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Effects of glutathione reductase inhibition on cellular thiol redox state and related systems  

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Although inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) has been demonstrated to cause a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in glutathione disulfide (GSSG), a systematic study of the effects of GR inhibition on thiol redox state and related systems has not been noted. By employing a monkey kidney cell line as the cell model and 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxy-ethylsulfanylthio-carbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA) as a GR inhibitor, an investi...

Zhao, Yong; Seefeldt, Teresa; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xiuqing; Matthees, Duane; Hu, Yueshan; Guan, Xiangming

2009-01-01

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Thiol/disulfide interconversion in bovine lens aldose reductase induced by intermediates of glutathione turnover.  

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The effectiveness of cysteine and cysteinylglycine to act as protein thiolating agents was investigated using bovine lens aldose reductase (ALR2) as the protein target. Disulfides of both thiol compounds appear to be very effective as ALR2 thiolating agents. Cysteine- and CysGly-modified ALR2 forms (Cys-ALR2 and CysGly-ALR2, respectively) are characterized by the presence of a mixed disulfide bond involving Cys298, as demonstrated by a combined electrospray mass spectrometry and Edman degradation approach. Both Cys-ALR2 and CysGly-ALR2 essentially retain the ability to reduce glyceraldehyde but lose the susceptibility to inhibition by Sorbinil and other ALR2 inhibitors. Cys-ALR2 and CysGly-ALR2 are easily reduced back to the native enzyme form by dithiothreitol and GSH treatment; on the contrary, Cys and 2-mercaptoethanol appear to act as protein trans-thiolating agents, rather than reducing agents. The treatment at 37 degrees C of both Cys-ALR2 and CysGly-ALR2, unlikely what observed for glutathionyl-modified ALR2 (GS-ALR2), promotes the generation of an intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys298 and Cys303 residues. A rationale for the special susceptibility of Cys-ALR2 and CysGly-ALR2, as compared to GS-ALR2, to the thermally induced intramolecular rearrangement is given on the basis of a molecular dynamic and energy minimization approach. A pathway of thiol/disulfide interconversion for bovine lens ALR2 induced, in oxidative conditions, by physiological thiol compounds is proposed. PMID:11580274

Vilardo, P G; Scaloni, A; Amodeo, P; Barsotti, C; Cecconi, I; Cappiello, M; Lopez Mendez, B; Rullo, R; Dal Monte, M; Del Corso, A; Mura, U

2001-10-01

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Crystal structure of the YffB protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggests a glutathione-dependent thiol reductase function  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The yffB (PA3664 gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an uncharacterized protein of 13 kDa molecular weight with a marginal sequence similarity to arsenate reductase from Escherichia coli. The crystal structure determination of YffB was undertaken as part of a structural genomics effort in order to assist with the functional assignment of the protein. Results The structure was determined at 1.0 Å resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. The fold is very similar to that of arsenate reductase, which is an extension of the thioredoxin fold. Conclusion Given the conservation of the functionally important residues and the ability to bind glutathione, YffB is likely to function as a GSH-dependent thiol reductase.

Dauter Zbigniew

2004-03-01

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Thiol-disulfide exchanges modulate aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 activity and sensitivity to inhibitors.  

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The reversible thiol/disulfide exchange is an important regulatory mechanism of protein enzymatic activity. Many protein enzymes are susceptible to S-thiolation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS); and the glutathione (GSH) and free amino acid cysteine (Cys) are critical cellular thiol anti-oxidants, protecting proteins from irreversible oxidative damage. In this study, we found that aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) contains 4 Cys residues, i.e., Cys45, Cys187, Cys200, and Cys299. Exposing AKR1B10 to ROS mixtures resulted in significant decrease of its free sulfhydryl groups, up to 40-50% in the presence of physiological thiol cysteine at 0.5 or 1.0 mM; and accordingly, AKR1B10 enzymatic activity was reversibly decreased, in parallel with the oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups. ROS-induced thiolation also affected the sensitivity of AKR1B10 to inhibitors EBPC, epalrestat, and statil. Together our results showed for the first time that AKR1B10's enzymatic activity and inhibitor sensitivity are modulated by thiol/disulfide exchanges. PMID:20144905

Shen, Yi; Zhong, Linlin; Markwell, Stephen; Cao, Deliang

2010-05-01

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Characterization of Leishmania infantum thiol-dependent reductase 1 and evaluation of its potential to induce immune protection.  

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The need to develop an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis to prevent the 2 million new cases each year led to the search for antigens able to elicit protection against infection with Leishmania. In this study, we have characterized a parasite-specific protein of Leishmania infantum named thiol-dependent reductase 1 (TDR1). The protein is present in both life cycle stages of L. infantum with a notable higher expression in the amastigote forms, suggesting a role in the interaction between the parasite and the mammalian host. Thiol-dependent reductase 1 is localized in the cytosol, although we were able to detect the protein in the culture medium of both promastigotes and axenic amastigotes, and consequently, TDR1 is considered an excreted/secreted molecule of the parasite. Therefore, we have evaluated the potential of TDR1 recombinant protein to protect against experimental challenge with L. infantum parasites using a murine model. Despite a reduction in spleen parasite load in the chronic phase of disease, TDR1 administration was not effective in the protection of Balb/c mice against visceral leishmaniasis and thus TDR1 do not have a crucial role in the modulation of mammalian host immune response, as observed with its protein counterpart Tc52 of Trypanosoma cruzi. PMID:22416787

Silva, A M; Tavares, J; Silvestre, R; Ouaissi, A; Coombs, G H; Cordeiro-da-Silva, A

2012-06-01

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Coenzyme B induced coordination of coenzyme M via its thiol group to Ni(I) of F430 in active methyl-coenzyme M reductase.  

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Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the reaction of methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-S-CoM) with coenzyme B (HS-CoB) to methane and CoM-S-S-CoB. At the active site, it contains the nickel porphinoid F430, which has to be in the Ni(I) oxidation state for the enzyme to be active. How the substrates interact with the active site Ni(I) has remained elusive. We report here that coenzyme M (HS-CoM), which is a reversible competitive inhibitor to methyl-coenzyme M, interacts with its thiol group with ...

Finazzo, C.; Harmer, J.; Bauer, C.; Jaun, B.; Duin, Ec; Mahlert, F.; Goenrich, M.; Thauer, Rk; Doorslaer, S.; Schweiger, A.

2003-01-01

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Role of GSSG-reductase and a thiol oxidant diethylmaleate (DEM) in skin tumorigenesis induced by jute batching oil.  

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Single topical application of jute batching oil (JBO-P) elevated the status of enzyme GSSG-reductase in mouse skin and multiple applications produced a persistent increase in the enzyme levels. Also an increase in NADPH-dependent GSSG-reductase activity was registered after single topical application of known carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), e.g. benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA) and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC). This suggests that the change in GSSG-reductase activity induced by JBO-P is intrinsic to its tumorigenic activity rather than the toxic effect of the oil. Pretreatment of mouse skin with diethylmaleate (DEM), an SH-inactivating agent, increases the latent period of JBO-P induced tumorigenesis. No tumour was recorded in animals belonging to Group IV (DEM + JBO) while in animals belonging to Group II (JBO-P alone) 100% tumorigenesis was recorded during the period of study (i.e. up to 20 wk). PMID:2781594

Antony, M; Kumar, S; Mehrotra, N K

1989-09-01

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Molecular cloning and expression analysis of interferon-gamma inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT)-like cDNA from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).  

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Interferon Gamma (IFN-gamma) Inducible Lysosomal Thiol reductase (GILT) has been described as a key enzyme in processing and presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II restricted antigen (Ag) by catalyzing disulfide bond (S-S) reduction in mammals. Abalone GILT-like (AbGILT) full-length cDNA was isolated from the normalized disk abalone cDNA library. The 807-bp AbGILT cDNA consists of an open reading frame of 684-bp, encoding 228 amino acid residues. The predicted AbGILT protein has a molecular weight of 25kDa and an isoelectric point of 7.8. The N-terminus of the AbGILT was found to have a putative signal peptide with a cleavage site amino acid position at 19-20. AbGILT contains two active site C-XX-C motifs, ((23)CLDC(26) and (46)CPYC(49)) which motif is highly conserved in GILT protein family. AbGILT exhibited a characteristic GILT signature sequence (92)CQHGX(2)ECX(2)NX(4)C(107) and 12 cysteine residues representing 5% in the mature peptide. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AbGILT has been derived from a common ancestor with other GILT proteins. RT-PCR results showed that AbGILT expression was up-regulated in the gill, mantle and digestive tract 24h post injection of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) while Vibrio alginolyticus up-regulation appeared in the gill and digestive tract after 48h. In contrast, AbGILT expression was not up-regulated by poly inosinic-cytidylic acid (poly I:C) during the 48h induction. However, AbGILT was constitutively expressed in gill, mantle, and digestive tract tissues suggesting that it may maintain first line of innate immune defense at basal level in disk abalone. PMID:17599346

De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Jehee

2007-11-01

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Absence of Gamma-Interferon-Inducible Lysosomal Thiol Reductase (GILT) Is Associated with Poor Disease-Free Survival in Breast Cancer Patients  

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Tumor immunosurveillance is known to be of critical importance in controlling tumorigenesis and progression in various cancers. The role of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) in tumor immunosurveillance has recently been studied in several malignant diseases, but its role in breast cancer remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we found GILT as a significant different expressed gene by cDNA microarray analysis. To further determine the role of GILT in breast cancer, we examined GILT expression in breast cancers as well as noncancerous breast tissues by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, and assessed its association with clinicopathologic characteristics and patient outcome. The absence of GILT expression increased significantly from 2.02% (2/99) in noncancerous breast tissues to 15.6% (34/218) in breast cancer tissues (P<0.001). In accordance with its proliferation inhibiting function, GILT expression was inversely correlated with Ki67 index (P<0.05). In addition, absence of GILT was positively correlated with adverse characteristics of breast cancers, such as histological type, tumor size, lymph nodes status, and pTNM stage (P<0.05). Consistently, breast cancers with reduced GILT expression had poorer disease-free survival (P<0.005). Moreover, significantly decreased expression of GILT was found in both primary and metastatic breast cancer cells, in contrast to normal epithelial cells. These findings indicate that GILT may act as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, in line with its previously suggested role in anti-tumor immunity. Thus, GILT has the potential to be a novel independent prognostic factor in breast cancer and further studies are needed to illustrate the underlying mechanism of this relationship. PMID:25333930

Zhou, Cheng-Jun; Liu, Lu; Han, Bo; Kong, Ling-Yu; Gao, Zhong-Cheng; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Wang, Lu; Feng, Man; Chen, Hai-Ying; Jia, Guo-Tao; Gao, De-Zong; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Liang; Li, Yu-Yang; Yu, Zhi-Gang

2014-01-01

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Increase in Thiol Oxidative Stress via Glutathione Reductase Inhibition as a Novel Approach to Enhance Cancer Sensitivity to X-Ray Irradiation  

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Depletion of reduced form glutathione (GSH) has been extensively studied for its effect on sensitizing cancer to radiation. However, little is known about the effect of thiol oxidative stress created through an increase in glutathione disulfide (GSSG) on cancer sensitivity to radiation. In this study, an increase in GSSG was effectively created by 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA), an irreversible glut...

Zhao, Yong; Chen, Wei; Carlson, Laura; Stoebner, Adam; Hanson, Sarah; Foll, Ryan; Palakurthi, Srinath; Guan, Xiangming

2009-01-01

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GILT modulates CD4+ T-cell tolerance to the melanocyte differentiation antigen tyrosinase-related protein 1.  

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Gamma-IFN-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) facilitates major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted processing through endocytic reduction of protein disulfide bonds and is necessary for efficient class II-restricted processing of melanocyte differentiation antigen, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1). Using class II-restricted, TRP1-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice, we identify a role, to our knowledge, previously unreported, for GILT in the maintenance of tolerance to TRP1. TRP1-specific thymocytes are centrally deleted in the presence of GILT and TRP1. In contrast, CD4 single-positive thymocytes and peripheral T cells develop in the absence of GILT or TRP1, demonstrating that GILT is required for negative selection of TRP1-specific thymocytes. Although TRP1-specific T cells escape thymic deletion in the absence of GILT, they are tolerant to TRP1 and do not induce vilitigo. TRP1-specific T cells that develop in the absence of GILT have diminished IL-2 and IFN-? production. Furthermore, GILT-deficient mice have a 4-fold increase in the percentage of TRP1-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells compared with TRP1-deficient mice, and depletion of Treg cells partially restores the ability of GILT-deficient TRP1-specific CD4(+) T cells to induce vitiligo. Thus, GILT has a critical role in regulating CD4(+) T-cell tolerance to an endogenous skin-restricted antigen relevant to controlling autoimmunity and generating effective immunotherapy for melanoma. PMID:21833020

Rausch, Matthew P; Hastings, K Taraszka

2012-01-01

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Thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes  

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The present studies have shown that GSH metabolism arose in the purple bacteria and cyanobacteria where it functions to protect against oxygen toxicity. Evidence was obtained indicating that GSH metabolism was incorporated into eucaryotes via the endosymbiosis giving rise to mitochrondria and chloroplasts. Aerobic bacteria lacking GSH utilize other thiols for apparently similar functions, the thiol being coenzyme A in Gram positive bacteria and chi-glutamylcysteine in the halobacteria. The thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes is thus seen to be much more highly diversified than that of eucaryotes and much remains to be learned about this subject.

Fahey, Robert C.

1986-01-01

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Electroanalysis of Plant Thiols  

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Full Text Available Due to unique physico-chemical properties of –SH moiety thiols comprise widegroup of biologically important compounds. A review devoted to biological functions ofglutathione and phytochelatins with literature survey of methods used to analysis of thesecompounds and their interactions with cadmium(II ions and Murashige-Skoog medium ispresented. For these purposes electrochemical techniques are used. Moreover, we revealedthe effect of three different cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 100 μM on cadmiumuptake and thiols content in maize plants during 192 hours long experiments usingdifferential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry to detect cadmium(II ions and highperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to determineglutathione. Cadmium concentration determined in tissues of the plants cultivated innutrient solution containing 10 μM Cd was very low up to 96 hours long exposition andthen the concentration of Cd markedly increased. On the contrary, the addition of 100 μMCd caused an immediate sharp increase in all maize plant parts to 96 hours Cd expositionbut subsequently the Cd concentration increased more slowly. A high performance liquidchromatography with electrochemical detection was used for glutathione determination intreated maize plants after 96 and 192 hours of treatment. The highest total content of glutathione per one plant was 6 μg (96 h, 10 μM Cd in comparison with non-treated plant (control where glutathione content was 1.5 μg. It can be concluded that electrochemical techniques have proved to be useful to analyse plant thiols.

Rene Kizek

2007-06-01

14

Thiol Reactive Probes and Chemosensors  

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Full Text Available Thiols are important molecules in the environment and in biological processes. Cysteine (Cys, homocysteine (Hcy, glutathione (GSH and hydrogen sulfide (H2S play critical roles in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. The selective detection of thiols using reaction-based probes and sensors is very important in basic research and in disease diagnosis. This review focuses on the design of fluorescent and colorimetric probes and sensors for thiol detection. Thiol detection methods include probes and labeling agents based on nucleophilic addition and substitution, Michael addition, disulfide bond or Se-N bond cleavage, metal-sulfur interactions and more. Probes for H2S are based on nucleophilic cyclization, reduction and metal sulfide formation. Thiol probe and chemosensor design strategies and mechanism of action are discussed in this review.

Binghe Wang

2012-11-01

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Mitochondrial Thioredoxin-Glutathione Reductase from Larval Taenia crassiceps (Cysticerci)  

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Mitochondrial thioredoxin-glutathione reductase was purified from larval Taenia crassiceps (cysticerci). The preparation showed NADPH-dependent reductase activity with either thioredoxin or GSSG, and was able to perform thiol/disulfide exchange reactions. At 25°C specific activities were 437 ± 27 mU mg?1 and 840 ± 49 mU mg?1 with thioredoxin and GSSG, respectively. Apparent Km values were 0.87 ± 0.04??M, 41 ± 6??M and 19 ± 10??M for thioredoxin, GSSG and NADPH, respectively...

Juan L. Rendón; Oscar Flores-Herrera; Juan Pablo Pardo; Guillermo Mendoza-Hernández; Del Arenal, Irene P.; Alberto Guevara-Flores

2010-01-01

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Biomimetic studies on selenoenzymes: modeling the role of proximal histidines in thioredoxin reductases.  

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The roles of built-in thiol cofactors and the basic histidine (His) residues in the active site of mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are described with the help of experimental and density functional theory calculations on small-molecule model compounds. The reduction of selenenyl sulfides by thiols in selenoenzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and TrxR is crucial for the regeneration of the active site. Experimental as well as theoretical studies were carried out with model selenenyl sulfides to probe their reactivity toward incoming thiols. We have shown that the nucleophilic attack of thiols takes place at the selenium center in the selenenyl sulfides. These thiol exchange reactions would hamper the regeneration of the active species selenol. Therefore, the basic His residues are expected to play crucial roles in the selenenyl sulfide state of TrxR. Our model study with internal amino groups in the selenenyl sulfide state reveals that the basic His residues may play important roles by deprotonating the thiol moiety in the selenenic acid state and by interacting with the sulfur atom in the selenenyl sulfide state to facilitate the nucleophilic attack of thiol at sulfur rather than at selenium, thereby generating the catalytically active species selenol. This model study also suggests that the enzyme may use the internal cysteines as cofactors to overcome the thiol exchange reactions. PMID:16813393

Sarma, Bani Kanta; Mugesh, G

2006-07-10

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Enterococcus faecalis glutathione reductase: purification, characterization and expression under normal and hyperbaric O2 conditions.  

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Glutathione reductase is found ubiquitously in eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, and plays a significant role in bacterial defense against oxidative stress. Glutathione reductase from the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis was purified to homogeneity using anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and affinity chromatography. The homogeneous 49-kDa enzyme contained 1 mol bound FAD per subunit. The determined N-terminal amino acid sequence of the E. faecalis enzyme displays significant identity with glutathione reductases from other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as yeast and human erythrocyte reductases. The kinetic mechanism is ping-pong, and the determined kinetic parameters exhibited by the E. faecalis glutathione reductase are similar to those found for glutathione reductases from yeast, Escherichia coli, and human erythrocyte. A two-fold increased expression of glutathione reductase activity and a three-fold induction of glutathione peroxidase activity were observed under hyperbaric O2 growth conditions without a corresponding change in the total glutathione and soluble thiol content. The difference in the expression of the enzyme, and its cognate substrate's intracellular concentration, under these conditions suggest that the gene encoding glutathione reductase is responsive to oxygen concentration, but that the genes encoding the glutathione synthesizing enzymes are not linked to an oxygen-sensitive promoter. PMID:9741094

Patel, M P; Marcinkeviciene, J; Blanchard, J S

1998-09-01

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Flow cytometry techniques for studying cellular thiols  

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Cellular thiols, and especially glutathione, act as scavenger nucleophiles and can protect against toxicity, mutagenicity, or transformation by ionizing radiation and many carcinogens. Development of a rapid assay to quantitate the cellular content of thiols could thus be useful in assessing or predicting cellular risk to damage. Several fluorescent thiol-reactive drugs, usually maleimide or bromobimane derivatives, have been described for use in histopathology. Most of these agents do not distinguish between protein and nonprotein thiols, and virtually all of these fluorescent stains have normally been used after fixation of the cells or tissues. We have found that some of the probes will, however, rapidly penetrate and bind within viable cells with little associated cytotoxicity; the amount bound can be easily quantified using flow cytometry. We have used several of these agents, in conjunction with fluorescence-activated cell sorting in V79 spheroids, to examine the thiol content of cells as a function of their depth or position in the spheroid. Additionally, the radiation response of cells from different depths as been assessed following addition of exogenous thiols including glutathione and WR-2721, or after treatment with thiol-depleting agents, including DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO), diethylmaleate (DEM), and dimethylfumarate (DMF). Our studies indicate that examination of the thiol content and radiation response of the sorted cells provides an improved understanding of the modes of action of these compounds.

Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

1983-09-01

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Flow cytometry techniques for studying cellular thiols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cellular thiols, and especially glutathione, act as scavenger nucleophiles and can protect against toxicity, mutagenicity, or transformation by ionizing radiation and many carcinogens. Development of a rapid assay to quantitate the cellular content of thiols could thus be useful in assessing or predicting cellular risk to damage. Several fluorescent thiol-reactive drugs, usually maleimide or bromobimane derivatives, have been described for use in histopathology. Most of these agents do not distinguish between protein and nonprotein thiols, and virtually all of these fluorescent stains have normally been used after fixation of the cells or tissues. We have found that some of the probes will, however, rapidly penetrate and bind within viable cells with little associated cytotoxicity; the amount bound can be easily quantified using flow cytometry. We have used several of these agents, in conjunction with fluorescence-activated cell sorting in V79 spheroids, to examine the thiol content of cells as a function of their depth or position in the spheroid. Additionally, the radiation response of cells from different depths as been assessed following addition of exogenous thiols including glutathione and WR-2721, or after treatment with thiol-depleting agents, including DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO), diethylmaleate (DEM), and dimethylfumarate (DMF). Our studies indicate that examination of the thiol content and radiation response of the sorted cells provides an improved understanding of the modes of action of these compounds

20

Controlled formation of thiol and disulfide interfaces.  

