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Sample records for ganglionar por rickettsia

  1. Enfermedades ganglionares

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    Pantoja, César A.

    2011-01-01

    Vamos a considerar las alteraciones patológicas del sistema ganglionar linfático, haciendo su estudio con los métodos de patología clínica, es decir, considerando las diversas enfermedades que pueden ocurrir en el sistema, a través del diagnóstico diferencial de los casos presentados.

  2. Tuberculosis ganglionar cervical

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    Osmany Leonel Mendoza Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una enfermedad reemergente en la actual sociedad globalizada y puede presentarse prácticamente ante cualquier especialista. Las formas extrapulmonares pueden representar hasta la cuarta parte de los casos, y entre ellos la afectación ganglionar se ubica entre las más frecuentes. Se reportan dos pacientes estudiados y tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital General de Bata, Litoral de Guinea Ecuatorial, África Central, afectados por tumoraciones laterocervicales subagudas, con escasos síntomas y excelente evolución, tras su diagnóstico de tuberculosis ganglionar cervical y terapéutica antibiótica. Aunque la punción y aspiración con aguja fina no fue concluyente, ambos casos resultaron positivos por medio de la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen

  3. Micosis ganglionar: reporte de 7 casos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia Lima-Per y revisin de la literatura

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    Fernando Osores Plenge

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las caractersticas clnicas, micolgicas e histopatolgicas de una serie de pacientes con micosis ganglionar y determinar si las afecciones ganglionares por hongos o micosis ganglionares pueden imitar otras patologas ganglionares infecciosas y no infecciosas. Material y Mtodos: Se evaluaron 154 pacientes atendidos en el Departamento de enfermedades infecciosas y transmisibles del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima entre enero del 2003 y enero del 2004. Estos pacientes participaron en un estudio de validacin de una prueba diagnstica para tuberculosis ganglionar pero tuvieron un diagnstico definido de micosis ganglionar. Resultados: De 154 pacientes con linfadenopata evaluados durante el tiempo de estudio, 7 tuvieron micosis ganglionar, dos de ellos eran pacientes inmunocompetentes y los cinco restantes inmunosuprimidos, uno por linfoma y los otros por VIH. Conclusiones: Las afecciones ganglionares por hongos o micosis ganglionares pueden ser grandes imitadoras de otras patologas ganglionares infecciosas y no infecciosas. (Rev Med Hered 2004;15:211-217.

  4. Pancreatoduodenectoma durante el embarazo por adenocarcinoma de ampolla de Vater y posterior reseccin de recurrencia ganglionar con buen resultado a corto y largo plazo / Pancreatoduodenectomy for ampullary adenocarcinoma and and re-intervention for ganglinonar recurrency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo, Reao Paredes; Jos, De Vinatea De Crdenas; Fernando, Revoredo Rego; Fritz, Kometter Barrios; Luis, Villanueva Alegre; Jos, Arenas Gamio; Mnica, Uribe Len.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mujer de 30 aos con 13 semanas de su segunda gestacin que se present con sntomas de anemia severa, hemorragia digestiva alta, dolor epigstrico y baja de peso. Mediante endoscopa alta se diagnostic un adenocarcinoma bien diferenciado de ampolla de Vater. Se le practic pancreato-duodenectoma [...] a las 16 semanas de su embarazo sin complicaciones. Durante el seguimiento se identific recurrencia ganglionar loco-regional 4 meses despus por lo que se le realiz parto por cesrea a las 34 semanas con neonato saludable de 2500 gr. Se decidi reintervencin para reseccin de enfermedad ganglionar la cual se realiz con xito. Lleva 36 meses de seguimiento sin evidencia de recidiva de la enfermedad. Su hija ha tenido un desarrollo normal. Abstract in english A 30 years old woman in the 13 week of her second pregnancy who had severe anemia, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and weight loss. She was given the endoscopic diagnosis of a well differentiated ampullary adenocarcinoma. She underwent a pancreato duodenectomy during the 16 week of pregnancy without [...] complications. After 4 months of follow up we identified a ganglionar local recurrence so thats why she underwent a cesarean in the 34 week of pregnancy. The product was a healthy 2500 gr. newborn. We decided a reoperation for the resection of the recurrence and it was carried out successfully. Currently the patient has 36 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence and her baby has a normal grow up.

  5. Infección por rickettsia en capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris de São Paulo, Brasil: evidencia serológica de infección por Rickettsia bellii y Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsial infection in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from São Paulo, Brazil: serological evidence for infection by Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia parkeri

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    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En Brasil, los capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris son importantes huéspedes para garrapatas del género Amblyomma, las cuales transmiten rickettsiosis a humanos y animales. Por lo tanto, estos roedores pueden ser potenciales centinelas para detectar infección por rickettsia.
    Objetivos. Este trabajo evaluó la infección por rickettsia en capibaras de diferentes regiones del estado de São Paulo, donde las rickettsiosis nunca han sido reportadas.
    Materiales y métodos. Se examinarion los sueros de 73 capibaras de seis localidades en São Paulo con la prueba de immunofluorescencia indirecta con antígenos de Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri y Rickettsia bellii. Los bazos de los capibaras se extrajeron y se analizaron por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para un fragmento del gene gltA de rickettsia. Las garrapatas se recolectaron de los capibaras y se identificaron hasta especie.
    Resultados. Diecinueve (26,0%, 25 (34,2% y 50 (68,5% sueros de los capibaras reaccionaron con R. rickettsii, R. parkeri y R. bellii, respectivamente. De los 50 sueros que reaccionaron con antígenos de R. bellii, 25 presentaron títulos, por lo menos, cuatro veces mayores que los otros dos antígenos. Estos sueros fueron considerados homólogos de R. bellii. Usando el mismo
    criterio, tres sueros de los capibaras se consideraron homólogos de R. parkeri. Ningún suero se consideró homólogo de R. rickettsii. No se detectó ADN de rickettsia en bazo. Las garrapatas
    recolectadas de los capibaras fueron identificadas como Amblyomma dubitatum y Amblyomma cajennense.
    Conclusiones. Este trabajo reporta la primera evidencia de infección natural por R. bellii en vertebrados y, también, la primera evidencia de infección por R. parkeri en capibaras. Se sabe que R. parkeri infecta y produce enfermedad en humanos; sin embargo, no hay evidencia de infección humana por R. bellii.Introduction. In Brazil, capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris are important hosts for Amblyomma ticks, which in turn can transmit rickettsiae to humans and animals. Therefore, capybaras are potential sentinels for rickettsial infection.
    Objective. The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in capybaras in different areas of the state of São Paulo, where rickettsiosis has never been reported.
    Materials and methods. Blood sera from 73 capybaras from six localities in São Paulo were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay using Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia bellii antigens. Capybara spleens were tested by PCR, targeting a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Ticks were collected from each capybara sample and taxonomically identified to species.
    Results. A total of 94 positively reacting capybara samples, 19 (26.0%, 25 (34.2%, and 50 (68.5% capybara sera reacted to R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. bellii, respectively. Twenty-five capybara sera showed titers to R. bellii at least four-fold higher than to any of the other two antigens. These sera were considered homologous to R. bellii. Using the same criteria, 3 capybara sera were considered homologous to R. parkeri. No sera were be considered homologous to R. rickettsii. No rickettsial DNA was detected in capybara spleen samples. Ticks collected on capybaras were Amblyomma dubitatum and Amblyomma cajennense.
    Conclusions. The first evidence is reported of R. bellii natural infection in vertebrate hosts, and the first evidence of R. parkeri infection in capybaras. While R. parkeri is known to infect and cause disease in humans, no similar evidence for human infection has been indicated by R. bellii.

  6. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay / Rickettsia parkeri: patgeno rickettsial transmitido por garrapatas en reas endmicas de rickettsiosis por fiebre manchada en el sur de Uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jos M., Venzal; Agustn, Estrada-Pea; Arnzazu, Portillo; Atilio J., Mangold; Oscar, Castro; Carlos G. De, Souza; Mara L., Flix; Laura, Prez-Martnez; Sonia, Santibnez; Jos A., Oteo.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, Rickettsia conorii fue sealada como el agente causal de la fiebre manchada en Uruguay, diagnosticada mediante pruebas serolgicas. Posteriormente, Rickettsia parkeri fue detectada mediante tcnicas moleculares en garrapatas Amblyomma triste colectadas sobre humanos. El vector natural [...] de R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, no ha sido estudiado en cuanto a rickettsias en Uruguay. Para abordar este tema, 180 R. sanguineus fueron colectados sobre perros y 245 A. triste sobre vegetacin en tres localidades consideradas endmicas para fiebres manchadas en el sur de Uruguay. El ADN de las garrapatas fue extrado en pools y sometido a una primera PCR utilizando cebadores que amplifican un fragmento del gen gltA, presente en prcticamente todas las especies de Rickettsia. Las muestras positivas fueron sometidas a una segunda PCR con cebadores que amplifican un fragmento del gen ompA, presente slo en rickettsias del grupo de las fiebres manchadas (GFM). No se detect ADN rickettsial en R. sanguineus. Sin embargo, muestras de A. triste fueron positivas a rickettsiales en dos de las tres localidades estudiadas, con prevalencias de pools positivos del 11.8 y 37.5% respectivamente. La secuenciacin del ADN evidenci la presencia de R. parkeri. Basados en estos resultados junto a los anteriores y la agresividad de A. triste hacia los humanos, se concluye que esta garrapata es vector de rickettsiosis humana por R. parkeri en Uruguay. Abstract in english At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been [...] studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging) collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.

  7. Fiebre manchada por rickettsias en el Delta del Paraná: Una enfermedad emergente Rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta: An emerging disease

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    Alfredo Seijo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comunica un caso de fiebre manchada por rickettsia autóctono del delta del Paraná correspondiente a la provincia de Buenos Aires. Luego de cinco días de haber permanecido en una región cercana a la localidad de ingeniero Otamendi, partido de Campana, el paciente presentó un síndrome febril agudo caracterizado por hipertermia con escalofríos y sudoración, mialgias, cefalea, astenia y discreta odinofagia, seguido a las 72 horas por un exantema maculopapuloso congestivo con elementos purpúricos, de distribución universal. En la región preauricular izquierda se observaba una lesión papuloerosiva, producida cinco días antes de iniciada la fiebre por una garrapata adquirida en el lugar. El cuadro clínico remitió rápidamente con la administración de doxiciclina. Por inmunofluorescencia indirecta se identificaron anticuerpos reactivos contra el grupo de rickettsias causantes de fiebres manchadas (CDC, Atlanta, EE.UU.. Se realizan consideraciones sobre la especie de rickettsia, el vector involucrado y la posibilidad que la enfermedad fuera debida a Rickettsia parkeri.We describe a case of rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta region of Buenos Aires province in Argentina. The patient developed an acute febrile syndrome characterized by myalgias, headache, asthenia and moderate odynophagia, followed by a diffuse macular, papular, and purpuric exanthema. The patient had been bitten recently by a tick on the left preauricular region and an erosive papular lesion was evident at the bite site. An indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay identified antibodies reactive with spotted fever group rickettsiae in the patient's serum. The patient improved rapidly with doxycycline. Several considerations relating to the identity of the rickettsial species and tick vector are discussed, including the possibility that this patient's illness may have been caused by Rickettsia parkeri.

  8. Utilizacin del aclaramiento ganglionar Use of lymphatic node clearance

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    Sebastin Quintero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El aclaramiento ganglionar es una tcnica por medio de la cual se logra disolver la emulsin y decolorar los tejidos grasos corporales con el fin de identificar fcilmente las estructuras ganglionares. Mediante esta tcnica se logr identificar hasta el 100% de los ganglios adicionales en el estudio de las piezas anatomopatolgicas de cncer colorrectal. La tcnica tuvo una importancia trascendental en el subgrupo de pacientes con tratamiento neoadyuvante que es el de mayor dificultad en el estudio convencional de patologa. El 94% de los ganglios identificados con el aclaramiento eran menores de 5 mm. Existi un cambio de estadificacin en 10% de los casos incluidos en el estudio piloto.Lymphatic node clearance is the technique that dissolves the emulsion and removes the color of the fat tissues for the easy identification of lymph node structures. By means of this technique it has been possible to identify up to 100% of the additional nodes in the study of colorectal cancer specimens. This technique has had capital importance in the subgroup of patients having neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the one that poses greater difficulties in the pathology study. 94% of nodes identified by the clearance method were 5 mm or less in diameter. Change in staging occurred in 10% of the cases included in this pilot study.

  9. Larvas migrans ganglionar: Presentacin de un caso

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    Mara del Carmen Luis lvarez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestacin con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre ms frecuentemente en nios menores de 10 aos. Se presenta el caso de un nio de 8 aos de edad en el cual se diagnostic larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiolgicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clnico y evolucin. Se hace nfasis en las medidas higinicas sanitarias de control y manipulacin de excretas de animales domsticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.Visceral larvae migrans caused by the infestation with larvae of toxocara canis or cati are more frequent among children under 10. The case of an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed ganglionar larva migrans is presented. Comments are made on some etioepidemiological aspects of the disease, as well as on his clinical picture and evolution. Emphasis is made on the hygienic and sanitary measures of control and manipulation of stools from pegs as dogs and cats. Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestacin con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre ms frecuentemente en nios menores de 10 aos. Se presenta el caso de un nio de 8 aos de edad en el cual se diagnostic larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiolgicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clnico y evolucin. se hace nfasis en las medidas higinicas sanitarias de control y manipulacin de excretas de animales domsticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.

  10. Serological evidence of Rickettsia parkeri as the etiological agent of rickettsiosis in Uruguay Evidência sorológica de Rickettsia parkeri como agente etiológico de rickettsiose no Uruguai

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    Ismael A. Conti-Díaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report three new rickettsiosis human cases in Uruguay. The three clinical cases presented clinical manifestations similar to previous reported cases of Rickettsia parkeri in the United States; that is mild fever (São relatados três novos casos humanos de rickettsiose no Uruguai. Os três casos clínicos apresentam manifestações clínicas semelhantes às descritas em casos de infecção por Rickettsia parkeri previamente relatados nos Estados Unidos, tais como: febre moderada (< 40 ºC, mal-estar, cefaléia, exantema, escara de inoculação no sítio de fixação do carrapato, linfadenopatia regional e ausência de letalidade. Testes sorológicos de absorção de anticorpos com antígenos de R. parkeri e Rickettsia rickettsii, associados à reação de imunofluorescência indireta, sugerem que os pacientes de dois casos foram infectados por R. parkeri. Evidências clínicas e epidemiológicas, associadas com nossas análises sorológicas, sugerem que R. parkeri é o agente etiológico de casos humanos de febre maculosa no Uruguai, uma doença que tem sido reconhecida naquele país como rickettsiose cutâneo-ganglionar.

  11. Fiebre manchada por Rickettsia rickettsii en las Américas: un problema creciente de salud pública

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    Gerardo Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento epidemiológico de la fiebre manchada por Rickettsia rickettsii constituye un desafío para los sistemas de salud del continente americano. Es un padecimiento de relevancia médica por la letalidad que provoca si no es diagnosticado ni tratado oportunamente. Aunque cualquier persona es susceptible a la infección, algunos grupos poblacionales son más vulnerables debido a un mayor contacto con la garrapata transmisora, entre ellos los niños, quienes tienen mayor morbilidad por lo que se asocian con resultados fatales. En su origen participa una multitud de factores biológicos, ecológicos y sociales, interrelacionados complejamente, y cuyo abordaje requiere de intervenciones integradas y multidisciplinarias. La incidencia de la enfermedad puede continuar aumentando en la región, de modo que su ocurrencia actual constituye un llamado urgente para la acción regional. Acciones preventivas que disminuyan el contacto con garrapatas e incrementen la sospecha temprana de la enfermedad, son prioritarias en la agenda de salud de varias naciones de las Américas.

  12. Surveillance of Rickettsia sp. infection in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris a potential model of epidemiological alert in endemic areas Vigilancia de la infección por Rickettsia sp. en capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris un modelo potencial de alerta epidemiológica en zonas endémicas

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    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris are considered amplifying hosts of Rickettsia sp. These rodents are usually parasitized by the tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, the main vector of rickettsioses in humans and animals in South America. Capybaras can be used as sentinels in detection of circulation of rickettsiae.
    Objective. Antibodies to rickettsiae of spotted fever group were detected in capybaras in a rural area of Cordoba Province, northern Colombia.
    Materials and methods. Sera were analyzed from 36 capybaras in a rural area of Monteria (village of San Jeronimo in Córdoba. For the detection of IgG antibodies, indirect immunofluorescence was performed. The antigens were derived from R. rickettsia strain Taiaçu isolated in Brazil. Capybara sera were diluted 1:64 for IFA analysis. Ticks were collected from each capybara (also known as chigüiro and identified to species.
    Results. The seroprevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was 22% (8 capybaras. Four sera had a titer of 1:64, 3 had a titer of 1:128 and one serum had a titer of 1:512. All ticks removed from the capybaras (n=933 were taxonomically identified as Amblyomma cajennense.
    Conclusion. Colombia has areas endemic for rickettsioses, as indicated by confirmed annual outbreaks. The current study reports the first evidence of natural rickettsial infection of the spotted fever group in capybaras from Colombia. The findings suggest that capybaras can be used as sentinels for the circulation of rickettsiae and can identify endemic areas for the transmission of rickettsial diseases.

    Introducción. Los capibaras o chigüiros (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris son huéspedes amplificadores de Rickettsia sp. Usualmente se encuentran parasitados por la garrapata Amblyomma cajennense, principal vector de rickettsiosis en Suramérica. Los capibaras pueden ser usados como potenciales centinelas de la circulación de rickettsias.
    Objetivo. Detectar anticuerpos contra Rickettsia sp. del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en capibaras de una zona rural del municipio de Montería, departamento de Córdoba.
    Material y métodos. Se analizaron 36 sueros de capibaras de una zona rural de Montería (vereda San Jerónimo en Córdoba. Para la detección de anticuerpos IgG se practicó inmunofluorescencia indirecta, que utilizó antígenos de la cepa Taiaçu de Rickettsia rickettsii de Brasil. Los sueros de los capibaras fueron diluidos 1:64. Se capturaron las garrapatas que se encontraban parasitando los capibaras y se clasificaron hasta su especie.
    Resultados. La seroprevalencia contra Rickettsia sp. del grupo de la fiebres manchadas encontrada fue de 22 % (8 capibaras; se encontraron cuatro sueros con título de 1:64, tres sueros con título 1:128 y un suero presentó titulación de 1:512. Todas las garrapatas (n=933 fueron identificadas taxonómicamente como A. cajennense.
    Conclusión. En Colombia existen zonas endémicas de rickettsiosis y la aparición de brotes anuales lo confirma (Necoclí, 2006; Los Córdobas, 2007, y Altos de Mulatos, 2008. El presente estudio reporta por primera vez la presencia de infección natural por rickettsia del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en capibaras de Colombia. Los hallazgos sugieren que los capibaras pueden ser usados como potenciales centinelas de la circulación de rickettsias y marcadores de las áreas de riesgo para la transmisión de rickettsiosis.

  13. Study of infection by Rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in humans and ticks in an urban park located in the City of Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil Estudo da infecção por Rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em humanos e carrapatos de um parque urbano na Cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná

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    Roberta Santos Toledo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spotted fevers are emerging zoonoses caused by Rickettsia species in the spotted fever group (SFG. Rickettsia rickettsii is the main etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF and it is transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks. METHODS: The study aimed to investigate SFG rickettsiae in the Arthur Thomas Municipal Park in Londrina, PR, by collecting free-living ticks and ticks from capybaras and blood samples from personnel working in these areas. Samples from A. dubitatum and A. cajennense were submitted for PCR in pools to analyze the Rickettsia spp. gltA (citrate synthase gene. RESULTS: All the pools analyzed were negative. Human sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay with R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Among the 34 sera analyzed, seven (20.6% were reactive for R. rickettsii: four of these had endpoint titers equal to 64, 2 titers were 128 and 1 titer was 256. None of the samples were reactive for R. parkeri. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to the park staff, but no statistically significant associations were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The serological studies suggest the presence of Rickettsiae related to SFG that could be infecting the human population studied; however, analysis of the ticks collected was unable to determine which species may be involved in transmission to humans.INTRODUÇÃO: A febre maculosa é uma zoonose emergente causada por espécies de Rickettsia do grupo febre maculosa (GFM. Rickettsia rickettsii é o principal agente etiológico da febre maculosa brasileira (FMB e é transmitida por Amblyomma spp. MÉTODOS: Com o objetivo de obter informações sobre GFM Rickettsiae no Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas em Londrina, PR, carrapatos de vida livre e de capivaras foram coletados, assim como amostras de sangue das pessoas que trabalham no parque. A. dubitatum e A. cajennense foram submetidos à PCR em pools para analises de Rickettsia spp. gltA (citrate synthase gene. RESULTADOS: Todos os pools de carrapatos analizados foram negativos. Soros de humanos foram testados pela imunofluorescência indireta com antigenos de R. rickettsii e R. parkeri. Entre os 34 soros analisados, 7 (20,6% foram positivos para R. rickettsii. Destes, quatro apresentaram títulos iguais a 64, dois iguais a 128 e um, igual a 256, mas nenhum soro reagiu com R. parkeri. Não houve nenhuma associação, estatisticamente significante, entre as variáveis analisadas no questionário epidemiológico fornecido às pessoas que participaram da pesquisa. CONCLUSÕES: Os estudos sorológicos sugerem a presença de alguma Rickettsiae relacionada ao GFM que poderiam estar infectando a população humana estudada. Entretanto, as análises dos carrapatos foram inconclusivas para determinar qual espécie poderia estar envolvida na transmissão para os humanos.

  14. Seroprevalencia de la infeccin por Borrelia burgdorgferi y Rickettsia conorii en poblacin humana y canina de la zona bsica de salud de San Andrs del Rabanedo (Len, Espaa

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    Rojo Vzquez Jaime

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Se estudia la seroprevalencia de la infeccin por Borrelia burgdorferi y Rickettsia conorii en poblacin humana y canina para conocer la situacin de ambas en humanos, al mismo tiempo que la significacin del perro, como indicador de la circulacin de estos agentes entre aqullos, en la Zona de Salud de San Andrs del Rabanedo, Len. MTODO: Se realiz un estudio en 98 sueros humanos y 95 caninos (de diversas razas y aptitudes frente a B. burgdorferi (ttulos de positividad > a 1/128 y > a 1/64 o superiores, respectivamente y 104 sueros humanos y 84 caninos frente a R. conorii (positividad a ttulo > a 1/64 o superiores en ambas especies mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI. RESULTADOS: Se hall positividad a las dos infecciones, tanto en personas como en perros. Frente a B. burgdorferi fue superior en humanos que en perros y frente a R. conorii fue superior en stos que en humanos. En personas fue del 4,08% frente a B. burgdorferi y 1% frente a R. conorii; en perros fue del 2,10% frente a B. burgdorferi y del 14,28% frente a R. conorii. Los valores ms altos se hallaron en los meses de primavera-verano, salvo en el caso de B. burgdorferi en perros. La seroprevalencia fue mayor en perros dedicados al cuidado de ganado (ovino que en los de caza y guarda. CONCLUSIONES: Los porcentajes de seroprevalencia hallados en nuestro trabajo, tanto en seres humanos como en caninos, considerados en el mbito territorial de una zona geogrfica semi-rural de la provincia de Len, han sido iguales o inferiores a los reseados para otras provincias, incluida la totalidad de la de Len. En perros se hall mayor seroprevalencia frente a R. conorii que frente a B. burgdorferi, lo que indica que es el agente ms extendido en nuestra Provincia, como han sealado otros autores. Los valores hallados en seres humanos frente a B. burgdorferi han sido ms altos que en perros; la existencia de reacciones cruzadas con otros microorganismos ha podido influenciar estos resultados. Por ello, consideramos necesario realizar ms estudios de prevalencia de estas infecciones para una vigilancia epidemiolgica adecuada y control de estas zoonosis, dada su repercusin en salud pblica.

  15. Species-specific monoclonal antibodies to Rickettsia japonica, a newly identified spotted fever group rickettsia.

    OpenAIRE

    Uchiyama, T.; Uchida, T.; Walker, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 192 hybridomas were developed from mice immunized with Rickettsia japonica, a newly identified spotted fever group rickettsia pathogenic for humans. Of these hybridomas, 101 were species specific, 37 were spotted fever group reactive, and the other 54 were also reactive with one or more of the other pathogenic species of spotted fever group rickettsiae, Rickettsia akari, Rickettsia australis, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Rickettsia sibrica. Seven of the species-sp...

  16. Vaciamiento ganglionar en carcinoma escamoso transglótico Ganglionic drainage in scaly transglotic carcinoma

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    Juan Carlos Bravo Y

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El manejo de los ganglios cervicales es fundamental en el tratamiento y pronóstico de los pacientes con carcinoma escamoso de laringe. Existe consenso en realizar vaciamiento ganglionar cervical en ausencia de adenopatías clínicas (NO cuando el riesgo de adenopatías metastásicas ocultas supera el 20%. El carcinoma laríngeo transglótico (CTG se caracteriza por presentar una incidencia de metástasis cervicales ocultas de 30% a 40%. Objetivo: Evaluar los hallazgos histopatológicos en los ganglios cervicales de los pacientes portadores de CTG, analizando la incidencia de metástasis ocultas y su asociación con factores de riesgo. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo mediante la revisión de las fichas clínicas de pacientes portadores de CTG, sin tratamiento previo, manejados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital San Juan de Dios entre los años 1994 y 2002. Resultados: Se evaluaron 20 pacientes, 4 (20% se presentaron con adenopatías clínicas, realizándose en 2 casos vaciamiento radical y en los 2 restantes disección funcional. Los pacientes NO fueron 16 y se les efectuó un vaciamiento funcional bilateral. Se detectaron metástasis ocultas en 12,5% de los pacientes NO. Conclusión: Los carcinomas de ubicación transglótica NO no se beneficiarían de un vaciamiento ganglionar cervicalIntroduction: The handling of the cervical ganglion is basic in the treatment and prognosis of patients with scaly carcinoma of the larynx. There is consensus on doing ganglionic cervical drainage in the absence of clinical adenopathies (NO when the risk of hidden metastasic adenopathies is over 20%. Laryngeal transglotic carcinoma (LTC is characterized for presenting an incidence of hidden cervical metastasis of 30 to 40%. Objective: To evaluate histopathological findings in the LTC patients' cervical ganglions, analyzing the incidence of hidden metastasis and their association with risk factors. Material and methods: Retrospective study through revision of the clinical files ofLTC carrier patients, without previous treatment, surgically treated at the San Juan de Dios Hospital between years 1994 and 2002. Results: 20 patients were evaluated, 4 (20% presented clinical adenopathies, undergoing in 2 cases radical drainage and in the other 2, functional dissection. The NO patients were 16 and a bilateral functional drainage was made. Hidden metastasis were detected in 12,5% on the NO patients. Conclusion: Carcinomas of NO transglotic location did not benefit from a cervical ganglionic drainage

  17. Rickettsia spp. in Ticks, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewski, Tomasz; Podsiadly, Edyta; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanislawa

    2009-01-01

    Ticks are recognized as the main vectors and reservoirs of spotted fever group rickettsiae. We searched for the most prevalent Rickettsia spp. in Poland and found R. slovaca and R. helvetica bacteria in ticks in southern and central Poland; R. raoulti was found in ticks in all parts of Poland.

  18. Immunoproteomic profiling of Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia amblyommii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornwiroon, Walairat; Bourchookarn, Apichai; Paddock, Christopher D; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2015-09-01

    Rickettsia parkeri is an Amblyomma-associated, spotted fever group Rickettsia species that causes an eschar-associated, febrile illness in multiple countries throughout the Western Hemisphere. Many other rickettsial species of known or uncertain pathogenicity have been detected in Amblyomma spp. ticks in the Americas, including Rickettsia amblyommii, "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae" and Rickettsia rickettsii. In this study, we utilized an immunoproteomic approach to compare antigenic profiles of low-passage isolates of R. parkeri and R. amblyommii with serum specimens from patients with PCR- and culture-confirmed infections with R. parkeri. Five immunoreactive proteins of R. amblyommii and nine immunoreactive proteins of R. parkeri were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Four of these, including the outer membrane protein (Omp) A, OmpB, translation initiation factor IF-2, and cell division protein FtsZ, were antigens common to both rickettsiae. Serum specimens from patients with R. parkeri rickettsiosis reacted specifically with cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha, putative sigma (54) modulation protein, chaperonin GroEL, and elongation factor Tu of R. parkeri which have been reported as virulence factors in other bacterial species. Unique antigens identified in this study may be useful for further development of the better serological assays for diagnosing infection caused by R. parkeri. PMID:26234571

  19. First identification of natural infection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, in the State of Rio de Janeiro Primeira identificação de infecção natural por Rickettsia rickettsii no carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus no Rio de Janeiro

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    Nathalie C. Cunha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is a zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma, more frequently, Amblyomma cajennense. The aim of this paper was to report the first molecular detection of R. rickettsii on R. sanguineus naturally infected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ticks were collected from dogs in a rural region of Resende municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (22º30'9.46"S, 44º42'44.29"WO, where occurred five human cases of BSF in 2006. The ticks were identified under a stereoscopic microscope and separated in pools by stages, species and sex. DNA extraction was carried out using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN®. The DNA was submitted to PCR amplification using 04 set of primers: Rr190.70p/Rr190.602n (OmpA, 532bp, BG1-21/BG2-20 (OmpB, 650bp, Tz15/Tz16 (17 kDa protein-encoding gene, 246bp and RpCS.877p/RpCS.1258n (gltA, 381bp. PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 1% agarose gels and visualized under ultraviolet light with ethidium bromide. PCR products of the expected sizes were purified by QIAquick® and sequenced by ABI PRISM®. The generated nucleotide sequences were edited with using Bioedit® software and compared with the corresponding homologous sequences available through GenBank, using Discontiguous Mega Blast (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. It was confirmed R. rickettsii by sequencing of the material (GenBank FJ356230. The molecular characterization of R. rickettsii in the tick R. sanguineus emphasizes the role of dogs as carriers of ticks from the environment to home. Moreover, this result suggests that there is a considerable chance for active participation of R. sanguineus as one of tick species in the transmission of R. ricketsii to human being in the Brazilian territory.A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose causada por Rickettsia rickettsii e transmitida por carrapatos do gênero Amblyomma, mais freqüentemente pela espécie Amblyomma cajennense. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a primeira detecção molecular de R. rickettsii em Rhipicephalus sanguineus naturalmente infectado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Carrapatos foram coletados de cães, procedentes de uma região rural do município de Resende, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (22º30'9.46"S, 44º42'44.29"WO, onde ocorreram cinco casos humanos de FMB em 2006. Todos os carrapatos foram identificados segundo chave dicotômica, utilizando-se lupa estereoscópica e separados de acordo com estágio, espécie e sexo. Para a extração de DNA utilizou-se o kit comercial QIAamp DNA (QIAGEN ®. O DNA foi submetido à técnica de PCR utilizando 04 conjuntos de iniciadores para a amplificação dos genes: Rr190.70p/Rr190.602n (OmpA, 532bp, BG1-21/BG2-20 (OmpB, 650bp, Tz15/Tz16 (17 kDa gene que codifica a proteína, 246bp e RPCs .877p/RpCS.1258n (gltA, 381bp. Os produtos da PCR foram separados por eletroforese em gel agarose 1% corados com brometo de etídio e visualizados sob luz ultravioleta e, aqueles que apresentaram bandas amplificadas foram purificados utilizando-se o kit comercial QIAquick ® e seqüenciados pelo ABI PRISM®. As seqüências nucleotídicas foram geradas usando Bioedit®, editado em software e comparados os correspondentes homólogos com as sequências disponíveis através GenBank, utilizando Discontiguous Mega Blast (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Confirmou-se R. rickettsii (GenBank FJ356230 no seqüenciamento de apenas um espécime, adulto de carrapato R. sanguineus. A caracterização molecular de R. rickettsii em exemplar de carrapato R. sanguineus confirma que esta espécie pode ter importante papel na transmissão de R. rickettsii para humanos no território brasileiro.

  20. Rickettsiae in Gulf Coast Ticks, Arkansas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Trout, Rebecca; Steelman, C Dayton; Szalanski, Allen L.; Williamson, Phillip C

    2010-01-01

    To determine the cause of spotted fever cases in the southern United States, we screened Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) collected in Arkansas for rickettsiae. Of the screened ticks, 30% had PCR amplicons consistent with Rickettsia parkeri or Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii.

  1. Laboratory Maintenance of Rickettsia rickettsii

    OpenAIRE

    Ammerman, Nicole C; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2008-01-01

    This unit includes protocols for the laboratory maintenance of the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, including propagation in mammalian cell cultures, as well as isolation, counting, and storage procedures. Regulations for working with R. rickettsii in biosafety level 3 containment are also discussed.

  2. Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles, Jérémie; Just, Frank Thomas; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pradel, Ingrid; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Lengauer, Heidi; Hellmann, Klaus; Pfister, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Among 310 fleas collected from dogs and cats in Germany, Rickettsia felis was detected in all specimens (34) of Archaeopsylla erinacei (hedgehog flea) and in 9% (24/226) of Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea). R. helvetica was detected in 1 Ceratophyllus gallinae (hen flea).

  3. Epidemiología de rickettsiosis por Rickettsia parkeri y otras especies emergentes o re-emergentes asociadas a la antropización en Latinoamérica

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    José M Venzal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la importancia regional de Rickettsia parkeri y sus respectivos vectores. Se hace énfasis en los factores de antropización que favorecen la aparición de hospedadores alternativos para las garrapatas en los entornos domésticos y peridomésticos, generando modificaciones en la epidemiología del agente etiológico. También se menciona las modificaciones ecológicas que pueden favorecen el incremento de poblaciones de reservorios para las garrapatas incrementando el riesgo para el ser humano de sufrir enfermedades rickettsiales.

  4. Evolution and diversity of Rickettsia bacteria

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    Stone Graham N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsia are intracellular symbionts of eukaryotes that are best known for infecting and causing serious diseases in humans and other mammals. All known vertebrate-associated Rickettsia are vectored by arthropods as part of their life-cycle, and many other Rickettsia are found exclusively in arthropods with no known secondary host. However, little is known about the biology of these latter strains. Here, we have identified 20 new strains of Rickettsia from arthropods, and constructed a multi-gene phylogeny of the entire genus which includes these new strains. Results We show that Rickettsia are primarily arthropod-associated bacteria, and identify several novel groups within the genus. Rickettsia do not co-speciate with their hosts but host shifts most often occur between related arthropods. Rickettsia have evolved adaptations including transmission through vertebrates and killing males in some arthropod hosts. We uncovered one case of horizontal gene transfer among Rickettsia, where a strain is a chimera from two distantly related groups, but multi-gene analysis indicates that different parts of the genome tend to share the same phylogeny. Conclusion Approximately 150 million years ago, Rickettsia split into two main clades, one of which primarily infects arthropods, and the other infects a diverse range of protists, other eukaryotes and arthropods. There was then a rapid radiation about 50 million years ago, which coincided with the evolution of life history adaptations in a few branches of the phylogeny. Even though Rickettsia are thought to be primarily transmitted vertically, host associations are short lived with frequent switching to new host lineages. Recombination throughout the genus is generally uncommon, although there is evidence of horizontal gene transfer. A better understanding of the evolution of Rickettsia will help in the future to elucidate the mechanisms of pathogenicity, transmission and virulence.

  5. Rickettsia helvetica in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Dobec, Marinko; Golubic, Dragutin; Punda-Polic, Volga; Kaeppeli, Franz; Sievers, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We report on the molecular evidence that Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Croatia are infected with Rickettsia helvetica (10%) or Rickettsia slovaca (2%) or co-infected with both species (1%). These findings expand the knowledge of the geographic distribution of R. helvetica and D. reticulatus ticks.

  6. Febre maculosa: isolamento de Rickettsia em amostra de biópsia de pele Spotted fever: Rickettsia isolation in skin biopsy sample

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    Heloisa Helana B. Melles

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Presença de Rickettsia na pele de doente de Febre Maculosa foi evidenciada por inoculação intraperitoneal em cobaio. O diagnóstico sorológico por imunoflüorescência indireta revelou diferença de título de anticorpos específicos para Rickettsia rickettsii, de 4 vezes entre a 1º e a 3º amostra. Imunoglobulina M (IgM específica foi detectada nas amostras de sangue, evidência de infecção em atividade ou recente. Foi também detectada a presença de anticorpos específicos para R. rickettsii no soro dos cobaios inoculados.A 2 years old child living in an area of the State of São Paulo, known in the past as endemic for rickettsiosis developed clinical evidences of spotted fever after a tick bite. Rickettsiae were isolated from guinea pigs inoculated with a skin homogenate. In sera tested by indirect immunofluorescence with Rickettsia rickettsii standard antigen, IgG specific antibody titers raised from 1:512 in the first sample to 1:2048 in the third one; IgM specific antibody titer was 1:128 in the three samples. Also positive were sera obtained from the inoculated guinea pigs. In the last 20 years no other case of rickettsial spotted fever has been confirmed by isolation of the agent in Brasil. To our knowlwdge, there are no previous reports of isolation of Rickettsiae through inoculation of skin biopsy homogenates.

  7. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia felis in dogs, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil Soroprevalência de Rickettsia bellii e Rickettsia felis em cães, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brasil

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    Fernanda Silva Fortes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria. Dogs can be host sentinels for this bacterium. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the city of São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, where a human case of BSF was first reported in the state. Between February 2006 and July 2007, serum samples from 364 dogs were collected and tested at 1:64 dilutions by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA against R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. All sera that reacted at least to one of Rickettsia species were tested against the six main Rickettsia species identified in Brazil: R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis. Sixteen samples (4.4% reacted to at least one Rickettsia species. Among positive animals, two dogs (15.5% showed suggestive titers for R. bellii exposure. One sample had a homologous reaction to R. felis, a confirmed human pathogen. Although Rickettsia spp. circulation in dogs in the area studied may be considered at low prevalence, suggesting low risk of human infection, the present data demonstrate for the first time the exposure of dogs to R. bellii and R. felis in Southern Brazil.A febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose veiculada por carrapatos e causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, podendo os cães ser hospedeiros sentinelas para essa bactéria. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a presença de anticorpos contra Rickettsia spp. em cães de São José dos Pinhais, estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Entre fevereiro de 2006 e julho de 2007, amostras séricas de 364 cães foram coletadas e testadas na diluição de 1:64 por Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI contra R. rickettsii e R. parkeri. Todos os soros reagentes para pelo menos uma espécie de Rickettsia foram testados contra as seis principais espécies de Rickettsia identificadas no Brasil: R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii e R. felis. Dezesseis amostras (4,4% reagiram para pelo menos uma espécie de Rickettsia. Dos animais positivos, dois cães (15,5% apresentaram títulos sugestivos de exposição a R. bellii. Uma amostra apresentou reação homóloga frente à R. felis, um agente patogênico confirmado para seres humanos. Muito embora os resultados demonstrem uma baixa prevalência de Rickettsia spp. em cães, sugerindo um baixo risco de infecção humana, este estudo relatou pela primeira vez a evidência de exposição a R. bellii e R. felis em cães no Sul do Brasil.

  8. Febre maculosa: isolamento de Rickettsia em amostra de biópsia de pele Spotted fever: Rickettsia isolation in skin biopsy sample

    OpenAIRE

    Heloisa Helana B. Melles; Silvia Colombo; Marcos Vinícius da Silva

    1992-01-01

    Presença de Rickettsia na pele de doente de Febre Maculosa foi evidenciada por inoculação intraperitoneal em cobaio. O diagnóstico sorológico por imunoflüorescência indireta revelou diferença de título de anticorpos específicos para Rickettsia rickettsii, de 4 vezes entre a 1º e a 3º amostra. Imunoglobulina M (IgM) específica foi detectada nas amostras de sangue, evidência de infecção em atividade ou recente. Foi também detectada a presença de anticorpos específicos para R. rickettsii no soro...

  9. Rickettsia bellii infecting Amblyomma sabanerae ticks in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Amlia R M; Romero, Luis; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2012-07-01

    Four Amblyomma sabanerae ticks collected from a turtle (Kinosternon sp.) in San Miguel, El Salvador, were found by molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. We provide the first report of Rickettsia bellii in Central America, and the first report of a Rickettsia species in El Salvador. PMID:23265378

  10. Large lymph node size harvested as prognostic factor in gastric cancer? ¿Es el diámetro ganglionar mayor un factor pronóstico en cáncer gástrico?

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    F. Espín

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: knowledge regarding prognostic factors in gastric cancer is essential to decide on single patient management. We aim to establish the value of large lymph node size in order to improve perioperative approach. Material and methods: charts of one hundred and twenty-eight consecutive patients undergoing gastrectomy for resectable gastric cancer were reviewed between January 1996 and December 2005. Patients were split in two groups according to large lymph node size harvested, group I, lymph node size ≤ 10 mm and group II, lymph node size > 10 mm. Overall five-year survival related to cancer were analyzed as a main endpoint. Prognostic factors as TNM classification and degree of differentiation have been considered. Results: there were no differences regarding age and gender (67.4 vs. 64; p = 0.34 and 66,1 vs. 68,1%; p = 0.27, respectively. Nevertheless, a significant difference has been found according to T1-T2 of TNM stage (78.1 vs. 39.1% p = Objetivo: valorar el interés del diámetro del ganglio mayor extirpado como factor pronóstico en los pacientes intervenidos por cáncer gástrico, para determinar si su detección puede ser un factor de interés en el periodo preoperatorio, para indicar tratamiento neoadyuvante. Material y métodos: se analiza un registro de 128 casos consecutivos de pacientes afectos de adenocarcinoma gástrico resecable, durante un periodo de 10 años en los que en el estudio anatomopatológico se determinó el diámetro del ganglio mayor aislado. Se estudia la relación del mismo con factores pronósticos universalmente aceptados, el grado de penetración, la presencia y extensión de metástasis ganglionares y el estadio TNM, y con la supervivencia a 5 años, estudiándose dos grupos, el grupo I compuesto por aquellos enfermos con diámetro menor o igual a 10 mm, y el grupo II con diámetros superiores a 10 mm. Resultados: no se han detectado diferencias estadísticas respecto a edad y sexo (67,4 vs. 64; p = 0,34 y 66,1 vs. 68,1%; p = 0,27, respectivamente. Existen diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en el grado de penetración tumoral, T1-T2, (78,1% por 39,1%, p < 0,001, en el porcentaje de pacientes sin metástasis ganglionares (62,7 vs. 30,5%; p < 0,001, así como en el porcentaje de estadios precoces (Ia y Ib, 57,6% por 17,4, p < 0,001. La supervivencia global acumulada a los 60 meses fue significativa entre ambos grupos (p log-rank = 0,0003, aunque sin alcanzar significación estadística en los pacientes N+ (p < 0,006. Conclusiones: la relación del diámetro ganglionar mayor puede ser un factor pronóstico útil y junto con otros factores pronósticos facilitaría la valoración de quimioterapia neoadyuvante. Su detección mediante exploraciones complementarias adquiriría por consiguiente un mayor interés.

  11. Assessment of real-time PCR assay for detection of Rickettsia spp. and Rickettsia rickettsii in banked clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Cecilia Y; Chung, Ida H; Robinson, Lauren K; Austin, Amy L; Dasch, Gregory A; Massung, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Two novel real-time PCR assays were developed for the detection of Rickettsia spp. One assay detects all tested Rickettsia spp.; the other is specific for Rickettsia rickettsii. Evaluation using DNA from human blood and tissue samples showed both assays to be more sensitive than nested PCR assays currently in use at the CDC. PMID:23135935

  12. Assessment of Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Rickettsia spp. and Rickettsia rickettsii in Banked Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Y. Kato; Chung, Ida H.; Robinson, Lauren K.; Austin, Amy L.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Massung, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Two novel real-time PCR assays were developed for the detection of Rickettsia spp. One assay detects all tested Rickettsia spp.; the other is specific for Rickettsia rickettsii. Evaluation using DNA from human blood and tissue samples showed both assays to be more sensitive than nested PCR assays currently in use at the CDC.

  13. Molecular detection of Rickettsia conorii and other zoonotic spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Mariana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Edouard, Sophie; Parola, Philippe; Pfister, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The diverse tick fauna as well as the abundance of tick populations in Romania represent potential risks for both human and animal health. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of emerging human tick-borne diseases worldwide. However, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases has been poorly investigated in Romania. In urban habitats, companion animals which are frequently exposed to tick infestation, play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks infesting dogs in a greater urban area in South-eastern Romania. Adult ixodid ticks (n=205), including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=120), Dermacentor reticulatus (n=76) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9) were collected from naturally infested dogs and were screened for SFG rickettsiae using conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Additionally, ticks were screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. Four zoonotic SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia raoultii (16%) and Rickettsia slovaca (3%) in D. reticulatus, Rickettsia monacensis (11%) in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia conorii (0.8%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. Moreover, pathogens of veterinary importance, such as B. canis (21%) in D. reticulatus and E. canis (7.5%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. were identified. The findings expand the knowledge on distribution of SFG rickettsiae as well as canine pathogens in Romania. Additionally, this is the first report describing the molecular detection of R. conorii in ticks from Romania. PMID:26507182

  14. Identificacin de Rickettsia andeanae en dos regiones de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Abarca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: Candidatus 'Rickettsia andeanae', especie de reciente reconocimiento y rol patgeno no precisado, ha sido identificada en garrapatas del gnero Amblyomma en Per, E.U.A. y AArgentina y recientemente en Chile, en un espcimen de Amblyomma triste de un sector rural de Arica. Objetivo: Determinar presencia de agentes rickettsiales en garrapatas de perros domsticos de dos regiones de Chile. Mtodos: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, en las regiones de Coquimbo y La Araucana, con muestreo domiciliario en las ciudades de Coquimbo y AAngol y localidades rurales cercanas, en primavera-verano 2011-2012. Se examin un perro por vivienda, recolectando garrapatas si estaban presentes; luego de su identificacin taxonmica fueron sometidas a amplificacin y secuenciacin de los genes gltA y ompA. Resultados: Se examinaron 462 perros, 255 tenan garrapatas (55%. En las ciudades se encontr exclusivamente Rhipicephalus sanguineus; en las localidades rurales adems Amblyomma tigrinum. Las secuencias obtenidas en 12 especmenes de A. tigrinum correspondieron a Candidatus 'Rickettsia andeanae'. Conclusiones: Se documenta presencia de R. andeanae en dos regiones distantes de Chile, lo que se suma a su reciente hallazgo en el extremo norte del pas. Este nuevo agente rickettsial se limita a garrapatas del gnero Amblyomma y a zonas rurales, lo que concuerda con lo documentado en otros pases y con el hbitat de esta garrapata.

  15. Reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii with spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Anacker, R L; Mann, R E; Gonzales, C. (collab.)

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of 15 spotted fever group (SFG) and 2 typhus group strains of rickettsiae with a panel of monoclonal antibodies revealed a number of shared and unique epitopes of the 120- and 155-kilodalton surface proteins. All of the SFG strains but neither of the typhus group strains reacted with antibody to the lipopolysaccharidelike antigen of Rickettsia rickettsii; possibly the lipopolysaccharidelike antigen is the common antigen which defines the SFG. North Carolina and Montana strains of R. ...

  16. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; DAVOUST, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier,; Parola, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Methodology/Principal findings Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla c...

  17. First report on the occurrence of Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor silvarum in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhan-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are among both the longest known and most recently recognized infectious diseases. Although new spotted fever group rickettsiae have been isolated in many parts of the world including China, Little is known about the epidemiology of Rickettsia pathogens in ticks from Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. Methods In an attempt to assess the potential risk of rickettsial infection after exposure to ticks in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, a total of 200 Dermacentor silvarum ticks collected in Xinyuan district were screened by polymerase chain reaction based on the outer membrane protein A gene. Results 22 of the 200 specimens (11% were found to be positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of OmpA sequences identified two rickettsial species, Rickettsia raoultii (4.5% and Rickettsia slovaca (6.5%. Conclusions This study has reported the occurrence of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia slovaca in Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China and suggests that Dermacentor silvarum could be involved in the transmission of rickettsial agents in China. Further studies on the characterization and culture of rickettsial species found in Dermacentor silvarum should be performed to further clarify this. Additionally, the screening of human specimens for rickettsial disease in this region will define the incidence of infection.

  18. In Vitro Activities of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella bacilliformis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    OpenAIRE

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Maurin, Max; Bryskier, André; Raoult, Didier,

    2000-01-01

    In vitro activities of telithromycin compared to those of erythromycin against Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis were determined. Telithromycin was more active than erythromycin against Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Coxiella burnetii, with MICs of 0.5 μg/ml, 0.003 to 0.015 μg/ml, and 1 μg/ml, respectively, but was inactive against Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

  19. Rickettsia honei Infection in Human, Nepal, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Holly; Renvoisé, Aurélie; Pandey, Prativa; PAROLA, PHILIPPE; Raoult, Didier

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of Rickettsia honei infection in a human in Nepal. The patient had severe illness and many clinical features typical of Flinders Island spotted fever. Diagnosis was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescent assay with serum and molecular biological techniques. Flinders Island spotted fever may be an endemic rickettsiosis in Nepal.

  20. Rickettsia felis in Xenopsylla cheopis, Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ju; Djoko W. Soeatmadji; Henry, Katherine M; Ratiwayanto, Sutanti; Bangs, Michael J.; Richards, Allen L.

    2006-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi and R. felis, etiologic agents of murine typhus and fleaborne spotted fever, respectively, were detected in Oriental rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from rodents and shrews in Java, Indonesia. We describe the first evidence of R. felis in Indonesia and naturally occurring R. felis in Oriental rat fleas.

  1. Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Schloderer, Drew; Owen (nee Watts), Helen; Clark, Phillip; Stenos, John; Stanley G. Fenwick

    2006-01-01

    This study is the first confirmation of Rickettsia felis in Australia. The organism was identified from 4 species of fleas obtained from dogs and cats in Western Australia, by using polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of the citrate synthase and outer membrane protein A genes.

  2. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management. PMID:26611960

  3. Properties of selected rickettsiae of the spotted fever group.

    OpenAIRE

    Anacker, R L; McCaul, T. F.; Burgdorfer, W; Gerloff, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Eight strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae were studied to gain insight into the extent of variation of their properties. Two standard strains of Rickettsia rickettsii and one strain of Rickettsia conorii were included among the eight for comparison. The molar percentage of guanine plus cytosine for each strain did not differ significantly from that for R. rickettsii, 32.6 +/- 0.7%. Two strains caused extended fever in guinea pigs, one strain caused fever of short duration, and the othe...

  4. Isolation of Rickettsia prowazekii with reduced sensitivity to gamma interferon.

    OpenAIRE

    Turco, J.; Winkler, H. H.

    1989-01-01

    The growth of Rickettsia prowazekii Madrid E was monitored in mouse L929 cells subcultured for several weeks in the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) to determine whether the rickettsiae would be eliminated from or would persist in these cultures. R. prowazekii exhibited two distinct patterns in these IFN-gamma-treated cultures. In some cases, IFN-gamma-induced inhibition of rickettsial growth led to elimination of the rickettsiae from the L929 cell cultures; in other cases, the initia...

  5. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Troyo, Adriana; lvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Caldern-Arguedas, lger; Zambrano, Maria L.; Dasch, Gregory A; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Estvez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guat...

  6. Genome Sequence of the Endosymbiont Rickettsia peacockii and Comparison with Virulent Rickettsia rickettsii: Identification of Virulence Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Felsheim, Roderick F.; Kurtti, Timothy J; MUNDERLOH, ULRIKE G.

    2009-01-01

    Rickettsia peacockii, also known as the East Side Agent, is a non-pathogenic obligate intracellular bacterium found as an endosymbiont in Dermacentor andersoni ticks in the western USA and Canada. Its presence in ticks is correlated with reduced prevalence of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. It has been proposed that a virulent SFG rickettsia underwent changes to become the East Side Agent. We determined the genome sequence of R. peacockii and provide a compar...

  7. The realities of biodefense vaccines against Rickettsia

    OpenAIRE

    David H Walker

    2009-01-01

    Rickettsia prowazekii, R. rickettsii, R. conorii, and R. typhi are serious biologic weapon threats because of high infectivity of low dose aerosols, stable small particle aerosol infectivity, virulence causing severe disease, difficulty in establishing a timely diagnosis, ineffectiveness of usual empiric treatments, potential for engineered complete antimicrobial resistance, lower level of immunity, availability of the agents in nature, and feasibility of propagation, stabilization, and dispe...

  8. Permeability of Rickettsia prowazekii to NAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickettsia prowazekii accumulated radioactivity from [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD but not from [nicotinamide-4-3H]NAD, which demonstrated that NAD was not taken up intact. Extracellular NAD was hydrolyzed by rickettsiae with the products of hydrolysis, nicotinamide mononucleotide and AMP, appearing in the incubation medium in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The particulate (membrane) fraction contained 90% of this NAD pyrophosphatase activity. Rickettsiae which had accumulated radiolabel after incubation with [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD were extracted, and the intracellular composition was analyzed by chromatography. The cells contained labeled AMP, ADP, ATP, and NAD. The NAD-derived intracellular AMP was transported via a pathway distinct from and in addition to the previously described AMP translocase. Exogenous AMP (1 mM) inhibited uptake of radioactivity from [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD and hydrolysis of extracellular NAD. AMP increased the percentage of intracellular radiolabel present as NAD. Nicotinamide mononucleotide was not taken up by the rickettsiae, did not inhibit hydrolysis of extracellular NAD, and was not a good inhibitor of the uptake of radiolabel from [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD. Neither AMP nor ATP (both of which are transported) could support the synthesis of intracellular NAD. The presence of intracellular [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD within an organism in which intact NAD could not be transported suggested the resynthesis from AMP of [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD at the locus of NAD hydrolysis and translocation

  9. Rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks.

    OpenAIRE

    Magnarelli, L A; Andreadis, T. G.; Stafford, K C; Holland, C J

    1991-01-01

    Nymphs and adults of hard-bodied ticks were collected in Connecticut and tested by direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining methods for rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi. Of the 609 Ixodes dammini ticks examined, 59 (9.7%) harbored rickettsialike microorganisms in hemocytes (blood cells). These bacteria reacted with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrli...

  10. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and Ctenocephalides felis fleas from southeastern Tunisia by reverse line blot assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Bouattour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identificati...

  11. In vitro susceptibilities of Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Rickettsia conorii to the fluoroquinolone sparfloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Raoult, D; Bres, P; Drancourt, M.; Vestris, G.

    1991-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities of Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, and Coxiella burnetii to the new fluoroquinolone sparfloxacin (AT-4140; RP 64206) were determined. Plaque and dye uptake assays were used to measure the MICs against R. rickettsii and R. conorii. The susceptibilities of C. burnetii Nine Mile and Q 212 were determined in two acute-infection models and in two chronic-infection models. The MICs were 0.125 to 0.25 microgram/ml for R. rickettsii and 0.25 to 0.5 microgram/ml fo...

  12. Rickettsia felis: a new species of pathogenic rickettsia isolated from cat fleas.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, J. A.; Radulovic, S.; Schriefer, M E; Azad, A. F.

    1996-01-01

    A flea-borne rickettsia, previously referred to as ELB, has been implicated as a cause of human illness. Using sequence data obtained from a fragment of the citrate synthase gene, we compared ELB, Rickettsia australis, R. rickettsii, and R. akari with the louse-borne R. prowazekii. We tallied 24 base pair differences between ELB and R. prowazekii and 25 between R. rickettsii and R. prowazekii; there were 30 base pair differences between R. australis and R. prowazekii and 29 between R. akari a...

  13. In vitro susceptibilities of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii to roxithromycin and pristinamycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Drancourt, M.; Raoult, D

    1989-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii to roxithromycin, pristinamycin, and the pristinamycin compounds, P1 and P2, were determined by a dye uptake assay and a plaque assay. The MICs were 1 microgram/ml for roxithromycin, 2 micrograms/ml for pristinamycin, greater than 256 micrograms/ml for P1, and 2 micrograms/ml for P2. Compounds P1 and P2 did not share synergetic activity. The toxicity of each compound was determined by a dye uptake assay. Toxic concentra...

  14. Prevalence of Rickettsia Species in Canadian Populations of Dermacentor andersoni and D. variabilis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dergousoff, Shaun J.; Gajadhar, Andrew J. A.; Chilton, Neil B.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of rickettsiae in Dermacentor adults at 15 localities in Canada. Rickettsia rickettsii was not detected in any tick, whereas Rickettsia peacockii was present in 76% of Dermacentor andersoni adults and Rickettsia montanensis in 8% of Dermacentor variabilis adults. This host specificity was maintained in localities where both tick species occurred in sympatry.

  15. Rickettsia and Bartonella Species in Fleas from Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. PMID:25646263

  16. Rickettsia species infecting Amblyomma ticks from an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever in Brazil Rickettsia infectando carrapatos Amblyomma de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa Brasileira no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Guedes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports rickettsial infection in Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in an area of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where Brazilian spotted fever is considered endemic. For this purpose, 400 adults of A. cajenennse and 200 adults of A. dubitatum, plus 2,000 larvae and 2,000 nymphs of Amblyomma spp. were collected from horses and from the vegetation. The ticks were tested for rickettsial infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR protocols targeting portions of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB. Only two free-living A. cajennense adult ticks, and four pools of free-living Amblyomma spp. nymphs were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. PCR products from the two A. cajennense adult ticks were shown to be identical to corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii strain Sheila Smith. DNA sequences of gltA-PCR products of the four nymph pools of Amblyomma spp. revealed a new genotype, which was shown to be closest (99.4% to the corresponding sequence of Rickettsia tamurae. Our findings of two R. rickettsii-infected A. cajennense ticks corroborate the endemic status of the study area, where human cases of BSF were reported recently. In addition, we report for the first time a new Rickettsia genotype in Brazil.Este trabalho relata infecção por Rickettsia em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e Amblyomma dubitatum, colhidos numa área do Estado de Minas Gerais, onde a febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é considerada endêmica. Para esse estudo, 400 adultos de A. cajennense, 200 adultos de A. dubitatum, 2.000 larvas e 2.000 ninfas de Amblyomma spp. foram colhidas de equinos e da vegetação. Os carrapatos foram testados para infecção por rickettsia através de reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR direcionada a fragmentos de três genes de rickettsia (gltA, ompA, e ompB. Apenas 2 A. cajennense adultos de vida livre, e 4 grupos de ninfas de Amblyomma spp. continham DNA de rickettsia. Os produtos de PCR dos dois adultos de A. cajennense foram idênticos às sequências correspondentes de Rickettsia rickettsii cepa Sheila Smith. Sequências de DNA dos produtos provenientes dos quatro grupos de ninfas de Amblyomma spp. revelaram um novo genótipo, próximo (99,4% à sequência correspondente de Rickettsia tamurae. Neste trabalho foram achados 2 carrapatos A. cajennense infectados por R. rickettsii que corroboram o caráter endêmico da área de estudo, em que casos de FMB ocorreram recentemente. Em adição, foi reportado, pela primeira vez, um novo genótipo de Rickettsia no Brasil.

  17. Serological cross-reaction and cross-protection in guinea pigs infected with Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia montana.

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, W C; Waner, J L

    1980-01-01

    Antisera produced in guinea pigs inoculated with Rickettsia rickettsii or Rickettsia montana were cross-reactive but sufficiently specific to identify the primary infecting agent. Guinea pigs immunized with R. montana were protected from fatal infection with R. rickettsii, although a few (25%) developed mild fever of short duration.

