivasculares, PEComa, es una neoplasia mesenquimal de muy baja incidencia y con malignidad incierta. Tumores muy raros: el angiomiolipoma epitelioide, la linfangioleiomiomatosis, el linfangiomioma, el tumor miomelanocitico del ligamento falciforme, el tumor pulmonar de celulas claras "de azucar" y su variante extrapulmonar; son antiguas descripciones de lo que ahora es una única entidad tumoral denominada PEComa. Aun no de ha descrito la célula que en tejidos normales da origen a este tumor. Afectando principalmente a mujeres en edad media, pueden encontrarse en cualquier lugar anatómico. Su tratamiento es quirúrgico aunque se desconoce el papel de la linfadenectomía y del tratamiento adyuvantes. Abstract in english Objective: We describe and document the first case of PEcoma published in Spain following the PubMed database. We review the bibliography about these tumors. Methods/Results: 39-year-old female patient with a 9 cm pelvic tumor discovered in a routine gynecologic review. CT scan showed multiple peria [...] ortic adenopathies extending up to the left renal vein. The diagnosis of PEcoma was obtained by needle biopsy. Tumor excision including left annex and aortoiliac lymphadenectomy were performed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis after immunohistochemical study with smooth muscle actin and HMB-45. No adjuvant treatment was given. After one year of follow-up the patient does not show signs of recurrence of the CT scan. A PubMed search was performed finding 73 references about this kind of tumor the conclusions of which are exposed in this article. Conclusions: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, PEcoma, is a very low incidence mesenchymal neoplasia with uncertain malignancy. Very rare tumors such as epithelioid angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, lymphangiomyoma, myelomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament, "sugar" clear cell lung tumor and its extrapulmonary variant are all descriptions of what is now a unique tumoral entity named PEcoma. It has not been described yet the normal tissue cell giving origin to this tumor. It affects mainly middle age women, and may appear in any anatomical site. Treatment is surgical, although the role of lymphadenectomy and adjuvant treatment is unknown.

Raul, Tobalina Bonis; Tomás, Pérez Domínguez; Fernanda, Relea Calatayud; Enrique, Cazenave Jiménez; M. A., Piris; Nemesio, Jiménez López-Lucendo.

2008-08-01

301

Ulcera lingual como signo único de infección recurrente por micobacteria en un paciente con VIH/SIDA / Lingual ulcer as the only sign of recurrent mycobacterial infection in an HIV/AIDS-infected patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe un paciente con VIH/SIDA en el que se identificó una infección por micobacteria en la mucosa bucal, probablemente tuberculosis, en un centro de referencia para VIH/SIDA de la Ciudad de México. El propósito del presente informe es describir los hallazgos clínicos e histológicos en un paci [...] ente con VIH/SIDA, quien después de haber sido tratado exitosamente para tuberculosis ganglionar 4 años antes, presentó una úlcera lingual como único signo que sugirió recurrencia de infección por micobacteria, probablemente tuberculosis. Hombre de 39 años de edad, atendido desde 1991 en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán", por el diagnóstico de infección con VIH. En 1999, el paciente presentó tuberculosis ganglionar, recibiendo tratamiento antifímico con involución de las adenopatías y desaparición de los síntomas sistémicos. En mayo del 2003 acudió a consulta por presentar una úlcera superficial en lengua, dolorosa, de 4 meses de evolución, de 0.7 cm. de diámetro, bien circunscrita, crateriforme, con bordes ligeramente elevados, irregulares e indurados. El estudio histopatológico mostró inflamación granulomatosa crónica con células gigantes multinucleadas sugestivas de infección por micobacteria, lo cual hizo pensar en recurrencia de tuberculosis, por lo que se indicó rifampicina, pirazinamida, etambutol y estreptomicina. En junio del 2003 el paciente inició TARAA, que incluyó dos ITRAN y un ITRNN. La lesión lingual evolucionó favorablemente, con cicatrización parcial a la primera semana y remisión total a los 45 días del inicio del tratamiento antifímico; a los 7 meses de seguimiento permanece sin lesión. El presente caso tiene la particularidad de que la úlcera lingual fue la única manifestación de infección por micobacteria, sugestiva de tuberculosis, en un paciente con VIH/SIDA, que pudo ocurrir como resultado de la recurrencia del episodio previo de TB ganglionar. Abstract in english The report describes an HIV/AIDS patient seen at a referral center in Mexico City, in whom a mycobacterial infection in the oral mucosa, probably tuberculosis (TB) was identified. The purpose is to describe the clinical and histological findings in an HIV-infected patient, who after being treated su [...] ccessfully for tuberculous lymphangitis 4 years ago, presented with a lingual ulcer as the only suggestive sign of recurrence of mycobacterial infection, probably M. tuberculosis. A 39-year-old man seen inthe HIV clinic of the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán" in Mexico City since 1991 for HIV infection. In 1999 the patient developed tuberculous lymphangitis; he was managed with a 4-drug regimen for 12 months, with improvement of local and systemic symptoms. In May of 2003, the patient presented a painful superficial lingual ulcer, 0.7 cm in diameter, well circumscribed, crateriform with slightly elevated, irregular and indurated borders, of 4 months duration. The histopathological examination showed chronic granulomatous inflammation with giant multinucleated cells, suggestive of mycobacterial infection, and recurrence of TB was considered. Rifampin, isoniazide, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin were administered. The lingual lesion improved with partial healing at the first week and total remission at 45 days after the beginning of the antituberculous treatment. In June, 2003, the patient began highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that included two NRTIs and one NNRTI. At 7 months of follow-up, the patient remains free of lingual lesions. The particularity of the present case is that the lingual ulcer was the only sign of infection by mycobacteria, suggestive of TB, in an HIV/AIDS patient that probably represented a recurrence of a previous episode.

Velia, Ramírez Amador; Gabriela, Anaya Saavedra; Imelda, González Ramírez; Juan Luis, Mosqueda Gómez; Lilly, Esquivel Pedraza; Edgardo, Reyes Gutiérrez; Juan, Sierra Madero.

2005-04-01

302

Índice por ubicación geográfica  

OpenAIRE

Contiene en orden alfabético por regiones geográficas, los grupos de nombres, de los autores que han escrito artículos sobre esas regiones en la revista Geología Colombiana.  Los números en paréntesis hacen referencia a los correlativos del Índice por Autor.

Geología Colombiana

1985-01-01

303

Cuantificación de ADN como factor pronóstico en un caso de Carcinoma de células Acinares de parótida diagnosticado por PAAF / DNA quantification as prognostic factor in a case of Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the parotid gland, diagnosed by FNA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de un varón de 43 años de edad que consulta por una tumoración preauricular derecha dolorosa a la palpación que, según refiere, tiene más de tres años de evolución. Se realiza punción aspiración con aguja fina que informa de compatible con carcinoma de células acinares, por lo qu [...] e se realiza cuantificación de ADN por citometría de imagen. Los parámetros biológicos estudiados (ploidía, fase S, células por encima de 5c) indican que se trata de una lesión de bajo grado de malignidad. Con estos datos se practica parotidectomía total conservadora del facial, sin vaciamiento ganglionar. El paciente se encuentra, un año después, asintomático y libre de signos tumorales residuales. Abstract in english Hereby we present a case of a 43-years-old male who complained of a three years history preauricular painful mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed, diagnosing of compatible with acinar cell carcinoma, thus DNA quantification by image cytometry was carried out. Biological parameters stu [...] died (ploidy, S-phase, 5-c exceeding rate) showed that it is a low grade of malignancy lesion. Total parotidectomy conservative of facial nerve was recommended, without regional lymphadenectomy. Patient remains, one year later, asymptomatic and free of disease.

Javier, Azúa Romeo; Juan Carlos, Sánchez Garnica; Javier, Azúa Blanco; Mayte, Tovar Lázaro.

2005-10-01

304

Primeiro caso de febre maculosa brasileira branda associada à artrite / First report of mild Brazilian spotted fever associated to arthritis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Descrevemos o primeiro caso brasileiro de Riquetsiose branda, agravada por monoartrite em joelho, em adulto jovem picado por carrapato na perna esquerda na região de Camburi, localizada no município de São Sebastião, sul da região costeira do estado de São Paulo, Mata Atlântica, Brasil. O paciente a [...] presentou uma escara de inoculação no local da picada do carrapato, associada ao aumento ganglionar em virilha esquerda, febre, poliartralgia, cefaleia e erupção macular. Vinte dias após o episódio da picada de carrapato, o paciente apresentou monoartrite em joelho direito. O diagnóstico de Riquetsiose branda foi estabelecido pela análise imunológica sequencial em amostras de soro e líquido sinovial, tendo sido empregada a técnica de imunofluorescência (IF) indireta para anticorpos reativos contra Rickettsia parkeri e Rickettsia rickettsii. A Riquetsiose branda é uma zoonose emergente, que deve ser investigada pelos médicos, incluindo reumatologistas, em pacientes que apresentem erupção macular, febre e, eventualmente, artrite, após visita ao sul da região costeira da Mata Atlântica no Brasil. Abstract in english We describe the first Brazilian case of mild Rickettsiosis, complicated by knee monoarthritis, in young adult bitten by a tick on his left leg in Camburi zone, located in São Sebastião municipality, southern coastal region of the State of São Paulo, in the Atlantic rainforest region, Brazil. The pat [...] ient developed inoculation eschar at the tick bite site associated with enlarged lymph nodes in the left groin, fever, polyarthralgia, headache and macular rash. Twenty days after tick bite episode, he displayed monoarthritis in his right knee. The diagnosis of mild Rickettsiosis was established by sequential immunological analysis in serum and synovial fluid, using the indirect immunofluorescence (IF) assay for antibodies reactive with Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia rickettsii. The mild Rickettsiosis is an emerging zoonosis, that must be investigated by physicians, including rheumatologists, in patients that present macular rash, fever and eventually arthritis, after visiting the southern coastal Atlantic rainforest region in Brazil.

Virgínia Lucia Nazario, Bonoldi; Roberta Gonçalves, Marangoni; Giancarla, Gauditano; Jonas, Moraes-Filho; Marcelo Bahia, Labruna; Natalino Hajime, Yoshinari.

2014-06-01

305

¿Inconstitucionalidad por omisión?  

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Full Text Available El autor realiza un análisis del sistema peruano de control de constitucionalidad desarrollado en control abstracto por el Tribunal Constitucional y en control concreto por los tribunales de justicia, para luego centrar su análisis sobre la inconstitucionalidad por omisión, considerando la doctrina desarrollada en la materia, planteando sus reservas en la materia, especialmente cuando el tribunal constitucional se convierte en legislador positivo.

Alfredo Quispe Correa

2006-01-01

306

Síndrome de Frey por submaxilectomía y tratamiento con toxina botulínica Frey syndrome secondary to submaxillectomy and botulinic treatment  

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Full Text Available El síndrome de Frey (SF se caracteriza por rubor, calor y sudación en la región maseterina y geniana durante las comidas. El SF se observa en el 20-60% de los pacientes sometidos a parotidectomía. Presentamos un caso con SF secundario a la ablación de la glándula submaxilar en un varón de 30 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos, que consultó en el año 2000 por adenopatía cervical izquierda. La misma fue biopsiada y la anatomía patológica informó carcinoma medular de tiroides. El paciente presentaba múltiples metástasis hepáticas y pulmonares, motivo por el cual recibió tratamiento quimioterápico con cisplatino plus doxorrubicina (seis ciclos con respuesta completa, finalizando dicho esquema en marzo del 2002. En julio del 2002 se realizó tiroidectomía total más vaciamiento ganglionar izquierdo con resección de la glándula submaxilar. Durante la cirugía se lesionó la rama mentoniana del nervio cervicofacial, rama del VII par craneal. En septiembre del 2004 consultó por episodios de sudación durante las comidas en la región submaxilar izquierda. Se realizó prueba de Minor y luego se procedió a aplicar toxina botulínica tipo A en la región afectada, a razón de 2.5 UI por punto (cm², a un total de 17 puntos. El control a los 21 días demostró más de un 95% de efectividad en la resolución del SF. El efecto duró un año, y una segunda reinfiltración mostró similar respuesta. No hallamos descripciones anteriores de SF en región submaxilar; se presenta su tratamiento satisfactorio con toxina botulínica tipo A.A case of Frey syndrome (FS secondary to submaxillar gland exeresis is presented and the results of the treatment with botulinum toxin (BTX type A. FS is a condition of sweating cheek and preauricular area during mealtime as a sequel detected in about 20-60% of patients after parotidectomy. The clinical symptoms include swelling, flushing and hyperhidrosis. The treatment choice for this condition is intracutaneous injection of BTX type A which blocks acetylcholine release at the sweat glands. A 30-year-old man, with thyroid medullar carcinoma diagnosed in 2002 received 6 cicles of cisplatin plus doxorubicin previous to the thyroidectomy with anterolateral neck dissection. During surgery the left ramus marginalis mandibulae was damaged. Two years later the patient referred sweating in submaxillar region during meals. CT scan demonstrated the absence of left submaxillar gland. Minor's test disclosed the affected area and BTX type A was injected (2.5 U/cm²/17 points. A twenty-one-day control showed a 95% reduction of the affected skin area. Persistent efficacy was observed up to one year followup time when he was reinjected. The FS, also known as "gustatory hyperhidrosis", was probably first reported by M. Duphenix in 1757. Lucja Frey considered its physiopathology as a disorder of both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. In our case the FS was caused by a misdirected regeneration of postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers that arrised from the nervus lingualis rami ganglionares of the nervus trigeminus. After nerve injury the colinergic parasympathetic fibers seek out colinergic receptors -sympathetic receptors of the skin- innervating sweat glands and small skin vessels. All previous cases were located at masseter region post-parotidectomy. We have not found any description of FS in the submaxillary region. The self-assessed efficacy of the treatment with a hyperhidrosis disease severity scale revealed a very satisfied patient at 20 months follow-up after being injected twice with BTX type A.