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The work reported herein describes the controlled creation of uniform thiol-functionalized siloxane-anchored self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and their selective transformation into intramonolayer (bridging) disulfides. These disulfides provide for the efficient immobilization of (bio)molecules bearing pendant thiols or disulfides, with no need for added oxidant. The unambiguous development of this surface chemistry required analytical methods that distinguish thiol and disulfide moieties on a surface. Physical properties such as wetting and monolayer thickness do not suffice nor do routine spectroscopic techniques (e.g., XPS, IR). Therefore, a method for distinguishing and quantifying thiol and disulfide surface functionality on a monolayer array based on the reaction with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB, Sanger's reagent) is reported. DNFB readily reacts with thiol-SAMs (but not with disulfides) to form stable derivatives with distinctive IR, UV, and XPS signatures. Finally, the thiol-disulfide chemistry is applied to thiol-functionalized hybrid silica nanoparticles. These high-surface-area nanoparticles provide solid supports heavily loaded with thiol groups whose chemistry is also reported herein. PMID:23199096

Artel, Vlada; Cohen, Reut; Aped, Inbal; Ronen, Maria; Gerber, Doron; Sukenik, Chaim N

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Reaction of alkylcobalamins with thiols  

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Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy and phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy have been used to study the reaction of several alkylcobalamins with 2-mercaptoethanol. At alkaline pH, when the thiol is deprotonated, the alkyl-transfer reactions involve a nucleophilic attack of the thiolate anion on the Co-methylene carbon of the cobalamins, yielding alkyl thioethers and cob(II)alamin. In these nucleophilic displacement reactions cob(I)alamin is presumably formed as an intermediate. The higher alkylcobalamins react more slowly than methylcobalamin. The lower reactivity of ethyl- and propylcobalamin is probably the basis of the inhibition of the corrinoid-dependent methyl-transfer systems by propyl iodide. The transfer of the upper nucleoside ligand of adenosylcobalamin to 2-mercaptoethanol is a very slow process; S-adenosylmercaptoethanol and cob(II)alamin are the final products of the reaction. The dealkylation of (carboxymethyl)cobalamin is a much more facile reaction. At alkaline pH S-(carboxymethyl)mercaptoethanol and cob(II)alamin are produced, while at pH values below 8 the carbon-cobalt bond is cleaved reductively to acetate and cob(II)alamin. The reductive cleavage of the carbon-cobalt bond of (carboxymethyl)cobalamin by 2-mercaptoethanol is extremely fast when the cobalamin is in the base-off form. Because the authors have been unable to detect trans coordination of 2-mercaptoethanol, they favor a mechanism that involves a hydride attack on the Co-methylene carbon of (carboxymethyl) rather than a trans attack of the thiol on the cobalt atom.

Hogenkamp, H.P.C.; Bratt, G.T.; Kotchevar, A.T.

1987-07-28

22

Thiol-reactivity of the fungicide maneb.  

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Maneb (MB) is a manganese-containing ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide that is implicated as an environmental risk factor for Parkinson's disease, especially in combination with paraquat (PQ). Dithiocarbamates inhibit aldehyde dehydrogenases, but the relationship of this to the combined toxicity of MB + PQ is unclear because PQ is an oxidant and MB activates Nrf2 and increases cellular GSH without apparent oxidative stress. The present research investigated the direct reactivity of MB with protein thiols using recombinant thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) as a model protein. The results show that MB causes stoichiometric loss of protein thiols, reversibly dimerizes the protein and inhibits its enzymatic activity. MB reacted at similar rates with low-molecular weight, thiol-containing chemicals. Together, the data suggest that MB can potentiate neurotoxicity of multiple agents by disrupting protein thiol functions in a manner analogous to that caused by oxidative stress, but without GSH depletion. PMID:24936438

Roede, James R; Jones, Dean P

2014-01-01

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Glucagon activation of the thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase in isolated, rat, hepatic microsomes  

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Thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase catalyzes the GSH reduction of protein disulfides to sulfhydryl groups. The authors determined this activity in washed rat hepatic microsomes (1) by a coupled reaction in which GSSG is reduced by GSH reductase and NADPH is oxidized and (2) by the cleavage of [125I]-insulin (insulinase). Physiological concentrations of glucagon (GLU)(1 nM) with GSH (1 mM) increased both activities (NADPH oxidae - 1.1 nmol/min-mg prot (control)(C) to 4.3 (GLU); insulinase - 36 (C) to 83 (GLU)). For both assays stimulation was only seen with low protein concentrations (< 100 ?g/ml), probably due to nonspecific GLU binding rather than proteolysis of the GLU since both reactions were linear for at least 30 min. The stimulation of NADPH oxidase had a P50 for GLU of 0.78 nM. GLU stimulation of insulinase was only observed in the presence of a GSH reducing system. Basal insulinase activity was unaffected by GSH reductase. These two observation suggest that the stimulation may be inhibited by the presence of GSSG. This effect was not due to depletion of GSH since the same effect was observed with higher GSH (5 mM). Although the effect on NADPH oxidase could represent activation of a GSH peroxidase, the insulinase data support the hypothesis that GLU may act by stimulating the thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase catalyzed reduction of protein disulfides

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Changes in plasma thiol levels induced by different phases of treatment in breast cancer; the role of commercial extract from black chokeberry.  

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Different low-molecular-weight thiols, including glutathione, cysteine, and cysteinylglycine are physiological free radical scavengers. On the other hand, homocysteine may play a role as an oxidant. The aim of our present study was to establish in vitro the effects of the commercial extract of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox(®)) on the amount of selected low-molecular-weight thiols and the activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in plasma obtained from patients with invasive breast cancer during different phases of treatment [before or after the surgery and patients after different phases of chemotherapy (doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide)] and from healthy subjects. Patients were hospitalized in Department of Oncological Surgery and Department of Chemotherapy, Medical University of Lodz, Poland. The level of low-molecular-weight thiols was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed that in the presence of the Aronia extract changes in amount of thiols in plasma from breast cancer patients (at all tested groups) were significantly reduced. Our results showed that tested commercial extract reduced modifications of antioxidative enzymes activity in plasma from patients during different phases of treatment, but this effect was not statistical significant. Our results suggest that the Aronia extract supplementation in breast cancer patients has a beneficial effect on thiols concentration in plasma. Plasma, as reported in this work, could be used as an experimental model to evaluate the beneficial action of plant supplements, including phenolic extracts on thiols or other molecules during different phases of treatment. PMID:22949034

K?dzierska, Magdalena; G?owacki, Rafa?; Czernek, Urszula; Szyd?owska-Pazera, Katarzyna; Potemski, Piotr; Piekarski, Janusz; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Olas, Beata

2013-01-01

25

Investigation of thiol-ene and thiol-ene-methacrylate based resins as dental restorative materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives The objective of this work was to evaluate thiol-norbornene and thiol-ene-methacrylate systems as the resin phase of dental restorative materials and demonstrate their superior performance as compared to dimethacrylate materials. Methods Polymerization kinetics and overall functional group conversions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Flexural strength and modulus were determined with a 3-point flexural test. Polymerization-induced shrinkage stress was measured with a tensometer. Results Thiol-ene polymer systems were demonstrated to exhibit advantageous properties for dental restorative materials in regards to rapid curing kinetics, high conversion, and low shrinkage and stress. However, both the thiol-norbornene and thiol-allyl ether systems studied here exhibit significant reductions in flexural strength and modulus relative to BisGMA/TEGDMA. By utilizing the thiol-ene component as the reactive diluent in dimethacrylate systems, high flexural modulus and strength are achieved while dramatically reducing the polymerization shrinkage stress. The methacrylate-thiol-allyl ether and methacrylate-thiol-norbornene systems both exhibited equivalent flexural modulus (2.1 ± 0.1 GPa) and slightly reduced flexural strength (95 ± 1 and 101 ± 3 MPa, respectively) relative to BisGMA/TEGDMA (flexural modulus; 2.2 + 0.1 GPa and flexural strength; 112 ± 3 MPa). Both the methacrylate-thiol-allyl ether and methacrylate-thiol-norbornene systems exhibited dramatic reductions in shrinkage stress (1.1 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.2 MPa, respectively) relative to BisGMA/TEGDMA (2.6 ± 0.2 MPa). Significance The improved polymerization kinetics and overall functional group conversion, coupled with reductions in shrinkage stress while maintaining equivalent flexural modulus, result in a superior overall dental restorative material as compared to traditional bulk dimethacrylate resins. PMID:19781757

Cramer, Neil B.; Couch, Charles L.; Schreck, Kathleen M.; Carioscia, Jacquelyn A.; Boulden, Jordan E.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.; Bowman, Christopher N.

2009-01-01

26

Genomics and X-ray microanalysis indicate that Ca2+ and thiols mediate the aggregation and adhesion of Xylella fastidiosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The availability of the genome sequence of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis, is accelerating important investigations concerning its pathogenicity. Plant vessel occlusion is critical for symptom development. The objective of the present study was to search for information that would help to explain the adhesion of X. fastidiosa cells to the xylem. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion may occur without the fastidium gum, an exopolysaccharide produced by X. fastidiosa, and X-ray microanalysis demonstrated the presence of elemental sulfur both in cells grown in vitro and in cells found inside plant vessels, indicating that the sulfur signal is generated by the pathogen surface. Calcium and magnesium peaks were detected in association with sulfur in occluded vessels. We propose an explanation for the adhesion and aggregation process. Thiol groups, maintained by the enzyme peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, could be active on the surface of the bacteria and appear to promote cell-cell aggregation by forming disulfide bonds with thiol groups on the surface of adjacent cells. The enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase has been shown to be an auxiliary component in the adhesiveness of some human pathogens. The negative charge conferred by the ionized thiol group could of itself constitute a mechanism of adhesion by allowing the formation of divalent cation bridges between the negatively charged bacteria and predominantly negatively charged xylem walls.

B. Leite

2002-06-01

27

Genomics and X-ray microanalysis indicate that Ca2+ and thiols mediate the aggregation and adhesion of Xylella fastidiosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The availability of the genome sequence of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis, is accelerating important investigations concerning its pathogenicity. Plant vessel occlusion is critical for symptom development. The objective of the present [...] study was to search for information that would help to explain the adhesion of X. fastidiosa cells to the xylem. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion may occur without the fastidium gum, an exopolysaccharide produced by X. fastidiosa, and X-ray microanalysis demonstrated the presence of elemental sulfur both in cells grown in vitro and in cells found inside plant vessels, indicating that the sulfur signal is generated by the pathogen surface. Calcium and magnesium peaks were detected in association with sulfur in occluded vessels. We propose an explanation for the adhesion and aggregation process. Thiol groups, maintained by the enzyme peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, could be active on the surface of the bacteria and appear to promote cell-cell aggregation by forming disulfide bonds with thiol groups on the surface of adjacent cells. The enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase has been shown to be an auxiliary component in the adhesiveness of some human pathogens. The negative charge conferred by the ionized thiol group could of itself constitute a mechanism of adhesion by allowing the formation of divalent cation bridges between the negatively charged bacteria and predominantly negatively charged xylem walls.

B., Leite; M.L., Ishida; E., Alves; H., Carrer; S.F., Pascholati; E.W., Kitajima.

2002-06-01

28

Aldehyde reductase activity in the antennae of Helicoverpa armigera.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we identified two aldehyde reductase activities in the antennae of Helicoverpa species, NADH and NADPH-dependent activity. We expressed one of these proteins of H.?armigera, aldo-keto reductase (AKR), which bears 56% identity to bovine aldose reductase, displays a NADPH-dependent activity and is mainly expressed in the antennae of adults. Whole-mount immunostaining showed that the enzyme is concentrated in the cells at the base of chemosensilla and in the nerves. The enzyme activity of H.?armigera?AKR is markedly different from those of mammalian enzymes. The best substrates are linear aliphatic aldehydes of 8-10 carbon atoms, but not hydroxyaldehydes. Both pheromone components of H.?armigera, which are unsaturated aldehydes of 16 carbons, are very poor substrates. Unlike mammalian AKRs, the H.?armigera enzyme is weakly affected by common inhibitors and exhibits a different behaviour from the action of thiols. A model of the enzyme suggests that the four cysteines are in their reduced form, as are the seven cysteines of mammalian enzymes. The occurrence of orthologous proteins in other insect species, that do not use aldehydes as pheromones, excludes the possibility of classifying this enzyme among the pheromone-degrading enzymes, as has been previously described in other insect species. PMID:24580848

Guo, H; Del Corso, A; Huang, L-Q; Mura, U; Pelosi, P; Wang, C-Z

2014-06-01

29

Effect of Prolonged High-Fat Diet on Thiol-Disulfide Homeostasis in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a prolonged high-fat (HF on thiol-disulfide homeostasis via the activity of the glutathione redox-system (GRS in rat blood and liver. Methods: The experiment was conducted on male Wistar rats. They were divided into groups and fed on the HF diet for 30, 90 and 180 days, respectively. The HF diet consisted of beef fat and cholesterol (19 % and 2 % of the total diet, respectively. The state of the GRS was assessed in the erythrocytes and liver tissue by the glutathione, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione peroxidase (GP activity. The levels of the initial and final products of lipid peroxidation – lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs, diene conjugates (DC and malondialdehydes (MDA in the blood and liver were investigated. Results: Within 30 days, the HF diet inhibits the glutathione enzyme activity in the blood (GR: P<0.01; GP: P<0.001 and liver (GR, P<0.01. Within 90 days the HF diet kick-starts the beginning of the GRS compensatory response and restores the thiol-disulfide homeostasis. At 180 days, the HF diet shows failure of the compensatory processes in the glutathione system caused by the redox-imbalance in the thiol-disulfide exchange, which reveals lowered levels of glutathione, GR and GP activity (P<0.001 for all in the blood and liver. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the thiol-disulfide status of the cells depends upon the nature of the nutrition, a long-term breach of which triggers a compensatory response and a failure of the compensatory processes in the GRS.

Tatyana P. Novgorodtseva

2013-09-01

30

Glutathione and protein thiol homeostasis in brain during reperfusion after cerebral ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The status of glutathione (GSH) and protein thiol homeostasis was examined in rat brain regions during reperfusion after moderate and severe cerebral ischemia. GSH levels were decreased in brain regions during reperfusion for 1 hr after moderate or severe ischemia for 0.5 hr. Maximal loss of GSH (50-66%) was observed in the striatum and hippocampus. The GSH lost from the brain regions was essentially recovered as protein-glutathione mixed disulfide (PrSSG) with concomitant loss of protein thiols (PrSH). The activities of enzymes such as Na+K+ ATPase, NADH dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase were also inhibited but were restored after incubation of the brain homogenate with dithiothreitol. The depletion of GSH was also accompanied by an increase in the levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species. The total GSH recovered as sum of GSH and PrSSG was significantly higher than the sham-operated controls in the hippocampus and striatum after 1 hr of reperfusion, after moderate ischemia for 0.5 hr, and at the end of 24 hr of reperfusion the GSH-protein thiol homeostasis was restored. In contrast after 1 hr of reperfusion after severe ischemia, the GSH recovered as sum of GSH and PrSSG was not significantly different from sham-operated controls and at the end of 24 hr, 7 of 9 animals died. The recuperation of the brain from oxidative stress during reperfusion after moderate ischemia was thus preceded by increased recovery of total GSH essentially in the form of PrSSG. Thus, rapid restoration of thiol homeostasis in the brain during reperfusion may help the brain recover from reperfusion injury. PMID:7562484

Shivakumar, B R; Kolluri, S V; Ravindranath, V

1995-09-01

31

Cytoplasmic glutathione redox status determines survival upon exposure to the thiol-oxidant 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) is a highly reactive thiol oxidant that functions as electron acceptor in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. DPS is very toxic to yeasts, impairing growth at low micromolar concentrations. The genes TRX2 (thioredoxin), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase), GSH1 (gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase) and, particularly, GLR1 (glutathione reductase) are required for survival on DPS. DPS is uniquely thiol-specific, and we found that the cellular mechanisms for DPS detoxification differ substantially from that of the commonly used thiol oxidant diamide. In contrast to this oxidant, the full antioxidant pools of glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin are required for resistance to DPS. We found that DPS-sensitive mutants display increases in the disulfide form of GSH (GSSG) during DPS exposure that roughly correlate with their more oxidizing GSH redox potential in the cytosol and their degree of DPS sensitivity. DPS seems to induce a specific disulfide stress, where an increase in the cytoplasmic/nuclearGSSG/GSH ratio results in putative DPS target(s) becoming sensitive to DPS. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May

López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Thorsen, Michael

2007-01-01

32

Synthesis of bisnaphthyl based thiol stabilized gold nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bis naphthyl based thiol stabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized by the chemical reduction of corresponding precursor, obtained from Au(III) salt with thiol ligand 4. The organo thiol ligand 4 were prepared from 1,1/sup '/-binaphth-2,2/sup '/-ol in three steps. Furthermore, the photophysical activity of these Au-NPs was also determined. (author)

33

Microfluidic devices using thiol-ene polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, a new polymeric microfluidic platform using off-stoichiometric thiol-ene (OSTE) polymers was developed. Thiolene polymers were chosen as they afford rapid UV curing, low volume shrinkage and optical transparency for use in microfluidic devices. Three different off-stoichiometric thiol-ene polymers with 30% excess allyl, 50% excess thiol and a 90% excess thiol (OSTE Allyl-30, OSTE-50 and OSTE-90, respectively) were fabricated. Attenuated reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and solid-state cross polarisation-magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed which functional groups (thiol or allyl) were present in excess in the OSTE polymers. The polymers were shown to have a more hydrophilic surface (water contact angle of 65°+/- 3) compared to polydimethylsiloxane (water contact angle of 105° +/- 5). Testing of the mechanical properties showed the glass transition temperatures to be 15.09 °C, 43.15 °C and, 57.48 °C for OSTE-90, OSTE Allyl-30 and, OSTE-50, respectively. The storage modulus was shown to be less than 10 MPa for the OSTE-90 polymer and approximately 1750 MPa for the OSTE Allyl-30 and OSTE-50 polymers. The polymers were then utilised to fabricate microfluidic devices via soft lithography practices and devices sealed using a one-step UV lamination "click" reaction technique. Finally, gold nanoparticles were used to form gold films on the OSTE-90 and OSTE-50 polymers as potential electrodes. Atomic force microscopy and sheet resistances were used to characterise the films.

Bou, Simon J. M. C.; Ellis, Amanda V.

2013-12-01

34

Glutathione reductase: solvent equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glutathione reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The kinetic mechanism is ping-pong, and we have investigated the rate-limiting nature of proton-transfer steps in the reactions catalyzed by the spinach, yeast, and human erythrocyte glutathione reductases using a combination of alternate substrate and solvent kinetic isotope effects. With NADPH or GSSG as the variable substrate, at a fixed, saturating concentration of the other substrate, solvent kinetic isotope effects were observed on V but not V/K. Plots of Vm vs mole fraction of D2O (proton inventories) were linear in both cases for the yeast, spinach, and human erythrocyte enzymes. When solvent kinetic isotope effect studies were performed with DTNB instead of GSSG as an alternate substrate, a solvent kinetic isotope effect of 1.0 was observed. Solvent kinetic isotope effect measurements were also performed on the asymmetric disulfides GSSNB and GSSNP by using human erythrocyte glutathione reductase. The Km values for GSSNB and GSSNP were 70 microM and 13 microM, respectively, and V values were 62 and 57% of the one calculated for GSSG, respectively. Both of these substrates yield solvent kinetic isotope effects greater than 1.0 on both V and V/K and linear proton inventories, indicating that a single proton-transfer step is still rate limiting. These data are discussed in relationship to the chemical mechanism of GSSG reduction and the identity of the protonG reduction and the identity of the proton-transfer step whose rate is sensitive to solvent isotopic composition. Finally, the solvent equilibrium isotope effect measured with yeast glutathione reductase is 4.98, which allows us to calculate a fractionation factor for the thiol moiety of GSH of 0.456

35

Fabrication and bonding of thiol-ene-based microfluidic devices  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, the bonding strength of microchips fabricated by thiol-ene free-radical polymerization was characterized in detail by varying the monomeric thiol/allyl composition from the stoichiometric ratio (1:1) up to 100% excess of thiol (2:1) or allyl (1:2) functional groups. Four different thiol-ene to thiol-ene bonding combinations were tested by bonding: (i) two stoichiometric layers, (ii) two layers bearing complementary excess of thiols and allyls, (iii) two layers both bearing excess of thiols, or (iv) two layers both bearing excess of allyls. The results showed that the stiffness of the cross-linked polymer plays the most crucial role regarding the bonding strength. The most rigid polymer layers were obtained by using the stoichiometric composition or an excess of allyls, and thus, the bonding combinations (i) and (iv) withstood the highest pressures (up to the cut-off value of 6 bar). On the other hand, excess of thiol monomers yielded more elastic polymer layers and thus decreased the pressure tolerance for bonding combinations (ii) and (iii). By using monomers with more thiol groups (e.g. tetrathiol versus trithiol), a higher cross-linking ratio, and thus, greater stiffness was obtained. Surface characterization by infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the changes in the monomeric thiol/allyl composition were also reflected in the surface chemistry. The flexibility of being able to bond different types of thiol-enes together allows for tuning of the surface chemistry to yield the desired properties for each application. Here, a capillary electrophoresis separation is performed to demonstrate the attractive properties of stoichiometric thiol-ene microchips.