  18. Experimental infection with Rickettsia rickettsii in an Amblyomma dubitatum tick colony, naturally infected by Rickettsia bellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Renata K; Costa, Francisco B; Ueno, Tatiana E H; Ramirez, Diego G; Soares, João F; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Labruna, Marcelo B; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2014-10-01

    Amblyomma dubitatum engorged females, naturally infected by Rickettsia bellii, were used to establish a laboratory colony. Larvae, nymphs, and adults were exposed to two strains of Rickettsia rickettsii by feeding on needle-inoculated guinea pigs, and thereafter reared on uninfected guinea pigs. After acquisition feeding, engorged larvae and nymphs molted to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were shown to be infected (confirming transstadial perpetuation), and were able to transmit both strains of R. rickettsii to uninfected animals, as demonstrated by clinical, serological, and molecular analyses. However, the larval, nymphal, and adult stages of A. dubitatum showed to be only partially susceptible to R. rickettsii infection, since in all cases, only part of the ticks became infected by this agent, after being exposed to rickettsemic animals. While transovarial transmission of R. rickettsii was inefficient in the A. dubitatum engorged females of the present study, 100% of these females passed R. bellii transovarially. Because it has been reported that a primary infection by a Rickettsia species would preclude transovarial transmission of a second Rickettsia species, it is likely that the ineffectiveness of A. dubitatum to perpetuate R. rickettsii by transovarial transmission was related to its primary infection by R. bellii; however, it could also be related to unknown factors inherent to A. dubitatum. The relevance of A. dubitatum as a natural vector of R. rickettsii to humans or animals is discussed. PMID:25108783

  19. Directional actin polymerization associated with spotted fever group Rickettsia infection of Vero cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinzen, R. A.; Hayes, S F; Peacock, M.G.; Hackstadt, T

    1993-01-01

    Members of the spotted fever group (SFG) of rickettsiae spread rapidly from cell to cell by an unknown mechanism(s). Staining of Rickettsia rickettsii-infected Vero cells with rhodamine phalloidin demonstrated unique actin filaments associated with one pole of intracellular rickettsiae. F-actin tails greater than 70 microns in length were seen extending from rickettsiae. Treatment of infected cells with chloramphenicol eliminated rickettsia-associated F-actin tails, suggesting that de novo pr...

  20. Production of antibody to and cellular localization of erythrocyte-sensitizing substance from Rickettsia rickettsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Hechemy, K E; Fox, J.(SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, 94025, Menlo Park, California, USA); Samsonoff, W A; Anacker, R; Silverman, D.; Eisemann, C; Green, I S

    1989-01-01

    Antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii erythrocyte-sensitizing substance (ESS) were raised in rabbits by using a derivatized ESS. The resulting antibodies reacted with R. rickettsii and cross-reacted with Rickettsia conorii, a member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae, but did not react with Rickettsia typhi, a member of the typhus group rickettsiae, Legionella bozemanii, or Proteus vulgaris OX19 or OX2. Immunoblot analysis indicated that ESS was present in more than one fraction and that th...

  1. Evaluation of a PCR Assay for Quantitation of Rickettsia rickettsii and Closely Related Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeeva, Marina E.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Silverman, David J.

    2003-01-01

    A spotted fever rickettsia quantitative PCR assay (SQ-PCR) was developed for the detection and enumeration of Rickettsia rickettsii and other closely related spotted fever group rickettsiae. The assay is based on fluorescence detection of SYBR Green dye intercalation in a 154-bp fragment of the rOmpA gene during amplification by PCR. As few as 5 copies of the rOmpA gene of R. rickettsii can be detected. SQ-PCR is suitable for quantitation of R. rickettsii and 10 other genotypes of spotted fev...

  2. Absorption of Rickettsia rickettsii antibodies by Rickettsia rickettsii antigens in four diagnostic tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Hechemy, K E; Anacker, R L; Carlo, N L; Fox, J A; Gaafar, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    Immunoabsorption profiles were determined for Rickettsia rickettsii antigens used in four confirmatory tests for detection of antibodies to Rocky Mountain spotted fever. A human serum reactive in the four tests was absorbed with each test antigen and then reexamined by all four tests. The results indicated that the whole organism and complement-fixation antigen absorbed the whole array of antibodies to R. rickettsii, whereas erythrocyte-sensitizing substance coated on latex or erythrocytes di...

  3. Genomic Comparison of Virulent Rickettsia rickettsii Sheila Smith and Avirulent Rickettsia rickettsii Iowa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Damon W.; Clark, Tina R.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F.; Hackstadt, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. To identify genes involved in the virulence of R. rickettsii, the genome of an avirulent strain, R. rickettsii Iowa, was sequenced and compared to the genome of the virulent strain R. rickettsii Sheila Smith. R. rickettsii Iowa is avirulent in a guinea pig model of infection and displays altered plaque morphology with decreased lysis of infected host cells. Comparison of th...

  4. Genetic variation in Australian spotted fever group rickettsiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, R W; Stenos, J; Stewart, R.; Hudson, B.; Lloyd, M.; Aiuto, S; Dwyer, B

    1996-01-01

    Rickettsiae were isolated by cell culture of buffy coat blood from six patients with spotted fever from southeastern Australia and Flinders Island in Bass Strait. The isolates were genetically compared with two previous Rickettsia australis patient isolates. The genus-specific 17-kDA genes from the isolates were compared after DNA amplification and restriction fragment analysis of the amplified DNA. This comparison revealed that mainland rickettsial isolates from southeastern Australia were i...

  5. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, J. V.; Walker, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Five mouse ascitic fluids (MAFs) containing monoclonal antibody to Rickettsia rickettsii were produced from three original fusions by murine hybridoma technology. The five MAFs were fractionated and purified; each contained monoclonal antibody of the immunoglobulin G2a subclass. Each monoclonal antibody-containing MAF was titrated by indirect immunofluorescence against three R. rickettsii isolates from humans and four other spotted fever group rickettsiae. Each MAF was also titrated in the co...

  6. Human endothelial cell culture plaques induced by Rickettsia rickettsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, D.H.; Firth, W T; Edgell, C J

    1982-01-01

    Primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were inoculated with plaque-purified Rickettsia rickettsii. After adsorption of rickettsiae, monolayers were overlaid with medium containing 0.5% agarose. Small plaques appeared on day 4 postinoculation, and distinct 1- to 2-mm plaques were observed on day 5. Plaquing efficiency was less than that of primary chicken embryo cells in the same medium. Human endothelial cell monolayers were susceptible to infection by R. rickettsii and un...

  7. Serological typing of spotted fever group Rickettsia isolates from Zimbabwe.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, P.J.; Mason, P. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eight rickettsialike organisms were isolated in tissue culture from ticks of dogs and cattle from various areas of Zimbabwe. These isolates and a reference strain, Rickettsia conorii Simko, were tested by microimmunofluorescence against homologous and heterologous antisera raised in mice. From the titers obtained by this method, specificity differences (SPDs) were calculated between each of the rickettsiae. Only small serological differences were detected among the isolates from ticks obtaine...

  8. Production of gamma interferon in mice immune to Rickettsia tsutsugamushi.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, B A; Hetrick, F. M.; Jerrells, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    C3H/He mice immunized by subcutaneous infection with Rickettsia tsutsugamushi Gilliam were examined for the production of immune interferon after intravenous administration of irradiated strain Gilliam antigen, in supernatants of immune lymphocytes stimulated with specific antigen, and after a secondary challenge with viable rickettsiae. Mice administered various doses of irradiated whole-organism antigen 28 days after immunization showed circulating levels of interferon which peaked 4 h afte...

  9. Candidatus ‘Rickettsia senegalensis’ in cat fleas in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Mediannikov, O.; Aubadie-Ladrix, M.; Raoult, D.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of Rickettsia felis and related bacteria are very important, because the natural cycle of this important infection has not yet been established. The recent emergence of R. felis-associated febrile diseases in West and East Africa demands insightful epidemiological studies of the vectors and reservoirs of this bacterium in Africa. Twenty-nine cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, were tested for the presence of rickettsiae, including R. felis, bartonellae, and borreliae, wi...

  10. Acquisition of Rickettsia felis by Cat Fleas During Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Reif, Kathryn E.; Kearney, Michael T.; Foil, Lane D.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for horizontal routes of transmission for Rickettsia felis has come from detection of R. felis infection in vertebrates and multiple blood-feeding arthropods; however, infection of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, during blood feeding has not been demonstrated. In this study, the ability of cat fleas to acquire R. felis through an infectious blood meal with subsequent vertical transmission was examined. Utilizing an artificial feeding system, Rickettsia-naive fleas were exposed to R...

  11. New records of spotted fever group rickettsiae in Baltic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzijevskaja, Jana; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Aleksandraviciene, Asta; Jonauskaite, Indre; Stanko, Michal; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Petko, Branislav

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but there is still a lack of data on the occurrence and prevalence of the spotted fever group rickettsiae across Europe, especially in the Baltic countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks, as well as to determine their prevalence in various regions of Lithuania and Latvia. The prevalence of Rickettsia spp. in geographically distinct populations of D. reticulatus on transect Baltic-Adriatic regions was compared. The molecular analyses of 1859 D. reticulatus and 361 I. ricinus from 48 localities in Lithuania and Latvia revealed the presence of Rickettsia raoultii in D. reticulatus and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus. The prevalence of pathogens in D. reticulatus (4.9%) and I. ricinus (17%) ranged in different locations from 0% to 36.9% and 0%-31.3%, respectively. Higher overall infection rates were detected in D. reticulatus collected in Poland (15.8%) and Slovakia (11.4%), with the prevalence range in different locations from 0% to 59.6%. Our study is the first demonstration of the presence of R. raoultii in D. reticulatus ticks in the Baltic countries and R. helvetica in questing I. ricinus ticks in Lithuania. PMID:26383013

  12. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia. PMID:26346455

  13. Comparative susceptibility to mouse interferons of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi strains with different virulence in mice and of Rickettsia rickettsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, B.

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi (Karp, Gilliam, and TA716, representing three virulence types in mice) were examined for their sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of recombinant gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and purified IFN-alpha/beta in two cultured mouse fibroblast cell lines. The susceptibilities of another species, Rickettsia rickettsii, and of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) were also tested for comparative purposes. IFN-gamma inhibited rickettsial replication in only one o...

  14. Detection of an undescribed Rickettsia sp. in Ixodes boliviensis from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Moreira-Soto, Andrs; Carranza, Marco; Caldern-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Taylor, Lizeth

    2014-10-01

    Ixodes boliviensis is a tick of carnivores that is common on domestic dogs. The only Rickettsia that has been detected previously in this species is 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae'. We report the detection of an undescribed Rickettsia sp., named strain IbR/CRC, in I. boliviensis collected from dogs in Costa Rica. Analyses of gltA, ompA, and htrA partial sequences place Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC in the group of R. monacensis, also close to an endosymbiont of Ixodes scapularis and other undescribed rickettsiae. It was not possible to isolate Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC in Vero E6 or C6/36 cell lines. Isolation and further characterization of Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC and the other undescribed rickettsiae are required to determine their taxonomic status and pathogenic potential. PMID:25132535

  15. Genome Sequence of Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the Agent of Israeli Spotted Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Sentausa, Erwin; El karkouri, Khalid; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier,; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis is the agent of Israeli spotted fever. The present study reports the draft genome of Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis strain ISTT CDC1, isolated from a Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick collected in Israel.

  16. TRANSCRIPTION OF THE RICKETTSIA FELIS OMPA GENE IN NATURALLY INFECTED FLEAS

    OpenAIRE

    Zavala-Castro, Jorge E.; SMALL, MELISSA; Keng, Colette; Bouyer, Donald H.; ZAVALA-VELÁZQUEZ, JORGE; WALKER, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is maintained transovarially in Ctenocephalides felis fleas in a widespread geographic distribution and is transmitted to humans and animals, including opossums. This rickettsia is phylogenetically a member of the spotted fever group, most closely related to Rickettsia akari and R. australis. An unusual feature of this rickettsia is that the gene for the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is interrupted by stop codons. To determine if this putatively dying gene is expressed, mRN...

  17. Whole-Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis” Strain NMRCii, Isolated from Fleas of Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jima, Dereje D; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Yang, Yu; Maina, Alice N.; Snesrud, Erik C.; Otiang, Elkanah; Njenga, Kariuki; Jarman, Richard G.; Richards, Allen L.; Hang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Herein we present the draft genome sequence and annotation of “Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis” strain NMRCii. “Ca. Rickettsia asemboensis” is phylogenetically related to but distinct from the flea-borne spotted fever pathogen Rickettsia felis. “Ca. Rickettsia asemboensis” was initially identified in and subsequently isolated from Ctenocephalides cat and dog fleas from Kenya.

  18. Study of the density of ganglion cells in the terminal bowel of rats with anorectal malformations Estudo da densidade das células ganglionares no intestino terminal de ratos portadores de anomalia anorretal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Macedo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the ganglion cells (GC in the terminal bowel of rats with ethylenethiourea (ETU induced anorectal malformations (ARM. METHODS: The animals were divided into three groups: Group A - normal fetuses from pregnant rats that were not administered ETU; Group B - fetuses without ARM born from pregnant rats that were administered ETU and Group C - fetuses with ARM born from pregnant rats that received ETU. ETU was administered on the 11th day of pregnancy at the dose of 125 mg/kg body weight by gastric gavage. The rats had cesarean section on the 21st day of gestation. The fetuses’ terminal bowel tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry to demonstrate ganglion cells. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between groups A, B and C regarding ganglion cell densities. Group A had the highest cell density, followed by Group B and the lowest density was found in Group C. CONCLUSION: Ganglion cell densities are decreased in the terminal bowel of rats with ARM.OBJETIVO: Estudar as células ganglionares (CG no intestino terminal de ratos portadores de anomalia anorretal (AAR induzida pela etilenotiouréia (ETU. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram distribuídos em três grupos: Grupo A - fetos normais, obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais não foi administrada ETU; Grupo B - fetos não portadores de AAR obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais foi administrada ETU e Grupo C - fetos portadores de AAR obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais foi administrada ETU. A ETU foi administrada no décimo primeiro dia de gestação na dose de 125 mg/Kg, por gavagem. As ratas foram submetidas à laparotomia e histerotomia para retirada dos fetos no vigésimo primeiro dia de gestação. O intestino terminal dos fetos foi retirado e analisado por imunohistoquímica para pesquisa de CG. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos A, B e C quanto à densidade de CG. O grupo A apresentou a maior densidade, seguida pelo grupo B, e a menor densidade foi encontrada no Grupo C. CONCLUSÃO: Existe uma menor densidade de CG no intestino terminal de ratos portadores de AAR.

  19. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:26336223

  20. Molecular Evidence of Different Rickettsia Species in Villeta, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Forero-Becerra, Elkin; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Escandón, Patricia; Rodas, Juan D; Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to detect and identify Rickettsia species in ticks collected in rural areas of Villeta, Colombia. Tick specimens were collected from domestic animals and walls of houses in five rural villages of Villeta town and from humans in Naranjal village (same town). Moreover, a flea collected from the same area was also processed. DNA was extracted and tested by conventional, semi-nested, and nested PCR reactions targeting rickettsial genes. In the ticks collected from humans from Naranjal village, a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato was amplified using primers for ompA and sequenced (100% identity with "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii"). Last, three amplicons from the Ctenocephalides felis flea, corresponding to gltA, ompB, and 16S rRNA genes, showed high identity with R. felis (98.5%, 97.3%, and 99.2%, respectively) and "Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis" (99.7% and 100%, respectively). To our knowledge, these results correspond to the first molecular detection in Colombia of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" and "Ca. Rickettsia asemboensis" in fleas. PMID:26789730

  1. Genotypic characterization of Rickettsiae by DNA probes generated from Rickettsia Prowazekii DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southern blot analysis of HindIII-cleaved rickettsial DNA was used for genotypic characterization of the typhus group (TG) species (R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. canada) and a few species were of the spotted fever group (SFG)rickettsiae (R. sibirica, R. conorii, R. akari). Four different DNA probes were employed. PBH11 and PBH13 probes were morphospecific HindIII fragment of R prowazekii DNA. MW218 probe contained the gene for 51 K antigen and MW264 probe contained the citrate synthase gene of R. prowazekii. All the probes hybridized with the tested TG and SFG rickettsial DNAs, forming from 1 to 5 bands, but they did not with R. tsutsudamushi or C. burnetii DNAs. All the probes demonstrated specific hybridization pattern with TG species and R. akari. PBH11. PBH13 and MW264 probes clearly distinguished R. sibirica and R. conorii from the other tested rickettsiae, but not from each other. However, these two species differed slightly with MW218 probe. Several strains of each species were analyzed in this way and except for strains of R. conorii identical intra-species pattern were obtained. These data lead us to consider the obtained hybridization patterns as criteria for genotypic identification. (author)

  2. Demonstration and partial characterization of antigens of Rickettsia rhipicephali that induce cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses to Rickettsia rickettsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, K. L.; Jerrells, T. R.

    1992-01-01

    The relatively unrelated spotted fever group rickettsia Rickettsia rhipicephali conferred on guinea pigs protective immunity against challenge with virulent R. rickettsii. Immunity was conferred at all doses of R. rhipicephali used in the study. Because of the serologic unrelatedness of these two rickettsiae, determined by the use of microimmunofluorescence and other serological assays, further studies were performed to define the nature of the immune response elicited by R. rhipicephali and ...

  3. Detection of Borrelia lusitaniae, Rickettsia sp. IRS3, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus collected in Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Isabel Lopes; Milhano, Natacha; Santos, Ana Sofia; Almeida, Victor; Barros, Silvia C; De Sousa, Rita; Nncio, Maria Sofia

    2008-08-01

    A total of 300 Ixodes ricinus ticks were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis demonstrated 8 (2.7%) ticks infected with B. lusitaniae, 60 (20%) with Rickettsia spp., and 1 (0.3%) with A. phagocytophilum. Seven (2.3%) ticks were coinfected with B. lusitaniae and Rickettsia spp., 2 (0.6%) with R. monacensis, and 5 (1.7%) with Rickettsia sp. IRS3. The results of this study suggest simultaneous transmission of multiple tick-borne agents on Madeira Island, Portugal. PMID:18454598

  4. Intraocular inflammation as the main manifestation of Rickettsia conorii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orduña A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Archimedes LD Agahan1,3, Jenice Torres1, Graciana Fuentes-Páez1, Hernan Martínez-Osorio1, Antonio Orduña2, Margarita Calonge11Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Unit, Institute of Applied Ophthalmobiology (IOBA, 2Microbiology Department, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of the Philippines, Philippine General Hospital, Manila, PhilippinesObjective: To report the clinical features and management of seven cases of intraocular inflammation caused by Rickettsia infection and review published literature.Methods: Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia spp. infection was diagnosed based on the following criteria: (1 positive serology according to the European Guidelines, (2 titer normalization after specific treatment, and (3 complete resolution of ophthalmic disease and accompanying symptoms after antibiotic therapy.Results: Seven patients were referred for uveitis of unknown etiology. All came from regions where Mediterranean spotted fever is prevalent. One patient met the European guidelines criteria for Rickettsia spp. infection, while the other six cases met the criteria for R. conorii infection. The main symptoms were visual loss, floaters, eye redness, photophobia, and ocular pain. Predominant ophthalmic signs included vasculitis, choroiditis, vitritis, and macular edema. All patients required antibiotic treatment that resulted in the remission of the infection. Doxycycline was the first choice and the only antibiotic used to treat four patients. One patient needed ciprofloxacin as a second antibiotic after not responding to doxycycline. Two patients had doxycycline as a second antibiotic after not responding primarily to sulfonamides (which had been given after 2–3 days of doxycycline gastric intolerance; one of these patients needed ciprofloxacin as a third antibiotic.Conclusion: Intraocular inflammation can occur as the main manifestation of Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia spp. infection. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis for uveitis especially for patients living in countries where this infection is endemic in the world. Antibiotic treatment remains effective in the management of Rickettsia infection.Keywords: intraocular inflammation, Mediterranean spotted fever, Rickettsia conorii, uveitis

  5. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaasenbeek Cor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.

  6. Rickettsia rickettsii Transmission by a Lone Star Tick, North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Barbara C. Hegarty; Maggi, Ricardo G; Lantos, Paul M.; Aslett, Denise M.; Bradley, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Only indirect or circumstantial evidence has been published to support transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii by Amblyomma americanum (lone star) ticks in North America. This study provides molecular evidence that A. americanum ticks can function, although most likely infrequently, as vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever for humans.

  7. Amblyomma imitator Ticks as Vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Karla A.; Pinter, Adriano; Medina-Sanchez, Aaron; Boppana, Venkata D.; Wikel, Stephen K; Saito, Tais B; Shelite, Thomas; Blanton, Lucas; POPOV, Vsevolod; Teel, Pete D; David H Walker; Galvao, Marcio A.M.; Mafra, Claudio; BOUYER, DONALD H.

    2010-01-01

    Real-time PCR of Amblyomma imitator tick egg masses obtained in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico, identified a Rickettsia species. Sequence analyses of 17-kD common antigen and outer membrane protein A and B gene fragments showed to it to be R. rickettsii, which suggested a potential new vector for this bacterium.

  8. Genome Sequence of the Tick-Borne Pathogen Rickettsia raoultii

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Mediannikov, Oleg; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia raoultii is a tick-associated spotted fever group (SFG) organism, causing scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite (SENLAT) in humans. We report here the genome sequence of R. raoultii strain KhabarovskT (CSUR R3T, ATCC VR-1596T), which was isolated from a Dermacentor silvarum tick collected in Russia. PMID:27103706

  9. Facial nerve palsy associated with Rickettsia conorii infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsori, M; Galanakis, E.; Papadakis, C; Sbyrakis, S

    2001-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy has been occasionally attributed to infectious agents, but Rickettsiae species have not been documented as causative agents. We report two adolescent girls with facial nerve palsy and serological evidence of R conorii infection. These cases indicate that rickettsioses should be included among the causes of facial nerve palsy, particularly in endemic areas.



  10. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Equids and Molecular Detection of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in Amblyomma cajennense Sensu Lato Ticks From the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Alvair Da S; Melo, Andréia L T; Amorim, Marcus V; Borges, Alice M C M; Gaíva E Silva, Lucas; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure of equids to rickettsial agents (Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', Rickettsia rhipicephali, and Rickettsia bellii) and rickettsial infection in ticks of a Pantanal region of Brazil. Sera of 547 equids (500 horses and 47 donkeys) were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In total, 665 adults and 106 nymphal pools of Amblyomma cajennense F. sensu lato, 10 Dermacentor nitens Neumann ticks, and 88 larval pools of Amblyomma sp. were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 337 (61.6%) equids were reactive (titer ≥64) to at least one antigen of Rickettsia spp. The prevalence values for Rickettsia were 66%, and the highest endpoint titers were observed for 'Ca. R. amblyommii'. By PCR 3 (0.45%) A. cajennense s.l. females were positive for 'Ca. R. amblyommii'. Minimum infection rates of 0.75% for nymphs and 0.34% for larvae were calculated. Positive samples of ticks have had a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequenced and sequences showed 99% identity to Amblyomma sculptum Berlese. This study reports a wide exposure of equids to Rickettsia agents, and PCR evidence of infection with 'Ca. R. amblyommii', for the first time, in A. sculptum. PMID:26309313

  11. First report of the isolation and molecular characterization of Rickettsia amblyommii and Rickettsia felis in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hun, Laya; Troyo, Adriana; Taylor, Lizeth; Barbieri, Amalia M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-10-01

    During 2010, 15 adult ticks, identified as Amblyomma cajennense, were collected from horses in Cahuita and Turrialba districts, whereas 7 fleas, identified as Ctenocephalides felis, were collected from a dog in San Jose city, Costa Rica. In the laboratory, three A. cajennense specimens, two from Cahuita and one from Turrialba, were individually processed for rickettsial isolation in cell culture, as was a pool of seven fleas. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated and established in Vero cell culture from the three ticks and from a pool of seven fleas in C6/36 cell culture. The three tick isolates were genotypically identified as Rickettsia amblyommii, and the flea isolate was identified as Rickettsia felis through DNA sequencing of portions of the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB of each isolate. In addition, other seven ticks were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. Polymerase chain reaction products of at least two of these ticks were sequenced and also showed to correspond to R. amblyommii. Overall, 66.7% (10/15) of the A. cajennense adult ticks were found to be infected with rickettsiae. This is the first report of a successful isolation in cell culture of R. amblyommii and R. felis from Central America. PMID:21612539

  12. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel. PMID:26873811

  13. Ultrastructure of Rickettsia rickettsii Actin Tails and Localization of Cytoskeletal Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Van Kirk, Levi S.; Hayes, Stanley F.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Actin-based motility (ABM) is a mechanism for intercellular spread that is utilized by vaccinia virus and the invasive bacteria within the genera Rickettsia, Listeria, and Shigella. Within the Rickettsia, ABM is confined to members of the spotted fever group (SFG), such as Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Infection by each agent induces the polymerization of host cell actin to form the typical F (filamentous)-actin comet tail. Assembly of the actin tail propel...

  14. In vitro susceptibilities of spotted fever group rickettsiae and Coxiella burnetti to clarithromycin.

    OpenAIRE

    MAURIN,M; Raoult, D

    1993-01-01

    The in vitro bacteriostatic activity of clarithromycin, a new macrolide derivative, against Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, and "Rickettsia israeli" was determined by the plaque assay and the dye uptake assay. Both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of clarithromycin against the Nine Mile, Q212, Priscilla, and ME9 strains of Coxiella burnetti were evaluated by using three cell culture systems. Clarithromycin showed improved antibacterial activity compared with that of eryth...

  15. Effects of dorsal root ganglion destruction by adriamycin in patients with postherpetic neuralgia Efeitos da destruição da raiz dorsal ganglionar pela adriamicina em pacientes com neuralgia pós-herpética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chun-jing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dorsal root ganglion destruction in patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with PHN selected were randomly divided into two groups (n=36. Group A was the control group (treated by injection and group B was the group of dorsal root ganglion destruction by adriamycin. Visual analog scale scores (VAS, SAS, SF-MPQ scores. Clinical effects and therapy safety were evaluated before therapy, one week, three and six months after therapy. Forty-four patients were available for intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: The average pain scores on the Likert scale were significantly reduced at each point in group B. Patients in group B reported clinical effectiveness at six months as excellent response, good response, improved but unsatisfactory or unchanged 16, 12 and 8.VAS scores at each time point after the operation were lower than that before operation and in group A, there was significant difference. Patients showed significant improvement in sleep scores in group B. There was significant difference at T2 in group A than T1. There was no significant difference in group A at T3, T4 after the operation than that before operation. Between group comparison: there was significant difference between group A and group B at each time point after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Dorsal root ganglion destruction by adriamycin under guidance of C-arm perspective, the puncture operation was accurate without any adverse reaction or serious complications, which could effectively relieve pain of patients with postherpetic neuralgia, but the long-term effects needed further study.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da destruição da raiz dorsal ganglionar em pacientes com neuralgia pós-herpética. MÉTODOS: Setenta e dois pacientes selecionados com neuralgia pós-herpética foram randomicamente distribuídos em dois grupos (n=36. Grupo A foi o grupo controle (tratado por injeção e o grupo B foi o grupo com destruição da raiz dorsal do gânglio pela adriamicina. Os escores da Escala Analógica Visual (VAS, SAS, SF-MPQ escores, efeitos clínicos e segurança terapêutica foram avaliados as antes da terapia, uma semana, três e seis meses após a terapia. Quarenta e quatro pacientes foram avaliados pela análise de intenção-em-tratar. RESULTADOS: A média dos escores de dor na escala de Likert foi significativamente reduzida em cada ponto no grupo B. Pacientes no grupo B relataram efetividade clínica aos seis meses com excelente resposta (16, boa resposta (12, melhora mais insatisfatória ou sem modificações (8. Escores VAS a cada tempo após o procedimento foram melhores em comparação ao pré-operatório. No grupo A não foi observada diferença significativa. Pacientes mostraram melhora nos escores de dormir no grupo B. Houve diferença significante no T2 no grupo A que T1. Não houve diferença significante no grupo A nos tempos T3 e T4 após a cirurgia em relação a antes. Comparação entre os grupos: houve diferença significante entre os grupos A e B a cada tempo após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÕES: A destruição da raiz dorsal ganglionar pela adriamicina sob perspectiva guiada pelo C-arm, a cirurgia pontual foi acurada sem qualquer reação adversa ou complicação séria, que pode efetivamente aliviar a dor em pacientes com neuralgia pós-herpética, mas os efeitos de longo prazo necessitam mais estudos.

  16. ndice ganglionar y nmero de linfonodos metastsicos como factores pronsticos en cncer de colon Lymph node index as a prognostic factor for survival in stage III colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO BANNURA C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: El ndice ganglionar (IG se ha propuesto como un factor pronstico mejor que el nmero de LN positivos en cncer de colon estadio III. El objetivo es comparar estos factores en una serie clnica. Pacientes y Mtodo: Se incluyen todos los pacientes estadio III resecados con intencin curativa (R0. Se compara la sobrevida segn el nmero de LN positivos y el IG mediante el anlisis de las curvas ROC. Resultados: Se trata de 115 pacientes con un promedio de edad de 67,9 aos (extremos 25-91, el 63,4% mujeres. El compromiso en profundidad del tumor fue T2 en 3 casos, T3 en 93 casos y T4 en 19. El promedio de ganglios positivos fue 3,4 (extremos 1-34. El ndice ganglionar promedio fue 0,237 (DE: 0,197; extremos 0,031-0,882 y la mediana fue 0,1666. El 74% de los pacientes tena 1 a 3 ganglios positivos (N1 y el 26% 4 o ms ganglios positivos (N2. El seguimiento promedio fue de 67 meses (extremos 5-216, durante el cual fallecen 29 pacientes. El rea bajo la curva ROC del nmero de LN afectados (0,703; IC 95%:0,58-082 fue levemente mayor que el rea bajo la curva ROC del IG (0,690; IC 95%:0,57-0,81 (p = 0,63. Al compararlas en forma dicotmica, el IG (OR: 19,96; IC 95%:1,51-253,6 muestra una mayor capacidad de discriminacin que el nmero de LN afectados (OR: 2,55; IC 95%: 0,86-7,55. Conclusin: El nmero de LN metastsicos y el IG son factores pronsticos relevantes en la planificacin de la adyuvancia del cncer de colon estadio III.Background: The lymph node ratio in malignant tumors corresponds to the ratio between the number of involved lymph nodes and the number of examined lymph nodes. This ratio may be a good prognostic index in stage III colon cancer. Aim: To compare the lymph node ratio with the absolute number of positive lymph nodes as prognostic factors in stage III colon cancer. Material and Methods: Analysis of 115 patients aged 25 to 91 years (63% women with a stage III colon cancer operated between 1991 and 2007. Survival according to the absolute number of positive lymph nodes and the lymph node index was calculated. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves obtained after a COX regression analysis of survival, was used to analyze the prognostic value of each parameter. Results: Lymph node involvement was classified as T2 in three, T3 in 93 and T4 in 19 patients. The mean number of positive lymph nodes was 3.4 (range 1 to 34 and the mean lymph node index was 0.237 0.197 (range 0.031-0.882. Seventy four percent of patients had one to three positive lymph nodes and 24% had more than three. During a mean follow up of 67 months (range 5-216, 29 patients died. In survival analysis, the area under the ROC curve for the number of involved lymph nodes (0.703, 95 confidence intervals (CI 0.58-0.82 was slightly better than the area for lymph node index (0.69, 95% CI 0.57-0.81. Using a dichotomy analysis, a lymph node index over 0.31 had a higher discriminating value for survival (odds ratio (OR 19.96 91% CI 1.51-253.6 than the presence of 12 or more involved lymph nodes (OR 2.55 95% CI 0.86-7.55. Conclusions: The lymph node index and the absolute number of involved lymph nodes are prognostic factors in stage III colon cancer.

  17. Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii

    OpenAIRE

    Labruna, Marcelo B.; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Soares, João F; Thiago F. Martins; Soares, Herbert S.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A.; Almeida, Aliny P.; Pinter, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally infected Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). These ticks are a vector for RMSF in Brazil. R. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. However, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to R. rickettsii infection. Therefore, ...

  18. Heparin protects human endothelial cells infected by Rickettsia rickettsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, D J; Santucci, L A; Sekeyova, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Routine culture of endothelial cells currently includes the use of heparin, which significantly reduces cell doubling time and increases cell population size. Heparin protects cultured arterial endothelial cells from damage by toxic oxygen metabolites produced by the action of xanthine and xanthine oxidase. Because of our hypothesis implicating free radicals in cell injury caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, we have carried out a series of experiments to examine the effects of heparin on injury ...

  19. Limited Transcriptional Responses of Rickettsia rickettsii Exposed to Environmental Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Damon W.; Clark, Tina R.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Hackstadt, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Rickettsiae are strict obligate intracellular pathogens that alternate between arthropod and mammalian hosts in a zoonotic cycle. Typically, pathogenic bacteria that cycle between environmental sources and mammalian hosts adapt to the respective environments by coordinately regulating gene expression such that genes essential for survival and virulence are expressed only upon infection of mammals. Temperature is a common environmental signal for upregulation of virulence gene expression altho...

  20. Latex-Rickettsia rickettsii test reactivity in seropositive patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hechemy, K E; Rubin, B B

    1983-01-01

    In correlating results obtained from a new latex-Rickettsia rickettsii test with results obtained from a reference microimmunofluorescence test for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, we found that for seropositive patients each microimmunofluorescence titer (up to 4,096) was usually double the median titer obtained from the latex-R. rickettsii test. The pattern of immunoserological response indicated that latex-R. rickettsii is reactive with sera containing either anti-R. rickettsii immunoglobulin...

  1. Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.  Created: 6/9/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/24/2010.

  2. Patterns and Processes of Molecular Evolution in Rickettsia

    OpenAIRE

    Amiri, Haleh

    2002-01-01

    Species of the genus Rickettsia are obligate intracellular parasites of the a-proteobacterial subdivision. It has been suggested that obligate intracellular bacteria have evolved from free-living bacteria with much larger genome sizes. Transitions to intracellular growth habitats are normally associated with radical genomic alterations, particularly genome rearrangements and gene losses. This thesis presents a comparative study of evolutionary processes such as gene rearrangements, deletions ...

  3. Horizontal transmission of Rickettsia felis between cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis

    OpenAIRE

    Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Thepparit, Chutima; Foil, Lane D.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is a rickettsial pathogen primarily associated with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. Although laboratory studies have confirmed that R. felis is maintained by transstadial and transovarial transmission in C. felis, distinct mechanisms of horizontal transmission of R. felis among cat fleas are undefined. Based on the inefficient vertical transmission of R. felis by cat fleas and the detection of R. felis in a variety of haematophagous arthropods, we hypothesize that R. fel...

  4. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia typhi in Cats and Fleas

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueras, Maria Mercedes; Pons, Immaculada; Ortuño Romero, Anna M.; Miret, Jaime; Pla, Júlia; Castellà Espuny, Joaquim; Segura, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Background Rickettsia typhi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT), a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R . typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat h...

  5. Detección molecular de Rickettsia massiliae y Anaplasma platys en garrapatas Rhipicephalus sanguineus y caninos domésticos del municipio de Bahía Blanca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel L Cicuttin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis son causadas por bacterias gramnegativas, intracelulares obligadas y transmitidas principalmente por artrópodos. Objetivo: Detectar y caracterizar molecularmente estos patógenos en garrapatas y caninos domésticos del municipio de Bahía Blanca (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron 56 muestras sanguíneas de caninos, 75 garrapatas Rhipicephalus sanguineus y 7 Amblyomma tigrinum. Las muestras fueron analizadas por RPC para Rickettsia (espacio intergénico 23S-5S ARNr, Ehrlichia y Anaplasma (16S ARNr, y Anaplasma platys (16S ARNr. Resultados: Se detectó positividad a Rickettsia en 12% de R. sanguineus, identificándose por secuenciación a Rickettsia massiliae. Las muestras sanguíneas de los caninos resultaron en 37,5% positivas a A. platys. También se caracterizaron molecularmente por la amplificación del fragmento del gen citrato sintasa (gltA (género Rickettsia y del gen groESL (A. platys. Se construyeron árboles filogenéticos utilizando el método del vecino más cercano (neighbor-joining revelando que las secuencias obtenidas son similares a las de otras regiones geográficas. Conclusión: Los resultados indican la presencia de R. massiliae en garrapatas R. sanguineus en una segunda zona urbana de Sudamérica y la infección por A. platys en caninos, siendo la región más austral de Argentina donde ha sido notificada.

  6. Rickettsia felis infection in cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio C. Horta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the rickettsial infection in a laboratory colony of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche in Brazil. All flea samples (30 eggs, 30 larvae, 30 cocoons, 30 males, and 30 females tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. PCR products, corresponding to the rickettsial gltA, htrA, ompA and ompB gene partial sequences were sequenced and showed to correspond to Rickettsia felis, indicating that the flea colony was 100% infected by R. felis. The immunofluorescence assay (IFA showed the presence of R. felis-reactive antibodies in blood sera of 7 (87.5% out of 8 cats that were regularly used to feed the flea colony. From 15 humans that used to work with the flea colony in the laboratory, 6 (40.0% reacted positively to R. felis by IFA. Reactive feline and human sera showed low endpoint titers against R. felis, varying from 64 to 256. With the exception of one human serum, all R. felis-reactive sera were also reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii and/or Rickettsia parkeri antigens at similar titers to R. felis. The single human serum that was reactive solely to R. felis had an endpoint titer of 256, indicating that this person was infected by R. felis.

  7. Spotted fever group rickettsiae detected in immature stages of ticks parasitizing on Iberian endemic lizard Lacerta schreiberi Bedriaga, 1878

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubelová, M.; Papoušek, I.; Bělohlávek, T.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Široký, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2015), s. 711-714. ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Spotted fever group rickettsiae * Rickettsia monacensis * Rickettsia helvetica * Ixodes ricinus * Lacerta schreiberi Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  8. Seroprevalencia de Hantavirus, Rickettsia y Chikungunya en población indígena del municipio de Tuchín, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Barrera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La vigilancia de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores es importante para establecer medidas de control en salud pública. Las poblaciones indígenas de Córdoba viven en condiciones geoclimáticas que favorecen la presencia de vectores que podrían permitir la diseminación y aparición de hantavirosis, rickettsiosis y fiebre por el virus Chikungunya. Objetivo: Establecer la seroprevalencia de Hantavirus, Rickettsia sp. y Chikungunya en la población indígena de Tuchín, Córdoba. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 190 individuos del resguardo indígena del municipio de Tuchín; el muestreo fue realizado entre agosto y diciembre del 2012. La detección de anticuerpos IgG contra Hantavirus se llevó a cabo con la prueba IgG DxSelectTM (Focus Technologies, EL1600G, California, EE. UU., anticuerpos IgG contra Rickettsia sp. se determinaron por inmunofluorescencia indirecta y se realizó detección de anticuerpos IgG contra el virus Chikungunya mediante ELISA de captura (Nova-Tec, inmunodiagnostica GmbH, CHIG0590, Alemania. Resultados: De 190 sueros analizados, el 5,2% (10/190 fueron positivos para Rickettsia sp. del grupo de la fiebre manchada, para Hantavirus 7 de 87 (8% fueron positivos y no se encontraron positivos para Chikungunya. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (p = 0,05 entre los seropositivos de Hantavirus y Rickettsia sp. para las variables género, edad y ocupación. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos demuestran exposición previa a Rickettsia sp. y a Hantavirus en la población indígena de Tuchín. Los resultados pueden ser útiles para establecer una alerta sobre estas fiebres hemorrágicas. Aunque no se hallaron seropositivos para Chikungunya, este fue el primer trabajo de vigilancia epidemiológica realizado en Colombia sobre este virus.

  9. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, Joo Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Gin, Gastn Andrs Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  10. Serological evidence for exposure of dogs to Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia typhi, and Orientia tsutsugamushi in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Devathri M; Rajapakse, R P V J; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Kularatne, Senanayaka A M

    2013-08-01

    Vector-borne rickettsial infection is a major cause of febrile illnesses throughout the world. Although vertebrates hosting the vectors play a vital role in the natural cycle of rickettsiae, studies have not been conducted on them in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the exposure of dog population in Rajawatta, Thambavita, and areas of the Western Slopes and Unawatuna of Sri Lanka to rickettsial pathogens. A total of 123 dog blood samples were collected from those areas. Samples were tested for antibodies against Rickettsia conorii (RC) of the spotted fever group (SFG), Rickettsia typhi (RT) of the typhus group (TG), and Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) of the scrub typhus group (ST) of rickettsiae by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFA). Samples with titers ≥ 1:64 were considered as positive in this study. Collectively, 49% dogs were found to have antibodies against the rickettsial agents. Of the dogs, 42%, 24%, and 2% had antibodies against RC, OT, and RT, respectively. The seropositive rate of 100% was observed in areas of the Western Slopes, whereas the lowest rate of 20% was in Unawatuna. Among the positive samples, antibody titers against RC and OT ranged from 1/64 to 1/8192. In contrast, the few dogs that tested positive for RT showed very low titers of 1/64 and 1/128. Results of this study show the extent of exposure to the pathogen and its dispersion in the natural ecology. We suggest that dogs could be acting as reservoirs in the rickettsial transmission cycle or could be effective tracer animals that can be used to detect areas with potential for future outbreaks. PMID:23930973

  11. High prevalence of Rickettsia spp. infections in small mammals in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance for Rickettsia spp. is urgently needed due to the recent emergence of many novel rickettsioses around the globe, but previous studies in Taiwan have been limited to small areas and no investigation of infections in vertebrate hosts has ever been attempted. We surveyed rickettsial infections systematically in small-mammal hosts trapped between 2006 and 2010 throughout Taiwan. Fragments of ompB and gltA genes in the liver, spleen, and kidney of mammals were targeted by nested polymerase chain reaction. We trapped 1375 individuals of 10 species, among which Rattus losea was the most common (54.6%), followed by Suncus murinus (20.6%) and Mus caroli (10.6%). The overall rate of Rickettsia infections in the liver, spleen, or kidney of 309 assayed small mammals was 60.5%, with a rate of infection ≥50% for each mammal species. DNA nucleotide sequences of 184 successfully sequenced genes were most similar to nine Rickettsia species: Rickettsia conorii, R. felis, R. japonica, R. raoultii, R. rickettsii, Rickettsia sp. IG-1, Rickettsia sp. TwKM01, Rickettsia sp. TwKM02, and R. typhi. Our results suggest that several novel Rickettsia spp. are common and widespread across various habitats throughout Taiwan and suggest the need for further study of emerging rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:25629776

  12. New Rickettsiae in ticks collected in territories of the former soviet union.

    OpenAIRE

    Rydkina, E.; Roux, V; Rudakov, N.; Gafarova, M.; Tarasevich, I.; Raoult, D.

    1999-01-01

    Dermacentor nuttallii from Siberia, Rhipicephalus sanguineus from Crimea, and Rh. pumilio from the Astrakhan region were infected with Rickettsia sibirica (12%), R. conorii (8%), and the Astrakhan fever agent (3%), respectively. Three new Rickettsiae of the R. massiliae genogroup were identified in ticks by 16S rDNA, gltA, and ompA sequencing.

  13. Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 20112012

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Muriel; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Cline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D; Pascalis, Herv; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances.

  14. High Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. Infections in Small Mammals in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surveillance for Rickettsia spp. is urgently needed due to the recent emergence of many novel rickettsioses around the globe, but previous studies in Taiwan have been limited to small areas and no investigation of infections in vertebrate hosts has ever been attempted. We surveyed rickettsial infections systematically in small-mammal hosts trapped between 2006 and 2010 throughout Taiwan. Fragments of ompB and gltA genes in the liver, spleen, and kidney of mammals were targeted by nested polymerase chain reaction. We trapped 1375 individuals of 10 species, among which Rattus losea was the most common (54.6%), followed by Suncus murinus (20.6%) and Mus caroli (10.6%). The overall rate of Rickettsia infections in the liver, spleen, or kidney of 309 assayed small mammals was 60.5%, with a rate of infection ≥50% for each mammal species. DNA nucleotide sequences of 184 successfully sequenced genes were most similar to nine Rickettsia species: Rickettsia conorii, R. felis, R. japonica, R. raoultii, R. rickettsii, Rickettsia sp. IG-1, Rickettsia sp. TwKM01, Rickettsia sp. TwKM02, and R. typhi. Our results suggest that several novel Rickettsia spp. are common and widespread across various habitats throughout Taiwan and suggest the need for further study of emerging rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:25629776

  15. A prospective study evaluating the presence of Rickettsia in Danish patients with sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Claus Bo; Milman, Nils; Nielsen, Henrik Winther; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Larsen, Klaus Richter

    2009-01-01

    Rickettsia helvetica has previously been proposed as an aetiological agent in sarcoidosis. The purpose of the present study was to detect possible signs of Rickettsia infection in a Danish population of patients with sarcoidosis. Twenty-six patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis were prospecti......Rickettsia helvetica has previously been proposed as an aetiological agent in sarcoidosis. The purpose of the present study was to detect possible signs of Rickettsia infection in a Danish population of patients with sarcoidosis. Twenty-six patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis were...... prospectively enrolled in the study. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy in 18 and by clinical characteristics in 8 patients; 11 patients with different non-sarcoid lung diseases were recruited as controls. We obtained information regarding tick exposure and sarcoid disease manifestations by a structured...... difference in the reported frequency of tick bite between patients and controls. In conclusion, we found no evidence of Rickettsia being involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis in Denmark....

  16. Molecular and Functional Analysis of the lepB Gene, Encoding a Type I Signal Peptidase from Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Simser, Jason A.; MaCaluso, Kevin R.; Azad, Abdu F.

    2003-01-01

    The type I signal peptidase lepB genes from Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia typhi, the etiologic agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and murine typhus, respectively, were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis of the cloned lepB genes from R. rickettsii and R. typhi shows open reading frames of 801 and 795 nucleotides, respectively. Alignment analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences reveals the presence of highly conserved motifs that are important for the catalytic activity ...

  17. Detección de Rickettsia spp. en Suero y Garrapatas de Mamíferos Silvestres en Cautiverio en Montería, Córdoba -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Wehdeking-Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas son causadas por bacterias intracelulares pertenecientes al grupo de las fiebres manchadas del género Rickettsia. Estas zoonosis son algunas de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores de más antiguo conocimiento‚ e incluyen dentro de su ciclo de transmisión diversas especies de mamíferos. No obstante‚ en Colombia existen pocos trabajos enfocados a conocer la dinámica de las rickettsiosis en animales silvestres. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar‚ por medio de la técnica de PCR en tiempo real‚ la presencia de Rickettsia spp.‚ en muestras de suero y garrapatas colectadas en mamíferos mantenidos en cautiverio en el Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre de la Corporación autónoma Regional de los Valles del Sinú y San Jorge CAV-CVS‚ entre los años 2009 y 2014. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de 14 felinos‚ de las especies Leopardus pardalis (10‚ Puma concolor (3 y Panthera onca (1; de 58 primates‚ correspondientes a las especies Ateles geofroyii (17‚ Alouatta seniculus (14‚ Cebus capucinus (14‚ Saguinus oedipus (6‚ Cebus albifrons (4 Aotus sp. (2 y Ateles belzebuth (1; y de otros mamíferos: Tayassu pecari (1‚ Procyon cancrivorous (1 y Cerdocyon thous (1. En cuanto a las garrapatas‚ se colectaron e identificaron individuos del género Haemaphysalis sp. en un ejemplar de Sylvilagus sp.‚ y de las especies Amblyomma ovale‚ Riphicephalus microplus y Dermacentor nitens en P. concolor. Posteriormente fueron organizadas en pool. No se encontraron muestras de suero positivas a Rickettsia spp. (0/72. Se detectó un pool de garrapatas de la especie A. ovale positivo a este microorganismo. Este es el primer reporte en Colombia de ectoparásitos de Puma concolor positivos a Rickettsia spp. Se requiere continuar con los muestreos de ectoparásitos para determinar si este microorganismo se encuentra circulante entre mamíferos silvestres en el país.

  18. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia Species Within Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from Arkansas United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C

    2015-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases. PMID:26334827

  19. Shell-vial culture and real-time PCR applied to Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Ferran; Pons, Immaculada; Pla, Júlia; Nogueras, María-Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    Murine typhus is a zoonosis transmitted by fleas, whose etiological agent is Rickettsia typhi. Rickettsia felis infection can produces similar symptoms. Both are intracellular microorganisms. Therefore, their diagnosis is difficult and their infections can be misdiagnosed. Early diagnosis prevents severity and inappropriate treatment regimens. Serology can't be applied during the early stages of infection because it requires seroconversion. Shell-vial (SV) culture assay is a powerful tool to detect Rickettsia. The aim of the study was to optimize SV using a real-time PCR as monitoring method. Moreover, the study analyzes which antibiotics are useful to isolate these microorganisms from fleas avoiding contamination by other bacteria. For the first purpose, SVs were inoculated with each microorganism. They were incubated at different temperatures and monitored by real-time PCR and classical methods (Gimenez staining and indirect immunofluorescence assay). R. typhi grew at all temperatures. R. felis grew at 28 and 32 °C. Real-time PCR was more sensitive than classical methods and it detected microorganisms much earlier. Besides, the assay sensitivity was improved by increasing the number of SV. For the second purpose, microorganisms and fleas were incubated and monitored in different concentrations of antibiotics. Gentamicin, sufamethoxazole, trimethoprim were useful for R. typhi isolation. Gentamicin, streptomycin, penicillin, and amphotericin B were useful for R. felis isolation. Finally, the optimized conditions were used to isolate R. felis from fleas collected at a veterinary clinic. R. felis was isolated at 28 and 32 °C. However, successful establishment of cultures were not possible probably due to sub-optimal conditions of samples. PMID:26289162

  20. A ocorrência de riquetsioses do grupo Rickettsia rickettsii Occurrence of rickettsiosis of the group Rickettsia rickettsii

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva A. Portari Mancini; Elvira M. Mendes Nascimento; Valéria Rosa Tavares; Murillo Adelino Soares

    1983-01-01

    Foi realizada revisão da literatura com objetivo de atualizar as informações sobre a ocorrência de riquetsioses do grupo Rickettsia rickettsii. Verificou-se que nos EUA e Europa, a incidência da febre maculosa, vem aumentando desde 1970 até hoje. No Brasil, foi relatado um caso presuntivo, no estado da Bahia, em 1979. Com relação a prevenção, controle e tratamento dessa doença é salientada a importância de informações relacionadas com indivíduos expostos a picadas de carrapatos, notificação d...

  1. Antibodies to Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Spanish Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lled, Lourdes; Serrano, Jos Luis; Isabel Gegndez, Mara; Gimnez-Pardo, Consuelo; Vicente Saz, Jos

    2016-01-01

    We examined 314 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Soria, Spain, for Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia slovaca, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Immunofluorescence assays showed 1.9% had antibodies to R. typhi, 6.7% had antibodies to R. slovaca, and 8.3% had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Serostatus was not correlated with sex or age. Because red foxes can be infected by Rickettsiae and B. burgdorferi, presence of red foxes may be and indicator for the presence of these pathogens. PMID:26540334

  2. Genetic characterization and transovarial transmission of a typhus-like rickettsia found in cat fleas.

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, A F; Sacci, J B; Nelson, W. M.; Dasch, G. A.; Schmidtmann, E T; Carl, M.

    1992-01-01

    The identification of apparently fastidious microorganisms is often problematic. DNA from a rickettsia-like agent (called the ELB agent) present in cat fleas could be amplified by PCR with conserved primers derived from rickettsial 17-kDa common protein antigen and citrate synthase genes but not spotted fever group 190-kDa antigen gene. Alu I sites in both the 17-kDa and citrate synthase PCR products obtained with the rickettsia-like agent and Rickettsia typhi were different even though both ...

  3. Isolamento de Rickettsia em cultura de células vero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melles Heloisa Helena Barbosa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora o diagnóstico da febre maculosa baseie-se em sinais e sintomas característicos, o mesmo requer confirmação laboratorial, pois existem alguns diagnósticos diferenciais possíveis como meningococcemia, leptospirose, infecção por enterovírus e febre tifóide. A confirmação laboratorial pode ser feita através da pesquisa de anticorpos específicos, possível somente alguns dias após o aparecimento da doença, através do isolamento do agente em amostras de sangue e/ou biópsia de pele, e ainda, de amostras de carrapatos coletados do paciente ou de animais reservatório. O isolamento a partir de sangue ou biópsia de pele resulta em diagnóstico precoce da doença, pois na fase de rickettsemia ainda não há anticorpos detectáveis no sangue. Assim, com o objetivo de facilitar o diagnóstico precoce da febre maculosa, estabelecemos um método de isolamento de rickettsia em cultura de células vero. Para a padronização foi inoculada amostra padrão de Rickettsia rickettsii, cepa Sheyla Smith, cedida pelo CDC. A identificação foi feita através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta. A presença de microrganismos verdes fluorescentes visualizados no interior do citoplasma das células caracterizou o crescimento do agente. Posteriormente, a metodologia foi confirmada pelo isolamento do agente da febre maculosa em amostras de biópsia de pele de paciente proveniente de área endêmica no Estado de São Paulo, bem como, de amostras de carrapato do gênero Amblyomma, considerado o reservatório e transmissor da doença no Brasil.

  4. Detection of Rickettsia parkeri from within Piura, Peru, and the first reported presence of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Florin, David; Felices, Vidal; Pozo, Edwar J; Graf, Paul C F; Burrus, Roxanne G; Richards, Allen L

    2013-07-01

    Domestic farm animals (n=145) were sampled for the presence of ectoparasites in northwestern Peru during March, 2008. Ninety domestic animals (62%) were positive for the presence of an ectoparasite(s) and produced a total collection of the following: 728 ticks [Amblyomma maculatum, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Otobius megnini], 12 lice (Haematopinus suis), and 3 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). A Rickettsia genus-specific qPCR assay was performed on nucleic acid preparations of the collected ectoparasites that resulted in 5% (37/743, 35 ticks and 2 fleas) of the ectoparasites positive for the presence of Rickettsia. DNA from the positive individual ticks was tested with 2 other qPCR assays for the presence of the ompB gene in Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae or Rickettsia parkeri. Candidatus R. andeanae was found in 25 A. maculatum ticks and in two Rh. sanguineus ticks, whereas R. parkeri was detected in 6 A. maculatum ticks. Two A. maculatum were co-infected with both Candidatus R. andeanae and R. parkeri. Rickettsia felis was detected in 2 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, by multilocus sequence typing of the 17-kD antigen and ompA genes. These findings expand the geographic range of R. parkeri to include Peru as well as expand the natural arthropod vector of Candidatus R. andeanae to include Rhipicephalus sanguineus. PMID:23488453

  5. Analysis of the Rickettsia africae genome reveals that virulence acquisition in Rickettsia species may be explained by genome reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audic Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rickettsia genus includes 25 validated species, 17 of which are proven human pathogens. Among these, the pathogenicity varies greatly, from the highly virulent R. prowazekii, which causes epidemic typhus and kills its arthropod host, to the mild pathogen R. africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever, which does not affect the fitness of its tick vector. Results We evaluated the clonality of R. africae in 70 patients and 155 ticks, and determined its genome sequence, which comprises a circular chromosome of 1,278,540 bp including a tra operon and an unstable 12,377-bp plasmid. To study the genetic characteristics associated with virulence, we compared this species to R. prowazekii, R. rickettsii and R. conorii. R. africae and R. prowazekii have, respectively, the less and most decayed genomes. Eighteen genes are present only in R. africae including one with a putative protease domain upregulated at 37°C. Conclusion Based on these data, we speculate that a loss of regulatory genes causes an increase of virulence of rickettsial species in ticks and mammals. We also speculate that in Rickettsia species virulence is mostly associated with gene loss. The genome sequence was deposited in GenBank under accession number [GenBank: NZ_AAUY01000001].

  6. Detection of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wild and domestic mammals from the Private Reserve Cerro Chucanti and neighboring towns, Panam (2007-2010 Deteccin de Rickettsia sp. en ectoparsitos de animales domsticos y silvestres de la Reserva Natural Privada Cerro Chucant y comunidades aledaas, Panam (2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Eduardo Bermdez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ectoparasites are the main vectors of rickettsiosis. In Panama, have limited data on the arthropods that may be considered vectors or reservoirs.
    Objectives. The aim is to present data on the presence of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wildlife and domestic animals in the Private Natural Reserve Cerro Chucant and neighboring villages.
    Materials and methods. We evaluated 9 humans, 95 domestic mammals and 48 wild. From these, were 21 species of ectoparasites, including fleas, lice, ticks and mites, which were preserved in 95% ethanol. Genetic material was extracted from ticks and fleas to be analyzed by molecular techniques in the detection of Rickettsia.
    Results. A total of 425 were carried out PCR reactions, of which 270 were positive and 155 negative. The positive, 86 PCR amplified for the gltA gene (55% of positives of these also amplified 41 (26% for ompA. DNA of Rickettsia amblyommii was found in horses ticks (Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor nitens, dogs ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and free living nymph in forest. Adicionally, DNA of R. felis was found in dogs fleas Ctenocephalides felis.
    Conclusions. Detected the presence of R. amblyommii and R. felis in ticks and fleas of domestic animals of the villages near Cerro Chucanti, even if they were unable to find genetic material from Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wildlife.

    Introduccin. Los ectoparsitos son los principales vectores de rickettsiosis. En Panam se tienen escasos datos sobre los artrpodos que pudieran ser considerados vectores o reservorios.
    Objetivos. Presentar datos sobre la presencia de Rickettsia en ectoparsitos de fauna silvestre y animales domsticos en la Reserva Natural Privada Cerro Chucant y poblados vecinos.
    Materiales y mtodos. Se revisaron 9 personas, 95 mamferos domsticos y 48 silvestres. Los animales domsticos fueron revisados con anuencia del propietario, mientras que para la captura de fauna silvestre se capturaron con trampas Sherman y Tomahawk. De estos se extrajeron 21 especies de ectoparsitos: pulgas, piojos, garrapatas y otros caros, los cuales fueron preservados en etanol al 95%. Se extrajo material gentico de garrapatas y pulgas para ser analizados por tcnicas moleculares en la deteccin de Rickettsia.
    Resultados. Se realizaron 425 reacciones de PCR, de los cuales 270 resultaron negativos y 155 positivos. De los positivos, 86 amplificaron para el gen gltA (55% de los positivos, de estos tambin amplificaron 41 (26% para ompA. Se encontr material gentico de Rickettsia amblyommii, en garrapatas de caballos (Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor nitens, de perros (Rhipicephalus sanguineus y ninfas de Amblyomma recolectadas en el bosque. Adicionalmente se detect ADN de R. felis en pulgas Ctenocephalides felis de perros.
    Conclusiones. Se pudo detectar la presencia de R. amblyommii y R. felis en garrapatas y pulgas de animales domsticos de los poblados cercanos a Cerro Chucanti, aun cuando no se pudo encontrar material gentico de Rickettsia en ectoparsitos de fauna silvestre.