Alejandra Baéz

2007-10-01

307

Síndrome de Frey por submaxilectomía y tratamiento con toxina botulínica / Frey syndrome secondary to submaxillectomy and botulinic treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El síndrome de Frey (SF) se caracteriza por rubor, calor y sudación en la región maseterina y geniana durante las comidas. El SF se observa en el 20-60% de los pacientes sometidos a parotidectomía. Presentamos un caso con SF secundario a la ablación de la glándula submaxilar en un varón de 30 años d [...] e edad, sin antecedentes patológicos, que consultó en el año 2000 por adenopatía cervical izquierda. La misma fue biopsiada y la anatomía patológica informó carcinoma medular de tiroides. El paciente presentaba múltiples metástasis hepáticas y pulmonares, motivo por el cual recibió tratamiento quimioterápico con cisplatino plus doxorrubicina (seis ciclos) con respuesta completa, finalizando dicho esquema en marzo del 2002. En julio del 2002 se realizó tiroidectomía total más vaciamiento ganglionar izquierdo con resección de la glándula submaxilar. Durante la cirugía se lesionó la rama mentoniana del nervio cervicofacial, rama del VII par craneal. En septiembre del 2004 consultó por episodios de sudación durante las comidas en la región submaxilar izquierda. Se realizó prueba de Minor y luego se procedió a aplicar toxina botulínica tipo A en la región afectada, a razón de 2.5 UI por punto (cm²), a un total de 17 puntos. El control a los 21 días demostró más de un 95% de efectividad en la resolución del SF. El efecto duró un año, y una segunda reinfiltración mostró similar respuesta. No hallamos descripciones anteriores de SF en región submaxilar; se presenta su tratamiento satisfactorio con toxina botulínica tipo A. Abstract in english A case of Frey syndrome (FS) secondary to submaxillar gland exeresis is presented and the results of the treatment with botulinum toxin (BTX) type A. FS is a condition of sweating cheek and preauricular area during mealtime as a sequel detected in about 20-60% of patients after parotidectomy. The cl [...] inical symptoms include swelling, flushing and hyperhidrosis. The treatment choice for this condition is intracutaneous injection of BTX type A which blocks acetylcholine release at the sweat glands. A 30-year-old man, with thyroid medullar carcinoma diagnosed in 2002 received 6 cicles of cisplatin plus doxorubicin previous to the thyroidectomy with anterolateral neck dissection. During surgery the left ramus marginalis mandibulae was damaged. Two years later the patient referred sweating in submaxillar region during meals. CT scan demonstrated the absence of left submaxillar gland. Minor's test disclosed the affected area and BTX type A was injected (2.5 U/cm²/17 points). A twenty-one-day control showed a 95% reduction of the affected skin area. Persistent efficacy was observed up to one year followup time when he was reinjected. The FS, also known as "gustatory hyperhidrosis", was probably first reported by M. Duphenix in 1757. Lucja Frey considered its physiopathology as a disorder of both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. In our case the FS was caused by a misdirected regeneration of postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers that arrised from the nervus lingualis rami ganglionares of the nervus trigeminus. After nerve injury the colinergic parasympathetic fibers seek out colinergic receptors -sympathetic receptors of the skin- innervating sweat glands and small skin vessels. All previous cases were located at masseter region post-parotidectomy. We have not found any description of FS in the submaxillary region. The self-assessed efficacy of the treatment with a hyperhidrosis disease severity scale revealed a very satisfied patient at 20 months follow-up after being injected twice with BTX type A.

Alejandra, Baéz; Julieta, Paleari; María Nöel, Durán; Tamara, Rudy; Inés, Califano; Nicolás, Barbosa; Ignacio, Casas Parera.

2007-10-01

308

Tuberculosis. Lung and extrapulmonary compromise (cutaneous and ganglionar)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the case or a male, 28 year old that consulted for fever, weight loss and axillary ulcer. Clinically had two skin lesions where cutaneous tuberculosis was proven (lupus vulgaris-scrofuloderma). The skin lesions led to the diagnosis of lung tuberculosis and tuberculous adenitis. In this case all the diagnostic criteria for cutaneous tuberculosis were completed: active presence of tuberculosis in another place, positive reaction to tuberculin test, physical signs and appropriate answer to the treatment

309

por medio de soldadura  

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Full Text Available El desgaste es un fenómeno de degradación de los diferentes materiales por efectos de abrasión, impacto, fatiga, erosión y corrosión entre otros. Este fenómeno acarrea grandes perdidas económicas por deterioro de elementos de máquinas y equipo industrial, asimismo una altísima cuota en impacto ambiental. Para contrarrestar los efectos nocivos generados por desgaste, surge la reconstrucción y mantenimiento de materiales por soldadura. Se tiene un molino vertical ATOX 32.5 para molienda de caliza con un juego de 6 placas borde de mesa, se hicieron aplicaciones de placas con revestimientos de soldadura con carburos de cromo y carburos complejos en las zonas más críticas.

Alberto Zapata Meneses

2007-01-01

310

(phoenicopterus roseus por intoxicación aguda por plomo  

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Full Text Available La presencia de plomo en el medio ambiente es un hecho indiscutible. Ello es objeto de gran interés sanitario pues repercute tanto en la salud de los animales como en la del ser humano. El plumbismo es una intoxicación que puede afectar a cualquier especie animal. En el ámbito de la fauna silvestre se asocia principalmente a la actividad cinegética en los humedales y a la ingestión de plomo metálico por parte de las aves que frecuentan estos ecosistemas. En España cada año mueren decenas de miles de aves acuáticas como consecuencia de la ingesta de perdigones de plomo. En los individuos capturados enfermos se pueden observar signos clínicos, mientras que a partir de muestras de cadáveres se obtienen datos sobre niveles tisulares de plomo. Sin embargo la evaluación de lesiones anatomopatológicas en animales de vida silvestre es difícil de realizar por la dificultad de encontrar animales recién muertos o afectados de un cuadro agudo mortal. La reproducción de esta patología en animales de experimentación se suele realizar en cisnes, palomas o patos, pero no en flamencos, por lo que no es usual disponer de datos histológicos en esta especie. En este trabajo presentamos la clínica, analítica y estudio microscópico de diferentes tejidos de un flamenco común (Phoenicopterus roseus muerto por plumbismo.

D Romero

2007-01-01

311

Lipofuscinose ceróide neuronal: relato de quatro casos com estudo por histoquímica retal, microscopia eletrônica de conjuntiva e necrópsia Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: report of four cases with study by rectal histochemistry, conjunctival electron microscopy, and autopsy  

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Full Text Available Os autores relatam os achados neuropatológicos e clínicos de quatro casos de lipofuscinose ceróide ou doença de Batten. Dois casos foram estudados por necrópsia: o encéfalo mostrou atrofia e neurônios contendo pigmento citoplasmático com características tintoriais de lipofuscina. Um caso foi diagnosticado por estudo histoquímico de biópsia retal, em material congelado em nitrogênio líquido demonstrando-se células ganglionares mioentéricas contendo acúmulo citoplasmático de material granular fosfatase ácida positivo, bem como em grande número de macrófagos do córion. O quarto caso foi diagnosticado por microscopia eletrônica de biópsia de conjuntiva, com identificação de inclusões curvelíneas membranáceas e tipo impressão digital.The authors present the neuropathological and clinical findings of four cases of ceroid lipofuscinosis or Batten's disease. In two cases the autopsy findings showed brain atrophy and nerve cells packed with cytoplasmic granules compatible with lipofuscin. One case was diagnosed by histochemical techniques in frozen sections of rectal biopsy which showed myoenteric ganglion cells with cytoplasmic acid phosphatase positive material as well as numerous macrophages filled with lipofuscin in the mucosae. The fourth case was diagnosed by electron microscopy of conjunctival biopsy which showed cytoplasmic inclusions of membranous, curvilinear and fingerprint types.

Luiz Fernando Bleggi Torres

1994-03-01

312

Lipofuscinose ceróide neuronal: relato de quatro casos com estudo por histoquímica retal, microscopia eletrônica de conjuntiva e necrópsia / Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: report of four cases with study by rectal histochemistry, conjunctival electron microscopy, and autopsy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os autores relatam os achados neuropatológicos e clínicos de quatro casos de lipofuscinose ceróide ou doença de Batten. Dois casos foram estudados por necrópsia: o encéfalo mostrou atrofia e neurônios contendo pigmento citoplasmático com características tintoriais de lipofuscina. Um caso foi diagnos [...] ticado por estudo histoquímico de biópsia retal, em material congelado em nitrogênio líquido demonstrando-se células ganglionares mioentéricas contendo acúmulo citoplasmático de material granular fosfatase ácida positivo, bem como em grande número de macrófagos do córion. O quarto caso foi diagnosticado por microscopia eletrônica de biópsia de conjuntiva, com identificação de inclusões curvelíneas membranáceas e tipo impressão digital. Abstract in english The authors present the neuropathological and clinical findings of four cases of ceroid lipofuscinosis or Batten's disease. In two cases the autopsy findings showed brain atrophy and nerve cells packed with cytoplasmic granules compatible with lipofuscin. One case was diagnosed by histochemical tech [...] niques in frozen sections of rectal biopsy which showed myoenteric ganglion cells with cytoplasmic acid phosphatase positive material as well as numerous macrophages filled with lipofuscin in the mucosae. The fourth case was diagnosed by electron microscopy of conjunctival biopsy which showed cytoplasmic inclusions of membranous, curvilinear and fingerprint types.

Luiz Fernando Bleggi, Torres; , Isac Bruck; Sérgio, Antoniuk; Lubomira, Oliva; Lúcia de, Noronha; José Luiz Pinto, Pereira.

1994-03-01

313

Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBan...