Sikanen, Tiina M.; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Moilanen, Maria-Elisa; Zhuang, Guisheng; Jensen, Thomas G.; Kutter, Jörg P.

2013-03-01

36

Thiols and antioxidants in radiobiology: chemical and bioanalytical problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thiols may radioprotect by donating hydrogen atoms to a carbon-centred radical, but ascorbate (a better electron- than hydrogen-donor) can protect under some circumstances. The thiyl radical which may be produced is also reactive. Radioprotective efficiency may reflect both chemical reactivity and accessibility to DNA. Differences in uptake of thiols and thiol/disulphide exchange necessitate as much attention to chemical analysis of the test system as to its radiobiology. (author)

37

A novel vanadium reductase, Vanabin2, forms a possible cascade involved in electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The unusual ascidian ability to accumulate high levels of vanadium ions at concentrations of up to 350 mM, a 10(7)-fold increase over that found in seawater, has been attracting interdisciplinary attention for a century. Accumulated V(V) is finally reduced to V(III) via V(IV) in ascidian vanadocytes. Reducing agents must therefore participate in the reduction. Previously, we identified a vanadium-binding protein, Vanabin2, in which all 18 cysteines form nine disulfide bonds. Here, we report that Vanabin2 is a novel vanadium reductase because partial cleavage of its disulfide bonds results in the reduction of V(V) to V(IV). We propose that Vanabin2 forms a possible electron transfer cascade from the electron donor, NADPH, via glutathione reductase, glutathione, and Vanabin2 to the acceptor, and vanadium ions conjugated through thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. PMID:19336037

Kawakami, Norifumi; Ueki, Tatsuya; Amata, Yusuke; Kanamori, Kan; Matsuo, Koichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Michibata, Hitoshi

2009-04-01

38

Thiol groups of gizzard myosin heavy chains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proteolysis of phosphorylated and /sup 3/H-labeled dinitrophenylated chicken gizzard myosin with trypsin released major fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000, 50,000 and 66,000 in a 1:1 ratio. They contained 57% of the dinitrophenyl (N/sub 2/ph) group bound to thiols of the heavy chains; 28% of the label was bound to the light chains. The fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000 and M/sub r/ 66,000 were dinitrophenylated predominantly when the K/sup +/-ATPase activity was inhibited. Thiolysis of phosphorylated and dinitrophenylated myosin with 2-mercaptoethanol removed 60% and 25% of the N/sub 2/ph group from the N-terminal and M/sub r/ 66,000 fragments of the heavy chain, respectively, when 48% of the K/sup +/-ATPase activity was restored. Papain proteolysis of the tryptic digest of modified myosin released a C-terminal segment from the fragment of M/sub r/ 66,000 and it contained most of the remaining label. Proteolysis of /sup 3/H-labeled dinitrophenylated myosin alone resulted in the same digestion pattern but less of the label was bound to the heavy chain fragments. In this case, restoration of enzymic activity occurred in thiolyzed dinitrophenylated myosin when the N/sub 2/ph group was removed from the light chains, predominantly. Conformational changes in gizzard myosin, mediated by phosphorylation, altered the reactivity of the thiols in specific fragments of the heavy chain. Thiol groups of the N- and C-terminal heavy chain regions are involved in maintaining the ATPase activity of myosin.

Bailin, G.

1986-05-01

39

Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

2013-04-23

40

Role of endogenous thiols in protection  

Science.gov (United States)

Aminothiols represent the most important group of radioprotective compounds. The most effective compounds administered at an optimal dose and time before irradiation are able to provide a protection in mice with a dose reduction factor (DRF) of about 2-2.5. The working mechanism can partly be explained as a scavenging process of radicals induced in water and partly as a chemical repair process of injured DNA. The endogenous aminothiol which has far-out the highest intracellular concentration is glutathione (GSH). The importance of intracellular GSH in determining cellular radiosensitivity has been shown by irradiating cells that had very low GSH levels. Such cells appear to have a high radiosensitivity, especially in hypoxic conditions. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that induction of a high GSH level (100-200% above the normal level) provides only a small protection. In vitro experiments with DNA indicate that thiols with a high positive charge condense in the vicinity of DNA and are effective protectors, whereas thiols with a negative charge are kep away from it and are poor protectors. In comparison with the most effective exogenous aminothiols like cysteamine and WR1065, GSH is not an effective radioprotector. Putative explanations for this relatively poor protective ability of GSH are presented.

Vos, O.

 
 
 
 
41

Enhanced cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes via thiol-mediated transport  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tianshu Li, Shinji TakeokaDepartment of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University (TWIns, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: With a small amount of maleimide modification on the liposome surface, enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes and drug-delivery efficiency can be obtained both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we describe the mechanisms underlying this enhanced cellular uptake. Suppression of the cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes (M-GGLG, composed of 1,5-dihexadecyl N,N-diglutamyl-lysyl-L-glutamate [GGLG]/cholesterol/poly(ethylene glycol – 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [PEG5000-DSPE]/maleimide [M]-PEG5000-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03 caused by temperature block and addition of serum was alleviated compared with that of liposomes without maleimide modification (GGLG liposomes, composed of GGLG/cholesterol/PEG5000-DSPE/PEG5000-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03. When 0.01 nM N-ethylmaleimide was used to pre-block cellular thiols, the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes was decreased to approximately 70% in HeLa, HCC1954, MDA-MB-468, and COS-7 cell lines. Moreover, inhibition of a thiol-related reductase such as protein disulfide isomerase resulted in a 15%–45% inhibition of the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes, whereas GGLG liposomes were not influenced. Further, single and mixed inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis did not efficiently inhibit the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes. Using confocal microscopy, we verified that M-GGLG liposomes were localized partially in lysosomes after inhibition of the mentioned conventional endocytic pathways. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying the enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes by maleimide modification was thiol-mediated membrane trafficking, including endocytosis and energy-independent transport.Keywords: maleimide, thiol reactive, liposome, endocytosis, energy-independent transport, protein disulfide isomerase

Li T

2014-06-01

42

Transition Metal Photoredox Catalysis of Radical Thiol-Ene Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the anti-Markovnikov hydrothiolation of olefins using visible light absorbing transition metal photocatalysts. The key thiyl radical intermediates are generated upon quenching of photoexcited Ru*(bpz)32 with a variety of thiols. The adducts of a wide variety of olefins and thiols are formed in excellent yield (73–99%). PMID:23094660

Tyson, Elizabeth L.; Ament, Michael S.

2012-01-01

43

Conformational dynamics in glutathione reductase  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-resolved polarized fluorescence decays of FAD bound to glutathione reductase have been obtained upon separate excitation at 457.9 nm and 514.5 nm. From the inverse Laplace transform of the fluorescence decays as obtained by the maximum entropy method, five enzyme conformers can be distinguished in solution. By red-edge and main-band excitation we demonstrate that intersubunit energy transfer occurs between the flavin prosthetic groups as well as restricted motion of flavin. From a 2-D maximum entropy analysis, it can be deduced that the observed conformers of glutathione reductase have different dynamic properties. The ability of the maximum entropy method to resolve a heterogeneous population of emitters with distinct dynamical properties is tested by simulated data. From the results, a role in catalysis is proposed to equilibrium fluctuations in glutathione reductase.

Bastiaens, Philippe I.; van Hoek, Arie; Brochon, Jean-Claude; Visser, Antonie J. W. G.

1992-04-01

44

Zeatin reductase in Phaseolus embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zeatin was converted to O-xylosylzeatin in embryos of Phaseolus vulgaris . O-xylosyldihydrozeatin was also identified as a zeatin metabolite. Incubation of embryo extracts with 14C-zeatin and 14C-O-xylosylzeatin revealed that reduction preceeds the O-xylosylation of zeatin. An enzyme responsible for reducing the N6-side chain was isolated and partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity, gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The NADPH dependent reductase was zeatin specific and did not recognize cis-zeatin, ribosylzeatin, i6Ade or i6Ado. Two forms of the reductase could be separated by either gel filtration or anion exchange HPLC. The HMW isozyme (Mr. 55,000) eluted from the anion exchange column later than the LMW isozyme (Mr. 25,000). Interspecific differences in zeatin reductase activity were also detected

45

Fluorescence thiol modification assay: oxidatively modified proteins in Bacillus subtilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidatively modified thiol groups of cysteine residues are known to modulate the activity of a growing number of proteins. In this study, we developed a fluorescence-based thiol modification assay and combined it with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to monitor the in vivo thiol state of cytoplasmic proteins. For the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis our results show that protein thiols of growing cells are mainly present in the reduced state. Only a few proteins were found to be thiol-modified, e.g. enzymes that include oxidized thiols in their catalytic cycle. To detect proteins that are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress we exposed growing B. subtilis cells to diamide, hydrogen peroxide or to the superoxide generating agent paraquat. Diamide mediated a significant increase of oxidized thiols in a variety of metabolic enzymes, whereas treatment with paraquat affected only a few proteins. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide forced the oxidation especially of proteins with active site cysteines, e.g. of cysteine-based peroxidases and glutamine amidotransferase-like proteins. Moreover, high levels of hydrogen peroxide were observed to influence the isoelectric point of proteins of this group indicating the generation of irreversibly oxidated thiols. From the overlapping set of oxidatively modified proteins, also enzymes necessary for methionine biosynthesis were identified, e.g. cobalamin-independent methionine synthase MetE. Growth experiments revealed a methionine limitation after diamide and hydrogen peroxide stress, which suggests a thiol-oxidation-dependent inactivation of MetE. Finally, evidence is presented that the antibiotic nitrofurantoin mediates the formation of oxidized thiols in B. subtilis. PMID:16194229

Hochgräfe, Falko; Mostertz, Jörg; Albrecht, Dirk; Hecker, Michael

2005-10-01

46

Glutathione and the redox control system trypanothione/trypanothione reductase are involved in the protection of Leishmania spp. against nitrosothiol-induced cytotoxicity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Glutathione is the major intracellular antioxidant thiol protecting mammalian cells against oxidative stress induced by oxygen- and nitrogen-derived reactive species. In trypanosomes and leishmanias, trypanothione plays a central role in parasite protection against mammalian host defence systems by [...] recycling trypanothione disulphide by the enzyme trypanothione reductase. Although Kinetoplastida parasites lack glutathione reductase, they maintain significant levels of glutathione. The aim of this study was to use Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase gene mutant clones and different Leishmania species to examine the role of these two individual thiol systems in the protection mechanism against S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP), a nitrogen-derived reactive species donor. We found that the resistance to SNAP of different species of Leishmania was inversely correlated with their glutathione concentration but not with their total low-molecular weight thiol content (about 0.18 nmol/10(7) parasites, regardless Leishmania species). The glutathione concentration in L. amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, and L. braziliensis were 0.12, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.04 nmol/10(7) parasites, respectively. L. amazonensis, that have a higher level of glutathione, were less susceptible to SNAP (30 and 100 µM). The IC50 values of SNAP determined to L. amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, and L. braziliensis were 207.8, 188.5, 160.9, and 83 µM, respectively. We also observed that L. donovani mutants carrying only one trypanothione reductase allele had a decreased capacity to survive (~40%) in the presence of SNAP (30-150 µM). In conclusion, the present data suggest that both antioxidant systems, glutathione and trypanothione/trypanothione reductase, participate in protection of Leishmania against the toxic effect of nitrogen-derived reactive species.

P.R.T., Romão; J., Tovar; S.G., Fonseca; R.H., Moraes; A.K., Cruz; J.S., Hothersall; A.A., Noronha-Dutra; S.H., Ferreira; F.Q., Cunha.

47

Quinone reductase reaction catalyzed by Streptococcus faecalis NADH peroxidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

NADH peroxidase is a flavoenzyme having a single redox-active thiol, Cys42, that cycles between sulfenate and thiol forms in the NADH-dependent reduction of hydrogen peroxide. NADH peroxidase catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of quinones with turnover numbers between 1.2 and 3.9 s-1, per mole of FAD, at pH 7.5. The bimolecular rate constants for quinone reduction, V/K, ranged from 4.3 x 10(3) to 6.0 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 for 14 quinones whose redox potentials varied between -0.41 and 0.09 V. The logarithms of the V/K values for these quinones are hyperbolically dependent on their single-electron reduction potentials (E7(1). One-electron reduction of benzoquinone accounts for about 50% of the total electron transfer catalyzed by NADH peroxidase at pH 7, with the remainder of the reduction being catalyzed by a two-electron (hydride) transfer. Cys42 can be irreversibly oxidized to the sulfonate by hydrogen peroxide, with inactivation of the peroxidatic activity of the enzyme. The residual quinone reductase activity of NADH peroxidase which has undergone oxidative inactivation of the active site Cys42 indicates that this residue is not involved in the reduction of the quinones. Product inhibition studies suggest the possibility of overlap of the pyridine nucleotide and quinone binding sites in the reduced enzyme at low pH values. The pH dependence of the maximum velocity of naphthoquinone reduction shows that deprotonation of an enzymic group, exhibiting a pK value of ca. 6.2, decreases the maximal velocity. Primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects on V and V/K for quinone-dependent NADH oxidation increase upon protonation of a group, exhibiting a pK value of 6.4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7756294

Marcinkeviciene, J A; Blanchard, J S

1995-05-23

48

Indispensable platforms for bioimmobilization: maleimide-based thiol reactive hydrogels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels containing thiol-reactive maleimide functional groups is prepared via a Diels-Alder/retro Diels-Alder reaction sequence using a masked maleimide monomer. Bulk and micropatterned hydrogels containing varying amounts of the thiol-reactive maleimide functional group are fabricated at ambient temperature. During the fabrication, the reactive maleimide functional group in the monomer is masked with a furan moiety and then unmasked to its reactive form via the retro-Diels-Alder reaction. The reactive maleimide groups embedded within the hydrogel are amenable to facile and efficient functionalization with thiol-containing molecules such as fluorescent dyes. Furthermore, these hydrogels are readily biotinylated using the nucleophilic thiol-ene conjugation to enable immobilization of streptavidin onto the hydrogel patterns to achieve facile bioimmobilization. Notably, the extent of functionalization of these hydrogels can be easily tailored by varying the amount of reactive handles incorporated during their fabrication. PMID:25250772

Park, Eun Ju; Gevrek, Tugce Nihal; Sanyal, Rana; Sanyal, Amitav

2014-11-19

49

Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A series of bile acid-derived facially amphiphilic thiols have been used to cap sliver and gold nanoparticles. The self-assembling properties of these steroid-capped nanoparticles have been investigated and reported in this article.

Bhat, Shreedhar; Maitra, Uday

2008-01-01

50

DNA microarrays on silicon surfaces through thiol-ene chemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential of thiol-ene chemistry as a selective strategy to functionalize silicon materials for DNA microarraying is demonstrated and applied to discriminate genetic variations. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Escorihuela Fuentes, Jorge; Ban?uls Polo, Mª Jose?; Puchades Pla, Rosa; Maquieira Catala, A?ngel

2012-01-01

51

Cell-type specific requirements for thiol/disulfide exchange during HIV-1 entry and infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of disulfide bond remodeling in HIV-1 infection is well described, but the process still remains incompletely characterized. At present, the data have been predominantly obtained using established cell lines and/or CXCR4-tropic laboratory-adapted virus strains. There is also ambiguity about which disulfide isomerases/ reductases play a major role in HIV-1 entry, as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI and/or thioredoxin (Trx have emerged as the two enzymes most often implicated in this process. Results We have extended our previous findings and those of others by focusing on CCR5-using HIV-1 strains and their natural targets - primary human macrophages and CD4+ T lymphocytes. We found that the nonspecific thiol/disulfide exchange inhibitor, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB, significantly reduced HIV-1 entry and infection in cell lines, human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM, and also phytohemagglutinin (PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Subsequent studies were performed using specific anti-PDI or Trx monoclonal antibodies (mAb in HIV-1 envelope pseudotyped and wild type (wt virus infection systems. Although human donor-to-donor variability was observed as expected, Trx appeared to play a greater role than PDI in HIV-1 infection of MDM. In contrast, PDI, but not Trx, was predominantly involved in HIV-1 entry and infection of the CD4+/CCR5+ T cell line, PM-1, and PHA-stimulated primary human T lymphocytes. Intriguingly, both PDI and Trx were present on the surface of MDM, PM-1 and PHA-stimulated CD4+ T cells. However, considerably lower levels of Trx were detected on freshly isolated CD4+ lymphocytes, compared to PHA-stimulated cells. Conclusions Our findings clearly demonstrate the role of thiol/disulfide exchange in HIV-1 entry in primary T lymphocytes and MDM. They also establish a cell-type specificity regarding the involvement of particular disulfide isomerases/reductases in this process and may provide an explanation for differences among previously published studies. More importantly, from an in vivo perspective, the preferential utilization of PDI may be relevant to the HIV-1 entry and establishment of virus reservoirs in resting CD4+ cells, while the elevated levels of Trx reported in the chronic stages of HIV-1 infection may facilitate the virus entry in macrophages and help to sustain high viremia during the decline of T lymphocytes.

Stantchev Tzanko S

2012-12-01

52

Endogenous thiol content of budding and resting yeast cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are presented on the content of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of cells of diploid yeast culture Saccharomyces ellipsoideus Megri-139-B of the same age but of different budding cell content. Yeast cultures having a higher content of budding cells were shown to contain a larger number of endogenous thiols and to be more radioresistant than those having a smaller amount of budding cells

53

The Escherichia coli Azoreductase AzoR Is Involved in Resistance to Thiol-Specific Stress Caused by Electrophilic Quinones ?  

Science.gov (United States)

The physiological role of Escherichia coli azoreductase AzoR was studied. It was found that AzoR was capable of reducing several benzo-, naphtho-, and anthraquinone compounds, which were better substrates for AzoR than the model azo substrate methyl red. The ?azoR mutant displayed reduced viability when exposed to electrophilic quinones, which are capable of depleting cellular reduced glutathione (GSH). Externally added GSH can partially restore the impaired growth of the ?azoR mutant caused by 2-methylhydroquinone. The transcription of azoR was induced by electrophiles, including 2-methylhydroquinone, catechol, menadione, and diamide. A transcription start point was identified 44 bp upstream from the translation start point. These data indicated that AzoR is a quinone reductase providing resistance to thiol-specific stress caused by electrophilic quinones. PMID:19666717

Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Fu, Q. Shiang; Wang, Jing

2009-01-01

54

The Escherichia coli azoreductase AzoR Is involved in resistance to thiol-specific stress caused by electrophilic quinones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physiological role of Escherichia coli azoreductase AzoR was studied. It was found that AzoR was capable of reducing several benzo-, naphtho-, and anthraquinone compounds, which were better substrates for AzoR than the model azo substrate methyl red. The DeltaazoR mutant displayed reduced viability when exposed to electrophilic quinones, which are capable of depleting cellular reduced glutathione (GSH). Externally added GSH can partially restore the impaired growth of the DeltaazoR mutant caused by 2-methylhydroquinone. The transcription of azoR was induced by electrophiles, including 2-methylhydroquinone, catechol, menadione, and diamide. A transcription start point was identified 44 bp upstream from the translation start point. These data indicated that AzoR is a quinone reductase providing resistance to thiol-specific stress caused by electrophilic quinones. PMID:19666717

Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Fu, Q Shiang; Wang, Jing

2009-10-01

55

Thiol-selective fluorogenic probes for labeling and release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiol alkylation is a powerful technique for the labeling of proteins. We report a new class of highly reactive, selective, and fluorogenic probes for thiols in aqueous solution at neutral pH, based on the 7-oxanorbornadiene (OND) framework. The maleate moiety in 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2,5-diene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid esters serves as both a tunable electrophile and an intramolecular quencher of an attached dansyl fluorophore. Thiols have been found to add with high rates (second-order rate constants of 40-200 M(-1) s(-1)) to give adducts that exhibit enhancements of fluorescence intensity up to 180-fold. The resulting adducts are also versatile with respect to cleavage (release) reactions by two mechanisms. First, retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation occurs with half-lives from days to weeks at room temperature, and an epoxide derivative is also reported that is incapable of cycloreversion cleavage. Second, monoamide OND derivatives undergo rapid closure to succinimides upon thiol addition, providing a thiol-triggered mechanism for immediate alcohol release. Peptides and proteins containing free thiol groups were labeled with OND electrophiles with high chemoselectivity. Since the system is so easily assembled from readily accessible modules, various functional groups can be added to OND linkers to allow the attachment of other molecules of interest. PMID:19621956

Hong, Vu; Kislukhin, Alexander A; Finn, M G

2009-07-29

56

Sequential thiol click reactions: formation of ternary thiourethane/thiol-ene networks with enhanced thermal and mechanical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the physical properties of thiol-ene networks modified with thiourethane or urethane linkages, either along the main chain or as a branched component in the network, respectively. Because of the robust and orthogonal nature of thiol-isocyanate and thiol-ene reactions, these networks can be formed in a two-step, one-pot synthesis. Resultant networks were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis, mechanical testing and other complementary techniques. It was found that incorporating (thio)urethanes into the networks increased Tg, but also increased strain at break and toughness while decreasing cross-link density. The changes in physical properties are discussed in terms of a proposed dual network morphology. These facile modifications to thiol-ene networks demonstrate how molecular-level, nanoscale changes can have a profound influence on the macroscale properties through hierarchical development of network morphology. PMID:24571167

McNair, Olivia D; Brent, Davis P; Sparks, Bradley J; Patton, Derek L; Savin, Daniel A

2014-05-14

57

Levodopa deactivates enzymes that regulate thiol-disulfide homeostasis and promotes neuronal cell death: implications for therapy of Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by dopaminergic neuronal loss, is attributed to oxidative stress, diminished glutathione (GSH) levels, mitochondrial dysfunction, and protein aggregation. Treatment of PD involves chronic administration of Levodopa (l-DOPA) which is a pro-oxidant and may disrupt sulfhydryl homeostasis. The goal of these studies is to elucidate the effects of l-DOPA on thiol homeostasis in a model akin to PD, i.e., immortalized dopaminergic neurons (SHSY5Y cells) with diminished GSH content. These neurons exhibit hypersensitivity to l-DOPA-induced cell death, which is attributable to concomitant inhibition of the intracellular thiol disulfide oxidoreductase enzymes. Glutaredoxin (Grx) was deactivated in a dose-dependent fashion, but its content was unaffected. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) reductase (GR) activity was not altered. Selective knockdown of Grx resulted in an increased level of apoptosis, documenting the role of the Grx system in neuronal survival. l-DOPA treatments also led to decreased activities of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR), concomitant with diminution of their cellular contents. Selective chemical inhibition of TR activity led to an increased level of apoptosis, documenting the Trx system's contribution to neuronal viability. To investigate the mechanism of inhibition at the molecular level, we treated the each isolated enzyme with oxidized l-DOPA. GR, Trx, and TR activities were little affected. However, Grx was inactivated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion indicative of irreversible adduction of dopaquinone to its nucleophilic active-site Cys-22, consistent with the intracellular loss of Grx activity but not Grx protein content after l-DOPA treatment. Overall l-DOPA is shown to impair the collaborative contributions of the Grx and Trx systems to neuron survival. PMID:20141169

Sabens, Elizabeth A; Distler, Anne M; Mieyal, John J

2010-03-30

58

A maize gene encoding an NADPH binding enzyme highly homologous to isoflavone reductases is activated in response to sulfur starvation.  