  7. Investigation of Rickettsia, Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella in ticks from animals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halajian, Ali; Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Heyne, Heloise; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Oteo, José A

    2016-03-01

    Ticks are involved in the epidemiology of several human pathogens including spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. Human diseases caused by these microorganisms have been reported from South Africa. The presence of SFG Rickettsia spp., C. burnetii and Bartonella spp. was investigated in 205 ticks collected from domestic and wild animals from Western Cape and Limpopo provinces (South Africa). Rickettsia massiliae was detected in 10 Amblyomma sylvaticum and 1 Rhipicephalus simus whereas Rickettsia africae was amplified in 7 Amblyomma hebraeum. Neither C. burnetii nor Bartonella spp. was found in the examined ticks. This study demonstrates the presence of the tick borne pathogen R. massiliae in South Africa (Western Cape and Limpopo provinces), and corroborates the presence of the African tick-bite fever agent (R. africae) in this country (Limpopo province). PMID:26718068

  8. Prevalence and diversity of human pathogenic rickettsiae in urban versus rural habitats, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Sndor; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke; Rig, Krisztina; Jablonszky, Mnika; Majoros, Gbor; Sprong, Hein; Fldvri, Gbor

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses belong to the important emerging infectious diseases worldwide. We investigated the potential human exposure to rickettsiae by determining their presence in questing ticks collected in an urban park of Budapest and a popular hunting and recreational forest area in southern Hungary. Differences were found in the infectious risk between the two habitats. Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica were identified with sequencing in questing Ixodes ricinus, the only ticks species collected in the city park. Female I. ricinus had a particularly high prevalence of R. helvetica (45%). Tick community was more diverse in the rural habitat with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks having especially high percentage (58%) of Rickettsia raoultii infection. We conclude that despite the distinct eco-epidemiological traits, the risk (hazard and exposure) of acquiring human pathogenic rickettsial infections in both the urban and the rural study sites exists. PMID:26613759

  9. Seroepidemiologic Study of Human Infections with Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Meagan F.; Delisle, Josie; Johnson, Joey; Daves, Gaylen; Williams, Carl; Reber, Jodi; Mendell, Nicole L; BOUYER, DONALD H.; Nicholson, William L; Moncayo, Abelardo C.; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing entomologic and epidemiologic evidence suggests that spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) other than Rickettsia rickettsii are responsible for spotted fever rickettsioses in the United States. A retrospective seroepidemiologic study was conducted on stored acute- and convalescent-phase sera that had been submitted for Rocky Mountain spotted fever testing to the North Carolina State Laboratory of Public Health. We evaluated the serologic reactivity of the paired sera to R. rickett...

  10. Identification of Novel Surface-Exposed Proteins of Rickettsia rickettsii by Affinity Purification and Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Wenping; Xiong, Xiaolu; Qi, Yong; Jiao, Jun; Duan, Changsong; Wen, Bohai

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is the most pathogenic member among Rickettsia spp. Surface-exposed proteins (SEPs) of R. rickettsii may play important roles in its pathogenesis or immunity. In this study, R. rickettsii organisms were surface-labeled with sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and the labeled proteins were affinity-purified with streptavidin. The isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 10 proteins were identified among...

  11. Dynamics of Actin-Based Movement by Rickettsia rickettsii in Vero Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Heinzen, Robert A.; Grieshaber, Scott S; Van Kirk, Levi S.; Devin, Clinton J

    1999-01-01

    Actin-based motility (ABM) is a virulence mechanism exploited by invasive bacterial pathogens in the genera Listeria, Shigella, and Rickettsia. Due to experimental constraints imposed by the lack of genetic tools and their obligate intracellular nature, little is known about rickettsial ABM relative to Listeria and Shigella ABM systems. In this study, we directly compared the dynamics and behavior of ABM of Rickettsia rickettsii and Listeria monocytogenes. A time-lapse video of moving intrace...

  12. Anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies in free-ranging and captive capybaras from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda S. Fortes; Leonilda C. Santos; Zalmir S. Cubas; Ivan R. Barros-Filho; Biondo, Alexander W.; Iara Silveira; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Marcelo B. Molento

    2011-01-01

    Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) are among the main hosts of Amblyomma spp. ticks, which is able to transmit Rickettsia species to human beings and animals. Since they are often infested with potential vector ticks, capybaras may be used as sentinels for rickettsiosis, such as the Brazilian Spotted Fever. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in 21 free-ranging and 10 captive an...

  13. Host Defenses to Rickettsia rickettsii Infection Contribute to Increased Microvascular Permeability in Human Cerebral Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Michael E; Olano, Juan P

    2007-01-01

    Rickettsiae are arthropod-borne intracellular bacterial pathogens that primarily infect the microvascular endothelium leading to systemic spread of the organisms and the major pathophysiological effect, increased microvascular permeability, and edema in vital organs such as the lung and brain. Much work has been done on mechanisms of immunity to rickettsiae, as well as the responses of endothelial cells to rickettsial invasion. However, to date, no one has described the mechanisms of increase...

  14. Primary isolation of spotted fever group rickettsiae from Amblyomma cooperi collected from Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in Brazil

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    Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first isolation of a spotted fever group rickettsia from an Amblyomma cooperi ixodid collected from a capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in an endemic area of spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Isolation was performed in Vero cell culture and submitted to immunofluorescence, using antibody from Rickettsia rickettsii-positive human serum.

  15. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii antibodies in human sera by crossed immunoelectrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Anacker, R L; Philip, R N; Wilfert, C. M.; Kleeman, K T; L.; Turner; MacCormack, J N; Hechemy, K E

    1983-01-01

    To identify Rickettsia rickettsii antigens of immunological importance, we examined sera from patients with serologically confirmed cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever by crossed immunoelectrophoresis for antibodies to antigens extracted from the R strain of R. rickettsii with the detergent Triton X-100. Sixteen antigens were identified in the detergent extract by crossed immunoelectrophoresis with a hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against whole rickettsiae. When the rabbit antiserum was pl...

  16. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Emília de Carvalho Nunes; Vinicius Figueiredo Vizzoni; Daniel Leal Navarro; Felipe Campos de Melo Iani; Liliane Silva Durães; Erik Daemon; Carlos Augusto Gomes Soares; Gilberto Salles Gazeta

    2015-01-01

    The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF) disease. In the present study, a SF groupRickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA,ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyommii str. JF, ...

  17. Bartonella clarridgeiae, B. henselae and Rickettsia felis in fleas from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    BOUDEBOUCH, N; Sarih, M.; BEAUCOURNU, J-C; Amarouch, H.; Hassar, M.; Raoult, D.; Parola, P.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 554 fleas were collected in the Moroccan Casablanca and Tiznit regions from domesticated animals and ruminants between August 2007 and October 2008 and were tested for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. using molecular methods. For the first time in Morocco, we found Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever in Ctenocephalides felis; B. henselae, an agent of cat scratch disease; and Bartonella clarridgeiae, a cat pathogen and potentially a human patho...

  18. In Vitro Stimulation of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Soluble and Membrane Fractions of Renografin-Purified Typhus Group Rickettsiae

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, A. Louis; Dasch, Gregory A.; Strong, Douglas M.

    1980-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of disrupted Renografin-purified Rickettsia typhi and R. prowazekii were evaluated as antigens in lymphocyte transformation assays for cell-mediated immunity to typhus group rickettsiae in 19 individuals with and 9 without histories of exposure to these organisms. Exposure consisted of clinical disease, vaccination with epidemic typhus vaccine, or occupational exposure to these agents. Both the soluble and membrane fractions of disrupted purified rickettsiae were used, and ...

  19. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in Dog and Cat Fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier,; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs ...

  20. Conditional fitness benefits of the Rickettsia bacterial symbiont in an insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Bodil N; Himler, Anna G; Bondy, Elizabeth C; Bergen, Jacquelyn E; Fung, Sierra K; Kelly, Suzanne E; Hunter, Martha S

    2016-01-01

    Inherited bacterial symbionts are common in arthropods and can have strong effects on the biology of their hosts. These effects are often mediated by host ecology. The Rickettsia symbiont can provide strong fitness benefits to its insect host, Bemisia tabaci, under laboratory and field conditions. However, the frequency of the symbiont is heterogeneous among field collection sites across the USA, suggesting that the benefits of the symbiont are contingent on additional factors. In two whitefly genetic lines collected from the same location, we tested the effect of Rickettsia on whitefly survival after heat shock, on whitefly competitiveness at different temperatures, and on whitefly competitiveness at different starting frequencies of Rickettsia. Rickettsia did not provide protection against heat shock nor affect the competitiveness of whiteflies at different temperatures or starting frequencies. However, there was a strong interaction between Rickettsia infection and whitefly genetic line. Performance measures indicated that Rickettsia was associated with significant female bias in both whitefly genetic lines, but in the second whitefly genetic line it conferred no significant fitness benefits nor conferred any competitive advantage to its host over uninfected whiteflies in population cages. These results help to explain other reports of variation in the phenotype of the symbiosis. Furthermore, they demonstrate the complex nature of these close symbiotic associations and the need to consider these interactions in the context of host population structure. PMID:26376661

  1. Genome sequence of Rickettsia bellii illuminates the role of amoebae in gene exchanges between intracellular pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently sequenced Rickettsia felis genome revealed an unexpected plasmid carrying several genes usually associated with DNA transfer, suggesting that ancestral rickettsiae might have been endowed with a conjugation apparatus. Here we present the genome sequence of Rickettsia bellii, the earliest diverging species of known rickettsiae. The 1,552,076 base pair-long chromosome does not exhibit the colinearity observed between other rickettsia genomes, and encodes a complete set of putative conjugal DNA transfer genes most similar to homologues found in Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25, an obligate symbiont of amoebae. The genome exhibits many other genes highly similar to homologues in intracellular bacteria of amoebae. We sought and observed sex pili-like cell surface appendages for R. bellii. We also found that R. bellii very efficiently multiplies in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and survives in the phagocytic amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga. These results suggest that amoeba-like ancestral protozoa could have served as a genetic "melting pot" where the ancestors of rickettsiae and other bacteria promiscuously exchanged genes, eventually leading to their adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle within eukaryotic cells.

  2. Molecular evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae and Anaplasmataceae from ticks and stray dogs in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongjin; Nakao, Ryo; Thu, May June; Akter, Shirin; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Kato, Satomi; Katakura, Ken; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2016-03-01

    Emerging tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are important foci for human and animal health worldwide. However, these diseases are sometimes over looked, especially in countries with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Anaplasmataceae in Bangladesh, which are important tick-borne pathogens for humans and animals worldwide. A total of 50 canine blood samples, 15 ticks collected from dogs, and 154 ticks collected from cattle were screened for the presence of SFG rickettsiae and Anaplasmataceae using molecular-based methods such as PCR and real-time PCR. The sequence analysis of the amplified products detected two different genotypes of SFG rickettsiae in ticks from cattle. The genotype detected in Rhipicephalus microplus was closely related to Rickettsia monacensis, while the genotype detected in Haemaphysalis bispinosa was closely related to Rickettsia sp. found in Korea and Japan. Anaplasma bovis was detected in canine blood and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and H. bispinosa). Unexpectedly, the partial genome sequence of Wolbachia sp., presumably associated with the nematode Dirofilaria immitis, was identified in canine blood. The present study provides the first molecular evidence of SFG rickettsiae and A. bovis in Bangladesh, indicating the possible emergence of previously unrecognized TBDs in this country. PMID:26573516

  3. Detection of antibodies anti-Rickettsia spp. in dogs and horses in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Amorim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the infection caused by Rickettsia spp. among dogs and horses from Mato Grosso State. A total of 384 dogs and 460 horses were tested by the Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA for Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali and Rickettsia bellii Overall, 3.12% (12/384 of the dogs were seroreactive for at least one Rickettsia species. A total of 7 (1.82% canine sera showed titers to R. bellii at least 4-fold higher than those to any of the other rickettsial antigens, allowing us to consider that these dogs were infected by R. bellii. In horses, 273 (59.34 % samples were positives for at least one antigen tested, and highest anti-Rickettsia spp. endpoint titers were observed for R. amblyommii, suggesting homologous reactions to this agent or a very closely related organism. The results showed that dogs are under low exposition to ticks infected with spotted fever group Rickettsia, indicating low risk of human infection by these agents. However, R. amblyommii is widely distributed in the State.

  4. Rickettsia retinitis cases in India: a few comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Koushik; Chawla, Rohan; Sharma, Yog Raj; Vohra, Rajpal

    2016-12-01

    An important cause of infectious retinitis, not well-described in Indian literature, has been analyzed in detail systematically by Kawali A. and colleagues. However, Rickettsia retinitis (RR) was diagnosed at titres of 1:160 by the Weil-Felix test (WFT). The sensitivity and specificity of WFT at this level are poor compared to the gold standard immunofluorescent antibody assay. However, we understand that financial constraints of the Indian patients limit the availability of more definite tests. In our opinion, the optical coherence tomography features of RR described by the authors may be mimicked by other causes of retinitis, such as toxoplasma retinitis or even cotton wool spots. Infectious retinitis including RR should be treated by an antimicrobial agent with or without oral steroids until larger series or randomized controlled trials prove otherwise. PMID:26920002

  5. Rickettsia felis, an emerging flea-transmitted human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Graves

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis was first recognised two decades ago and has now been described as endemic to all continents except Antarctica. The rickettsiosis caused by R. felis is known as flea-borne spotted fever or cat-flea typhus. The large number of arthropod species found to harbour R. felis and that may act as potential vectors support the view that it is a pan-global microbe. The main arthropod reservoir and vector is the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, yet more than 20 other species of fleas, ticks, and mites species have been reported to harbour R. felis. Few bacterial pathogens of humans have been found associated with such a diverse range of invertebrates. With the projected increase in global temperature over the next century, there is concern that changes to the ecology and distribution of R. felis vectors may adversely impact public health.

  6. Ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Robyn M; Wright, Chelsea L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Hynes, Wayne L; Gaff, Holly D

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of tick-borne rickettsial disease in the southeastern United States has been rising steadily through the past decade, and the range expansions of tick species and tick-borne infectious agents, new and old, has resulted in an unprecedented mix of vectors and pathogens. The results of an ongoing 4-year surveillance project describe the relative abundance of questing tick populations in southeastern Virginia. Since 2009, more than 66,000 questing ticks of 7 species have been collected from vegetation in a variety of habitats, with Amblyomma americanum constituting over 95% of ticks collected. Other species represented included Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes affinis, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, and Ixodes brunneus. We found that 26.9-54.9% of A. americanum ticks tested were positive for Rickettsia amblyommii, a non-pathogenic symbiont of this tick species. We also found no evidence of R. rickettsii in D. variabilis ticks, although they did show low infection rates of R. montanensis (1.5-2.0%). Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus R. andeanae were found in 41.8-55.7% and 0-1.5% A. maculatum ticks, respectively. The rate of R. parkeri in A. maculatum ticks is among the highest in the literature and has increased in the 2 years since R. parkeri and A. maculatum were first reported in southeastern Virginia. We conclude that tick populations in southeastern Virginia have recently undergone dramatic changes in species and abundance and that these populations support a variety of rickettsial agents with the potential for increased risk to human health. PMID:24201057

  7. Sequence and Expression Analysis of the ompA Gene of Rickettsia peacockii, an Endosymbiont of the Rocky Mountain Wood Tick, Dermacentor andersoni

    OpenAIRE

    Baldridge, Gerald D.; Burkhardt, Nicole Y.; Simser, Jason A.; KURTTI, TIMOTHY J.; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2004-01-01

    The transmission dynamics of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Montana appears to be regulated by Rickettsia peacockii, a tick symbiotic rickettsia that interferes with transmission of virulent Rickettsia rickettsii. To elucidate the molecular relationships between the two rickettsiae and glean information on how to possibly exploit this interference phenomenon, we studied a major rickettsial outer membrane protein gene, ompA, presumed to be involved in infection and pathogenesis of spotted fev...

  8. Estrés oxidativo en el glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto. Prevención de la ceguera por glaucoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Zanón Moreno, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN Con este estudio hemos pretendido demostrar que los mecanismos de estrés oxidativo y nitrosativo están relacionados con el glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto (GPAA), y que los neurotransmisores están implicados en las señales que relacionan la hipertensión ocular (HTO) con la muerte por apoptosis de las células ganglionares de la retina y la pérdida subsecuente de las fibras del nervio óptico, lo que conduce a la atrofia óptica y a la ceguera glaucomatosa. Este estudio de casos...

  9. Molecular detection of the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Lucas D; Nava, Santiago; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Correa, Ana I; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-02-01

    To date, three tick-borne pathogenic Rickettsia species have been reported in different regions of Argentina, namely, R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. massiliae. However, there are no reports available for the presence of tick-borne pathogens from the northeastern region of Argentina. This study evaluated the infection with Rickettsia species of Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from vegetation and feeding from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in northeastern Argentina. From a total of 374 A. dubitatum ticks collected and evaluated by PCR for the presence of rickettsial DNA, 19 were positive for the presence of Rickettsia bellii DNA, two were positive for Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI, and one was positive for the pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the presence of the human pathogen Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI in Argentina. Moreover, our findings posit A. dubitatum as a potential vector for this pathogenic strain of Rickettsia. PMID:25700048

  10. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tory A; Hunter, Martha S; Baltrus, David A

    2014-12-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects. PMID:25217020

  11. Molecular Detection and Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Azmi, Kifaya; Harrus, Shimon; Mumcuoglu, Kosta; Apanaskevich, Dimtry; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Background Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum) were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17%) tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii. Significance The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R. massiliae and R. africae. PMID:26771654

  12. Ectoparasite Infestations and Canine Infection by Rickettsiae and Ehrlichiae in a Semi-Arid Region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araes-Santos, Ana Isabel; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Peixoto, Renata M; Spolidorio, Mariana G; Azevedo, Sérgio S; Costa, Mateus M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Horta, Mauricio C

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs and their ectoparasites from rural and urban areas of two municipalities, Petrolina and Juazeiro, within a semiarid region (Caatinga biome) of northeastern Brazil, by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 12.1% (61/504) and 23.0% (116/504) of canine plasma samples had antibodies reactive to Rickettsia spp. and E. canis. E. canis DNA was detected by PCR in 8.3% (42/504) of canine blood samples, whereas no blood sample was positive for Rickettsia spp. The infection by E. canis was determined by PCR in 4.9% (14/285) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) ticks and by Rickettsia felis in 1.1% (3/285) and 40.6% (74/182) ticks and fleas, respectively. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that canine seropositivity to Rickettsia spp. was associated statistically with the variables "to reside in Petrolina" and "presence of ectoparasites." Our results indicate that canine infection by E. canis might be endemic in the Caatinga biome as it is in other Brazilian biomes. Although no previous serosurvey for Rickettsia spp. has been conducted on dogs from the Caatinga biome, our values are much lower than the ones reported for rural dogs from other Brazilian biomes. These differences are likely related to the semiarid climate of the aatinga biome, which minimizes the exposure of rural dogs to Amblyomma spp. ticks, the most common vectors of Rickettsia spp. in Brazil. Considering that dogs are excellent sentinels for human exposure to Rickettsia spp., we can infer that the risks of human acquiring tick-borne rickettsiosis in the Caatinga region of the present study are low. The rickettsial infection rates in fleas and ticks were not related to canine seropositivity; i.e., areas with higher Rickettsia infection rates in fleas had the lowest canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp. PMID:26565771

  13. "Rickettsia amblyommii" induces cross protection against lethal Rocky Mountain spotted fever in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Lucas S; Mendell, Nicole L; Walker, David H; Bouyer, Donald H

    2014-08-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a severe illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which there is no available vaccine. We hypothesize that exposure to the highly prevalent, relatively nonpathogenic "Rickettsia amblyommii" protects against R. rickettsii challenge. To test this hypothesis, guinea pigs were inoculated with "R. amblyommii." After inoculation, the animals showed no signs of illness. When later challenged with lethal doses of R. rickettsii, those previously exposed to "R. amblyommii" remained well, whereas unimmunized controls developed severe illness and died. We conclude that "R. amblyommii" induces an immune response that protects from illness and death in the guinea pig model of RMSF. These results provide a basis for exploring the use of low-virulence rickettsiae as a platform to develop live attenuated vaccine candidates to prevent severe rickettsioses. PMID:25072985

  14. A ocorrência de riquetsioses do grupo Rickettsia rickettsii Occurrence of rickettsiosis of the group Rickettsia rickettsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Portari Mancini

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada revisão da literatura com objetivo de atualizar as informações sobre a ocorrência de riquetsioses do grupo Rickettsia rickettsii. Verificou-se que nos EUA e Europa, a incidência da febre maculosa, vem aumentando desde 1970 até hoje. No Brasil, foi relatado um caso presuntivo, no estado da Bahia, em 1979. Com relação a prevenção, controle e tratamento dessa doença é salientada a importância de informações relacionadas com indivíduos expostos a picadas de carrapatos, notificação de novos casos, fatores ecológicos, técnicas laboratoriais mais específicas para a identificação do agente etiológico, e a antibioticoterapia mais eficiente. A vacinação é ainda referida como meio mais favorável na prevenção da doença, devendo ser administrada aos indivíduos de alto risco. No Brasil, faltam informações precisas sobre a ocorrência de R. rickettsii.A search of the literature to update the available information on the occurrence of rickettsiosis caused by the Rickettsia rickettsii group was made. It was verified that the incidence of spotted fever has had an increase in the U.S.A. and Europe since 1970. In Brazil, a presumptive case was reported in the State of Bahia, in 1979. Regarding the prevention, control and treatment of this disease, importance is given to data related to individuals exposed to tick bites, report of new cases, ecological factors, more specific laboratorial procedures for the identification of the etiological agent, and a more efficient antibiotic therapy. Vaccination is still regarded as the most adequate means for the prevention of the disease, and should be aimed at groups of individuals at high risk. In Brazil, there is a lack of more precise information on the occurrence of R. rickettsii.

  15. Thoracic radiographic findings in dogs infected with Rickettsia rickettsii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen beagle dogs were injected intradermally with Rickettsia rickettsii. The dogs were divided into four groups (n = 4): 1) infected, non-treated control; 2) infected, treated with doxycycline; 3) infected, treated with doxycycline and an anti-inflammatory dose of corticosteroid; and 4) infected, treated with doxycycline and an immunosuppressive dose of corticosteroid. Thoracic radiographs were made and ocular fluorescein angiography was performed on days 6, 10, 17 post-inoculation. A mild interstitial lung opacity was noted in 4/16 dogs on day 6, 5/16 on day 10 and 3/16 on day 17 post-inoculation. Increased retinal vascular permeability was noted in 8/16 dogs on day 6, 3/16 on day 10 and 1/16 on day 17 post-inoculation. Correlation between the presence of radiographic and retinal lesions was not significant (p = 0.08). Eleven, naturally infected, dogs with thoracic radiographs and a final diagnosis of RMSF were also evaluated. Four of the 11 dogs had an unstructured interstitial pattern. Dogs with acute, experimentally-infected or naturally-occurring RMSF may have subtle pulmonary changes characterized by an unstructured interstitial pattern

  16. Transmission potential of Rickettsia felis infection by Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieme, Constentin; Bechah, Yassina; Socolovschi, Cristina; Audoly, Gilles; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Faye, Ousmane; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-06-30

    A growing number of recent reports have implicated Rickettsia felis as a human pathogen, paralleling the increasing detection of R. felis in arthropod hosts across the globe, primarily in fleas. Here Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the primary malarial vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, were fed with either blood meal infected with R. felis or infected cellular media administered in membrane feeding systems. In addition, a group of mosquitoes was fed on R. felis-infected BALB/c mice. The acquisition and persistence of R. felis in mosquitoes was demonstrated by quantitative PCR detection of the bacteria up to day 15 postinfection. R. felis was detected in mosquito feces up to day 14. Furthermore, R. felis was visualized by immunofluorescence in salivary glands, in and around the gut, and in the ovaries, although no vertical transmission was observed. R. felis was also found in the cotton used for sucrose feeding after the mosquitoes were fed infected blood. Natural bites from R. felis-infected An. gambiae were able to cause transient rickettsemias in mice, indicating that this mosquito species has the potential to be a vector of R. felis infection. This is particularly important given the recent report of high prevalence of R. felis infection in patients with "fever of unknown origin" in malaria-endemic areas. PMID:26056256

  17. Aproximacin clnica y principales rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas presentes en Latinoamrica / Clinical approach and main tick-borne rickettsiosis present in Latin America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katia, Abarca; Jos A, Oteo.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas son infecciones potencialmente letales, que en Latinoamrica tienen carcter emergente y re-emergente. Hasta hace escasos aos, la nica rickettsiosis transmitida por garrapatas era causada por Rickettsia rickettsii, pero en la actualidad existen otras e [...] species como R. parkeri y R. massiliae que estn provocando enfermedad en humanos en la regin. Por otro lado, se estn describiendo candidatos a nuevas especies de Rickettsia, que aunque no han probado su patogenicidad deben considerarse como potencialmente patgenos. Dado que el diagnstico microbiolgico puede tardar das o semanas, resulta fundamental una alta sospecha clnica y la instauracin precoz de un tratamiento adecuado. En esta revisin se detalla la distribucin y principales manifestaciones clnicas de las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas en Latinoamrica. Se ha incluido una seccin sobre la infeccin por R. felis, por haberse encontrado esta especie en garrapatas, y no haberse aclarado el papel de este vector en su ciclo epidemiolgico. Abstract in english Tick-borne rickettsial diseases are potentially life threatening infections that in Latin America have an emerging and reemerging character. Until few years ago, Rickettsia rickettsia was the only tick-borne rickettsia present in America; but nowadays several other species such as R. parkeri and R. [...] massiliae are causing disease in humans in the region. In addition, new species are being described; although their pathogenicity has not been confirmed they should be considered as potential pathogens. Since the microbiological diagnosis of rickettsioses can take days or weeks, a high clinical suspicion and early start of appropriate treatment are crucial. In this review the distribution and main clinical manifestations of tick-borne rickettsial diseases in Latin America are detailed. Since R. felis has been found in ticks and the role of this vector has not been clarified, we have included a section about this pathogen.

  18. Probe directed at a segment of Rickettsia rickettsii rRNA amplified with polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, K H; Blitchington, R; Shah, P.; Mcdonald, G; Gilmore, R D; Mallavia, L P

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to explore a sensitive taxon-specific detection system for bacteria, we sequenced the 16S rRNA from two strains of Rickettsia rickettsii, five other rickettsiae, and Coxiella burnetti to find a probe site unique to R. rickettsii. We then synthesized a 16-mer that hybridized only to the rRNA of R. rickettsii. Using a primer complementary to a sequence found only in rickettsial rRNA, we then generated a cDNA. We amplified the probe site in a 180-base segment of the cDNA by using th...

  19. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markoti?, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habu, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinovi?, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaleti?, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas. PMID:24866325

  20. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Emlia de Carvalho; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Navarro, Daniel Leal; Iani, Felipe Campos de Melo; Dures, Liliane Silva; Daemon, Erik; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles

    2015-01-01

    The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF) disease. In the present study, a SF groupRickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA,ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyommii str. JF, is related to the speciesR. amblyommii. PMID:26676317

  1. Molecular evidence of Rickettsia felis infection in dogs from northern territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Robert L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in dogs from a remote indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT was determined using molecular tools. Blood samples collected from 130 dogs in the community of Maningrida were subjected to a spotted fever group (SFG-specific PCR targeting the ompB gene followed by a Rickettsia felis-specific PCR targeting the gltA gene of R. felis. Rickettsia felis ompB and gltA genes were amplified from the blood of 3 dogs. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in indigenous community dogs in NT.

  2. Isolation and Identification of Rickettsia massiliae from Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks Collected in Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeeva, Marina E.; Bosserman, Elizabeth A.; Demma, Linda J.; Zambrano, Maria L.; Blau, Dianna M.; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    Twenty Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected in eastern Arizona were tested by PCR assay to establish their infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae. With a nested PCR assay which detects a fragment of the Rickettsia genus-specific 17-kDa antigen gene (htrA), five ticks (25%) were found to contain rickettsial DNA. One rickettsial isolate was obtained from these ticks by inoculating a suspension of a triturated tick into monolayers of Vero E6 monkey kidney cells and XTC-2 clawed ...

  3. The seroprevalence of human infection with Rickettsia slovaca, in an area of northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lledó, L.; Gegúndez, M. I.; Fernandes, N.; De Sousa, R; Vicente, J.; Álamo Sanz, Rufino; Fernández Soto, Pedro; Pérez Sánchez, Ricardo; Bacellar, F

    2006-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to explore human exposure to Rickettsia slovaca in two provinces of northern Spain. When IFAT were used to test 200 members of the general population for antibodies to rickettsiae of the spotted-fever group, six (3.3%) were found positive, presumably, since Dermacentor is one of the most common genera of human-biting tick in the study area, for antibodies to R. slovaca. Thirty-one (16.9%) of an additional 183 subjects who presented shortly after being ...

  4. Detection of Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus from the Eastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    FORNADEL, CHRISTEN M.; Smith, Joshua D.; Zawada, Sonya E.; ARIAS, JORGE R.; Norris, Douglas E

    2013-01-01

    We report the first evidence of Rickettsia massiliae in the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, from the East Coast of the United States. As part of routine pathogen surveillance, DNA samples from ixodid ticks were tested for spotted fever group rickettsiae by nested PCR. A R. massiliae-positive tick was collected off a beagle mix recently rescued from North Carolina. Infection was confirmed by partial sequence analysis of the htrA, gltA, ompB, ompA, and sca4 genes, which had 100% ident...

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of spotted fever group Rickettsiae isolated from Catalan Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.

    OpenAIRE

    Beati, L; Roux, V; A. Ortuño; Castella, J; Porta, F S; Raoult, D.

    1996-01-01

    Eighty-nine Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and 21 Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected in Catalonia were tested by the hemolymph test to establish their infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae. By Giménez staining, 11.2% of the R. sanguineus isolates and 0% of the R. bursa isolates were found to contain rickettsia-like organisms. Six spotted fever group rickettsial strains (Bar29, Bar31, Gir4, Tar1, Tar2, and Tar3) were isolated from these ticks and were characterized by phenotypic...

  6. A novel spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) in highlands of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in highland areas (elevation >3500m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. africae, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections. PMID:26826974

  7. Antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis among healthy population in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da Costa; Marcos Emilio Brigatte; Dirceu Bartolomeu Greco

    2005-01-01

    Rickettsial diseases except those belonging to spotted fever group rickettsioses are poorly studied in South America particularly in Brazil where few epidemiological reports have been published. We describe a serosurvey for Rickettsia rickettsii, R. typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 437 healthy people from a Brazilian rural community. The serum samples were tested by indirected micro-immunoflourescence technique and a cutoff titer of 1:64...

  8. Detection of Rickettsia parkeri from within Piura, Peru, and the First Reported Presence of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in the Tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Florin, David; Felices, Vidal; Pozo, Edwar J.; Graf, Paul C.F.; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Richards, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic farm animals (n=145) were sampled for the presence of ectoparasites in northwestern Peru during March, 2008. Ninety domestic animals (62%) were positive for the presence of an ectoparasite(s) and produced a total collection of the following: 728 ticks [Amblyomma maculatum, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Otobius megnini], 12 lice (Haematopinus suis), and 3 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). A Rickettsia genus-specific qPCR assay was pe...

  9. Molecular Detection of Bartonella quintana, B. koehlerae, B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, Rickettsia felis, and Wolbachia pipientis in Cat Fleas, France

    OpenAIRE

    Rolain, JM; Franc, Michel; Davoust, B.; Raoult, D.

    2003-01-01

    The prevalences of Bartonella, Rickettsia, and Wolbachia were investigated in 309 cat fleas from France by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and sequencing with primers derived from the gltA gene for Rickettsia, the its and pap31 genes for Bartonella, and the 16S rRNA gene for Anaplasmataceae. Positive PCR results were confirmed by using the Lightcycler and specific primers for the rOmpB of Rickettsia and gltA of Bartonella. R. felis was detected in 25 fleas (8.1%), W. pipientis, ...

  10. Severe human infection with Rickettsia felis associated with hepatitis in Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zavala-Castro, Jorge; ZAVALA-VELÁZQUEZ, JORGE; Walker, David; Pérez-Osorio, Jorge; PENICHE-LARA, Gaspar

    2009-01-01

    Rickettsia felis infection usually is a mild-to-moderate illness characterized by general signs and symptoms. Generally, patients do not require hospitalization. However, we detected 2 severe infections with R. felis. Our findings support the importance of R. felis infection as a potentially severe illness in humans.

  11. Fatal Human Infection with Rickettsia rickettsii, Yucatán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E. Zavala-Castro; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E.; David H Walker; Arcila, Edgar E. Ruiz; Hugo LAVIADA-MOLINA; Olano, Juan P; Ruiz-Sosa, José A.; Small, Melissa A.; Karla R. Dzul-Rosado

    2006-01-01

    The first fatal Rickettsia rickettsii infection was diagnosed in the southwest of Mexico. The patient had fever, erythematous rash, abdominal pain, and severe central nervous system involvement with convulsive crisis. The diagnosis of R. rickettsii infection was established by immunohistochemistry and specific polymerase chain reaction.

  12. Tick infestation and spotted-fever group Rickettsia in shelter dogs, California, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, C L; Kriner, P; Garcia, D; Padgett, K A; Espinosa, A; Chase, R; Hu, R; Messenger, S L

    2012-02-01

    In response to an outbreak of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in Baja California in early 2009, dogs at two shelters in neighbouring Imperial County, California, were evaluated for ectoparasites. Brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), a recognized vector for RMSF, were found on 35 (30%) of 116 dogs but all ticks tested negative for Rickettsia rickettsii by PCR. PMID:21824367

  13. Transformation Frequency of a mariner-Based Transposon in Rickettsia rickettsii ▿ §

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Tina R.; Lackey, Amanda M.; Kleba, Betsy; Driskell, Lonnie O.; Lutter, Erika I; Martens, Craig; David O. Wood; Hackstadt, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Transformation frequencies of a mariner-based transposon system in Rickettsia rickettsii were determined using a plaque assay system for enumeration and isolation of mutants. Sequence analysis of insertion sites in both R. rickettsii and R. prowazekii indicated that insertions were random. Transposon mutagenesis provides a useful tool for rickettsial research.

  14. Seroepidemiologic study of human infections with spotted fever group Rickettsiae in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Meagan F; Delisle, Josie; Johnson, Joey; Daves, Gaylen; Williams, Carl; Reber, Jodi; Mendell, Nicole L; Bouyer, Donald H; Nicholson, William L; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Meshnick, Steven R

    2014-11-01

    Increasing entomologic and epidemiologic evidence suggests that spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) other than Rickettsia rickettsii are responsible for spotted fever rickettsioses in the United States. A retrospective seroepidemiologic study was conducted on stored acute- and convalescent-phase sera that had been submitted for Rocky Mountain spotted fever testing to the North Carolina State Laboratory of Public Health. We evaluated the serologic reactivity of the paired sera to R. rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia amblyommii antigens. Of the 106 eligible pairs tested, 21 patients seroconverted to one or more antigens. Cross-reactivity to multiple antigens was observed in 10 patients, and seroconversions to single antigens occurred in 11 patients, including 1 against R. rickettsii, 4 against R. parkeri, and 6 against R. amblyommii. Cross-absorption of cross-reactive sera and/or Western blots identified two presumptive cases of infection with R. parkeri, two presumptive cases of infection with R. rickettsii, and one presumptive case of infection with R. amblyommii. These findings suggest that species of SFGR other than R. rickettsii are associated with illness among North Carolina residents and that serologic testing using R. rickettsii antigen may miss cases of spotted fever rickettsioses caused by other species of SFGR. PMID:25187639

  15. Co-Infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: Is Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Underdiagnosed?

    OpenAIRE

    Raczniak, Gregory A.; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H.; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S.; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections.

  16. Rickettsia buchneri sp. nov., a rickettsial endosymbiont of the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtti, Timothy J; Felsheim, Roderick F; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Oliver, Jonathan D; Heu, Chan C; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2015-03-01

    We obtained a rickettsial isolate from the ovaries of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. The isolate (ISO7(T)) was grown in the Ixodes ricinus embryonic cell line IRE11. We characterized the isolate by transmission electron microscopy and gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 11 housekeeping genes demonstrated that the isolate fulfils the criteria to be classified as a representative of a novel rickettsial species closely related to 'Rickettsia monacensis'. These rickettsiae form a clade separate from other species of rickettsiae. Gene sequences indicated that several genes important in rickettsial motility, invasiveness and temperature adaptation were mutated (e.g. sca2, rickA, hsp22, pldA and htrA). We propose the name Rickettsia buchneri sp. nov. for this bacterium that infects the ovaries of the tick I. scapularis to acknowledge the pioneering contributions of Professor Paul Buchner (1886-1978) to research on bacterial symbionts. The type strain of R. buchneri sp. nov. is strain ISO-7(T) (?=?DSM 29016(T)?=?ATCC VR-1814(T)). PMID:25563918

  17. Rickettsia slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus and Tick-borne Lymphadenopathy, Tuscany, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Selmi, Marco; Bertolotti, Luigi; Tomassone, Laura; Mannelli, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Of 263 patients in Tuscany, Italy, from whom ticks were removed during July 2005–May 2007, five showed signs of tick-borne encephalopathy. Of the ticks, 17 were Dermacentor marginatus; 6 (35.3%) of these were identified by sequence analysis as containing Rickettsia slovaca. Tick-borne lympadenopathy occurs in this area.

  18. Molecular detection of Rickettsia species in Amblyomma ticks collected from snakes in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sumrandee, C.; Hirunkanokpun, S.; Doornbos, K.; Kitthawee, S.; Baimai, V.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Trinachartvanit, W.; Ahantarig, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2014), s. 632-640. ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick * Rickettsia spp. * Amblyomma varanense * Amblyomma helvolum * Snake * Thailand Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  19. Detection of flea-borne Rickettsia species in the Western Himalayan region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chahota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human infections by various rickettsial species are frequently reported globally. We investigated a flea-borne rickettsial outbreak infecting 300 people in Western Himalayan region of India. Arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas and animal and human blood samples from affected households were analysed by gltA and ompB genes based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus samples were found harbouring a Rickettsia sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on gltA gene using PHYLIP revealed that the detected Rickettsia sp. has 100% identity with SE313 and RF2125 strains of Rickettsia sp. of flea origin from Egypt and Thai-Myanmar border, respectively and cf1 and 5 strains from fleas and lice from the USA. But, the nucleotide sequence of genetically variable gene ompB of R14 strain was found closely related to cf9 strain, reported from Ctenocephalides felis fleas. These results highlight the public health importance of such newly discovered or less recognised Rickettsia species/strains, harboured by arthropod vectors like fleas.

  20. Frequency and Distribution of Rickettsiae, Borreliae, and Ehrlichiae Detected in Human-Parasitizing Ticks, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Phillip C; Billingsley, Peggy M; Seals, Janel P; Ferguson, Erin E; Allen, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    To describe the presence and distribution of tickborne bacteria and their vectors in Texas, USA, we screened ticks collected from humans during 2008-2014 for Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Ehrlichia spp. Thirteen tick species were identified, and 23% of ticks carried bacterial DNA from at least 1 of the 3 genera tested. PMID:26811941

  1. Rickettsia bellii in ticks Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844, from birds in Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Cárdenas-Callirgos, J. M.; Čapek, Miroslav; Labruna, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 254-256. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia bellii * ticks * Amblyomma calcaratum * birds * Peru Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

  2. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Sychra, O.; Calderón, V. Á.; Rodríguez, B. C.; Prudencio, C.; Martins, T. F.; Labruna, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 478-482. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia * Ticks * Birds * Ixodes * Amblyomma * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  3. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in Rat Fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeeva, Marina E.; Warashina, Wesley R.; Sturgeon, Michele M.; Buchholz, Arlene E.; Olmsted, Gregory K.; Park, Sarah Y; Effler, Paul V; Karpathy, Sandor E.

    2008-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi (prevalence 1.9%) and R. felis (prevalence 24.8%) DNA were detected in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from mice on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The low prevalence of R. typhi on Oahu suggests that R. felis may be a more common cause of rickettsiosis than R. typhi in Hawaii.

  4. Prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species in Spanish cats and their fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, María Jesús; Marcén, José Miguel; Pinal, Rocio; Calvete, Carlos; Rodes, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia felis, and Rickettsia typhi in fleas and companion cats (serum and claws) and to assess their presence as a function of host, host habitat, and level of parasitism. Eighty-nine serum and claw samples and 90 flea pools were collected. Cat sera were assayed by IFA for Bartonella henselae and Rickettssia species IgG antibodies. Conventional PCRs were performed on DNA extracted from nails and fleas collected from cats. A large portion (55.8%) of the feline population sampled was exposed to at least one of the three tested vector-borne pathogens. Seroreactivity to B. henselae was found in 50% of the feline studied population, and to R. felis in 16.3%. R. typhi antibodies were not found in any cat. No Bartonella sp. DNA was amplified from the claws. Flea samples from 41 cats (46%) showed molecular evidence for at least one pathogen; our study demonstrated a prevalence rate of 43.3 % of Rickettsia sp and 4.4% of Bartonella sp. in the studied flea population. None of the risk factors studied (cat's features, host habitat, and level of parasitation) was associated with either the serology or the PCR results for Bartonella sp. and Rickettsia sp.. Flea-associated infectious agents are common in cats and fleas and support the recommendation that stringent flea control should be maintained on cats. PMID:26611956

  5. Rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C Horta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated rickettsial infection in animals, humans, ticks, and fleas collected in five areas of the state of São Paulo. Eight flea species (Adoratopsylla antiquorum antiquorum, Ctenocephalides felis felis, Polygenis atopus, Polygenis rimatus, Polygenis roberti roberti, Polygenis tripus, Rhopalopsyllus lugubris, and Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi, and five tick species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Ixodes loricatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were collected from dogs, cats, and opossums. Rickettsia felis was the only rickettsia found infecting fleas, whereas Rickettsia bellii was the only agent infecting ticks, but no animal or human blood was shown to contain rickettsial DNA. Testing animal and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence assay against four rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, and R. bellii, some opossum, dog, horse, and human sera reacted to R. rickettsii with titers at least four-fold higher than to the other three rickettsial antigens. These sera were considered to have a predominant antibody response to R. rickettsii. Using the same criteria, opossum, dog, and horse sera showed predominant antibody response to R. parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Our serological results suggest that both R. rickettsii and R. parkeri infected animals and/or humans in the studied areas.

  6. Resultados comparativos de la disección ganglionar en cáncer de recto con y sin tratamiento previo del tejido adiposo Comparative results of ganglion dissection in cancer of the rectum with and without prior treatment with adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Amat

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. El propósito de este estudio es describir los resultados obtenidos mediante dos técnicas de aislamiento de ganglios linfáticos en piezas quirúrgicas de resección anterior por adenocarcinoma de recto. Material y métodos. En una serie de 30 casos consecutivos de pacientes intervenidos por adenocarcinoma de recto hemos realizado una búsqueda de ganglios de forma manual convencional y una segunda tras 24 horas en una solución desengrasante a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. En la primera búsqueda se han aislado 335 ganglios linfáticos con una media que oscila entre 6,46 y 17,58, correspondiendo los valores más bajos a los grupos que habían recibido tratamiento adyuvante previo. En la segunda inclusión, tras la acción de la solución de aclaramiento hemos encontrado nuevos ganglios (85 en un 70% de los casos, en número y tamaño sensiblemente inferior al inicial. Conclusiones. La disección ganglionar manual del tejido adiposo es un método fiable para el aislamiento de ganglios linfáticos en las piezas de resección por adenocarcinoma de recto. La búsqueda de ganglios linfáticos tras la acción de una solución de aclaramiento debe reservarse para los casos en los que no se alcanza el mínimo aconsejado en el estadiaje TNM.Background. The aim of this study is to describe the result obtained through two techniques of isolation of lymphatic lymph nodes in surgical pieces of anterior resection due to adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Material and methods. We carried out a search in a series of 30 consecutive cases of patients operated on for adenocarcinoma of the rectum for lymph nodes first in a manual conventional way and second after 24 hours in a degreasing solution at room temperature. Results. In the first search 335 lymph nodes were lymph nodes isolated, with an average that oscillated between 6.46 and 17.58, with the lower values corresponding to the groups that had received prior adjuvant treatment. In the second inclusion, following the action of the clearing solution, we found new lymph nodes (85 in some 75% of the cases, appreciably lower in number and smaller in size than the initial search. Conclusions. Manual lymph nodes dissection of the adipose tissue is a reliable method for the isolation of lymphatic lymph nodes in pieces of resection due to adenocarcinoma of the rectum. The search for lymphatic ganglions following the action of a clearing solution should be reserved for cases in which the minimum recommended in the TNM staging is not reached.

  7. Tuberculosis ganglionar a forma de fiebre de origen desconocido: a propósito de un caso Ganglionary tuberculosis as fever of unknown origin: apropos of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Fernández Arias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis, tanto en su forma pulmonar como extrapulmonar constituye una enfermedad reemergente al nivel mundial, asociada con insuficiencias de los programas de control sanitario o con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. El modo de presentación de las formas extrapulmonares se relaciona con síntomas constitucionales, que incluyen la fiebre y con signos dependientes del órgano afectado. Se presentó el caso de una adenitis granulomatosa en etapa o categoría 3, grupo integrado por aquellos casos nuevos de formas menos grave de tuberculosis extrapulmonar (TBe con confirmación histopatológica del bacilo. Se enfatizó sobre la presentación a forma de fiebre de origen desconocido (FOD, al reunir los criterios necesarios por haber estado ingresada en otro centro hospitalario por más de 1 mes, sin haber llegado al diagnóstico a pesar de haber sido estudiada, y se resaltó la necesidad imperiosa de la búsqueda de este diagnóstico ante todo paciente con cuadro adénico febril e historia familiar de TB.Tuberculosis, both in its pulmonary and extrapulmonary form is a reemerging disease in the world associated with insufficiencies of the health control programs or with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The mode of presentation of the extrapulmonary forms is related to constitutional symptoms that include fever, and to signs depending on the affected organ. The case of a stage III granulomatous adenitis, a group composed of those new cases of less severe forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with histopathological confirmation of the bacillus, was presented. Emphasis was made on the presentation as a FUO, on having the necessary criteria for having been admitted in another hospital for more than a month without a definitive diagnosis despite having been studied. The pressing need to search this diagnosis in every patient with febrile adenic picture and family history of TB was stressed.

  8. Pesquisa de Rickettsia spp em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e Amblyomma dubitatum no Estado de São Paulo Survey of Rickettsia spp in the ticks Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Campos Pacheco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi pesquisada a presença de riquétsias em 3.545 carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense e 2.666 Amblyomma dubitatum. Através do teste de hemolinfa, reação em cadeia pela polimerase e isolamento de rickettsia em cultivo celular, todos os Amblyomma cajennense foram negativos, sendo que 634 (23,8% Amblyomma dubitatum mostraram-se infectados com Rickettsia bellii.The presence of rickettsial infection was surveyed in 3,545 Amblyomma cajennense ticks and 2,666 Amblyomma dubitatum ticks. Using the hemolymph test, polymerase chain reaction and isolation of Rickettsia in cell cultures, all of the Amblyomma cajennense were negative, whereas 634 (23.8% of the Amblyomma dubitatum ticks were shown to be infected with Rickettsia bellii.

  9. Pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and protective immunity against Rickettsia rickettsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Juan J; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Alvarado, Gilberth; Taylor, Lizeth; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Morales, Juan Alberto; Troyo, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted fever group rickettsia that is not considered pathogenic, although there is serologic evidence of possible infection in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' in guinea pigs and determine its capacity to generate protective immunity against a subsequent infection with a local strain of Rickettsia rickettsii isolated from a human case. Six guinea pigs were inoculated with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' strain 9-CC-3-1 and two controls with cell culture medium. Health status was evaluated, and necropsies were executed at days 2, 4, and 13. Blood and tissues were processed by PCR to detect the gltA gene, and end titers of anti-'Candidatus R. amblyommii' IgG were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. To evaluate protective immunity, another 5 guinea pigs were infected with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' (IGPs). After 4 weeks, these 5 IGPs and 3 controls (CGPs) were inoculated with pathogenic R. rickettsii. Clinical signs and titers of anti-Rickettsia IgG were determined. IgG titers reached 1:512 at day 13 post-infection with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii'. On day 2 after inoculation, two guinea pigs had enlarged testicles and 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' DNA was detected in testicles. Histopathology confirmed piogranulomatous orchitis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the epididymis. In the protective immunity assay, anti-Rickettsia IgG end titers after R. rickettsii infection were lower in IGPs than in CGPs. IGPs exhibited only transient fever, while CGP showed signs of severe disease and mortality. R. rickettsii was detected in testicles and blood of CGPs. Results show that the strain 9-CC-3-1 of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' was able to generate pathology and an antibody response in guinea pigs. Moreover, its capacity to generate protective immunity against R. rickettsii may modulate the epidemiology and severity of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in areas where both species circulate. PMID:26210090

  10. Orientia, rickettsia, and leptospira pathogens as causes of CNS infections in Laos: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Lee, Sue J; Panyanivong, Phonepasith; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella M; Blacksell, Stuart D; Dance, David A B; Dubot-Prs, Audrey; Sengduangphachanh, Amphone; Phoumin, Phonelavanh; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi), murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi), and leptospirosis are common causes of febrile illness in Asia; meningitis and meningoencephalitis are severe complications. However, scarce data exist for the burden of these pathogens in patients with CNS disease in endemic countries. Laos is representative of vast economically poor rural areas in Asia with little medical information to guide public health policy. We assessed whether these pathogens are important causes of CNS infections in Laos. Methods Between Jan 10, 2003, and Nov 25, 2011, we enrolled 1112 consecutive patients of all ages admitted with CNS symptoms or signs requiring a lumbar puncture at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos. Microbiological examinations (culture, PCR, and serology) targeted so-called conventional bacterial infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, S suis) and O tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi/Rickettsia spp, and Leptospira spp infections in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We analysed and compared causes and clinical and CSF characteristics between patient groups. Findings 1051 (95%) of 1112 patients who presented had CSF available for analysis, of whom 254 (24%) had a CNS infection attributable to a bacterial or fungal pathogen. 90 (35%) of these 254 infections were caused by O tsutsugamushi, R typhi/Rickettsia spp, or Leptospira spp. These pathogens were significantly more frequent than conventional bacterial infections (90/1051 [9%] vs 42/1051 [4%]; pLeptospira spp combined, and 33% (13/39) for conventional bacterial infections (p=0076). Interpretation Our data suggest that R typhi/Rickettsia spp, O tsutsugamushi, and Leptospira spp infections are important causes of CNS infections in Laos. Antibiotics, such as tetracyclines, needed for the treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus, are not routinely advised for empirical treatment of CNS infections. These severely neglected infections represent a potentially large proportion of treatable CNS disease burden across vast endemic areas and need more attention. Funding Wellcome Trust UK. PMID:25617190

  11. "Rickettsia amblyommii" and R. montanensis infection in dogs following natural exposure to ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne; Little, Susan E; Shaw, Edward

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk of canine infection with spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. following natural tick exposure, 10 dogs determined to be free of evidence of exposure to or infection with tick-borne disease agents were exposed to ticks via weekly walks in a wooded area in north-central Oklahoma. After each walk, dogs were examined and the number and species of ticks present were recorded. The dogs were then returned to outdoor kennels to allow the infestations and subsequent transmission of any pathogens to proceed. Serum samples and whole blood were collected from each dog twice weekly for 121 days and evaluated via indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) for antibodies reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii, R. montanensis, and "R. amblyommii," and by PCR for evidence of Rickettsia spp. Dogs became infested with a total of 57-108 ticks over the entire 8-week infestation period (weekly average tick infestation=12.0±4.1). The great majority of the ticks present were Amblyomma americanum (90.5%), with a small number of Dermacentor variabilis and A. maculatum also identified. All (10/10) dogs seroconverted to R. rickettsii, R. montanensis, and "R. amblyommii," with mean maximum inverse titers of 1176, 1448, and 6654, respectively, for all dogs in the study. Maximum inverse titers to "R. amblyommii" ranged from 4096 to 16,384 and were higher in 9/10 dogs than maximum inverse titers to R. rickettsii or R. montanensis. Sequence-confirmed SFG Rickettsia spp. (R. montanensis and "R. amblyommii") were occasionally, but not consistently, identified from whole blood by PCR. Taken together, our data suggest that, in areas where A. americanum is common, antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii in dogs may be due instead to infection with "R. amblyommii" or other, closely related SFG Rickettsia spp. PMID:24359419

  12. Serological evidence of Rickettsia parkeri as the etiological agent of rickettsiosis in Uruguay Evidência sorológica de Rickettsia parkeri como agente etiológico de rickettsiose no Uruguai

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael A. Conti-Díaz; Jonas Moraes-Filho; Pacheco, Richard C.; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2009-01-01

    We report three new rickettsiosis human cases in Uruguay. The three clinical cases presented clinical manifestations similar to previous reported cases of Rickettsia parkeri in the United States; that is mild fever (< 40 ºC), malaise, headache, rash, inoculation eschar at the tick bite site, regional lymphadenopathy, and no lethality. Serological antibody-absorption tests with purified antigens of R. parkeri and Rickettsia rickettsii, associated with immunofluorescence assay indicated that th...

  13. Validacin de la puncin aspiracin con aguja fina (PAAF) en el diagnstico de linfadenitis tuberculosa en pacientes con infeccin por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana G, Cabrera; Virginia, Ortega; Julio C, Medina; Gabriela, Gualco; Marcelo, Viola; Graciela, Prez; Mara L., Musto; Justino, Zeballos; Eduardo, Savio.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Introduo: a puno-aspirao com agulha fina (PAAF) de gnglio linftico uma tcnica simples, rpida e de baixo custo para a obteno de amostras para diagnstico. Objetivo: o objetivo deste trabalho foi validar a PAAF no diagnstico de linfadenite tuberculosa (TB) em pacientes infectados [...] pelo vrus da imunodeficincia humana (VIH), utilizando como "gold standard" o cultivo de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em biopsia ganglionar ou a histopatologia com resposta ao tratamento especfico. Material e mtodo: estudo clnico-patolgico prospectivo. Foram includos pacientes portadores de VIH, com consentimento informado prvio, maiores de 18 anos, com adenomegalias superficiais maiores que 2 cm, atendidos na Ctedra de Doenas Infecciosas entre outubro de 2004 e dezembro de 2006. Em cada gnglio foi realizada PAAF e biopsia. Nas amostras citolgicas e histopatolgicas foram realizadas as coloraes habituais, Ziehl-Neelsen e cultivos para micobacterias. Foi definida como citologia sugestiva de linfadenite TB: 1) linfadenite reativa com necrose; 2) linfadenite reativa com clulas epitelioides e/ou macrfagos e/ou clulas gigantes multinucleadas; com ou sem bacilos cido-lcool resistentes no exame direto com colorao de Ziehl-Neelsen. Resultados: dos 30 pacientes includos, 23 apresentaram TB ganglionar. Nos sete pacientes restantes a PAAF descartou o diagnstico de TB em seis, evitando tratamentos desnecessrios, e indicando exame histolgico para diagnstico definitivo. A sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da PAAF para o diagnstico de linfadenite TB foram respectivamente 95%, 86%, 95% e 86%. O coeficiente de concordncia de Kappa entre ambos procedimentos foi de 90%. Concluses: a PAAF de gnglio linftico em pacientes VIH tem alto rendimento como tcnica diagnstica de TB ganglionar. Permite tambm selecionar os pacientes que necessitam biopsia ganglionar para diagnstico definitivo, evitando sua realizao sistemtica em todos os pacientes com adenomegalias. Abstract in spanish Resumen Introduccin: la puncin aspiracin aguja fina (PAAF) de ganglio linftico es una tcnica sencilla, rpida y de bajo costo para la obtencin de muestras para diagnstico. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue validar la PAAF en el diagnstico de linfadenitis tuberculosa (TB) en pacientes inf [...] ectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), utilizando como "gold standard" el cultivo de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en biopsia ganglionar o la histopatologa ms la respuesta al tratamiento especfico. Material y mtodo: estudio clnico-patolgico prospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes VIH infectados, previo consentimiento informado, mayores a 18 aos, con adenomegalias superficiales mayores a 2 cm, asistidos en la Ctedra de Enfermedades Infecciosas entre octubre de 2004 y diciembre de 2006. Se realiz PAAF y biopsia del mismo ganglio. En las muestras citolgicas e histopatolgicas se realizaron tinciones habituales, Ziehl-Neelsen y cultivos para micobacterias. Se defini como citologa sugestiva de linfadenitis TB: 1) linfadenitis reactiva con necrosis; 2) linfadenitis reactiva con clulas epitelioides y/o macrfagos y/o clulas gigantes multinucleadas; con o sin bacilos cido-alcohol resistentes en el directo con tincin de Ziehl-Neelsen. Resultados: de 30 pacientes incluidos, 23 correspondieron a una TB ganglionar. En los siete pacientes restantes la PAAF descart el diagnstico de TB en seis, evitando tratamientos innecesarios, e indicando estudio histolgico para diagnstico definitivo. La sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y valor predictivo negativo de la PAAF para el diagnstico de linfadenitis TB fue de 95%, 86%, 95% y 86%, respectivamente. El coeficiente de concordancia de Kappa entre ambos procedimientos fue de 90%. Conclusiones: la PAAF de ganglio linftico en pacientes VIH tiene un elevado rendimiento como tcnica diagnstica de TB

  14. Penetration of host cells by Rickettsia rickettsii appears to be mediated by a phospholipase of rickettsial origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, D J; Santucci, L A; Meyers, N.; Sekeyova, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Internalization of obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia by eukaryotic cells requires participation of both the parasitized host and the microorganism. The term "induced phagocytosis" has been used specifically to describe the entry of Rickettsia prowazekii, although a similar mechanism is likely for R. rickettsii. A role for a phospholipase in the internalization process has been proposed for both of these organisms, with the strongest supporting evidence provided...

  15. Determination of genome sizes of Rickettsia spp. within the spotted fever group, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, V.; Drancourt, M.; Raoult, D

    1992-01-01

    The chromosome lengths of six spotted fever group Rickettsia species (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. conorii, R. rhipicephali, R. sibirica, R. australis, and R. akari) were estimated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The genome size of R. rickettsii was about 2,100 kb, but the chromosome lengths of the five other species were, surprisingly, much lower and ranged between 1,200 and 1,300 kb.

  16. Quantitative Analyses of Variations in the Injury of Endothelial Cells Elicited by 11 Isolates of Rickettsia rickettsii

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeeva, Marina E.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Silverman, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Eleven isolates of spotted fever group rickettsiae from the blood of patients or ixodid ticks from North and South America were characterized. All isolates were identified as Rickettsia rickettsii using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 532-bp rOmpA gene fragment obtained by PCR. The ability of the R. rickettsii isolates to elicit cytopathic effects and parameters of oxidative injury were examined in cultured human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells. Cytopathic effects were dete...

  17. Neutralizing activity of monoclonal antibodies to heat-sensitive and heat-resistant epitopes of Rickettsia rickettsii surface proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Anacker, R L; McDonald, G A; List, R. H.; Mann, R E

    1987-01-01

    Antiprotein monoclonal antibodies derived from mice inoculated with Rickettsia rickettsii heated at 56 degrees C for 15 min are of two types: one is type specific for epitopes denatured by moderate temperatures, and the other is specific for epitopes resistant to 100 degrees C for 5 min. The heat-resistant epitopes are found by immunoblotting on multiple polypeptides after solubilization of the rickettsiae at temperatures of 56 degrees C or higher. Most, but not all, antibodies to the heat-se...

  18. New Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in a Rhipicephalus turanicus Tick Removed from a Child in Eastern Sicily, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeeva, Marina E.; Stromdahl, Ellen Y.

    2011-01-01

    A new genotype of spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) was identified in Rhipicephalus turanicus from eastern Sicily. On the basis of current molecular criteria, the genetic characteristics obtained from multiple locus sequence typing satisfy the requirements for Candidatus status of this SFGR. Further detection and identification of this SFGR during entomological and clinical surveys will be required to establish the prevalence of this Rickettsia and its potential pathogenicity for humans.