Mahling Monia; Reulen Holger; Pfister Kurt; Schorn Sabine; Silaghi Cornelia

2011-01-01

314

Valoración del análisis de la pieza operatoria en el cáncer gástrico por el cirujano / Concordance between the surgical piece observation by the surgeon and final pathological report for gastric cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: La disección de la pieza operatoria (PO) en forma sistemática en la cirugía por cáncer gástrico (CG) permite al cirujano obtener información de los bordes, compromiso linfonodal y estandarizar. Objetivos: 1) Determinar la concordancia de los hallazgos de la PO disecada por el cirujano [...] y el informe patológico final; 2) Determinar el porcentaje de retracción del estómago; 3) Mostrar una forma de registrar la PO en el CG. Material y Método: Estudio prospectivo de los pacientes operados con intención curativa desde septiembre de 2009 hasta mayo de 2010. Se etapificó con TNM de 2010. De la PO se registró el tamaño del estómago por curvatura menor, límite oral (LO), límite caudal (LC), profundidad, aspecto macroscópico, diámetro tumoral, grupos ganglionares comprometidos y cantidad de ganglios comprometidos. Se compararon estas variables con el informe patológico. El análisis de concordancia se realizó con el test de Kappa y el test de Lin. Resultados: Fueron estudiados 48 pacientes, 74% hombres, la edad promedio fue 63,7 años (DE 9,8), 59,5% fueron gastrectomías totales. El promedio de ganglios disecados fue 30,18 (DE 11,8). Se obtiene una buena concordancia para la profundidad del tumor (Kappa = 0,64), aspecto macroscópico (Kappa = 0,69) y tamaño tumoral (Lin = 0,84). Y una mala concordancia para el compromiso ganglionar (Kappa = 0,21). El porcentaje de retracción del largo por curvatura menor fue 24,3%, del LO fue 30,1%, del LC fue 22%. Conclusión: La concordancia de la PO es buena en la profundidad, aspecto macroscópico del tumor y diámetro tumoral, pero es mala en el compromiso ganglionar. Se determina que la retracción del estómago es mayor al 24%. Abstract in english Background: The systematic dissection of the surgical piece, performed by the surgeon during surgical treatment of gastric cancer, gives information about borders and lymph node involvement. Aim: To determine the concordance between the findings of the surgeon during initial dissection and the final [...] pathological report. Material and Methods: Prospective study of 48 patients aged 64 ± 10 years (74% males) subjected to curative surgery for gastric cancer. Patients were staged according to 2010 TNM classification. Stomach size from the lesser curvature, oral and caudal limits, macroscopic aspect, tumor diameter and lymph node involvement were determined by the surgeon observing the surgical piece. The concordance of this observation with the final pathological report was assessed. Results: Fifty nine percent of patients were subjected to a total gastrectomy and there was a mean of 30 lymph nodes excised. There was a good concordance between surgeon observation and final pathological report for tumor depth (Kappa = 0.64), macroscopic aspect (Kappa = 0.69) and tumor size (Lin = 0.84). There was a bad concordance for lymph node involvement (Kappa = 0.21). The percentage of retraction of lesser curvature length was 24%, 30% for oral and 22% for caudal limits. Conclusions: There is a good concordance between surgeon observation and pathological report for macroscopic aspect, tumor size and depth but the concordance for lymph node involvement is bad.

MARCO, CERONI V; CARLOS, GARCÍA C; RODRIGO, VALLEJOS H; JAIME, ZAMARIN M; CARLOS, BENAVIDES C; HÉCTOR, CID B; PATRICIO, RUBILAR O; MARÍA ISABEL, QUIJADA G; FRANCISCA, SOLAR A; IGNACIO, SOLAR A.

2011-08-01

315

Valoración del análisis de la pieza operatoria en el cáncer gástrico por el cirujano Concordance between the surgical piece observation by the surgeon and final pathological report for gastric cancer  

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Full Text Available Introducción: La disección de la pieza operatoria (PO en forma sistemática en la cirugía por cáncer gástrico (CG permite al cirujano obtener información de los bordes, compromiso linfonodal y estandarizar. Objetivos: 1 Determinar la concordancia de los hallazgos de la PO disecada por el cirujano y el informe patológico final; 2 Determinar el porcentaje de retracción del estómago; 3 Mostrar una forma de registrar la PO en el CG. Material y Método: Estudio prospectivo de los pacientes operados con intención curativa desde septiembre de 2009 hasta mayo de 2010. Se etapificó con TNM de 2010. De la PO se registró el tamaño del estómago por curvatura menor, límite oral (LO, límite caudal (LC, profundidad, aspecto macroscópico, diámetro tumoral, grupos ganglionares comprometidos y cantidad de ganglios comprometidos. Se compararon estas variables con el informe patológico. El análisis de concordancia se realizó con el test de Kappa y el test de Lin. Resultados: Fueron estudiados 48 pacientes, 74% hombres, la edad promedio fue 63,7 años (DE 9,8, 59,5% fueron gastrectomías totales. El promedio de ganglios disecados fue 30,18 (DE 11,8. Se obtiene una buena concordancia para la profundidad del tumor (Kappa = 0,64, aspecto macroscópico (Kappa = 0,69 y tamaño tumoral (Lin = 0,84. Y una mala concordancia para el compromiso ganglionar (Kappa = 0,21. El porcentaje de retracción del largo por curvatura menor fue 24,3%, del LO fue 30,1%, del LC fue 22%. Conclusión: La concordancia de la PO es buena en la profundidad, aspecto macroscópico del tumor y diámetro tumoral, pero es mala en el compromiso ganglionar. Se determina que la retracción del estómago es mayor al 24%.Background: The systematic dissection of the surgical piece, performed by the surgeon during surgical treatment of gastric cancer, gives information about borders and lymph node involvement. Aim: To determine the concordance between the findings of the surgeon during initial dissection and the final pathological report. Material and Methods: Prospective study of 48 patients aged 64 ± 10 years (74% males subjected to curative surgery for gastric cancer. Patients were staged according to 2010 TNM classification. Stomach size from the lesser curvature, oral and caudal limits, macroscopic aspect, tumor diameter and lymph node involvement were determined by the surgeon observing the surgical piece. The concordance of this observation with the final pathological report was assessed. Results: Fifty nine percent of patients were subjected to a total gastrectomy and there was a mean of 30 lymph nodes excised. There was a good concordance between surgeon observation and final pathological report for tumor depth (Kappa = 0.64, macroscopic aspect (Kappa = 0.69 and tumor size (Lin = 0.84. There was a bad concordance for lymph node involvement (Kappa = 0.21. The percentage of retraction of lesser curvature length was 24%, 30% for oral and 22% for caudal limits. Conclusions: There is a good concordance between surgeon observation and pathological report for macroscopic aspect, tumor size and depth but the concordance for lymph node involvement is bad.

MARCO CERONI V

2011-08-01

316

Infecções humanas causadas por poxvirus relacionados ao vírus vaccinia no Brasil Human infections caused by vaccinia-like poxviruses in Brazil  

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Full Text Available A partir de 1999, infecções humanas por Orthopoxvirus vem sendo observadas em pelo menos oito estados no país, com a formação de vesículas as quais evoluem para pústulas e crostas, principalmente nos membros superiores e face, após contacto com bovinos apresentando lesões semelhantes no úbere. Alem das lesões na pele, foram descritas nos pacientes reações ganglionares axilares por vezes dolorosas, febre, cefaléia, fadiga, desidratação, anorexia, sudorese, artralgia e mialgia, evoluindo o quadro por três a quatro semanas. Lesão vulvar bem como transmissão intrafamiliar foram igualmente descritas. Estudos moleculares demonstraram que os poxvirus identificados são geneticamente relacionados a amostras do vírus vaccinia utilizadas no passado, nas campanhas de vacinação. Especimens clínicos de 80 infecções humanas foram estudados no laboratório e a infecção por orthopoxvirus confirmada em 68 casos. São apresentadas lesões observadas em pacientes bem como discutidas as implicações desta zoonose no Brasil.Since 1999, human infection caused by Orthopoxvirus has been observed in at least eight Brazilian states, with the presence of vesicles that evolve to pustules and crusts, especially on the hands, arms and face, after contact with cows showing comparable lesions on the udder. In addition to the skin lesions, there have been descriptions of patients with axillary ganglionic reactions that are sometimes painful, along with fever, headache, fatigue, dehydration, anorexia, sudoresis, arthralgia and muscle pain. The condition evolves over a three to four-week period. Vulvar lesions and transmission within families have also been described. Molecular studies have shown that the poxviruses identified are genetically related to vaccinia virus samples that were used in vaccination campaigns in the past. Clinical specimens from 80 human infections were studied in the laboratory, and orthopoxvirus infections were confirmed in 68 cases. The lesions observed in these patients are presented and the implications of this zoonosis in Brazil are discussed.

Hermann G. Schatzmayr

2009-12-01

317

Otro humanismo por articular  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Partiendo de un contexto de intenso contacto intercultural marcado por la globalización económica, un profundo proceso de urbanización mundial y las amplias migraciones humanas, el presente artículo aboga por des-velar el carácter nacional-etnocéntrico que ha marcado al humanismo clásico, para propo [...] ner articular uno de corte pluralista, que incorpore y esté atento a otros relatos y formas de vida no occidentalocéntricas. El reto parece claro: una época marcada por la incomprensión y el conflicto de interpretaciones exige pensar en formas de comunicarse y solidarizarse entre diversos.

Enrique, Díaz Álvarez.

2011-08-01

318

NEURECTOMIA PRESACRA POR LAPAROSCOPIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta nuestra experiencia con neurectomía presacra por laparoscopia. De 100 pacientes intervenidas por vía laparoscópica por dolor pélvico crónico en 10 se realizó neurectomía presacra como intervención única o junto a exéresis de endometriosis. En 9 de las 10 pacientes se logró mejoría con pe [...] ríodos de seguimiento prolongado y sin complicaciones. La neurectomía presacra por laparoscopia es una técnica eficaz en el control del dolor pélvico crónico central severo refractario a tratamiento médico Abstract in english We present our experience with laparoscopic presacral neurectomy (LPSN). We describe the technique and results. One hundred patients with chronic pelvic pain were operated. In ten of these LPSN was done for severe chronic pelvic pain. Ninety percent of success without complications was the final res [...] ult. LPSN proved to be efficacious procedure in patients who do not respond to medical therapy

David, Escobar P.; Carmen Luz, Alvarado S.; Juan Carlos, Barros; Mónica, Molina R..

319

Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Ury | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Resumo Apresenta-se o primeiro caso clínico no Uruguai de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus em uma criança. Trata-se de uma criança de 9 anos, que apresentou as manifestações clínicas, radiológicas e de laboratório caraterísticas da doença, permitindo suspeitar o diagnóstico no Departamento de Emergê [...] ncia Pediátrica, confirmando-se posteriormente, pela presença da inmunoglobulina M e G específica para hantavirus, por técnica de ELISA. A evolução foi favorável com terapia de apoio cardio-respiratória sem requerer assistência respiratória mecânica Abstract in spanish Resumen Se presenta el primer caso clínico en Uruguay de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en un niño. Se trata de un niño de 9 años que presentó las manifestaciones clínicas, radiológicas y de laboratorio características de la enfermedad, permitiendo sospechar el diagnóstico en el Departamento de Em [...] ergencia Pediátrica, confirmándose posteriormente por la detección de inmunoglobulina M y G específica para hantavirus por técnica de ELISA. La evolución fue favorable, con terapia de sostén cardiorrespiratoria sin requerir asistencia respiratoria mecánica Abstract in english We present the first pediatric uruguayan case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The patient is a 9 year old child who presented with typical clinical, radiological and laboratory findings of the disease. These features were the diagnostic clues at the Pediatric Emergency Departement. The diagnosis w [...] as confirmed by detection of hantaviurs-specific inmunoglobulin M and G by ELISA technique. The clinical course was satisfactory with cardiopulmonary therapy which didn’t require mechanical ventilation

2003-08-01

320

Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) endemic area. A total of 78 A. cajennense and 78 A. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeti [...] ng a fragment of the rickettsial gene gltA. Only one pool of three A. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by PCR. This pool was further tested by PCR using sets of primers targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB. All reactions yielded the expected bands that by sequencing, showed 100% identity to the corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii gene fragments gltA (1063-bp), ompA (457-bp), and ompB (720-bp). The minimal infection rate of R. rickettii in the A. cajennense population was 1.28% (at least one infected tick within 78 ticks).The present study showed molecular evidence for the presence of R. rickettsii in A. cajennense from a BSF-endemic area in Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais. Although R. rickettsii has been previously reported infecting A. cajennense ticks in Brazil and other Latin American countries, the present study performed the first molecular characterization of R. rickettsii from the tick A. cajennense.

Elizângela, Guedes; Romário C, Leite; Márcia CA, Prata; Richard C, Pacheco; David H, Walker; Marcelo B, Labruna.

2005-12-01

321

Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de la intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas (IAP en el Hospital General O'Horán de Mérida, Yucatán, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de 33 pacientes superscript three 13 años, tratados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI, entre 1994 y 1998. Se recopilaron variables demográficas y clínicas relevantes, y se aplicó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: En la población estudiada predominó el sexo masculino (82% del medio rural (70%, y la edad media fue de 34 ± 15.8 años. El intento de suicidio fue causa frecuente de IAP (79%, y en 33% de los casos la intoxicación se produjo por la utilización de organofosforados. La mortalidad fue de 12%. CONCLUSIONES: La IAP fue baja entre los sujetos del medio rural, por lo que los resultados de este estudio parecen no reflejar la realidad del problema. Es importante añadir que los plaguicidas son utilizados con relativa frecuencia para el intento de suicidio.