Science.gov (United States)

we isolated a novel gene that is selectively induced both in roots and shoots in response to sulfur starvation. This gene encodes a cytosolic, monomeric protein of 33 kD that selectively binds NADPH. The predicted polypeptide is highly homologous ( > 70%) to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but the maize protein (IRL for isoflavone reductase-like) belongs to a novel family of proteins present in a variety of plants. Anti-IRL antibodies specifically recognize IFR polypeptides, yet the maize protein is unable to use various isoflavonoids as substrates. IRL expression is correlated closely to glutathione availability: it is persistently induced in seedlings whose glutathione content is about fourfold lower than controls, and it is down-regulated rapidly when control levels of glutathione are restored. This glutathione-dependent regulation indicates that maize IRL may play a crucial role in the establishment of a thiol-independent response to oxidative stress under glutathione shortage conditions. PMID:8597660

Petrucco, S; Bolchi, A; Foroni, C; Percudani, R; Rossi, G L; Ottonello, S

1996-01-01

59

Fatty acyl-CoA reductase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

1998-12-01

60

Polymer surface engineering via thiol-mediated reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthesis of polymer brushes to decorate a surface with desired functionality typically involves surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) of functional, but non-reactive monomers. This approach suffers major drawbacks associated with synthesizing sufficiently thick polymer brushes containing surface-attached polymer chains of high molecular weight at high grafting density (i.e. cost, synthetic effort and functional group intolerance during polymerization). The research herein seeks to circumvent these limitations by the decoration of surfaces with polymer chains bearing specific pendent functional groups amenable to post-polymerization modification (PPM). In particular, this dissertation leverages PPM via a specific class of click reactions - thiol-click - that 1) enables the rapid generation of a diverse library of functional surfaces from a single substrates precursor, 2) utilizes a structurally diverse range of commercially available or easily attainable reagents, 3) proceeds rapidly to quantitative conversions under mild conditions and 4) opens the door to orthogonal and site-selective functionalization. In the first two studies, radical-mediated thiol-yne and base-catalyzed thiol-isocyanate reactions are demonstrated as modular platforms for the rapid and practical fabrication of highly functional, multicomponent surfaces under ambient conditions. Brush surfaces expressing a three-dimensional configuration of alkyne or isocyanate functionalities were modified with high efficiency and short reaction times using a library of commercially available thiols. In the third study, two routes to multifunctional brush surfaces were demonstrated utilizing orthogonal thiol-click reactions. In the first approach, alkyne-functionalized homopolymer brushes were modified with multiple thiols via a statistical, radical-mediated thiol-yne co-click reaction; and in the second approach, statistical copolymer brushes carrying two distinctly-addressable reactive moieties were sequentially modified via orthogonal base-catalyzed thiol-X (where X represents an isocyanate, epoxy, or ?-bromoester) and radical-mediated thiol-yne reactions. In the fourth study thiol-click PPMs are investigated in depth to determine how surface constraints affect the modification process by probing the penetration depth of functional thiol modifiers into pendent isocyanate-containing polymer brushes via neutron reflectivity studies. Also, the synthesis of tapered block copolymer brush surfaces was demonstrated by exploiting the inherent mass transport limitations of post-polymerization modification processes on reactive brush surfaces. In the fifth study a post-polymerization surface modification approach providing pendent thiol functionality along the polymer brush backbone using the photolabile protection chemistry of both o-nitrobenzyl and p-methoxyphenacyl thioethers was developed. Addressing the protecting groups with light not only affords spatial control of reactive thiol functionality but enables a plethora of thiol-mediated transformations with isocyanates and maleimides providing a modular route to create functional polymer surfaces.

Hensarling, Ryan Matthew

 
 
 
 
61

Designed Chemical Intervention with Thiols for Prophylactic Contraception  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike somatic cells, sperm have several-fold more available-thiols that are susceptible to redox-active agents. The present study explains the mechanism behind the instant sperm-immobilizing and trichomonacidal activities of pyrrolidinium pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (PPC), a novel thiol agent rationally created for prophylactic contraception by minor chemical modifications of some known thiol drugs. PPC, and its three derivatives (with potential active-site blocked by alkylation), were synthesized and evaluated against live human sperm and metronidazole-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas vaginalis, in vitro. Sperm hexokinase activity was evaluated by coupled enzyme assay. PPC irreversibly immobilized 100% human sperm in ?30 seconds and totally eliminated Trichomonas vaginalis more efficiently than nonoxynol-9 and metronidazole. It significantly inhibited (P<0.001) thiol-sensitive sperm hexokinase. However, the molecule completely lost all its biological activities once its thiol group was blocked by alkylation. PPC was subsequently formulated into a mucoadhesive vaginal film using GRaS excipients and evaluated for spermicidal and microbicidal activities (in vitro), and contraceptive efficacy in rabbits. PPC remained fully active in quick-dissolving, mucoadhesive vaginal-film formulation, and these PPC-films significantly reduced pregnancy and fertility rates in rabbits. The films released ?90% of PPC in simulated vaginal fluid (pH 4.2) at 37°C in 5 minutes, in vitro. We have thus discovered a common target (reactive thiols) on chiefly-anaerobic, redox-sensitive cells like sperm and Trichomonas, which is susceptible to designed chemical interference for prophylactic contraception. The active thiol in PPC inactivates sperm and Trichomonas via interference with crucial sulfhydryl-disulfide based reactions, e.g. hexokinase activation in human sperm. In comparison to non-specific surfactant action of OTC spermicide nonoxynol-9, the action of thiol-active PPC is apparently much more specific, potent and safe. PPC presents a proof-of-concept for prophylactic contraception via manipulation of thiols in vagina for selective targeting of sperm and Trichomonas, and qualifies as a promising lead for the development of dually protective vaginal-contraceptive. PMID:23826278

Jain, Ashish; Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Lalit; Rawat, Tara; Dwivedi, Anil K.; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P.; Sharma, Vishnu L.; Gupta, Gopal

2013-01-01

62

The control of hyperhomocysteinemia through thiol exchange mechanisms by mesna.  

Science.gov (United States)

In hyperhomocysteinemic patients, after reaction with homocysteine-albumin mixed disulfides (HSS-ALB), mesna (MSH) forms the mixed disulfide with Hcy (HSSM) which can be removed by renal clearance, thus reducing the plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy). In order to assess the HSS-ALB dethiolation via thiol exchange reactions, the distribution of redox species of cysteine, cysteinylglycine, homocysteine and glutathione was investigated in the plasma of healthy subjects: (i) in vitro, after addition of 35 ?M reduced homocysteine (HSH) to plasma for 72 h, followed by MSH addition (at the concentration range 10-600 ?M) for 25 min; (ii) in vivo, after oral treatment with methionine (methionine, 200 mg/kg body weight, observation time 2-6 h). In both experiments the distribution of redox species, but not the total amount of each thiol, was modified by thiol exchange reactions of albumin and cystine, with changes thermodynamically related to the pKa values of thiols in the corresponding mixed disulfides. MSH provoked a dose-response reversal of the redox state of aged plasma, and the thiol action was confirmed by in vivo experiments. Since it was observed that the dimesna production could be detrimental for the in vivo optimization of HSSM formation, we assume that the best plasma tHcy lowering can be obtained at MSH doses producing the minimum dimesna concentration in each individual. PMID:24337902

Di Giuseppe, Danila; Priora, Raffaella; Coppo, Lucia; Ulivelli, Monica; Bartalini, Sabina; Summa, Domenico; Margaritis, Antonios; Frosali, Simona; Di Simplicio, Paolo

2014-02-01

63

Characterization of the amino acids involved in substrate specificity of methionine sulfoxide reductase A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the thioredoxin-dependent reduction of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) back to methionine. In vivo, Msrs are essential in protecting cells against oxidative damages on proteins and in the virulence of some bacteria. There exists two structurally unrelated classes of Msrs. MsrAs are stereo-specific toward the S epimer on the sulfur of the sulfoxide, whereas MsrBs are specific toward the R isomer. Both classes of Msrs display a similar catalytic mechanism of sulfoxide reduction by thiols via the sulfenic acid chemistry and a better affinity for protein-bound MetSO than for free MetSO. Recently, the role of the amino acids implicated in the catalysis of the reductase step of Neisseria meningitidis MsrA was determined. In the present study, the invariant amino acids potentially involved in substrate binding, i.e. Phe-52, Trp-53, Asp-129, His-186, Tyr-189, and Tyr-197, were substituted. The catalytic parameters under steady-state conditions and of the reductase step of the mutated MsrAs were determined and compared with those of the wild type. Altogether, the results support the presence of at least two binding subsites. The first one, whose contribution is major in the efficiency of the reductase step and in which the epsilon-methyl group of MetSO binds, is the hydrophobic pocket formed by Phe-52 and Trp-53, the position of the indole ring being stabilized by interactions with His-186 and Tyr-189. The second subsite composed of Asp-129 and Tyr-197 contributes to the binding of the main chain of the substrate but to a lesser extent. PMID:17500063

Gand, Adeline; Antoine, Mathias; Boschi-Muller, Sandrine; Branlant, Guy

2007-07-13

64

Thiol and non-thiol antioxidants effect radiation damage expressed by IEC-6 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The epithelial lining of the GI mucosal surface is traditionally viewed as a passive barrier serving a largely protective function. Recently, enterocytes have been seen to function as sensitive indicators of oxidative stress, with defined responses to shifts in the oxidative balance. Radiation damage, long recognized as the result of the generation of reactive oxygen species, would theoretically be modulated by the presence of radical scavenging anti-oxidants. Cultures of IEC-6 cells, a model for the gastrointestinal epithelium were found to have lower numbers of adherent cells in response either n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or l-ascorbate in the medium. In both cases the response was dose dependent, with inhibition in response to l-ascorbate well established by 48 hours. However, in contrast to the thiol antioxidant NAC where a late recovery was observed at high dose, no statistically significant increase in adherent cell numbers were observed with high dose l-ascorbate, and adherent cell numbers actually fell off with time. Exposure to antioxidants potentiated the damage from x-ray irradiation further reducing cell numbers. While we have previously shown that this damage was not associated with mitotic delay or inhibition of proliferation, the mechanism of this response remains undefined. Non-adherent cells were found to increase with dose in the presence of antioxidants with those cells having morphology consistent with apoptotic cells including nuclear condensation, and blabbing. Annexin V cells increased in the non-adherent cell layer, but the numbers did not seem to account for the severe reduction in cell numbers observed. It has been suggested that a p53 mutation alters the response to oxidative damage in these cells via a thiol containing motif sensitive to the cellular glutathione pool resulting in an automatic signal to release from the basement membrane, however it does not explain the similarity in effects to ascorbate

65

Effect of ?-irradiation on thiol compounds in grapefruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of 60Co ?-irradiation on thiol compounds in grapefruit was investigated. Thiols were separated by HPLC and measured with a fluorescence detector. Reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine (CySH), cysteinylglycine (CySGly), and a number of unknown peaks were observed in unirradiated grapefruit. GSH was the main thiol at an average concentration of 143.3 ?M. GSH content exponentially decreased with increased radiation doses, and after 100 krad only 80% of the original remained. The G value based on the result of 100 krad was 0.29. Authentic GSH in water or citrate buffer (pH 3) was converted mainly to its oxidized form (GSSG) with ?-irradiated grapefruits showed no equivalent increase, however

66

On nitroaryl reductase activities in several Clostridia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude extracts of Clostridium kluyveri, Clostridium spec. La 1, Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium pasteurianum catalyse the NADH-dependent reduction of the nitro group of p-nitrobenzoate. The former three Clostridia also use pyruvate as electron donor for this reduction. The NADH-dependent reductases have been partially purified and characterized from Clostridium kluyveri. Nitroalkyl compounds as well as nitrite, sulfite, sulfate and hydroxylamine are no substrates. Based on chromatographic behavior, separation pattern, yields, stability, pH optima, molecular masses and EPR studies the three NADH-dependent nitroaryl group reducing enzymes in Clostridium kluyveri (three activities in Clostridium spec. La 1 and two activities in Clostridium sporogenes) are different from alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, 3-hydroxy-butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyryrl-CoA dehydrogenase, 2-enoate reductase, ferredoxin-NAD and ferredoxin-NADP reductase. The physiological roles of the nitroaryl reductases are not known. The reductase activities show losses of 80-90% during classical protein purification procedures. One of the three nitroaryl reductases exhibits a pH optimum of 10.5. The crude extract reveals a pH optimum at 11.5. The first step of the reduction reaction leads to the nitroradical anion (1 electron transfer). The electron transfer to p-nitrobenzoate is also catalysed by ferrodoxin-NAD reductase from NADH and by ferredoxin-NADP reductase from NADP. Partially purified 2-oxo-acid synthases from Clostridium sporogenes catalyse with low rates the reduction of p-nitrobenzoate as well as 2-nitroethanol in the presence and absence of ferredoxin using pyruvate or 2-oxo-4-methylpentanoate as electron donors, respectively. The NADH-dependent reduction of p-nitro-benzoate accounts for at least 70% and the 2-oxo acid-dependent reduction for about 5% of the total nitroaryl reductase activity in the Clostridia. It seems that the pyridine nucleotide-dependent nitroaryl reductases are enzymes so far unknown in Clostridia. PMID:6321315

Angermaier, L; Simon, H

1983-12-01

67

Enhancement of bismuth antibacterial activity with lipophilic thiol chelators.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antibacterial properties of bismuth are greatly enhanced when bismuth is combined with certain lipophilic thiol compounds. Antibacterial activity was enhanced from 25- to 300-fold by the following seven different thiols, in order of decreasing synergy: 1,3-propanedithiol, dimercaprol (BAL), dithiothreitol, 3-mercapto-2-butanol, beta-mercaptoethanol, 1-monothioglycerol, and mercaptoethylamine. The dithiols produced the greatest synergy with bismuth at optimum bismuth-thiol molar ratios of from 3:1 to 1:1. The monothiols were generally not as synergistic and required molar ratios of from 1:1 to 1:4 for optimum antibacterial activity. The most-active mono- or dithiols were also the most soluble in butanol. The intensity of the yellow formed by bismuth-thiol complexes reflected the degree of chelation and correlated with antibacterial potency at high molar ratios. The bismuth-BAL compound (BisBAL) was active against most bacteria, as assessed by broth dilution, agar diffusion, and agar dilution analyses. Staphylococci (MIC, 5 to 7 microM Bi3+) and Helicobacter pylori (MIC, 2.2 microM) were among the most sensitive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive (MIC, Bismuth-thiol solubility, stability, and antibacterial activity depended on pH and the bismuth-thiol molar ratio. BisBAL was stable but ineffective against Escherichia coli at pH 4. Activity and instability (reactivity) increased with increasing alkalinity. BisBAL was acid soluble at a molar ratio of greater than 3:2 and alkaline soluble at a molar ratio of less than 2:3. In conclusion, certain lipophilic thiol compounds enhanced bismuth antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria. The activity, solubility, and stability of BisBAL were strongly dependent on the pH, temperature, and molar ratio. Chelation of bismuth with certain thiol agents enhanced the solubility and lipophilicity of this cationic heavy metal, thereby significantly enhancing its potency and versatility as an antibacterial agent. PMID:9257744

Domenico, P; Salo, R J; Novick, S G; Schoch, P E; Van Horn, K; Cunha, B A

1997-01-01

68

Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase repair by Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein exposure to oxidants such as HOCl leads to formation of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) residues, which can be repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). A Helicobacter pylori msr strain was more sensitive to HOCl-mediated killing than the parent. Because of its abundance in H. pylori and its high methionine content, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C (AhpC) was hypothesized to be prone to methionine oxidation. AhpC was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. AhpC activity was abolished by HOCl, while all six methionine residues of the enzyme were fully to partially oxidized. Upon incubation with a Msr repair mixture, AhpC activity was restored to nonoxidized levels and the MetSO residues were repaired to methionine, albeit to different degrees. The two most highly oxidized and then Msr-repaired methionine residues in AhpC, Met101 and Met133, were replaced with isoleucine residues by site-directed mutagenesis, either individually or together. E. coli cells expressing variant versions were more sensitive to t-butyl hydroperoxide than cells expressing native protein, and purified AhpC variant proteins had 5% to 39% of the native enzyme activity. Variant proteins were still able to oligomerize like the native version, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of variant proteins revealed no significant change in AhpC conformation, indicating that the loss of activity in these variants was not related to major structural alterations. Our results suggest that both Met101 and Met133 residues are important for AhpC catalytic activity and that their integrity relies on the presence of a functional Msr. PMID:24097943

Benoit, Stéphane L; Bayyareddy, Krishnareddy; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S; Maier, Robert J

2013-12-01

69

Surface functionalized thiol-ene waveguides for fluorescence biosensing in microfluidic devices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thiol-ene polymers possess physical, optical, and chemical characteristics that make them ideal substrates for the fabrication of optofluidic devices. In this work, thiol-ene polymers are used to simultaneously create microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in one simple moulding step. The reactive functional groups present at the surface of the thiol-ene polymer are subsequently used for the rapid, one step, site-specific functionalization of the waveguide with biological recognition molecules. It was found that while the bulk properties and chemical surface properties of thiol-ene materials vary considerably with variations in stoichiometric composition, their optical properties remain mostly unchanged with an average refractive index value of 1.566 ± 0.008 for thiol-ene substrates encompassing a range from 150% excess ene to 90% excess thiol. Microfluidic chips featuring thiol-ene waveguides were fabricated from 40% excess thiol thiol-ene to ensure the presence of thiol functional groups at the surface of the waveguide. Biotin alkyne was photografted at specific locations using a photomask, directly at the interface between the microfluidic channel and the thiol-ene waveguide prior to conjugation with fluorescently labeled streptavidin. Fluorescence excitation was achieved by launching light through the thiol-ene waveguide, revealing bright fluorescent patterns along the channel/waveguide interface.

Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj A; Lafleur, Josiane P.

2014-01-01

70

Reduction of drug ketones by dihydrodiol dehydrogenases, carbonyl reductase and aldehyde reductase of human liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we compared the enzymatic reduction of 10 drugs with a ketone group by homogeneous carbonyl reductase, aldehyde reductase and three dihydrodiol dehydrogenases of human liver cytosol. At least one and in some cases all of the three dihydrodiol dehydrogenases reduced each of the ten drugs. Among these naloxone, naltrexone, befunolol, ethacrynic acid and ketoprofen were substrates specific for the dehydrogenases. The other drugs--haloperidol, metyrapone, loxoprofen, daunorubicin and acetohexamide--were highly reduced by carbonyl reductase and/or aldehyde reductase. The dihydrodiol dehydrogenases also showed lower Km values for haloperidol and loxoprofen than did carbonyl reductase. The results indicate that the three dihydrodiol dehydrogenases, as well as the two reductases, are implicated in the reduction of ketone-containing drugs in human liver cytosol. PMID:7632166

Ohara, H; Miyabe, Y; Deyashiki, Y; Matsuura, K; Hara, A

1995-07-17

71

Production of dithioselenides from thiols and selenium dioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have established that the slow addition of a methanol solution of selenium dioxide to solutions of thiols in dioxane (molar ratio 2:1) leads to the formation of the corresponding thioselenides without side compounds. Under the influence of bases, light, or heat above 1500C these compounds eliminate amorphous selenium and are converted quantitatively into the known disulfides

72

Tumor rejection in experimental animals treated with radioprotective thiols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In experimental animals, a systemic treatment with thiols of the mercaptoalkylamine type has affected all of five solid tumors so far investigated. There was either inhibition of growth or ''oncodieresis,'' i.e., a necrosis and sloughing of tumors conducive to full recovery and repair. Mercaptoalkylamines and derivatives of the type used in our experiments are known to bind to cellular sites by a two-point attachment involving both thiol and amino groups. One of these compounds, cysteamine, was active in its native, unsubstituted form, but did not bring about oncodieresis when either the amino or thiol group, or both, were alkylated. Mercaptopropylamine, the 3-carbon homolog of cysteamine, was less active. Cystamine, a disulfide dimer of cysteamine that has no free reactive sulfhydryl, did not induce any reaction. Thioglycerol, lacking a terminal amino group, had only negligible activity. Rejection was much more striking when treatment was started on the day of inoculation than when started 7 days later. Male mice rejected better than females. Results were inferior when two of the agents were given simultaneously or together with other radioprotectants, such as L-cysteine, glutathione, dimethyl sulfoxide, or reserpine. Tumor rejection was enhanced when the phosphorylated thiols, S- 2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid or S-(2-ethylguanidine)phosphorothioic acid, were given simultaneously with the radioprotective serotonin, but there was no synergy of serotootonin, but there was no synergy of serotonin with the nonphosphorylated compounds S-2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide or cysteamine. Serotonin alone did not affect the tumors. (U.S.)