  19. Identification of Rickettsia africae and Wolbachia sp. in Ceratophyllus garei Fleas from Passerine Birds Migrated from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sekeyová, Zuzana; MEDIANNIKOV, OLEG; Roux, Véronique; Subramanian, Geetha; Špitalská, Eva; Kristofík, Jano; Darolová, Alžbeta; Raoult, Didier,

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal new aspects of the role of flea vector taken from migratory birds by screening of specimens with molecular biological methods. A field study was done in fishponds in Slovakia. Actually, 47 fleas were collected from reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) and their nests. DNA was extracted and analyzed for representatives of the orders Rickettsiales. A rickettsia that shares 99.7% of identity by gltA gene with Rickettsia africae was identified in Ceratophyllu...

  20. Isolation by a sensitive centrifugation cell culture system of 52 strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae from ticks collected in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Pter, O.; Raoult, D.; Gilot, B

    1990-01-01

    Boutonneuse fever caused by Rickettsia conorii is transmitted mainly by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. We collected 540 ticks in Marseille, France, and tried to isolate as many strains of rickettsia as possible. Ticks were evaluated for the presence of rickettsia by the hemolymph test and by a new culture system, the centrifugation-shell vial technique. We avoided contamination in the culture system. Prior to ticks being submitted to the hemolymph test, they were disinfected. O...

  1. Caractersticas clnicas, factores de riesgo y perfil de susceptibilidad de las infecciones por micobacterias documentadas por cultivo, en un hospital universitario de alta complejidad en Medelln (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco E Montufar Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: Tuberculosis (TBC es an una entidad de alta prevalencia y mortalidad en el mundo. La resistencia ascendente a frmacos es un problema de salud pblica. Adems se describen con mayor frecuencia infecciones por micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT en reas de alta prevalencia de TBC. Objetivos: Determinar caractersticas epidemiolgicas, clnicas y microbiolgicas de las infecciones por micobacterias documentadas por cultivo. Materiales y Mtodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, en pacientes hospitalizados. Resultados: De 187 pacientes, en 90,9% se identific complejo M. tuberculosis y en 9,1% MNT; 64% fueron hombres. Edad promedio 40 aos (rango 1-88 aos. Las principales co-morbilidades fueron infeccin por VIH/SIDA (23,5%, uso de corticoesteroides (13,3% y enfermedad renal crnica (9,6%. Las formas clnicas fueron pulmonares (56,6%, extra-pulmonares (23,9% y diseminadas (19,2%. El compromiso extra-pulmonar ms frecuente fue ganglionar (7,4% y gastrointestinal (7%. En M. tuberculosis 10,6% fueron multidrogoresistentes (MDR y 2,12% con resistencia extendida (XDR. Mycobacterium avium y M. abscessus fueron las MNT ms frecuentes. La mortalidad general fue 10%. Conclusiones: Inmuno-supresin es el principal factor de riesgo para enfermedad extrapulmonar y/o diseminada y la resistencia a frmacos en pacientes hospitalizados con TBC es llamativa, con mayor incidencia de MDR y XDR. Las infecciones por MNT no son infrecuentes en nuestro medio.

  2. Evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROZENTAL Tatiana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were obtained from dogs from February to September of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the County of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro. Four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, seven Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 Amblyomma sp. An hemolymph test associated with Giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (R. sanguineus and Amblyomma sp, containing rickettsia-like organisms. Direct immunofluorescence verified the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia in one specimen of R. sanguineus. Considering the limited information on rickettsiosis in Brazil, principally in relation to the vectors involved in perpetuating it in foci, these preliminary results give us an idea on the importance of infection in ticks, allowing to expand our knowledge on this zoonosis.

  3. Crystal structure of the N-terminal domains of the surface cell antigen 4 of Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hyuck; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gerard; Izard, Tina

    2013-10-01

    The obligate intracellular, gram-negative bacterium Rickettsia is the causative agent of spotted fevers and typhus in humans. Surface cell antigen (sca) proteins surround these bacteria. We recently reported the co-localization of one of these proteins, sca4, with vinculin in cells at sites of focal adhesions and demonstrated that two vinculin binding sites directed the sca4/vinculin interaction. Here we report the 2.2 Å crystal structure of the conserved N-terminal 38 kDa domain of sca4 from Rickettsia rickettsii. The structure reveals two subdomains. The first is an all-helical domain that is folded in a fashion similar to the dimeric assembly chaperone for rubisco, namely RbcX. The following and highly conserved β-strand domain lacks significant structural similarity with other known structures and to the best of our knowledge represents a new protein fold. PMID:23904352

  4. Tests on ticks from wild birds collected in the eastern United States for rickettsiae and viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, C.M.; Sonenshine, D.E.; Atwood, E.L.; Robbins, C.S.; Hughes, L.E.

    1969-01-01

    Results of tests for rickettsiae and viruses on 4,266 ticks taken from more than 10,000 birds, comprising 150 species, in the eastern United States indicated the presence of two agents: Rickettsia rickettsii and an agent of the typhus group. Infection with R. rickettsii was indicated in 24 pools of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, five pools of Ixodes dentatus, one pool of Ixodes brunneus, and two pools that contained both I. dentatus and H. leporispalustris. The pools positive for R. rickettsii were from a variety of locations in the eastern U. S. The typhus-group agent was demonstrated only once, in a single pool of H. leporispalustris taken at Kent Point, Maryland. A strain of R. rickettsii was isolated from a pool of 21 larval H. leporispalustris collected at Ocean City, Maryland. This agent possessed several characteristics of other strains of low virulence isolated previously in this region by various authors.

  5. Feeding Period Required by Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks for Transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii to Vertebrate Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiva, Danilo G.; Soares, Herbert S.; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is endemic to the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil, where the etiologic agent, Rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans by adult Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. We determined the minimal feeding period required by A. aureolatum nymphs and adults to transmit R. rickettsii to guinea pigs. Unfed nymphs and unfed adult ticks had to be attached to the host for >10 hours to transmit R. rickettsii. In contrast, fed ticks needed a minimum of 10 minutes of attachment...

  6. Sequence analysis of the 17-kilodalton-antigen gene from Rickettsia rickettsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, B. E.; Regnery, R L; Carlone, G M; Tzianabos, T; McDade, J. E.; Fu, Z Y; Bellini, W J

    1987-01-01

    DNA obtained from the Sheila Smith strain of Rickettsia rickettsii was digested to completion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI and SalI and ligated with the plasmid vector pUC19. The ligation mixture was used to transform Escherichia coli. A total of 465 bacterial clones were screened for antigen production with hyperimmune rabbit serum. One of the reactive clones, containing a recombinant plasmid designated pSS124, was solubilized and subjected to immunoblot analysis and revealed exp...

  7. Superoxide Dismutase-Dependent, Catalase-Sensitive Peroxides in Human Endothelial Cells Infected by Rickettsia rickettsii

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, June E.; Santucci, Lisa A.; Tian, Xiaojiang; Silverman, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The generation and intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species have been shown to be associated with the infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by Rickettsia rickettsii. In response to the oxidant superoxide, the activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increases following infection by this obligate intracellular bacterium. Other oxidants which are capable of oxidizing the fluorescent probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) also accumulate intracellularly...

  8. Lethal Effect of Rickettsia rickettsii on Its Tick Vector (Dermacentor andersoni)

    OpenAIRE

    Niebylski, Mark L.; Peacock, Mort G.; Schwan, Tom G.

    1999-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, was lethal for the majority of experimentally and transovarially infected Rocky Mountain wood ticks (Dermacentor andersoni). Overall, 94.1% of nymphs infected as larvae by feeding on rickettsemic guinea pigs died during the molt into adults and 88.3% of adult female ticks infected as nymphs died prior to feeding. In contrast, only 2.8% of uninfected larvae failed to develop into adults over two generations. Infected f...

  9. Phylogeography of Rickettsia rickettsii Genotypes Associated with Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher D Paddock; Denison, Amy M; Lash, R. Ryan; Liu, Lindy; Bollweg, Brigid C.; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Kanamura, Cristina T.; Angerami, Rodrigo N; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana C.; Brasil Martines, Roosecelis; Karpathy, Sandor E.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the deadliest of all infectious diseases. To identify the distribution of various genotypes of R. rickettsii associated with fatal RMSF, we applied molecular typing methods to samples of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at autopsy from 103 case-patients from seven countries who died of RMSF. Complete sequences of one or more intergenic regions were...

  10. Molecular Typing of Isolates of Rickettsia rickettsii by Use of DNA Sequencing of Variable Intergenic Regions▿

    OpenAIRE

    Karpathy, Sandor E.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Eremeeva, Marina E.

    2007-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is found throughout the Americas, where it is associated with different animal reservoirs and tick vectors. No molecular typing system currently exists to allow for the robust differentiation of isolates of R. rickettsii. Analysis of eight completed genome sequences of rickettsial species revealed a high degree of sequence conservation within the coding regions of chromosomes in the genus. Intergenic regions between c...

  11. Rickettsia rickettsii induces superoxide radical and superoxide dismutase in human endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Santucci, L A; Gutierrez, P L; Silverman, D J

    1992-01-01

    Human endothelial cells infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, undergo striking morphological changes to the endoplasmic reticulum-outer nuclear envelope complex. These changes are accompanied by concurrent accumulation of intracellular peroxides. Both of these findings are consistent with the notion that cells undergo some form of oxidative stress. Since oxidant injury is often initiated or mediated through oxygen radicals, we examined sup...

  12. Biological properties of rabbit antibodies to a surface antigen of Rickettsia rickettsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Anacker, R L; Philip, R N; Casper, E.; Todd, W J; Mann, R E; Johnston, M.R.; Nauck, C J

    1983-01-01

    Because of the potential significance of external components of the obligate intracellular parasite Rickettsia rickettsii in host-parasite interactions, we have begun the first phase of a study to isolate and characterize surface antigens of this organism. An antiserum to a rickettsial surface component was obtained from rabbits inoculated with immune precipitates prepared by crossed immunoelectrophoresis of Triton X-100 extracts of R. rickettsii strain R. This antiserum (i) protected guinea ...

  13. Reactivation of Rickettsia rickettsii in Dermacentor andersoni ticks: an ultrastructural analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, S F; Burgdorfer, W

    1982-01-01

    Virulent Rickettsia in Dermacentor andersoni lose their pathogenicity and virulence for guinea pigs when subjected to physiological stresses, such as starvation (overwintering), of its tick vector. However, incubation of infected ticks at an elevated temperature (37 degrees C) for 24 to 48 h or feeding for a time (usually greater than 10 h) induces R. rickettsii to revert to a virulent state, a phenomenon defined as "reactivation." Electron microscopy reveals that the microcapsular and slime ...

  14. Comparative Genome Sequencing of Rickettsia rickettsii Strains That Differ in Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Tina R.; Noriea, Nicholas F.; BUBLITZ, DEANNA C.; Ellison, Damon W.; Martens, Craig; Lutter, Erika I; Hackstadt, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Strains of R. rickettsii differ dramatically in virulence. In a guinea pig model of infection, the severity of disease as assessed by fever response varies from the most virulent, Sheila Smith, to Iowa, which causes no fever. To identify potential determinants of virulence in R. rickettsii, the genomes of two additional strains were sequenced for comparison to known sequenc...

  15. Effect of synthetic protease inhibitors of the amidine type on cell injury by Rickettsia rickettsii.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, D.H.; Tidwell, R. R.; Rector, T M; Geratz, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of proteolytic activity in the pathogenesis of cell injury by Rickettsia rickettsii, a series of four aromatic amidine inhibitors of trypsin-like proteases were introduced into the plaque model. The compounds were shown to be active toward plaque reduction with their order of effectiveness parallel to their antitrypsin activity. One of the compounds, bis(5-amidino-2-benzimidazolyl)-methane, at a concentration of 10(-5) M demonstrated complete inhibition of plaque fo...

  16. High Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. Infections in Small Mammals in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo,Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance for Rickettsia spp. is urgently needed due to the recent emergence of many novel rickettsioses around the globe, but previous studies in Taiwan have been limited to small areas and no investigation of infections in vertebrate hosts has ever been attempted. We surveyed rickettsial infections systematically in small-mammal hosts trapped between 2006 and 2010 throughout Taiwan. Fragments of ompB and gltA genes in the liver, spleen, and kidney of mammals were targeted by nested polym...

  17. Rickettsia rickettsii Infection of Cultured Human Endothelial Cells Induces Heme Oxygenase 1 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Rydkina, Elena; Sahni, Abha; Silverman, David J.; Sahni, Sanjeev K.

    2002-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that oxidative insults and antioxidant defense mechanisms play a critical role in the host cell response during infection of endothelial cells by Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Heme oxygenase (HO), a rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway for heme catabolism, protects against oxidant damage in a variety of stress situations. Here, we report on the expression of the inducible and constitutive HO isozymes, HO-1 and HO-2, durin...

  18. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Multiple Hard Tick Species from Fairfax County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Tyler C; Orr, John M.; Smith, Joshua D.; ARIAS, JORGE R.; Norris, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Spotted fever group rickettsiosis (SFGR) is a potentially fatal disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the United States in recent years. The most well-known and severe type of this disease is Rocky Mountain spotted fever, but there are other mild forms that occur. Recently, human infection with Rickettsia parkeri has been reported and linked with the tick Amblyomma maculatum. In 2010, a population of R. parkeri-infected A. maculatum was discovered in Fairfax County, Virginia, lea...

  19. Cultivation of Rickettsia amblyommii in tick cells, prevalence in Florida lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum)

    OpenAIRE

    Sayler, Katherine A.; Heather L. Wamsley; Pate, Melanie; Barbet, Anthony F; Alleman, A Rick

    2014-01-01

    Background Rickettsia amblyommii is a bacterium in the spotted fever group of organisms associated with the lone star tick (LST), Amblyomma americanum. The LST is the most commonly reported tick to parasitize humans in the southeastern US. Within this geographic region, there have been suspected cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) where the causative agent, R. rickettsii, was not identified in the local tick population. In these areas, patients with clinical signs of RMSF had low or ...

  20. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Hendry, Tory A.; Hunter, Martha S.; Baltrus, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the ro...

  1. Seasonal analysis of Rickettsia species in ticks in an agricultural site of Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalská, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Kraljik, Jasna; Miklisová, Dana; Mahríková, Lenka; Bona, Martin; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-03-01

    Many rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are emerging pathogens causing serious diseases associated with vertebrate hosts. Ixodidae ticks are known as their vectors. Investigation of the relative abundance of questing Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Rickettsia spp. in an agricultural site comprising a game reserve in Slovakia was the aim of this study. In total, 2198 I. ricinus (492 larvae, 1503 nymphs and 203 adults) were collected by flagging the vegetation along 100 m(2) transects in Rozhanovce (eastern Slovakia): 334, 595 and 1269 in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Considering questing nymphs and adults, the highest relative density of 81 individuals/100 m(2) was observed in May 2013, the lowest of 0.3 individuals/100 m(2) in March 2012. A total of 1056 ticks (853 nymphs, 100 females and 103 males; 2011: n = 329, 2012: n = 509 and 2013: n = 218) were individually screened by PCR-based methods for the presence of Rickettsia spp. The overall prevalences were 7.3 % for nymphs, 15 % for females, 7.8 % for males; 7.0 % in 2011, 8.4 % in 2012, and 8.7 % in 2013. The maximum prevalences were observed in July in nymphs and in May in adults. Sequencing showed infection with R. helvetica in 73 ticks (72.6 % nymphs, 16.4 % females, 11 % males) and with R. monacensis in 11 ticks (8 nymphs, 3 females). The results showed the circulation of pathogenic Rickettsia species in the agricultural site and a potential risk for humans to encounter infected ticks. PMID:26119003

  2. Rickettsiae-like structures in the larval salivary gland cells of Drosophila auraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, G N; Neophytou, E P; Limberi-Thomopoulos, S

    1991-01-01

    Rickettsiae-like structures were found in the salivary gland cells of Drosophila auraria during different larval and prepupal developmental stages, from the early 3rd instar up to 14 hr after spiracle inversion. These microorganisms are surrounded by a membrane, are constantly intracellular, and occur singly or in groups. Their widespread occurrence in various tissues of other Drosophila species indicates that they can be considered as symbionts, but their actual functional significance (if any) is unknown. PMID:1999840

  3. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica DNA from peripheral blood of Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuma, Hisashi; Seino, Nobutaka; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Kaji, Koichi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Igota, Hiromasa; Inoue, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Partial nucleotide sequences of the citrate synthase and 17-kDa genes of Rickettsia helvetica were detected from peripheral blood samples of Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido, Japan. Results suggest the presence of a rickettsiemia associated with R. helvetica. This is the first evidence of R. helvetica infection in Sika deer and indicates that this species may represent a potential reservoir host of R. helvetica in Japan. PMID:18263833

  4. Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from California collected in 1995 and 1996.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlough, J E; Madigan, J.E.; Kramer, V L; Clover, J R; Hui, L T; Webb, J P; Vredevoe, L K

    1997-01-01

    A total of 1,246 ixodid ticks collected in 1995 and 1996 from seven California counties were examined for the presence of Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae by using a nested PCR technique. Of 1,112 adult Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls ticks tested, nine pools, each containing five ticks, were positive (minimum percentage of ticks harboring detectable ehrlichiae, 0.8%). Positive ticks were limited to four of the seven counties (Sonoma, El Dorado, Santa Cruz, and Orange). In San...

  5. Distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii in ovary cells of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille1806) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Costa Luís; Nunes Pablo; Soares João; Labruna Marcelo; Camargo-Mathias Maria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Considering the fact that the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a great potential to become the vector of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) for humans, the present study aimed to describe the distribution of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of BSF, in different regions of the ovaries of R. sanguineus using histological techniques. The ovaries were obtained from positive females confirmed by the hemolymph test and fed in the nymph stage on guinea...

  6. Genomic and proteinic characterization of strain S, a rickettsia isolated from Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in Armenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeeva, M; Balayeva, N; Roux, V; Ignatovich, V.; Kotsinjan, M; Raoult, D.

    1995-01-01

    Strain S, a spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia isolated from Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected in Armenia, was identified. Microimmunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis and Western immunoblotting, PCR and then restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to compare strain S with reference isolates. Strain S was found to possess proteinic, antigenic, and genomic ...

  7. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii DNA in clinical specimens by using polymerase chain reaction technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Tzianabos, T; Anderson, B E; McDade, J E

    1989-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure for detecting rickettsial DNA was developed and shown to be specific for Rickettsia rickettsii and R. conorii, the etiologic agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) and Boutonneuse fever, respectively. Blood clots were obtained from nine confirmed RMSF patients and six controls and analyzed for the presence of rickettsial DNA by the PCR method. A defined region of the rickettsial genome was successfully amplified from seven of the nine clinica...

  8. Experimental infection of dogs with a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii: clinical and laboratory findings

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane M. Piranda; João Luis H Faccini; Adriano Pinter; Tais B Saito; Richard C. Pacheco; Mitika K Hagiwara; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2008-01-01

    The bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of an acute, severe disease called Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States or Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in Brazil. In addition to these two countries, the disease has also been reported to affect humans in Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Argentina. Like humans, dogs are also susceptible to R. rickettsii infection. However, despite the wide distribution of R. rickettsii in the Western Hemisphere, reports of R. ...

  9. A Molecular Survey of Rickettsia felis in Fleas from Cats and Dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were co...

  10. Prevalence and Infection Load Dynamics of Rickettsia felis in Actively Feeding Cat Fleas

    OpenAIRE

    Reif, Kathryn E.; Stout, Rhett W.; Henry, Gretchen C.; Foil, Lane D.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Rickettsia felis is a flea-associated rickettsial pathogen recurrently identified in both colonized and wild-caught cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis. We hypothesized that within colonized fleas, the intimate relationship between R. felis and C. felis allows for the coordination of rickettsial replication and metabolically active periods during flea bloodmeal acquisition and oogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to quantify R. fel...

  11. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis felis from Five Geographic Regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio C. Horta; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Azevedo, Milka C.; Costa, Francisco B.; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated rickettsial infection in 701 Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas that were collected from dogs and cats in 31 municipalities, encompassing all regions and major biomes of Brazil. A total of 268 (38.2%) fleas from 30 municipalities were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for the rickettsial gltA gene. The PCR products from 44 fleas, consisting of at least 1 PCR-positive flea from each of 30 municipalities, generated DNA sequences identical to Rickettsia felis. Ricketts...

  12. Dissemination of bloodmeal acquired Rickettsia felis in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis

    OpenAIRE

    Thepparit, Chutima; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Popov, Vsevolod. L.; Foil, Lane D.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, are known biological vectors for Rickettsia felis. Rickettsial transmission can be vertical via transovarial transmission within a flea population, as well as horizontal between fleas through a bloodmeal. The previously undescribed infection kinetics of bloodmeal-acquired R. felis in cat fleas provides insight into the R. felis-flea interaction. Findings In the present study, dissemination of R. felis in previously uninfected cat fleas fed an R. fe...

  13. Genomic study of Rickettsia akari by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeeva, M; Balayeva, N; Ignatovich, V.; Raoult, D.

    1995-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-, EagI-, and BssHII-digested DNA was used to perform restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Rickettsia akari strains isolated from humans, rodents, and mites in the United States and Ukraine. Although some differences in biological and serological characteristics were present between strains, the genomic studies demonstrated a high degree of intraspecies homogeneity of R. akari isolates. Our results confirm the value of pulsed-field gel e...

  14. ISOLATION OF Rickettsia bellii FROM Amblyomma ovale AND Amblyomma incisum TICKS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pacheco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To isolate and characterize rickettsiae from the ticks Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma incisum collected in the state of São Paulo. Materials and methods. Adult, free-living A. ovale and A. incisum were collected in an Atlantic rainforest area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Each tick was tested using the hemolymph assay; samples from positive ticks were placed in shell vials in order to isolate rickettsiae and subsequently grown in Vero cells. Amplification of three rickettsial genes (gltA, htrA and ompA was attempted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for each isolate obtained. Amplicons were subsequently sequenced. Results. A total of 388 A. incisum and 50 A. ovale were collected. Only one A. incisum and one A. ovale were hemolymph-test positive. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from these ticks; however establishment in Vero cell culture was successful only for the isolate from A. ovale. Bacterial contamination in the first cell passage of the A. incisum isolate precluded successful isolation of the organism. PCR products were obtained with the gltA and htrA primers for the two isolates, but no product was obtained with the ompA primers. By BLAST analysis, partial gltA and htrA sequences of isolates from A. ovale and A. incisum were similar to the corresponding sequences of R. bellii. Conclusions. This is the first report of R. bellii infecting A. incisum and the first successful isolation from A. ovale.

  15. Disrupting protein expression with Peptide Nucleic Acids reduces infection by obligate intracellular Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Rebecca S; McClure, Jennifer C; Kaur, Simran J; Sears, Khandra T; Rahman, M Sayeedur; Ceraul, Shane M

    2015-01-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are single-stranded synthetic nucleic acids with a pseudopeptide backbone in lieu of the phosphodiester linked sugar and phosphate found in traditional oligos. PNA designed complementary to the bacterial Shine-Dalgarno or start codon regions of mRNA disrupts translation resulting in the transient reduction in protein expression. This study examines the use of PNA technology to interrupt protein expression in obligate intracellular Rickettsia sp. Their historically intractable genetic system limits characterization of protein function. We designed PNA targeting mRNA for rOmpB from Rickettsia typhi and rickA from Rickettsia montanensis, ubiquitous factors important for infection. Using an in vitro translation system and competitive binding assays, we determined that our PNAs bind target regions. Electroporation of R. typhi and R. montanensis with PNA specific to rOmpB and rickA, respectively, reduced the bacteria's ability to infect host cells. These studies open the possibility of using PNA to suppress protein synthesis in obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:25781160

  16. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacsova, Monika; Mediannikov, Oleg; Kazimirova, Maria; Raoult, Didier; Sekeyova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria) in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors. PMID:26901622

  17. Serosurvey for tick-borne diseases in dogs from the Eastern Amazon, Brazil Pesquisa Sorolgica por doenas transmitidas por carrapatos em ces da Amaznia oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Granziera Spolidorio

    Full Text Available Canine ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are the most prevalent tick-borne diseases in Brazilian dogs. Few studies have focused attention in surveying tick-borne diseases in the Brazilian Amazon region. A total of 129 blood samples were collected from dogs living in the Brazilian eastern Amazon. Seventy-two samples from dogs from rural areas of 19 municipalities and 57 samples from urban stray dogs from Santarm municipality were collected. Serum samples were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA with antigens of Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and six Rickettsia species. The frequency of dogs containing anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, and anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies was 42.6%, 16.2%, and 31.7%, respectively. Anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies were detected in 59.6% of the urban dogs, and in 29.1% of the rural dogs (P Ehrliquiose canina e babesiose canina so as doenas parasitrias transmitidas por carrapatos de maior prevalncia em ces do Brasil. Poucos estudos pesquisaram doenas transmitidas por carrapatos na regio da Amaznia brasileira. Um total de 129 amostras de sangue foram colhidas de ces da Amaznia oriental brasileira. Setenta e dois ces eram de reas rurais de 19 municpios do Estado do Par, e 57 amostras foram colhidas de ces errantes vadios da rea urbana do municpio de Santarm-PA. As amostras de soro foram submetidas ao ensaio de imunofluorescncia indireta, com antgenos de Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, e seis espcies de Rickettsia. A frequncia de ces com anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, e anti-Rickettsia spp. foi de 42,6%, 16,2% e 31,7%, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli foram detectados em 59,6% dos ces urbanos, e em 29,1% dos ces rurais (P < 0.05. Para E. canis, a soroprevalncia foi parecida entre os ces urbanos (15,7% e rurais (16,6%. Para Rickettsia spp., ces rurais apresentaram prevalncia (P < 0.05 significativamente maior (40,3% do que os ces urbanos (21,1%. Esse primeiro estudo sobre agentes transmitidos por carrapatos entre ces da Amaznia oriental brasileira indica que estes animais esto expostos a vrios agentes. Estes incluem Babesia principalmente na rea urbana, Riqutsias do grupo da Febre Maculosa principalmente nas reas rurais, e Erliquia em ces de ambas as reas, rural e urbana.

  18. Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia in Carios capensis (Acari: Argasidae) from a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) rookery in South Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Sanders, Felicia; Spinks, Mark D; Wills, William; Denison, Amy M; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents of humans and animals. Carios capensis, a tick of seabirds, infests the nests of brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalis, and other ground nesting birds along the coast of South Carolina. This tick is associated with pelican nest abandonment and could pose a threat to humans visiting pelican rookeries if visitors are exposed to ticks harboring infectious agents. We collected ticks from a pelican rookery on Deveaux Bank, South Carolina and screened 64 individual ticks, six pools of larvae, and an egg mass for DNA from Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Ticks harbored DNA from "Borrelia lonestari", a novel Coxiella sp., and three species of Rickettsia, including Rickettsia felis and two undescribed Rickettsia spp. DNA from the Coxiella and two undescribed Rickettsia were detected in unfed larvae that emerged in the laboratory, which implies these agents are transmitted vertically by female ticks. We partially characterize the novel Coxiella by molecular means. PMID:16821092

  19. Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsia in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the western part of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenji; Kaneda, Toshiya; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Rickettsial infection in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the western part of Japan (Shimane, Fukuoka, Saga and Nagasaki Prefectures) was surveyed by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detecting the rickettsial citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Four of one hundred and ninety-four feral raccoon spleens (2.1%) were positive for Rickettsia spp. One gltA gene sequence was identical to R. helvetica, whereas the other 3 sequences were identical and had the highest similarity (98.4%) to R. amblyommii. Simultaneously, we determined a partial sequence of the rickettsial 17-kilodalton (17K) genus-common antigen gene in the later 3 raccoon samples. Their sequences were identical and had the highest similarity (98.5%) to Rickettsia sp. Hj126. Based on the sequences of gltA and 17K antigen genes, these raccoons might be infected with spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia most closely related to R. amblyommii and/or Rickettsia sp. Hj126. Feral raccoons may be a susceptible reservoir for SFG rickettsiae in Japan. PMID:22986299

  20. Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) em Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) no estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Horta; Pinter, A; A. Cortez; R. de M. Soares; S M Gennari; T.T.S. Schumaker; Labruna, M. B.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of 10 and 14 Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas were collected on dogs from Pedreira and Mogi das Cruzes municipalities, respectively, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, for detection of Rickettsia spp. Individual fleas were submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting the 17-kDa and the 190-kDa (OmpA) genes of Rickettsiae. This later gene is specific for spotted fever group. Nine fleas from Pedreira (90%) and four fleas from Mogi das Cruzes (28%) were positive for the 17-kDa gene,...

  1. Rickettsia rickettsii isolation from naturally infected Amblyomma parvum ticks by centrifugation in a 24-well culture plate technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul-Rosado, K; Peniche-Lara, G; Tello-Martín, R; Zavala-Velázquez, J; Pacheco, R de Campos; Labruna, M B; Sánchez, E C; Zavala-Castro, J

    2013-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an acute illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii (R. rickettsii) and is transmitted by the bite of ticks of the genera Dermacentor, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus. The illness results in a high mortality rate and may be easily confused with other febrile syndromes. In Yucatan State, Mexico, childhood cases with a high mortality have been reported. In this work we report the isolation of a Mexican R. rickettsii strain from a tick egg mass using an alternative method for Rickettsia isolation with 24-well plates. We also identified a potential vector of R. rickettsii in the southeast of Mexico, which is Amblyomma parvum. PMID:26623321

  2. Rickettsia rickettsii isolation from naturally infected Amblyomma parvum ticks by centrifugation in a 24-well culture plate technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dzul-Rosado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an acute illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii (R. rickettsii and is transmitted by the bite of ticks of the genera Dermacentor, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus. The illness results in a high mortality rate and may be easily confused with other febrile syndromes. In Yucatan State, Mexico, childhood cases with a high mortality have been reported. In this work we report the isolation of a Mexican R. rickettsii strain from a tick egg mass using an alternative method for Rickettsia isolation with 24-well plates. We also identified a potential vector of R. rickettsii in the southeast of Mexico, which is Amblyomma parvum.

  3. The influence of temperature and pH on the growth of Rickettsia conorii in irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature range for optimum growth of Rickettsia conorii in suspension culture of gamma-irradiated L cells was 32 to 38 degC, resulting in rickettsial doubling times between 4.1 and 6.0 hrs. An asynchronous release of Rickettsia conorii from host cells was suggested by the constant increase in percent cells infected over a 36 hrs period. Rickettsial growth was optimal at neutral to slightly alkaline extracellular pH levels. A moderately acidic pH, however, resulted in an increase in doubling time from 4.1 to 7.8 hrs. (author)

  4. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae, and B. clarridgeiae in Fleas from Domestic Dogs and Cats in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtar, Aida Syafinaz; Tay, Sun Tee

    2011-01-01

    The presence of Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae in 209 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) obtained from domestic cats and dogs in several locations in Malaysia was investigated in this study. Using a polymerase chain reaction specific for the citrate synthase (gltA) and 17-kD antigenic protein (17kD) genes of rickettsiae, we detected R. felis DNA in 6 (2.9%) fleas. For detection of bartonellae, amplification of the heme-binding protein (pap31) and riboflavin synthase (rib...

  5. Anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies in free-ranging and captive capybaras from southern Brazil

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    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris are among the main hosts of Amblyomma spp. ticks, which is able to transmit Rickettsia species to human beings and animals. Since they are often infested with potential vector ticks, capybaras may be used as sentinels for rickettsiosis, such as the Brazilian Spotted Fever. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA in 21 free-ranging and 10 captive animals from the Zoological Park of the 'Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary' (BVBS, Itaipu Binational, Foz do Iguaçu, Southern Brazil. Antigens of six rickettsial species already identified in Brazil (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis were used for IFA. Ticks from each capybara were collected for posterior taxonomic identification. A total of 19 (61.3% samples reacted to at least one of tested species. Seropositivity was found in 14 (45.2%, 12 (38.7%, 5 (16.1%, 4 (12.9%, 3 (9.7% and 3 (9.7% animals for R. rickettsii, R. bellii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. felis and R. rhipicephali, respectively. Two captive capybaras presented suggestive titers of R. rickettsii infection and one sample showed homologous reaction to R. parkeri. Only one free-ranging capybara presented evidence R. bellii infection. Ticks collected on capybaras were identified as Amblyomma dubitatum e Amblyomma sp. Results evidenced the rickettsial circulation in the area, suggesting a potential role of capybaras on bacterial life cycle.

  6. Genomic and comparative genomic analyses of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis provide insight into its evolution and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Changsong; Xiong, Xiaolu; Qi, Yong; Gong, Wenping; Jiao, Jun; Wen, Bohai

    2014-08-01

    Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, the causative agent of far eastern spotted fever, is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the spotted fever group rickettsiae. To understand the evolution and pathogenesis of R. heilongjiangensis, we analyzed its genome and compared it with other rickettsial genomes available in GenBank. The R. heilongjiangensis chromosome contains 1333 genes, including 1297 protein coding genes and 36 RNA coding genes. The genome also contains 121 pseudogenes, 54 insertion sequences, and 39 tandem repeats. Sixteen genes encoding the major components of the type IV secretion systems were identified in the R. heilongjiangensis genome. In total, 37 β-barrel outer membrane proteins were predicted in the genome, eight of which have been previously confirmed to be outer membrane proteins. In addition, 266 potential virulence factor genes, seven partially deleted antibiotic resistance genes, and a genomic island were identified in the genome. The codon usage in the genome is compatible with its low GC content, and the amino acid usage shows apparent bias. A comparative genomic analysis showed that R. heilongjiangensis and R. japonica share one unique fragment that may be a target sequence for a diagnostic assay. The orthologs of 37 genes of R. heilongjiangensis were found in pathogenic R. rickettsii str. Sheila Smith but not in non-pathogenic R. rickettsii str. Iowa, which may explain why R. heilongjiangensis is pathogenic. Pan-genome analysis showed that R. heilongjiangensis and 42 other rickettsiae strains share 693 core genes with a pan-genome size of 4837 genes. The pan-genome-based phylogeny showed that R. heilongjiangensis was closely related to R. japonica. PMID:24924907

  7. Experimental infection of dogs with a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii: clinical and laboratory findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane M Piranda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of an acute, severe disease called Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States or Brazilian spotted fever (BSF in Brazil. In addition to these two countries, the disease has also been reported to affect humans in Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Argentina. Like humans, dogs are also susceptible to R. rickettsii infection. However, despite the wide distribution of R. rickettsii in the Western Hemisphere, reports of R. rickettsii-induced illness in dogs has been restricted to the United States. The present study evaluated the pathogenicity for dogs of a South American strain of R. rickettsii. Three groups of dogs were evaluated: group 1 (G1 was inoculated ip with R. rickettsii; group 2 (G2 was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks; and the control group (G3 was infested by uninfected ticks. During the study, no clinical abnormalities, Rickettsia DNA or R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies were detected in G3. In contrast, all G1 and G2 dogs developed signs of rickettsial infection, i.e., fever, lethargy, anorexia, ocular lesions, thrombocytopenia, anemia and detectable levels of Rickettsia DNA and R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies in their blood. Rickettsemia started 3-8 days after inoculation or tick infestation and lasted for 3-13 days. Our results indicate that a Brazilian strain of R. rickettsii is pathogenic for dogs, suggesting that canine clinical illness due to R. rickettsii has been unreported in Brazil and possibly in the other South American countries where BSF has been reported among humans.

  8. In vitro evaluation of josamycin, spiramycin, and erythromycin against Rickettsia rickettsii and R. conorii.

    OpenAIRE

    Raoult, D; Roussellier, P; Tamalet, J

    1988-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of josamycin, erythromycin, and spiramycin against Rickettsia conorii and R. rickettsii were evaluated in two tests: a dye-uptake assay and a plaque assay. The MIC of josamycin was 1 microgram/ml for both species; the MICs of erythromycin and spiramycin were 4 to 8 and 16 to 32 micrograms/ml, respectively, for both species. Only josamycin may be of clinical use in treating spotted fever rickettsiosis. It may be useful in treating pregnant women and young children.

  9. Solution structure of the cold-shock-like protein from Rickettsia rickettsii

    OpenAIRE

    Gerarden, Kyle P.; Fuchs, Andrew M.; Koch, Jonathan M.; Mueller, Melissa M.; Graupner, David R.; O’Rorke, Justin T.; Frost, Caleb D.; Heinen, Heather A.; Lackner, Emily R.; Schoeller, Scott J.; House, Paul G.; Francis C. Peterson; Veldkamp, Christopher T

    2012-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii infection. R. rickettsii can be transmitted to mammals, including humans, through the bite of an infected hard-bodied tick of the family Ixodidae. Since the R. rickettsii genome contains only one cold-shock-like protein and given the essential nature of cold-shock proteins in other bacteria, the structure of the cold-shock-like protein from R. rickettsii was investigated. With the exception of a short α-helix found between β-stra...

  10. Evaluation of latex-Rickettsia rickettsii test for Rocky Mountain spotted fever in 11 laboratories.

    OpenAIRE

    Hechemy, K E; Michaelson, E E; Anacker, R L; Zdeb, M; Sasowski, S J; Kleeman, K T; Joseph, J. M.; Patel, J; Kudlac, J; Elliott, L B

    1983-01-01

    A latex-Rickettsia rickettsii test for detection of antibodies to Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) was evaluated during the 1980 RMSF season in 11 laboratories in nine states where the disease is endemic. In a double-blind study, all sera submitted to each laboratory for RMSF testing were also examined by the latex-R. rickettsii test. A portion of each specimen was then sent to the New York State laboratory for testing by latex-R. rickettsii and by the reference microimmunofluorescence tes...

  11. Fatal Brazilian spotless fever caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in a dark-skinned patient

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    Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça Favacho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is the most important and frequent rickettsial disease in Brazil. A fatal case of BSF is reported in a 32-year-old black man, who died of irreversible shock after five days of fever, severe headache and abdominal pain with no rash. Spleen, kidney and heart samples collected at autopsy were positive for Rickettsia rickettsii by PCR and sequencing. The authors emphasize the need for a high index of diagnostic suspicion for spotted fever in black patients. Absence of a skin rash should not dissuade clinicians from considering the possibility of BSF and initiating empirical therapy.

  12. Septic shock in a patient infected with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, V; Portillo, A; Palomar, A M; Sanz, M M; Metola, L; Blanco, J R; Oteo, J A

    2012-08-01

    In 1996, the first human case of infection by Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae was described in France. Subsequently, other human cases were reported in the same country. The acronym LAR (lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis) has been proposed to designate this disease because lymphangitis is one of the main clinical manifestations. Later, a few more cases were described in Portugal, South Africa, Egypt, Greece and Spain. We report a case of R. sibirica mongolitimonae infection as a cause of septic shock in a Spanish patient living in La Rioja (northern Spain). In addition, the broad clinical spectrum of this tick-borne disease is discussed. PMID:22548679

  13. Aproximación clínica y principales rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas presentes en Latinoamérica

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    Katia Abarca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas son infecciones potencialmente letales, que en Latinoamérica tienen carácter emergente y re-emergente. Hasta hace escasos años, la única rickettsiosis transmitida por garrapatas era causada por Rickettsia rickettsii, pero en la actualidad existen otras especies como R. parkeri y R. massiliae que están provocando enfermedad en humanos en la región. Por otro lado, se están describiendo candidatos a nuevas especies de Rickettsia, que aunque no han probado su patogenicidad deben considerarse como potencialmente patógenos. Dado que el diagnóstico microbiológico puede tardar días o semanas, resulta fundamental una alta sospecha clínica y la instauración precoz de un tratamiento adecuado. En esta revisión se detalla la distribución y principales manifestaciones clínicas de las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas en Latinoamérica. Se ha incluido una sección sobre la infección por R. felis, por haberse encontrado esta especie en garrapatas, y no haberse aclarado el papel de este vector en su ciclo epidemiológico.

  14. Serological survey of Rickettsia sp. in horses and dogs in an non-endemic area in Brazil Identificação sorológica de Rickettsia sp. em equinos e cães de área não endêmica no Brasil

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    Fernanda Gonçalves Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is a lethal rickettsiosis in humans caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, and is endemic in some areas of Brazil. Horses and dogs are part of the disease's life cycle and they may also serve as sentinel animals in epidemiological studies. The first human BSF case in the State of Paraná was reported in 2005. The present study was conducted in the municipality of Almirante Tamandaré, where no previous case of BSF was reported. Serum samples were collected from 71 horses and 20 dogs from nine properties in the area. Ticks were also collected from these animals. All farmers completed a questionnaire about their knowledge of BSF and animal health management. Serum samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA using R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Ticks were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia sp., and all of them were PCR-negative. Six horses (8.45% and 4 dogs (20% were identified as seropositive. Farmers were not aware of the correlation between the presence of ticks and risk of BSF. Although a non-endemic area, Almirante Tamandaré is a vulnerable environment for BSF and effective tick control measures are required.A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma riquetsiose letal para humanos, causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, e é endêmica em algumas regiões brasileiras. Equinos e cães podem participar do ciclo da doença e podem também servir como sentinelas em estudos epidemiológicos. O primeiro caso humano relatado no Estado do Paraná ocorreu em 2005. O presente estudo foi realizado no município de Almirante Tamandaré, região onde não há relatos de casos de FMB. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 71 cavalos e 20 cães em nove propriedades rurais na região. Carrapatos também foram colhidos dos animais. Todos os proprietários responderam a um questionário sobre o manejo sanitário dos animais e o conhecimento a respeito da FMB. As amostras de soro foram processadas pela técnica de Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, utilizando-se os antígenos de R. rickettsii e R. parkeri. Os carrapatos foram analisados por PCR para Rickettsia sp. e todos foram negativos. Seis cavalos (8,45% e 4 cães (20% foram identificados como soropositivos. Todos os proprietários desconheciam a relação de carrapatos com a FMB. Embora considerada uma área não endêmica, Almirante Tamandaré é um ambiente vulnerável à FMB e um controle eficiente de carrapatos deve ser implementado.

  15. Rickettsia typhi IN RODENTS AND R. felis IN FLEAS IN YUCATÁN AS A POSSIBLE CAUSAL AGENT OF UNDEFINED FEBRILE CASES

    OpenAIRE

    PENICHE-LARA, Gaspar; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Carlos PÉREZ-OSORIO; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. Human cases of murine typhus in the state of Yucatán are frequent. However, there is no evidence of the presence of Rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in Yucatán. The presence of Rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of Yucatán using the conventional polymerase chai...

  16. Evidence for proteolytic cleavage of the 120-kilodalton outer membrane protein of rickettsiae: identification of an avirulent mutant deficient in processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackstadt, T; Messer, R; Cieplak, W; Peacock, M G

    1992-01-01

    The 120-kDa rickettsial outer membrane protein (rOmpB) is encoded by a gene with the capacity to encode a protein of approximately 168 kDa. The carboxy-terminal end of the molecule is apparently cleaved to yield 120- and 32-kDa products. Both polypeptides are surface exposed and remain associated with the outer membrane of intact rickettsiae. All species of rickettsiae examined display similar cleavage of rOmpB. Comparison of diverse species of rickettsiae demonstrate a conserved N terminus o...

  17. Rickettsia Species Infecting Amblyomma cooperi Ticks from an Area in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, Where Brazilian Spotted Fever Is Endemic

    OpenAIRE

    Labruna, Marcelo B.; Whitworth, Ted; Horta, Maurício C.; BOUYER, DONALD H.; McBride, Jere W.; Pinter, Adriano; POPOV, Vsevolod; Gennari, Solange M.; David H Walker

    2004-01-01

    Owing to the potential role of the tick Amblyomma cooperi in the enzootic cycle of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), this study evaluated infection by Rickettsia species in A. cooperi ticks collected from an area in Brazil where BSF is endemic. Among a total of 40 A. cooperi adult ticks collected in an area of BSF endemicity in the state of São Paulo, PCR analysis detected DNA of Rickettsia bellii in 16 ticks (40%), and 3 other ticks (7.5%) were posi...

  18. Survey of rickettsiae in humans, dogs, horses, and ticks in Northern Paraná, BrazilLevantamento de riquétsias em humanos, cães, cavalos e carrapatos no Norte do Paraná, Brasil

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    John Stephen Dumler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever is a disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, and is transmitted to humans and animals by Amblyomma spp. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiology of spotted fever group rickettsiae in rural areas of Northern Parana. In Alvorada do Sul municipality, 88 humans, 83 dogs, and 18 horses were sampled, and in Arapongas municipality, 138 humans, 90 dogs and 18 horses were studied. All the sera were tested by IFA in which R. rickettsii and R. parkeri were used as antigens, considering titers ? 64 positive. Ticks collected from dogs and horses were tested by PCR. In Alvorada do Sul, 24% and 16.1% of humans, 55.6% and 22.2% of horses and, 22.9% and 18.1% of dogs were seropositive for R rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. In Arapongas, 9.4% and 4.3% of the humans, 5.6% and 5.6% of horses and, 13.3% and 12.2% of the dogs were seropositive for R. rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. PCR detected seven ticks with gltA sequences that showed similarity with R. bellii. The presence of antibodies to R. parkeri and R. rickettsii in dogs, horses and humans demonstrates a potential risk for spotted fever group rickettsiae in these areas.Febre Maculosa Brasileira é uma doença causada por Rickettsia rickettsii, e é transmitida para humanos e animais por Amblyomma spp. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia de riquétsias do grupo da febre em áreas rurais do Norte do Paraná. No município de Alvorada do Sul, 88 pessoas, 83 cães e 18 cavalos foram amostrados, e no município de Arapongas, 138 seres humanos, 90 cães e 18 cavalos foram estudados. Todos os soros foram testados por IFI com R. rickettsii e R. parkeri como antígenos, considerando-se os títulos ? 64 positivos. Carrapatos coletados de cães e cavalos foram testados por PCR. Em Alvorada do Sul, 24% e 16,1% dos seres humanos, 55,6% e 22,2% de cavalos e, 22,9% e 18,1% de cães foram soropositivos para R. rickettsii e R. parkeri, respectivamente. Em Arapongas, 9,4% e 4,3% dos seres humanos, 5,6% e 5,6% de cavalos e, 13,3% e 12,2% dos cães foram soropositivos para R. rickettsii e R. parkeri, respectivamente. A PCR detectou 7 carrapatos com seqüências gltA que mostrou semelhança com R. bellii. A presença de anticorpos para R. rickettsii e R. parkeri em cães, cavalos e seres humanos demonstra um risco potencial para riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa nestas áreas.

  19. Antibodies against rickettsiae from spotted fever groups in horses from two mesoregions in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    A.P. Medeiros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the Rickettsia genus are agents of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF, a zoonotic disease which is difficult to diagnose, evolves quickly and can result in death. Antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in horses were studied, by means of Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFAT ≥64, in 150 blood samples taken from animals in two Santa Catarina mesoregions (Planalto Serrano and Vale do Itajaí. The overall occurrence of Rickettsia spp. antibodies in horses was 18.66%, with cross-reactivity occurring in all positive samples for at least two of the species tested. Separately, according to the species, 25 (16.66% samples were positive for R. rickettsii, 15 (10% for R. parkeri, 22 (14.66% for R. amblyommii, 23 (15.33% for R. rhipicephali, 16 (10.66% for R. bellii and 19 (12.66% for R. felis. Only two animals resulted in a conclusive serodiagnosis, one for R. bellii and the other for R. rickettsii, at maximum dilutions of 1:4096 and 1:512, respectively. The occurrence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in horses from two mesoregions in the state of Santa Catarina indicates the movement of BSF agents in these sentinel animals and confirms the importance of studying spotted fever in the state of Santa Catarina.

  20. Multispacer Typing (MST) of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae Isolated from Humans and Rats in Chengmai County, Hainan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xueqin; Jin, Yuming; Lao, Shijun; Huang, Changhe; Huang, Fang; Jia, Pengben; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-09-01

    Spotted fever caused by spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) is found throughout China. During 2007-2008, 28 human SFGR isolates and 34 rat SFGR isolates including 15 isolates from Rattus fulvescens, 5 isolates from R. edwardsi, 7 isolates from Callosciurus erythraeus roberti and 7 isolates from Dremomys rufigenis) were obtained from L929 cell culture. Previous research indicated that the 62 strains of SFGR mentioned above shared not only the same serophenotype but also 100% of identity sequences of 16S rRNA, gltA, ompA, groEL and 17KD, which enabled us to apply multispacer typing (MST) to the 62 SFGR isolates in the study. Six primer pairs, which were used for typing of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, were chosen, and the results exhibited greater nucleotide polymorphisms among the 62 isolates tested. A total of 48 distinct genotypes were identified. The dominant genotype, represented by h3 isolates, accounted for 21.7% (13/60) of the isolates tested, and the remaining 47 genotypes were all unique. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the 48 genotypes could be classified in the same clade, while the genetically related strain, R. heilongjiangensis, was close but not the same as the cluster. We concluded that the genetically diverse of spotted fever group rickettsiae strains are endemic in Chengmai County, Hainan Province, China. PMID:25324688

  1. Case report: Co-infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: is fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever underdiagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczniak, Gregory A; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J

    2014-12-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections. PMID:25331804

  2. Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever

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    KA Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne diseases caused by parasites from the Order Rickettsiales. The most prevalent rickettsial disease in Brazil is Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF. This work intends the molecular detection of those agents in ectoparasites from an endemic area of BSF in the state of Espírito Santo. A total of 502 ectoparasites, among them Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum (A. cooperi, Riphicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens and Ctenocephalides felis, was collected from domestic animals and the environment and separated in 152 lots according to the origin. Rickettsia sp. was detected in pools of all collected species by amplification of 17kDa protein-encoding gene fragments. The products of PCR amplification of three samples were sequenced, and Rickettsia felis was identified in R. sanguineus and C. felis. These results confirm the presence of Rickettsia felis in areas previously known as endemic for BSF, disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil.

  3. Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, K A; Oliveira, L S; Dias, C C A; Silva, A; Almeida, M R; Almada, G; Bouyer, D H; Galvo, M A M; Mafra, Cl

    2008-03-01

    Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne diseases caused by parasites from the Order Rickettsiales. The most prevalent rickettsial disease in Brazil is Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF). This work intends the molecular detection of those agents in ectoparasites from an endemic area of BSF in the state of Esprito Santo. A total of 502 ectoparasites, among them Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum (A. cooperi), Riphicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens and Ctenocephalides felis, was collected from domestic animals and the environment and separated in 152 lots according to the origin. Rickettsia sp. was detected in pools of all collected species by amplification of 17 kDa protein-encoding gene fragments. The products of PCR amplification of three samples were sequenced, and Rickettsia felis was identified in R. sanguineus and C. felis. These results confirm the presence of Rickettsia felis in areas previously known as endemic for BSF, disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Moreover, they show the needing of further studies for deeper knowledge of R. felis-spotted fever epidemiology and differentiation of these diseases in Brazil. PMID:18425272

  4. Deteccin de Rickettsia sp. en la garrapata caf del perro Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae en Matamoros, Coahuila, Mxico

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    Antonio Castillo-Martnez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron al azar 217 garrapatas sobre 72 perros domsticos en el municipio de Matamoros, Coahuila, stas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille. Con la intencin de determinar la presencia de la bacteria (Rickettsia sp. causante de la fiebre manchada de las Montaas Rocosas (FMMR, las garrapatas se agruparon en muestras (n = 100 para pruebas moleculares, las hembras repletas de sangre fueron diseccionadas para obtener el contenido estomacal y los rganos internos. Las ninfas y los machos se maceraron para exponer el contenido interno. Empleando la tcnica de CTAB se obtuvo ADN de cada pool, el cual fue sometido a ensayos de PCR para amplificar el gen gltA para la deteccin de Rickettsias. Se reporta la presencia de Rickettsia sp. en una frecuencia del 4% (4. El presente trabajo constituye el primer registro del agente causal de la fiebre manchada Rickettsia sp. en rganos internos de la garrapata caf del perro, R. sanguineus a travs de tcnicas moleculares en el municipio de Matamoros, Coahuila, regin endmica de esta enfermedad.

  5. Serological evidence of Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetii in humans of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel Leonardo; Degiuseppe, Juan Ignacio; Mamianetti, Andrea; Corin, Marcela Viviana; Linares, Mara Cielo; De Salvo, Mara Nazarena; Dohmen, Federico Eugenio Gury

    2015-12-01

    In Buenos Aires city (Argentina), the circulation of these agents has been detected mainly in vectors and animals, few human cases having been described. The aim of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of Rickettsia (spotted fever - SFG - and typhus - TG - groups) and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever agent) in residents of Buenos Aires city. The study involved 99 participants. Rickettsia IgG antibodies against SFG and TG were detected by IFA in 28.3% and 16.2% of serum samples, respectively. SFG titers were mostly 1/64 (53.6%) with a maximum of 1/512 (3.5%) whereas TG titers ranged between 1/64 (62.5%) and 1/256 (6.3%). Only one sample showed a titer of 1/32 for C. burnetii (phases I and II). The circulation of these pathogens in urban areas such as the city of Buenos Aires should be considered by health services, especially at the primary care level. PMID:26616661

  6. Detection of a novel Rickettsia sp. in soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; Leulmi, Hamza; Baziz-Neffah, Fadhila; Lalout, Reda; Mohamed, Chergui; Mohamed, Karakallah; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2015-01-01

    Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents that can infect humans and animals. In Africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens that cause mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. It would be incredibly beneficial to be able to simultaneous detect and identify other pathogens transmitted by Argasid ticks. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted field surveys in 4 distinct areas of Algeria. We investigated the occurrence of soft ticks in rodent burrows and yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests in 10 study sites and collected 154 soft ticks. Molecular identification revealed the occurrence of two different soft tick genera and five species, including Carios capensis in yellow-legged gull nests and Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros sonrai, Ornithodoros erraticus in rodent burrows. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 41/154, corresponding to a global detection rate of 26.6%. Sequences of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene suggest that this agent is a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia. For the first time in Algeria, we characterize a novel Rickettsia species by molecular means in soft ticks. PMID:26408401

  7. A cluster of Rickettsia rickettsii infection at an animal shelter in an urban area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, T; Ferreira, M S; Gomes, R; Costa, C M; Barbosa, P R A; Bezerra, I O; Garcia, M H O; Oliveira E Cruz, D M; Galliez, R; Oliveira, S; Brasil, P; Rezende, T; De Lemos, E R S

    2015-08-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii infection is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of fatal acute illness in Brazil, where this tick-borne disease is designated Brazilian spotted fever (BSF). In this study we report five fatal cases of BSF in employees of an animal shelter in an urban area in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in southeast Brazil after a natural disaster on 11 January 2011. Four of the cases occurred from 27 January to 11 April 2011, while the fifth fatal case was identified in April 2012. Three cases were confirmed by molecular analysis and two by epidemiological linkage. An investigation of BSF was performed in the animal shelter, and blood samples were collected from 115 employees and 117 randomly selected dogs. The presence of high levels (1024-4096) of antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in three (2·6%) employees and 114 (97·5%) dogs. These findings emphasize the need to consider BSF as a possible cause of undifferentiated febrile illness, especially dengue and leptospirosis, in patients occupationally exposed to dogs heavily infested by ticks, mainly working at kennels and animal shelters that have inadequate space for the animals housed and frequently providing an environment conducive to exposure to pathogens such as R. rickettsii. PMID:25483025

  8. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Different Flea Species from Caldas, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrez-Hernndez, Alejandro; Montoya, Viviana; Martnez, Alejandra; Prez, Jorge E.; Mercado, Marcela; de la Ossa, Alberto; Vlez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Correa, Maria I.; Duque, Laura; Ariza, Juan S.; Henao, Cesar; Valbuena, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia felis are an emergent global threat. Historically, the northern region of the province of Caldas in Colombia has reported murine typhus cases, and recently, serological studies confirmed high seroprevalence for both R. felis and R. typhi. In the present study, fleas from seven municipalities were collected from dogs, cats, and mice. DNA was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify gltA, ompB, and 17kD genes. Positive samples were sequenced to identify the species of Rickettsia. Of 1,341 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was the most prevalent (76.7%). Positive PCR results in the three genes were evidenced in C. felis (minimum infection rates; 5.3%), C. canis (9.2%), and Pulex irritans (10.0%). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analyses of sequences showed high identity values (> 98%) with R. felis, and all were highly related by phylogenetic analyses. This work shows the first detection of R. felis in fleas collected from animals in Colombia. PMID:23878183

  9. Molecular detection of Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma rotundatum from imported red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Avni, Zvi; King, Rony; Shkap, Varda

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of exotic ticks and pathogens through international animal trade (farm animals and pets) is a serious threat to public health and local fauna. Rapid and correct identification of potential threats is an important step on the way to conduct an efficient control of imported pests. In this report we describe the molecular identification of the neotropic tick Amblyomma rotundatum intercepted from red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria), imported to Israel from Florida, USA. Molecular analysis of the ticks conducted upon their identification, revealed that they were infected with Rickettsia bellii. Following their collection, the ticks were examined morphologically and five molecular markers were used to determine their taxonomic identity: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), cytochrome b (CytB), 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS-2). Molecular analysis indicated that all of the collected ticks were Amblyomma rotundatum. Using rickettsial gltA (citrate synthase) gene in real-time PCR analysis we found that approximately 25% of the intercepted ticks (8 of 33) were infected with Rickettsia bellii. It is concluded that accurate and timely identification of imported exotic ticks prevented their introduction to Israel, and that use of molecular tools may further improve the response to such potential threats. PMID:25865033

  10. Isolation and characterization of the dnaA gene of Rickettsia prowazekii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dnaA gene encoding the initiator protein of DNA replication was isolated from the obligate intracellular bacterium, Rickettsia prowazekii. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of R. prowazekii DnaA with other bacterial DnaA proteins revealed extensive similarity. However, the rickettsial sequence is unique in the number of basic lysine residues found within a highly conserved portion of the putative DNA binding region, suggesting that the rickettsial protein may recognize a DNA sequence that differs from the consensus DnaA box sequence identified in other bacteria. Consensus DnaA box sequences, found upstream of many bacterial dnaA genes, were not identified upstream of rickettsial dnaA gene. In addition, gene organization within this region differed from that of other bacteria. The putative start of transcription of the rickettsial dnaA gene was localized to a site 522 nucleotides upstream of the DnaA start codon. Key words: Rickettsia prowazekii; dnaA gene; initiator protein (authors)

  11. RC1339/APRc from Rickettsia conorii is a novel aspartic protease with properties of retropepsin-like enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rui; Huesgen, Pitter; Riley, Sean P; Wlodawer, Alexander; Faro, Carlos; Overall, Christopher M; Martinez, Juan J; Simões, Isaura

    2014-08-01

    Members of the species Rickettsia are obligate intracellular, gram-negative, arthropod-borne pathogens of humans and other mammals. The life-threatening character of diseases caused by many Rickettsia species and the lack of reliable protective vaccine against rickettsioses strengthens the importance of identifying new protein factors for the potential development of innovative therapeutic tools. Herein, we report the identification and characterization of a novel membrane-embedded retropepsin-like homologue, highly conserved in 55 Rickettsia genomes. Using R. conorii gene homologue RC1339 as our working model, we demonstrate that, despite the low overall sequence similarity to retropepsins, the gene product of rc1339 APRc (for Aspartic Protease from Rickettsia conorii) is an active enzyme with features highly reminiscent of this family of aspartic proteases, such as autolytic activity impaired by mutation of the catalytic aspartate, accumulation in the dimeric form, optimal activity at pH 6, and inhibition by specific HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Moreover, specificity preferences determined by a high-throughput profiling approach confirmed common preferences between this novel rickettsial enzyme and other aspartic proteases, both retropepsins and pepsin-like. This is the first report on a retropepsin-like protease in gram-negative intracellular bacteria such as Rickettsia, contributing to the analysis of the evolutionary relationships between the two types of aspartic proteases. Additionally, we have also shown that APRc is transcribed and translated in R. conorii and R. rickettsii and is integrated into the outer membrane of both species. Finally, we demonstrated that APRc is sufficient to catalyze the in vitro processing of two conserved high molecular weight autotransporter adhesin/invasion proteins, Sca5/OmpB and Sca0/OmpA, thereby suggesting the participation of this enzyme in a relevant proteolytic pathway in rickettsial life-cycle. As a novel bona fide member of the retropepsin family of aspartic proteases, APRc emerges as an intriguing target for therapeutic intervention against fatal rickettsioses. PMID:25144529

  12. Molecular Detection of Zoonotic Rickettsiae and Anaplasma spp. in Domestic Dogs and Their Ectoparasites in Bushbuckridge, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Agatha O; Sibeko-Matjila, Kgomotso P; Maina, Alice N; Richards, Allen L; Knobel, Darryn L; Matjila, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    Members of the order Rickettsiales are small, obligate intracellular bacteria that are vector-borne and can cause mild to fatal diseases in humans worldwide. There is little information on the zoonotic rickettsial pathogens that may be harbored by dogs from rural localities in South Africa. To characterize rickettsial pathogens infecting dogs, we screened 141 blood samples, 103 ticks, and 43 fleas collected from domestic dogs in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, between October 2011 and May 2012 using the reverse line blot (RLB) and Rickettsia genus and species-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. Results from RLB showed that 49% of blood samples and 30% of tick pools were positive for the genus-specific probes for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma; 16% of the blood samples were positive for Ehrlichia canis. Hemoparasite DNA could not be detected in 36% of blood samples and 30% of tick pools screened. Seven (70%) tick pools and both flea pools were positive for Rickettsia spp; three (30%) tick pools were positive for Rickettsia africae; and both flea pools (100%) were positive for Rickettsia felis. Sequencing confirmed infection with R. africae and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis; an R. felis-like organism from one of the R. felis-positive flea pools. Anaplasma sp. South Africa dog strain (closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum), A. phagocytophilum, and an Orientia tsutsugamushi-like sequence were identified from blood samples. The detection of emerging zoonotic agents from domestic dogs and their ectoparasites in a rural community in South Africa highlights the potential risk of human infection that may occur with these pathogens. PMID:26974185

  13. Differential requirements for enriched atmospheric carbon dioxide content for intracellular growth in cell culture among selected members of the genus Rickettsia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kopmans-Gargantiel, A I; Wisseman, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    In an in vitro chicken embryo cell culture system, strains of Rickettsia prowazekii, R. mooseri, and R. rickettsii, but not of R. tsutsugamushi, required an atmosphere enriched in CO2 for intracellular growth.