Durán-Nah Jaime Jesús

2000-01-01

322

Índice por autores  

OpenAIRE

Contiene el listado en orden alfabético por apellido, de todos los autores que han escrito para la revista Geología Colombiana desde 1962 hasta 1984; el listado presenta el número en el cual se publicaron los articulos de cada autor y las páginas que les corresponde.

Geología Colombiana

1985-01-01

323

Intoxicación por Paraquat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El paraquat es un herbicida bipiridílico que actúa por contacto, se presenta en forma líquida en concentraciones del 20% para uso agrícola. Su nombre químico es eI 1-1´-dimetil-4-4- bipiridilo, con el nombre comercial de Gramoxone. La intoxicación por paraquat tiene una tasa de mortalidad elevada. L [...] a intoxicación grave se caracteriza por la afectación de múltiples órganos, principalmente los pulmones, los riñones y el hígado. El pulmón es el órgano diana en la intoxicación por paraquat y la insuficiencia respiratoria con fibrosis pulmonar aguda es la causa más común de muerte. Abstract in english Paraquat (1-1´-dimetil-4-4-bipyridylium dichloride) is still widely used in Costa Rica as a contact herbicide and is marketed as a 20% aqueous solution (Gramoxone) .Paraquat poisoning carries a high mortality rate. Severe paraquat poisoning is characterized by multiple-organ involvement, mainly the [...] lungs, kidneys, liver. The lung is a major target organ in paraquat poisoning, and respiratory failure from acute pulmonary fibrosis is the most common cause of death.

Glenda, Viales López.

2014-12-01

324

Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en una población de parejas infértiles. Validar la eficacia del diagnóstico de anticuerpos anti Chlamydia para tratar, prevenir y controlar la infección por C. trachomatis. Justificar la necesidad de implementar el monitor [...] eo de rutina para administrar el tratamiento oportuno de la infección por C. trachomatis. Métodos: Se determinó la prevalencia de la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en 4 619 pacientes, 2 607 mujeres y 2 012 hombres en edades reproductivas, entre 1999 y 2008 por problemas de infertilidad. Se detectaron anticuerpos anti-Chlamydia trachomatis (IgG, IgA e IgM) por SeroELISA (Savyon Diagnostics Ltd.) de 1999 a 2005; desde 2006 hasta 2008 se utilizó el kit InmunoComb II (Orgenics). Ambiente: Centro de fertilidad UNIFERTES, Caracas, Venezuela. Resultados: Se encontró una prevalencia en mujeres de 25,40 ± 6,26 %; y en los hombres de 31,12 ± 2,88 %. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de la infección por C. trachomatis en parejas infértiles es alta y no ha disminuido en los últimos 10 años. Se recomienda implementar en Venezuela un monitoreo de rutina para el diagnóstico de C. trachomatis, incluyendo su determinación en el control ginecológico anual y en las evaluaciones urológicas a hombres jóvenes, a fin de prevenir que la infección pase a ser crónica. Abstract in english Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile couples. To evaluate the efficiency of the Chlamydia trachomatis screening programs. To establish the need of implementing the routine early diagnosis and opportune treatment of the infection. Methods: Prevalence [...] of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was determined in 4 019 patients, 1 991 women and 2 012 men in reproductive agesbetween 1999 and 2008. Anti-chlamydia and C.trachomatis antobodies (IgG, IgA and IgM) were detected by SeroELISA (Savyon Diagnostics Ltd.) from 1999 to 2005; and by the ImmunoComb II kit (Orgenics) from 2006 to 2008. Setting: Fertility clinic UNIFERTES in Caracas, Venezuela. Results: A prevalence of 25,40 ± 6,26 % was found in women and a prevalence of 31,12 ± 2,88 % was found in men. Conclusions: Prevalence of the C. trachomatis infection in infertile couples is high and has not decreased over the last 10 years. Implementation of routine screening programs for C. trachomatis detection is recommended, including its assessment in annual gynecological controls, as well as in urologic evaluations in young men, in order to prevent the infection from being chronic.

María Teresa, Urbina; Randolfo, Medina; Gladys, Muñoz; Victoria, Sánchez; Isaac, Benjamín; Jorge, Lerner.

2010-06-01

325

Intoxicación por paraquat  

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Full Text Available En el periodo comprendido de 1996 a 1999, se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de enfermos intoxicados por biperidilos (Paraquat, para determinar las principales manifestaciones, complicaciones, tratamiento y pronóstico del tóxico. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, transversal, descriptivo y observacional, en el área de Medicina Interna del Hospital General ?Dr. Gustavo A. Rovirosa Pérez.? Se estudiaron 18 pacientes con intoxicación por paraquat, dos se excluyeron para fines de evolución pero no de mortalidad por datos incompletos en el expediente. De los l6 pacientes estudiados con intoxicación por biperidilos (Paraquat, el sexo masculino ocupó el mayor número, l3 hombres (81.25% y 3 mujeres, con un rango de edad de 15 a 74 años. El producto químico comercial más utilizado fue el Gramoxone, siendo la principal vía de intoxicación la oral, en 93.75% con cantidades variables entre 3 y 750cc. Las principales manifestaciones al ingreso se incluyeron en la fase 1, que consiste en inflamación, edema y ulceración de la capa mucosa de tubo digestivo, y fase 2 con daño hepático y renal. Las principales complicaciones fueron a nivel digestivo, renal, hepático y pulmonar. El tratamiento incluyó medidas básicas de urgencias, generales y, en algunos casos especiales diálisis peritoneal aguda. Conclusiones. Los factores predisponentes fueron intento suicida por depresión reactiva breve y alcoholismo. La complicación pulmonar fue determinante en la mortalidad, debido a que el tejido pulmonar adquiere más concentración del tóxico que otros tejidos. A pesar de su alta toxicidad, la mortalidad fue del 56%. El tratamiento debe ser vigoroso e iniciado tan rápido como sea posible.

Norma A. Hern\\u00E1ndez Hern\\u00E1ndez

2000-01-01

326

Constrição campimétrica causada por vigabatrin Visual field constriction caused by vigabatrin  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever dois pacientes que apresentaram constrição campimétrica importante e determinar a origem desta alteração visual causada pelo uso de vigabatrin, um anticonvulsivante que atua aumentando a concentração do ácido gama-aminobutírico no sistema nervoso central. Métodos: Os pacientes foram submetidos a exame e neuroftalmológico completo, avaliação cuidadosa da retina, campo visual com perímetro de Goldmann, tomografia computadorizada de crânio e órbitas, eletrorretinograma (ERG, imagem por ressonância magnética (1 paciente e potencial visual evocado (1 paciente. Resultados: A acuidade visual se mostrou preservada; o primeiro paciente apresentava campo visual restrito à área central de 20 a 30 graus centrais e o segundo uma constrição leve a moderada. Os exames de neuroimagem foram normais assim como o potencial visual evocado. Observou-se palidez discreta de papila em 3 olhos estudados e estreitamento arteriolar muito discreto dos vasos retinianos. O ERG revelou alterações importantes caracterizada por redução da onda b (caso 1 e dos potenciais oscilatórios (caso 2. Conclusões: As alterações visuais causadas pelo vigabatrin são devidas a uma alteração retiniana, envolvendo provavelmente as células amácrimas, bipolares e ganglionares mas não se acompanham de uma alteração significativa à fundoscopia. Pacientes recebendo esta medicação devem ser seguidos de perto especialmente através da avaliação do campo visual central e periférico.Purpose: To describe two patients who presented with severe campimetric constriction and to determine the source of visual symptoms caused by vigabatrin, an anticonvulsant medication that increases brain gamma-aminobutyric acid. Methods: Patients were submitted to a complete neuroophthalmologic evaluation as well as a careful retina examination, Goldmann perimetry, computerized tomography of the brain and orbits, electroretinograms (ERG, magnetic ressonance imaging (1 patient and visual evoked potential (1 patient. Results: Visual acuity was normal; the first patient had the visual field restricted to the 20 to 30 degree central area and the second, a mild to moderate constriction. Neuroimaging examinations were normal as well as the visual evoked potential. Mild optic disc pallor (3 eyes and very slight retinal arteriolar narrowing was observed. ERG showed reduction of the b wave (case 1 and oscillatory potential responses (case 2. Conclusions: Visual alterations caused by vigabatrin are due to a retina dysfunction presumably involving the amacrine, bipolar and ganglion cells but there are no significant pathologic findings on fundoscopic examination. Patients receiving this medication should be followed closely with periodic central and peripheral visual field testing.

Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro

2000-10-01

327

Constrição campimétrica causada por vigabatrin / Visual field constriction caused by vigabatrin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Descrever dois pacientes que apresentaram constrição campimétrica importante e determinar a origem desta alteração visual causada pelo uso de vigabatrin, um anticonvulsivante que atua aumentando a concentração do ácido gama-aminobutírico no sistema nervoso central. Métodos: Os pacientes fo [...] ram submetidos a exame e neuroftalmológico completo, avaliação cuidadosa da retina, campo visual com perímetro de Goldmann, tomografia computadorizada de crânio e órbitas, eletrorretinograma (ERG), imagem por ressonância magnética (1 paciente) e potencial visual evocado (1 paciente). Resultados: A acuidade visual se mostrou preservada; o primeiro paciente apresentava campo visual restrito à área central de 20 a 30 graus centrais e o segundo uma constrição leve a moderada. Os exames de neuroimagem foram normais assim como o potencial visual evocado. Observou-se palidez discreta de papila em 3 olhos estudados e estreitamento arteriolar muito discreto dos vasos retinianos. O ERG revelou alterações importantes caracterizada por redução da onda b (caso 1) e dos potenciais oscilatórios (caso 2). Conclusões: As alterações visuais causadas pelo vigabatrin são devidas a uma alteração retiniana, envolvendo provavelmente as células amácrimas, bipolares e ganglionares mas não se acompanham de uma alteração significativa à fundoscopia. Pacientes recebendo esta medicação devem ser seguidos de perto especialmente através da avaliação do campo visual central e periférico. Abstract in english Purpose: To describe two patients who presented with severe campimetric constriction and to determine the source of visual symptoms caused by vigabatrin, an anticonvulsant medication that increases brain gamma-aminobutyric acid. Methods: Patients were submitted to a complete neuroophthalmologic eval [...] uation as well as a careful retina examination, Goldmann perimetry, computerized tomography of the brain and orbits, electroretinograms (ERG), magnetic ressonance imaging (1 patient) and visual evoked potential (1 patient). Results: Visual acuity was normal; the first patient had the visual field restricted to the 20 to 30 degree central area and the second, a mild to moderate constriction. Neuroimaging examinations were normal as well as the visual evoked potential. Mild optic disc pallor (3 eyes) and very slight retinal arteriolar narrowing was observed. ERG showed reduction of the b wave (case 1) and oscillatory potential responses (case 2). Conclusions: Visual alterations caused by vigabatrin are due to a retina dysfunction presumably involving the amacrine, bipolar and ganglion cells but there are no significant pathologic findings on fundoscopic examination. Patients receiving this medication should be followed closely with periodic central and peripheral visual field testing.

Mário Luiz Ribeiro, Monteiro; Hélio Benito, Scapolan.