73

Fabrication of resonant subwavelength grating based on thiol-ene  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an approach used to fabricate resonant subwavelength grating based on thiol-ene material. First of all, polydimethylsiloxane soft imprint stamp with opposite structure of the subwavelength grating master mold is made by casting. Then, the desired subwavelength grating with UV-curable thiol-ene material grating structure is fabricated using the polydimethylsioxane soft stamp by UV-curable soft-lithography. Here, we fabricate a subwavelength grating with period of 300nm using the approach, which could reflect blue light with wavelength ranging from 448nm to 482nm at a specific angle and presents the excellent resonant characteristic. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation results, demonstrating that the approach proposed in this paper could effectively fabricate the thiol-ene material resonant subwavelength grating structure. The thiol-ene material is a new green UV-curable polymer material, including a number of advantages such as rapid UV-curing in the natural environment, low-cost, high resolution, and regulative performance characteristic. The fabrication technique in this paper is simple, low-cost, and easy to high throughput, which has broad application prospects in the preparation of micro and nano structures.

Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling; Shi, Lifang; Li, Zhiwei; Pang, Hui; Zhang, Yukun; Yu, Jinqing; Hu, Song

2014-08-01

74

Preparation of Novel Hydrolyzing Urethane Modified Thiol-Ene Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Novel tetra-functional hydrolyzing monomers were prepared from the reaction of TEOS and select alkene-containing alcohols, ethylene glycol vinyl ether or 2-allyloxy ethanol, and combined with trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate (tri-thiol in a thiol-ene “click” polymerization reaction to produce clear, colorless thiol-ene networks using both radiation and thermal-cure techniques. These networks were characterized for various mechanical characteristics, and found to posses Tg’s (DSC, hardness, tack, and thermal stability (TGA consistent with their molecular structures. A new ene-modified urethane oligomer was prepared based on the aliphatic polyisocyanate Desmodur® N 3600 and added to the thiol-ene hydrolyzable network series in increasing amounts, creating a phase-segregated material having two Tg’s. An increase in water absorption in the ene-modified urethane formulations leading to a simultaneous increase in the rate of hydrolysis was supported by TGA data, film hardness measurements, and an NMR study of closely related networks. This phenomenon was attributed to the additional hydrogen bonding elements and polar functionality brought to the film with the addition of the urethane segment. SEM was utilized for visual analysis of topographical changes in the film’s surface upon hydrolysis and provides support for surface-driven erosion. Coatings prepared in this study are intended for use as hydrolyzing networks for marine coatings to protect against ship fouling.

Bridget S. Confait

2011-10-01

75

Thiol-ene Enabled Detection of Thiophosphorylated Kinase Substrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification that regulates cell signaling in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although the study of phosphorylation has made great progress, several major hurdles remain, including the difficulty of the assignment of endogenous substrates to a discrete kinase and of global phosphoproteomics investigations. We have developed a novel chemical strategy for detecting phosphorylated proteins. This method utilizes adenosine 5?-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP?S), which results in the transfer of a thiophosphate moiety by a kinase to its substrate(s). This group can subsequently be employed as a nucleophilic handle to promote protein detection. To selectively label thiophosphorylated proteins, cellular thiols (e.g. cysteine-containing proteins) must first be blocked. Most common cysteine-capping strategies rely upon the nucleophilicity of the sulfur group and would therefore also modify the thiophosphate moiety. We hypothesized that the radical-mediated thiol-ene reaction, however, would be selective for cysteine over thiophosphorylated amino acids due to the differences in the electronics and pKa values between these groups. Here, we report rapid and specific tagging of thiophosphorylated proteins in vitro following chemoselective thiol capping using the thiol-ene reaction. PMID:23668631

Garber, Kathleen C. A.; Carlson, Erin E.

2013-01-01

76

Structure and interactions in ?-crystallin probed through thiol group reactivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available a-Crystallin is the major structural protein of eye lens of vertebrates. In human lens, the ratio of aA-crystallin to aB-crystallin was found to be 3:1. aA-Crystallin contains two cysteine residues at positions 131 and 142, which are at the junction between the a-crystallin domain and the C-terminal tail. We used the accessibility of the thiol groups by Ellman’s reagent (DTNB as a tool to gain information about the various structural perturbations of hinge region of a-crystallin and during the binding with substrates. In the native condition, the cys-142 though reacted quite fast was not fully exposed. Several reagents were used to see the accessibility of cys-131. Rate constant for cys-131 was increased gradually with increase in the concentration of reagents. The bindings of substrates are affected by the accessibility of thiol indicating that the substrates bind to the hinge region of a-crystallin. By blocking of cys-142, it was observed that the accessibility of one thiol depends on the other thiol, and they are not independent. The hinge region of a-crystallin is very important as substrate binding site and from this study we have got various structural information about that region.

Sudipa Saha

2013-10-01

77

Trypanothione reductase from Leishmania infantum: cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray data analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most promising targets for Leishmania-specific drug design are two key enzymes involved in the unique thiol-based metabolism, common to all parasites of the Trypanosomatidae family: trypanothione synthetase (TryS) and trypanothione reductase (TR). Recently, new inhibitors of TR have been identified such as polyamines and tricyclic compounds. The knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of Leishmania TR will shed light on the mechanism of interaction of these inhibitors with TR and will be the starting point to design novel lead candidates to facilitate the development of new effective and affordable drugs. Trypanothione reductase from Leishmania infantum has been cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified. Crystals were obtained at 294 K by the hanging drop vapour diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as precipitant agent and diffract to better than 2.95 A resolution using a synchrotron radiation source. The crystals exhibit an unusually high solvent content of 74 %, belong to the tetragonal space group P41 with units cell parameters a=b=103.45 A, c=192.62 A and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The protein X-ray structure has been solved by Molecular Replacement and the model is under construction. PMID:19200044

Baiocco, Paola; Franceschini, Stefano; Ilari, Andrea; Colotti, Gianni

2009-01-01

78

Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 ± 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 ± 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 ± 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 ± 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 ?M for NADPH and 58.8 ?M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T4 treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of [125I]-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC

79

Cellular thiol levels and aerobic radiosensitization by BSO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been previously shown that pretreatment of A549 human lung carcinoma cells and V79 cells with BSO results in enhancement of the aerobic radiation response. The authors and others have found that addition of either N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or the radioprotector WR-2721 to BSO-treated cells, just prior to irradiation, results in a return to control levels of aerobic sensitivity. NAC and WR-2721 have no effect on the aerobic response of control cells. Reversal of the BSO effect appears unrelated to intracellular thiol levels, since neither NAC nor WR-2721 replenish NPSH within the time that the reversal of the radiation effect is observed. In addition, NAC and WR-2721 must be present during irradiation in order to reverse the BSO sensitization. The authors are continuing to investigate the phenomenon of BSO-induced aerobic sensitization and its reversal, with particular emphasis on the role of membrane thiols and pyridine nucleotide reducing species in radiation response

80

Thiol Signalling Network with an Eye to Diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Redox regulatory system controls normal cellular functions. Controlled changes in redox couples potential serve as components for signal transduction, similarly to the phosphorylation cascade. Cellular redox biology requires both compartimentalisation and communication of redox systems: the thermodynamic disequilibrium of the major redox switches allows rapid and sensitive responses to perturbations in redox environments. The many oxidation states of sulphur are found in numerous sulphur species with distinct functional groups (thiols, disulphides, polysulphides, sulphenic, sulphinic and sulphonic acids, etc., which participate in a complicated network of sulphur-based redox events. Human diseases such as diabetes mellitus and its cardiovascular complications have been associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species and perturbations of thiol redox homeostasis. The review surveys literature related to some etiopathogenic aspects and therapeutic perspectives. The dual toxic-protective property of sulphydryl-donor molecules in experimental settings proposes the general problem of designing antioxidants for therapeutic use.

Elena Matteucci

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Measuring the Poise of Thiol/Disulfide Couples in vivo  

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The reduction potentials (Eh) for the redox couples GSH/GSSG and cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) in plasma are useful indicators of systemic oxidative stress and other medically relevant physiological states. This paper describes a sensitive method for determining plasma levels of GSH, GSSG, Cys and CySS used to calculate the in vivo Eh values. The method uses iodoacetate to alkylate free thiols; derivatization with dansyl chloride to fluorescently tag amino groups; and HPLC and fluorescence to s...

Jones, Dean P.; Liang, Yongliang

2009-01-01

82

Investigation of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticle sensors for gas analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air and exhaled breath by sensor array is a very useful testing technique. It can provide non-invasive, fast, inexpensive testing for many diseases. Breath analysis has been very successful in identifying cancer and other diseases by using a chemiresistor sensor or array with gold nanoparticles to detect biomarkers. Acetone is a biomarker for diabetes and having a portable testing device could help to monitor diabetic and therapeutic progress. An advantage to this testing method is it is conducted at room temperature instead of 200 degrees Celsius. 3. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticles based on sensor(s) detection of VOCs. The VOCs to be tested are acetone, ethanol, and a mixture of acetone and ethanol. Each chip is tested under all three VOCs and three concentration levels (0.1, 1, and 5.0 ppm). VOC samples are used to test the sensors' ability to detect and differentiate VOCs. Sensors (also referred to as a chip) are prepared using several types of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticles. The factors are: thiol compound and molar volume loading of the thiol in synthesis. The average resistance results are used to determine the VOC selectivity of the sensors tested. The results show a trend of increasing resistance as VOC concentration is increased relative to dry air; which is used as baseline for VOCs. Several sensors show a high selectivity to one or more VOCs. Overall the 57 micromoles of 4-methoxy-toluenethiol sensor shows the strongest selectivity for VOCs tested. 3. Gerfen, Kurt. 2012. Detection of Acetone in Air Using Silver Ion Exchanged ZSM-5 and Zinc Oxide Sensing Films. Master of Science thesis, University of Louisville.

Stephens, Jared S.

83

Organized thiol functional groups in mesoporous core shell colloids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The co-condensation in situ of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template results in the synthesis of multilayered mesoporous structured SiO{sub 2} colloids with 'onion-like' chemical environments. Thiol groups were anchored to an inner selected SiO{sub 2} porous layer in a bilayered core shell particle producing different chemical regions inside the colloidal layered structure. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows a preferential anchoring of the -SH groups in the double layer shell system, while porosimetry and simple chemical modifications confirm that pores are accessible. We can envision the synthesis of interesting colloidal objects with defined chemical environments with highly controlled properties. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous core shell SiO{sub 2} colloids with organized thiol groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double shell mesoporous silica colloids templated with CTAB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential deposition of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} layers with different chemistries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows the selective functionalization of mesoporous layers with thiol groups.

Marchena, Martin H. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Granada, Mara [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Bordoni, Andrea V. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Joselevich, Maria [Asociacion Civil Expedicion Ciencia, Cabrera 4948, C1414BGP Buenos Aires (Argentina); Troiani, Horacio [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Williams, Federico J. [DQIAQyF-INQUIMAE FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wolosiuk, Alejandro, E-mail: wolosiuk@cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-03-15

84

Identification of the thiol ester lipids in apolipoprotein B  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human plasma low-density lipoproteins of 1.032-1.043 g/mL density were totally delipidized. The reduced and carboxymethylated apolipoprotein B was incubated with 50 mM [14C] methylamine at pH 8.5 at 30 0C. Covalent incorporation of [14C] methylamine was observed with concomitant generation of new sulfhydryl groups, which could be blocked with [3H]- or [14C]iodoacetic acid. One type of the [14C] methylamine-modified products was separated from the protein and was found to be lipid in nature. Its R/sub f/ on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was similar to that of the synthetic N-methyl fatty acyl amides. After purification with TLC and transesterification in 3 N methanolic HCl, methyl esters of C16 and C18 fatty acids at 1:1 ratio were identified by gas-liquid chromatography. The transesterification method was verified with the known N-methyl fatty acyl amides. These results suggest the presence of labile thiol ester linked palmitate and stearate in apolipoprotein B. Under mild alkaline conditions, the thiol ester bonds are broken by methylamine and form N-methyl fatty acyl amides and release new -SH groups. Intramolecular thiol ester bonds linked between cysteine side chains and acidic amino acid residues were also found present, which will be reported separately

85

In vivo modulation of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, reductase kinase, and reductase kinase kinase by mevalonolactone.  

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It has been previously demonstrated that the enzymic activity of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; EC 1.1.1.34) is modulated in vitro and in vivo by a bicyclic cascade system involving reversible phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase and reductase kinase. In the present study, administration of mevalonolactone to rats caused a rapid inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The initial short-term (20-min) reversible inhibition (38%) of enzyme activit...

Beg, Z. H.; Stonik, J. A.; Brewer, H. B.

1984-01-01

86

Reductive Activation of Hexavalent Chromium by Human Lung Epithelial Cells: Generation of Cr(V) and Cr(V)-Thiol Species  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromium(VI) compounds (e.g. chromates) are cytotoxic, mutagenic, and potentially carcinogenic. The reduction of Cr(VI) can yield reactive intermediates such as Cr(V) and reactive oxygen species. Bronchial epithelial cells are the primary site of pulmonary exposure to inhaled Cr(VI) and are the primary cells from which Cr(VI)-associated human cancers arise. BEAS-2B cells were used here as a model of normal human bronchial epithelium for studies on the reductive activation of Cr(VI). Cells incubated with Na2CrO4 exhibited two Cr(V) ESR signals, g = 1.979 and 1.985, which persisted for at least one hour. The g = 1.979 signal is similar to that generated in vitro by human microsomes and by proteoliposomes containing P450 reductase and cytochrome b5. Unlike many cells in culture, these cells continued to express P450 reductase and cytochrome b5. Studies with the non-selective thiol oxidant diamide indicated that the g = 1.985 signal was thiol-dependent whereas the g = 1.979 signal was not. Pretreatment with phenazine methosulfate eliminated both Cr(V) signals suggesting that Cr(V) generation is largely NAD(P)H-dependent. ESR spectra indicated that a portion of the Cr(VI) was rapidly reduced to Cr(III). Cells incubated with an insoluble chromate, ZnCrO4, also generated both Cr(V) signals, whereas Cr(V) was not detected with insoluble PbCrO4. In clonogenic assays, the cells were very sensitive to Na2CrO4 and ZnCrO4, but considerably less sensitive to PbCrO4. PMID:18279960

Borthiry, Griselda R.; Antholine, William E.; Myers, Judith M.; Myers, Charles R.

2008-01-01

87

Electroanalytical exploitation of nitroso phenyl modified carbon-thiol interactions: Application to the low voltage determination of thiols  

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The electrochemical generation of nitrosophenyl groups covalently attached to graphite powder (nitrosophenylcarbon) from carbon powder chemically modified with nitrophenyl groups and their subsequent reaction with thiols (glutathione, cysteine and homocysteine) has been investigated as a method by which the later can be quantified. The modified carbon powder was immobilized onto a basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode and characterized by cyclic voltammetry by scanning between 1.0 V and -1...

Abiman, P.; Wildgoose, Gg; Compton, Rg

2007-01-01

88

Adsorption of Dissolved Metals in the Berkeley Pit using Thiol-Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (Thiol-SAMMS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Berkeley Pit in Butte, Montana, is heavily contaminated with dissolved metals. Adsorption and extraction of these metals can be accomplished through the use of a selective adsorbent. For this research, the adsorbent used was thiol-functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (thiol-SAMMS), which was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Thiol-SAMMS selectively binds to numerous types of dissolved metals. The objective of this research was to evaluate the loading and kinetics of aluminum, beryllium, copper, and zinc on thiol-SAMMS. For the loading tests, a series of Berkeley Pit water to thiol-SAMMS ratios (mL:g) were tested. These ratios were 1000:1, 500:1, 100:1, and 50:1. Berkeley Pit water is acidic (pH ? 2.5). This can affect the performance of SAMMS materials. Therefore, the effect of pH was evaluated by conducting parallel series of loading tests wherein the Berkeley Pit water was neutralized before or after addition of thiol-SAMMS, and a series of kinetics tests wherein the Berkeley Pit water was neutralized before addition of thiol-SAMMS for the first test and was not neutralized for the second test. For the kinetics tests, one Berkeley Pit water to thiol-SAMMS ratio was tested, which was 2000:1. The results of the loading and kinetics tests suggest that a significant decrease in dissolved metal concentration at Berkeley Pit could be realized through neutralization of Berkeley Pit water. Thiol-SAMMS technology has a limited application under the highly acidic conditions posed by the Berkeley Pit. However, thiol-SAMMS could provide a secondary remedial technique which would complete the remedial system and remove dissolved metals from the Berkeley Pit to below drinking water standards.

89

Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe-S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

Richey, Christine [Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Chovanec, Peter [Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Hoeft, Shelley E.; Oremland, Ronald S. [U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd., MS 480, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Basu, Partha [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Stolz, John F., E-mail: stolz@duq.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)

2009-05-01

90

Structure of cytochrome c nitrite reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzyme cytochrome c nitrite reductase catalyses the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia as one of the key steps in the biological nitrogen cycle, where it participates in the anaerobic energy metabolism of dissimilatory nitrate ammonification. Here we report on the crystal structure of this enzyme from the microorganism Sulfurospirillum deleyianum, which we solved by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion methods. We propose a reaction scheme for the transformation of nitrite based on structural and spectroscopic information. Cytochrome c nitrite reductase is a functional dimer, with 10 close-packed haem groups of type c and an unusual lysine-coordinated high-spin haem at the active site. By comparing the haem arrangement of this nitrite reductase with that of other multihaem cytochromes, we have been able to identify a family of proteins in which the orientation of haem groups is conserved whereas structure and function are not. PMID:10440380

Einsle, O; Messerschmidt, A; Stach, P; Bourenkov, G P; Bartunik, H D; Huber, R; Kroneck, P M

1999-07-29

91

Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe-S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

92

Fabrication and bonding of thiol-ene-based microfluidic devices : Technical Note  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this work, the bonding strength of microchips fabricated by thiol-ene free-radical polymerization was characterized in detail by varying the monomeric thiol/allyl composition from the stoichiometric ratio (1:1) up to 100% excess of thiol (2:1) or allyl (1:2) functional groups. Four different thiol-ene to thiol-ene bonding combinations were tested by bonding: (i) two stoichiometric layers, (ii) two layers bearing complementary excess of thiols and allyls, (iii) two layers both bearing excess of thiols, or (iv) two layers both bearing excess of allyls. The results showed that the stiffness of the cross-linked polymer plays the most crucial role regarding the bonding strength. The most rigid polymer layers were obtained by using the stoichiometric composition or an excess of allyls, and thus, the bonding combinations (i) and (iv) withstood the highest pressures (up to the cut-off value of 6 bar). On the other hand, excess of thiol monomers yielded more elastic polymer layers and thus decreased the pressure tolerance for bonding combinations (ii) and (iii). By using monomers with more thiol groups (e.g. tetrathiol versus trithiol), a higher cross-linking ratio, and thus, greater stiffness was obtained. Surface characterization by infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the changes in the monomeric thiol/allyl composition were also reflected in the surface chemistry. The flexibility of being able to bond different types of thiol-enes together allows for tuning of the surface chemistry to yield the desired properties for each application. Here, a capillary electrophoresis separation is performed to demonstrate the attractive properties of stoichiometric thiol-ene microchips.

Lafleur, Josiane P.; Zhuang, Guisheng

2013-01-01

93

Abnormal redox status of membrane-protein thiols in sickle erythrocytes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although sickle erythrocytes (RBC) undergo excessive autooxidation, investigators have not found evidence for abnormal oxidation of protein thiols in sickle RBC membranes (e.g., protein aggregates linked by intermolecular disulfide bonds). However, the conventional techniques heretofore used cannot detect more subtle changes in thiol status such as abnormal intramolecular disulfide bonds. We examined RBC membranes using thiol-disulfide exchange chromatography which partitions sodium dodecyl s...

Rank, B. H.; Carlsson, J.; Hebbel, R. P.

1985-01-01

94

Influence of thiol stress on oxidative phosphorylation and generation of ROS in Streptomyces coelicolor  

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Thiols play very important role in the intracellular redox homeostasis. Imbalance in the redox status leads to changes in the intracellular metabolism including respiration. Thiol stress, a reductive type of stress can also cause redox imbalance. When Gram-positive bacterium Strep- tomyces coelicolor was exposed to thiol stress, catalaseA was induced. Induction of catalaseA is the consequence of elevation of ROS (reactive oxygen species). The two major sources of reactive oxygen species are F...