  14. First Report of Rickettsia Identical to R. slovaca in Colony-Originated D. variabilis in the United States: Detection, Laboratory Animal Model, and Vector Competence of Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemtsova, Galina E; Killmaster, Lindsay F; Montgomery, Merrill; Schumacher, Lauren; Burrows, Matt; Levin, Michael L

    2016-02-01

    Ticks of the genus Dermacentor are known vectors of rickettsial pathogens in both the Old World and New World. In North America, Dermacentor variabilis and D. andersoni are vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii, while in Europe, D. marginatus and D. reticulatus transmit R. slovaca and R. raoultii, respectively. Neither the presence of R. slovaca in the Americas nor the ability of American tick species to maintain this pathogen have been reported. Here we describe detection of Rickettsia genetically identical to R. slovaca in D. variabilis, its molecular characterization, assessment of pathogenicity to guinea pigs, and vector competence of D. variabilis ticks. Ticks from a laboratory colony of D. variabilis, established from wild ticks and maintained on naïve NZW rabbits, tested positive for spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia by PCR. Analysis of 17 kDa gltA, rpoB, ompA, ompB, and sca4 genes revealed 100% identity to R. slovaca sequences available in the GenBank. New Zealand white rabbits fed upon by infected ticks seroconverted to SFG Rickettsia. Guinea pigs inoculated with the Rickettsia culture or infested by the infected ticks developed antibodies to SFG Rickettsia. The intensity of clinical signs and immune response were dependent on dose and route of infection. The identified Rickettsia was detected in all life stages of D. variabilis ticks, confirming transstadial and transovarial transmission. Thirty-six percent of uninfected larvae co-fed with infected nymphs on guinea pigs were PCR-positive and able to pass rickettsia to at least 11.7% of molted nymphs. To our knowledge, this is a first report of identification of a European pathogen R. slovaca or a highly similar agent in the American dog tick, D. variabilis. Considering pathogenicity of R. slovaca in humans, further laboratory and field studies are warranted to assess the relevance of the above findings to the public health and epidemiology of SFG rickettsioses in the United States. PMID:26808054

  15. Hemocytic rickettsia-like organisms in ticks: serologic reactivity with antisera to Ehrlichiae and detection of DNA of agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Magnarelli, L A; Stafford, K C; Mather, T.N.; Yeh, M T; Horn, K D; Dumler, J S

    1995-01-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from Connecticut, Massachusetts, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and British Columbia (Canada) during 1991 to 1994 to determine the prevalence of infection with hemocytic (blood cell), rickettsia-like organisms. Hemolymph obtained from these ticks was analyzed by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (FA) staining methods with dog, horse, or human sera containing antibodies to Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia equi, or Rickettsia rickettsii. Of the 693 nymphal an...

  16. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting of Rickettsia prowazekii-Infected Host Cells Based on Bacterial Burden and Early Detection of Fluorescent Rickettsial Transformants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Lonnie O; Tucker, Aimee M; Woodard, Andrew; Wood, Raphael R; Wood, David O

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia prowazekii, the causative agent of epidemic typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates only within the cytosol of a eukaryotic host cell. Despite the barriers to genetic manipulation that such a life style creates, rickettsial mutants have been generated by transposon insertion as well as by homologous recombination mechanisms. However, progress is hampered by the length of time required to identify and isolate R. prowazekii transformants. To reduce the time required and variability associated with propagation and harvesting of rickettsiae for each transformation experiment, characterized frozen stocks were used to generate electrocompetent rickettsiae. Transformation experiments employing these rickettsiae established that fluorescent rickettsial populations could be identified using a fluorescence activated cell sorter within one week following electroporation. Early detection was improved with increasing amounts of transforming DNA. In addition, we demonstrate that heterogeneous populations of rickettsiae-infected cells can be sorted into distinct sub-populations based on the number of rickettsiae per cell. Together our data suggest the combination of fluorescent reporters and cell sorting represent an important technical advance that will facilitate isolation of distinct R. prowazekii mutants and allow for closer examination of the effects of infection on host cells at various infectious burdens. PMID:27010457

  17. Rickettsia typhi IN RODENTS AND R. felis IN FLEAS IN YUCATÁN AS A POSSIBLE CAUSAL AGENT OF UNDEFINED FEBRILE CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. Human cases of murine typhus in the state of Yucatán are frequent. However, there is no evidence of the presence of Rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in Yucatán. The presence of Rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of Yucatán using the conventional polymerase chain reaction technique and sequencing. The study only identified the presence of Rickettsia typhi in blood samples obtained from Rattus rattus and it reported, for the first time, the presence of R. felis in the flea Polygenis odiosus collected from Ototylomys phyllotis rodent. Additionally, Rickettsia felis was detected in the ectoparasite Ctenocephalides felis fleas parasitizing the wild rodent Peromyscus yucatanicus. This study’s results contributed to a better knowledge of Rickettsia epidemiology in Yucatán.

  18. Antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis among healthy population in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da Costa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsial diseases except those belonging to spotted fever group rickettsioses are poorly studied in South America particularly in Brazil where few epidemiological reports have been published. We describe a serosurvey for Rickettsia rickettsii, R. typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 437 healthy people from a Brazilian rural community. The serum samples were tested by indirected micro-immunoflourescence technique and a cutoff titer of 1:64 was used. The seroprevalence rates for R. rickettsii, R. typhi, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis were respectively 1.6% (7 samples; 1.1% (5 samples; 3.9% (17 samples; 13.7% (60 samples; 12.8% (56 samples, and 10.5% (46 samples. Frequent multiple/cross-reactivity was observed in this study. Age over 40 years old, urban profession, and rural residence were significantly associated with some but not all infections rate. Low seropositivity rates for R. rickettsii, R. typhi, and C. burnetii contrasted with higher rates of seropositivity for B. quintana, B. henselae, and E. chaffeensis. These results show that all tested rickettsial species or antigenically closely related possible exist in this particular region.

  19. Feeding period required by Amblyomma aureolatum ticks for transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii to vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Danilo G; Soares, Herbert S; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is endemic to the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil, where the etiologic agent, Rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans by adult Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. We determined the minimal feeding period required by A. aureolatum nymphs and adults to transmit R. rickettsii to guinea pigs. Unfed nymphs and unfed adult ticks had to be attached to the host for >10 hours to transmit R. rickettsii. In contrast, fed ticks needed a minimum of 10 minutes of attachment to transmit R. rickettsii to hosts. Most confirmed infections of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans in the São Paulo metropolitan area have been associated with contact with domestic dogs, the main host of A. aureolatum adult ticks. The typical expectation that transmission of tickborne bacteria to humans as well as to dogs requires ≥2 hours of tick attachment may discourage persons from immediately removing them and result in transmission of this lethal bacterium. PMID:25148391

  20. Phylogeography of Rickettsia rickettsii genotypes associated with fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Denison, Amy M; Lash, R Ryan; Liu, Lindy; Bollweg, Brigid C; Dahlgren, F Scott; Kanamura, Cristina T; Angerami, Rodrigo N; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana C; Brasil Martines, Roosecelis; Karpathy, Sandor E

    2014-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the deadliest of all infectious diseases. To identify the distribution of various genotypes of R. rickettsii associated with fatal RMSF, we applied molecular typing methods to samples of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at autopsy from 103 case-patients from seven countries who died of RMSF. Complete sequences of one or more intergenic regions were amplified from tissues of 30 (29%) case-patients and revealed a distribution of genotypes consisting of four distinct clades, including the Hlp clade, regarded previously as a non-pathogenic strain of R. rickettsii. Distinct phylogeographic patterns were identified when composite case-patient and reference strain data were mapped to the state and country of origin. The phylogeography of R. rickettsii is likely determined by ecological and environmental factors that exist independently of the distribution of a particular tick vector. PMID:24957541

  1. Featured Organism: Reductive Evolution in Bacteria: Buchnera sp., Rickettsia Prowazekii and Mycobacterium Leprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Wixon

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Obligate intracellular bacteria commonly have much reduced genome sizes compared to their nearest free-living relatives. One reason for this is reductive evolution: the loss of genes rendered non-essential due to the intracellular habitat. This can occur because of the presence of orthologous genes in the host, combined with the ability of the bacteria to import the protein or metabolite products of the host genes. In this article we take a look at three such bacteria whose genomes have been fully sequenced. Buchnera is an endosymbiont of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, the relationship between these two organisms being so essential that neither can reproduce in the absence of the other. Rickettsia prowazekii is the causative agent of louse-borne typhus in humans and Mycobacterium leprae infection of humans leads to leprosy. Both of these human pathogens have fastidious growth requirements, which has made them very difficult to study.

  2. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Nieri-Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piau in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63 and 66.7% (2/3 of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  3. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh. PMID:26901499

  4. Identification of novel surface-exposed proteins of Rickettsia rickettsii by affinity purification and proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Xiong, Xiaolu; Qi, Yong; Jiao, Jun; Duan, Changsong; Wen, Bohai

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is the most pathogenic member among Rickettsia spp. Surface-exposed proteins (SEPs) of R. rickettsii may play important roles in its pathogenesis or immunity. In this study, R. rickettsii organisms were surface-labeled with sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and the labeled proteins were affinity-purified with streptavidin. The isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 10 proteins were identified among 23 protein spots by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Five (OmpA, OmpB, GroEL, GroES, and a DNA-binding protein) of the 10 proteins were previously characterized as surface proteins of R. rickettsii. Another 5 proteins (Adr1, Adr2, OmpW, Porin_4, and TolC) were first recognized as SEPs of R. rickettsii herein. The genes encoding the 5 novel SEPs were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 5 recombinant SEPs (rSEPs), which were used to immunize mice. After challenge with viable R. rickettsii cells, the rickettsial load in the spleen, liver, or lung of mice immunized with rAdr2 and in the lungs of mice immunized with other rSEPs excluding rTolC was significantly lower than in mice that were mock-immunized with PBS. The in vitro neutralization test revealed that sera from mice immunized with rAdr1, rAdr2, or rOmpW reduced R. rickettsii adherence to and invasion of vascular endothelial cells. The immuno-electron microscopic assay clearly showed that the novel SEPs were located in the outer and/or inner membrane of R. rickettsii. Altogether, the 5 novel SEPs identified herein might be involved in the interaction of R. rickettsii with vascular endothelial cells, and all of them except TolC were protective antigens. PMID:24950252

  5. The Effects of Beta Rays (Tritium) on the Growth of Rickettsiae and Influenza Virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of Rickettsia mooseri (murine typhus) was increased greatly in embryonate eggs containing tritium oxide at levels of 180, 90 and 45 mc/egg and slightly in eggs containing 22.5 mc/egg; the infections in those given 11.2 mc/egg did not differ from the control. The growth of Rickettsia akari (rickettsial pox) was inhibited completely in eggs containing tritium oxide at levels of 180, 90 and 45 mc/egg, and partially in groups containing 22.5 and 11.2 mc/egg. Results similar to the above were obtained following the inoculation of tritium oxide, 1 mc per 108 cells, into monoclayer cultures of KB cells infected with R. mooseri or R. akari. A decrease in the latent period for the release of influenza virus from the chorioallantoic membranes of embryonate eggs followed the injection of tritium oxide prior to infection with virus. A thousand-fold increase of virus in the chorioallantoic fluids of treated eggs was found 2 h after the inoculation of the infective agent. When detectable amounts of virus appeared in the chorioallantoic fluids of the control eggs, 8 h after infection, the ID50 of the tritium-treated eggs was 10-5,6; both series had an ID50 of 10-7.5 24 h after infection. The amounts of virus in the membranes -of the tritium-treated eggs was increased also. This virus was liberated by removing and washing the membranes, drying the membranes by vacuum sublimation at low temperatures and rupturing the cells of the membranes by rehydration with distilled water. (author)

  6. Characterization of rickettsia rickettsii in a case of Fatal Brazilian spotted fever in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lamas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A lethal case of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is presented. Clinical features were initially of gastrointestinal involvement and evolved with progression to septic shock, meningoencephalitis and death on the 6th day of illness. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA for spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR was non-reactive. Diagnosis was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the nucleotide sequencing of a fragment of the ompA gene showed 100% homology to Rickettsia rickettsii. BSF has not been reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro in the last three decades, and the present description should alert the clinicians to its presence in urban Rio de Janeiro, and to the differential diagnosis with dengue fever, gastroenteritis, leptospirosis and bacterial septic shock, among others.

  7. Atypical fulminant Rickettsia rickettsii infection (Brazilian spotted fever presenting as septic shock and Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever, caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, has been increasingly reported in Brazil especially in the southeastern states. The severe and fulminant forms of the disease are not unusual but most of the reported fatal cases have shown some typical clinical clue, which leads the attending physician to a correct diagnosis. We report a probable case of atypical fulminant Brazilian spotted fever that presented full-blown septic shock associated with Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS and delayed uncharacteristic rash with an over four-fold increase in reciprocal IgM, but not IgG titer against Rickettsia rickettsii. Brazilian practitioners should be aware of the possibility of Brazilian spotted fever as a cause of fulminant primary sepsis with ARDS; improved laboratory methods are necessary for the rapid diagnosis of such cases.

  8. Analysis of Leptospira spp., Leptonema illini, and Rickettsia rickettsii for the 39-kilodalton antigen (P39) of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwan, T. G.; Schrumpf, M E; Gage, K. L.; Gilmore, R D

    1992-01-01

    Five serovars of Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira biflexa, Leptonema illini, and Rickettsia rickettsii were examined and found not to contain the 39-kDa antigen (P39) of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete. The specificity of this antigen and its reactivity with human Lyme disease sera should exclude the possibility of false-positive serum samples from patients having had either leptospirosis or Rocky Mountain spotted fever, as well as tick-borne relapsing fever and syphilis, ...

  9. Atypical fulminant Rickettsia rickettsii infection (Brazilian spotted fever) presenting as septic shock and Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da; Brigatte Marcos Emilio; Almeida Edmilton Pereira de; Valle Lena Márcia de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Brazilian spotted fever, caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, has been increasingly reported in Brazil especially in the southeastern states. The severe and fulminant forms of the disease are not unusual but most of the reported fatal cases have shown some typical clinical clue, which leads the attending physician to a correct diagnosis. We report a probable case of atypical fulminant Brazilian spotted fever that presented full-blown septic shock associated with Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrom...

  10. Natural Blood Feeding and Temperature Shift Modulate the Global Transcriptional Profile of Rickettsia rickettsii Infecting Its Tick Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Galletti, Maria Fernanda B. M.; Fujita, André; Nishiyama Jr, Milton Y.; Malossi, Camila D.; Pinter, Adriano; Soares, João F; Daffre, Sirlei; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Fogaça, Andréa C

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF), the most lethal spotted fever rickettsiosis. When an infected starving tick begins blood feeding from a vertebrate host, R. rickettsii is exposed to a temperature elevation and to components in the blood meal. These two environmental stimuli have been previously associated with the reactivation of rickettsial virulence in ticks, but the factors responsible for this phenotyp...

  11. NF-κB-dependent inhibition of apoptosis is essential for host cell survival during Rickettsia rickettsii infection

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, Dawn R.; Goss, Rachel A.; Sahni, Sanjeev K.; van Antwerp, Daniel; Baggs, Raymond B.; Marder, Victor J; Silverman, David J.; Sporn, Lee Ann

    1998-01-01

    The possibility that bacteria may have evolved strategies to overcome host cell apoptosis was explored by using Rickettsia rickettsii, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The vascular endothelial cell, the primary target cell during in vivo infection, exhibits no evidence of apoptosis during natural infection and is maintained for a sufficient time to allow replication and cell-to-cell spread prior to eventual death due...

  12. Evaluation of Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Three Rickettsial Species Including Rickettsia felis by a Quantitative PCR DNA Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Stuhl, Laetitia; Maurin, Max; Raoult, Didier,

    2002-01-01

    Rickettsiae grow only intracellularly, and the antibiotic susceptibilities of these bacteria have been assessed by either plaque, dye uptake, or immunofluorescence assays, which are time-consuming. We used a quantitative PCR (with the LightCycler instrument) to assess the levels of inhibition of Rickettisa felis, R. conorii, and R. typhi DNA synthesis in the presence of various antibiotics. We established the kinetics of rickettsial DNA during growth and showed that R. conorii grows more quic...

  13. A recombinant Rickettsia conorii vaccine protects guinea pigs from experimental boutonneuse fever and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwanath, S.; McDonald, G A; Watkins, N G

    1990-01-01

    There are no vaccines against boutonneuse fever and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Previous studies have identified a Rickettsia rickettsii surface protein as a vaccine candidate and shown that an antigenically related protein is present in R. conorii, which causes boutonneuse fever. The gene encoding the R. rickettsii protein has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. We confirmed by 7.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of rickettsial lysates followed by immu...

  14. Rickettsia rickettsii isolation from naturally infected Amblyomma parvum ticks by centrifugation in a 24-well culture plate technique

    OpenAIRE

    Dzul-Rosado, K.; Peniche-Lara, G.; Tello-Martín, R.; Zavala-Velázquez, J.; R. de Campos Pacheco; M.B. Labruna; Sánchez, E.C.; Zavala-Castro, J.

    2013-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an acute illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii (R. rickettsii) and is transmitted by the bite of ticks of the genera Dermacentor, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus. The illness results in a high mortality rate and may be easily confused with other febrile syndromes. In Yucatan State, Mexico, childhood cases with a high mortality have been reported. In this work we report the isolation of a Mexican R. rickettsii strain from a tick egg mass using an alternative meth...

  15. Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Wallmenius, Katarina; Barboutis, Christos; Fransson, Thord; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Nystrm, Fredrik; Olsen, Bjorn; Salaneck, Erik; Nilsson, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Background: A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Ric...

  16. First Isolation and Identification of Rickettsia conorii from Ticks Collected in the Region of Fokida in Central Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Psaroulaki, Anna; Spyridaki, Ioanna; Ioannidis, Alexandros; Babalis, Thomas; Gikas, Achilleas; Tselentis, Yannis

    2003-01-01

    Three different spotted-fever group rickettsiae—Rickettsia conorii, R. massiliae, and R. rhipicephali—were detected and identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in Rhipicephalus ticks collected from domestic animals in the Fokida region of Greece, where a high seroprevalence of antibodies to R. conorii was previously demonstrated. The infection rate of ticks was 1.6%. Moreover, R. conorii was isolated from one Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick.

  17. Human Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses Are Underappreciated in Southern Taiwan, Particularly for the Species Closely-Related to Rickettsia felis

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chung-Hsu; Chang, Lin-Li; Lin, Jiun-Nong; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Hung, Ya-Chien; Kuo, Li-Li; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite increased identification of spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFGR) in animals and arthropods, human SFGR are poorly characterized in Taiwan. Methods Patients with suspected Q fever, scrub typhus, murine typhus, leptospirosis, and dengue fever from April 2004 to December 2009 were retrospectively investigated for SFGR antibodies (Abs). Sera were screened for Rickettsia rickettsii Abs by indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA), and those with positive results were ...

  18. Absence of antibodies to Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Tahiti, French Polynesia

    OpenAIRE

    Musso, Didier; Broult, Julien; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2014-01-01

    AbtractBackgroundIn the Pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. To our knowledge, human infections due to Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. have never been reported in French Polynesia; and infections due to C. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. To evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among French Polynesian ...

  19. High detection rate of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum but low prevalence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in healthy pregnant women in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christian; Krger, Andreas; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Derschum, Henri; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pothmann, Daniela; Veit, Alexandra; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jrgen; Girmann, Mirko; Kramme, Stefanie; Fleischer, Bernhard; Poppert, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Madagascar, the endemicity of tick-borne rickettsiae and their vectors has been incompletely studied. The first part of the present study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to identify potential anthropophilic tick vectors for SFG rickettsiae on cattle from seven Malagasy regions, and to detect and characterize rickettsiae in these ticks. Amblyomma variegatum was the only anthropophilic tick species found on 262 cattle. Using a novel ompB-specific qPCR, screening for rickettsial DNA was performed on 111 A. variegatum ticks. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 96 of 111 ticks studied (86.5%). Rickettsia africae was identified as the only infecting rickettsia using phylogenetic analysis of ompA and ompB gene sequences and three variable intergenic spacers from 11 ticks. The second part of the study was a cross-sectional survey for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae in plasma samples taken from healthy, pregnant women at six locations in Madagascar, two at sea level and four between 450 and 1300m altitude. An indirect fluorescent antibody test with Rickettsia conorii as surrogate SFG rickettsial antigen was used. We found R. conorii-seropositives at all altitudes with prevalences between 0.5% and 3.1%. Our results suggest that A. variegatum ticks highly infected with R. africae are the most prevalent cattle-associated tick vectors for SFG rickettsiosis in Madagascar. Transmission of SFG rickettsiosis to humans occurs at different altitudes in Madagascar and should be considered as a relevant cause of febrile diseases. PMID:26318262

  20. Diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in Bats and Their Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites from South Africa and Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Tjale, Mabotse A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Kearney, Teresa; Seamark, Ernest C J; Nel, Louis H; Monadjem, Ara; Markotter, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    In addition to several emerging viruses, bats have been reported to host multiple bacteria but their zoonotic threats remain poorly understood, especially in Africa where the diversity of bats is important. Here, we investigated the presence and diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in bats and their ectoparasites (Diptera and Siphonaptera) collected across South Africa and Swaziland. We collected 384 blood samples and 14 ectoparasites across 29 different bat species and found positive samples in four insectivorous and two frugivorous bat species, as well as their Nycteribiidae flies. Phylogenetic analyses revealed diverse Bartonella genotypes and one main group of Rickettsia, distinct from those previously reported in bats and their ectoparasites, and for some closely related to human pathogens. Our results suggest a differential pattern of host specificity depending on bat species. Bartonella spp. identified in bat flies and blood were identical supporting that bat flies may serve as vectors. Our results represent the first report of bat-borne Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in these countries and highlight the potential role of bats as reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:26999518

  1. Molecular detection of hemoprotozoa and Rickettsia species in arthropods collected from wild animals in the Burgos Province, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lled, Lourdes; Gimnez-Pardo, Consuelo; Domnguez-Peafiel, Gerardo; Sousa, Rita; Gegndez, Maria Isabep; Casado, Nieves; Criado, Angel

    2010-10-01

    Limited information on the presence of bacterial and hematozoan infections in parasitic arthropods from Spain is available. In an attempt to address this issue, the prevalence of Theileria, Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Rickettsia species was investigated by polymerase chain reaction plus sequencing. In a survey for zoonotic pathogens in ectoparasites, 42 wild animals (which included rodents, carnivores, Sciuridae, and Cervidae) were captured in Burgos (Spain). A total of 256 arthropods (including 107 ticks, 76 fleas, and 73 mites) were collected from these mammals. Molecular diagnostic results showed that (i) Rickettsia felis was found in fleas (two Ctenocephalides felis), (ii) Hepatozoon sp. infected some fleas (two Ctenophtalmus sp. and a DNA pool of Ceratophyllus sciurorum) and Acari (one Neotrombicula sp.), and (iii) Theileria annae was found in Ixodes ricinus and I. hexagonus (each a single infected specimen). All microorganisms and parasites were genetically identical to pathogens already described in Spain or elsewhere. Infected arthropods were recovered from beech marten, bank vole, squirrel, wood mouse, and red fox. Our findings emphasize the potential risk for transmission of rickettsias to humans (namely, R. felis) in Burgos, since C. felis is capable to seek out humans for feeding. No hemoprotozoa with proven significance as human pathogens were found in the survey. However, finding T. annae in ticks recovered from wild canids suggests possible links of sylvatic and domestic cycles for some Piroplasmida. PMID:20055580

  2. Molecular detection methods developed for a systemic rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) in Penaeus monodon (Decapoda: Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Linda M; Poulos, Bonnie; Redman, Rita; Le Groumellec, Marc; Lightner, Donald V

    2003-01-22

    Molecular detection methods were developed to aid in the diagnosis of a rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) which caused severe mortalities of farm-raised Penaeus monodon in Madagascar. Using primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, a PCR assay was optimized to amplify this region of the genome of the RLB, using extracted DNA from infected P. monodon tissue as the template. The resulting amplified PCR product was sequenced and 2 novel primers were selected from the variable region of the gene. These primers amplified a 532 bp fragment of DNA originating from the rickettsia-infected samples. The PCR assay was optimized and tested on DNA extracted from specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei tissue and several other strains of bacteria. The PCR assay with the rickettsia-specific primers was specific for this RLB and did not amplify the other DNA samples tested. The 532 bp PCR-amplified fragment was labeled with digoxigenin (DIG) for in situ hybridization assays. This probe was tested on SPF, RLB and bacteria-infected shrimp specimens preserved in Davidson's fixative. The probe was specific for both natural and experimental rickettsial infections. Hybridization with this probe required a stringent temperature of 65 degrees C, otherwise cross-reactivity was observed with other types of bacteria. PMID:12608564

  3. Diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in Bats and Their Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites from South Africa and Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Tjale, Mabotse A.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Kearney, Teresa; Seamark, Ernest C. J.; Nel, Louis H.; Monadjem, Ara; Markotter, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    In addition to several emerging viruses, bats have been reported to host multiple bacteria but their zoonotic threats remain poorly understood, especially in Africa where the diversity of bats is important. Here, we investigated the presence and diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in bats and their ectoparasites (Diptera and Siphonaptera) collected across South Africa and Swaziland. We collected 384 blood samples and 14 ectoparasites across 29 different bat species and found positive samples in four insectivorous and two frugivorous bat species, as well as their Nycteribiidae flies. Phylogenetic analyses revealed diverse Bartonella genotypes and one main group of Rickettsia, distinct from those previously reported in bats and their ectoparasites, and for some closely related to human pathogens. Our results suggest a differential pattern of host specificity depending on bat species. Bartonella spp. identified in bat flies and blood were identical supporting that bat flies may serve as vectors. Our results represent the first report of bat-borne Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in these countries and highlight the potential role of bats as reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:26999518

  4. Guías Latinoamericanas de la RIICER para el diagnóstico de las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Oteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas son afecciones de distribución mundial, que por diferentes motivos se pueden considerar emergentes y reemergentes. Hasta hace escasos años la única rickettsiosis transmitida por garrapatas en Latinoamérica era la infección por Rickettsia rickettsii, pero en la actualidad y fundamentalmente, gracias a la incorporación de nuevas herramientas para el diagnóstico microbiológico como la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y secuenciación o el cultivo celular rápido en tubo cerrado, se han descrito e involucrado otras especies de Rickettsia en la producción de patología humana. En estas guías se detallan y describen las diferentes técnicas utilizadas para el diagnóstico microbiológico de las rickettsiosis. Además, se incluye una sección en la que se detallan las especies más importantes de garrapatas duras relacionadas con las rickettsiosis en Latinoamérica, con claves para su clasificación taxonómica.

  5. Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae in Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae em Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Horta

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 10 and 14 Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas were collected on dogs from Pedreira and Mogi das Cruzes municipalities, respectively, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, for detection of Rickettsia spp. Individual fleas were submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting the 17-kDa and the 190-kDa (OmpA genes of Rickettsiae. This later gene is specific for spotted fever group. Nine fleas from Pedreira (90% and four fleas from Mogi das Cruzes (28% were positive for the 17-kDa gene, and eight fleas from Pedreira (80% and four from Mogi das Cruzes (28% were positive for 190-kDa gene. The nucleotide sequence of the 190-kDa products of one flea from Pedreira and one flea from Mogi das Cruzes were 100% identical to each other, and when compared to the GenBank Data, they were 100% identical to the 190-kDa sequence of R. felis. This was the first report of its occurrence in the State of São Paulo.Amostras de 10 e 14 pulgas Ctenocephalides felis felis foram coletadas de cães nos municípios de Pedreira e Mogi das Cruzes, respectivamente, no estado de São Paulo, para pesquisa de Rickettsia spp. As pulgas foram individualmente submetidas à reação em cadeia pela polimerase, tendo como alvo os genes 17-kDa e 190-kDa (OmpA de Rickettsia, sendo esse último específico para o GFM. Nove pulgas de Pedreira (90% e quatro pulgas de Mogi das Cruzes (28% foram positivas para o gene 17-kDa, e oito pulgas de Pedreira (80% e quatro de Mogi das Cruzes (28% foram positivas para o gene 190-kDa. As seqüências de nucleotídeos do gene 190-kDa de uma pulga de Pedreira e de uma pulga de Mogi das Cruzes foram 100% idênticas; quando comparadas com dados existentes no GenBank, foram 100% idênticas com a seqüência parcial do gene 190-kDa de Rickettsia felis. Esse foi o primeiro relato de sua ocorrência no estado de São Paulo.

  6. por lser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Garcimuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, la tcnica Espectroscopia de plasmas producidos por lser (Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS se aplic a la determinacin cuan- titativa de Na en agua natural dulce, de inters en agricultura para el estudio de la alcalinidad de aguas de regado. Para efectuar el anlisis, se prepararon soluciones con concentraciones conocidas del analito, se mezclaron con xido de calcio y se compactaron en pastillas slidas. Los plasmas se produjeron en aire a presin atmos- frica utilizando un lser pulsado Nd:YAG. Se construy una curva de calibracin y se calcul el lmite de deteccin. Se analizaron muestras de agua natural y los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos mediante espectroscopia de absorcin atmica. Se demostr la factibilidad del mtodo para la determinacin de Na en agua natural dulce.

  7. Caracterização de Rickettsia spp. circulante em foco silencioso de febre maculosa brasileira no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Daniele Cardoso

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar Rickettsia spp. circulante em artrópodes vetores no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil, por meio da PCR, e investigar a presença de anticorpos para riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa em cães e eqüinos. 2.610 ectoparasitos foram coletados e identificados taxonomicamente. Amostras de DNA obtidas desses vetores foram submetidas à PCR e seqüenciamento. Em pulgas do gênero Ctenocephalides e em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense foram identificadas seqüências com 100% de homologia com R. felis. Em carrapatos Rhipicephalus sanguineus uma seqüência apresentou 99% de homologia com R. felis e uma seqüência obtida de A. cajennense apresentou 97% de homologia com R. honei e R. rickettsii. Soros de cães (73 e de eqüinos (18 foram submetidos à imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI usando-se antígeno de R. rickettsii. Apenas três dos soros de eqüinos (17% mostraram-se positivos. A detecção molecular de riquetsias potencialmente patogênicas ao homem em vetores e a presença de sororeatividade para riquetsias do grupo da febre maculosa em eqüinos, demonstram o risco de transmissão de riquetsioses nessa área e a necessidade de se manter um sistema contínuo de vigilância epidemiológica.

  8. Caracterização de Rickettsia spp. circulante em foco silencioso de febre maculosa brasileira no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Luciane Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar Rickettsia spp. circulante em artrópodes vetores no Município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil, por meio da PCR, e investigar a presença de anticorpos para riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa em cães e eqüinos. 2.610 ectoparasitos foram coletados e identificados taxonomicamente. Amostras de DNA obtidas desses vetores foram submetidas à PCR e seqüenciamento. Em pulgas do gênero Ctenocephalides e em carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense foram identificadas seqüências com 100% de homologia com R. felis. Em carrapatos Rhipicephalus sanguineus uma seqüência apresentou 99% de homologia com R. felis e uma seqüência obtida de A. cajennense apresentou 97% de homologia com R. honei e R. rickettsii. Soros de cães (73 e de eqüinos (18 foram submetidos à imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI usando-se antígeno de R. rickettsii. Apenas três dos soros de eqüinos (17% mostraram-se positivos. A detecção molecular de riquetsias potencialmente patogênicas ao homem em vetores e a presença de sororeatividade para riquetsias do grupo da febre maculosa em eqüinos, demonstram o risco de transmissão de riquetsioses nessa área e a necessidade de se manter um sistema contínuo de vigilância epidemiológica.

  9. Susceptibility of Rickettsia conorii, R. rickettsii, and Coxiella burnetii to PD 127,391, PD 131,628, pefloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Jabarit-Aldighieri, N; Torres, H.; Raoult, D

    1992-01-01

    Plaque formation and dye uptake assays were used to measure the MICs of PD 127,391 and PD 131,628 against Rickettsia species. The MICs of PD 127,391 were 0.25 microgram/ml for Rickettsia rickettsii and 0.125 to 0.25 microgram/ml for Rickettsia conorii. The MICs of PD 131,628 were 0.25 to 0.5 microgram/ml for R. rickettsii and 0.5 microgram/ml for R. conorii. As determined by the shell vial technique, 15 strains of Coxiella burnetii were susceptible to PD 127,391 and PD 131,628 (MIC, < or = 1 ...

  10. Distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii in ovary cells of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Costa Luís

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the fact that the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a great potential to become the vector of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF for humans, the present study aimed to describe the distribution of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of BSF, in different regions of the ovaries of R. sanguineus using histological techniques. The ovaries were obtained from positive females confirmed by the hemolymph test and fed in the nymph stage on guinea pigs inoculated with R. rickettsii. Results The results showed a general distribution of R. rickettsii in the ovary cells, being found in oocytes in all stages of development (I, II, III, IV and V most commonly in the periphery of the oocyte and also in the cytoplasm of pedicel cells. Conclusions The histological analysis of the ovaries of R. sanguineus infected females confirmed the presence of the bacterium, indicating that the infection can interfere negatively in the process of reproduction of the ticks, once alterations were detected both in the shape and cell structure of the oocytes which contained bacteria.

  11. Solution structure of the cold-shock-like protein from Rickettsia rickettsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerarden, Kyle P; Fuchs, Andrew M; Koch, Jonathan M; Mueller, Melissa M; Graupner, David R; O'Rorke, Justin T; Frost, Caleb D; Heinen, Heather A; Lackner, Emily R; Schoeller, Scott J; House, Paul G; Peterson, Francis C; Veldkamp, Christopher T

    2012-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii infection. R. rickettsii can be transmitted to mammals, including humans, through the bite of an infected hard-bodied tick of the family Ixodidae. Since the R. rickettsii genome contains only one cold-shock-like protein and given the essential nature of cold-shock proteins in other bacteria, the structure of the cold-shock-like protein from R. rickettsii was investigated. With the exception of a short α-helix found between β-strands 3 and 4, the solution structure of the R. rickettsii cold-shock-like protein has the typical Greek-key five-stranded β-barrel structure found in most cold-shock domains. Additionally, the R. rickettsii cold-shock-like protein, with a ΔG of unfolding of 18.4 kJ mol(-1), has a similar stability when compared with other bacterial cold-shock proteins. PMID:23143233

  12. Solution structure of the cold-shock-like protein from Rickettsia rickettsii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution structure of the cold-shock-like protein from R. rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is reported. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii infection. R. rickettsii can be transmitted to mammals, including humans, through the bite of an infected hard-bodied tick of the family Ixodidae. Since the R. rickettsii genome contains only one cold-shock-like protein and given the essential nature of cold-shock proteins in other bacteria, the structure of the cold-shock-like protein from R. rickettsii was investigated. With the exception of a short α-helix found between β-strands 3 and 4, the solution structure of the R. rickettsii cold-shock-like protein has the typical Greek-key five-stranded β-barrel structure found in most cold-shock domains. Additionally, the R. rickettsii cold-shock-like protein, with a ΔG of unfolding of 18.4 kJ mol−1, has a similar stability when compared with other bacterial cold-shock proteins

  13. Evaluation of the presence of Rickettsia slovaca infection in domestic ruminants in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Anna; Pons, Imma; Quesada, Mariela; Lario, Sergio; Anton, Esperança; Gil, Andreu; Castellà, Joaquim; Segura, Ferran

    2012-12-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is the etiological agent of the human disease tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) transmitted by Dermacentor spp. ticks. In our area, Dermacentor marginatus is the most important tick vector; adult ticks feed on mammals, especially ungulates such as wild boars and domestic ruminants. The epidemiology of tick-transmitted diseases describes a wild cycle and a domestic cycle and both are connected by ticks. To identify the role of domestic ruminants in the transmission and maintenance of R. slovaca infection, blood samples from sheep (n=95), goats (n=91), and bullfighting cattle (n=100) were collected during a herd health program, and livestock grazing was selected to ensure tick contact. Samples were analyzed by serology using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and molecular techniques (real-time PCR). Seroprevalence was 15.7% in sheep, 20.8% in goats, and 65.0% in bullfighting cattle. On the basis of molecular methods, R. slovaca infection was demonstrated in a goat blood sample with an antibody titer of 1:160. This is the first time that R. slovaca has been identified in a goat blood sample. These results suggest that domestic ruminants are exposed to R. slovaca infection and, because the domestic cycle is close to the human environment, this could increase the risk of transmitting the pathogen to human beings. PMID:23186170

  14. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENICHE-LARA, Gaspar; RUIZ-PIÑA, Hugo A.; REYES-NOVELO, Enrique; DZUL-ROSADO, Karla; ZAVALA-CASTRO, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households. PMID:27074326

  15. Experimental infection of Penaeus vannamei by a rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) originating from P. monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Linda M; Noble, Brenda; Le Groumellec, Marc; Lightner, Donald V

    2003-03-17

    A rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB), which caused severe mortalities of commercially farmed Penaeus monodon in the southwest region of Madagascar, was investigated to determine whether the organism would produce the same disease in P. vannamei. Two series of bioassays were performed to determine whether this RLB could be transmitted to P. vannamei through injection and per os exposure. The first series of challenge bioassays used frozen, RLB-infected P. monodon tissue from Madagascar as the inoculum and feed for the injection, and per os bioassays with specific pathogen free (SPF) P. vannamei. In the second series of bioassays, frozen RLB-infected P. vannamei tissue derived from the first series of injection bioassays was used as the inoculum to challenge by injection and per os SPF P. vannamei. Disease status was determined through standard histological techniques and by in situ hybridization assays with a digoxigenin-labeled probe specific for this RLB. The results indicated that P. vannamei did develop the RLB infection when injected with either RLB infected P. monodon or P. vannamei tissue homogenates. This contrasts with results from the per os exposure to the RLB in which the disease could not be reproduced. PMID:12718469

  16. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp. FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1% from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households.

  17. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo A; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households. PMID:27074326

  18. Comparative evaluation of Amblyomma ovale ticks infected and noninfected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, the agent of an emerging rickettsiosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Agostinho, Washington C; Polo, Gina; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a novel spotted fever group rickettsiosis was reported in the Atlantic rainforest coast of Brazil. The etiological agent was identified as Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and the tick Amblyomma ovale was incriminated as the presumed vector. The present study evaluated under laboratory conditions four colonies of A. ovale: two started from engorged females that were naturally infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest (designated as infected groups); the two others started from noninfected females (designated as control groups). All colonies were reared in parallel from F0 engorged female to F2 unfed nymphs. Tick-naïve vesper mice (Calomys callosus) or domestic rabbits were used for feeding of each tick stage. Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest was preserved by transstadial maintenance and transovarial transmission in A. ovale ticks for at least 2 generations (from F0 females to F2 nymphs), because nearly 100% of the tested larvae, nymphs, and adults from the infected groups were shown by PCR to contain rickettsial DNA. All vesper mice and rabbits infested by larvae and nymphs, and 50% of the rabbits infested by adults from the infected groups seroconverted, indicating that these tick stages were vector competent for Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Expressive differences in mortality rates and reproductive performance were observed between engorged females from the infected and control groups, as indicated by 75.0% and 97.1% oviposition success, respectively, and significantly lower egg mass weight, conversion efficiency index, and percentage of egg hatching for the infected groups. Our results indicate that A. ovale can act as a natural reservoir for Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. However, due to deleterious effect caused by this rickettsial agent on engorged females, amplifier vertebrate hosts might be necessary for persistent perpetuation of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in A. ovale under natural conditions. PMID:26895674

  19. Synthesis of DNA, rRNA, and protein by Rickettsia prowazekii growing in untreated or gamma interferon-treated mouse L929 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Q Gao; Turco, J.; Winkler, H. H.

    1993-01-01

    The syntheses of DNA, rRNA, and protein by Rickettsia prowazekii growing in mouse fibroblastic L929 cells were measured at various times after the addition of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) to correlate the inhibition of a site of macromolecular synthesis with the established IFN-gamma-induced inhibition of rickettsial growth. A method was developed to measure the syntheses of DNA, rRNA, and protein by R. prowazekii during a 2-h pulse-labeling period while the rickettsiae were growing within cu...

  20. Effects of Ectopically Expressed Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Domains on Rickettsia rickettsii Actin-Based Motility

    OpenAIRE

    Harlander, Ronald S.; Way, Michael; Ren, Qun; Howe, Dale; Grieshaber, Scott S; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex have emerged as critical host proteins that regulate pathogen actin-based motility. Actin tail formation and motility in Listeria monocytogenes require the Arp2/3 complex but bypasses N-WASP signaling. Motility of Shigella flexneri and vaccinia virus requires both N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex. Functional roles for these cytoskeletal regulatory proteins in actin-based motility of Rickettsia r...

  1. ‘Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis’ and Wolbachia spp. in Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans fleas removed from dogs in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    José A. Oteo; Portillo, Aránzazu; Portero, Francisco; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Venzal, José M.; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Flea-borne infections are distributed worldwide. Up to date there are no reports about microorganisms associated to fleas in Ecuador. Methods Seventy-one Pulex irritans and 8 Ctenocephalides felis fleas were removed from dogs in two Ecuadorian areas (Pastaza and Chimborazo Provinces) in December 2012. DNA extracts were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting universal 16S rRNA, as well as screened for the presence of Rickettsia spp. (gltA, htrA, ompB, sca4 and om...

  2. Comparative genome sequencing of Rickettsia rickettsii strains that differ in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tina R; Noriea, Nicholas F; Bublitz, DeAnna C; Ellison, Damon W; Martens, Craig; Lutter, Erika I; Hackstadt, Ted

    2015-04-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Strains of R. rickettsii differ dramatically in virulence. In a guinea pig model of infection, the severity of disease as assessed by fever response varies from the most virulent, Sheila Smith, to Iowa, which causes no fever. To identify potential determinants of virulence in R. rickettsii, the genomes of two additional strains were sequenced for comparison to known sequences (comparative genome sequencing [CGS]). R. rickettsii Morgan and R strains were compared to the avirulent R. rickettsii Iowa and virulent R. rickettsii Sheila Smith strains. The Montana strains Sheila Smith and R were found to be highly similar while the eastern strains Iowa and Morgan were most similar to each other. A major surface antigen, rickettsial outer membrane protein A (rOmpA), is severely truncated in the Iowa strain. The region of ompA containing 13 tandem repeats was sequenced, revealing only seven shared SNPs (four nonsynonymous) for R and Morgan strains compared to Sheila Smith, with an additional 17 SNPs identified in Morgan. Another major surface antigen and autotransporter, rOmpB, exhibits a defect in processing in the Iowa strain such that the beta fragment is not cleaved. Sequence analysis of ompB reveals identical sequences between Iowa and Morgan strains and between the R and Sheila Smith strains. The number of SNPs and insertions/deletions between sequences of the two Montana strains and the two eastern strains is low, thus narrowing the field of possible virulence factors. PMID:25644009

  3. Infection of human endothelial cells by Rickettsia rickettsii causes a significant reduction in the levels of key enzymes involved in protection against oxidative injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Devamanoharan, P S; Santucci, L A; Hong, J E; Tian, X.; Silverman, D J

    1994-01-01

    The activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly decreased in human endothelial cells infected with the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This observation lends additional support to our hypothesis implicating oxidative damage in endothelial cell injury caused by this microorganism.

  4. Genetic identification of rickettsial isolates from fatal cases of Brazilian spotted fever and comparison with Rickettsia rickettsii isolates from the American continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Santos, Fabiana C P; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nascimento, Elvira M M; Colombo, Silvia; Marcili, Arlei; Angerami, Rodrigo N

    2014-10-01

    Fifteen bacterial isolates from spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Brazil were genetically identified as Rickettsia rickettsii. In a phylogenetic analysis with other R. rickettsii isolates from GenBank, the Central/South American isolates showed low polymorphism and formed a clade distinct from two North American clades, with the North American clades having greater in-branch polymorphism. PMID:25078908

  5. Genetic Identification of Rickettsial Isolates from Fatal Cases of Brazilian Spotted Fever and Comparison with Rickettsia rickettsii Isolates from the American Continents

    OpenAIRE

    Labruna, Marcelo B.; Santos, Fabiana C. P.; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nascimento, Elvira M. M.; Colombo, Silvia; Marcili, Arlei; Angerami, Rodrigo N

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen bacterial isolates from spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Brazil were genetically identified as Rickettsia rickettsii. In a phylogenetic analysis with other R. rickettsii isolates from GenBank, the Central/South American isolates showed low polymorphism and formed a clade distinct from two North American clades, with the North American clades having greater in-branch polymorphism.

  6. Prednisolone at anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive dosages in conjunction with doxycycline does not potentiate the severity of Rickettsia rickettsii infection in dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Breitschwerdt, E.B.; Davidson, M. G.; Hegarty, B. C.; Papich, M G; Grindem, C B

    1997-01-01

    Dogs were experimentally inoculated with Rickettsia rickettsii to determine if anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive dosages of prednisolone, when administered in conjunction with an antirickettsial antibiotic (doxycycline), induced therapeutically relevant pathophysiological consequences that ultimately influence disease outcome. Although the duration of rickettsemia was prolonged in dogs receiving immunosuppressive, but not anti-inflammatory, corticosteroids, concurrent administration of d...

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in coyotes (Canis latrans) in Oklahoma and Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Lindsay A; West, Misti D; Barrett, Anne W; Saucier, Jill M; O'Connor, Tom P; Paras, Kelsey L; Reiskind, Michael H; Reichard, Mason V; Little, Susan E

    2013-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are commonly infested with ticks, including Amblyomma americanum, the predominant vector of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii; Dermacentor variabilis, an important vector of Rickettsia rickettsii; and Amblyomma maculatum, a major vector of Rickettsia parkeri, a spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia. To determine the degree to which coyotes are infected with or exposed to tick-borne bacterial disease agents, serum samples collected from coyotes in Oklahoma and Texas were tested for antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) testing or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the coyotes tested, 60% (46/77) and 64% (47/74) had antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii and E. chaffeensis, respectively, on IFA. Additionally, 5% (4/77) had antibodies reactive to E. canis, but not B. burgdorferi or A. phagocytophilum, on SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) ELISA; subsequent serologic analysis by plate ELISA using species-specific peptides revealed antibodies to E. ewingii, E. canis, and E. chaffeensis in 46% (23/50), 18% (9/50), and 4% (2/50) of serum samples, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that coyotes in this region are commonly exposed to SFG Rickettsia and E. ewingii and that further consideration of coyotes as a component of the maintenance cycle for these pathogens may be warranted. PMID:23778619

  8. A serological and molecular survey of Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. among dogs in the state of Maranho, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andra Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Silveira, Iara; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Soares, Joo Fbio; Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Guerra, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira de Candanedo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated exposure and infection by tick-borne agents (Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp.) in 172 dogs in rural areas and 150 dogs in urban areas of the municipality of Chapadinha, state of Maranho, northeastern Brazil, using molecular and serological methods. Overall, 16.1% of the sampled dogs (52/322) were seroreactive to B. vogeli, with endpoint titers ranging from 40 to 640. For E. canis, 14.6% of the dogs (47/322) were seroreactive, with endpoint titers from 80 to 163,840. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 18.9% of the dogs (61/322), with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 4,096. High endpoint titers were observed for Rickettsia amblyommii. Three (0.9%) and nine (2.8%) canine blood samples were PCR-positive for Babesia spp. and E. canis. The ticks collected from urban dogs were all Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, whereas the rural dogs were infested by R. sanguineus s.l, Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale. One A. ovale tick was found to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. This study provides an epidemiological background for controlling and preventing canine tick-borne diseases in a neglected region of Brazil. PMID:25909250

  9. Experimental infection of the tick Amblyomma cajennense, Cayenne tick, with Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J F; Soares, H S; Barbieri, A M; Labruna, M B

    2012-06-01

    In the laboratory, Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) (Fabricius) larvae, nymphs and adults were exposed to Rickettsia rickettsii by feeding on needle-inoculated animals, and thereafter reared on uninfected guinea pigs or rabbits. Regardless of the tick stage that acquired the infection, subsequent tick stages were shown to be infected (confirming transstadial and transovarial transmissions) and were able to transmit R. rickettsii to uninfected animals, as demonstrated by serological and molecular analyses. However, the larval, nymphal and adult stages of A. cajennense were shown to be partially refractory to R. rickettsii infection, as in all cases, only part of the ticks became infected by this agent, after being exposed to rickettsemic animals. In addition, less than 50% of the infected engorged females transmitted rickettsiae transovarially, and when they did so, only part of the offspring became infected, indicating that vertical transmission alone is not enough to maintain R. rickettsii in A. cajennense for multiple generations. Finally, the R. rickettsii-infected tick groups had lower reproductive performance than the uninfected control group. Our results indicate that A. cajennense have a low efficiency to maintain R. rickettsii for successive generations, as R. rickettsii-infection rates should decline drastically throughout the successive tick generations. PMID:22007869

  10. Structure of fumarate hydratase from Rickettsia prowazekii, the agent of typhus and suspected relative of the mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumarate hydratase is an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, one of the metabolic pathways characteristic of the mitochondria. The structure of R. prowazekii class II fumarate hydratase is reported at 2.4 Å resolution and is compared with the available structure of the human homolog. Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells that are the causative agents responsible for spotted fever and typhus. Their small genome (about 800 protein-coding genes) is highly conserved across species and has been postulated as the ancestor of the mitochondria. No genes that are required for glycolysis are found in the Rickettsia prowazekii or mitochondrial genomes, but a complete set of genes encoding components of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory-chain complex is found in both. A 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of R. prowazekii fumarate hydratase, an enzyme catalyzing the third step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway that ultimately converts phosphoenolpyruvate into succinyl-CoA, has been solved. A structure alignment with human mitochondrial fumarate hydratase highlights the close similarity between R. prowazekii and mitochondrial enzymes

  11. Structure of 3-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase from Rickettsia prowazekii at 2.25 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R. prowazekii 3-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase is similar to those from other prokaryotic pathogens but differs significantly from the mammalian orthologue, strengthening its case as a potential drug target. Rickettsia prowazekii, a parasitic Gram-negative bacterium, is in the second-highest biodefense category of pathogens of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, but only a handful of structures have been deposited in the PDB for this bacterium; to date, all of these have been solved by the SSGCID. Owing to its small genome (about 800 protein-coding genes), it relies on the host for many basic biosynthetic processes, hindering the identification of potential antipathogenic drug targets. However, like many bacteria and plants, its metabolism does depend upon the type II fatty-acid synthesis (FAS) pathway for lipogenesis, whereas the predominant form of fatty-acid biosynthesis in humans is via the type I pathway. Here, the structure of the third enzyme in the FAS pathway, 3-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase, is reported at a resolution of 2.25 Å. Its fold is highly similar to those of the existing structures from some well characterized pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Burkholderia pseudomallei, but differs significantly from the analogous mammalian structure. Hence, drugs known to target the enzymes of pathogenic bacteria may serve as potential leads against Rickettsia, which is responsible for spotted fever and typhus and is found throughout the world

  12. Rickettsia rickettsii infection of cultured human endothelial cells induces heme oxygenase 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydkina, Elena; Sahni, Abha; Silverman, David J; Sahni, Sanjeev K

    2002-08-01

    Existing evidence suggests that oxidative insults and antioxidant defense mechanisms play a critical role in the host cell response during infection of endothelial cells by Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Heme oxygenase (HO), a rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway for heme catabolism, protects against oxidant damage in a variety of stress situations. Here, we report on the expression of the inducible and constitutive HO isozymes, HO-1 and HO-2, during R. rickettsii infection of endothelial cells. Steady-state levels for HO-1 mRNA were increased two- to threefold, as early as 4 h postinfection, whereas HO-2 mRNA was not affected. Induction of HO-1 mRNA was dependent on the dose of infection and occurred in a time-dependent manner, reaching maximal levels at 4 to 7 h. The increase in HO-1 mRNA occurred at the level of trancription as it was blocked by the transcriptional inhibitors, actinomycin D and alpha-amanitin. The eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, caused a >50% reduction in the infection-induced increase in HO-1 mRNA level, suggesting its dependence on de novo protein synthesis of host cell. The uptake of viable organisms appeared to be necessary, since inactivation of R. rickettsii by heat or formalin fixation, or incubation of cells with cytochalasin B to prevent entry resulted in marked inhibition of HO-1 response. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, a known oxidant scavenger, inhibited the HO-1 induction by R. rickettsii. Finally, Western analysis with a specific monoclonal antibody revealed higher levels of HO-1 protein ( approximately 32 kDa), confirming that changes in HO-1 mRNA levels were followed by increases in the levels of protein. The findings indicate that R. rickettsii infection induces HO-1 expression in host endothelial cells and suggest an important role for this enzyme in cellular response to infection, possibly by serving a protective function against oxidative injury. PMID:12117910

  13. A rickettsia-like organism from Ixodes uriae ticks collected on the Kerguelen Islands (French Subantarctic Territories).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C; Demazure, M; Chastel, O; Genevois, F; Legrand, M C; Grulet, O; Odermatt, M; Le Goff, F

    1993-02-01

    A rickettsia-like microorganism was isolated in suckling mice from Ixodes uriae ticks collected from penguins breeding on Mayes Island, Kerguelen Archipelago, French Subantarctic Territories. At isolation, this agent mimicked a tick-borne arbovirus. Finally, electron microscopy studies of infected suckling mouse livers showed the presence of inclusions filled with pleomorphic microorganism in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes, sometimes dividing by binary fission and thus of obviously non-viral nature. No firm serological relationship was demonstrated with Chlamydia psittaci, C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, Coxiella burnetti, Cowdria ruminentium, Ehrlichia canis, E. phagocytophila, E. risticii or the WSU/1044 agent. The exact taxonomic position of the "Mayes" agent remains to be clarified. PMID:8105647

  14. Prevalence of Bartonella species, hemoplasmas, and Rickettsia felis DNA in blood and fleas of cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assarasakorn, S; Veir, J K; Hawley, J R; Brewer, M M; Morris, A K; Hill, A E; Lappin, M R

    2012-12-01

    Flea infestations are common in Thailand, but little is known about the flea-borne infections. Fifty flea pools and 153 blood samples were collected from client-owned cats between June and August 2009 from veterinary hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. Total DNA was extracted from all samples, and then assessed by conventional PCR assays. The prevalence rates of Bartonella spp. in blood and flea samples were 17% and 32%, respectively, with DNA of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae being amplified most commonly. Bartonella koehlerae DNA was amplified for the first time in Thailand. Hemoplasma DNA was amplified from 23% and 34% of blood samples and flea pools, respectively, with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and Mycoplasma haemofelis being detected most frequently. All samples were negative for Rickettsia felis. Prevalence rate of B. henselae DNA was increased 6.9 times in cats with flea infestation. Cats administered flea control products were 4.2 times less likely to be Bartonella-infected. PMID:22521739

  15. Rickettsiae-infected Ticks in an Endemic Area of Spotted Fever in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on tick-borne rickettsiosis was developed in the county of Santa Cruz do Escalvado, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where a clinical case of the disease, confirmed by necropsy, had been reported. Of the 1,254 ticks collected, 1,061 belonged to the Amblyomma genus, 57 to the Rhipicephalus sanguineus species, 81 to Boophilus microplus, and 46 to Anocentor nitens. The hemolymph test associated with Giménez staining showed that 18 of the 221 A. cajennense specimens, 1 of the 16 R. sanguineus, 1 of the 22 B. microplus, 3 of the A. nitens, and 1 of the A. ovale contained rickettsia-like microorganisms. Only 3 A. cajennense ticks were positive under direct immunofluorescence. A. cajennense was the only species found on humans

  16. Natural blood feeding and temperature shift modulate the global transcriptional profile of Rickettsia rickettsii infecting its tick vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletti, Maria Fernanda B M; Fujita, André; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Malossi, Camila D; Pinter, Adriano; Soares, João F; Daffre, Sirlei; Labruna, Marcelo B; Fogaça, Andréa C

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF), the most lethal spotted fever rickettsiosis. When an infected starving tick begins blood feeding from a vertebrate host, R. rickettsii is exposed to a temperature elevation and to components in the blood meal. These two environmental stimuli have been previously associated with the reactivation of rickettsial virulence in ticks, but the factors responsible for this phenotype conversion have not been completely elucidated. Using customized oligonucleotide microarrays and high-throughput microfluidic qRT-PCR, we analyzed the effects of a 10°C temperature elevation and of a blood meal on the transcriptional profile of R. rickettsii infecting the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. This is the first study of the transcriptome of a bacterium in the genus Rickettsia infecting a natural tick vector. Although both stimuli significantly increased bacterial load, blood feeding had a greater effect, modulating five-fold more genes than the temperature upshift. Certain components of the Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) were up-regulated by blood feeding. This suggests that this important bacterial transport system may be utilized to secrete effectors during the tick vector's blood meal. Blood feeding also up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes, which might correspond to an attempt by R. rickettsii to protect itself against the deleterious effects of free radicals produced by fed ticks. The modulated genes identified in this study, including those encoding hypothetical proteins, require further functional analysis and may have potential as future targets for vaccine development. PMID:24155949

  17. Prevalence, Distribution, and Development of an Ecological Niche Model of Dermacentor variabilis Ticks Positive for Rickettsia montanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Heidi K; Adams, Melissa L; Masuoka, Penny M; Flyer-Adams, Johanna G; Jiang, Ju; Rozmajzl, Patrick J; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Richards, Allen L

    2016-04-01

    Rickettsia montanensis has long been considered a nonpathogenic member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae. However, the infection potential of R. montanensis is being revisited in light of its recent association with a case of human infection in the United States and the possibility that additional cases may have been misdiagnosed as Rocky Mountain spotted fever. To this end, DNA was extracted from American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) removed from Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and their dependents at DoD medical treatment facilities (MTFs) during 2002-2012 (n = 4792). These 4792 samples were analyzed for the presence of R. montanensis (n = 136; 2.84%) and all vector DNA was confirmed to be of D. variabilis origin using a novel Dermacentor genus-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure, Derm, and a novel Dermacentor species multilocus sequence typing assay. To assess the risk of R. montanensis infection, the positive and negative samples were geographically mapped utilizing MTF site locations. Tick localities were imported into a geographical information systems (GIS) program, ArcGIS, for mapping and analysis. The ecological niche modeling (ENM) program, Maxent, was used to estimate the probability of tick presence in eastern United States using locations of both R. montanensis-positive and -negative ticks, climate, and elevation data. The ENM for R. montanensis-positive D. variabilis estimated high probabilities of the positive ticks occurring in two main areas, including the northern Midwest and mid-Atlantic portions of the northeastern regions of United States, whereas the R. montanensis-negative D. variabilis tick model showed a wider estimated range. The results suggest that R. montanensis-positive and -negative D. variabilis have different ranges where humans may be at risk and are influenced by similar and different factors. PMID:26900673

  18. Sndrome de Frey por submaxilectoma y tratamiento con toxina botulnica Frey syndrome secondary to submaxillectomy and botulinic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Baz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El sndrome de Frey (SF se caracteriza por rubor, calor y sudacin en la regin maseterina y geniana durante las comidas. El SF se observa en el 20-60% de los pacientes sometidos a parotidectoma. Presentamos un caso con SF secundario a la ablacin de la glndula submaxilar en un varn de 30 aos de edad, sin antecedentes patolgicos, que consult en el ao 2000 por adenopata cervical izquierda. La misma fue biopsiada y la anatoma patolgica inform carcinoma medular de tiroides. El paciente presentaba mltiples metstasis hepticas y pulmonares, motivo por el cual recibi tratamiento quimioterpico con cisplatino plus doxorrubicina (seis ciclos con respuesta completa, finalizando dicho esquema en marzo del 2002. En julio del 2002 se realiz tiroidectoma total ms vaciamiento ganglionar izquierdo con reseccin de la glndula submaxilar. Durante la ciruga se lesion la rama mentoniana del nervio cervicofacial, rama del VII par craneal. En septiembre del 2004 consult por episodios de sudacin durante las comidas en la regin submaxilar izquierda. Se realiz prueba de Minor y luego se procedi a aplicar toxina botulnica tipo A en la regin afectada, a razn de 2.5 UI por punto (cm, a un total de 17 puntos. El control a los 21 das demostr ms de un 95% de efectividad en la resolucin del SF. El efecto dur un ao, y una segunda reinfiltracin mostr similar respuesta. No hallamos descripciones anteriores de SF en regin submaxilar; se presenta su tratamiento satisfactorio con toxina botulnica tipo A.A case of Frey syndrome (FS secondary to submaxillar gland exeresis is presented and the results of the treatment with botulinum toxin (BTX type A. FS is a condition of sweating cheek and preauricular area during mealtime as a sequel detected in about 20-60% of patients after parotidectomy. The clinical symptoms include swelling, flushing and hyperhidrosis. The treatment choice for this condition is intracutaneous injection of BTX type A which blocks acetylcholine release at the sweat glands. A 30-year-old man, with thyroid medullar carcinoma diagnosed in 2002 received 6 cicles of cisplatin plus doxorubicin previous to the thyroidectomy with anterolateral neck dissection. During surgery the left ramus marginalis mandibulae was damaged. Two years later the patient referred sweating in submaxillar region during meals. CT scan demonstrated the absence of left submaxillar gland. Minor's test disclosed the affected area and BTX type A was injected (2.5 U/cm/17 points. A twenty-one-day control showed a 95% reduction of the affected skin area. Persistent efficacy was observed up to one year followup time when he was reinjected. The FS, also known as "gustatory hyperhidrosis", was probably first reported by M. Duphenix in 1757. Lucja Frey considered its physiopathology as a disorder of both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. In our case the FS was caused by a misdirected regeneration of postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers that arrised from the nervus lingualis rami ganglionares of the nervus trigeminus. After nerve injury the colinergic parasympathetic fibers seek out colinergic receptors -sympathetic receptors of the skin- innervating sweat glands and small skin vessels. All previous cases were located at masseter region post-parotidectomy. We have not found any description of FS in the submaxillary region. The self-assessed efficacy of the treatment with a hyperhidrosis disease severity scale revealed a very satisfied patient at 20 months follow-up after being injected twice with BTX type A.