2000-10-01

328

Phylogenetic analysis of spotted fever group rickettsiae based on gltA, 17-kDa, and rOmpA genes amplified by nested PCR from ticks in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the natural situation of rickettsiae in the ticks in Japan, the rickettsial genes, gltA gene, rOmpA gene, and 17-kDa gene, were amplified from the ticks by nested PCR. The prevalences of rickettsial gltA genes among Haemaphysalis formosensis, H. longicornis, H. megaspinosa, Ixodes ovatus, H. flava, H. kitaokai, and I. persulcatus were 62, 57, 24, 24, 19, 13, and 10%, respectively; 26% (186/722) being the average. The gltA genes amplified from the ticks were classified into 9 genotypes (I to IX) by the difference in nucleotide sequences. Genotype I was detected from 7 species of ticks. Genotype II mainly was detected from H. longicornis and H. formosensis. Genotypes III and VII mainly were detected from H. flava and I. ovatus. The polarization in the distribution of genotypes among regions where the ticks were collected was not clear. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the three genes presented here, genotypes I, III, and IV (detected from H. formosensis, H. hystricia, and I. ovatus ) are genetically close with each other, but rickettsiae of the same property still have not been isolated from ticks anywhere in the world. These genotypes should be considered as new species among SFG rickettsiae. Genotype II was identical with strain FUJ-98, genetically close to R. japonica which has been isolated from ticks in China. Genotype V was identical with R. felis and strain California 2 isolated from the cat flea. This is the first report on the detection of R. felis from ticks. Genotype VI detected from Ixodes sp. did not seem to belong to genus Rickettsia. Based on the previous antigenic data and the phylogenetic analysis presented here, Genotype VII should be considered a variant of R. helvetica and genotype VIII detected from I. ovatus and I. persulcatus were identical with R. helvetica. Genotype IX detected from I. nipponensis was genetically close to the strains IRS3, IRS4, and IrR/Munich isolated from I. ricinus in Slovakia and German. PMID:14638993

Ishikura, Mitsuhiro; Ando, Shuji; Shinagawa, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Kumiko; Hasegawa, Sumiyo; Nakayama, Takashi; Fujita, Hiromi; Watanabe, Mamoru

2003-01-01

329

Regulación por precios tope  

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Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe las principales características del mecanismo de regulación por precios tope, incluyendo su ubicación dentro de las posibilidades de acción regulatoria, las críticas que se han planteado al mismo, así como los mecanismos complementarios utilizados y los riesgos involucrados en su desarrollo.---This article describes the main characteristics of the price cap regime of price regulation, including its location among other regulatory possibilities, critics received, complementary mechanisms and risks involved in its development.

Gerardo Soto Carrillo

2009-06-01

330

colonización por glomus intraradices  

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Full Text Available El presente estudio es el primer reporte sobre la inducción de raíces transformadas por Agrobacterium rhizogenes en Agave salmiana Otto, así como del establecimiento de un hongo micorrízico en las mismas. Para lograr lo anterior se inocularon plantas germinadas in vitro con diferentes concentraciones de bacteria y de acetosiringona en varios sitios (hoja, tallo y raíz. El tiempo de cocultivo en oscuridad fue de 6 d. Las raíces transformadas se presentaron a los 25 d después de la inoculación. La mayor eficiencia de transformación resultó de la inoculación al tallo con 1x109 bacterias mL-1 y 200 µM de acetosiringona, condiciones en las que se obtuvo 63 % de raíces transformadas. La naturaleza transgénica de las raíces generadas se verificó mediante un ensayo histoquímico para detectar actividad de GUS y los transgenes se amplificaron en muestras de ADN de raíz a través de PCR. Se detectó actividad de GUS en 80 % de los tejidos probados, mientras que los genes rolB y nptII se amplificaron en 60 % de las muestras de ADN analizadas por PCR. Se demostró la capacidad de Glomus intraradices para colonizar in vitro las raíces transformadas de A. salmiana, con una eficiencia de colonización de 70 %. Se logró la recuperación de esporas hijas, con un promedio de 300 esporas hijas por cultivo, a los 6 meses de iniciada la inoculación.

Guillermo Rodr\\u00EDguez Hern\\u00E1ndez

2007-01-01

331

La lucha por Guayaquil  

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Full Text Available En el contexto del referendo constitucional del 2008 en Ecuador, este texto analiza la disputa entre Rafael Correa, presidente del Gobierno ecuatoriano y principal líder de Alianza País, y el alcalde la ciudad más grande del país, Jaime Nebot. Disputa que es examinada a partir de tres ejes: la lucha contra el neoliberalismo, la construcción de un proyecto estatal nacional y la búsqueda por una por una hegemonía política de Alianza País. Se profundiza en las nociones de autonomía y globalización que sirvieron de eje al discurso del alcalde, frente al modelo de autonomía propuesto por el Gobierno.In the context of Ecuador's 2008 Constitutional Referendum, this text analyses the dispute between Rafael Correa –the President of the Ecuadorian government and the figurehead of Alianza País– and the mayor of the largest city in the country, Jaime Nebot. The argument will be developed along three fronts: the battle against neoliberalism, the construction of a national state project, and the search for the political hegemony of Alianza País. The article examines the concepts of autonomy and globalization that were central to Nebot's discourse and contrasts them with the autonomous model put forward by the government.

Felipe Burbano de Lara

2009-01-01

332

Lucro por ação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho tem por objetivo demonstrar os principais conceitos acerca do Lucro por Ação (Earnings per Share), o qual se apresenta como um quociente de grande utilidade nas entidades. Serão demonstrados aspectos sobre o assunto presentes no Brasil, bem como as normas aplicáveis nos Estados Unidos, [...] emanadas do Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), e as normas internacionais, emanadas do International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). De forma a possibilitar uma visualização mais completa dos conceitos envolvidos, serão desenvolvidos exemplos de sua aplicação. O Lucro (Resultado) por Ação pode ser calculado em sua forma básica e em sua forma diluída. Na forma básica, não são considerados os efeitos dos instrumentos potencialmente dilutivos, ao passo que, no cálculo do Lucro (Resultado) por Ação Diluído, são. Como instrumentos financeiros potencialmente dilutivos temos as ações preferenciais conversíveis, as debêntures conversíveis e os bônus de subscrição, que podem ser convertidos em ações ordinárias, caracterizando, assim, o próprio potencial dilutivo desses instrumentos. Dessa forma, o trabalho em questão foi dividido em três partes principais, sendo que nas duas últimas constam os referidos exemplos de cálculo do Lucro por Ação em sua forma básica e em sua forma diluída: • aspectos observados no Brasil; • normas emanadas do FASB; • normas emanadas do IASC. Abstract in english The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the principal concepts about Earnings per Share, which is presented as a quotient of great usefulness for the companies. The subject is presented in three parts: in the first part, we will demonstrate relevant aspects that are present in Brazil. In the s [...] econd part, the applicable standards in the United States will be discussed, which are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). In the third part, the international standards are dealt with, which are issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). In order to make it possible to visualize the concepts involved in a more complete way, examples of their application will be developed. Earnings per Share can be calculated in its basic form and in its diluted form. In the basic form, the effects of the potentially diluted instruments are not considered, while, in the calculation of the Diluted Earnings per Share, they are. Examples of potentially diluted financial instruments are convertible preferred stocks, convertible debentures and subscription bonuses, which can be turned into ordinary stocks, characterizing in this way the diluted potential of these instruments.

Gabriel Moreira, Campos; Luciano Márcio, Scherer.

2001-08-01

333

Brazo robótico controlado por electromiografía  

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Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe la construcción de un brazo robótico controlado por señales Electromiográficas EMG, las cuales son tomadas por los electrodos que son conectados al brazo del paciente. Esas señales, son controladas por unos sensores superficiales de EMG. Los biopotenciales que pasan por los músculos del brazo son controlados por el Dispositivo microcontrolado marca Arduino, en el cual dependiendo de la diferencia de potencial que circule por el músculo va activar los servomotores que controlan el brazo robótico. Se utilizan 4 servomotores y sensores de EMG para darle 8 grados de libertad al brazo robótico.

Javier Villamizar Pinz\\u00F3n

2012-01-01

334

Gestión por proyectos  

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Full Text Available Se trata la Gestión de Proyectos por las técnicas de Dirección Integrada de Proyectos  o Project management, donde se dan algunas de las  definiciones de Gestión por Proyectos, así como su importancia y necesidad de trabajar por estas técnicas, no solo para los programas y Proyectos priorizados sino también en los proyectos  de desarrollo empresarial.Una buena gestión de proyectos requiere una inversión inicial de tiempo y esfuerzo y es necesario que toda la organización esté dispuesta a apoyarla de manera disciplinada. Que rompa la inercia de trabajo desorganizado e improvisado y procure apegarse, de manera responsable, al uso de la metodología de proyectos.La solución de problemas a partir de proyectos, genera una cultura de trabajo diferente a lo que habitualmente se ha  acostumbrado, surgiendo una figura nueva para liderar la solución del problema planteado: el jefe del proyecto. Dicho en otros términos, el proyecto se presenta como una entidad autónoma, se gobierna a partir de su propio diseño y depende solamente de su presupuesto.La administración de proyectos garantiza que se:v  Resuelven problemas más rápidamente.v  Evitan desperdicios y caos al no trabajar en áreas que están fuera del alcance del proyecto.v  Enfoca en resolver riesgos futuros antes de que los problemas ocurran.v  Orienta a manejar las expectativas y la comunicación entre clientes, colaboradores y grupos de interés de manera más efectiva.v  Busca crear productos de más alta calidad desde el primer momento.v  Termine en tiempo los proyectosv  Utilice el presupuesto de forma eficiente 

Ana Rosa Hernández Rodríguez

2010-10-01

335

Las imágenes por venir  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A partir de uma análise das conceições e modos de ensino e aprendizagem que se desprendem da analogia proposta pelo término alfabetizão, o artigo empreende uma crítica das atuais condições de transmissão do saber nas carreiras de Cinema e televisão, Design de Imagem e Som, e Design Audiovisual, disc [...] utindo o cariz deshistorizante de seus conteúdos, como assim também a primazia concedida ao código cinematográfico. A análise da enunciação, por sua vez, leva a um proponho sobre as implicancias políticas da construção de subjetividade que supõe a habilitação profissional, para finalmente propor uma idéia diferente de comunicação audiovisual a partir da noção de escritura. Abstract in spanish A partir de un análisis de las concepciones y modos de enseñanza y aprendizaje que se desprenden de la analogía propuesta por el término alfabetización, el artículo emprende una crítica de las actuales condiciones de transmisión del saber en las carreras de Cine y televisión, Diseño de imagen y soni [...] do y Diseño audiovisual, discutiendo el cariz deshistorizante de sus contenidos, como así también la primacía concedida al código cinematográfico. El análisis de la enunciación, por su parte, lleva a un planteo sobre las implicancias políticas de la construcción de subjetividad que supone la habilitación profesional, para finalmente proponer una idea distinta de comunicación audiovisual a partir de la noción de escritura. Abstract in english The article undertakes a critic of the present conditions of knowledge transmission in the careers of Cinema and Television, Sound and Image Design and Audiovisual Design, from an analysis of the conceptions and ways of teaching and learning that come off the analogy proposed by the term alphabetiza [...] tion. On the other hand, the analysis of enunciation, takes to a raise on the political implicancies about the construction of subjectivity in the professional qualification. Finally, the article offers a different idea of audiovisual communication after the notion of writing.

Hugo, Salas.