Vekaria, Hemendra J.; Ratna Prabha Chivukula

2010-01-01

95

Biosynthesis and Functions of Mycothiol, the Unique Protective Thiol of Actinobacteria  

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Summary: Mycothiol (MSH; AcCys-GlcN-Ins) is the major thiol found in Actinobacteria and has many of the functions of glutathione, which is the dominant thiol in other bacteria and eukaryotes but is absent in Actinobacteria. MSH functions as a protected reserve of cysteine and in the detoxification of alkylating agents, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antibiotics. MSH also acts as a thiol buffer which is important in maintaining the highly reducing environment within the cell and pro...

Newton, Gerald L.; Buchmeier, Nancy; Fahey, Robert C.

2008-01-01

96

Synthesis and Microstructural Investigations of Organometallic Pd(II) Thiol-Gold Nanoparticles Hybrids  

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Abstract In this work the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles functionalized by a novel thiol-organometallic complex containing Pd(II) centers is presented. Pd(II) thiol,trans, trans-[dithiolate-dibis(tributylphosphine)dipalladium(II)-4,4?-diethynylbiphenyl] was synthesized and linked to Au nanoparticles by the chemical reduction of a metal salt precursor. The new hybrid made of organometallic Pd(II) thiol-gold nanoparticles, shows through a single S ...

Cervellino Antonio; Vitaliano Rosa; Fratoddi Ilaria; Russo MariaVittoria; Giannini Cinzia; Guagliardi Antonella; Battocchio Chiara; Polzonetti Giovanni; Vitale Floriana; Piscopiello Emanuela; Tapfer Leander

2008-01-01

97

Light-triggered thiol-exchange on gold nanoparticles at low micromolar concentrations in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The place-exchange reaction of thiol-containing peptides in a cationic monolayer on gold nanoparticles occurs very rapidly at low micromolar concentrations in water with excellent control over the degree of substitution. The driving force for this process is the binding of anionic peptides to a cationic monolayer surface which causes a strong increase in the local concentration of thiols. The place-exchange reaction can be triggered by light using a photolabile protecting group on the thiol moiety. PMID:25354499

Franceschini, Christian; Scrimin, Paolo; Prins, Leonard J

2014-11-25

98

The interactions of thiols with olefins and their effects on autoxidation during JFTOT testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows that low concentrations of thiols will act as radical traps to inhibit autoxidation. When added to a fuel, thiols accelerated the rate of oxygen reaction without a commensurate increase in peroxidation. Evidence for the oxidative addition of thiols to olefins has been found to occur by studying the addition of thiophenol to indene in a model fuel during stressing in the JFTOT apparatus. Two different thiolindene adducts were found in the effluent, with the product distribution being temperature dependent. This process could account, in part, for the differences in thiol influences on autoxidation observed in model systems and in fuels.

Morris, R.E. (Code 6180, Chemistry Div., Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US))

1991-01-01

99

Impact of thiol and amine functionalization on photoluminescence properties of ZnO films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study, we have investigated surface functionalization of ZnO films with dodecanethiol (Thiol) and trioctylamine (amine) by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle (CA) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The chemical bondings of thiol and amine with ZnO have been confirmed via the formation of Zn–S and Zn–N bonds by XPS measurements. AFM measurements on ZnO films before and after surface functionalization with thiol and amine provide evidence for the successful functionalization of thiol and amine on ZnO surfaces without any island formation. The CA measurements on ZnO films before and after surface functionalization with thiol and amine show the hydrophobic nature. PL measurements of thiol and amine functionalized ZnO show enhancements of UV emission and quenching of visible emission. The enhanced UV emissions in thiol and amine functionalized ZnO films suggest that the surface defects such as oxygen vacancies are passivated by thiol and amine functionalization. -- Highlights: ? Surface functionalization is a new approach to reduce surface dependent non-radiative process. ? Oxygen vacancies are passivated on surface functionalization. ? Thiol and amine functionalized ZnO show enhancements of UV emission.

Jayalakshmi, G. [Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Saravanan, K. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Balasubramanian, T., E-mail: bala@nitt.edu [Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

2013-08-15

100

A new nomenclature for the aldo-keto reductase superfamily.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) represent a growing oxidoreductase superfamily. Forty proteins have been identified and characterized as AKRs, and an additional fourteen genes may encode proteins related to the superfamily. Found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, the AKRs metabolize a wide range of substrates, including aliphatic aldehydes, monosaccharides, steroids, prostaglandins, and xenobiotics. This broad substrate specificity has caused problems in naming these proteins. Enzymes capable of these reactions have been referred to as aldehyde reductase (ALR1), aldose reductase (ALR2), and carbonyl reductase (ALR3); however, ALR3 is not a member of the AKR superfamily. Also, some AKRs have multiple names based upon substrate specificity. For example, human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3apha-HSD) type I is also known as dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 4 and chlordecone reductase. To address these issues, we propose a new nomenclature system for the AKR superfamily based on amino acid sequence identities. Cluster analysis of the AKRs shows seven distinct families at the 40% amino acid identity level. The largest family (AKR1) contains the aldose reductases, aldehyde reductases, and HSDs. Other families include the prokaryotic AKRs, the plant chalcone reductases, the Shaker channels, and the ethoxyquin-inducible aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase. At the level of 60% amino acid identity, subfamilies are discernible. For example, the AKR1 family includes five subfamilies: (A) aldehyde reductases (mammalian); (B) aldose reductases; (C) HSDs; (D) delta4-3-ketosteroid-5beta-reductases; and (E) aldehyde reductases (plant). This cluster analysis forms the basis for our nomenclature system. Recommendations for naming an aldo-keto reductase include the root symbol "AKR," an Arabic number designating the family, a letter indicating the subfamily when multiple subfamilies exist, and an Arabic numeral representing the unique protein sequence. For example, human aldehyde reductase would be assigned as AKR1A1. Our nomenclature is both systematic and expandable, thereby allowing assignment of consistent designations for newly identified members of the superfamily. PMID:9310340

Jez, J M; Flynn, T G; Penning, T M

1997-09-15

 
 
 
 
101

Fumarate Reductase Activity of Streptococcus faecalis  

Science.gov (United States)

Some characteristics of a fumarate reductase from Streptococcus faecalis are described. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.4; optimal activity was observed when the ionic strength of the phosphate buffer was adjusted to 0.088. The Km value of the enzyme for reduced flavin mononucleotide was 2 × 10?4 m as determined with a 26-fold preparation. In addition to fumarate, the enzyme reduced maleate and mesaconate. No succinate dehydrogenase activity was detected, but succinate did act as an inhibitor of the fumarate reductase activity. Other inhibitors were malonate, citraconate, and trans-, trans-muconate. Metal-chelating agents did not inhibit the enzyme. A limited inhibition by sulfhydryl-binding agents was observed, and the preparations were sensitive to air oxidation and storage. Glycine, alanine, histidine, and possibly lysine stimulated fumarate reductase activity in the cell-free extracts. However, growth in media supplemented with glycine did not enhance fumarate reductase activity. The enzymatic activity appears to be constitutive. PMID:4960892

Aue, B. J.; Diebel, R. H.

1967-01-01

102

Ferrisiderophore reductase activity in Bacillus megaterium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The release of iron from ferrisiderophores (microbial ferric-chelating iron transport cofactors) by cell-free extracts of Bacillus megaterium was demonstrated. Reductive transfer of iron from ferrisiderophores to the ferrous-chelating agent ferrozine was measured spectrophotometrically. This ferrisiderophore reductase activity (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:ferrisiderophore oxidoreductase) was associated primarily with the cell soluble rather than particulate (membrane) ...

1980-01-01

103

Ferrisiderophore reductase activity in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reduction of the iron in ferriagrobactin by the cytoplasmic fraction of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strictly required NaDH as the reductant. Addition of flavin mononucleotide and anaerobic conditions were necessary for the reaction; when added with flavin mononucleotide, magnesium was stimulatory. This ferrisiderophore reductase activity may be a part of the iron assimilation process in A. tumefaciens.

Lodge, J. S.; Gaines, C. G.; Arceneaux, J. E.; Byers, B. R.

1982-01-01

104

One-pot synthesis and characterization of three kinds of thiol-organosilica nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a one-pot synthesis, thiol-organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) made from (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, (3-mercaptopropyl)triethoxysilane, and (3-mercaptopropyl)methyldimethoxysilane have been successfully prepared. We compared the synthesis processes of thiol-organosilica NPs made of these three kinds of organosilicates, as well as particles made from tetraethoxysilicate (TEOS), at concentrations varying between 6.25 and 200 mM. We examined three types of synthetic conditions: the Stöber method, in which particles are prepared in 65% ethanol, and two entirely aqueous solvent syntheses, containing either 2% or 27% ammonium hydroxide. The synthetic mixtures were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate the as-prepared NPs. The formation trends and rates for these organosilica NPs vary with differing organosilicate precursors, concentrations, and synthetic conditions. The Stöber method is not suitable for formation of thiol-organosilica NPs as compared with the case of TEOS, but the conditions without ethanol and with 27% ammonium hydroxide are suitable for the formation of thiol-organosilica NPs. The size distributions of the formed NPs were evaluated using TEM and dynamic light scattering. The mean diameters of NPs increase with increasing concentrations of silicate, but the size distributions of NPs prepared under various conditions also differ between silicate sources. Thiol-organosilica NPs internally functionalized with fluorescent dye were also prepared using a one-pot synthesis and were characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The thiol-organosilica NPs retain fluorescent dye maleimide very well. In addition, rhodamine B-doped thiol-organosilica NPs show higher fluorescence than thiol-organosilica NPs prepared with rhodamine red maleimide. The surface of thiol-organosilica NPs contains exposed thiol residues, allowing the covalent attachment of fluorescent dye maleimide and protein maleimide. This is the first report describing the synthesis of thiol-organosilica NPs made of three kinds of thiol-organosilicates, differences in nanoparticle formation due to the kinds and concentrations of thiol-organosilicate and due to synthetic conditions, and the advantages of thiol-organosilica NPs due to the existence of both interior and exterior thiol residues. PMID:18366224

Nakamura, Michihiro; Ishimura, Kazunori

2008-05-01

105

Study of Highly Selective and Efficient Thiol Derivatization using Selenium Reagents by Mass Spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological thiols are critical physiological components and their detection often involves derivatization. This paper reports a systemic mass spectrometry (MS) investigation of the cleavage of Se-N bond by thiol to form a new Se-S bond, the new selenium chemistry for thiol labeling. Our data shows that the reaction is highly selective, rapid, reversible and efficient. For instance, among twenty amino acids, only cysteine was found to be reactive with Se-N containing reagents and the reaction takes place in seconds. By adding dithiothreitol (DTT), the newly formed Se-S bond of peptides/proteins can be reduced back to free thiol. The high selectivity and excellent reversibility of the reaction provide potential of using this chemistry for selective identification of thiol compounds or enriching and purifying thiol peptides/proteins. In addition, the derivatized thiol peptides have interesting dissociation behavior, which is tunable using different selenium reagents. For example, by introducing an adjacent nucleophilic group into the selenium reagent in the case of using ebselen, the reaction product of ebselen with glutathione (GSH) is easy to lose the selenium tag upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), which is useful to "fish out" those peptides containing free cysteine residues by precursor ion scan. By contrast, the selenium tag of N-(phenylseleno) phthalimide reagent can be stable and survive in CID process, which would be of value in pinpointing thiol location using a top-down proteomic approach. Also, the high conversion yield of the reaction allows the counting of total number of thiol in proteins. We believe that ebselen or N-(phenylseleno) phthalimide as tagging thiol-protein reagents will have important applications in both qualitative and quantitative analysis of different thiol-proteins derived from living cells by MS method.

Xu, Kehua; Zhang, Yun W.; Tang, Bo; Laskin, Julia; Roach, Patrick J.; Chen, Hao

2010-08-15

106

Structure of Coenzyme A-Disulfide Reductase from Staphylococcus aureus at 1.54 Angstrom Resolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coenzyme A (CoASH) replaces glutathione as the major low molecular weight thiol in Staphylococcus aureus; it is maintained in the reduced state by coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (CoADR), a homodimeric enzyme similar to NADH peroxidase but containing a novel Cys43-SSCoA redox center. The crystal structure of S. aureus CoADR has been solved using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion data and refined at a resolution of 1.54 {angstrom}. The resulting electron density maps define the Cys43-SSCoA disulfide conformation, with Cys43-S{gamma} located at the flavin si face, 3.2 {angstrom} from FAD-C4aF, and the CoAS- moiety lying in an extended conformation within a cleft at the dimer interface. A well-ordered chloride ion is positioned adjacent to the Cys43-SSCoA disulfide and receives a hydrogen bond from Tyr361'-OH of the complementary subunit, suggesting a role for Tyr361' as an acid-base catalyst during the reduction of CoAS-disulfide. Tyr419'-OH is located 3.2 {angstrom} from Tyr361'-OH as well and, based on its conservation in known functional CoADRs, also appears to be important for activity. Identification of residues involved in recognition of the CoAS-disulfide substrate and in formation and stabilization of the Cys43-SSCoA redox center has allowed development of a CoAS-binding motif. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that CoADR enzymes are broadly distributed in both bacterial and archaeal kingdoms, suggesting an even broader significance for the CoASH/CoAS-disulfide redox system in prokaryotic thiol/disulfide homeostasis.

Mallett,T.; Wallen, J.; Karplus, P.; Sakai, H.; Tsukihara, T.; Claiborne, A.

2006-01-01

107

A structurally driven analysis of thiol reactivity in mammalian albumins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the structural basis of protein redox activity is still an open question. Hence, by using a structural genomics approach, different albumins have been chosen to correlate protein structural features with the corresponding reaction rates of thiol exchange between albumin and disulfide DTNB. Predicted structures of rat, porcine, and bovine albumins have been compared with the experimentally derived human albumin. High structural similarity among these four albumins can be observed, in spite of their markedly different reactivity with DTNB. Sequence alignments offered preliminary hints on the contributions of sequence-specific local environments modulating albumin reactivity. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on experimental and predicted albumin structures reveal that thiolation rates are influenced by hydrogen bonding pattern and stability of the acceptor C34 sulphur atom with donor groups of nearby residues. Atom depth evolution of albumin C34 thiol groups has been monitored during Molecular Dynamic trajectories. The most reactive albumins appeared also the ones presenting the C34 sulphur atom on the protein surface with the highest accessibility. High C34 sulphur atom reactivity in rat and porcine albumins seems to be determined by the presence of additional positively charged amino acid residues favoring both the C34 S? form and the approach of DTNB. PMID:21280023

Spiga, Ottavia; Summa, Domenico; Cirri, Simone; Bernini, Andrea; Venditti, Vincenzo; De Chiara, Matteo; Priora, Raffaella; Frosali, Simona; Margaritis, Antonios; Di Giuseppe, Danila; Di Simplicio, Paolo; Niccolai, Neri

2011-04-01

108

Indicator approach to develop a chemosensor for the colorimetric sensing of thiol-containing water and its application for the thiol detection in plasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strategy for the determination of the presence of thiol-containing amino acids was successfully established by simply assembling copper chloride and xylenol orange (3,3'-bis[N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)aminomethyl]-o-cresolsulfonephthalein trisodium salt; XO) in a 1 : 1 molar ratio in quasi-physiological water solution (pH 6.0). The copper(II)-XO ensemble was highly selective for thiol species such as cysteine, homocysteine, and glutathione without interference from other amino acids and could quantitatively detect thiol in the range from 10 to 200 ?M with a linear relationship having an average molar absorbance constant of 6530 L mol(-1) cm(-1) in pure water. The whole recognition process for thiol gave rise to a rapid visual color change from purple-red to yellow which can be observed simultaneously with the naked-eye. PMID:21373697

Huo, Fang-Jun; Yang, Yu-Tao; Su, Jing; Sun, Yuan-Qiang; Yin, Cai-Xia; Yan, Xu-Xiu

2011-05-01

109

Bromo- and thiomaleimides as a new class of thiol-mediated fluorescence 'turn-on' reagents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bromo- and thiomaleimides are shown to serve as highly effective quenchers of a covalently attached fluorophore. Reactions with thiols that lead to removal of the maleimide conjugation, or detachment of the fluorophore from the maleimide, result in 'turn-on' of the fluorescence. These reagents thus offer opportunities in thiol sensing and intracellular reporting. PMID:24297212

Youziel, Judith; Akhbar, Ahmed R; Aziz, Qadeer; Smith, Mark E B; Caddick, Stephen; Tinker, Andrew; Baker, James R

2014-01-28

110

Determination of acidity and nucleophilicity in thiols by reaction with monobromobimane and fluorescence detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method based on the differential reactivity of thiol and thiolate with monobromobimane (mBBr) has been developed to measure nucleophilicity and acidity of protein and low-molecular-weight thiols. Nucleophilicity of the thiolate is measured as the pH-independent second-order rate constant of its reaction with mBBr. The ionization constants of the thiols are obtained through the pH dependence of either second-order rate constant or initial rate of reaction. For readily available thiols, the apparent second-order rate constant is measured at different pHs and then plotted and fitted to an appropriate pH function describing the observed number of ionization equilibria. For less available thiols, such as protein thiols, the initial rate of reaction is determined in a wide range of pHs and fitted to the appropriate pH function. The method presented here shows excellent sensitivity, allowing the use of nanomolar concentrations of reagents. The method is suitable for scaling and high-throughput screening. Example determinations of nucleophilicity and pK(a) are presented for captopril and cysteine as low-molecular-weight thiols and for human peroxiredoxin 5 and Trypanosoma brucei monothiol glutaredoxin 1 as protein thiols. PMID:23296042

Sardi, Florencia; Manta, Bruno; Portillo-Ledesma, Stephanie; Knoops, Bernard; Comini, Marcelo A; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo

2013-04-01

111

Ring opening metathesis polymerization derived polymers as photoresists: making use of thiol-ene chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ring opening metathesis polymerization derived poly(norbornene) films and aggregates were crosslinked via photo chemically induced thiol-ene chemistry using a multifunctional thiol and the double bonds present in the polymer backbones. The presented method was illustrated by the description of a negative-toned photoresist formulation based on above mentioned ingredients. PMID:21433209

Wolfberger, Archim; Rupp, Barbara; Kern, Wolfgang; Griesser, Thomas; Slugovc, Christian

2011-03-16

112

Lithium BINOL Phosphate Catalyzed Desymmetrization of meso-Epoxides with Aromatic Thiols.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly enantioselective method for desymmetrization of meso-epoxides using thiols is reported. This is the first example of epoxide activation achieved using metal BINOL phosphates. The reaction has a broad scope in terms of epoxide substrates and aromatic thiol nucleophiles. The resulting ?-hydroxyl sulfides are obtained in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. PMID:25317934

Ingle, Gajendrasingh; Mormino, Michael G; Antilla, Jon C

2014-11-01

113

Antioxidant generation and regeneration in lipid bilayers: the amazing case of lipophilic thiosulfinates and hydrophilic thiols.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate that the garlic-derived chemopreventive agent allicin and the related anamu-derived petivericin are poor radical-trapping antioxidants in lipid bilayers, but that the in situ reaction of a lipophilic analog and a hydrophilic thiol yields an extremely potent radical-trapping antioxidant that can be recycled in the presence of excess thiol. PMID:23938951

Zheng, Feng; Pratt, Derek A

2013-09-25

114

Plasma thiols redox status by laser-induced fluorescence capillary electrophoresis.  