  19. Transcriptional Regulation of Endothelial Cell Tissue Factor Expression during Rickettsia rickettsii Infection: Involvement of the Transcription Factor NF-κB

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Rui-Jin; Simpson-Haidaris, Patricia J.; Lerner, Norma B.; Marder, Victor J; Silverman, David J.; Sporn, Lee Ann

    1998-01-01

    The vascular endothelial cell (EC) is a primary target of infection with Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Changes in gene transcription elicited by intracellular infection, including EC expression of the coagulation pathway initiator known as tissue factor (TF), may contribute to the vascular pathology observed during disease. Nuclear run-on analysis of uninfected and infected, cultured human endothelial cells revealed that the rate of TF mRNA transc...

  20. Rickettsia rickettsii Infection of Human Macrovascular and Microvascular Endothelial Cells Reveals Activation of Both Common and Cell Type-Specific Host Response Mechanisms▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rydkina, Elena; Turpin, Loel C.; Sahni, Sanjeev K.

    2010-01-01

    Although inflammation and altered barrier functions of the vasculature, due predominantly to the infection of endothelial cell lining of small and medium-sized blood vessels, represent salient pathological features of human rickettsioses, the interactions between pathogenic rickettsiae and microvascular endothelial cells remain poorly understood. We have investigated the activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, expression of he...

  1. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimerink Johan R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.

  2. Prevalence of infection with Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on non-rickettsiemic rodent hosts in sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Beata; Sta?czak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bo?ena; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species in European countries and plays a principal role in transmission of a wide range of microbial pathogens. It is also a main vector and reservoir of Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group with the infection level ranging in Poland from 1.3% to 11.4%. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted so far to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. A survey was undertaken to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in wild small rodents and detached I. ricinus. Rodents, Apodemus flavicollis mice and Myodes glareolus voles were captured in typically sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland. Blood samples and collected ticks were analyzed by conventional, semi-nested and nested PCRs. Rickettsial species were determined by sequence analysis of obtained fragments of gltA and 16S rRNA genes. A total of 2339 immature I. ricinus (mostly larvae) were collected from 158 animals. Proportion of hosts carrying ticks was 84%, being higher for A. flavicollis than for M. glareolus. Rickettsia helvetica, the only species identified, was detected in 8% of 12 nymphs and in at least 10.7% (MIR) of 804 larvae investigated. Prevalence of infected ticks on both rodent species was comparable (10.8 vs. 9%). None of blood samples tested was positive for Rickettsia spp. The results showed that in sylvatic habitats the level of infestation with larval I. ricinus was higher in A. flavicollis mice in comparison with M. glareolus voles. They show that R. helvetica frequently occurred in ticks feeding on rodents. Positive immature ticks were collected from non-rickettsiemic hosts what might suggest a vertical route of their infection (transovarial and/or transstadial) or a very short-lasting rickettsiemia in rodents. A natural vertebrate reservoir host for R. helvetica remains to be determined. PMID:26515058

  3. Occurrence of Rickettsia felis in dog and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi Laura; Furnari Carmelo; Maioli Giulia; Porcellato Elena; Montarsi Fabrizio; Capelli Gioia; Oliva Gaetano; Otranto Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Rickettsia felis is an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging to the spotted fever group, suspected to cause a murine typhus-like illness in humans, with a cosmopolitan distribution. This study was designed to estimate presence and occurrence of this pathogen in fleas collected from dogs and cats in different areas of Italy. Two species of fleas were identified, Ctenocephalides felis (80.3%) and Ctenocephalides canis (19.7%). Overall, 320 fleas (257 C. felis and 63 C. canis) coll...

  4. Detection of Rickettsia Species in Fleas Collected from Cats in Regions Endemic and Nonendemic for Flea-Borne Rickettsioses in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Jett, Lindsey A; Wournell, Andrea L; Kjemtrup, Anne M; Padgett, Kerry A; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Metzger, Marco E; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-03-01

    Rickettsia typhi, transmitted by rat fleas, causes most human flea-borne rickettsioses worldwide. Another rickettsia, Rickettsia felis, found in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, has also been implicated as a potential human pathogen. In the continental United States, human cases of flea-borne rickettsioses are reported primarily from the southern regions of Texas and California where the cat flea is considered the principal vector. In California, more than 90% of locally acquired human cases are reported from suburban communities within Los Angeles and Orange counties despite the almost ubiquitous presence of cat fleas and their hosts throughout the state. The objective of this study is to assess the presence and infection rate of Rickettsia species in cat fleas from selected endemic and nonendemic regions of California. Cat fleas were collected from cats in Los Angeles County (endemic region) and Sacramento and Contra Costa counties (nonendemic region). Sequencing of 17 amplicons confirmed the presence of R. felis in both the endemic and non-endemic regions with a calculated maximum likelihood estimation of 131 and 234 per 1000 fleas, respectively. R. typhi was not detected in any flea pools. Two R. felis-like genotypes were also detected in fleas from Los Angeles County; Genotype 1 was detected in 1 flea pool and Genotype 2 was found in 10 flea pools. Genotype 1 was also detected in a single flea pool from Sacramento County. Results from this study show that R. felis is widespread in cat flea populations in both flea-borne rickettsioses endemic and nonendemic regions of California, suggesting that a high prevalence of this bacterium in cat fleas does not predispose to increased risk of human infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of R. felis and the two R. felis-like organisms as etiologic agents of human flea-borne rickettsioses in California. PMID:26824189

  5. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M; Gassner, F.; Nijhof, A. M.; Hovius, E.K.E.; Jongejan, F.; Takken, W.; Reimerink, J.R.; Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Sprong, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Awareness for flea-and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also f...

  6. Transcriptional regulation of the gltA and tlc genes in Rickettsia prowazekii growing in a respiration-deficient host cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulation of the citrate synthase (gltA) and ATP/ADP translocase (tlc) genes of the obligate intracellular bacterium, Rickettsia prowazekii, was analyzed in rickettsia-infected respiration-deficient G14 cells. The level of the gltA mRNAII and the tlc mRNA was much lower in the total RNA isolated from the infected G 14 cells grown in 1 g/1 glucose (low glucose, GL) medium than in that from infected G 14 cells grown in 4.5 g/l glucose (high glucose, GH) medium. However, the level of the gltA mRNAI relative to 16 S rRNA was the same in GL and GH media. An increase in the level of the gltA mRNAII and the tlc mRNA could be observed as early as 2 hrs after shifting from GL to GH medium. We conclude that, under these experimental conditions, the tlc promoter and the gltA promoter P2, but not gltA promoter P1, were transcriptionally regulated. Key words: Rickettsia prowazekii; gltA gene; tlC gene; transcriptional regulation; G 14 cells (authors)

  7. Análisis de las recidivas locorregionales por cáncer de mama Analysis of locoregional relapses from breast cancer

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    Oscar Alberto Pérez Gutiérrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la recidiva locorregional, luego de una intervención quirúrgica por cáncer de mama, es una gran preocupación para el paciente y una frustración para el cirujano actuante. Objetivos: realizar un estudio descriptivo de las variables asociadas a la recurrencia tumoral, en 949 pacientes operadas. Métodos: se confeccionó una base de datos con las pacientes operadas desde 2005 hasta 2010, se identificaron las variables y análisis univariables y multivariables para determinar si existió asociación estadística. Resultados: se apreció que la incidencia fue de 4,4 %. La intervención quirúrgica previa más frecuente fue la mastectomía radical modificada en 52,4 %, y 26,2 % de los casos que tenían metástasis ganglionares axilares en ese momento. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el carcinoma ductal infiltrante, de alto grado de malignidad. La infiltración vascular y linfática estuvo presente en 42,8 %. El tratamiento definitivo más empleado fue la exéresis de la recidiva más radioterapia. El análisis multivariables solo asoció la metástasis ganglionar con la reaparición de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: la metástasis ganglionar axilar sigue siendo un factor de mal pronóstico en el seguimiento extenso de la paciente.Introduction: locoregional relapses after a breast cancer surgery is a big concern for the patient and a frustration to the performing surgeon. Objectives: to perform a descriptive study of the tumor recurrence-associated variables in 949 surgical patients. Methods: a database containing the data from operated patients in the period of 2005 through 2010 was made; the variables were identified and the univariate and multivariate analyses allowed determining the probable statistical association. Results: at was observed that the incidence of locoregional recurrence was 4.4 %. The most common previous surgery was modified radical mastectomy in 52.4 % and 26.2 % of cases with axillary ganglionic metastasis at that time. The most frequent histological type was highly malignant infiltrating bile duct carcinoma. The vascular and lymphatic infiltration occurred in 42.8 % of patients. The most used treatment was removal of recurrence plus radiotherapy. The multivariate analysis was associated only to ganglionic metastasis with the reappearance of disease. Conclusions: axillary ganglionic metastasis is still a factor indicating bad prognosis in the long follow-up of a patient.

  8. Infeces humanas causadas por poxvirus relacionados ao vrus vaccinia no Brasil Human infections caused by vaccinia-like poxviruses in Brazil

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    Hermann G. Schatzmayr

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 1999, infeces humanas por Orthopoxvirus vem sendo observadas em pelo menos oito estados no pas, com a formao de vesculas as quais evoluem para pstulas e crostas, principalmente nos membros superiores e face, aps contacto com bovinos apresentando leses semelhantes no bere. Alem das leses na pele, foram descritas nos pacientes reaes ganglionares axilares por vezes dolorosas, febre, cefalia, fadiga, desidratao, anorexia, sudorese, artralgia e mialgia, evoluindo o quadro por trs a quatro semanas. Leso vulvar bem como transmisso intrafamiliar foram igualmente descritas. Estudos moleculares demonstraram que os poxvirus identificados so geneticamente relacionados a amostras do vrus vaccinia utilizadas no passado, nas campanhas de vacinao. Especimens clnicos de 80 infeces humanas foram estudados no laboratrio e a infeco por orthopoxvirus confirmada em 68 casos. So apresentadas leses observadas em pacientes bem como discutidas as implicaes desta zoonose no Brasil.Since 1999, human infection caused by Orthopoxvirus has been observed in at least eight Brazilian states, with the presence of vesicles that evolve to pustules and crusts, especially on the hands, arms and face, after contact with cows showing comparable lesions on the udder. In addition to the skin lesions, there have been descriptions of patients with axillary ganglionic reactions that are sometimes painful, along with fever, headache, fatigue, dehydration, anorexia, sudoresis, arthralgia and muscle pain. The condition evolves over a three to four-week period. Vulvar lesions and transmission within families have also been described. Molecular studies have shown that the poxviruses identified are genetically related to vaccinia virus samples that were used in vaccination campaigns in the past. Clinical specimens from 80 human infections were studied in the laboratory, and orthopoxvirus infections were confirmed in 68 cases. The lesions observed in these patients are presented and the implications of this zoonosis in Brazil are discussed.

  9. Miocarditis por dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Amador García Hernández; Fidel Espinosa Rivera; Lianet Rivero Seriel

    2013-01-01

    El dengue es un arbovirus transmitido por el Aedes aegypti, produce los cuadros clínicos de dengue clásico, dengue hemorrágico y síndrome de choque por dengue, aisladamente se reportan casos de miocarditis. Se presentó un paciente con antecedentes de dengue clásico que manifestó dolor precordial asociado a cambios electrocardiográficos y fue ingresado en este hospital por síndrome coronario agudo probable, al cual se le diagnosticó clínicamente miocarditis por dengue.

  10. por medio de soldadura

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    Alberto Zapata Meneses

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El desgaste es un fenmeno de degradacin de los diferentes materiales por efectos de abrasin, impacto, fatiga, erosin y corrosin entre otros. Este fenmeno acarrea grandes perdidas econmicas por deterioro de elementos de mquinas y equipo industrial, asimismo una altsima cuota en impacto ambiental. Para contrarrestar los efectos nocivos generados por desgaste, surge la reconstruccin y mantenimiento de materiales por soldadura. Se tiene un molino vertical ATOX 32.5 para molienda de caliza con un juego de 6 placas borde de mesa, se hicieron aplicaciones de placas con revestimientos de soldadura con carburos de cromo y carburos complejos en las zonas ms crticas.

  11. Miocarditis por dengue

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    Ricardo Amador García Hernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El dengue es un arbovirus transmitido por el Aedes aegypti, produce los cuadros clínicos de dengue clásico, dengue hemorrágico y síndrome de choque por dengue, aisladamente se reportan casos de miocarditis. Se presentó un paciente con antecedentes de dengue clásico que manifestó dolor precordial asociado a cambios electrocardiográficos y fue ingresado en este hospital por síndrome coronario agudo probable, al cual se le diagnosticó clínicamente miocarditis por dengue.

  12. Study of infection by Rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in humans and ticks in an urban park located in the City of Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Roberta Santos Toledo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spotted fevers are emerging zoonoses caused by Rickettsia species in the spotted fever group (SFG. Rickettsia rickettsii is the main etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF and it is transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks. METHODS: The study aimed to investigate SFG rickettsiae in the Arthur Thomas Municipal Park in Londrina, PR, by collecting free-living ticks and ticks from capybaras and blood samples from personnel working in these areas. Samples from A. dubitatum and A. cajennense were submitted for PCR in pools to analyze the Rickettsia spp. gltA (citrate synthase gene. RESULTS: All the pools analyzed were negative. Human sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay with R. rickettsii and R. parkeri as antigens. Among the 34 sera analyzed, seven (20.6% were reactive for R. rickettsii: four of these had endpoint titers equal to 64, 2 titers were 128 and 1 titer was 256. None of the samples were reactive for R. parkeri. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to the park staff, but no statistically significant associations were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The serological studies suggest the presence of Rickettsiae related to SFG that could be infecting the human population studied; however, analysis of the ticks collected was unable to determine which species may be involved in transmission to humans.

  13. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

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    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on public health issues.

  14. Serosurvey of antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. in horse farms in Northern Paraná, Brazil Soroprevalência de anticorpos contra Rickettsia spp. do grupo febre maculosa em equinos de haras no Norte do Paraná, Brasil

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    Katia Tamekuni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is an emerging disease most likely caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. The objective of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of BSF rickettsia infections in equines from six horse farms located in Londrina County, Paraná, Southern Brazil. Six owners of horse farms situated in Cambé, Santa Fé, Guaraci and Londrina municipalities participated in the study. All farms were located in areas where BSF has not been reported. A total of 273 horses were sampled and their sera were tested by indirect Immunofluorescence assay (IFA using R. rickettsii and R. parkeri antigens. Titers equal to and greater than 64 were considered positive. Of 273 sera tested, 15 (5.5% reacted to R. rickettsii and 5 (1.8% to R. parkeri. Five out of the six farms studied revealed seropositive animals and seropositivity rate ranged from 0 to 13%. The titers ranged from 64 to 512, and four samples had a titer of 512. Nine animals reacted to R. rickettsii with titers four-fold higher than those for R. parkeri. These results suggest that horses in Northern Paraná may have been exposed to rickettsiae identical or closely related to R. rickettsii.Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma doença emergente, sendo Rickettsia rickettsii o seu principal agente etiológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a soroprevalência de rickettsia do grupo da febre maculosa em equinos de seis haras localizados nos municípios de Cambé, Santa Fé, Guaraci e Londrina. As propriedades eram localizadas na região Norte do Paraná onde casos de FMB ainda não foram diagnosticados. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 273 equinos, e os soros foram testados pela RIFI, usando R. rickettsii e R. parkeri como antígenos, considerando-se como positivos títulos >64. Entre 273 soros, 15 (5,5% reagiram contra R. rickettsii e 5 (1,8% para R. parkeri. Cinco de seis haras estudados tinham animais reativos, e a taxa de sororreatividade variou de 0 a 13%. Os títulos variaram de 64 para 512, e três amostras apresentaram título de 512. Nove animais reagiram para R. rickettsii com títulos quatro vezes maiores que para R. parkeri. Esses resultados sugerem que equinos no Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, podem ter sido expostos a uma rickettsia idêntica ou muito próxima a R. rickettsii.

  15. Abdome agudo por obstruo por ileobiliar

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    Mrcia Cristina de Alencastro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever a experincia na abordagem dos doentes com abdome agudo por obstruo por IB, desde o diagnstico at o tratamento definitivo. MTODOS: estudo retrospectivo incluindo todos os casos de IB tratados em um perodo de 23 anos. De acordo com a abordagem cirrgica realizada, os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos (1 enterolitotomia com colecistectomia no segundo momento; e (2 enterolitotomia, colecistectomia e abordagem da fstula. RESULTADOS: Doze pacientes foram includos, sendo 11 mulheres (91,6%, com mdia de idade de 72,2 anos. Todos os pacientes apresentavam doenas associadas, principalmente hipertenso arterial sistmica (75%. Dois pacientes no apresentavam sintomas significativos de obstruo intestinal. O diagnstico de IB foi realizado em seis pacientes (50% antes da laparotomia. O grupo 1 foi constitudo de oito pacientes e o grupo 2 de quatro, e a morbidade foi, respectivamente, 33,3% e 8,3%. A mortalidade foi 16,6% (um paciente de cada grupo. CONCLUSO: O manejo do IB deve ser individualizado. O tratamento da obstruo mediante remoo do clculo biliar por enterotomia proximal a escolha inicial para o tratamento do IB. A colecistectomia e a correo da fstula bilioentrica podem ser realizadas juntamente com a remoo do clculo, no entanto, em pacientes com comorbidades significativas, esses procedimentos devem ser realizados posteriormente.

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, K; Jordan, D; Fingerle, V; Strube, C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis, followed by Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Based on previously published data, co-infection of Borrelia and Rickettsiales spp. was determined in 25.8% of ticks. Overall, 22.9% of ticks were co-infected with Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), 1.7% with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 1.2% with both pathogens. Study results show a high prevalence of Borrelia-positive ticks in recreation areas in the northern German city of Hamburg and the potential health risk to humans in these areas should not be underestimated. PMID:26096626

  17. Celulitis por citomegalovirus

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    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.

  18. por el tanteo walrasiano

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    Fernando Jeannot Rossi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en los antecedentes del equilibrio creacionista de los clsicos, se muestra la evolucin hacia la concurrencia perfecta o imperfecta que constituyen la microeconoma del modelo general de intercambios, particularmente procesado por el tanteo walrasiano.

  19. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Ose; Miller, R Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-04-01

    A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order RICKETTSIALES: Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from dogs; (ii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnAj360, which was obtained from Amblyomma javanense ticks collected on a pangolin; and (iii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnHl446, which was closely related to Anaplasma bovis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks collected from a bear. Three Ehrlichia spp. were identified, including (i) Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52, which was obtained from Boophilus microplus ticks collected from cattle from Thailand; (ii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh324, which was closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam; and (iii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh317, which was closely related to Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52 and which was also detected in H. hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam. Two Rickettsia spp. were detected in Thailand, including (i) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla420, which was detected in Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from a bear, and (ii) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla440, which was identified from two pools of Dermacentor larvae collected from a wild pig nest. Finally, two bacteria named Eubacterium sp. strain Hw124 and Eubacterium sp. strain Hw191 were identified in Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks collected from chicken in Thailand; these strains could belong to a new group of bacteria. PMID:12682151

  20. Valoración del análisis de la pieza operatoria en el cáncer gástrico por el cirujano Concordance between the surgical piece observation by the surgeon and final pathological report for gastric cancer

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    MARCO CERONI V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La disección de la pieza operatoria (PO en forma sistemática en la cirugía por cáncer gástrico (CG permite al cirujano obtener información de los bordes, compromiso linfonodal y estandarizar. Objetivos: 1 Determinar la concordancia de los hallazgos de la PO disecada por el cirujano y el informe patológico final; 2 Determinar el porcentaje de retracción del estómago; 3 Mostrar una forma de registrar la PO en el CG. Material y Método: Estudio prospectivo de los pacientes operados con intención curativa desde septiembre de 2009 hasta mayo de 2010. Se etapificó con TNM de 2010. De la PO se registró el tamaño del estómago por curvatura menor, límite oral (LO, límite caudal (LC, profundidad, aspecto macroscópico, diámetro tumoral, grupos ganglionares comprometidos y cantidad de ganglios comprometidos. Se compararon estas variables con el informe patológico. El análisis de concordancia se realizó con el test de Kappa y el test de Lin. Resultados: Fueron estudiados 48 pacientes, 74% hombres, la edad promedio fue 63,7 años (DE 9,8, 59,5% fueron gastrectomías totales. El promedio de ganglios disecados fue 30,18 (DE 11,8. Se obtiene una buena concordancia para la profundidad del tumor (Kappa = 0,64, aspecto macroscópico (Kappa = 0,69 y tamaño tumoral (Lin = 0,84. Y una mala concordancia para el compromiso ganglionar (Kappa = 0,21. El porcentaje de retracción del largo por curvatura menor fue 24,3%, del LO fue 30,1%, del LC fue 22%. Conclusión: La concordancia de la PO es buena en la profundidad, aspecto macroscópico del tumor y diámetro tumoral, pero es mala en el compromiso ganglionar. Se determina que la retracción del estómago es mayor al 24%.Background: The systematic dissection of the surgical piece, performed by the surgeon during surgical treatment of gastric cancer, gives information about borders and lymph node involvement. Aim: To determine the concordance between the findings of the surgeon during initial dissection and the final pathological report. Material and Methods: Prospective study of 48 patients aged 64 ± 10 years (74% males subjected to curative surgery for gastric cancer. Patients were staged according to 2010 TNM classification. Stomach size from the lesser curvature, oral and caudal limits, macroscopic aspect, tumor diameter and lymph node involvement were determined by the surgeon observing the surgical piece. The concordance of this observation with the final pathological report was assessed. Results: Fifty nine percent of patients were subjected to a total gastrectomy and there was a mean of 30 lymph nodes excised. There was a good concordance between surgeon observation and final pathological report for tumor depth (Kappa = 0.64, macroscopic aspect (Kappa = 0.69 and tumor size (Lin = 0.84. There was a bad concordance for lymph node involvement (Kappa = 0.21. The percentage of retraction of lesser curvature length was 24%, 30% for oral and 22% for caudal limits. Conclusions: There is a good concordance between surgeon observation and pathological report for macroscopic aspect, tumor size and depth but the concordance for lymph node involvement is bad.

  1. Ultrastructure and distribution of intracellular rickettsia-like microorganisms in various organs of the laboratory-reared adult tick Argas (Persicargas) arboreus (Ixodoidea: Argasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Shoura, S M

    1990-08-01

    Rod (RS) and coccoid (CS) rickettsia-like microorganisms were found in single and group forms in organs of the laboratory-reared adult ticks Argas (Persicarges) arboreus. RS are distributed in most organs but are mainly concentrated in the salivary glands, mid-gut, and testes. CS single forms were concentrated in the rectal sac, while the group forms were limited to Malpighian tubules and haemocytes of both sexes. The primary oocytes were heavily infected with both forms of CS. No RS or CS were detected in the muscles. Despite the structural differences between RS and CS, they are suggested to be different morphotypes of the same organism. PMID:2226072

  2. Sinop yresinde, klinik olarak sa?l?kl? grlen kpeklerde Ehrlichia canis ve Rickettsia conoriinin seroepidemiyolojik ara?t?r?lmas?

    OpenAIRE

    Gne?, Turabi; POYRAZ, mer; Babacan, Adem

    2012-01-01

    zet Ama. Bu al??mada, Sinopun kylerinde ya?ayan kpeklerde Ehrlichia canis (E. canis) ve Rickettsia conoriinin (R. conorii) seroprevalans?n?n saptanmas? ve her iki enfeksiyon etkeni aras?ndaki ko-seroprevalans oran?n?n ortaya konulmas? amalanm??t?r. Yntem. 2007 A?ustos ay?nda Sinopta klinik olarak sa?l?kl? grnen 93 kpekten kan rne?i al?nm?? olup, ELISA yntemiyle E. canis ve R. conorii ile reaktif IgG antikorlar? ara?t?r?lm??t?r. Bulgular. Doksan kpe?in 17sinde (%18,28) E. c...

  3. Rickettsia rickettsii outer membrane protein YbgF induces protective immunity in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Qi, Yong; Xiong, Xiaolu; Jiao, Jun; Duan, Changsong; Wen, Bohai

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). YbgF and TolC are outer membrane-associated proteins of R. rickettsii that play important roles in its interaction with host cells. We investigated the immunogenicity of YbgF and TolC for protection against RMSF. We immunized C3H/HeN mice with recombinant R. rickettsii YbgF (rYbgF) or TolC (rTolC). Rickettsial burden and impairment in the lungs, spleens, and livers of rYbgF-immunized mice were significantly lower than in rTolC-immunized mice. The ratio of IgG2a to IgG1 in rYbgF-immunized mice continued to increase over the course of our experiments, while that in rTolC-immunized mice was reduced. The proliferation and cytokine secretion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells isolated from R. rickettsii-infected mice were analyzed following antigen stimulation. The results indicated that proliferation and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in R. rickettsii-infected mice were significantly greater than in uninfected mice after stimulation with rYbgF. YbgF is a novel protective antigen of R. rickettsii. Protection conferred by YbgF is dependent upon IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and IgG2a, which act in synergy to control R. rickettsii infection. PMID:25714655

  4. Dose-response model of murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi: time post inoculation and host age dependency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrakar Sushil B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsia typhi (R. mooseri is the causative agent of murine typhus. It is one of the most widely distributed flea-borne diseases with a relatively mild febrile initial illness with six to 14 days of incubation period. The bacterium is gram negative and an obligate intracellular pathogen. The disease is transmitted to humans and vertebrate host through fleabites or via contact with infected feces. This paper develops dose-response models of different routes of exposure for typhus in rodents. Methods Data from published articles were analyzed using parametric dose-response relationship models. Dose-response relationships were fit to data using the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. Results Dose-response models quantifying the effects of different ages of rats and time post inoculation in BALB/c mice were analyzed in the study. Both the adult rats (inoculated intradermally and newborn rats (inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by exponential models and both distributions could be described by a single dose-response relationship. The BALB/C mice inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by Beta-Poisson models. The time post inoculation analysis showed that there was a definite time and response relationship existed in this case. Conclusions Intradermally or subcutaneously inoculated rats (adult and newborn models suggest that less than 1 plaque-forming unit (PFU (1.33 to 0.38 in 95% confidence limits of the pathogen is enough to seroconvert 50% of the exposed population on average. For the BALB/c mouse time post inoculation model, an average dose of 0.28 plaque-forming units (PFU (0.75 to 0.11 in 95% confidence limits will seroconvert 50% of the exposed mice.

  5. Primeiro caso de febre maculosa brasileira branda associada à artrite

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    Virgínia Lucia Nazario Bonoldi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o primeiro caso brasileiro de Riquetsiose branda, agravada por monoartrite em joelho, em adulto jovem picado por carrapato na perna esquerda na região de Camburi, localizada no município de São Sebastião, sul da região costeira do estado de São Paulo, Mata Atlântica, Brasil. O paciente apresentou uma escara de inoculação no local da picada do carrapato, associada ao aumento ganglionar em virilha esquerda, febre, poliartralgia, cefaleia e erupção macular. Vinte dias após o episódio da picada de carrapato, o paciente apresentou monoartrite em joelho direito. O diagnóstico de Riquetsiose branda foi estabelecido pela análise imunológica sequencial em amostras de soro e líquido sinovial, tendo sido empregada a técnica de imunofluorescência (IF indireta para anticorpos reativos contra Rickettsia parkeri e Rickettsia rickettsii. A Riquetsiose branda é uma zoonose emergente, que deve ser investigada pelos médicos, incluindo reumatologistas, em pacientes que apresentem erupção macular, febre e, eventualmente, artrite, após visita ao sul da região costeira da Mata Atlântica no Brasil.

  6. Intoxicacin aguda por plaguicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durn-Nah Jaime Jess

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiologa de la intoxicacin aguda por plaguicidas (IAP en el Hospital General O'Horn de Mrida, Yucatn, Mxico. MATERIAL Y MTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de 33 pacientes superscript three 13 aos, tratados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI, entre 1994 y 1998. Se recopilaron variables demogrficas y clnicas relevantes, y se aplic estadstica descriptiva. RESULTADOS: En la poblacin estudiada predomin el sexo masculino (82% del medio rural (70%, y la edad media fue de 34 15.8 aos. El intento de suicidio fue causa frecuente de IAP (79%, y en 33% de los casos la intoxicacin se produjo por la utilizacin de organofosforados. La mortalidad fue de 12%. CONCLUSIONES: La IAP fue baja entre los sujetos del medio rural, por lo que los resultados de este estudio parecen no reflejar la realidad del problema. Es importante aadir que los plaguicidas son utilizados con relativa frecuencia para el intento de suicidio.

  7. Riego por superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Faci González, José María; Playán Jubillar, Enrique

    1994-01-01

    El riego por superficie es todavía el sistema más extendido en el mundo aunque existe una tendencia a disminuir en su superficie en favor de los sistemas de riego a presión. El diseño y manejo del riego por superficie es muy complejo pero en las últimas décadas se han producido importantes avances técnicos en esta materia que facilitan de forma muy importante el análisis y la buena utilización de estos sistemas de riego. En estos materiales formativos se exponen una serie de conceptos que fac...

  8. Detection of a Hepatozoon and spotted fever group Rickettsia species in the common marsupial tick (Ixodes tasmani) collected from wild Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii), Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcins, Inger-Marie E; Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth

    2009-05-26

    Tasmanian devils are the largest extant marsupial carnivores, confined to the Australian island state of Tasmania. The iconic marsupial has dramatically declined in number since the discovery of devil facial tumor disease in 1996 and efforts are being made to uncover vital information to assist in the long-term survival of the species. Ticks are the main vectors of arthropod-borne disease in animals, raising the question of whether Tasmanian devils may be host to arthropods capable of harboring infectious agents. Partially engorged ticks were collected from 35 wild Tasmanian devils and tested for the presence of a range of tick-borne genera. A spotted fever group Rickettsia was detected in 45.5% of samples of the tick Ixodes tasmani (n=44), from all trapping locations, sharing close sequence identity to members of the Rickettsia massiliae group. A Hepatozoon species was also identified in 34.1% of the same sample set, sharing sequence similarities to Hepatozoon felis, a known pathogen of felids. Dual detection was identified in 13.6% of tick samples, where prevalence of the two genera overlapped. The existence of two previously undetected species of genera known for containing pathogens identifies additional potential risks to the health of the devil population. PMID:19303711

  9. Development and Validation of an Improved PCR Method Using the 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer for Detection of Rickettsiae in Dermacentor variabilis Ticks and Tissue Samples from Humans and Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Sutton, Haley T; Meshnick, Steven R; Nicholson, William L; Apperson, Charles S

    2016-04-01

    A novel nested PCR assay was developed to detectRickettsiaspp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. Primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer (IGS) ofRickettsiaspp. The newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic DNA from 11Rickettsiaspecies belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to otherRickettsia-specific PCR targets (ompA,gltA, and the 17-kDa protein gene). The new 23S-5S IGS nested PCR assay amplified all 11Rickettsiaspp., but the assays employing other PCR targets did not. The novel nested assay was sensitive enough to detect one copy of a cloned 23S-5S IGS fragment from "CandidatusRickettsia amblyommii." Subsequently, the detection efficiency of the 23S-5S IGS nested assay was compared to those of the other three assays using genomic DNA extracted from 40 adultDermacentor variabilisticks. The nested 23S-5S IGS assay detectedRickettsiaDNA in 45% of the ticks, while the amplification rates of the other three assays ranged between 5 and 20%. The novel PCR assay was validated using clinical samples from humans and laboratory animals that were known to be infected with pathogenic species ofRickettsia The nested 23S-5S IGS PCR assay was coupled with reverse line blot hybridization with species-specific probes for high-throughput detection and simultaneous identification of the species ofRickettsiain the ticks. "CandidatusRickettsia amblyommii,"R. montanensis,R. felis, andR. belliiwere frequently identified species, along with some potentially novelRickettsiastrains that were closely related toR. belliiandR. conorii. PMID:26818674

  10. Coexistencia de linfoma plasmablástico, sarcoma de Kaposi y enfermedad de Castleman en un paciente con infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana Coexistence of plasmablastic lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma and Castleman disease in a patient with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Avilés-Salas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El linfoma plasmablástico (LP es un linfoma de células B poco común que está fuertemente asociado con la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH, y muestra una afinidad característica de presentación extra-ganglionar en la cavidad oral. Informamos el caso de un LP afectando el estómago en un paciente masculino de 36 años de edad con infección por VIH, asociado con sarcoma de Kaposi (SK en áreas adyacentes al linfoma. Tenía el antecedente de enfermedad de Castleman y SK en una biopsia de ganglio linfático.Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is an uncommon B-cell lymphoma that is strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and displays distinctive affinity for extranodal presentation in the oral cavity. We report the case of a PL involving the stomach in a 36 year-old man HIV+ patient, associated with Kaposi sarcoma (KS in sections adjacent to lymphoma. He had a positive history of Castleman disease and KS in a lymphoid node biopsy.

  11. Apendicitis por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Ana Beatriz MUÑOZ URRIBARRI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es la micosis más prevalente en Sudamérica. La forma aguda afecta el sistema fagocítico mononuclear de niños y personas inmunocomprometidas. El compromiso gastrointestinal es frecuente y su patogenia implica diseminación hematógena y linfática. La linfadenomegalia abdominal causa obstrucción intestinal y abdomen agudo. En este artículo damos a conocer el caso de un niño con compromiso gastrointestinal por apendicitis. Este es el primer caso reportado de apendicitis por esta patología. (Rev Med Hered 2006;17:58-60.

  12. Paraparesia por gota

    OpenAIRE

    Adelmo Ferreira; Bonfim Alves Silva Jr; F. Menezes Braga; Núbia M. Noschese Gargiulo; J. Norberto Stávale

    1989-01-01

    Os autores apresentam um caso de bloqueio de canal raquidiano por tofo em paciente de 23 anos de idade com gota tofácea crônica e artrite gotosa, que desenvolveu paraparesia crural. Submetido a laminectomia, com exérese de acúmulos de cristais junto ao ligamento amarelo, não houve melhora do déficit motor. A revisão da literatura mostrou 9 casos previamente relatados.

  13. La lucha por Guayaquil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Burbano de Lara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto del referendo constitucional del 2008 en Ecuador, este texto analiza la disputa entre Rafael Correa, presidente del Gobierno ecuatoriano y principal lder de Alianza Pas, y el alcalde la ciudad ms grande del pas, Jaime Nebot. Disputa que es examinada a partir de tres ejes: la lucha contra el neoliberalismo, la construccin de un proyecto estatal nacional y la bsqueda por una por una hegemona poltica de Alianza Pas. Se profundiza en las nociones de autonoma y globalizacin que sirvieron de eje al discurso del alcalde, frente al modelo de autonoma propuesto por el Gobierno.In the context of Ecuador's 2008 Constitutional Referendum, this text analyses the dispute between Rafael Correa the President of the Ecuadorian government and the figurehead of Alianza Pas and the mayor of the largest city in the country, Jaime Nebot. The argument will be developed along three fronts: the battle against neoliberalism, the construction of a national state project, and the search for the political hegemony of Alianza Pas. The article examines the concepts of autonomy and globalization that were central to Nebot's discourse and contrasts them with the autonomous model put forward by the government.

  14. Mortalidad por intoxicaciones agudas causadas por plaguicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa González Valiente

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas se utilizan a gran escala mundialmente desde hace más de cinco décadas. Uno de los principales problemas derivados de su uso es la alta incidencia de intoxicaciones agudas y muertes que se producen anualmente. Cuba no escapa a esta problemática. La investigación fue descriptiva y retrospectiva. Las fuentes de datos fueron: Sistema Automatizado de Mortalidad de la Dirección Nacional de Estadísticas del Ministerio de Salud Pública y certificados de defunción. El universo lo constituyó la totalidad de los fallecidos ocurridos en Cuba durante el trienio 1995-1997. Los plaguicidas originaron 576 muertes. En los adultos el sexo masculino fue el más afectado (361 y en los menores de 15 a no se observaron diferencias significativas entre sexos. En los niños el riesgo superior fue en los menores que 4 a. En los hombres se observaron diferencias significativas respecto a las mujeres en casi todos los grupos de edades. Los mayores riesgos en el hombre se localizaron a partir de los 25 a, en las mujeres fue de 15 a 25 a. Los años de vida potencialmente perdidos ascendieron a 17 551. Las circunstancias voluntarias por suicidio representaron 88 % de este tipo de muerte. Ser localizó la mayor frecuencia en trabajadores agrícolas, amas de casa y personas sin vínculo laboral. Los productos más involucrados fueron organofosforados y derivados del piridilo.Pesticides have been largely used in the world for more than 5 decades. One of the main problems derived from its use is the high incidence of acute poisonings and deaths that occur every year. Cuba is also affected by this problem so, a descriptive and retrospective research was made. The data sources were the Automated Mortality System of the National Statistics Division of the Ministry of Public Health and death certificates. All the deaths occurred in Cuba during 1995-1997 were analyzed . The pesticides caused 576 deaths. Male adults were the most affected (361. There were no significant differences in individuals under 15 of both sexes. In children, the highest risk was in those under 4. Marked differences were observed between men and women in almost every age group.The highest risks were found in men aged 25 and over and in women aged 15-25. The potentially lost years of life amounted to 17 551. The voluntary circunstances for suicide accounted for 88 % of this type of death. It was more frequent among agricultural workers, housewives and person who did not work. The most used products were the organophosphorus insecticides and the pyridylos derivates.

  15. Gestin por proyectos

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    Antonio M. Navarro Lpez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se trata la Gestin de Proyectos por las tcnicas de Direccin Integrada de Proyectos o Project management, donde se dan algunas de las definiciones de Gestin por Proyectos, as como su importancia y necesidad de trabajar por estas tcnicas, no solo para los programas y Proyectos priorizados sino tambin en los proyectos de desarrollo empresarial.Una buena gestin de proyectos requiere una inversin inicial de tiempo y esfuerzo y es necesario que toda la organizacin est dispuesta a apoyarla de manera disciplinada. Que rompa la inercia de trabajo desorganizado e improvisado y procure apegarse, de manera responsable, al uso de la metodologa de proyectos.La solucin de problemas a partir de proyectos, genera una cultura de trabajo diferente a lo que habitualmente se ha acostumbrado, surgiendo una figura nueva para liderar la solucin del problema planteado: el jefe del proyecto. Dicho en otros trminos, el proyecto se presenta como una entidad autnoma, se gobierna a partir de su propio diseo y depende solamente de su presupuesto.La administracin de proyectos garantiza que se:v Resuelven problemas ms rpidamente.v Evitan desperdicios y caos al no trabajar en reas que estn fuera del alcance del proyecto.v Enfoca en resolver riesgos futuros antes de que los problemas ocurran.v Orienta a manejar las expectativas y la comunicacin entre clientes, colaboradores y grupos de inters de manera ms efectiva.v Busca crear productos de ms alta calidad desde el primer momento.v Termine en tiempo los proyectosv Utilice el presupuesto de forma eficiente

  16. Pneumonia por leptospirose

    OpenAIRE

    HÜTTNER MAURA DUMONT; PEREIRA HUGO CATAUD PACHECO; TANAKA ROSIMEIRE MITSUKO

    2002-01-01

    A leptospirose é uma doença infecciosa caracterizada pelo envolvimento de múltiplos sistemas. O acometimento pulmonar é comum, geralmente leve e freqüentemente negligenciado. Quando os sintomas respiratórios são a principal manifestação da doença, existe grande possibilidade de confusão diagnóstica. Os autores apresentam um caso de pneumonia grave por leptospirose, com o objetivo de chamar a atenção para esta possibilidade etiológica no diagnóstico diferencial das pneumonias comunitárias, esp...

  17. Peritonite por Candida albicans

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    Pedro Monsanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Excluindo casos de peritonite secundria por perfurao de vscera oca, abcesso abdominal ou dilise peritoneal, o isolamento de fungos de uma ascite cirrtica muito raro. Nesta, a peritonite bacteriana espontnea uma das complicaes melhor descritas, sendo os bacilos entricos Gram-negativos os patognios mais frequentemente implicados. Ao invs, o significado clnico do isolamento de fungos na ascite de cirrticos permanece um tema controverso. No presente artigo, os autores, atravs da apresentao de um caso clnico, pretendem debruar-se sobre as implicaes clnicas da identificao de Candida albicans no lquido asctico.

  18. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  19. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage

  20. Analgesia por acupuntura

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    Jos Antonio Cabana Salazar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La acupuntura, tcnica milenaria de amplia utilizacin en la prctica mdica diaria, tiene como caracterstica ms sobresaliente el potente efecto analgsico que produce el cual constituye la base de la analgesia quirrgica acupuntural, por lo que se realiz una revisin de las principales teoras que desde el punto de vista de la medicina occidental tratan de darle explicacin.The most important characteristic of acupuncture, a millennary technique widely used in the daily medical practice, is the powerful analgesic effect that it produces and that is the basis of acupunctural surgical analgesia. Therefore, it was made a review of the main theories that from the point of view of the western medicine try to explain it.

  1. Sndrome cerebeloso por amiodarona

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    Neuda S. Garretto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available La amiodarona (AMD es una droga antiarritmica cuyos efectos adversos pueden comprometer el sistema nervioso central y periferico. La aparicin de un sndrome cerebeloso es infrecuente. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 anos de edad que desarolla un sndrome pancerebeloso de 4 meses de evolucin, que revierte luego de la suspension de la AMD. El cuadro reaparece meses mas tarde luego de un periodo de automedicacion con la droga. Los mecanismos txicos por los cuales la AMD afecta al cerebelo permanecen inciertos. Esta droga de amplia difusin en nuestro medio, como otros antiarritmicos, posee efectos sobre el sistema nervioso que deben ser tenidos en cuenta a fin de poder detectarlos precozmente.

  2. Muerte por tuberculosis milliar

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    Haidee Marrero Rodrguez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso clnico de un anciano, en estado senil y desnutrido, quien presentaba sndrome febril prolongado, por lo que fue ingresado en el Hospital Clinicoquirrgico Docente "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" de Santiago de Cuba, pero al efectuar los exmenes complementarios no se obtuvo un diagnstico definitivo. Posteriormente tuvo descompensacin cardiovascular y fue trasladado a la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva, donde se le realiz urgentemente una radiografa de trax, la cual mostr lesiones caractersticas de tuberculosis milliar. En consecuencia, se interconsult con especialistas de neumologa y se decidi iniciar el tratamiento con drogas antituberculosas; sin embargo, el paciente falleci un da despus de comenzada la terapia. La necropsia mostr una granulomatosis crnica inespecfica, cuyo resultado solo se confirm 2 meses ms tarde, cuando el cultivo de las secreciones bronquiales fue positivo (codificacin 7 de Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  3. A vida por segundos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Pedro Miguel Paiva da

    2010-01-01

    A Enfermagem regista evolução a vários níveis, o que torna imperioso reconhecer como de significativo valor o papel do enfermeiro. A Especialização em Enfermagem Médico-Cirúrgica visa o desenvolvimento de competências para a assistência de Enfermagem avançada ao doente adulto e idoso em estado crítico, revelando uma maior apropriação, por parte dos enfermeiros especialistas de uma concepção de cuidados sustentada numa conceptualização científica dos cuidados, daí infere-se o contributo num...

  4. Iluminados por el fuego

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    Manuel Gárate

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available No es coincidencia que en menos de un año dos películas latinoamericanas den cuenta de la temática de la guerra durante el período de los llamados « años de plomo » de las dictaduras latinoamericanas. Primero fue « Mi mejor enemigo » del chileno Alex Bowen, estrenada durante el 2005 y que relata la cuasi guerra entre Chile y Argentina durante los tensos meses finales de 1978. En este caso se trata de « Iluminados por el fuego » de Tristán Bauer, quien nos da cuenta del trauma de la Guerra de...

  5. Ojo por ojo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón del Llano Ibáñez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro pan y café de la mañana se acompaña de noticias alrededor de ejecuciones, de fosas clandestinas, de batallas del ejército, de balaceras en las calles y civiles caídos por balas perdidas : la muerte acompaña nuestro desayuno. Las calaveras de azúcar del día de muertos hoy son calaveras reales y amargas : 40 000 muertos en cuatro años después que el Presidente Calderón declaró la guerra a los narcotraficantes. Se han apresado a varios e importantes miembros de los cárteles : pero han si...

  6. Ojo por ojo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón del Llano Ibáñez

    2011-01-01

    Nuestro pan y café de la mañana se acompaña de noticias alrededor de ejecuciones, de fosas clandestinas, de batallas del ejército, de balaceras en las calles y civiles caídos por balas perdidas : la muerte acompaña nuestro desayuno. Las calaveras de azúcar del día de muertos hoy son calaveras reales y amargas : 40 000 muertos en cuatro años después que el Presidente Calderón declaró la guerra a los narcotraficantes. Se han apresado a varios e importantes miembros de los cárteles : pero han si...

  7. revelada por marcadores RAPD

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    Azucena del Carmen González-Horta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El manzano (Malus domestica Borkh. es uno de los frutales de clima templado de mayor importancia en México, con 62 000 ha cultivadas en 2003, de las cuales alrededor de 700 se encuentran establecidas en el estado de Querétaro. La anarquía en la introducción de variedades cultivadas e híbridos por parte de los productores y las dependencias de gobierno, ha propiciado el desconocimiento de la identidad algunos de éstos, además, se ignora si los materiales introducidos se encuentran injertados sobre portainjertos clonales resistentes al pulgón lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, plaga importante en la región. Con el fin de evaluar la diversidad genética del manzano, se colectaron 65 muestras que incluyen variedades cultivadas, materiales criollos, híbridos y portainjertos de manzano y se analizaron por medio de marcadores moleculares tipo RAPD (ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar. Se seleccionaron 10 oligonucleótidos para el análisis del ADN. Se amplificaron 113 bandas polimórficas y 29 monomórficas. El análisis de conglomerados mostró que la mayor disimilitud entre genotipos fue de 0.71. Las muestras se separaron en dos conglomerados. El primero incluye casi todas las muestras relacionadas con la variedad `Golden Delicious´, mientras que el segundo grupo incluye la mayoría de las muestras correspondientes a manzanas rojas y portainjertos clonales. Los resultados indican que la diversidad genética del manzano en la región es importante y que el método RAPD permite agrupar genotipos con características comunes, lo que facilitará la identificación genética de variedades.

  8. Onicomicosis por hongos fuliginosos

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    Ingrid Salas-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: Las infecciones de las uñas producidas por hongos son un problema de frecuente consulta dermatológica. Los dermatofitos son la mayor causa de estas infecciones, siendo Trichophyton rubrum el agente etiológico más importante. Sin embargo, los hongos no dermatofitos, tanto hialinos como fuliginosos, pueden ser también responsables de estos cuadros clínicos. Debido a que estos hongos tienden a ser resistentes a los antimicóticos comúnmente usados para tratar las onicomicosis, es que se hace indispensable que el clínico se asegure por medio de un examen de laboratorio de la etiología de la infección. Métodos: Se estudiaron tres casos de pacientes con lesiones en uñas, que acudieron al laboratorio de Micología Médica, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Se realizaron los análisis de rutina para aislamiento e identificación de hongos patógenos. Resultados: En los tres casos estudiados se observó al examen directo micelio fuliginoso. En uno de los casos se aisló e identificó Scytalidium dimidiatum, hongo que presenta resistencia a los antifúngicos utilizados para tratar onicomicosis. Conclusión. El reporte de hongos diferentes a los dermatofitos como agentes etiológicos de onicomicosis es importante para que el médico pueda elegir el tratamiento más recomendado para este tipo de infección.

  9. paz por estatalizacin, paz por cortes de justicia, paz por tratado, paz por soberana,paz por derecho penal?

    OpenAIRE

    Marquardt, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Con este artculo se pretende introducir la historia de la paz en Europa, teniendo en cuenta los enfoques de la ciencia de la Historia del Derecho y de las investigaciones propias sobre la Historia Universal del Estado. Se quiere presentar los desarrollos y transformaciones de la paz en el milenio entre 800 y 1800 d.C. El lector va a realizar un viaje a travs del tiempo, pasando por grandes eventos de paz como la Paz Territorial de Maguncia de 1235, la Paz Et...

  10. Macrocefalia por hidrocefalia obstructiva

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    Amarily Delgado Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: el diagnstico de macrocefalia en los nios puede ser la expresin clnica de un dao neurolgico grave. Dentro de sus causas se encuentra la hidrocefalia, que se caracteriza por un desorden hidrodinmico del lquido cefalorraqudeo, ya sea en la produccin, circulacin o reabsorcin, que lleva a un incremento de ste, aumentando el volumen, dando como resultado la dilatacin de los ventrculos. Presentacin del caso: se presenta una lactante de 5 meses de edad, con presencia de macrocefalia, fontanela anterior amplia y abombada, suturas craneales separadas, signo del sol poniente en los ojos y ligera hipotona de los cuatro miembros. Ante la sospecha de una hidrocefalia se le realiza tomografa axial computarizada y ecografa cerebral, donde se comprueba dilatacin de los ventrculos cerebrales a expensas del lquido cefalorraqudeo, la dilatacin es triventricular, evidencindose una obstruccin del acueducto de Silvio. Como conducta teraputica se le realiza una derivacin ventrculo-peritoneal presin peditrica lado derecho. Conclusiones: el diagnstico precoz de la hidrocefalia es fundamental para mejorar el pronstico de la enfermedad.

  11. Analisis cualitativo asistido por computadora

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros Puebla César A.

    2003-01-01

    Los objetivos de este ensayo son: por un lado, presentar una aproximación a la experiencia hispanoamericana en el Análisis Cualitativo Asistido por Computadora (ACAC) al agrupar mediante un ejercicio de sistematización los trabajos realizados por diversos colegas provenientes de disciplinas afines. Aunque hubiese querido ser exhaustivo y minucioso, como cualquier intento de sistematización de experiencias, en este ejercicio son notables las ausencias y las omisiones. Introducir algunas reflex...

  12. Factores asociados al pronóstico de pacientes operados por cáncer gástrico avanzado Pathological factors associated with survival in advanced gastric cancer

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    ÓSCAR TAPIA E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El estudio de la pieza operatoria de pacientes resecados por cáncer gástrico (CG ha permitido identificar variables anatomo-patológicas con valor pronóstico en la supervivencia (SV y recurrencia de estos pacientes, siendo el compromiso ganglionar linfático y nivel de infiltración tumoral, los factores más relevantes identificados. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar asociación entre variables clínicas y morfológicas con la SV de pacientes resecados por CG avanzado (CGA. Material y Método: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se estudiaron variables clínicas y morfológicas de 299 pacientes operados por CGA entre enero de 1986-diciembre de 2001. Los datos fueron obtenidos desde la Unidad de Anatomía Patológica del Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de Temuco. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y analítica; confección de curvas de supervivencia, y finalmente se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística para realizar ajuste, calcular odds ratios y sus respectivos intervalos de confianza de 95%o. Resultados: La cohorte tuvo una mediana de edad de 63 años y el 68% de ella correspondió al género masculino. Con una mediana de seguimiento de 21 meses (1 a 206, se observó una SV actuarial global a 5 y 10 años de 39% y 34% respectivamente. En el análisis bivariado, se verificó asociación con la SV en: etapa tumoral macroscópica, localization y tamaño tumoral, tipo según Bormann, nivel de infiltración, grado de diferenciación histológico, tipo histológico según Lauren, Ming y Nakamura, estado ganglionar linfático (N, estadio TNM y resultado de la resección realizada. Conclusiones: Las variables mencionadas deben ser cuidadosamente evaluadas al momento de decidir terapias en pacientes con CGA.Background: The degree of tumor infiltration and lymph node involvement are the most relevant pathological features to determine prognosis of advanced gastric cancer. Aim: To determine the association between clinical and pathological features of advanced gastric cancer and patient survival. Material and Methods: The pathological records of patients with advanced gastric cancer subjected to gastrectomy and lymph node excision between 1986 and 2007 were analyzed. Follow up was performed according to data in the clinical records and death certificates obtained at the Chilean National Death Registry. The main outcome analyzed was survival after surgery. Results: The records of 299 patients aged 62 ± 11 years (68% males, were analyzed. Mean follow up ranged from 1 to 206 months. Five and 10 years actuarial survival was 39 and 34%, respectively. The pathological predictors of survival were microscopic tumor stage, tumor size and location, Bormann classification, infiltration level, degree of differentiation, pathological type of tumor according to Lauren, Ming y Nakamura, lymph node involvement and the absence of residual tumor after surgical excision. Conclusions: The pathological study of the surgical piece in advanced gastric cancer has important prognostic implications.