2012-03-01

336

Ixodid fauna and zoonotic agents in ticks from dogs: first report of Rickettsia rickettsii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks from 148 dogs from the urban area of the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were collected, classified and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of Rickettsia spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. A total of 2015 ticks were collected. The species Rhipicephalus sanguineus (98.9 %) and Amblyomma cajennense (1.1 %) were identified. Molecular analysis revealed that no tick samples were infected by T. cruzi. Regarding Leishmania spp., tick samples from 36 dogs spread across all regions of the municipality were positive for L. chagasi. One tick sample was positive for Rickettsia spp. (gltA gene) in the PCR reaction. This sample was submitted to further PCR based on the ompA gene and the amplicon was sequenced. Identity of 100 % was found with homologous sequences of R. rickettsii available in GenBank. This paper is the first to report the natural infection of R. sanguineus by R. rickettsii in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil. PMID:23229491

de Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; e Silva, Elaine Araújo; de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria; Andreotti, Renato

2013-05-01

337

Comparação entre diversos antígenos para o diagnóstico de Anaplasma marginale por ELISA Comparison between several antigens for diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale by ELISA  

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Full Text Available Anaplasmose bovina é uma doença com grande importância nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do mundo por determinar perdas econômicas devido à mortalidade e redução da produtividade. É causada por Anaplasma marginale, uma riquétsia intraeritrocítica obrigatória cujo controle requer, além de uma vacina eficiente, uma acurada identificação de bovinos cronicamente infectados. Apesar de existirem atualmente diversos métodos de diagnóstico dessa riquétsia, os métodos sorológicos, em particular o ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática-ELISAs, são os mais utilizados devido à sua versatilidade e praticidade. No entanto, devido ao grande número de antígenos disponíveis, atualmente torna-se necessária uma avaliação para definir quais antígenos apresentam um melhor desempenho no diagnóstico da anaplasmose. Soros de bovinos positivos e negativos para A. marginale por PCR, e soros de animais provenientes do Brasil e Costa Rica, foram testados em ELISAs baseados em MSP1a, MSP2 e MSP5 recombinantes, um pool das três proteínas recombinantes, e antígeno de lisado de corpúsculos iniciais da riquétsia (CI. Utilizando soro de bovinos positivos para A. marginale por PCR, uma maior sensibilidade foi observada no ELISA CI. No entanto, uma maior especificidade, com soro de bovinos negativos a PCR, foi observada com os ELISAs recombinantes. O porcentual de bovinos positivos do Brasil e Costa Rica foi maior com ELISA CI. Razões para essas diferenças são discutidas.Bovine anaplasmosis is a major disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world by determine economical loss due mortality and productive reduction. The disease is caused by Anaplasma marginale, an intraerythrocytic rickettsia whose control requires, besides an efficient vaccine, the accurate identification of chronically infected cattle. Although the existence of diverse methods of diagnosis of this rickettsia, the serological methods, in particular the enzyme immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, are the most used due to its versatility and practice. However, due to the high number of antigens currently available, an evaluation becomes necessary to define which antigens present the better performance in the diagnosis of anaplasmosis. Sera from cattle positive or negative to A. marginale by PCR, and sera from cattle proceeding from Brazil and Costa Rica, were tested by ELISAs based in recombinant MSP1a, MSP2, and MSP5, a pool of the three recombinant proteins, and initial body lisate antigen (CI. Using sera from A. marginale positive cattle by PCR, the highest sensitivity was shown by CI ELISA. Nevertheless, the highest specificity, with sera from negative cattle by PCR, was shown by recombinants ELISAs. The percentiles of positive cattle from Brazil and Costa Rica were higher with CI ELISA. Reasons for such differences were discussed.

Carlos A.N. Ramos

2010-01-01

338

Comparação entre diversos antígenos para o diagnóstico de Anaplasma marginale por ELISA / Comparison between several antigens for diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale by ELISA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Anaplasmose bovina é uma doença com grande importância nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do mundo por determinar perdas econômicas devido à mortalidade e redução da produtividade. É causada por Anaplasma marginale, uma riquétsia intraeritrocítica obrigatória cujo controle requer, além de uma vaci [...] na eficiente, uma acurada identificação de bovinos cronicamente infectados. Apesar de existirem atualmente diversos métodos de diagnóstico dessa riquétsia, os métodos sorológicos, em particular o ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática-ELISAs, são os mais utilizados devido à sua versatilidade e praticidade. No entanto, devido ao grande número de antígenos disponíveis, atualmente torna-se necessária uma avaliação para definir quais antígenos apresentam um melhor desempenho no diagnóstico da anaplasmose. Soros de bovinos positivos e negativos para A. marginale por PCR, e soros de animais provenientes do Brasil e Costa Rica, foram testados em ELISAs baseados em MSP1a, MSP2 e MSP5 recombinantes, um pool das três proteínas recombinantes, e antígeno de lisado de corpúsculos iniciais da riquétsia (CI). Utilizando soro de bovinos positivos para A. marginale por PCR, uma maior sensibilidade foi observada no ELISA CI. No entanto, uma maior especificidade, com soro de bovinos negativos a PCR, foi observada com os ELISAs recombinantes. O porcentual de bovinos positivos do Brasil e Costa Rica foi maior com ELISA CI. Razões para essas diferenças são discutidas. Abstract in english Bovine anaplasmosis is a major disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world by determine economical loss due mortality and productive reduction. The disease is caused by Anaplasma marginale, an intraerythrocytic rickettsia whose control requires, besides an efficient vaccine, the accurat [...] e identification of chronically infected cattle. Although the existence of diverse methods of diagnosis of this rickettsia, the serological methods, in particular the enzyme immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), are the most used due to its versatility and practice. However, due to the high number of antigens currently available, an evaluation becomes necessary to define which antigens present the better performance in the diagnosis of anaplasmosis. Sera from cattle positive or negative to A. marginale by PCR, and sera from cattle proceeding from Brazil and Costa Rica, were tested by ELISAs based in recombinant MSP1a, MSP2, and MSP5, a pool of the three recombinant proteins, and initial body lisate antigen (CI). Using sera from A. marginale positive cattle by PCR, the highest sensitivity was shown by CI ELISA. Nevertheless, the highest specificity, with sera from negative cattle by PCR, was shown by recombinants ELISAs. The percentiles of positive cattle from Brazil and Costa Rica were higher with CI ELISA. Reasons for such differences were discussed.

Carlos A.N., Ramos; Flábio R., Araújo; Ingrid I.F., Souza; Daniel S., Guedes Jr; Renato H.M., Oliveira; Thaís A., Farias; Jaqueline B., Oliveira; Leucio C., Alves; Maria A.G., Faustino.

2010-01-01

339

Intoxicación aguda por heroína  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La intoxicación por opiáceos se presenta casi siempre como consecuencia de una sobredosis accidental de un derivado de éstos, usualmente la heroína por inyección. Otras formas de intoxicación, a las que no somos ajenos en nuestro medio, son los llamados correos de drogas, "body packers" o mulas, uti [...] lizados en el tráfico internacional de transporte de drogas. En estos casos la droga es generalmente tragada, envuelta en condones, que pueden contener heroína o cocaína. Su ruptura puede conducir a toxicidad severa y letal. Los antecedente de un viaje reciente en avión en un paciente con cuadro clínico de intoxicación, pueden justificar la indicación de una radiografía de abdomen como método diagnóstico e incluso la cirugía para limpieza intestinal como parte de su abordaje terapéutico. Abstract in english Most of opioid related deaths for overdose are accidental and are primarily due to intravenous heroin use. Other forms of poisoning may occur in the so called body packers ("mulas"), who are used in international drug transportation. These patients generally swallow small quantities of wrapped cocai [...] ne or heroin in an attempt to smuggle the drugs across international borders. Their breakage can lead to severe and lethal toxicity. The history of a recent a flight in a patient with a clinical syndrome of poisoning, should justify the indication of abdominal x-rays for diagnosis and also surgery for "intestinal cleaning" as part of his therapeutic approach.

Guillermo, Porras-Morales.

2004-03-01

340

Intoxicación aguda por heroína  

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Full Text Available La intoxicación por opiáceos se presenta casi siempre como consecuencia de una sobredosis accidental de un derivado de éstos, usualmente la heroína por inyección. Otras formas de intoxicación, a las que no somos ajenos en nuestro medio, son los llamados correos de drogas, "body packers" o mulas, utilizados en el tráfico internacional de transporte de drogas. En estos casos la droga es generalmente tragada, envuelta en condones, que pueden contener heroína o cocaína. Su ruptura puede conducir a toxicidad severa y letal. Los antecedente de un viaje reciente en avión en un paciente con cuadro clínico de intoxicación, pueden justificar la indicación de una radiografía de abdomen como método diagnóstico e incluso la cirugía para limpieza intestinal como parte de su abordaje terapéutico.Most of opioid related deaths for overdose are accidental and are primarily due to intravenous heroin use. Other forms of poisoning may occur in the so called body packers ("mulas", who are used in international drug transportation. These patients generally swallow small quantities of wrapped cocaine or heroin in an attempt to smuggle the drugs across international borders. Their breakage can lead to severe and lethal toxicity. The history of a recent a flight in a patient with a clinical syndrome of poisoning, should justify the indication of abdominal x-rays for diagnosis and also surgery for "intestinal cleaning" as part of his therapeutic approach.

Guillermo Porras-Morales

2004-03-01

341

revelada por marcadores RAPD  

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Full Text Available El manzano (Malus domestica Borkh. es uno de los frutales de clima templado de mayor importancia en México, con 62 000 ha cultivadas en 2003, de las cuales alrededor de 700 se encuentran establecidas en el estado de Querétaro. La anarquía en la introducción de variedades cultivadas e híbridos por parte de los productores y las dependencias de gobierno, ha propiciado el desconocimiento de la identidad algunos de éstos, además, se ignora si los materiales introducidos se encuentran injertados sobre portainjertos clonales resistentes al pulgón lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, plaga importante en la región. Con el fin de evaluar la diversidad genética del manzano, se colectaron 65 muestras que incluyen variedades cultivadas, materiales criollos, híbridos y portainjertos de manzano y se analizaron por medio de marcadores moleculares tipo RAPD (ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar. Se seleccionaron 10 oligonucleótidos para el análisis del ADN. Se amplificaron 113 bandas polimórficas y 29 monomórficas. El análisis de conglomerados mostró que la mayor disimilitud entre genotipos fue de 0.71. Las muestras se separaron en dos conglomerados. El primero incluye casi todas las muestras relacionadas con la variedad `Golden Delicious´, mientras que el segundo grupo incluye la mayoría de las muestras correspondientes a manzanas rojas y portainjertos clonales. Los resultados indican que la diversidad genética del manzano en la región es importante y que el método RAPD permite agrupar genotipos con características comunes, lo que facilitará la identificación genética de variedades.

Azucena del Carmen Gonz\\u00E1lez-Horta

2005-01-01

342

Choque séptico por ehrliquiosis  

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Full Text Available La ehrliquiosis humana es una infección zoonótica transmitida por "garrapatas duras" causada por Anaplasma sp y Ehrlichia sp. Puede presentarse como un cuadro pseudogripal con fiebre, malestar general, mialgias y cefalea o hasta un choque séptico con falla multiorgánica y muerte. La mitad de los pacientes requieren atención hospitalaria en algún momento y se reporta una mortalidad de hasta el 5% secundaria a enfermedades oportunistas o a hemorragias. El diagnóstico se puede sospechar visualizando las mórulas intracitoplasmáticas en las células afectadas en frotis de sangre periférica, y se confirma con serología, con cultivos o con detección molecular. El tratamiento de elección es la doxiciclina con buena respuesta clínica. Se reporta un caso probable de ehrliquiosis humana asociado a choque séptico y falla multiorgánica tratado exitosamente en el Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderón Guardia.Human ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma sp and Ehrlichia sp. The presentation can range from a flu-like syndrome with fever, malaise, myalgia and headache to a septic shock state with multiorganic dysfunction. Half the patients require in- hospital care and the mortality rate is 5% as a result of opportunistic infections or hemorrhage. The diagnosis can be made by the visualization of intracytoplasmatic morulae in the blood smear, serology, cultives or polymerase chain reaction. The treatment of choice is doxycicline and generally carries a good response. We report a case of human ehrlichiosis associated with septic shock and multiorganic dysfunction successfully treated at the Calderon Guardia Hospital.

Viviana Hernández-de Mezerville

2007-04-01

343

¿Por qué estudiamos latin?  

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Full Text Available La defensa corriente del estudio del latín esgrime variados argumentos, no todos atendibles. Es el caso, por ejemplo, de aquel que sostiene que "el latín enseña a pensar", o bien de aquel que exagera el beneficio práctico de esta lengua y reduce a él todas las bondades de su conocimiento. Una saneada apología del estudio del latín, expurgada de excesos e impertinencias, solo puede surgir de una fundada y madura adhesión a los ideales del humanismo, y de una lúcida comprensión de cuáles son las genuinas tareas intelectuales que tienen por delante las humanidades. (Classical defense of Latin studies is based on varied predicaments, not all of them well grounded. There is, for example, the argument that holds that "Latin teaches to think", or that which exaggerates practical benefit of Latin and synthesizes in it all the virtues of knowing it. A sound apology of the study of Latin, free from excesses and inadequacies, can only arise from a solid and mature acceptance of the ideals of Humanism and from a clear understanding of the true intellectual tasks reserved for the humanities.

Antonio Arbea

1999-09-01

344

Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage

345

Identificação determinística por subespaços  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo é apresentada uma visão geral sobre o problema de identificação por subespaços em malha aberta. Existem diversos algoritmos que solucionam este problema (MOESP, DSR, N4SID, CVA). Baseado nos métodos MOESP e N4SID os autores apresentam um algoritmo alternativo para identificar sistemas d [...] eterminísticos operando em malha aberta. Dois processos simulados, um SISO e um MIMO são usados para mostrar o desempenho deste algoritmo. Abstract in english This paper presents an overview of the subspa e identif ation problem in open loop. There are several algorithms that solve this problem (MOESP, DSR, N4SID, CVA). Based on the methods MOESP and N4SID the authors propose an alternative algorithm to identify deterministic systems operating in open loo [...] p. Two simulated process, one SISO and one MIMO are used to show the performance of this algorithm.