Science.gov (United States)

High concentrations of total plasma thiols such as cysteine and homocysteine are important risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have recently described a new laser-induced fluorescence capillary electrophoresis (CE-LIF) method to measure total plasma thiols, in which the baseline separation of cysteinylglycine, homocysteine, cysteine, and glutathione was achieved by adding the organic base N-methyl-D-glucamine to the run buffer. However, because the active fractions of homocysteine and cysteine responsible for vascular injuries are still unknown, research calls for a set up of methods able to analyze different forms of plasma thiols. In this paper, we present an improvement of our previous method that allows the measurement of different thiol forms. Total, reduced, and free thiols were measured by varying the order of disulfide reduction with tributylphosphine and proteins precipitation with 5-sulfosalicylic acid. After derivatization with 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein, samples were separated and measured by CE-LIF using a phosphate/borate buffer in the presence of 75 mmol/L N-methyl-D-glucamine. Oxidized thiols and protein bound thiols were calculated by difference, free minus reduced and total minus free form, respectively. Linearity, reproducibility, analytical recovery, and sensitivity were evaluated. The assay was used to measure the thiols redox status in 15 plasma samples from healthy volunteers. PMID:15004850

Carru, Ciriaco; Deiana, Luca; Sotgia, Salvatore; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Zinellu, Angelo

2004-03-01

115

Administration of albumin to patients with sepsis syndrome: a possible beneficial role in plasma thiol repletion.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Albumin is often administered intravenously to critically ill patients as a volume expander, to combat hypoalbuminaemia, and to decrease hyperbilirubinaemia. There is, however, an ongoing debate concerning the therapeutic benefit of the former which is an expensive form of treatment.2. Albumin has several biological functions, in particular as a ligand binder. It also acts as an extracellular transition metal ion-binding and radical-scavenging antioxidant. These functions are influenced by the presence of an exposed thiol group (cys 34) on the surface of the albumin molecule. 3. The ability of infused albumin to influence the plasma thiol pool, and hence antioxidant potential, was investigated in patients with sepsis syndrome.4. Plasma thiol levels rose rapidly after albumin infusion and remained elevated even after plasma albumin levels had declined significantly, due to interstitial leakage. Data are suggestive of some form of thiol exchange in the plasma of these patients between albumin and molecules containing oxidized thiol groups.5. Administration of albumin to patients with sepsis syndrome leads to a sustained increase in plasma thiols. Thiols have several important antioxidant functions, and thiol repletion in these patients, who are known to suffer from oxidative stress, may have beneficial antioxidant effects. Antioxidant repletion may represent an important facet of clinically administered albumin. PMID:9748422

Quinlan, G J; Margarson, M P; Mumby, S; Evans, T W; Gutteridge, J M

1998-10-01

116

Photoinduced thiol-ene coupling as a click ligation tool for thiodisaccharide synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high efficiency and selectivity of the thiol-ene radical reaction has been validated by the photoinduced coupling of anomeric sugar thiols with sugar alkenes to give 1,6-linked S-disaccharides in good to excellent yields (76-92%) and high diastereoselectivities (up to 99%). The reaction appears to be well-qualified as an exemplar click process. PMID:19422247

Fiore, Michele; Marra, Alberto; Dondoni, Alessandro

2009-06-01

117

Probing the thiol-gold planar interface by spin polarized tunneling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reports of induced magnetism at thiol-gold interface have generated considerable recent interest. In these studies, the sample magnetization was generally measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry which has limitation in determining surface and interface magnetism. In this work, we have fabricated planar tunnel junctions incorporating a thiol-gold interface. An observed room temperature humidity effect together with low temperature inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy confirmed the existence of a thiol-gold interface in the organic-inorganic hybrid heterostructure. Spin polarized tunneling measurements were performed to probe the spin polarization at the thiol-gold interface; however, the obtained spin polarized tunneling spectra indicate no measurable spin polarization at the thiol-gold interface

118

Probing the thiol-gold planar interface by spin polarized tunneling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reports of induced magnetism at thiol-gold interface have generated considerable recent interest. In these studies, the sample magnetization was generally measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry which has limitation in determining surface and interface magnetism. In this work, we have fabricated planar tunnel junctions incorporating a thiol-gold interface. An observed room temperature humidity effect together with low temperature inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy confirmed the existence of a thiol-gold interface in the organic-inorganic hybrid heterostructure. Spin polarized tunneling measurements were performed to probe the spin polarization at the thiol-gold interface; however, the obtained spin polarized tunneling spectra indicate no measurable spin polarization at the thiol-gold interface.

Zhang, Xiaohang; McGill, Stephen A.; Xiong, Peng, E-mail: xiong@physics.fsu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Wang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

2014-04-14

119

Rapid photochemical surface patterning of proteins in thiol-ene based microfluidic devices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ability to immobilize biomolecules at specific locations on the surface of solid supports is central to many biochip applications. This paper reports the rapid one-step photochemical surface patterning of biomolecules in thiol-ene microfluidic chips. Adjusting the stoichiometric ratio of "thiol" and "ene" monomers present in the microfluidic chip bulk material provides a simple and efficient way of tuning the chip's surface chemistry. Here, thiol-ene chips displaying an excess of functional thiol groups at their surfaces are functionalized with biotin and streptavidin in a controlled fashion using photolithography. We also present quantitative data on the number of functional groups available for surface modification on thiol-ene substrates and their stability.

Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw

2012-01-01

120

Synthesis of S-linked glycoconjugates and S-disaccharides by thiol-ene coupling reaction of enoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free-radical hydrothiolation of the endocyclic double bond of enoses is reported. Reaction between 2-acetoxy-D-glucal and a range of thiols including amino acid, peptide, glycosyl thiols, and sugars with primary or secondary thiol functions gave S-linked ?-glucoconjugates and S-disaccharides with full regio- and stereoselectivity. Addition of glycosyl thiols to a 2,3-unsaturated glycoside also proceeded with good selectivity and afforded a series of 3-deoxy-S-disaccharides. PMID:22920563

Lázár, László; Csávás, Magdolna; Herczeg, Mihály; Herczegh, Pál; Borbás, Anikó

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Thiols in the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin are necessary for platelet aggregation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfhydryl groups of platelet surface proteins are important in platelet aggregation. While p-chloromercuribenzene sulphonate (pCMBS) has been used in most studies on platelet surface thiols, the specific thiol-proteins that pCMBS reacts with to inhibit aggregation have not been well defined. Since the thiol-containing P2Y(12) ADP receptor is involved in most types of platelet aggregation, we used the ADP scavenger apyrase and the P2Y(12) receptor antagonist 2-MeSAMP to examine thiol-dependent reactions in the absence of contributions from this receptor. We provide evidence for a non-P2Y(12) thiol-dependent reaction near the final alphaIIbbeta3-dependent events of aggregation. We then used 3-(N-maleimidylpropionyl)biocytin (MPB) and pCMBS to study thiols in alphaIIbbeta3. As previously reported, disruption of the receptor was required to obtain labelling of thiols with MPB. Specificity of labelling for thiols in the alphaIIb and beta3 subunits was confirmed by identification of the purified proteins by mass spectrometry and by inhibition of labelling with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). In contrast to MPB, pCMBS preferentially reacted with thiols in alphaIIbbeta3 and blocked aggregation under physiological conditions. Similarly, pCMBS preferentially inhibited signalling-independent activation of alphaIIbbeta3 by Mn(2+). Our results suggest that the thiols in alphaIIbbeta3 that are blocked by pCMBS are important in the activation of this integrin. PMID:18537975

Manickam, Nagaraj; Sun, Xiuhua; Hakala, Kevin W; Weintraub, Susan T; Essex, David W

2008-07-01

122

Molecular modeling, structural analysis and identification of ligand binding sites of trypanothione reductase from Leishmania mexicana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trypanothione reductase (TR is a member of FAD-dependent NADPH oxidoreductase protein family and it is a key enzyme which connects the NADPH and the thiol-based redox system. Inhibition studies indicate that TR is an essential enzyme for parasite survival. Therefore, it is an attractive target enzyme for novel drug candidates. There is no structural model for TR of Leishmania mexicana (LmTR in the protein databases. In this work, 3D structure of TR from L. mexicana was identified by template-based in silico homology modeling method, resultant model was validated, structurally analyzed and possible ligand binding pockets were identified. Methods: For computational molecular modeling study, firstly, template was identified by BLAST search against PDB database. Multiple alignments were achieved by ClustalW2. Molecular modeling of LmTR was done and possible drug targeting sites were identified. Refinement of the model was done by performing local energy minimization for backbone, hydrogen and side chains. Model was validated by web-based servers. Results: A reliable 3D model for TR from L. mexicana was modeled by using L. infantum trypanothione reductase (LiTR as a template. RMSD results according to C-alpha, visible atoms and backbone were 0.809 Å, 0.732 Å and 0.728 Å respectively. Ramachandran plot indicates that model shows an acceptable stereochemistry. Conclusion: Modeled structure of LmTR shows high similarity with LiTR based on overall structural features like domains and folding patterns. Predicted structure will provide a source for the further docking studies of various peptide-based inhibitors.

Ozal Mutlu

2013-01-01

123

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Activity and Folate Metabolism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Folate is a vital B vitamin which is easily water-soluble. It is a natural source which is found in the herbal and animal foods. Folate has important duties in the human metabolism, one of them is the adjustment of the level of plasma homocysteine. Reduction in MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase),which is in charge of the metabolism of homocysteine activity affects the level of homocysteine. Therefore MTHFR is an important enzyme in folate metabolism. Some of the mutations occurring i...

Nursen Keser; Ayfer Pazarbasi; Lutfiye Ozpak

2014-01-01

124

Towards thiol functionalization of vanadium pentoxide nanotubes using gold nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Template-directed synthesis is a promising route to realize vanadate-based 1-D nanostructures, an example of which is the formation of vanadium pentoxide nanotubes and associated nanostructures. In this work, we report the interchange of long-chained alkyl amines with alkyl thiols. This reaction was followed using gold nanoparticles prepared by the Chemical Liquid Deposition (CLD) method with an average diameter of ?0.9nm and a stability of ?85 days. V2O5 nanotubes (VOx-NTs) with lengths of ?2?m and internal hollow diameters of 20-100nm were synthesized and functionalized in a Au-acetone colloid with a nominal concentration of ?4x10-3mol dm-3. The interchange reaction with dodecylamine is found only to occur in polar solvents and incorporation of the gold nanoparticles is not observed in the presence of n-decane

125

Toxicity of aromatic thiols in the human red blood cell.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiophenol and 4-aminothiophenol were used to study levels of toxicity in human red blood cells. Thiophenols caused conversion of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin. Reduction of corresponding disulfides by intracellular glutathione caused cyclic reduction/oxidation reactions, resulting in increased oxidative flux. Three levels of oxidative stress were observed in these experiments: the lowest level resulted from incubation with 0.25 mM thiophenol; the intermediate level with 0.50 mM thiophenol or 0.25 mM 4-aminothiophenol; the highest levels with 0.50 mM 4-aminothiophenol. Methemoglobin formation increased with increasing level of oxidative stress. Glycolysis and the hexose monophosphate shunt were inhibited at the intermediate and highest levels of stress, respectively. Above the highest level of stress non-intact hemoglobin was formed and cell lysis occurred. These metabolic responses were reflected in cellular levels of NADH, NADPH and reduced glutathione. At the lowest level of oxidative stress, both glycolysis and hexose monophosphate shunt were increased such that near-normal levels of NADH, NADPH and reduced glutathione were maintained and methemoglobin formation was kept to a minimum. The response of red cells to 0.25 mM thiophenol appears to represent a level of oxidative stress to which the cell is capable of adaptive metabolic response. Glycolysis contributes approximately one-quarter of the total reducing equivalents from glucose metabolism in response to the oxidative challenge by thiophenol. The results suggest that the metabolic response to autoxidation of endogenous thiols is thiol exchange with glutathione and reduction of resulting glutathione disulfide by the hexose monophosphate shunt. PMID:2715566

Amrolia, P; Sullivan, S G; Stern, A; Munday, R

1989-04-01

126

INHIBITION OF TYPE I 5?-REDUCTASE BY MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS  

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Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?...

Patil Vijaya; Samuel Grace; Mirapurkar Shubhangi; Krishna Mohan, R.; Dasgupta Debjani

2011-01-01

127

Oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury by thiol compounds under anoxic conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercuric mercury, Hg(II), forms strong complexes with thiol compounds that commonly dominate Hg(II) speciation in natural freshwater. However, reactions between dissolved elemental Hg(0) and thiols are not well understood although these processes are likely to be important in determining Hg speciation and geochemical cycling in the environment. In this study, reaction rates and mechanisms between dissolved Hg(0) and a number of selected organic ligands with varying molecular structures and sulfur (S) oxidation states were determined to assess the role of these ligands in Hg(0) redox transformation. We found that all thiols caused oxidation of Hg(0) under anoxic conditions but, contrary to expectation, compounds with higher S-oxidation states (e.g., disulfide) than thiols exhibited little or no reactivity with Hg(0) at pH 7. The rate and extent of Hg(0) oxidation varied widely, with smaller aliphatic thiols showing the greatest degree of oxidation. The mechanism of the oxidation is attributed to a two-step process involving adsorption of Hg(0) to thiols followed by the charge transfer from Hg(0) to electron acceptors. These observations demonstrate a unique thiol-induced oxidation pathway of dissolved Hg(0), with important implications for the redox transformation, speciation, and bioavailability of Hg for microbial methylation in anoxic environments.

Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL; Mann, Benjamin F [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

2013-01-01

128

Thiol synthesis and arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) has potential for phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. In this study, the synthesis of total thiols and acid-soluble thiols in P. vittata was investigated under arsenic exposure. The strong and positive correlation between As concentration and acid-soluble thiols in plant leaflets suggests that acid-soluble thiols may play a role in As detoxification. A major As-induced thiol was purified and characterized. A molecular ion (M+1) of 540 m/z suggests that the thiol was a phytochelatin (PC) with two base units (PC2). However, the ratios of acid-soluble thiols to As in leaflets exposed to As ranged from 0.012 to 0.026, suggesting that only a very small part of As is complexed by PC2. PCs could play a minor detoxification role in this hyperaccumulator. A PC-independent mechanism appears to be mainly involved in As tolerance, while PC-dependent detoxification seems to be a supplement

129

Studies of Aqueous U(IV) Complexation under Thiol-rich Conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organic thiol compounds and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) are electron donors and metabolic products of sulfate reducing bacteria. In addition, they are among redox potential (Eh) determinants of groundwater systems due to their redox characteristics. The low values of acid dissociation constants for .SH (pK{sub a}, 7-9) compared to those of aliphatic or phenolic .OH, impart greater anionic and metal-binding properties to the molecules. Recently, we demonstrated that a thiol compound (i. e., thiosalicylate) enhances the solubility of U(VI) at higher pH levels (< ?9). In this study, to have a better knowledge of the behaviors of U(IV) species under anaerobic conditions, the U(IV)-OH complex formation in the presence of thiol was examined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and TRLFS (time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy). A TRLFS-based U(IV) quantification methodology developed earlier was applied to examine the effects of thiol species on the dissolution behaviors. Based on UV-Vis absorption monitoring, the presence of thiol does not result in a significant changes in the low-pH hydrolysis behaviors of U(IV). However, the concentration of U(IV) dissolved in bulk phase of aqueous solutions increased with the increase of thiol concentration. The formation of soluble thiol complexes or the stabilization of UO{sub 2} nanoparticles may explain the observed solubility increase.

Cha, Wansik; Cho, Hyeryun; Jung, Euo Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

130

Identification of novel aroma-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening for aroma-active compounds in an aroma distillate obtained from freshly pan-roasted sesame seeds by aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 32 odorants in the FD factor range of 2-2048, 29 of which could be identified. The highest FD factors were found for the coffee-like smelling 2-furfurylthiol, the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the coffee-like smelling 2-thenylthiol (thiophen-2-yl-methylthiol), and the clove-like smelling 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In addition, 9 odor-active thiols with sulfurous, meaty, and/or catty, black-currant-like odors were identified for the first time in roasted sesame seeds. Among them, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, and 4-mercapto-3-hexanone were previously unknown as food constituents. Their structures were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices as well as their sensory properties with those of synthesized reference compounds. The relatively unstable 1-alkene-1-thiols represent a new class of food odorants and are suggested as the key contributors to the characteristic, but quickly vanishing, aroma of freshly ground roasted sesame seeds. PMID:20491509

Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter

2010-06-23

131

SCREENING OF HMG CO A REDUCTASE INHIBITOR PRODUCING MARINE ACTINOMYCETES  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was screening of 3-hydroxy-3- methyl glutaryl Co A (HMG CoA reductase inhibitor producing marine actinomycetes. A total of 65 morphologically different actinomycetes were screened for HMG CoA reductase inhibitor production in a two stage submerged fermentation and evaluated for HMG CoA reductase inhibitor activity by agar diffusion and thin layer chromatography technique using lovostatin as a control. Among 65 marine Actinomycete strains, only one strain produced HMG Co A reductase inhibitor

SRINU, PHANI BHUSHAN,MOGES, SRILAKSHMI, SANKAR, PRABHAKAR,LAKSHMINARAYANA

2013-09-01

132

Determination of thiol functional groups on bacteria and natural organic matter in environmental systems.  

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Organic thiols (R-SH) are known to react and form complexes with some toxic soft metals such as mercury (Hg) in both biotic and abiotic systems. However, a clear understanding of these interactions is currently limited because quantifying thiols in environmental matrices is difficult due to their low abundance, susceptibility to oxidation, and measurement interference by non-thiol compounds in samples. Here, we report a fluorescence-labeling method using a maleimide containing probe, ThioGlo-1 (TG-1), to determine total thiols directly on bacterial cells and natural organic matter (NOM). We systematically evaluated the optimal thiol labeling conditions and interference from organic compounds such as disulfide, methionine, thiourea, and amine, and inorganic ions such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-), and SCN(-), and found that the method is highly sensitive and selective. Only relatively high levels of sulfide (S(2-)) and sulfite (SO3(2-)) significantly interfere with the thiol analysis. The method was successful in determining thiols in a bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and its mutants in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The measured value of ~2.1 × 10(4) thiols cell(-1) (or ~0.07 µmol g(-1) wet cells) is in good agreement with that observed during reactions between Hg and PCA cells. Using the standard addition, we determined the total thiols of two reference NOM samples, the reduced Elliot soil humic acid and Suwanee River NOM, to be 3.6 and 0.7 µmol g(-1), respectively, consistent with those obtained based on their reactions with Hg. PMID:24401410

Rao, Balaji; Simpson, Carolyne; Lin, Hui; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

2014-02-01

133

Oxidative desorption of thiols as a route to controlled formation of binary self assembled monolayer surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Binary self-assembled monolayers have been prepared by an alternative route to the conventional approach where a surface is exposed to a solution of both thiols at open circuit. A particular composition can be prepared with relative ease and the method is particularly useful for binary monolayers comprising two thiols with very different chain lengths since the problem of the longer chain thiol displacing the shorter over time is avoided. This is achieved by first preparing a full monolayer of the longer thiol, then oxidative desorption is carried out using cyclic voltammetry to remove a known fraction (as measured from the charge associated with gold oxide reduction) of the original SAM. Experiments with several thiols of chain lengths from 9 to 16 carbon atoms show that a considerable degree of control may be exerted over the rate at which the thiol is removed, using factors such as the potential limit, scan rate, pH and electrolyte polarity. The amount of thiol removed can thus also be controlled in a similar fashion. Once the oxidative desorption has taken place to the required degree, the vacancies created can be filled by exposure to a solution of a second thiol, differing in either chain length, termination or both. Deposition of thiols was carried out both under potential control (for longer chains) and by simple adsorption (for shorter chains). Several binary SAMs were prepared using this method and characterised using simple cyclic voltammetry with redox probes and selective reductive desorption. This method of preparation of binary SAMS may provide an alternative to both conventional methods using solution exposure and to methods that employ reductive desorption to expose selected facets on a polycrystalline surface. It may also be used to create partially blocked electrodes

134

Profiling of thiol-containing compounds by stable isotope labeling double precursor ion scan mass spectrometry.  

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Here we developed a novel strategy of isotope labeling in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-double precursor ion scan mass spectrometry (IL-LC-DPIS-MS) analysis for nontargeted profiling of thiol-containing compounds. In this strategy, we synthesized a pair of isotope labeling reagents (?-bromoacetonylquinolinium bromide, BQB; ?-bromoacetonylquinolinium-d7 bromide, BQB-d7) that contain a reactive group, an isotopically labeled moiety, and an ionizable group to selectively label thiol-containing compounds. The BQB and BQB-d7 labeled compounds can generate two characteristic product ions m/z 218 and 225, which contain an isotope tag and therefore were used for double precursor ion scans in mass spectrometry analysis. The peak pairs with characteristic mass differences can be readily extracted from the two precursor ion scan (PIS) spectra and assigned as potential thiol-containing candidates, which facilitates the identification of analytes. BQB and BQB-d7 labeled thiol-containing compounds can be clearly distinguished by generating two individual ion chromatograms. Thus, thiol-containing compounds from two samples labeled with different isotope reagents are ionized at the same time but recorded separately by mass spectrometry, offering good identification and accurate quantification by eliminating the MS response fluctuation and mutual interference from the two labeled samples. Using the IL-LC-DPIS-MS strategy, we profiled the thiol-containing compounds in beer and human urine, and 21 and 103 thiol candidates were discovered in beer and human urine, respectively. In addition, 9 and 17 thiol candidates in beer and human urine were successfully identified by further comparison with thiol standards or tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Taken together, the IL-LC-DPIS-MS method is demonstrated to be a promising strategy in the profiling of compounds with identical groups in metabolomics study. PMID:25222826

Liu, Ping; Huang, Yun-Qing; Cai, Wen-Jing; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

2014-10-01

135

Conductive probe AFM study of Pt-thiol and Au-thiol contacts in metal-molecule-metal systems  

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The charge transport mechanism between 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT, C8H16S2H2) and platinum and gold electrodes is studied by breaking bonds between single ODT molecules and atomic metal junctions using conductive probe atomic force microscopy. Histograms of conductance values show peaks that are obscured by background processes that differ from the metal-molecule-metal conduction path of interest. We introduce a new method to reduce greatly such backgrounds by dividing by a 1-octanethiol (OMT, C8H17SH) reference histogram, without data selection. The method reveals three series of conductance values for both platinum and gold contacts, which we associate with geometrically different configurations between thiol and metal atoms. The ordering of conductance values, Pt-ODT-Pt > Pt-ODT-Au> Au-ODT-Au, is consistent with a relative dependence on both the number of electron channels and the density of states.

Kim, Chang Min; Bechhoefer, John

2013-01-01

136

3-Methyl-2-butene-1-thiol: identification, analysis, occurrence and sensory role of an uncommon thiol in wine.  