  13. Internamentos por Linfadenite Cervical num Servio de Pediatria Geral / Admissions for cervical lymphadenitis in a General Paediatrics Unit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Lito; Diana, Pignatelli; Ana Sofia, Simes; Alexandra, Carvalho; Florbela, Cunha.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduo: A Linfadenite Cervical (LAC) uma entidade comum na idade peditrica. As formas agudas bilaterais so as mais frequentes, de etiologia viral e autolimitadas. As agudas unilaterais so habitualmente bacterianas, provocadas pelo Streptococcus pyogenes e Staphylococcus aureus. Nas subaguda [...] s/crnicas a Bartonella, as Mycobacteria e o Toxoplasma devem ser etiologias consideradas. Objetivos: Caracterizao de populao de crianas internadas numa enfermagem de Pediatria Geral por LAC. Material e mtodos: Estudo comparativo retrospetivo de uma amostra de convenincia que inclui as crianas internadas, entre Maro de 1999 e Fevereiro de 2010. Resultados e Discusso: Identificaram-se 61 crianas, 88,5% do sexo feminino. A LAC aguda correspondeu a 88,5% dos casos, das quais 57,4% foram unilaterais. A forma subaguda/crnica ocorreu em 11,5%. A idade nas formas agudas foi significativamente inferior das subagudas/crnicas (p=0,034). A etiologia bacteriana equivaleu a 96,7% sendo as restantes, uma mononucleose infeciosa e uma toxoplasmose ganglionar. O S. aureus e S. pyogenes corresponderam a 66,6% dos agentes bacterianos isolados. Identificaram-se trs casos de LAC por Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dois por Bartonella henselae e dois por Ricketsia conorii. As infees prvias da cabea e pescoo estiveram presentes em 27 (44,3%). Documentaram-se infees virais predisponentes em cinco casos. As localizaes cervical e submandibular foram as mais frequentes, 47,5% e 44,3%, respetivamente. Evidenciou-se febre em 85,2% das crianas, sintomas regionais (torcicolo e trismos) em 45% e flutuao em 29%. Houve necessidade de drenagem cirrgica em 24,6% dos doentes, em seis (9,8%) realizou-se citologia aspirativa e em 45 exames de imagem. A leucocitose (>15000/?L) e a protena C reativa positiva (>3,0 mg/dL) verificaram-se em 83,6% e 65,5% dos casos, respetivamente. O S. pyogenes e o S. aureus cursaram com mais sinais inflamatrios e maior necessidade de drenagem cirrgica (p=0,01). Os antibiticos foram utilizados em todos os doentes sendo o mais frequente a amoxicilina/cido clavulnico (57,3%). A flucloxacilina administrou-se em 19,7% dos casos. A evoluo foi favorvel em todos os casos. Concluso: O diagnstico etiolgico da LAC no fcil na maioria dos casos. Embora a grande maioria das crianas com LAC no seja internada, existem alguns casos que, pela necessidade de investigao complementar ou de tratamento o sejam. Portugal um pas de mdia incidncia de Tuberculose pelo que esta doena deve ser considerada, com especial ateno para a emergncia de M. tuberculosis multirresistentes. Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical lymphadenitis (CL) is a common condition in children. Acute bilateral CL is the most frequent presentation, usually self-limited and caused by virus. Acute unilateral CL is commonly bacterial, most frequently caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Bartonel [...] la, Mycobacteria and Toxoplasma must be considered when the CL is subacute/chronic. Objective: Characterization of children with CL hospitalized in a paediatric unit. Population and methods: Retrospective comparative study of a convenience sample that includes inpatient children, between March 1999 and February 2010. Results and Discussion: Sixty-one patients were identified, 88,5% female. All CL were infectious. Acute CL was observed in 88,5% of cases (57,4% unilateral and 31,1% bilateral). Subacute/chronic CL occurred in 11,5%. The average age in acute cases was significantly lower than in subacute /chronic ones (p=0,034). Bacterial CL occurred in 96,7% and the remaining cases included infectious mononucleosis (n=1) and ganglionar toxoplasmosis (n=1). S. aureus and S. pyogenes were isolated in 66,6% of the patients. In addition, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in three cases, Bartonella henselae in two and Ricketsia conorii in two. Previous head and neck infections were found in 27 patients (44,3%) with CL. Precedi

  14. Comparao entre diversos antgenos para o diagnstico de Anaplasma marginale por ELISA Comparison between several antigens for diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale by ELISA

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    Carlos A.N. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasmose bovina uma doena com grande importncia nas regies tropicais e subtropicais do mundo por determinar perdas econmicas devido mortalidade e reduo da produtividade. causada por Anaplasma marginale, uma riqutsia intraeritroctica obrigatria cujo controle requer, alm de uma vacina eficiente, uma acurada identificao de bovinos cronicamente infectados. Apesar de existirem atualmente diversos mtodos de diagnstico dessa riqutsia, os mtodos sorolgicos, em particular o ensaio de imunoadsoro enzimtica-ELISAs, so os mais utilizados devido sua versatilidade e praticidade. No entanto, devido ao grande nmero de antgenos disponveis, atualmente torna-se necessria uma avaliao para definir quais antgenos apresentam um melhor desempenho no diagnstico da anaplasmose. Soros de bovinos positivos e negativos para A. marginale por PCR, e soros de animais provenientes do Brasil e Costa Rica, foram testados em ELISAs baseados em MSP1a, MSP2 e MSP5 recombinantes, um pool das trs protenas recombinantes, e antgeno de lisado de corpsculos iniciais da riqutsia (CI. Utilizando soro de bovinos positivos para A. marginale por PCR, uma maior sensibilidade foi observada no ELISA CI. No entanto, uma maior especificidade, com soro de bovinos negativos a PCR, foi observada com os ELISAs recombinantes. O porcentual de bovinos positivos do Brasil e Costa Rica foi maior com ELISA CI. Razes para essas diferenas so discutidas.Bovine anaplasmosis is a major disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world by determine economical loss due mortality and productive reduction. The disease is caused by Anaplasma marginale, an intraerythrocytic rickettsia whose control requires, besides an efficient vaccine, the accurate identification of chronically infected cattle. Although the existence of diverse methods of diagnosis of this rickettsia, the serological methods, in particular the enzyme immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, are the most used due to its versatility and practice. However, due to the high number of antigens currently available, an evaluation becomes necessary to define which antigens present the better performance in the diagnosis of anaplasmosis. Sera from cattle positive or negative to A. marginale by PCR, and sera from cattle proceeding from Brazil and Costa Rica, were tested by ELISAs based in recombinant MSP1a, MSP2, and MSP5, a pool of the three recombinant proteins, and initial body lisate antigen (CI. Using sera from A. marginale positive cattle by PCR, the highest sensitivity was shown by CI ELISA. Nevertheless, the highest specificity, with sera from negative cattle by PCR, was shown by recombinants ELISAs. The percentiles of positive cattle from Brazil and Costa Rica were higher with CI ELISA. Reasons for such differences were discussed.

  15. por inmovilizacin forzada

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    Gloria Sicilia Argumedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evalu la capacidad del pirofosfato de tiamina (PPT o vitamina B1 activada, para prevenir el dao que provoca el estrs por inmovilizacin forzada sobre las neuronas del hipocampo de ratas. Se trabaj con ratas macho de 21 das de edad, que fueron asignadas a cuatro grupos con diez ratas cada uno: Grupo testigo (T, Grupo estrs crnico (EC, Grupo estrs crnico + PPT (EC + PPT y Grupo de pirofosfato de tiamina (PPT. Las variables analizadas fueron: peso corporal, longitud de la dendrita apical, ejes mayor y menor del soma neuronal, as como el promedio de ramifi caciones y de espinas dendrticas. Los resultados muestran disminuciones estadsticamente signifi cativas variables de 20% a 40% en el peso corporal, en todos los grupos respecto del grupo T. Para los niveles de corticosterona srica se observaron disminuciones estadsticamente signifi cativas de 16.3% en el Grupo EC + PPT y de 20.5% en el Grupo PPT, ambas con respecto al grupo T. En cuanto al dimetro del eje menor, se observ un incremento signifi cativo de 6.5% en el Grupo EC + PPT con respecto al Grupo T; otras disminuciones estadsticamente signifi cativas encontradas fueron: la longitud dendrtica de 32.1% en el Grupo EC con respecto al Grupo T, de 27.2% en el Grupo EC en relacin con el Grupo EC + PPT y de 30.2% en el Grupo EC, respecto del PPT. Finalmente, en el nmero de espinas se encontraron disminuciones estadsticamente signifi cativas de 59.4% en el Grupo EC en relacin con el Grupo T, de 50.8% en el Grupo EC con respecto al Grupo EC + PPT, y de 57.7% en el Grupo E, respecto del Grupo PPT. De acuerdo con los resultados, se concluye que el PPT acta previniendo el incremento de los niveles de corticosterona srica en ratas con estrs, a las que se les suministr PPT, lo cual preserva la integridad neuronal en las variables estudiadas, como la longitud dendrtica y el promedio de espinas dendrticas.

  16. Por que sou rondoniano

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    Mércio Pereira Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Numa revisão contextualizada no tempo e projetada pelos seus resultados, a obra do sertanista marechal Cândido Rondon (1867-1958 é avaliada positivamente pela dedicação à causa dos povos indígenas do Brasil, pela formação de uma ética de respeito do brasileiro para com os índios e pela institucionalização do dever do Estado brasileiro de proteger, assistir e ajudar os povos indígenas a manterem-se coesos e autônomos e ao mesmo tempo se projetarem no mundo mais amplo. A vida de Rondon é acompanhada desde a sua formação como cadete da Escola Militar, como membro da Igreja do Apostolado Positivista, como comandante da Expedição Rondon (1907-1930, que levou o telégrafo de Cuiabá a Porto Velho, e especialmente como criador e dirigente-mor do Serviço de Proteção aos Índios (SPI, 1910-1967. Rondon é o criador da expressão "Morrer se preciso for, matar nunca", que pautou a ação de indigenistas brasileiros que fizeram os primeiros contatos com muitos povos indígenas desde 1910. E muitos morreram seguindo essa norma, numa clara demonstração do novo espírito humanista criado pela atitude rondoniana. O indigenismo brasileiro implantado por Rondon teve altos e baixos ao longo de quase cem anos, que hoje prossegue pela Fundação Nacional do Índio (Funai. De fato, muitos povos indígenas perderam suas terras e muitos foram dizimados no século XX, mas os mais de 220 que sobreviveram vêm crescendo em número, obtendo suas terras (13% do território nacional e conquistando novos espaços político-culturais no Brasil.This paper reviews the life and work of Brazilian Indianist Marshall Cândido Rondon. Rondon's life is marked by a profound dedication to the Brazilian Indian cause and to instilling in Brazilians a respect for Indian peoples. He influenced the Brazilian government in shaping a policy of protecting, assisting, and helping Indian peoples retain cohesive, self-determined societies. He also encouraged Indians to project their destinies onto a larger political context. The paper follows Rondon during his days as a cadet in the Military School; as a devout member of the Church of the Positivist Apostolate; as commander of the Rondon Expedition (1907-1930, which stretched the telegraph from Cuiabá to Porto Velho; and especially as the founder and leader of the Indian Protection Service (1910-1967. The Indian Protection Service is the precursor to today's National Indian Foundation (Funai, founded in 1967. Rondon is the creator of the expression "Die if you must, never kill" which, since 1910, has served as the motto for many of the Brazilian indianists who made the first contacts with Indian peoples. Many of them died in service for the Indian cause, demonstrating the high purpose of this new kind of humanistic vision. The Indian policy established by Rondon has experienced ups and downs throughout the last 100 years. Indeed, several Indian tribes became extinct and many lost their lands in the 20th Century. However, of the more than 220 tribes that survive today the vast majority are growing in numbers, have had most of their lands demarcated (amounting to 13% of the Brazilian territory and are conquering space in the Brazilian cultural-political panorama.

  17. Quercetin protects the retina by reducing apoptosis due to ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model / Quercetina protege a retina reduzindo a apoptose consequente leso por isquemia e reperfuso em um modelo de rato

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sedat, Arikan; Ismail, Ersan; Turan, Karaca; Selcuk, Kara; Baran, Gencer; Ihsan, Karaboga; Tufan, Hasan Ali.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo investigar o efeito da quercetina, contra a morte celular por apoptose induzida por leso consequente isquemia-reperfuso (I/R) na retina de ratos. Mtodo: Vinte e quatro ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos iguais: controle, isqumico, solvente e quercetina. [...] O modelo leso por I/R foi realizado por meio da elevao da presso intraocular acima da presso de perfuso, em todos os grupos. Injeces intraperitoneais de 20 mg/kg de quercetina ou sulfxido de dimetilo (DMSO) foram realizadas nos grupos quercetina e solvente, respectivamente, imediatamente antes da leso por I/R, permitindo que as retinas fossem reperfundidas. Quarenta e oito horas aps a leso, as espessuras de camada de clulas ganglionares da retina (RGCL), camada nuclear interna (INL), camada plexiforme interna (IPL), camada plexiforme externa (OPL), e a camada nuclear externa (ONL) foram medidas em todos os grupos. Alm disso, o nmero de clulas TUNEL (+) e caspase-3 (+) tanto na camada nuclear interna quanto na camada nuclear externa foi avaliada em todos os grupos. Resultados: A administrao de quercetina diminuiu o afinamento de todas as camadas da retina em comparao com o grupo isqumico. A espessura mdia da camada nuclear interna nos grupos quercetina e isqumico foi de 21 5,6 m e 16 6,4 m, respectivamente (p Abstract in english Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on apoptotic cell death induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the rat retina. Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided into four equal groups: control, ischemic, solvent, and quercetin. I/R injury was achieved by elevating the [...] intraocular pressure above the perfusion pressure. Intraperitoneal injections of 20 mg/kg of quercetin and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were performed in the quercetin and solvent groups, respectively, immediately prior to I/R injury, and the researchers allowed for the retinas to be reperfused. Forty-eight hours after injury, the thicknesses of the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL), inner nuclear layer (INL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), and outer nuclear layer (ONL) were measured in all groups. Moreover, the numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end-labeled [TUNEL (+)] cells and caspase-3 (+) cells in both INL and ONL were evaluated in all groups. Results: The administration of quercetin was found to reduce the thinning of all retinal layers. The mean thickness of INL in the quercetin and ischemic groups was 21 5.6 m and 16 6.4 m, respectively (P

  18. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais

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    Elizângela Guedes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF endemic area. A total of 78 A. cajennense and 78 A. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting a fragment of the rickettsial gene gltA. Only one pool of three A. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by PCR. This pool was further tested by PCR using sets of primers targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB. All reactions yielded the expected bands that by sequencing, showed 100% identity to the corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii gene fragments gltA (1063-bp, ompA (457-bp, and ompB (720-bp. The minimal infection rate of R. rickettii in the A. cajennense population was 1.28% (at least one infected tick within 78 ticks.The present study showed molecular evidence for the presence of R. rickettsii in A. cajennense from a BSF-endemic area in Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais. Although R. rickettsii has been previously reported infecting A. cajennense ticks in Brazil and other Latin American countries, the present study performed the first molecular characterization of R. rickettsii from the tick A. cajennense.

  19. [BRILL-ZINSER DISEASE AS A CONSEQUENCE OF RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII PERSISTENCE IN PREVIOUSLY ILL WHO HAVE HAD EPIDEMIC TYPHUS (EPIDEMIOLOGIC ASPECTS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevich, I V; Shpynov, S N; Pantyukhina, A N

    2015-01-01

    Materials, that summarize data of original research and scientific literature on epidemiology and problems of persistence during epidemic typhus, whose causative agent (Rickettsia prowazekii) is reactivated in the organism of the previously ill and is manifested as Brill-Zinser disease, are presented. A retrospective analysis was carried out with the data obtained by Russian (All-Union) Centre for Rickettsioses during study of epidemiologic examination maps of 5705 typhus nidi and results of 19 463 blood sera analysis during study of immunologic structure of population in the territories of the former USSR for the period from 1970 to 1992. A decrease of epidemic typhus morbidity and an increase of the fraction of Brill-Zinser disease took place as a result of pediculosis corporis control. In separate territories specific weight of Brill-Zinser disease was 48% in 1952, up to 80% in 1969, and from 1977 all the ill were previously ill. However, during the perestroika period and afterwards, due to a reduction of economic and hygienic living conditions, appearance of refugees, the immune structure regarding typhus began to change. Due to the buildup of the population migration process and the presence of risk groups (refugees, homeless) among population of regions, where local wars are waged, the enhancement of methods of epidemic typhus and Brill-Zinser disease diagnostics and pediculosis corporis eradication is necessary. Study of R. prowazekii by molecular-genetics methods is necessary for complete understanding of its mechanism of persistence. PMID:26470431

  20. Impact of the total number of harvested lymph nodes after colon cancer resections on survival in patients without involved lymph node / Influencia del nmero total de ganglios analizados tras ciruga de reseccin en el cncer de colon sobre la supervivencia en pacientes sin afectacin ganglionar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. I., Rivadulla-Serrano; D., Martnez-Ramos; M., Armengol-Carrasco; J., Escrig-Sos; J. M., Daroca-Jos; G. A., Paiva-Coronel; C., Fortea-Sanchs; J. L., Salvador-Sanchis.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: el nmero total de ganglios analizados ha demostrado su influencia pronstica en el cncer de colon. Pueden existir grandes diferencias en el nmero de ganglios obtenidos por diferentes especialistas (cirujanos y anatomopatlogos). Objetivo: el objetivo del presente estudio fue analiza [...] r si, en nuestro medio, el nmero de ganglios analizados en pacientes con cncer de colon clasificados como pN0 se relaciona tambin con la supervivencia. Material y mtodos: estudio retrospectivo, con inclusin de 148 pacientes con adenocarcinoma de colon (pN0 de la clasificacin TNM) intervenidos de forma programada con intencin curativa entre 1 de enero de 1995 y 31 de diciembre de 2001. Se establecieron 3 grupos segn el nmero de ganglios analizados ( 14 ganglios). Para el anlisis de la supervivencia se utilizaron el mtodo de Kaplan Meier y las grficas CUSUM. Resultados: el nmero total de ganglios analizados fue 1.493 (media 10,1 ganglios por paciente). La supervivencia a 5 aos fue del 63,0% en el grupo con 14 ganglios analizados (p Abstract in english Background: the total number of harvested lymph nodes has been demonstrated to be of prognostic significance for colon cancer. Differences can occur in the total number of harvested lymph nodes between different specialists (surgeons and pathologists). Objective: the aim of this study was to analyse [...] if, in our centre, the number of analysed lymph nodes in patients with colon cancer that are classified as pN0 is also related to survival. Material and methods: a retrospective study was designed, where 148 patients with colon adenocarcinoma (pN0 of TNM classification) who underwent elective surgery between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2001, with curative intent were included. Three groups were created according to the number of analysed lymph nodes ( 14 lymph nodes). For survival analysis the Kaplan-Meier and CUSUM curves methods were used. Results: the total number of analysed lymph nodes was 1,493 (mean 10.1 lymph nodes per patient). The rate of 5-years survival was 63.0% in the group with 14 lymph nodes: 91.8% (p

  1. Impact of the total number of harvested lymph nodes after colon cancer resections on survival in patients without involved lymph node Influencia del nmero total de ganglios analizados tras ciruga de reseccin en el cncer de colon sobre la supervivencia en pacientes sin afectacin ganglionar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Rivadulla-Serrano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: the total number of harvested lymph nodes has been demonstrated to be of prognostic significance for colon cancer. Differences can occur in the total number of harvested lymph nodes between different specialists (surgeons and pathologists. Objective: the aim of this study was to analyse if, in our centre, the number of analysed lymph nodes in patients with colon cancer that are classified as pN0 is also related to survival. Material and methods: a retrospective study was designed, where 148 patients with colon adenocarcinoma (pN0 of TNM classification who underwent elective surgery between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2001, with curative intent were included. Three groups were created according to the number of analysed lymph nodes ( 14 lymph nodes. For survival analysis the Kaplan-Meier and CUSUM curves methods were used. Results: the total number of analysed lymph nodes was 1,493 (mean 10.1 lymph nodes per patient. The rate of 5-years survival was 63.0% in the group with 14 lymph nodes: 91.8% (p Introduccin: el nmero total de ganglios analizados ha demostrado su influencia pronstica en el cncer de colon. Pueden existir grandes diferencias en el nmero de ganglios obtenidos por diferentes especialistas (cirujanos y anatomopatlogos. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar si, en nuestro medio, el nmero de ganglios analizados en pacientes con cncer de colon clasificados como pN0 se relaciona tambin con la supervivencia. Material y mtodos: estudio retrospectivo, con inclusin de 148 pacientes con adenocarcinoma de colon (pN0 de la clasificacin TNM intervenidos de forma programada con intencin curativa entre 1 de enero de 1995 y 31 de diciembre de 2001. Se establecieron 3 grupos segn el nmero de ganglios analizados ( 14 ganglios. Para el anlisis de la supervivencia se utilizaron el mtodo de Kaplan Meier y las grficas CUSUM. Resultados: el nmero total de ganglios analizados fue 1.493 (media 10,1 ganglios por paciente. La supervivencia a 5 aos fue del 63,0% en el grupo con 14 ganglios analizados (p < 0,01. La influencia pronstica se mantuvo en el anlisis multivariante. Conclusin: en nuestro medio, la obtencin de un mayor nmero de ganglios analizados se relaciona con una mayor supervivencia a los 5 aos en pacientes con cncer de colon clasificados como pN0. Parece razonable recomendar la obtencin de tantos ganglios como sea posible en este tipo de ciruga y no recomendar un nmero mnimo de ganglios que se deberan analizar.

  2. Analisis cualitativo asistido por computadora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cisneros Puebla César A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este ensayo son: por un lado, presentar una aproximación a la experiencia hispanoamericana en el Análisis Cualitativo Asistido por Computadora (ACAC al agrupar mediante un ejercicio de sistematización los trabajos realizados por diversos colegas provenientes de disciplinas afines. Aunque hubiese querido ser exhaustivo y minucioso, como cualquier intento de sistematización de experiencias, en este ejercicio son notables las ausencias y las omisiones. Introducir algunas reflexiones teóricas en torno al papel del ACAC en el desarrollo de la investigación cualitativa a partir de esa sistematización y con particular énfasis en la producción del dato es, por otro lado, objetivo central de esta primera aproximación.

  3. Porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2000-01-01

    Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM).......Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM)....

  4. Intoxicacin por gases / Gas poisoning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I, Santiago.

    Full Text Available La intoxicacin por gases en nuestro medio es un problema importante debido a su alta incidencia. En el caso concreto de la intoxicacin por monxido de carbono, es la principal causa de muerte por intoxicacin involuntaria en nuestro medio, muchas veces coexistiendo con una intoxicacin por cianuro [...] . Ambas intoxicaciones pueden ser de carcter grave, basndose su diagnstico en la mera sospecha del mdico. Adems, su importancia radica en que ambas intoxicaciones tienen un tratamiento concreto. La oxigenoterapia normo o hiperbrica es el tratamiento de eleccin de la intoxicacin por monxido de carbono. En el caso de la intoxicacin por cianuro, la hidroxocobalamina es hoy da el tratamiento de eleccin, ya que ha demostrado ser un eficaz antdoto. Abstract in english Poisoning by gases in our area is an important problem due to its high incidence. In the specific case of carbon monoxide poisoning, this is the main cause of death by poisoning in our environment, on many occasions coexisting with cyanide poisoning. Both poisonings can be severe, their diagnosis be [...] ing based on the mere suspicions of the doctor. Besides, their importance lies in the fact that both poisonings have a very specific treatment. Normo or hyperbaric oxygenotherapy is the treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning. In the case of cyanide poisoning, hydroxocobalamin is nowadays the treatment of choice, since it has proved itself to be an efficient antidote.

  5. Intoxicacin por gases Gas poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicacin por gases en nuestro medio es un problema importante debido a su alta incidencia. En el caso concreto de la intoxicacin por monxido de carbono, es la principal causa de muerte por intoxicacin involuntaria en nuestro medio, muchas veces coexistiendo con una intoxicacin por cianuro. Ambas intoxicaciones pueden ser de carcter grave, basndose su diagnstico en la mera sospecha del mdico. Adems, su importancia radica en que ambas intoxicaciones tienen un tratamiento concreto. La oxigenoterapia normo o hiperbrica es el tratamiento de eleccin de la intoxicacin por monxido de carbono. En el caso de la intoxicacin por cianuro, la hidroxocobalamina es hoy da el tratamiento de eleccin, ya que ha demostrado ser un eficaz antdoto.Poisoning by gases in our area is an important problem due to its high incidence. In the specific case of carbon monoxide poisoning, this is the main cause of death by poisoning in our environment, on many occasions coexisting with cyanide poisoning. Both poisonings can be severe, their diagnosis being based on the mere suspicions of the doctor. Besides, their importance lies in the fact that both poisonings have a very specific treatment. Normo or hyperbaric oxygenotherapy is the treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning. In the case of cyanide poisoning, hydroxocobalamin is nowadays the treatment of choice, since it has proved itself to be an efficient antidote.

  6. Chloroform-Methanol Residue of Coxiella burnetii Markedly Potentiated the Specific Immunoprotection Elicited by a Recombinant Protein Fragment rOmpB-4 Derived from Outer Membrane Protein B of Rickettsia rickettsii in C3H/HeN Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Wenping; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiong, Xiaolu; Jiao, Jun; Yang, Xiaomei; Wen, Bohai

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii and Coxiella burnetii, are the potential agents of bio-warfare/bio-terrorism. Here C3H/HeN mice were immunized with a recombinant protein fragment rOmp-4 derived from outer membrane protein B, a major protective antigen of R. rickettsii, combined with chloroform-methanol residue (CMR) extracted from phase I C. burnetii organisms, a safer Q fever vaccine. These immunized mice had significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2a to rOmpB-4...

  7. Pneumopatia causada por Mycobacterium kansasii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrone Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: O Mycobacterium kansasii uma micobactria no tuberculosa que pode causar colonizao ou infeco pulmonar. OBJETIVO: Relatar experincia com doena pulmonar causada pelo M. kansasii em uma srie de seis pacientes diagnosticados ao longo de cinco anos. MTODO: Entre junho de 1995 e junho de 2000 foram admitidos 1.349 pacientes no Dispensrio do Ipiranga Ari Nogueira da Silva-Sanatorinhos, com o diagnstico de tuberculose pulmonar, dos quais seis tiveram cultura positiva para M. kansasii. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes eram homens e a idade variou entre 25 e 77 anos. Todos apresentavam pneumopatia crnica e eram sintomticos respiratrios com teste negativo para sndrome de imunodeficincia humana. As radiografias de trax eram compatveis com a presena de doena pulmonar prvia: cavidades de paredes finas foram notadas em todos e espessamento pleural subjacente s cavidades foi observado em dois pacientes. Todos foram tratados inicialmente com isoniazida, rifampicina, pirazinamida (INH-RMP-PZA e etambutol (EMB foi introduzido precocemente em dois pacientes por intolerncia pirazinamida, enquanto que em outros dois a introduo foi feita ao ser conhecido o resultado da cultura. Todos os pacientes foram tratados por mais de nove meses, tendo sido observada recidiva em um deles. Um paciente com silicose faleceu aps dois anos por insuficincia respiratria, depois de ter sido considerado curado. CONCLUSES: A micobacteriose por M. kansasii foi encontrada com baixa freqncia, podendo estar relacionada s caractersticas dos pacientes encaminhados ao nosso servio. O esquema INH-RMP-PZA, com substituio eventual da PZA por etambutol, mostrou sucesso teraputico.

  8. Se los por se lo

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    Jos Luis Rivarola

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de la conjugacin "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966 en suestudio comparativo del francs y del espaol. De la comparacinse desprende, por ejemplo, que en espaol hay un cierto nmero deambigedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unvoco" como en el caso del francs. Dentro de estas ambigedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no slo como pronombre reflexivo, sinotambin como variante combinatoria del pronombre personal complemento indirecto de la tercera persona.

  9. Pneumonia por bacilo de Friedlander

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    Adrelirio Jos Rios Gonalves

    1970-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam e discutem um caso de pneumonia por bacilo de Friedlander. Chamam a ateno para suas principais complicaes e prognstico. Enfatizam a histria natural da doena e o aspecto radiolgico por serem elementos de suma importncia, no estabelecimento diagnstico. Discutem o diagnstico diferencial do ponto de vista radiogrfico e uma anlise dos principais sinais radiolgicos da condio feita. Chamam ainda a ateno para a multiplicidade de microorganismos capazes de originar necrose do parnquima pulmonar. Finalizam analisando o papel atual da Klebsiella no determinismo de infeces hospitalares e tentam uma orientao teraputica nas formas agudas.

  10. La Transversal Cafetera por Caldas

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Dada la necesidad de una transversal férrea para resolver las falencias estructurales del transporte de carga colombiano, con la construcción del nuevo Túnel Cumanday bimodal y doble cruzando la Cordillera Central por Caldas, la nueva Transversal Cafetera podría diseñarse con pendiente máxima del 6% y velocidad de 80 km/h, y convertirse en complemento al paso por la Línea, y en el soporte de un corredor logístico que integraría la región andina de Colombia, al detonar con el ferrocarril senda...

  11. Miasis cutanea por cordylobia anthropophaga

    OpenAIRE

    Alkorta Gurrutxaga Miriam; Beristain Rementeria Xabier; Cilla Eguiluz Gustavo; Tuneu Valls Anna; Zubizarreta Salvador José

    2001-01-01

    El incremento progresivo en el número de personas que viajan a países tropicales ha hecho que las enfermedades importadas adquieran una relevancia cada vez mayor. Las miasis (o infestaciones por larvas de moscas) cutáneas se encuentran entre este tipo de enfermedades siendo especialmente frecuentes en países tropicales. A propósito de la observación de un caso de miasis cutánea masiva por Cordylobia antropophaga, que ocurrió en una mujer de 34 años de edad al volver de un viaje a Senegal, se ...

  12. Nuevos casos de Linfogranulomatosis Micosica encontrados en Lima

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    Pedro Weiss

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. Se presenta el estudio de cuatro casos peruanos de Micosis ganglionar causados por el Paracoccidioides brasilensis (Almeida. 2. La enfermedad debe ser frecuente en la selva peruana, se sugiere que se le tenga presente en los casos sospechosos de enfermedad de Hodgkin , tuberculosis ganglionares o amigdalianas, tumores hepáticos, pancreáticos, esplénicos y cerebrales, enfermedades todas que pueden ser simuladas por el Paracoccidiodes bresilensis y otras blastomicosis tropicales.

  13. Ehrlichia and spotted fever group Rickettsiae surveillance in Amblyomma americanum in Virginia through use of a novel six-plex real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, David N; Operario, Darwin J; Stroup, Suzanne; Stromdahl, Ellen; Wright, Chelsea; Gaff, Holly; Broyhill, James; Smith, Joshua; Norris, Douglas E; Henning, Tyler; Lucas, Agape; Houpt, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The population of the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum has expanded in North America over the last several decades. It is known to be an aggressive and nondiscriminatory biter and is by far the most common human-biting tick encountered in Virginia. Few studies of human pathogen prevalence in ticks have been conducted in our state since the mid-twentieth century. We developed a six-plex real-time PCR assay to detect three Ehrlichia species (E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia) and three spotted fever group Rickettsiae (SFGR; R. amblyommii, R. parkeri, and R. rickettsii) and used it to test A. americanum from around the state. Our studies revealed a presence of all three Ehrlichia species (0-24.5%) and a high prevalence (50-80%) of R. amblyommii, a presumptively nonpathogenic SFGR, in all regions surveyed. R. parkeri, previously only detected in Virginia's Amblyomma maculatum ticks, was found in A. americanum in several surveyed areas within two regions having established A. maculatum populations. R. rickettsii was not found in any sample tested. Our study provides the first state-wide screening of A. americanum ticks in recent history and indicates that human exposure to R. amblyommii and to Ehrlichiae may be common. The high prevalence of R. amblyommii, serological cross-reactivity of all SFGR members, and the apparent rarity of R. rickettsii in human biting ticks across the eastern United States suggest that clinical cases of tick-borne disease, including ehrlichiosis, may be commonly misdiagnosed as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and that suspicion of other SFGR as well as Ehrlichia should be increased. These data may be of relevance to other regions where A. americanum is prevalent. PMID:24746145

  14. Effect of Rickettsia rickettsii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection on the Biological Parameters and Survival of Its Tick Vector-Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Lauren; Snellgrove, Alyssa; Levin, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a potentially fatal tick-borne disease spread from North America to Argentina. The major vectors of R. rickettsii in the United States are Dermacentor andersoni Stiles and Dermacentor variabilis (Say). It is generally believed that vector ticks serve as major reservoirs of R. rickettsii in nature; however, the ability of ticks to support the indefinite perpetuation of R. rickettsii has been challenged by reports of deleterious effects of rickettsial infection on D. andersoni. To better elucidate the relationship of the pathogen with D. variabilis, we assessed the effects of R. rickettsii on the survival, fertility, and fecundity of D. variabilis. We used an isolate of R. rickettsii (Di-6), originally acquired from an opossum caught in Virginia, and ticks from a laboratory colony established from adult D. variabilis also collected in Virginia. Overall, infection with R. rickettsii protracted the feeding periods of all life stages of ticks. Infected nymphal and adult ticks experienced a slight decrease in feeding success compared with the uninfected colony, but neither larval nor nymphal molting success was affected. Infected females reached smaller engorgement weights, were less efficient in conversion of bloodmeal into eggs, and produced smaller egg clutches with a lower proportion of eggs hatching. However, no sudden die-off was observed among infected ticks, and longevity was not decreased due to R. rickettsii infection in any stage. Although infection with the studied isolate of R. rickettsii caused slight decrease in fecundity in sympatric vector ticks, no obvious deleterious effects were observed. PMID:26494822

  15. Serosurvey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs and humans from an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Sorologia para Rickettsia spp. em cães e humanos de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinter

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a rickettsial serosurvey in 25 dogs and 35 humans in an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever in the State of São Paulo, where the tick Amblyomma aureolatum is the main vector. Testing canine and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence against four Rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis and R. bellii showed that 16 (64% of canine sera and 1 (2.8% of human sera reacted to at least one of these rickettsial antigens with titers ³ 64. Seven canine sera and the single reactive human serum showed titers to R. rickettsii at least four times those of any of the other three antigens. The antibody titers in these 7 animals and 1 human were attributed to stimulation by R. rickettsii infection. No positive canine or human serum was attributed to stimulation by R. parkeri, R. felis, or R. bellii. Our serological results showed that dogs are important sentinels for the presence of R. rickettsii in areas where the tick A. aureolatum is the main vector of Brazilian spotted fever.Este estudo avaliou a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Rickettsia em 25 cães e 35 humanos, em uma área endêmica para a febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo, onde o principal vetor é o carrapato Amblyomma aureolatum. Soros dos cães e humanos foram testados pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta contra quatro antígenos de riquétsias (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, R. bellii, mostrando que soros de 16 (64% cães e 1 (2,8% humano reagiram com títulos ³ 64 para pelo menos um dos antígenos de riquétsias. Sete soros caninos e o único soro humano reativo demonstraram títulos para R. rickettsii no mínimo quatro vezes maior do que aqueles para os outros antígenos de riquétsias. Os títulos de anticorpos nesses cães e um humano foram considerados homólogos a R. rickettsii, enquanto que nenhum soro de cão ou humano foi considerado reativamente homólogo para R. parkeri, R. felis ou R. bellii. Os resultados sorológicos mostraram que cães são importantes sentinelas para a presença da bactéria R. rickettsii em áreas onde o carrapato A. aureolatum é o principal vetor da febre maculosa brasileira.

  16. DESAJUSTE EDUCATIVO POR REGIONES EN COLOMBIA: ¿COMPETENCIA POR SALARIOS O POR PUESTOS DE TRABAJO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Castillo Caicedo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación, entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

  17. Índice por autores

    OpenAIRE

    Geología, Colombiana

    2012-01-01

    Contiene el listado en orden alfabético por apellido, de todos los autores que han escrito para la revista Geología Colombiana desde 1962 hasta 1984; el listado presenta el número en el cual se publicaron los articulos de cada autor y las páginas que les corresponde.

  18. Celulitis por citomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.Cutaneous lesions in CMV infection are rare, often a late manifestation of systemic infection, and usually herald a fatal course. A 70 year-old woman received a kidney transplantation one month before consulting and immunosuppressive therapy that included cyclosporine A and methylprednisone. She complained of fever, local pain in her right leg, and an erythematous and swelling plaque. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics without improvement. A skin biopsy was performed and the tissue obtained was sent for bacterial and fungal cultures as well as for histological examination. Cultures were negative. The biopsy showed CMV cytopathic changes. Immunoperoxidase staining was positive for CMV and polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing revealed CMV DNA. She was treated with ganciclovir with resolution of the lesion. CMV cellulitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation which has not been previously reported.

  19. Intoxicacin por metales / Metal poisoning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Ferrer.

    Full Text Available Los metales estn entre los txicos ms antiguos conocidos por el hombre. En el industrializado mundo actual las fuentes de exposicin a metales son ubicuas tanto en el campo laboral como a partir de agua, los alimentos o el ambiente contaminados. Su toxicidad est caracterizada por el elemento met [...] lico en cuestin pero se ve modificada por el tipo de compuesto, orgnico o inorgnico y sus caractersticas de hidro o liposolubilidad, que determina su toxicocintica y por tanto sus posibilidad de alcanzar sus dianas. Las biomolculas ms afectadas por los metales son las protenas con actividad enzimtica por lo que su patologa es multisistema. Los principales sistemas afectados son el gastrointestinal, neurolgico central y perifrico, hemtico y renal. Algunos de los compuestos metlicos son carcingenos. Los metales se benefician de un tratamiento condicionado por su reactividad qumica. Pueden ser inactivados y eliminados mediante la administracin de substancias quelantes que producen con ellos molculas complejas, atxicas y excretables. Los principales agentes quelantes son: BAL (British Anti-Lewisite o dimercaprol), DMPS (cido 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanosulfonico) y DMSA (cido meso-2,3-dimercatosuccnico o Succimer), EDTA, Penicilamina (,-dimetilcistena) y Desferoxamina. Se exponen a continuacin las caractersticas toxicocinticas, mecanismo de accin, clnica y tratamiento de alguno de los metales y metaloides ms relevantes: plomo, mercurio y arsnico. Abstract in english Metals are amongst the oldest toxic substances known to man. In todays industrialized world the sources of exposure to metals are ubiquitous both in the field of work and from polluted water, foodstuffs and the environment. Their toxicity is characterized by the metallic element in question, but th [...] is is modified by the type of compound, whether organic or inorganic, and its characteristics of hydrosolubility and liposolubility, which determines its toxicokinetics and thus the possibilities of it reaching its targets. The biomolecules most affected by metals are the proteins with enzymatic activity, which is why their pathology is multisystemic. The principal systems affected are the gastrointestinal, central and peripheral neurological, haematic and renal. Some metallic compounds are carcinogenic. Metalss treatment is conditioned by their chemical reactivity. They can be deactivated and eliminated by the administering of chelating agents that produce complex molecules, which are non-toxic and can be excreted. The principal chelating agents are: BAL (British Anti-Lewisite or dimercaprol) DMPS (2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic Acid) and DMSA (meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic or Succimer), EDTA, Penicilamine (,-dimethylcysteine) and Deferoxamine. Toxicokinetic characteristics, mechanism of action, clinical picture and treatment of some of the most relevant metals and metalloids: lead, mercury and arsenic, are considered.

  20. Failure of a heterologous recombinant Sca5/OmpB protein-based vaccine to elicit effective protective immunity against Rickettsia rickettsii infections in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Sean P; Cardwell, Marissa M; Chan, Yvonne G Y; Pruneau, Ludovic; Del Piero, Fabio; Martinez, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsial species are obligate intracellular tick-borne pathogens that are responsible for important human diseases. Previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of using recombinant surface cell antigen Sca5/OmpB to elicit protective immunity against homologous challenges using murine models of Mediterranean spotted fever and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In addition, the feasibility of generating cross-protective immunity against related rickettsial species has also been established, but the molecular basis for these phenomena was not explored. Here, we demonstrate that vaccination of C3H/HeN mice with a recombinant OmpB domain derived from Rickettsia conorii induced high titer humoral immune responses that are capable of recognizing the native OmpB protein at the R. rickettsii outer membrane, but this immunization was not sufficient to induce effective protective immunity. In contrast, animals vaccinated with a corresponding OmpB domain derived from R. rickettsii protected animals from fatal outcomes. These results demonstrate that vaccination with nearly identical antigens may not be an effective strategy to induce wide-ranging protective immunity against related SFG Rickettsia species. PMID:26519448

  1. Ixodid fauna and zoonotic agents in ticks from dogs: first report of Rickettsia rickettsii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; e Silva, Elaine Araújo; de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria; Andreotti, Renato

    2013-05-01

    Ticks from 148 dogs from the urban area of the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were collected, classified and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of Rickettsia spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. A total of 2015 ticks were collected. The species Rhipicephalus sanguineus (98.9 %) and Amblyomma cajennense (1.1 %) were identified. Molecular analysis revealed that no tick samples were infected by T. cruzi. Regarding Leishmania spp., tick samples from 36 dogs spread across all regions of the municipality were positive for L. chagasi. One tick sample was positive for Rickettsia spp. (gltA gene) in the PCR reaction. This sample was submitted to further PCR based on the ompA gene and the amplicon was sequenced. Identity of 100 % was found with homologous sequences of R. rickettsii available in GenBank. This paper is the first to report the natural infection of R. sanguineus by R. rickettsii in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil. PMID:23229491

  2. Caracterizacin de humedales artificiales por fluorescencia inducida por lser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Garca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarroll un mtodo ptico para conocer el comportamiento hidrodinmico de un humedal artificial de flujo sub-superficial, en el rgimen de dispersin. El humedal fue construido en el municipio de Ginebra (Valle, por la Universidad del Valle y el Instituto CINARA. El mtodo utiliza la tcnica de fluorescencia inducida por lser (LIF con trazadores fluorescentes. Se usa Rodamina WT como trazador y un lser de Nd: YAG (@ 532 nm; 25 mW. como fuente de excitacin. Se presentan las curvas de la dependencia temporal de la funcin de distribucin de intensidad de fluorescencia, que permiten determinar el comportamiento dispersivo de las partculas del agua residual dentro del humedal.

  3. (phoenicopterus roseus por intoxicación aguda por plomo

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    D Romero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de plomo en el medio ambiente es un hecho indiscutible. Ello es objeto de gran interés sanitario pues repercute tanto en la salud de los animales como en la del ser humano. El plumbismo es una intoxicación que puede afectar a cualquier especie animal. En el ámbito de la fauna silvestre se asocia principalmente a la actividad cinegética en los humedales y a la ingestión de plomo metálico por parte de las aves que frecuentan estos ecosistemas. En España cada año mueren decenas de miles de aves acuáticas como consecuencia de la ingesta de perdigones de plomo. En los individuos capturados enfermos se pueden observar signos clínicos, mientras que a partir de muestras de cadáveres se obtienen datos sobre niveles tisulares de plomo. Sin embargo la evaluación de lesiones anatomopatológicas en animales de vida silvestre es difícil de realizar por la dificultad de encontrar animales recién muertos o afectados de un cuadro agudo mortal. La reproducción de esta patología en animales de experimentación se suele realizar en cisnes, palomas o patos, pero no en flamencos, por lo que no es usual disponer de datos histológicos en esta especie. En este trabajo presentamos la clínica, analítica y estudio microscópico de diferentes tejidos de un flamenco común (Phoenicopterus roseus muerto por plumbismo.

  4. Anticorpos anti-rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em equídeos e caninos no norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Anti rickettsia-antibody for spotted fever group in horses and dogs in the North of Paraná Stated, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Otomura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is a zoonosis that can be fatal if not trteated. As there are few studies of the BSF in the Paraná State, the occurrence of BSF was serologically investigated in dogs and horses by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, in the North of that State, in animals that are regarded as sentinels for BSF. A total of 241 samples of sera of equine, four of asinine, and 29 of dogs were collected in nine farms of three municipalities in the North of Paraná: Arapongas, Douradina, and Umuarama. From fifteen samples of equine serum with positive titres for RIFI, eight (53.3 % had titre of 64 against R. rickettsii, two (13.3 % 128 against R. rickettsii, and five (33.3 % were reactants for R. parkeri and R. rickettsii, with titres ranging from 64 to 2048, and 128 to 1024, respectively. The results showed that domestic animals, sentinels for BSF, are under low exposition to ticks infected with spotted fever group Rickettsia, indicating low risk of human infection by these agents in the studied area.

  5. Clonagem de canistel por estaquia

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    Fernando Marcelo Chiamolera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel nativo do sul do Mxico e Amrica Central e seus frutos apresentam elevado teor de carotenoides e vitamina A. Sua propagao feita via sementes, resultando em considervel variabilidade gentica entre os indivduos, sendo a propagao vegetativa prefervel, a fim de fixar caractersticas desejveis. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a propagao vegetativa por estaquia de ramos semi-herbceos de canistel, em funo de quatro gentipos e quatro concentraes de AIB. Foram utilizadas estacas semiherbceas apicais, mantidas com um par de folhas, sob nebulizao intermitente, por 120 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 44 (gentipos de canistel concentraes de AIB, com quatro repeties e dez estacas por parcela. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de sobrevivncia, a reteno foliar, o enraizamento, o calejamento, o nmero e o comprimento mdio de razes por estaca. O gentipo PC-1 foi superior aos demais, em todas as variveis avaliadas, com destaque para o enraizamento das estacas, superior a 60%. As concentraes de AIB (0; 1.000; 3.000 e 5.000 mg L-1 no influenciaram na sobrevivncia, reteno foliar e enraizamento das estacas, mas aumentaram o nmero e o comprimento de razes em relao ao tratamento-controle (sem AIB. H diferena na capacidade de enraizamento das estacas entre os gentipos de canistel, sendo a melhor resposta obtida com PC-1. A concentrao de 3.000 mg L-1 de AIB resulta em maior nmero e comprimento de razes nas estacas de canistel.

  6. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

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    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respiratorio que amerita ventilación mecánica asistida por varios días en diferentes ocasiones, derrame pleural exudativo, convulsiones de origen hipóxico isquémico. Con reporte de hemocultivos positivos por Estreptococos pyogenes. El Estreptococos pyogenes o estreptococo β-hemolνtico del grupo A, fue un problema en los comienzos del siglo pasado, siendo frecuente en las infecciones puerperales y del reciιn nacido. En la actualidad es un germen sumamente raro en los procesos de sepsis neonatal.2 La gravedad de la enfermedad causada por este microorganismo en el periodo neonatal varνa desde una onfalitis crónica de bajo grado a una septicemia, una meningitis fulminante y la muerte.1 El presente artículo pretende hacer un resumen del paciente, con su evolución clínica, radiológica y además ejemplificar todas las complicaciones que tuvimos con este germen tan poco frecuente en la actualidad en sepsis neonatal.

  7. Intoxicacin por fluoroacetato de sodio

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Granada; Diego Andrs Rodrguez

    2014-01-01

    El fluoroacetato de sodio es conocido como compuesto 1080, fue descubierto por qumicos alemanes durante la segunda guerra mundial. Es un compuesto inodoro e insaboro, soluble en agua, la dosis letal 50 en humanos es de 2 a 4 mg/kg. Debido a su letalidad, ha sido retirado del mercado en algunos pases incluyendo Colombia. Este compuesto causa efectos bioqumicos y fisiolgicos como acumulacin de citrato, alteracin de los trasportadores mitocondriales del citrato, acumulacin de acido lctic...

  8. suelo por seis especies vegetales

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    Wendy Sangabriel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un estudio en invernadero para evaluar la tolerancia y el crecimiento de tres especies de leguminosas (Clitoria ternatea, Phaseolus coccineus, Cicer arietinum y tres gramíneas (Brachiaria híbrido, Brachiaria brizantha y Panicum maximum en suelo contaminado con combustóleo, así como su capacidad de reducir el contenido de hidrocarburos provenientes del mismo. Se sembraron semillas en el suelo no contaminado y en el suelo colectado de la comunidad Frijol Colorado, Veracruz, que fue contaminada por un derrame accidental de combustóleo (50,000 mg kg-1. A los 90 días, se evaluó la tolerancia, crecimiento, la población microbiana en la rizósfera y la degradación de combustóleo. Phaseolus coccineus fue la única leguminosa con tolerancia y crecimiento en suelo contaminado; mientras que las tres gramíneas no fueron afectadas negativamente por la presencia del contaminante, aunque el híbrido de Brachiaria mostró mayor crecimiento. La población rizosférica de bacterias y hongos fue diferencialmente afectada por la presencia del contaminante en combinación con la planta. Sin embargo, la rizósfera de P. coccineus presentó mayor población microbiana en el suelo contaminado en comparación con las plantas restantes. La degradación de combustóleo evaluada cualitativamente por GC-MS, fue mayor en la rizósfera de B. brizantha y P. maximum. En contraste P. coccineus presentó una degradación similar a la observada en suelo contaminado sin planta.

  9. posteriori por el Tribunal Constitucional

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    Teodoro Ribera Neumann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo clarifica la posición de los tratados internacionales en el orden jurídico chileno y analiza los argumentos a favor y en contra de la procedencia del control de constitucionalidad a posteriori de los tratados internacionales por el Tribunal Constitucional, concluyendo que dicha herramienta jurídica es procedente sobre la base de la reforma a la Constitución de 2005.

  10. Miasis cutanea por cordylobia anthropophaga

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    Alkorta Gurrutxaga Miriam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El incremento progresivo en el número de personas que viajan a países tropicales ha hecho que las enfermedades importadas adquieran una relevancia cada vez mayor. Las miasis (o infestaciones por larvas de moscas cutáneas se encuentran entre este tipo de enfermedades siendo especialmente frecuentes en países tropicales. A propósito de la observación de un caso de miasis cutánea masiva por Cordylobia antropophaga, que ocurrió en una mujer de 34 años de edad al volver de un viaje a Senegal, se ha efectuado una revisión de los casos de miasis cutáneas forunculoides importadas publicados en España, así como de la biología, patología, tratamiento y prevención de la miasis humana por Cordylobia anthropophaga. El caso referido, se caracterizó por la infestación con un número inusualmente elevado de larvas, no sospechándose su etiología hasta la fase final de la enfermedad. La emergencia continuada de larvas (se recogieron 91 generó en la paciente un estado de ansiedad importante. Finalmente, la eliminación de las larvas provocó una rápida mejoría de la paciente. Aunque los casos de miasis cutánea no tienen la gravedad de otras enfermedades importadas, su conocimiento es necesario desde el punto de vista preventivo, diagnóstico y terapeútico. Es importante proceder a la identificación morfológica de las larvas diferenciándolas de otro tipo de miasis con implicaciones terapéuticas diferentes.

  11. Constrição campimétrica causada por vigabatrin Visual field constriction caused by vigabatrin

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    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever dois pacientes que apresentaram constrição campimétrica importante e determinar a origem desta alteração visual causada pelo uso de vigabatrin, um anticonvulsivante que atua aumentando a concentração do ácido gama-aminobutírico no sistema nervoso central. Métodos: Os pacientes foram submetidos a exame e neuroftalmológico completo, avaliação cuidadosa da retina, campo visual com perímetro de Goldmann, tomografia computadorizada de crânio e órbitas, eletrorretinograma (ERG, imagem por ressonância magnética (1 paciente e potencial visual evocado (1 paciente. Resultados: A acuidade visual se mostrou preservada; o primeiro paciente apresentava campo visual restrito à área central de 20 a 30 graus centrais e o segundo uma constrição leve a moderada. Os exames de neuroimagem foram normais assim como o potencial visual evocado. Observou-se palidez discreta de papila em 3 olhos estudados e estreitamento arteriolar muito discreto dos vasos retinianos. O ERG revelou alterações importantes caracterizada por redução da onda b (caso 1 e dos potenciais oscilatórios (caso 2. Conclusões: As alterações visuais causadas pelo vigabatrin são devidas a uma alteração retiniana, envolvendo provavelmente as células amácrimas, bipolares e ganglionares mas não se acompanham de uma alteração significativa à fundoscopia. Pacientes recebendo esta medicação devem ser seguidos de perto especialmente através da avaliação do campo visual central e periférico.Purpose: To describe two patients who presented with severe campimetric constriction and to determine the source of visual symptoms caused by vigabatrin, an anticonvulsant medication that increases brain gamma-aminobutyric acid. Methods: Patients were submitted to a complete neuroophthalmologic evaluation as well as a careful retina examination, Goldmann perimetry, computerized tomography of the brain and orbits, electroretinograms (ERG, magnetic ressonance imaging (1 patient and visual evoked potential (1 patient. Results: Visual acuity was normal; the first patient had the visual field restricted to the 20 to 30 degree central area and the second, a mild to moderate constriction. Neuroimaging examinations were normal as well as the visual evoked potential. Mild optic disc pallor (3 eyes and very slight retinal arteriolar narrowing was observed. ERG showed reduction of the b wave (case 1 and oscillatory potential responses (case 2. Conclusions: Visual alterations caused by vigabatrin are due to a retina dysfunction presumably involving the amacrine, bipolar and ganglion cells but there are no significant pathologic findings on fundoscopic examination. Patients receiving this medication should be followed closely with periodic central and peripheral visual field testing.

  12. TRATAMIENTO QUIRRGICO DEL MEGAESFAGO SIGMOIDEO, GRADO IV POR ACALASIA / SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SIGMOID MEGAESOPHAGUS, ACHALASIA BY GRADE IV

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgar, Ledezma Glvez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La Acalasia presenta ausencia del peristaltismo esofgico, falta de relajacin del esfnter esofgico Inferior y una zona de alta presin en el esfago distal, con compromiso del plexo mioentrico y degeneracin ganglionar, determinan alteraciones severas en la deglucin. Para el tratamiento quirrg [...] ico se han propuesto mltiples tcnicas operatorias con la finalidad de restablecer la alimentacin oral en pacientes que presentan dificultad del pasaje de los mismos. En el Instituto Gastroenterolgico Boliviano Japons - de La Paz se ha incluido 4 pacientes con diagnstico de Acalasia en el grado IV avanzado, con diversos grados de afectacin nutricional. (3 pacientes por enfermedad chagsica y 1 paciente afectado por estenosis custica del esfago distal), edad comprendida entre los 45 y 60 aos. Se realizo esofagoectoma distal y anastomosis esfago - gstrica T-T . reseccin del esfago distal con acalasia, y a nivel del rea dilatada del esfago una anastomosis con el fondo gstrico T-T, con piloroplastia aadida. Dos casos con yeyunostoma de alimentacin preoperatoria. Los resultados postoperatorios son altamente satisfactorios, seguimiento de 7 meses y 12 meses, con controles clnicos, radiolgicos contrastados y endoscopia, se comprob tubolizacin del estmago ascendido, con buena tolerancia a la dieta y ausencia de reflujo gastroesofgico. El procedimiento quirrgico utilizado con morbimortalidad ausentes, es un aporte de la medicina boliviana, ya que no se han descrito tcnicas similares en la revisin de la literatura mundial y con una ventaja clara frente a las tcnicas quirrgicas clsicas, en los que la esofagoectoma total tiene un alto riesgo para el tratamiento de la acalasia de grado avanzado. Abstract in english Achalasia presents The absence of esophageal peristalsis, lack of Lower Esophageal sphincter relaxation and an area of high pressure in the distal esophagus, with involvement of the myentericplexus and ganglionic degeneration, determines severe alterations in swallowing. For surgical treatment multi [...] ple operative techniques have been proposed with the aim of restoring oral feeding in patients who have difficulty passage thereof. In the Japanese-Bolivian Gastroenterological Institute of city La Paz- Bolivia, inclusion of 4 patients diagnosed with achalasia in grade IV advanced, with varying degrees of nutritional impairment. (3 patients for Chagas disease and 1 patient affected by distal esophageal caustic stenosis), aged between 45 and 60 aos. The esofagoectomy distal anastomosis performed esophageal - gastric TT. with resection distal esophagus with achalasia, dilated area level and esophageal anastomosis with the gastric fundus TT, with pyloroplasty. Twos cases with preoperative feeding jejunostomy. Postoperative results are highly satisfactory, follow up of 7 months and 12 months, with clinical, radiological and endoscopic contrasted, the stomach was found tube promoted, with good tolerance to the diet. The surgical procedure used morbidity absent, is contributed Bolivian medicine since no similar techniques are described in the review of the world literature a clear advantage over conventional surgical techniques, in which the aggregate has esofagoectomy a high risk for the treatment of achalasia of advanced degree.

  13. Agujeros negros vistos por fuera y por dentro

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    La Relatividad General es la teoría moderna de la gravedad, que corrige los problemas que surgen con la gravedad descrita por Newton. Explicaremos porque la gravedad newtoniana es incompatible con la Relatividad Especial y cual es la solución que propone Einstein: la gravedad como una manifestación del espacio curvo. Hablaremos brevemente de los fenómenos que surgen de la Relatividad General, como los agujeros negros, las ondas gravitacionales y la cosmología.

  14. INTOXICACIN POR ORGANOFOSFORADOS / ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING / INTOXICAO POR ORGANOFOSFORADO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DANIEL G, FERNNDEZ A.; LILIANA C., MANCIPE G.; DIANA C., FERNNDEZ A..

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos organofosforados soum grupo de substnciasorgnicas derivadas da estrutura qumica de fsforo e temum grande nmero de aplicaes e usos. Tm sido utilizados como aditivos para leos, solventes, indstrias de tintas, vernizes, couro artificial, isolaoeltrica, impermeabilizao, amac [...] iadores de plstico, fungicidas, inseticidas, entre outros. Dada a suaampladistribuio e uso em diferentes indstrias e na agricultura, muitocomum ter intoxicaesacidentais por essescompostos, almdisso, substncias que estodisponveis para os indivduos, tm sido usadas como substncia txica emsuicdios. O quadro de intoxicaoproduzuma sndrome clnica caracterstica, comsintomas colinrgica secundrios estimulao dos receptores de acetilcolina. A conduta mdica destes pacientes pode significar a diferena entre a vida eamorte, por isso importante que todo o pessoal de sade nos servios de emergnciasejatreinado para reconhecer a figura de intoxicao e rapidamente tratar adequadamente. Abstract in spanish Los compuestos organofosforados son un grupo de sustancias orgnicas derivadas de la estructura qumica del fsforo y tienen un gran nmero de aplicaciones y utilidades. Han sido utilizados como aditivos del petrleo, disolventes, en las industrias de colorantes, barnices, cuero artificial, aislante [...] s elctricos, impermeabilizantes, ablandadores de plsticos, fungicidas, insecticidas entre otros. Dado su amplia distribucin y uso en diferentes industrias y en la agricultura, es muy frecuente que se presenten intoxicaciones accidentales por estos compuestos; adems, como son sustancias que estn al alcance de las personas, han sido empleadas como txicos en suicidios. El cuadro de intoxicacin genera un sndrome clnico caracterstico, con sntomas colinrgicos secundarios a la estimulacin de los receptores de acetilcolina. El manejo mdico de estos pacientes puede significar la diferencia entre la vida y la muerte, por lo que es importante que todo el personal de salud en los servicios de urgencias est capacitado para reconocer el cuadro de intoxicacin y manejarlo rpidamente en forma adecuada. Abstract in english Organophosphorus compounds are a group of organic substances derived from the chemical structure of phosphorus. They have a large number of applications and utilities. They are used as oil additives, solvents, in the industry of dyes, varnishes, artificial leather, electrical insulation, waterproofi [...] ng, plastic softeners, fungicides and others. Given its wide distribution and use in different industries and trades, organophosphorus compounds can be taken accidentally causing intoxication and can be used with the intention to commit suicide. The intoxication with organophosphorus compounds produces a characteristic clinical syndrome with cholinergic symptoms after stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. The medical management of these patients could make the difference between life and death, hence the physician and all health personnel in the emergency department should be able to recognize and manage poisoning symptomatology properly.

  15. Osteomalacia inducida por tumor: hemangiopericitoma rinosinusal

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    Enriqueta M. Serafini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La osteomalacia inducida por tumor es una rara enfermedad del metabolismo seo caracterizada por el aumento en la excrecin de fosfato a nivel renal seguido de hipofosfatemia. Es causada por agentes fosfatricos producidos por determinados tumores. La reseccin total del tumor resulta en la completa reversin de las anormalidades bioqumicas, la desaparicin de las manifestaciones clnicas y los hallazgos en los estudios por imgenes. Presentamos el caso de un varn de 61 aos con cuadro clnico y laboratorio compatibles con osteomalacia oncognica inducida por tumor mesenquimtico de localizacin rinosinusal. En nuestro caso el diagnstico histolgico correspondi a una neoplasia de tipo vascular: hemangiopericitoma.