S.D.M., Borjas; C., Garcia.

2012-12-01

346

Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada  

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Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

2009-07-01

347

Autoagresión por quemaduras  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal en los casos de autoagresión por quemaduras, que acudieron al Cuerpo de Guardia del Servicio de Quemados del Hospital "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna", durante el período comprendido entre los meses de febrero de 1993 y febrero de 1994, con la finalidad de determinar el comportamiento de algunas variables de interés en estos casos. El universo de estudio lo constituyeron 57 casos, cuya información se recolectó de la gráfica general del paciente quemado (Modelo 71-05 y de los registros estadísticos del Servicio de Quemados del Hospital. Como fundamentales resultados y conclusiones se obtienen las siguientes: la mayor frecuencia de casos se encontró en las edades comprendidas entre 15 y 24 años; el sexo femenino resultó ser el más afectado en todos los grupos de edades. La cocina fue el lugar donde se efectuó el acto con mayor frecuencia. Se encontró un alto grado de asociación entre la supervivencia y la presencia de antecedentes de intentos suicidas. Presentaron la mayor incidencia por municipios los de Puerto Padre y Jobabo; el alcohol y el kerosene fueron los agentes causales más utilizados. En la casuística predominaron los grandes quemados.A transversal epidemiological study of the cases of self-aggression by burns, who received medical attention at the Emergency Department of the Burns Service of the "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna" Hospital from February, 1993 to February, 1994, was carried out aimed at determining the behaviour of some variables of interest in these cases. Fifty seven cases were studied and the information was collected from the general graph of the burn patient (Model 71-05, and from the statistical records of the Burns Service of the hospital. The main results and conclusions reached are the following: the highest frequency of cases was found in ages between 15 and 24; women were the most affected in all age groups; and kitchen was the place where the self-aggression was committed most of the times. A high degree of association between survival and the presence of previous suicide attempts was detected. Puerto Padre and Jobabo were the municipalities with greatest incidence; whereas alcohol and kerosene were the most used agents. Deep burns predominate in the casuistics.

Iris Montes de Oca

1996-04-01

348

Nefropatía por IGA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La bibliografía correspondiente a los últimos años se consultó con el objetivo de profundizar en el estudio de la nefropatía IgA y se revisaron las características patogénicas y clinicopatogénicas de la enfermedad, así como su abordaje terapéutico. La nefropatí [...] a IgA se reconoce como la causa más común de enfermedad glomerular y fueron la hematuria recurrente y la presencia de depósitos de IgA en el mesangio, los signos clínicos y patológicos más característicos de esta enfermedad. La nefropatía IgA no es una afección benigna, su evolución es crónica y progresiva. La proteinuria es un indicador de mal pronóstico y no existe un tratamiento específico eficaz para ella por lo que constituye un reto para el futuro. Abstract in english A literature review was made. Literature issued in the last few years was consulted to go deep into the study of IgA nephropathy and the pathogenic and clinicopathogenic characteristics of the disease and its therapy approach were analyzed. IgA nephropathy is known as the most common cause of glomer [...] ular disease, being recurrent hematuria and existence of IgA deposits in the mesangium the most characteristic clinical and pathological signs of the disease. IgA nephropathy is not a bening affection with a chronic and progressive course. Proteinuria is a bad prognosis but there is not any specific efficient treatment for the disease, therefore, this is a challenge for the future.

Oria, González García; Saylí, Álvarez Díaz; Mercedes, Morell Contreras; Digna Ma., Espinosa López.

2000-09-01

349

Síndrome DRESS por carbamazepina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El síndrome DRESS (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) es una reacción adversa grave a medicamentos. Consiste en una erupción cutánea, acompañada de fiebre, compromiso multivisceral y eosinofilia. Con una incidencia de 1/10.000 en individuos expuestos a los fármacos implicados y con u [...] na mortalidad de un 10%-30% de los casos. Se presenta un caso clínico de una niña de 12 años, epiléptica, que a las 4 semanas de iniciar tratamiento con carbamazepina presenta fiebre y odinofagia, agregando exantema cutáneo con compromiso sistémico. Se realizó diagnóstico de síndrome DRESS, con buena respuesta al tratamiento instaurado. El síndrome DRESS es una reacción adversa grave, potencialmente mortal, cuyo inicio muchas veces se confunde con cuadros virales, por lo que hay que tener presente este síndrome ante un paciente que inicia tratamiento con anticonvulsivantes y desarrolla exantema febril Abstract in english DRESS syndrome is a severe adverse reaction to drugs. The presentation consists of a skin rash, fever, eosynophilia and multiorganic failure. The incidence is 1/10000 and the mortality rate is between 10 to 30%. A case of a 12 year old epileptic patient who started with fever, sore throat and a skin [...] rash with sistemic compromise after 4 weeks of starting treatment with carbamazepine is presented. DRESS syndrome was diagnosed having a good evolution with the treatment done. DRESS syndrome is a severe adverse reaction, potencially mortal, which can be confused with other causes of skin rash such as viral diseases.Pediatricians should be alert to the symptoms in a children who started taking antiepileptic drugs.

Julio, Magliano; Mariela, Álvarez; Marina, Salmentón.

2009-12-01

350

por inmovilización forzada  

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Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó la capacidad del pirofosfato de tiamina (PPT o vitamina B1 activada, para prevenir el daño que provoca el estrés por inmovilización forzada sobre las neuronas del hipocampo de ratas. Se trabajó con ratas macho de 21 días de edad, que fueron asignadas a cuatro grupos con diez ratas cada uno: Grupo testigo (T, Grupo estrés crónico (EC, Grupo estrés crónico + PPT (EC + PPT y Grupo de pirofosfato de tiamina (PPT. Las variables analizadas fueron: peso corporal, longitud de la dendrita apical, ejes mayor y menor del soma neuronal, así como el promedio de ramifi caciones y de espinas dendríticas. Los resultados muestran disminuciones estadísticamente signifi cativas variables de 20% a 40% en el peso corporal, en todos los grupos respecto del grupo T. Para los niveles de corticosterona sérica se observaron disminuciones estadísticamente signifi cativas de 16.3% en el Grupo EC + PPT y de 20.5% en el Grupo PPT, ambas con respecto al grupo T. En cuanto al diámetro del eje menor, se observó un incremento signifi cativo de 6.5% en el Grupo EC + PPT con respecto al Grupo T; otras disminuciones estadísticamente signifi cativas encontradas fueron: la longitud dendrítica de 32.1% en el Grupo EC con respecto al Grupo T, de 27.2% en el Grupo EC en relación con el Grupo EC + PPT y de 30.2% en el Grupo EC, respecto del PPT. Finalmente, en el número de espinas se encontraron disminuciones estadísticamente signifi cativas de 59.4% en el Grupo EC en relación con el Grupo T, de 50.8% en el Grupo EC con respecto al Grupo EC + PPT, y de 57.7% en el Grupo E, respecto del Grupo PPT. De acuerdo con los resultados, se concluye que el PPT actúa previniendo el incremento de los niveles de corticosterona sérica en ratas con estrés, a las que se les suministró PPT, lo cual preserva la integridad neuronal en las variables estudiadas, como la longitud dendrítica y el promedio de espinas dendríticas.

Gloria Sicilia Argumedo

2007-01-01

351

Por que sou rondoniano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Numa revisão contextualizada no tempo e projetada pelos seus resultados, a obra do sertanista marechal Cândido Rondon (1867-1958) é avaliada positivamente pela dedicação à causa dos povos indígenas do Brasil, pela formação de uma ética de respeito do brasileiro para com os índios e pela instituciona [...] lização do dever do Estado brasileiro de proteger, assistir e ajudar os povos indígenas a manterem-se coesos e autônomos e ao mesmo tempo se projetarem no mundo mais amplo. A vida de Rondon é acompanhada desde a sua formação como cadete da Escola Militar, como membro da Igreja do Apostolado Positivista, como comandante da Expedição Rondon (1907-1930), que levou o telégrafo de Cuiabá a Porto Velho, e especialmente como criador e dirigente-mor do Serviço de Proteção aos Índios (SPI, 1910-1967). Rondon é o criador da expressão "Morrer se preciso for, matar nunca", que pautou a ação de indigenistas brasileiros que fizeram os primeiros contatos com muitos povos indígenas desde 1910. E muitos morreram seguindo essa norma, numa clara demonstração do novo espírito humanista criado pela atitude rondoniana. O indigenismo brasileiro implantado por Rondon teve altos e baixos ao longo de quase cem anos, que hoje prossegue pela Fundação Nacional do Índio (Funai). De fato, muitos povos indígenas perderam suas terras e muitos foram dizimados no século XX, mas os mais de 220 que sobreviveram vêm crescendo em número, obtendo suas terras (13% do território nacional) e conquistando novos espaços político-culturais no Brasil. Abstract in english This paper reviews the life and work of Brazilian Indianist Marshall Cândido Rondon. Rondon's life is marked by a profound dedication to the Brazilian Indian cause and to instilling in Brazilians a respect for Indian peoples. He influenced the Brazilian government in shaping a policy of protecting, [...] assisting, and helping Indian peoples retain cohesive, self-determined societies. He also encouraged Indians to project their destinies onto a larger political context. The paper follows Rondon during his days as a cadet in the Military School; as a devout member of the Church of the Positivist Apostolate; as commander of the Rondon Expedition (1907-1930), which stretched the telegraph from Cuiabá to Porto Velho; and especially as the founder and leader of the Indian Protection Service (1910-1967). The Indian Protection Service is the precursor to today's National Indian Foundation (Funai), founded in 1967). Rondon is the creator of the expression "Die if you must, never kill" which, since 1910, has served as the motto for many of the Brazilian indianists who made the first contacts with Indian peoples. Many of them died in service for the Indian cause, demonstrating the high purpose of this new kind of humanistic vision. The Indian policy established by Rondon has experienced ups and downs throughout the last 100 years. Indeed, several Indian tribes became extinct and many lost their lands in the 20th Century. However, of the more than 220 tribes that survive today the vast majority are growing in numbers, have had most of their lands demarcated (amounting to 13% of the Brazilian territory) and are conquering space in the Brazilian cultural-political panorama.

Mércio Pereira, Gomes.

352

Por que sou rondoniano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numa revisão contextualizada no tempo e projetada pelos seus resultados, a obra do sertanista marechal Cândido Rondon (1867-1958 é avaliada positivamente pela dedicação à causa dos povos indígenas do Brasil, pela formação de uma ética de respeito do brasileiro para com os índios e pela institucionalização do dever do Estado brasileiro de proteger, assistir e ajudar os povos indígenas a manterem-se coesos e autônomos e ao mesmo tempo se projetarem no mundo mais amplo. A vida de Rondon é acompanhada desde a sua formação como cadete da Escola Militar, como membro da Igreja do Apostolado Positivista, como comandante da Expedição Rondon (1907-1930, que levou o telégrafo de Cuiabá a Porto Velho, e especialmente como criador e dirigente-mor do Serviço de Proteção aos Índios (SPI, 1910-1967. Rondon é o criador da expressão "Morrer se preciso for, matar nunca", que pautou a ação de indigenistas brasileiros que fizeram os primeiros contatos com muitos povos indígenas desde 1910. E muitos morreram seguindo essa norma, numa clara demonstração do novo espírito humanista criado pela atitude rondoniana. O indigenismo brasileiro implantado por Rondon teve altos e baixos ao longo de quase cem anos, que hoje prossegue pela Fundação Nacional do Índio (Funai. De fato, muitos povos indígenas perderam suas terras e muitos foram dizimados no século XX, mas os mais de 220 que sobreviveram vêm crescendo em número, obtendo suas terras (13% do território nacional e conquistando novos espaços político-culturais no Brasil.This paper reviews the life and work of Brazilian Indianist Marshall Cândido Rondon. Rondon's life is marked by a profound dedication to the Brazilian Indian cause and to instilling in Brazilians a respect for Indian peoples. He influenced the Brazilian government in shaping a policy of protecting, assisting, and helping Indian peoples retain cohesive, self-determined societies. He also encouraged Indians to project their destinies onto a larger political context. The paper follows Rondon during his days as a cadet in the Military School; as a devout member of the Church of the Positivist Apostolate; as commander of the Rondon Expedition (1907-1930, which stretched the telegraph from Cuiabá to Porto Velho; and especially as the founder and leader of the Indian Protection Service (1910-1967. The Indian Protection Service is the precursor to today's National Indian Foundation (Funai, founded in 1967. Rondon is the creator of the expression "Die if you must, never kill" which, since 1910, has served as the motto for many of the Brazilian indianists who made the first contacts with Indian peoples. Many of them died in service for the Indian cause, demonstrating the high purpose of this new kind of humanistic vision. The Indian policy established by Rondon has experienced ups and downs throughout the last 100 years. Indeed, several Indian tribes became extinct and many lost their lands in the 20th Century. However, of the more than 220 tribes that survive today the vast majority are growing in numbers, have had most of their lands demarcated (amounting to 13% of the Brazilian territory and are conquering space in the Brazilian cultural-political panorama.

Mércio Pereira Gomes

2009-01-01

353

Aborto eqüino por Leptospira sp.  

OpenAIRE

Descreve-se um caso de aborto eqüino por Leptospira sp. em um feto de 6 meses proveniente de um estabelecimento localizado próximo a Porto Alegre/RS. As lesões macroscópicas se caracterizaram por icterícia e hemorragias distribuídas difusamente sobre a pele, mucosa oral, tecido subcutâneo, pulmão, coração e sistema gastrintestinal. O fígado estava aumentado de tamanho, friável e de coloração amarelada. Os rins apresentavam hemorragias petequiais na superfície capsular e na supe...

Pescador Caroline Argenta; Corbellini Luís Gustavo; Loretti Alexandre Paulino; Wunder Júnior Elsio; Frantz Fernanda Junges; Driemeier David

2004-01-01

354

Internamentos por Linfadenite Cervical num Serviço de Pediatria Geral / Admissions for cervical lymphadenitis in a General Paediatrics Unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introdução: A Linfadenite Cervical (LAC) é uma entidade comum na idade pediátrica. As formas agudas bilaterais são as mais frequentes, de etiologia viral e autolimitadas. As agudas unilaterais são habitualmente bacterianas, provocadas pelo Streptococcus pyogenes e Staphylococcus aureus. Nas subaguda [...] s/crónicas a Bartonella, as Mycobacteria e o Toxoplasma devem ser etiologias consideradas. Objetivos: Caracterização de população de crianças internadas numa enfermagem de Pediatria Geral por LAC. Material e métodos: Estudo comparativo retrospetivo de uma amostra de conveniência que inclui as crianças internadas, entre Março de 1999 e Fevereiro de 2010. Resultados e Discussão: Identificaram-se 61 crianças, 88,5% do sexo feminino. A LAC aguda correspondeu a 88,5% dos casos, das quais 57,4% foram unilaterais. A forma subaguda/crónica ocorreu em 11,5%. A idade nas formas agudas foi significativamente inferior à das subagudas/crónicas (p=0,034). A etiologia bacteriana equivaleu a 96,7% sendo as restantes, uma mononucleose infeciosa e uma toxoplasmose ganglionar. O S. aureus e S. pyogenes corresponderam a 66,6% dos agentes bacterianos isolados. Identificaram-se três casos de LAC por Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dois por Bartonella henselae e dois por Ricketsia conorii. As infeções prévias da cabeça e pescoço estiveram presentes em 27 (44,3%). Documentaram-se infeções virais predisponentes em cinco casos. As localizações cervical e submandibular foram as mais frequentes, 47,5% e 44,3%, respetivamente. Evidenciou-se febre em 85,2% das crianças, sintomas regionais (torcicolo e trismos) em 45% e flutuação em 29%. Houve necessidade de drenagem cirúrgica em 24,6% dos doentes, em seis (9,8%) realizou-se citologia aspirativa e em 45 exames de imagem. A leucocitose (>15000/?L) e a proteína C reativa positiva (>3,0 mg/dL) verificaram-se em 83,6% e 65,5% dos casos, respetivamente. O S. pyogenes e o S. aureus cursaram com mais sinais inflamatórios e maior necessidade de drenagem cirúrgica (p=0,01). Os antibióticos foram utilizados em todos os doentes sendo o mais frequente a amoxicilina/ácido clavulânico (57,3%). A flucloxacilina administrou-se em 19,7% dos casos. A evolução foi favorável em todos os casos. Conclusão: O diagnóstico etiológico da LAC não é fácil na maioria dos casos. Embora a grande maioria das crianças com LAC não seja internada, existem alguns casos que, pela necessidade de investigação complementar ou de tratamento o sejam. Portugal é um país de média incidência de Tuberculose pelo que esta doença deve ser considerada, com especial atenção para a emergência de M. tuberculosis multirresistentes. Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical lymphadenitis (CL) is a common condition in children. Acute bilateral CL is the most frequent presentation, usually self-limited and caused by virus. Acute unilateral CL is commonly bacterial, most frequently caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Bartonel [...] la, Mycobacteria and Toxoplasma must be considered when the CL is subacute/chronic. Objective: Characterization of children with CL hospitalized in a paediatric unit. Population and methods: Retrospective comparative study of a convenience sample that includes inpatient children, between March 1999 and February 2010. Results and Discussion: Sixty-one patients were identified, 88,5% female. All CL were infectious. Acute CL was observed in 88,5% of cases (57,4% unilateral and 31,1% bilateral). Subacute/chronic CL occurred in 11,5%. The average age in acute cases was significantly lower than in subacute /chronic ones (p=0,034). Bacterial CL occurred in 96,7% and the remaining cases included infectious mononucleosis (n=1) and ganglionar toxoplasmosis (n=1). S. aureus and S. pyogenes were isolated in 66,6% of the patients. In addition, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in three cases, Bartonella henselae in two and Ricketsia conorii in two. Previous head and neck infections were found in 27 patients (44,3%) with CL. Precedi

David, Lito; Diana, Pignatelli; Ana Sofia, Simões; Alexandra, Carvalho; Florbela, Cunha.

2013-12-01

355

Mortalidad por envenenamiento en niños  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer el panorama de las muertes por envenenamiento en niños de 0-14 años ocurridas en la República mexicana, entre 1979 y 1994. Material y métodos. Se utilizaron fuentes secundarias. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, año, causa externa de traumatismos y envenenamientos, de la IX Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades: E850-E858, E860-E869 y E905. Mediante un modelo de regresión Poisson se analizaron tendencias por causa específica y se obtuvieron riesgos relativos según edad, sexo y entidad federativa. Resultados. Hubo un total de 11 272 defunciones en menores de 15 años; las principales causas fueron el envenenamiento y las reacciones tóxicas causadas por plantas y animales venenosos (E905, el envenenamiento accidental por gas de uso doméstico y por monóxido de carbono (E868 y el envenenamiento accidental por otras drogas (E858. El grupo de edad que presentó los mayores riesgos, para las causas mencionadas, fue el de menores de un año con un riesgo relativo (RR de 29.6, IC95% 29.2-33.4; RR 3.47, IC95% 2.86-4.22, y RR 31.86, IC95% 24.8-40.9. El riesgo fue similar en ambos sexos, salvo para la causa E905. El estado de Aguascalientes se situó sistemáticamente entre los de mayor riesgo para todas las causas analizadas, mientras que Nuevo León siempre se ubicó entre los de riesgo más bajo. Conclusiones. El envenenamiento constituye una importante causa de muerte en los niños; el riesgo se incrementa al disminuir la edad. Considerando que esas muertes son potencialmente evitables y que la mayor parte de los envenenamientos ocurren en el hogar, para prevenirlos, se recomienda a los familiares vigilar y mantener fuera de peligro al niño. Por otra parte, la multicausalidad del fenómeno requiere que su prevención se realice desde una perspectiva multidisciplinaria que genere una cultura y un ambiente de seguridad en la sociedad.

Híjar Martha

1998-01-01

356

Tuberculosis miliar, ganglionar, pancreática y costal: Presentación clínica y revisión bibliográfica / Miliary, ganglionar, pancreatic and costal tuberculosis: Clinical presentation and bibliography review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta un paciente de 42 años que ingresa en nuestro hospital con fiebre, dolor abdominal y patrón radiológico miliar. Tenía un aumento de amilasemia y amilasuria y de la lipasa sérica. El mantoux era negativo. En el estudio de TAC había engrosamiento costal, lesiones hepáticas focales múltiple [...] s y adenopatías necrosadas en zona peripancreática. Las biopsias transbronquiales y la punción pancreática mostraron lesiones granulomatosas necrotizantes, cultivándose M. tuberculosis complex en el broncoaspirado. El tratamiento específico normalizó todas las alteraciones pulmonares, costales y pancreáticas. Abstract in english A 42-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with fever, abdominal pain and miliary radiological pattern.The amylase and lipase in serum, and the amylase in urine were increased. The tuberculin skin test was negative. The thoracic and abdominal CT scan showed costal afectation, multiple focal hepa [...] tic lesions and large necrosing peripancreatic lymphadenopathies. The transbronchial biopsy and the pancreatic punction demostrated granulomatous necrotic lesions, and M. tuberculosis growed in the bronchial washing culture. The specific treatment normalized the pulmonary, costal and pancreatic lesions.

I., Inchaurraga Álvarez; A., Herrejón Silvestre; P., Plaza Valía; R., Blanquer Olivas.

2001-09-01

357

DETECCCIÓN DE Anaplasma marginale EN BOVINOS, MEDIANTE LA AMPLIFICACIÓN POR PCR DEL GEN msp5 / DETECTION OF Anaplasma marginale IN BOVINE, USING THE msp5 GENE AMPLIFICATION BY PCR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Anaplasma marginale es una rickettsia del genogrupo II de las Ehrlichias, que parasita los eritrocitos maduros del ganado bovino. Hasta el momento no se cuenta con un método de control eficaz contra la enfermedad, por lo que resulta de gran importancia desarrollar un inmunógeno capaz de prevenir la [...] infección con este patógeno. A esto se le agrega la necesidad de contar con técnicas de diagnóstico más sensibles para ser utilizadas en el movimiento internacional de ganado hacia zonas libres de la enfermedad, que permitan la detección de animales portadores, así como para conocer la prevalencia de la enfermedad en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales. El gen msp5 está representado en el genoma como una simple copia, altamente conservado entre todas las especies de Anaplasma y todas las cepas de A. marginale, por lo que resulta un importante candidato para ser utilizado en el diagnóstico. En el presente trabajo se realizó la amplificación por PCR de dicho gen para la detección de Anaplasma marginale en 113 animales sin síntomas clínicos de la enfermedad, de los cuales 96 resultaron positivos para Anaplasma marginale, resultando el ensayo altamente sensible y específico. Abstract in english Anaplasma marginale is a rickettsia of Ehrlichias genogroup II. It parasites mature erythrocytes in bovines. There is not still an effective control method against the disease; thus it is of great importance to develop an immunogene able to prevent infection by this pathogen. There is also a need of [...] having more sensitive diagnostic techniques which allow the detection of carrier animals in order to be used in cattle international movement towards areas free of the disease; as well as to know the prevalence of the disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Gene msp5 is represented in the genome as a simple copy; it is highly preserved among all Anaplasma species and all A. marginale strains; thus it is an important candidate for being used in diagnostic. In this paper, the amplification by PCR of such gene was carried out for the detection of Anaplasma marginale in 113 animals without clinical symptoms, from which 96 were positive to this microorganism, being the assay highly sensitive and specific.

Belkis, Corona; Siomara, Martínez.

2011-04-01

358

Desajuste educativo por regiones en Colombia: ¿competencia por salarios o por puestos de trabajo?  

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Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación,
entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado
por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se
desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de
puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las
contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se
examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste
educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y
nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis
para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento
del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

Castillo Caicedo Maribel

2007-08-01

359

Utopias por um mundo melhor  

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Full Text Available Este artigo pretende trazer uma contribuição para a discussão sobre o conceito de utopia, através de uma análise histórica das diferentes formas de literatura utópica. Traça, por isso, um amplo panorama, que vai das origens do imaginário utópico até o seu desenvolvimento entre iluministas e revolucionários europeus, como Morelly e Babeuf.

Adalmir Leonidio