  16. Desajuste educativo por regiones en Colombia: ¿competencia por salarios o por puestos de trabajo?

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    Castillo Caicedo Maribel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación,
    entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado
    por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se
    desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de
    puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las
    contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se
    examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste
    educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y
    nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis
    para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento
    del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

  17. Surtos de enfermidades transmitidas por alimentos causados por Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peresi Jacqueline T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: São descritos surtos de salmonelose notificados no período de julho de 1993 a junho de 1997 na região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, tendo em vista os vários surtos de veiculação alimentar ocasionados por Salmonella nessa região. MÉTODO: Foram obtidos 19 inquéritos epidemiológicos para análise de dados, 87 amostras de fezes e 38 amostras de alimentos, incluindo 12 de ovos para análise microbiológica. Cepas de Salmonella foram submetidas a sorotipagem, fagotipagem e teste de sensibilidade a 13 agentes antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: Foram acometidas 906 pessoas com 295 hospitalizações. Cepas de Salmonella Enteritidis Fagotipo 4 foram isoladas de 80,5% das coproculturas, de todas amostras de alimentose de 41,7% dos ovos. Em 22 (95,7% surtos os a salmonela foi veiculada por alimentos contendo ovos crus ou semicrus. Os testes de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos revelaram sensibilidade à maioria das cepas. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando os resultados obtidos, torna-se necessária a implantação e intensificação de medidas de controle na produção e armazenamento dos ovos, além da orientação à população quanto aos riscos no consumo inadequado desse alimento.

  18. Por la puerta del fondo

    OpenAIRE

    Tossi, Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Como aconteciera en el pasado, las mujeres de estos siglos participaban de diversas actividades científicas y técnicas, en las cuales la tradicional habilidad manual, destreza, sentido de la observación, inteligencia, imaginación y capacidad de trabajo, de los que siempre dieron pruebas, fueron ampliamente aprovechados. No obstante, salvo contadas excepciones, sólo pudieron entrar en la fortaleza del saber por la puerta del fondo. Algunas de esas mujeres, pertenecientes a las clases nobles y ...

  19. Pneumonia por leptospirose Leptospiral pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    MAURA DUMONT HÜTTNER; HUGO CATAUD PACHECO PEREIRA; ROSIMEIRE MITSUKO TANAKA

    2002-01-01

    A leptospirose é uma doença infecciosa caracterizada pelo envolvimento de múltiplos sistemas. O acometimento pulmonar é comum, geralmente leve e freqüentemente negligenciado. Quando os sintomas respiratórios são a principal manifestação da doença, existe grande possibilidade de confusão diagnóstica. Os autores apresentam um caso de pneumonia grave por leptospirose, com o objetivo de chamar a atenção para esta possibilidade etiológica no diagnóstico diferencial das pneumonias comunitárias, esp...

  20. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

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    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  1. Sarcoma granuloctico com apresentao inicial cutnea e ganglionar Granulocytic sarcoma of skin and lymph nodes

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    Herivaldo F. Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of granulocytic sarcoma of skin and lymph nodes is reported in a 65-year-old man as an initial presentation of a myeloproliferative disorder, chiefly involving myelofibrosis. The symptoms, physical examination, hematological findings, imunohistochemistry and anatomopathological results and evolution of the disease are described. As this is an unusual case, stress was placed on the diagnostic confusion that may occur.

  2. toxicidad neuroendocrina inducida por cadmio

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    A Romero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El cadmio es un agente químico tóxico importante debido a su creciente nivel en el medio ambiente como resultado de prácticas industriales y agrícolas. Como perturbador endocrino, el cadmio modifica la secreción de hormonas hipofisarias. Los efectos indirectos del cadmio provocan la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno y reducen la actividad de las proteínas implicadas en las defensas antioxidantes. La melatonina es conocida como un potente antioxidante, scavenger de radicales libres y quelante de metales sintetizada en la glándula pineal. De esta manera, las acciones antioxidantes de esta indolamina protegen frente a la peroxidación lipídica y el daño oxidativo de los radicales y de sus productos tóxicos. Los trabajos recopilados en esta revisión ponen de manifiesto la capacidad antioxidante de la melatonina y, por lo tanto, su posible papel protector frente a la toxicidad del cadmio en lo que se refiere al estrés oxidativo y peroxidación lipídica inducidos por la exposición a este metal.

  3. Morbilidad por fractura de cadera

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    Alexis Pérez Carvajal

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar las características de la morbilidad por fracturas de caderas (FC en la provincia de Pinar del Río en el período 1996-1997. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo de la morbilidad en el servicio de ortopedia y traumatología del Hospital Docente Clinicoquirúrgico “Abel Santamaría” en el período comprendido de agosto de 1996 al mismo mes de 1997. Para adquirir la información se utilizó una encuesta previamente validada. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la fractura de cadera, cuya causa principal son las caídas accidentales (87,5 % de los casos constituye un importante problema de salud en la tercera edad. El lugar de ocurrencia predominante fue la vivienda con el 74,4 %. Predominó la FC en el sexo femenino en comparación con el masculino. Por último, los resultados destacaron la necesidad de establecer estrategias de intervención al nivel primario para la prevención y el desarrollo de actividades dirigidas a elevar la calidad de vida del anciano.

  4. Hipoglucemia inducida por carcinoma adrenal

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    Jimena Soutelo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma suprarrenal es una neoplasia maligna infrecuente y de mal pronóstico. La presentación clínica más común es originada por la producción hormonal excesiva, mientras que el desarrollo de hipoglucemia sintomática es excepcional. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 37 años que ingresó al hospital por síntomas de hipoglucemias graves, hipertensión arterial, hipopotasemia y amenorrea secundaria. En el laboratorio se halló hipoglucemia con insulina inhibida y niveles de andrógenos en rango tumoral. La tomografía computarizada (TC de abdomen y pelvis mostró voluminosa formación heterogénea de aspecto sólido sin plano de clivaje con respecto al parénquima hepático e intenso realce con contraste. Luego de la extirpación de la masa retroperitoneal, evolucionó con valores de glucemia y potasemia normales, estabilizó la presión arterial y recuperó los ciclos menstruales.

  5. Intoxicacin por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning

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    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos qumicos ms ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su accin sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en funcin de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas o de su familia qumica (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridlicos, sales inorgnicas. Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupacin desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposicin a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crnicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulacin y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias txicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias qumicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgnicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por va alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupacin sanitaria son su capacidad carcinognica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales caractersticas de algunas de las familias ms relevantes.Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  6. Surtos de enfermidades transmitidas por alimentos causados por Salmonella Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Peresi Jacqueline T.M.; Almeida Ivete A Z.C.; Lima Sonia I.; Marques Denise F.; Rodrigues Elisabete C.A.; Fernandes Sueli A.; Gelli Dilma S; Irino Kinue

    1998-01-01

    OBJETIVO: São descritos surtos de salmonelose notificados no período de julho de 1993 a junho de 1997 na região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, tendo em vista os vários surtos de veiculação alimentar ocasionados por Salmonella nessa região. MÉTODO: Foram obtidos 19 inquéritos epidemiológicos para análise de dados, 87 amostras de fezes e 38 amostras de alimentos, incluindo 12 de ovos para análise microbiológica. Cepas de Salmonella foram submetidas a sorotipagem, fagotipagem e teste d...

  7. Conjuntivite granulomatosa atípica causada pela doença da arranhadura do gato: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Alexandre Hassler Príncipe de; Pereira Carlos Alberto Pires; Sousa Luciene Barbosa de; Freitas Denise de

    2004-01-01

    Relatamos caso de paciente do sexo feminino, brasileira, 23 anos, residente na Alemanha, que cursou com quadro de conjuntivite granulomatosa bilateral crônica, sem acometimento ganglionar, não responsiva a tratamento tópico. A pesquisa laboratorial confirmou diagnóstico de conjuntivite por Bartonella henselae. O caso demonstra que a ausência de acometimento ganglionar não exclui o diagnóstico de doença da arranhadura do gato.

  8. Alterações oftálmicas associadas à intoxicação experimental por closantel em caprinos Ophthalmic changes associated with the experimental poisoning by closantel in caprine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ecco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterações oftálmicas foram experimentalmente induzidas em caprinos após superdosagem com o anti-helmíntico closantel. Foram usados cinco caprinos com sete a oito meses de idade, produtos do cruzamento da raça Saanen com a Pardo Alpino. Os animais mostraram sinais de intoxicação entre quatro e cinco dias após a administração do closantel. Os sinais clínicos caracterizaram-se principalmente por distúrbios neurológicos centrais e cegueira. Ao exame clínico, observaram-se midríase bilateral, perda do reflexo pupilar à luz e cegueira bilateral. À oftalmoscopia indireta, foram observadas degeneração aguda de retina e papiledema. As alterações crônicas mostravam disco óptico acinzentado, atrofia de vasos e da retina. Nos fundos tapetal e não-tapetal notavam-se áreas de despigmentação e lesões irregulares castanho-amareladas. As alterações histológicas consistiam em perda dos neurônios da camada ganglionar e das células da camada nuclear interna e externa da retina. As alterações agudas no nervo óptico e na substância branca do encéfalo foram de degeneração espongiforme. As alterações crônicas do nervo óptico caracterizavam-se por extensa necrose e infiltração de células Gitter.Ophthalmic alterations were experimentally induced after overdose with the anthelmintic closantel. Five seven to eight- months-old, Saanen x Alpine caprine were used. The animals showed clinical signs of toxicosis four to five days after the administration of closantel. Clinical signs were primarily characterized by central nervous disturbances and blindness. Clinically, bilateral mydriasis, loss of pupillary light reflex, and blindness were observed. At indirect ophthalmoscopic examination, there was acute retinal degeneration and papilledema. Chronic ocular changes consisted of paleness of the optic disc, vascular atrophy, and retinal atrophy. Areas of pigment loss and irregular yellowish-brown foci were present in the tapetal and non-tapetal fundus. Histological alterations consisted of neuronal loss in the ganglion cell layer and depletion of cells in both the outer and inner nuclear layers of the retina. Acute changes of spongy degeneration were noted in the optic nerve and in the cerebral white matter. Chronic lesions in the optic nerve were characterized by extensive necrosis and infiltration by Gitter cells.

  9. Caractersticas clnicas, factores de riesgo y perfil de susceptibilidad de las infecciones por micobacterias documentadas por cultivo, en un hospital universitario de alta complejidad en Medelln (Colombia) / Clinical features, risk factors and susceptibility profile of mycobacterial infections documented by culture in a university hospital of high complexity in Medellin (Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Franco E, Montufar Andrade; Carolina, Aguilar Londoo; Carolina, Saldarriaga Acevedo; Alicia, Quiroga Echeverri; Carlos E, Builes Montao; Miguel A, Mesa Navas; Olga L, Molina Upegi; John J, Zuleta Tobn.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: Tuberculosis (TBC) es an una entidad de alta prevalencia y mortalidad en el mundo. La resistencia ascendente a frmacos es un problema de salud pblica. Adems se describen con mayor frecuencia infecciones por micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT) en reas de alta prevalencia de TBC. Ob [...] jetivos: Determinar caractersticas epidemiolgicas, clnicas y microbiolgicas de las infecciones por micobacterias documentadas por cultivo. Materiales y Mtodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, en pacientes hospitalizados. Resultados: De 187 pacientes, en 90,9% se identific complejo M. tuberculosis y en 9,1% MNT; 64% fueron hombres. Edad promedio 40 aos (rango 1-88 aos). Las principales co-morbilidades fueron infeccin por VIH/SIDA (23,5%), uso de corticoesteroides (13,3%) y enfermedad renal crnica (9,6%). Las formas clnicas fueron pulmonares (56,6%), extra-pulmonares (23,9%) y diseminadas (19,2%). El compromiso extra-pulmonar ms frecuente fue ganglionar (7,4%) y gastrointestinal (7%). En M. tuberculosis 10,6% fueron multidrogoresistentes (MDR) y 2,12% con resistencia extendida (XDR). Mycobacterium avium y M. abscessus fueron las MNT ms frecuentes. La mortalidad general fue 10%. Conclusiones: Inmuno-supresin es el principal factor de riesgo para enfermedad extrapulmonar y/o diseminada y la resistencia a frmacos en pacientes hospitalizados con TBC es llamativa, con mayor incidencia de MDR y XDR. Las infecciones por MNT no son infrecuentes en nuestro medio. Abstract in english Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains an entity of high prevalence and mortality worldwide. The rising drug resistance is a public health problem. Besides, non-tuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM) infections are described with increasing frequency in areas of high prevalence of TB. Objectives: To dete [...] rmine epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of mycobacterial infections documented by culture. Materials and Methods: An observational, descriptive study in hospitalized patients. Results: M. tuberculosis complex was identified in 90,9% of 187 patients; 9,1% had NTM, 64% were male and the mean age was 40 years (range 1-88 years). The main co-morbidities were HIV / AIDS (23.5%), use of corticosteroids (13.3%) and chronic kidney disease (9.6%). Clinical forms were pulmonary (56.6%), extra-pulmonary (23.9%) and disseminated (19.2 The most common extra-pulmonary compromise was nodal (7.4%) and gastrointestinal (7%). 10.6% of M. tuberculosis were multi-drugresistant (MDR) and 2.12% had extended drug resistance (XDR). Mycobacterium avium andM. abscessus were the most frequent NTM. Overall mortality was 10%. Conclusions: In our study immune suppression is the main risk factor for extrapulmonary and disseminated disease. Resistance, MDR and XDR is higher in inpatients with TB. MNT infections are not uncommon in our country.

  10. Diagnstico por imagem na osteoporose

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    Eduardo de Souza Meirelles

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesta reviso, o autor inicialmente enumera, por ordem cronolgica de introduo na prtica clnica mdica, os diversos mtodos de imagem utilizados no diagnstico e seguimento da osteoporose. Compara a preciso, acurcia, durao, segurana (dose de radiao, indicaes, sensibilidade e especificidade dos diversos mtodos de imagem descritos, com destaque para a radiografia simples, a densitometria ssea e a ultra-sonometria ssea. Faz discusso das vantagens e desvantagens da densitometria ssea em comparao ultra-sonometria ssea, ponderando que, apesar do recente grande desenvolvimento da ultra-sonometria ssea, a densitometria ssea pela tcnica de raios-X de dupla energia (DEXA, continua sendo considerada a tcnica padro-ouro no diagnstico e seguimento da osteoporose. Conclui pela necessidade de tcnicas de imagem com medidas tridimensionais de volume, ao invs das atuais medidas bidimensionais de rea, de padronizao nacional ou regional de um banco de dados de referncia composto por indivduos controles normais brasileiros e por fim, de padronizao mundial da tecnologia e conseqentes medidas empregadas pelos diferentes fabricantes de equipamentos de densitometria e ultra-sonometria ssea.In this revision the author initially enumerates, by chronological order of introduction in the clinical medical practice, the different methods of image used in the diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis. Compares the precision, accuracy, duration, safety (dose of radiation, indications, sensitivity and specificity of the different methods of image described, mainly for plain X-rays, bone densitometry and bone ultrasonometry. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of bone densitometry in comparison to bone ultrasonometry, considering that although the recent great development of bone ultrasonometry, the dual energy X rays (DEXA bone densitometry is still considered the gold standard method for the diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis. Concludes by the necessity of image methods with tridimensional measures of volume, instead of current bidimensional measures of area, of national or regional standardization of a reference database composed by normal brazilian controls and finally, of international standardization of technology and consequent measures employed by different bone densitometry and ultrasonometry equipment manufacturers.

  11. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

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    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  12. Esplenectoma por quiste esplnico epidermoide

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    Samuel Rodrigo Gmez Arenas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los quistes esplnicos son un padecimiento raro. Se manifiestan de forma poco comn en la prctica quirrgica. Se comunica el caso de una paciente con un quiste esplnico diagnosticado en el Departamento de Ciruga General del Hospital General de Zona nm. 4 del IMSS. La mujer, de 21 aos de edad, refiri un cuadro clnico con dolor en el hipocondrio izquierdo, que era causado por un tumor de 7 cm de dimetro, aproximadamente. En la TC, se observ que dicho tumor era un quiste esplnico. Se intent realizar esplenectoma laparoscpica; sin embargo, debido a las adherencias firmes a la pared abdominal y al colon, el procedimiento se llev a cielo abierto y se hizo esplenectoma total. El estudio histopatolgico corrobor el diagnstico de quiste esplnico epidermoide.

  13. por virus de la rabia

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    Ma. Esther Morales Martnez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La rabia es una enfermedad contagiosa que ataca a animales y humanos, se transmite por la mordedura de un animal infectado con el virus de la rabia y aunque causa dao letal, su estructura no es muy compleja, pues slo presenta cinco protenas: G, N, P, L y M2. Dada la necesidad de contar con una herramienta para mejorar la efectividad de una vacuna contra la rabia, este trabajo se avoc al estudio de la protena N, que es la protena que se produce inicialmente y en mayor cantidad cuando se replican nuevas partculas virales. Esta revisin proporciona evidencia de la importancia inmunolgica, estructura y maduracin de esta protena. El trabajo propone que para mejorar la respuesta inmune en las vacunas contra la rabia, se debe considerar a la protena N.

  14. DIOSCRIDES RESCATADO POR LOS RABES

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    Ricardo H Ela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia oficial afirma que Occidente hered directamente el legado cultural de Grecia y Roma. Pero si la mayora de los manuscritos griegos y latinos fueron destruidos a partir del saqueo de la Biblioteca de Alejandra en 391, los archivos de Roma fueron devastados en sendas ocasiones entre 410 y 476 por visigodos y hrulos, y los escasos vestigios clsicos que quedaban en Atenas fueron arrasados por Justiniano I en 529, cul fue la conexin que logr transmitir esa literatura y pudo ser aprovechada en un perodo anterior al renacimiento? La salvacin de las piezas literarias se realiz durante ochocientos afios de activa y responsable tarea de recopilacin por parte de los rabes durante la lnea de tiempo que oscila entre 650-1450 en la que fueron rescatados, traducidos y retransmitidos hacia los cuatro puntos cardinales. Los cientficos rabes, al igual que Arqumedes o Hern, nunca se separaron del saber emprico, por el contrario, lo profundizaron. El movimiento cientfico rabe no slo interpret el saber de los antiguos sino desarroll una nueva ciencia donde la razn sustentaba a la fe y viceversa. Esta fue la base esencial que permiti construir el Renacimiento y la Ilustracin, que a su vez posibilitaron la Modernidad. En este contexto, fue de capital importancia la traduccin al rabe de la obra de Dioscrides ya que no slo fue de gran utilidad para la farmacologa y medicina en el mundo musulmn sino que a travs de ste las recetas del mdico griego de Nern reingresaron a la Europa latina donde fueron recibidas como una panacea.Official history affirms that the West directly inherited the cultural legacy of Greece and Rome. But if most of the Greek and latin manuscripts they were destroyed at the sacking of the Library of Alexandria in 391, the archives of Rome were devastated in several occasions between 410 and 476 by Visigoth and heruls, and the little classic vestiges that were in Athens were devastated by Justinian in 529, which was the connection that managed to transmit that Literature and could be taken advantage of it in a period previous to the Renaissance? The salvation of the literary mastepieces was made during eight hundred years od active and responsible task of compilation by the Arabs during the time line that oscillates between 650-1450 in that were rescued, translated and relayed towards the four cardinal points. The Arab scientists, like Archimedes or Hero, never separated of the empirical knowledge, on the contrary, they deepened it. The Arab scientific movement not only interpreted the knowledge of the old ones but it developed the new science where the reason sustained the faith and vice versa. This was the essential base that allowed to construct to the Renaissance and the Illustration, that made possible Modernity as well. In this context, it was of capital importance the translation to the Arab of the work of Dioscorides since it was not only very useful for the pharmacology and medicine in the Muslim World but that through this one the recipes of the Greek physician of Nero turned back to latin Europe where were received like a panacea.

  15. Detecção de Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Mycoplasma haemofelis e Leishmania infantum em felinos errantes e sua relação com a presença de retrovírus e com a sintomatologia manifestada

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Telma Simone Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT - Detection of Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Mycoplasma haemofelis and Leishmania infantum in stray cats, and its relation to the presence of retroviruses and the symptoms manifested - The prevalence of infectious diseases on cats is related with the density and the size of the population indwells. The objective of this work was to determinate the prevalence of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma s...

  16. Suicidio por salto al vaco

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    Braulio Ernesto P. Linares

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia al suicidio se asocia con problemas de soledad, abandono sicolgico en la infancia, drogadiccin, enfermedades graves, etc. Y en pacientes psiquitricos es ms comn tras ser dados de alta. En Argentina los suicidios aumentaron en 25% de 1990 a 1992, y el 78 % de las vctimas fueron de sexo masculino. La proporcin por salto al vaco aument , especialmente en reas urbanas. En 40 casos argentinos hubo introduccin basal del fmur (25%, fractura del calcneo en 17%, fracturas de pelvis o cuello del fmur en 7% y estallido heptico en 20%.Suicidal tendencies are associated with loneliness, lack of psychological attention during childhood, drug addiction, serious illness, etc., In psyciatric patients, it is more frequent shortly after they are dismissed from the hospital. In Argentina, the suicide rate increased by 25% from 1990 to 1992, and 78% of the victims are males. The proportion that jumped to death increased, particularly inurban areas. In 40 Argentinian cases there was a basalpenetration of the femur (25%, fracture of the calcaneus bone (17%, fracture of pelvis o femur cervix (7% and explosion of the liver (20%.

  17. Suicidio por salto al vaco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Braulio Ernesto, P. Linares; Flix Antonio, Bikic.

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia al suicidio se asocia con problemas de soledad, abandono sicolgico en la infancia, drogadiccin, enfermedades graves, etc. Y en pacientes psiquitricos es ms comn tras ser dados de alta. En Argentina los suicidios aumentaron en 25% de 1990 a 1992, y el 78 % de las vctimas fueron de [...] sexo masculino. La proporcin por salto al vaco aument , especialmente en reas urbanas. En 40 casos argentinos hubo introduccin basal del fmur (25%), fractura del calcneo en 17%, fracturas de pelvis o cuello del fmur en 7% y estallido heptico en 20%. Abstract in english Suicidal tendencies are associated with loneliness, lack of psychological attention during childhood, drug addiction, serious illness, etc., In psyciatric patients, it is more frequent shortly after they are dismissed from the hospital. In Argentina, the suicide rate increased by 25% from 1990 to 19 [...] 92, and 78% of the victims are males. The proportion that jumped to death increased, particularly inurban areas. In 40 Argentinian cases there was a basalpenetration of the femur (25%), fracture of the calcaneus bone (17%), fracture of pelvis o femur cervix (7%) and explosion of the liver (20%).

  18. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  19. Linfomas asociados a infeccin por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana en un complejo hospitalario de la Regin Metropolitana, Chile: 1990-2002. Reporte de 14 casos y revisin Lymphomas and HIV infection in a reference hospital of Santiago, Chile: 1990-2002: Report of 14 cases and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Osorio S

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se revis la asociacin de linfoma e infeccin por VIH en un complejo hospitalario de la Regin Metropolitana Sur de Santiago de Chile, su incidencia, caractersticas clnicas y patolgicas, terapia y evolucin en 14 casos. La incidencia acumulada (enero 1990 y diciembre 2002 fue de 0,68%. Diez pacientes tenan linfoma no Hodgkin (siete de alto grado de malignidad y 50% en estadios III-IVB y cuatro Hodgkin (tres con celularidad mixta, dos en estadio IVB. Diez pacientes con linfoma estaban en etapa C3 de SIDA segn criterios del CDC, con un promedio de CD4 de 139 clulas/mm y carga viral de 212.600 copias de ARN/ml. Ochenta y seis por ciento tena afeccin ganglionar, localizada o generalizada. El tratamiento de los linfomas no Hodgkin de alto grado y extendidos fue con quimioterapia CHOP convencional, y en los linfomas de Hodgkin avanzados se aplic el esquema ABVD. Seis pacientes recibieron tratamiento antiretroviral, cuatro simultneamente con quimioterapia. La mortalidad global fue de 71%, por progresin tumoral y/o sepsis. Cuatro pacientes sobreviven (18 a 50 meses en remisin completa, dos linfomas no Hodgkin y dos Hodgkin. Se discuten la baja incidencia de la asociacin linfoma y SIDA y la mayor frecuencia de linfomas con adenopatas localizadas o generalizadasThe association of HIV infection and lymphoma in patients attending at the South Health Metropolitan Reference Centre is presented. Objective: to analyse its incidence, clinical and pathologic manifestations, treatment and outcome. Period of study: January 1990 to December 2002. Results: 14 cases were detected, 10 non Hodgkin lymphoma patients (7 with high malignancy and 50 % in stages III-IVB and 4 with Hodgkin lymphoma (3 with mixed cellularity, 2 in stage IVB. The annual incidence was 0.68%. Ten patients were classified under stage C3 of AIDS CDC criteria, the mean CD4 count was 139 cells/mm and mean CV was 5,32 log. Eighty six percent of patients presented with unique or multiples lymphonodes, with predominance of advanced lymphoma stage. Conventional CHOP chemotherapy was the treatment for high risk and extended non Hodgkin lymphomas and for extended Hodgkin lymphomas the ABVD protocol was administered. Six patients received antiretroviral therapy, 4 simultaneously with chemotherapy. Global mortality in this series was 71%, attributable to tumor disease per se or to sepsis. Four patients survived (18 to 50 months in complete remission, 2 non Hodgkin lymphomas and 2 Hodgkin lymphomas. The low incidence of lymphoma and AIDS association and the high frequency of lymphomas with localized or generalized lymphonodes in this series are remarkable

  20. Angiografia por tomografia computadorizada dos aneurismas intracranianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureano Vincius Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os achados da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada, comparativamente angiografia por subtrao digital, em relao aos aneurismas intracranianos, e a possibilidade da maior utilizao da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada no Brasil. Foram analisados oito pacientes que apresentavam um total de sete aneurismas no tratados e um aneurisma tratado. Houve subseqente correlao com outros trabalhos publicados na literatura mdica. Os exames foram realizados em uma clnica e em dois hospitais privados, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Foi demonstrada boa correlao entre os mtodos estudados, em relao ao diagnstico dos aneurismas, no acompanhamento e avaliao pr-teraputica dessas leses. A angiografia por tomografia computadorizada foi um exame menos invasivo, de menor custo e maior acessibilidade. Concluiu-se que a angiografia por tomografia computadorizada um exame que deve ser utilizado com maior freqncia para avaliao nesta enfermidade.

  1. Verdad por definición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Garrido, Julián

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La verdad por definición es un tipo peculiar de verdad científica, distinguible de las verdades lógicas, matemáticas y empíricas. La definición, por su parte, designa diversos procedimientos de asignación de significado, cuyas diferencias exigen una adjetivación cuidadosa: definiciones ostensivas y operacionales, definiciones de diccionario y definiciones teóricas. Pero sólo las del último tipo son verdaderas por definición. En el presente artículo se precisa el concepto formal de definición teórica, se delimita la estructura de esos enunciados, se analiza la verdad por definición, y se comparan, por último, las definiciones teóricas con los otros tipos de definición.

  2. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to ...

  3. Tiroiditis granulomatosa de De Quervain. Diagnstico por citologa con aspiracin por aguja fina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mara Castro Morillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La tiroiditis de De Quervain, tambin nombrada como tiroiditis subaguda o tiroiditis de clulas gigantes, frecuentemente es precedida por un cuadro infeccioso del tracto respiratorio superior. Su diagnstico es eminentemente clnico; pero el uso de la citologa por aspiracin con aguja fina de tiroides, confirma o niega el planteamiento clnico segn las caractersticas citolgicas. Fue empleada esta tcnica en 6 pacientes con clnica y ultrasonido diferentes y por la necesidad de realizar un correcto diagnstico diferencial con otras formas de hipertiroidismo con peor pronstico evolutivo. La citologa por aspiracin con aguja fina mostr en estos casos ser un arma eficaz para ello, por lo que se decidi realizar esta presentacin.

  4. Estructuras proconcesivas con por / para + infinitivo

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    Ana M. J. Pacagnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will analyse concessive (also known as proconcessive clauses formed by por/para + infinitive: (1 Por/para ser poltico, es muy honesto (He is too honest to be a politician. These peripheral clauses conveying a more or less strong contrast, can be paraphrased with the concessive conjuction aunque + conjugated verb: (2 Aunque es poltico, es muy honesto (Even though he is a politician, he is very honest. Although the concessive value of the construction por + infinitive is traditionally attributed to clauses with para, we have observed that speakers of Ro de la Plata Spanish allocate the same value to por in examples like in (1. We will analyse the influence of factors such as intonation, quantification in the main clause and the presence of certain lexical items which add the appreciative overtone required by this concessive formula (as in poltico, which is interpreted as a prominent member of a specific lexical scale pragmatically graduated.

  5. 14 Nobel, preocupados por el CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Rivera, A

    2003-01-01

    "E l presidente del Consejo del CERN (Laboratorio Europeo de Fisica de Particulas, junto a Ginebra), Maurice Bourquin, ha recibido una carta firmada por un grupo de cientificos muy especiales: 14 premios Nobel de Fisica" (1 page).

  6. Fiebres hemorrgicas por Arenavirus en Latinoamrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Soto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las fiebres hemorrgicas virales producidas por Arenavirus incluyen a los virus endmicos en frica (Lassa y el virus de la coriomeningitis linfoctica (LCMV, de distribucin mundial, y los Arenavirus del Nuevo Mundo o Complejo Tacaribe, que incluye a los virus endmicos en las Amricas (Junn, Machupo, Guanarito, Sabi, Pichinde, entre otros. Los huspedes naturales son los roedores y la infeccin en humanos se produce por el contacto con la orina y excretas. Las manifestaciones clnicas inicialmente son indistinguibles de otras fiebres hemorrgicas producidas por bacterias, parsitos y otros virus, constituyndose esto en un problema de salud pblica, por lo que se requiere realizar el diagnstico diferencial utilizando tcnicas serolgicas y moleculares.

  7. Intoxicación por Paraquat

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    Glenda Viales López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El paraquat es un herbicida bipiridílico que actúa por contacto, se presenta en forma líquida en concentraciones del 20% para uso agrícola. Su nombre químico es eI 1-1´-dimetil-4-4- bipiridilo, con el nombre comercial de Gramoxone. La intoxicación por paraquat tiene una tasa de mortalidad elevada. La intoxicación grave se caracteriza por la afectación de múltiples órganos, principalmente los pulmones, los riñones y el hígado. El pulmón es el órgano diana en la intoxicación por paraquat y la insuficiencia respiratoria con fibrosis pulmonar aguda es la causa más común de muerte.

  8. La pintura vista por un pintor joven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes Pozo, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El pintor se define a lo largo del tiempo como un artista en mutación influenciado por la sociedad de su momento y por su propio mundo interior Esto ha contribuido a la creación de distintos estilos pictóricos y a una evolución que conlleva la despreocupación por el aspecto formal en aras de una introspección al mundo interior En el cambio constante se refleja la búsqueda del artista que valida la intemporalidad del arte. Así, el verdadero artista sobrevive al aplauso o rechazo de la crítica, convirtiéndose en un verdadero hombre renancentista preocupado por el hallazgo del conocimiento universal.

  9. Disputa por la ciudad, elecciones 2015

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    Alfonso Revilla Basurto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La disputa por la ciudad se plante sustancialmente en el terreno del enfrentamiento de las izquierdas partidistas y no por el avance o fortalecimiento de una oposicin poltica proveniente del pri , del pan o de otras fuerzas opositoras. Ms bien, los partidos de oposicin en la ciudad esperaron avanzar sobre el recuento de los daos que dej el enfrentamiento entre el prd y Morena.

  10. Intoxicación por paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Norma A. Hernández Hernández; Martínez, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    En el periodo comprendido de 1996 a 1999, se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de enfermos intoxicados por biperidilos (Paraquat), para determinar las principales manifestaciones, complicaciones, tratamiento y pronóstico del tóxico. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, transversal, descriptivo y observacional, en el área de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Dr. Gustavo A. Rovirosa Pérez. Se estudiaron 18 pacientes con intoxicación por paraquat, dos se excluyeron p...

  11. Muestreo por conglomerados en encuestas poblacionales

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata-Ossa, Helmer de Jess; Angela M Cubides-Munvar; Mara C. Lpez; Elisa M Pinzn-Gmez; Paola A Filigrana-Villegas; Cassiani-Miranda, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Describir la tcnica estadstica del muestreo por conglomerados en encuestas de salud poblacionales. Mtodos Se describen los aspectos ms importantes de cada uno de los pasos metodolgicos haciendo nfasis en los fundamentos del Muestreo por Conglomerados. ste se aplic sobre una poblacin de aproximadamente 100 000 habitantes de la comuna 18 de Cali.La muestra abarc30 manzanas y se encuestaron 3 026 personas. La informacin se recolect usando el Sistema de Informacin de ba...

  12. Mortalidad por causas externas en Medelln, 1999-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Cardona Arango

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizar el comportamiento de la mortalidad por causas externas en la ciudad de Medelln, Colombia, entre 1999-2006, segn sexo, edad y causa bsica de muerte fue el objetivo de este estudio descriptivo longitudinal, con fuente de informacin secundaria de 22 128 registros de defuncin por causas externas. El anlisis realizado es univariado y bivariado por sexo, grupos de edad y causa de muerte. Las causas externas registradas en el periodo fueron: 72.9 por ciento por homicidio; 15.3 por ciento, accidente de transporte; 7.3 por ciento, traumatismos; 4.2 por ciento, por suicidio, y por otras causas, 0.4 por ciento. La mayor tasa de mortalidad se present en el grupo de edad de 20 a 24 aos (27.6 por cien mil habitantes, hecho que merece especial consideracin por las implicaciones sociales, familiares y laborales que representa el fallecimiento de una persona en su etapa productiva.

  13. Tatuaje por amalgama. Reporte de un caso

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    Luis Fang Mercado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El tatuaje por amalgama se origina por el depósito en el tejido conectivo subepitelial de fragmentos de amalgama resultado de procedimientos iatrogénicos por parte del operador. La profundidad a la que se encuentren albergados los residuos de este material influye en la presentación clínica de las lesiones. Radiográficamente se pueden identificar los fragmentos mientras tengan diámetros razonables; histológicamente se pueden observar las partículas de amalgama como gránulos oscuros, sólidos e irregulares dispuesto entre los haces de colágeno y vasos sanguíneos. Este artículo refiere el caso clínico de un paciente que presentó pigmentación por amalgama en mucosa vestibular, originada por una porción de amalgama usada como material obturador en una apicectomía del 11 realizada con anterioridad. Teniendo en cuenta las consideraciones clínicas y radiográficas se optó por realizar una segunda apicectomía con obturación retrógrada con MTA del 11. Durante el procedimiento quirúrgico se cureteó y adelgazó la cara interna del colgajo mucoperióstico para tratar de disminuir el grado de pigmentación.

  14. Chloroform-Methanol Residue of Coxiella burnetii Markedly Potentiated the Specific Immunoprotection Elicited by a Recombinant Protein Fragment rOmpB-4 Derived from Outer Membrane Protein B of Rickettsia rickettsii in C3H/HeN Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiong, Xiaolu; Jiao, Jun; Yang, Xiaomei; Wen, Bohai

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii and Coxiella burnetii, are the potential agents of bio-warfare/bio-terrorism. Here C3H/HeN mice were immunized with a recombinant protein fragment rOmp-4 derived from outer membrane protein B, a major protective antigen of R. rickettsii, combined with chloroform-methanol residue (CMR) extracted from phase I C. burnetii organisms, a safer Q fever vaccine. These immunized mice had significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2a to rOmpB-4 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), two crucial cytokines in resisting intracellular bacterial infection, as well as significantly lower rickettsial loads and slighter pathological lesions in organs after challenge with R. rickettsii, compared with mice immunized with rOmpB-4 or CMR alone. Additionally, after challenge with C. burnetii, the coxiella loads in the organs of these mice were significantly lower than those of mice immunized with rOmpB-4 alone. Our results prove that CMR could markedly potentiate enhance the rOmpB-4-specific immunoprotection by promoting specific and non-specific immunoresponses and the immunization with the protective antigen of R. rickettsii combined with CMR of C. burnetii could confer effective protection against infection of R. rickettsii or C. burnetii. PMID:25909586

  15. Manejo conservador de una fistula de quilo por diseción radical de cuello: reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Brenes Leñero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expone el caso de un paciente masculino de 59 años con diagnóstico de carcinoma medular de tiroides con metástasis ganglionares, al cual se le realiza una tiroidectomía total bilateral con disección radical de cuello modificada tipo III. En el postoperatorio se documenta fístula del conducto torácico. Se dio un manejo conservador con dieta hiperprotéica sin carbohidratos y rica en triglicéridos de cadena media el cual fue satisfactorio.

  16. Transmisin de Anaplasma marginale por garrapatas

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    Kelly A. Brayton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, patgeno de distribucin mundial, es transmitido por garrapatas Ixdidas. Comprender su complejo desarrollo dentro de la garrapata vector, permitir la prediccin de brotes y ofrecer oportunidades para controlar su transmisin. En este trabajo se revisa su ciclo bsico de desarrollo junto con los estudios recientes acerca de las diferencias de transmisin entre cepas, que delinean aspectos de la interaccin patgeno - vector. Bacterias, virus o protozoarios transmitidos por artrpodos causan enfermedades severas, tanto en humanos como en animales. Las enfermedades infecciosas transmitidas por garrapatas, entre las que incluimos a la Anaplasmosis (A. marginale, babesiosis (Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. divergens y Theileriosis (Theileria annulata, T. parva, se encuentran entre las ms importantes en el mbito mundial, con prdidas cercanas a los siete mil millones de dlares anualmente; y, a pesar de su impacto, permanecen escasamente bajo control, basado primordialmente en la aplicacin de acaricidas, para interrumpir su transmisin. La aparicin de garrapatas resistentes a mltiples sustancias acaricidas, representa una amenaza en este tipo de control y, como resultado, hay un resurgimiento de la investigacin para el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias para su control. Nuevas opciones para prevenir la transmisin de patgenos de animales por garrapatas, ser el resultado de entender las interacciones garrapata patgeno; proceso que culmina con el desarrollo de la infeccin y transmisin exitosa. En todos los casos de patgenos transmitidos por garrapatas, el desarrollo de la infeccin se realiza coordinamente a los momentos de adhesin y alimentacin del vector sobre el animal. Esto sucede por la interdependencia en la sealizacin entre el patgeno y el vector al alimentarse y, por ello, ser susceptible de intervencin.

  17. Phase planning today / Planificacin por fases ahora

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Steve, Knapp; Roberto, Charron; Gregory, Howell.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde la publicacin del artculo "Programacin por Fases" (Ballard, 2000), el trabajo en muchos proyectos han sido planeado utilizando esta tcnica con equipos de configuracin variable. Muchos equipos han adaptado su propio enfoque para desarrollar "programacin por fases", en algunos casos inclus [...] o llamada "programacin por fases inversa" o "programacin por fases por arrastre". Durante las sesiones de planificacin, algunas ideas han sido puestas en prctica que mejoran el esquema original e incrementan los beneficios programas por fases. Tal ves uno de los mayores beneficios son las conversaciones que los equipos mantienen durante el ejercicio de programacin. Este artculo describe brevemente el enfoque y prcticas de los autores para preparar programacin por fases y como esto ha llegado a ser, en realidad, planificacin por fases. El artculo describe como la planificacin por fases no solo produce un programa de proyecto como se entiende tradicionalmente, sino adems disea una red de compromisos. Se explica como dicha red es necesaria para obtener cada hito del proyecto y de cmo el entender y utilizarla mejora el desempeo del proyecto Abstract in english Since the publication of White Paper #7 "Phase Scheduling" (Ballard, 2000), work on many projects has been planned with this technique by teams of varying configuration. Many teams have adapted their own approach to developing a "phase schedule", in some cases called a "reverse phase schedule" or a [...] "pull phase schedule". During these planning sessions, ideas have been put in practice that improve on the original scheme and increase the benefits of producing a phase schedule. Perhaps the most significant being the conversations that the teams pursue during the exercise. This paper will briefly describe the authors' current approach to and practices for preparing phase schedules and how this has become, in actuality, phase planning. It will then describe how phase planning produces the project schedule as traditionally understood, and more importantly designs the network of commitments necessary to deliver each project milestone, and how understanding and using the network of commitments improves project performance

  18. Analgesia caudal continua guiada por ultrasonido en una paciente de 4 años Caudal anesthesia ultrasound-guided continuos flow in patient 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beltrán Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La epidural caudal es la técnica más popular en anestesia y analgesia regional pediátrica. El empleo de una guía ecográfica en este procedimiento, aunque aún no es un estándar, podría disminuir los riesgos inherentes a la técnica tradicional y ofrecer algunas ventajas. Nosotros describimos el caso de una niña de 4 años sometida a una resección de un rabdomiosarcoma en muslo izquierdo con metástasis ganglionar inguinal e implantación de catéteres para braquiterapia; a quien se le colocó un catéter caudal para analgesia postoperatoria continua, usando la ultrasonografía (US como método para guiar la colocación de dicho catéter. Después de inducir anestesia general, se realizó un escaneo ecográfico previo de la zona sacra identificando la anatomía, posteriormente después de implementar las medidas antisépticas y asépticas se colocó un catéter caudal guiado por US en tiempo real y con modo Doppler color se confirmó la posición en el espacio epidural caudal al inyectar una dosis en bolo de mezcla anestésica. Se presentó un adecuado control del dolor postoperatorio. El uso de US es una excelente alternativa a las técnicas clásicas fundamentadas en anatomía para la inserción de catéteres epidurales continuos en pediatría y permite ciertas ventajas que las técnicas a ciegas no pueden brindar.Caudal epidural is the most popular regional analgesia and anesthesia technique in pediatrics. The use of ultrasound (US guidance in this procedure, is not yet the standard, but could reduce the risks related with the traditional approach and offer some advantages. We described a case of a 4-years-old patient undergoing a resection of a rabdomyosarcome on the left thigh plus inguinal metastatic nodes and implantation of brachitherapy catheters, in whom a continous caudal epidural catheter was placed under US guidance. After general anesthesia induction, a scout scanning identified the anatomy and afterwards, using strict aseptic techniques a caudal catheter was indwelling under the US guidance on real time and using the Doppler mode confirm the position of it inside the caudal epidural space with a local anesthetic bolus. There was an optimal pain control after surgery. The use of US as a guidance tool for caudal epidural catheter placement is an excellent alternative to the classic anatomical landmarks and give some advantages compare with those blind techniques.

  19. Abdomen agudo por mucocele apendicular perforado

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    Mario Mella Laborde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las neoplasias mucinosas apendiculares son raras, representando entre 0,2% y 0,3% de todas las apendicectomías realizadas. Afecta a gente de mediana edad sin predilección por sexos. Se presenta hasta en un 30% a 50% de los casos como una apendicitis. El diagnóstico definitivo es histológico. Se recomienda evitar el uso de la laparoscopía por riesgo de diseminación de la mucina. El tratamiento de elección es la apendicectomía abierta. En los casos donde existan signos de malignidad, está indicada la hemicolectomía derecha. Se recomienda el seguimiento a largo plazo por el riesgo de neoplasias asociadas.

  20. por Penicillium digitatum: se equivocaba Janzen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Peris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Janzen (1977 propuso que los vertebrados frugvoros prefieren los frutos sanos frente a los infectados por hongos y bacterias dado que los microbiosproducen compuestos txicos y antibiticos y, adems, reducen el valor nutritivo de los frutos infectados. Valoramos dicha hiptesis mediante experimentosde campo en los que ofrecimos tres variedades comerciales de frutos del gnero Citrus sanos e infectados por Penicillium digitatum.Sorprendentemente, los frugvoros (principalmente conejos Oryctolagus cuniculus y roedores como la rata negra Rattus rattus y ratones, probablemente,Mus spretus y Apodemus sylvaticus prefirieron siempre los ctricos infectados a los frutos "control" sanos. En concreto, el consumo de frutosinfectados de las tres variedades estudiadas fue hasta 32 veces mayor en comparacin con el consumo de frutos sanos. Proponemos tres hiptesisno excluyentes que podran explicar la preferencia de los frutos infectados por mamferos y otros vertebrados frugvoros.

  1. Confirmacin por laboratorio de leptospirosis: laboratory confirmation

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    Mara De los ngeles Valverde-Jimnez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un joven de quince aos de edad que consulta a un hospital privado por enfermedad febril aguda de origen desconocido, asociada a elevacin discreta de transaminasas y otras alteraciones inespecficas de los exmenes de laboratorio. Fue referido para observacin a un hospital de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, donde se le maneja como cuadro de dengue clsico. La atencin en la clnica privada se restableci luego de su egreso, se confirm el diagnstico de leptospirosis por parte del laboratorio del Centro Nacional de Referencia de Leptospirosis del iNCIENSA y se manej con antibiticos hasta su resolucin. El artculo enfatiza la importancia del diagnstico de la leptospirosis mediante un alto grado de sospecha, una historia clnica precisa, un buen examen fisico y la confirmacin diagnstica por laboratorio con el fin de tratarla apropiadamente.

  2. Trastorno por dficit de atencin con hiperactividad.

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    Alejandra Carboni Romn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El trastorno por dficit de atencin con hiperactividad (TDAH se caracteriza por un conjunto de sntomas de inatencin y/o hiperactividad impulsividad con una intensidad desadaptativa e incoherente en relacin con el nivel de desarrollo del nio. Este trastorno presenta una alta prevalencia y afecta significativamente el desempeo acadmico, social y familiar de quienes lo padecen, por lo que ha despertado el inters de los cientficos en relacin a la bsqueda de indicadores cerebrales anatmicos y funcionales que apoyen el diagnstico clnico y la planificacin del tratamiento. Si bien su etiologa es heterognea, lo que explica la variabilidad fenotpica del TDAH, la evidencia apunta a que los factores neurobiolgicos son los causantes principales del trastorno. Dentro de estos encontramos factores gentico-hereditarios, neuroanatmicos y neuroqumicos.

  3. Neumona por Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumocystic jirovecii pneumonia

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    Yaimara Zunen Hernndez Puentes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: presentar un caso atpico de una paciente VIH negativo, fallecida por Pneumocystis jirovecii, ms frecuente en personas infectadas por el virus del SIDA y postrasplantados. DESCRIPCIN: se presenta una paciente con antecedentes de alcoholismo, asma, con sntomas respiratorios y fiebre, VIH negativo, con evolucin trpida que fallece a los 11 das del ingreso. Pulmones: enfisema perifrico, zonas dispersas de aspecto rojo carnoso entre mezclado con zonas poco aireadas, empastadas. INTERVENCIN: se realiz autopsia clnica encontrndose como causa directa de la muerte, neumona por Pneumocystis jirovecii, diagnosticado con coloracin de hematoxilina y eosina donde se observ presencia del edema espumoso caracterstico. Se corrobor con coloracin de plata metenamina donde se pudo observar el microorganismo. CONCLUSIONES: el caso present como causa directa de la muerte una neumona por Pneumocystis jirovecii, patgeno oportunista reportado con frecuencia como causa de muerte en pacientes infectados por el VIH-SIDA y en inmunocomprometidos por otras causas, como los trasplantados.OBJECTIVE: to present the atypical case of a HIV-negative patient, deceased from Pneumocystis jirovecii more frequent in persons infected with the AIDS virus and in those underwent transplantation. DESCRIPTION: a patient with a history of alcoholism, asthma, respiratory symptoms and fever, HIV-negative, with a torpid course deceased at 11 days after admission. Lung: peripheral emphysema, scattered zones of a fleshy red appearance mixed with not much aired zones and impasted. INTERVENTION: a clinical necropsy was carried out where the direct cause of death was from Pneumocystis jirovecii, diagnosed using hematoxylin-esosin stain proving the presence of a characteristic foamy edema. In the silver methenamine stain it was possible to corroborate the presence of the microorganism. CONCLUSIONS: in this case the leading cause of death was Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, an opportunistic pathogen frequently reported a cause of death in HIV-AIDS patients and also in those immunocompromised due to other causes, e.g. those with transplantation.

  4. Associao entre violncia por parceiro ntimo contra a mulher e infeco por HIV

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    Claudia Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associao entre a violncia por parceiro ntimo contra mulheres e a infeco ou suspeita de infeco pelo vrus da imunodeficincia humana (HIV. MTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em dados de questionrios aplicados face-a-face e de pronturios mdicos de 2.780 mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, atendidas em unidades do sistema nico de sade da Grande So Paulo, SP, em 2001-2002. As mulheres foram categorizadas em: usurias em tratamento por serem "soropositivas para o HIV", com "suspeita de HIV" e aquelas que procuraram os servios por outros motivos. A violncia por parceiro ntimo contra mulheres na vida foi categorizada por gravidade e recorrncia dos episdios de violncia. A associao com o desfecho foi testada pelo modelo de Poisson com varincia robusta e ajustada por variveis sociodemogrficas, sexuais e reprodutivas. RESULTADOS: A prevalncia de violncia foi de 59,8%. Sofrer violncia reiterada e grave apresentou maior associao de infeco confirmada pelo HIV (RP = 1,91. A violncia independente da gravidade e da recorrncia dos episdios apresentou maior associao para a suspeita de infeco por HIV (RP = 1,29. CONCLUSES: A violncia por parceiro ntimo contra mulheres tem papel relevante nas situaes de suspeita e confirmao da infeco pelo HIV, sendo essencial incluir sua deteco, controle e preveno como parte da ateno integral sade das mulheres.

  5. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa; Patrícia Dotto

    2003-01-01

    O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular f...

  6. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

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    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  7. PRIVATIZACIN, COMPETENCIA POR DEPSITOS Y DESEMPEO BANCARIOS

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    Antonio Ruiz-Porras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artculo desarrollamos un marco microeconmico para estudiar las relaciones entre la privatizacin, la competencia por depsitos y el desempeo bancarios. Particularmente analizamos la privatizacin bancaria cuando se permiten estrategias competitivas de los tipos Cournot y Stackelberg. Nuestros hallazgos muestran que ciertas condiciones son necesarias para justificarla bajo los siguientes criterios: (i eficiencia, (ii poder de mercado/estabilidad financiera y (iii disponibilidad de consumo para los depositantes. Tambin muestran que la privatizacin es relativamente sencilla de justificar cuando se permiten relaciones lder-seguidor en el sistema bancario. Incluso, los ingresos gubernamentales, por privatizar, son ms altos cuando existen estas relaciones.

  8. O consumo de benzodiazepnicos por mulheres idosas

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    Reginaldo Teixeira Mendona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las benzodiazepinas estn entre los medicamentos ms consumidos, principalmente por mujeres adultas mayores. A travs de entrevistas semiestructuradas a dieciocho (18 mujeres ancianas, pacientes psiquitricas del Ncleo de Salud Mental del Centro de Salud Escuela de la FMRP-USP, nos propusimos mostrar sus concepciones sobre las benzodiazepinas y la interaccin de factores biolgicos, sociales y culturales involucrados en la dependencia a estos medicamentos. Concluimos que el consumo y la dependencia a las benzodiazepinas son singulares, de acuerdo con las concepciones dadas por las mujeres ancianas entrevistadas, y no se restringen a una relacin biolgica de sus efectos, sino incluen la influencia de culturales y sociales factores.

  9. Por un archivo digital de literatura experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Rui

    2010-01-01

    El motivo de esta reflexión es abordar el modo en que el hipertexto y el hipermedia contribuyen al ejercicio de la creación literaria y de esta forma, promueven y justifican una redefinición del concepto de archivo. Como objeto de este estudio presentamos algunos ejemplos de literatura electrónica de Portugal y de Brasil que, por sus características formales, problematizan su posibilidad de diseminación y preservación. Se indaga, por eso, sobre la utilidad que podría obtenerse del archivo tra...

  10. Cruzando la cordillera por Manizales, al Magdalena

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Corredor logístico propuesto por la UN-SMP, proyecto modulable a futuro que iniciaría con el Ferrocarril Cafetero como tren de montaña y posteriormente desarrollaría La Transversal Cafetera como vía de primer orden, ambos cruzando la cordillera por el Túnel Cumanday (doble). Este sistema de transporte de carga que articula la Región Andina, se financiaría con el carbón andino, al integrar el Altiplano con los mares de Colombia, y el corredor del Cauca con el Magdalena Centro, será el cataliza...

  11. Panorama latinoamericano del pago por servicios ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    González T. Ángela; Riascos A. Eliana

    2008-01-01

    Este documento busca proveer al lector de algunos elementos para el análisis y reflexión en torno al pago por servicios ambientales. Para ello, en primera instancia, aborda algunos conceptos básicos relacionados con economía ambiental, seguido de temas como la valoración económica de servicios ambientales y la implementación de mecanismos de pago por algunos de ellos. Lo anterior esta enriquecido con experiencias o estudios de caso a nivel latinoamericano y colombiano.

  12. Frecuencia de las lesiones oculares por traumatismos

    OpenAIRE

    Infante B., Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Como médico especialista del Instituto de Medicina Legal deBogotá, he examinado a 72 individuos desde el punto de vista oftalmológico, con el fin de practicarles reconocimiento medico-legal de las lesiones causadas por traumatismos.

  13. Endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens

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    Cardoso Juliano Novaes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os microorganismos do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae são responsáveis por 3% dos casos de endocardites. Eles apresentam propriedades clínicas e microbiológicas semelhantes entre si: são bacilos gram-negativos, isolados mais facilmente em meios aeróbicos, suas culturas necessitam de tempo prolongado de incubação para crescimento (média 3,3 dias e podem ser considerados como parte da flora normal do trato respiratório superior e da orofaringe1,2. Algumas características foram identificadas nas endocardites por esses agentes, como o quadro clínico insidioso¹, diagnóstico difícil pela natureza fastidiosa e culturas negativas3,4. A endocardite por Eikenella corrodens foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1972(5 e continua sendo um agente etiológico raro. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com valva nativa que apresentou endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens.

  14. Infestao do homem por Trichostrongylus sp

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    Lo Tadeu P. da Silveira

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez foi diagnosticado pela morfologia da larva filariide, o parasitismo humano por Trichostrongylus sp, em Santa Maria, RS.The first human case of infection by Trichostrongylus sp. occuring in Santa Maria, RS, was reported. Diagnosis was based on the morphological characteristics presented by the filarioid larvae.

  15. Bacteremias por bacilos gram-negativos

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    Adrelrio J. R. Gonalves

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available So apresentados 31 casos de bacteremia por gram-negativos, assunto que vem merecendo muita ateno dos pesquisadores nos ltimos anos. Os organismos etiolgicos mais importantes que apareceram em igualdade de freqncia foram Escherichia coli e Klebsiella-Aerobacter, sendo responsveis por 58% do total das infeces, seguidos por Pseudomonas. A porta de entrada mais freqente foi o trato urinrio em 61,3% dos casos. A infeco foi mais comum no sexo masculino e a faixa etria de 50 a 60 anos predominou. O uso prvio de antibiticos foi um fator predisponente muito importante, seguido pelo uso de esterides e citostticos. As principais doenas predisponentes foram diabetes mellitus e neoplasias malignas. Os principais fatores precipitantes foram a manipulao do aparelho urinrio, com infeco prvia ou desencadeada, cirurgia do aparelho digestivo, uronatia obstrutiva e obstruo biliar. As principais manifestaes clnicas foram a presena de febre, calafrios e hipotenso arterial. A complicao mais freqente foi o choque bacteriano que incidiu em 58% dos casos, aproximadamente trs vzes aquela relatada na literatura. As outras foram a insuficincia renal aguda, superinfeco e infeco pulmonar metasttica. Consideraes teraputicas gerais e esquemas de antibiticos so propostos para estes casos. A mortalidade da bacteremia simples foi de 30,7% e quando associada ao choque elevou-se para 72,2% . As infeces por Pseudomonas foram 100% fatais.

  16. Pedro Teixeira y su viaje por Mesopotamia

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    Fuente del Pilar, José Javier

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Teixeira es un integrante notable de la ilustre nómina de los viajeros portugueses que, a finales del s, XVI y principios del XVII, ensancharon para Occidente las fronteras del mundo. Su conocimiento en España se debe a la publicación en 1994 de su obra «Relaciones del Origen, Descendencia y Sucesión de los Reyes de Persia, y de Harmuz, y de un viaje hecho por el autor dende la India hasta Italia por tierra», en edición realizada por el profesor Eduardo Barajas Sala, lamentablemente fallecido en 1997. En este artículo se ofrece una reseña biográfica de Pedro Teixeira, y un análisis del viaje narrado por el autor en la última parte de sus «Relaciones »: el que desde Ormuz le conducirá, a través de Mesopotamia, hasta la costa del Mediterráneo.…

  17. Doença da arranhadura do gato por Bartonella quintana em lactente: uma apresentação incomum

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    Azevedo Zina Maria Almeida de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Relato de caso de doença da arranhadura do gato (DAG, em um paciente lactente, com história epidemiológica negativa, descrevendo o rastreamento diagnóstico, a imagem ao ultra-som, a evolução clínica e o prognóstico. B. quintana foi identificada em aspirado de secreção ganglionar pelo método de PCR. B. henselae, embora seja o agente causal habitualmente responsável pela DAG, não foi isolada. Os autores concluem que a pesquisa de B. quintana e B. henselae deve ser incluída na investigação de adenites, principalmente quando a evolução é subaguda, mesmo em lactentes e, ainda que a história epidemiológica seja negativa.

  18. Trastorno por uso de sustancias y su relacin con el trastorno por dficit de atencin

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    O. Enrique Aguilar-Bustos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El trastorno por dficit de atencin e hiperactividad y el trastorno por uso de sustancias frecuentemente se presentan en un mismo individuo. Ambos padecimientos tienen bases anatmicas y funcionales comunes, lo que produce que su tratamiento sea ms complejo cuando concurren. En ambos casos se presenta disminucin de la actividad en la corteza prefrontal dorsolateral (encargada de la inhibicin de respuestas y una actividad aumentada de estructuras subcorticales (relacionadas con los procesos de valoracin de la recompensa. El trastorno por dficit de atencin e hiperactividad es un factor que aumenta el riesgo de desa - rrollar trastorno por uso de sustancias en algn momento de la vida, por lo que resulta fundamental dar el tratamiento adecuado desde etapas tempranas. Un medio para tratar el trastorno por dficit de atencin e hiperactividad es la administracin de psicoestimulantes que, contrario a la opinin popular, protegen contra el desarrollo de trastorno por uso de sustancias, no lo favorecen. Adicionalmente, es importante contar con programas de estimulacin cognitiva que ayuden al paciente a superar sus deficiencias neuropsicolgicas.

  19. Dermatoses provocadas por plantas (fitodermatoses Dermatosis due to plants (phytodermatosis

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    Vitor Manoel Silva dos Reis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As dermatoses causadas por plantas so relativamente comuns no nosso meio e podem ocorrer por diversos mecanismos patognicos. So descritas dermatoses por trauma fsico, por ao farmacolgica, mediadas por IgE, por irritao, por ao conjunta da luz e por sensibilizao. Tambm so descritas na introduo desta reviso as pseudofitodermatoses causadas por elementos veiculados pelas plantas e, por isso, aparentemente causadas pelas plantas.Dermatosis caused by plants is relatively common and may occur by various pathogenic mechanisms. Dermatitis due to physical trauma, pharmacological action, irritation, sensitization, mediated by IgE and induced by light are described. Pseudophytodermatosis caused by plant-delivered elements is also described in the introduction to this work.

  20. Por qu la importancia de implementar Sistemas de Gestin por Competencias en nuestras organizaciones?

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    Yordano Garca Dousat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda la Gestin de los Recursos Humanos en su nueva concepcin por Competencias, su importancia, ventajas y propone fases o etapas que permitan llevar a cabo el proceso para instalar un sistema de Gestin por Competencias en una organizacin. Se argumenta la propuesta a travs de la revisin bibliogrfica de autores de temas relacionados, consultas a especialistas y la utilizacin de mtodos y herramientas conformes a las ciencias empresariales.