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A highly uncommon odorant, 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol was detected by using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and unequivocally identified for the first time in wine. A purge and trap sampling technique which provides highly representative extracts for olfactometric analysis was used for the extraction of the volatile fraction of a Spanish red wine made from Prieto Picudo grapes. The identification of the odorant was achieved by multidimensional gas chromatography analysis of the same purge and trap extract. Mass spectrum and retention indices in both polar and non-polar columns allowed knowing unequivocally the identity. To obtain quantitative data a method was validated for the analysis of the compound at ng L(-1) level with acceptable precision. This powerful odorant presented an odor threshold in wine of 0.5-1 ng L(-1) and it has been detected in several Prieto Picudo wines at concentrations slightly above the odor threshold. PMID:22967545

San-Juan, Felipe; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

2012-09-15

137

Conductive probe AFM study of Pt-thiol and Au-thiol contacts in metal-molecule-metal systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The charge transport mechanism between 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT, C(8)H(16)S(2)H(2)) and platinum and gold electrodes is studied by breaking bonds between single ODT molecules and atomic metal junctions using conductive probe atomic force microscopy. Histograms of conductance values show peaks that are obscured by background processes that differ from the metal-molecule-metal conduction path of interest. We introduce a new method to reduce greatly such backgrounds by dividing by a 1-octanethiol (OMT, C(8)H(17)SH) reference histogram, without data selection. The method reveals three series of conductance values for both platinum and gold contacts, which we associate with geometrically different configurations between thiol and metal atoms. The ordering of conductance values, Pt-ODT-Pt > Pt-ODT-Au> Au-ODT-Au, is consistent with a relative dependence on both the number of electron channels and the density of states. PMID:23298057

Kim, Chang Min; Bechhoefer, John

2013-01-01

138

Quinoline-2-thiol Derivatives as Fluorescent Sensors for Metals, pH and HNO  

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Full Text Available A tautomeric equilibrium exists for quinoline-2-thiol and quinoline-2(1H-thione. Quantum mechanical calculations predict the thione is the major tautomer and this is confirmed by the absorption spectra. The utility of quinolone-2-thiol/quinoline-2(1H-thione as a chromophore for developing fluorescent sensors is explored. No fluorescence is observed when excited at absorption maxima, however a fluorescence increase is observed when exposed to HNO, a molecule of import as a cardiovascular therapeutic. Alkylated quinoline-2-thiol derivatives are found to be fluorescent and show a reduction in fluorescence when exposed to metals and changes in pH.

Naphtali A. O’Connor

2014-06-01

139

Preparation of macroporous thiol sorbents for the removal of toxic metal ion from water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sorbent with thiol groups was prepared from a macroporous strongly basic anion exchange resin of styrene-divinylbenzene type (Lewatit MP 500). The key step of the synthesis is nucleophilic attack of the quaternary benzyltrimethylammonium groups on the resin by sulfur containing nucleophiles. In addition to traditional application of thiol sorbents to sorption of heavy metal cations, sorption of arsenate and other toxic oxo anions was studied. The unreacted hydrophilic quaternary ammonium groups promote more complete utilization of thiols and may pre-concentrate arsenic oxo-anions in the resin via electrostatic binding. The sorbents after sorption could be regenerated by an aqueous solution of sodium (poly)sulfide. (authors)

140

Low molecular weight thiols in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata upon exposure to arsenic and other trace elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low molecular weight thiol-containing compounds have been reported to play an important role in metal detoxification and accumulation in some higher plants. The formation of these low molecular weight thiols in the recently discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Chinese Brake fern (Pteris vittata) upon exposure to arsenic and other trace metals was investigated. In addition to cysteine and glutathione, an unidentified thiol was observed in the plants exposed to arsenic, which was not found in the control. The concentration of the unidentified thiol showed a very strong and positive correlation with arsenic concentration in the leaflets. The unidentified thiol was low in rachises and undetectable in the roots for As-treated plants. Total and acid-soluble thiols were also measured and the results indicated that arsenic mainly stimulated the synthesis of acid-soluble thiol in Chinese Brake. The investigations of other trace elements (Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Hg, and Se) showed that these elements were not accumulated in Chinese Brake to high levels and the synthesis of the unidentified thiol in the plant was not observed. Our study suggests that the unidentified thiol was induced specifically by arsenic and the distribution patterns of the unidentified thiol and arsenic in the plant were consistent, indicating that the synthesis of this compound was related to As exposure. - Arsenic induces synthesis of low molecular weight thiols in the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittatae arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata

 
 
 
 
141

Human carbonyl reductase 4 is a mitochondrial NADPH-dependent quinone reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

A protein encoded in the gene Cbr4 on human chromosome 4q32.3 belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Contrary to the functional annotation as carbonyl reductase 4 (CBR4), we show that the recombinant tetrameric protein, composed of 25-kDa subunits, exhibits NADPH-dependent reductase activity for o- and p-quinones, but not for other aldehydes and ketones. The enzyme was insensitive to dicumarol and quercetin, potent inhibitors of cytosolic quinone reductases. The 25-kDa CBR4 was detected in human liver, kidney and cell lines on Western blotting using anti-CBR4 antibodies. The overexpression of CBR4 in bovine endothelial cells reveals that the enzyme has a non-cleavable mitochondrial targeting signal. We further demonstrate that the in vitro quinone reduction by CBR4 generates superoxide through the redox cycling, and suggest that the enzyme may be involved in the induction of apoptosis by cytotoxic 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. PMID:19000905

Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kitade, Yukio; Ohno, Satoshi; Tajima, Kazuo; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

2008-12-26

142

The intracellular redox stress caused by hexavalent chromium is selective for proteins that have key roles in cell survival and thiol redox control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds (e.g. chromates) are strong oxidants that readily enter cells where they are reduced to reactive Cr intermediates that can directly oxidize some cell components and can promote the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Inhalation is a major route of exposure which directly exposes the bronchial epithelium. Previous studies with non-cancerous human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) demonstrated that Cr(VI) treatment results in the irreversible inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the oxidation of thioredoxins (Trx) and peroxiredoxins (Prx). The mitochondrial Trx/Prx system is somewhat more sensitive to Cr(VI) than the cytosolic Trx/Prx system, and other redox-sensitive mitochondrial functions are subsequently affected including electron transport complexes I and II. Studies reported here show that Cr(VI) does not cause indiscriminant thiol oxidation, and that the Trx/Prx system is among the most sensitive of cellular protein thiols. Trx/Prx oxidation is not unique to BEAS-2B cells, as it was also observed in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Increasing the intracellular levels of ascorbate, an endogenous Cr(VI) reductant, did not alter the effects on TrxR, Trx, or Prx. The peroxynitrite scavenger MnTBAP did not protect TrxR, Trx, Prx, or the electron transport chain from the effects of Cr(VI), implying that peroxynitrite is not required for these effects. Nitration of tyrosine residues of TrxR was not observed following Cr(VI) treatment, further ruling out peroxynitrite as a significant contributor to the irreversible inhibition of TrxR. Cr(VI) treatments that disrupt the TrxR/Trx/Prx system did not cause detectable mitochondrial DNA damage. Overall, the redox stress that results from Cr(VI) exposure shows selectivity for key proteins which are known to be important for redox signaling, antioxidant defense, and cell survival.

143

Thioredoxin reductase-thioredoxin fusion enzyme from Mycobacterium leprae: comparison with the separately expressed thioredoxin reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) catalyzes the reduction of thioredoxin (Trx) by NADPH. A unique gene organization of TrxR and Trx has been found in Mycobacterium leprae, where TrxR and Trx are encoded by a single gene and, therefore, are expressed as a fusion protein (MlTrxR-Trx). This fusion enzyme is able to catalyze the reduction of thioredoxin or 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) or 1, 4-naphthoquinone by NADPH, though the activity is much lower than that of Escherichia coli TrxR. It has been proposed that a large conformational change is required in catalysis of E. coli TrxR. Because the reductase portion of the enzyme from M. leprae shows significant primary structure similarity with E. coli TrxR, it is possible that MlTrxR-Trx may require a similar conformational change and that the change in conformation may be affected by the tethered Trx. The reductase has been expressed without Trx attached (MlTrxR). As reported here, comparison of the steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of MlTrxR-Trx with those of MlTrxR suggests that the low reductase activity of the fusion enzyme is an inherent property of the reductase, and that any steric limitation caused by the attached thioredoxin in the fusion protein makes only a minor contribution to the low activity. Titration of MlTrxR-Trx and MlTrxR with 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (AADP+), an NADP(H) analogue, results in only slight quenching of FAD fluorescence, suggesting an enzyme conformation in which the binding site of AADP+ is not close to the FAD, as in one of the conformations of E. coli TrxR. PMID:9819230

Wang, P F; Marcinkeviciene, J; Williams, C H; Blanchard, J S

1998-11-17

144

Atmospheric reactivity of alcohols, thiols and fluoroalcohols with chlorine atoms  

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Alcohols, thiols and fluoroalcohols are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are emitted to the atmosphere from both natural (vegetation, oceans, volcanoes, etc.) and anthropogenic sources (fuels, solvents, wastewater, incinerators, refrigerants, etc.). These pollutants can be eliminated from the troposphere by deposition on the terrestrial surface, direct photolysis or reaction with different tropospheric oxidants. Reactions of VOCs with tropospheric oxidants are involved in the well-known atmospheric phenomenon of photochemical smog or the production of tropospheric ozone. The oxidation of these VOCs in the troposphere is mainly initiated by reaction with OH radicals during the daytime and with NO radicals at night. However, in recent years, the oxidation by chlorine atoms (Cl) has gained great importance in the study of atmospheric reactions because they may exert some influence in the boundary layer, particularly in marine and coastal environments. In general, Cl atoms are much more reactive species than OH and NO; radicals and therefore low concentrations of Cl may compete with OH and NO3 in hydrocarbon oxidation processes. The main source of tropospheric Cl atoms is believed to be the photolysis of chlorine-containing molecules generated by heterogeneous reactions of sea salt aerosols. It has also been proposed that Cl atoms, produced in the photolysis of Cl2 emitted from industrial processes, may enhance hydrocarbon oxidation rates and ozone production in urban environments. In this work, a kinetic, theoretical and mechanistic study of the reaction of several alcohols, thiols, and fluoroalcohols with Cl atoms has been carried out. Pulsed laser photolysis-fluorescence resonance (PLP-RF) technique was used for the kinetic study as a function of temperature and pressure. An environmental chamber-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) system was also employed in the kinetic studies. Tropospheric lifetimes of these pollutants were estimated using obtained kinetic data. Products of these reactions were determined by FTIR and derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and HPLC analysis. Finally, in order to determine the main reaction pathways a theoretical study at QCISD(T)/6-311G**//MP2(Full)(6-311C** level was performed for each reaction.

Garzon Ruiz, Andres

145

Redox mediators in visible light photocatalysis: photocatalytic radical thiol-ene additions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetically useful radical thiol-ene reactions can be initiated by visible light irradiation in the presence of transition metal polypyridyl photocatalysts. The success of this method relies upon the use of p-toluidine as an essential additive. Using these conditions, high-yielding thiol-ene reactions of cysteine-containing biomolecules can be accomplished using biocompatibile wavelengths of visible light, under aqueous conditions, and with the thiol component as the limiting reagent. We present evidence that p-toluidine serves as a redox mediator that is capable of catalyzing the otherwise inefficient photooxidation of thiols to the key thiyl radical intermediate. Thus, we show that co-catalytic oxidants can be important in the design of synthetic reactions involving visible light photoredox catalysis. PMID:24428433

Tyson, Elizabeth L; Niemeyer, Zachary L; Yoon, Tehshik P

2014-02-01

146

Toxicity of thiols and disulphides: involvement of free-radical species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulphur is essential to life, and thiols and disulphides play essential roles in cellular biochemistry. Such compounds are also widely distributed in the food of man and his domestic animals, and they are extensively used in industry. However, many thiols and disulphides have been shown to be toxic. Aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic compounds of this type are haemolytic agents in animals while aminothiols have been shown to induce many cytotoxic effects in vitro and the epidithiodioxopiperazine mycotoxin, sporidesmin, is a potent hepatotoxic agent. Structure-activity relationships among these compounds and factors which modulate their harmful effects are consistent with a toxic mechanism involving redox cycling between the thiol and the corresponding disulphide. Thiyl radicals and "active oxygen" species are formed in this process, and it is suggested that these substances are responsible for initiating the tissue damage provoked by thiols and disulphides. PMID:2695409

Munday, R

1989-01-01

147

Effect of hydroxyurea and amethopterin on radiosensitivity and thiol content of biological objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been shown on a whole organism (mice) and isolated cells (Ehrlich ascites tumour) that hydroxyurea has a radiosensitizing action and decreases the endogenous thiol content. Amethopterin fails to produce the same effects

148

AFM-assisted fabrication of thiol SAM pattern with alternating quantified surface potential  

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Full Text Available Abstract Thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs are widely used in many nano- and bio-technology applications. We report a new approach to create and characterize a thiol SAMs micropattern with alternating charges on a flat gold-coated substrate using atomic force microscopy (AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM. We produced SAMs-patterns made of alternating positively charged, negatively charged, and hydrophobic-terminated thiols by an automated AFM-assisted manipulation, or nanografting. We show that these thiol patterns possess only small topographical differences as revealed by AFM, and distinguished differences in surface potential (20-50 mV, revealed by KPFM. The pattern can be helpful in the development of biosensor technologies, specifically for selective binding of biomolecules based on charge and hydrophobicity, and serve as a model for creating surfaces with quantified alternating surface potential distribution.

Simons Janet

2011-01-01

149

Degradable thiol-acrylate hydrogels as tunable matrices for three-dimensional hepatic culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A degradable poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel system was developed using simple macromer formulations and visible light initiated thiol-acrylate photopolymerization. In addition to PEGDA, other components in this gelation system include eosin-Y as a photo-sensitizer, bi-functional thiol (dithiothreitol, DTT) as a dual-purpose co-initiator and cross-linker, and N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) as a co-monomer. Gelation was achieved through a mixed-mode step-chain growth polymerization mechanism under bright visible light exposure. Increasing photo-sensitizer or NVP concentrations accelerated photo-crosslinking and increased final gel stiffness. Increasing bi-functional thiol content in the prepolymer solution only increased gel stiffness to some degree. As the concentration of thiol surpassed certain range, thiol-mediated chain-transfer events caused thiol-acrylate gels to form with lower degree of cross-linking. Pendant peptide, such as integrin ligand RGDS, was more effectively immobilized in the network via a thiol-acrylate reaction (using thiol-bearing peptide Ac-CRGDS. Underline indicates cross-linkable motif) than through homo-polymerization of acrylated peptide (e.g., acryl-RGDS). The incorporation of pendant peptide comes with the expense of a lower degree of gel cross-linking, which was rectified by increasing co-monomer NVP content. Without the use of any readily degradable macromer, these visible light initiated mixed-mode cross-linked hydrogels degraded hydrolytically due to the formation of thiol-ether-ester bonds following thiol-acrylate reactions. An exponential growth relationship was identified between the hydrolytic degradation rate and bifunctional thiol content in the prepolymer solution. Finally, we evaluated the cytocompatibility of these mixed-mode cross-linked degradable hydrogels using in situ encapsulation of hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7 cells. Encapsulated Huh7 cells remained alive and proliferated as time to form cell clusters. The addition of NVP at a higher concentration (0.3%) did not affect Huh7 cell viability but resulted in reduction of cell metabolic activity, which was accompanied by an elevated urea secretion from the encapsulated cells. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 3813-3827, 2014. PMID:24288169

Hao, Yiting; Lin, Chien-Chi

2014-11-01

150

Protein Thiol Oxidation in Murine Airway Epithelial Cells in Response to Naphthalene or Diethyl Maleate  

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Naphthalene (NA) is a semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources. NA results in acute cytotoxicity to respiratory epithelium in rodents. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolic activation to form reactive intermediates and loss of soluble cellular thiols (glutathione) are critical steps in NA toxicity, but the precise mechanisms by which this chemical results in cellular injury remain unclear. Protein thiols are likely targets of reactive NA metabolite...

Spiess, Page C.; Morin, Dexter; Williams, Chase R.; Buckpitt, Alan R.

2010-01-01

151

N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine-induced protein thiol modification in isolated rat hepatocytes.  

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Incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes with N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) or 3,5-dimethyl-N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (3,5-Me2-NAPQI) resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in the protein thiol content of the mitochondrial, cytosolic and microsomal fractions. On a concentration basis, 3,5-Me2-NAPQI induced a more marked depletion of protein thiols than did NAPQI. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic separation of the proteins of each fraction showed that different proteins had different susceptibilities to modification of their cysteine residues by the quinone imines. A few protein bands showed a decreased protein thiol content following incubation with non-toxic concentrations of quinone imines, whereas other proteins were affected by higher concentrations. Concentrations of quinone imines that were highly cytotoxic induced a general loss of protein thiols. NAPQI-induced protein thiol depletion occurred within 5 min and remained essentially unchanged for at least 30 min. In contrast, protein thiol depletion induced by 3,5-Me2-NAPQI increased over the 30-min time course of the experiment. Toxic concentrations of 3,5-Me2-NAPQI caused the formation of high molecular mass aggregates in all three subcellular fractions after 30 min of incubation. The observed crosslinking was not due to protein disulfide formation. However, no aggregate formation was observed after exposure of hepatocytes to NAPQI. One of the major target proteins of quinone imine-induced protein thiol depletion was a 17 kDa microsomal protein that was identified as the microsomal glutathione S-transferase. Exposure of hepatocytes and isolated liver microsomes to the quinone imines resulted in an up to four-fold increase in the specific activity of the microsomal glutathione S-transferase. In conclusion, our results are consistent with the suggestion of a critical role of protein thiol depletion in quinone imine-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:1567474

Weis, M; Morgenstern, R; Cotgreave, I A; Nelson, S D; Moldéus, P

1992-04-01

152

Glutathione-S-Transferase and Thiol Stress in patients with acute renal failure  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Tubular damage is common finding in acute renal failure (ARF. Various etiologies have been put forth to explain the tubular damage in ARF, one important mechanism among them is oxidative damage to renal tubules. Several biomolecules including low-molecular weight peptides and enzymes in urine have been proposed as early markers of renal failure. Current study has been undertaken to study the thiol stress and glutathione-S-transferase (GST levels in ARF patients. Method: 58 ARF patients and 55 healthy controls were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Serum thiols, GST, malanoldehyde (MDA and urine thiols were determined by spectrophotometer based methods. Results: Serum thiols and urine thiols were significantly decreased (p<0.0001, and serum GST and MDA levels were significantly increased (p<0.0001 in ARF patients compared to healthy controls. Serum GST and MDA correlated positively in ARF cases (r2 = 0.6938, p<0.0001. Conclusion: There is significant thiol stress and increased lipid peroxidation in ARF patients which leads to tubular cell membrane damage and release of GST into blood stream and into urine. This may be possible mechanism for the increased presence of GST in urine (enzymuria found in other studies.

Mungli Prakash

2010-07-01

153

Simple enrichment of thiol-containing biomolecules by using zinc(II)-cyclen-functionalized magnetic beads.  

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A simple and efficient method based on magnetic-bead technology has been developed for the enrichment of thiol-containing biomolecules, such as l-glutathione and cysteine-containing peptides. The thiol-binding site on the bead is a mononuclear complex of zinc(II) with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen); this is linked to a hydrophilic cross-linked agarose coating on a particle that has a magnetic core. All steps for the thiol-affinity separation are conducted in aqueous buffers with 0.10 mL of the magnetic beads in a 1.5 mL microtube. The entire separation protocol for thiol-containing compounds, from addition to elution, requires less than one hour per sample, provided the buffers and the zinc(II)-cyclen-functionalized magnetic beads have been prepared in advance. The thiol-affinity magnetic beads are reusable at least 15 times without a decrease in their thiol-binding ability, and they are stable for six months at room temperature. PMID:24737618

Fujioka, Haruto; Tsunehiro, Masaya; Kawaguchi, Maho; Kuramoto, Yasuhiro; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Hieda, Yuhzo; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru

2014-07-01

154

"Turn-on" fluorescence probe integrated polymer nanoparticles for sensing biological thiol molecules  

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A “turn-on” thiol-responsive fluorescence probe was synthesized and integrated into polymeric nanoparticles for sensing intracellular thiols. There is a photo-induced electron transfer process in the off state of the probe, and this process is terminated upon the reaction with thiol compounds. Configuration interaction singles (CIS) calculation was performed to confirm the mechanism of this process. A series of sensing studies were carried out, showing that the probe-integrated nanoparticles were highly selective towards biological thiol compounds over non-thiolated amino acids. Kinetic studies were also performed to investigate the relative reaction rate between the probe and the thiolated amino acids. Subsequently, the Gibbs free energy of the reactions was explored by means of the electrochemical method. Finally, the detection system was employed for sensing intracellular thiols in cancer cells, and the sensing selectivity could be further enhanced with the use of a cancer cell-targeting ligand in the nanoparticles. This development paves a path for the sensing and detection of biological thiols, serving as a potential diagnostic tool in the future. PMID:25394758

Ang, Chung Yen; Tan, Si Yu; Lu, Yunpeng; Bai, Linyi; Li, Menghuan; Li, Peizhou; Zhang, Quan; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Zhao, Yanli

2014-01-01

155

The role of the thiol group in protein modification with methylglyoxal  

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Full Text Available Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive ?-oxoaldehyde with elevated production in hyperglycemia. It reacts with nucleophilic Lys and Arg side-chains and N-terminal amino groups causing protein modification. In the present study, the importance of the reaction of the Cys thiol group with methylglyoxal in protein modification, the competitiveness of this reaction with those of amino and guanidine groups, the time course of these reactions and their role and contribution to protein cross-linking were investigated. Human and bovine serum albumins were used as model systems. It was found that despite the very low levels of thiol groups on the surface of the examined protein molecules (approx. 80 times lower than those of amino and guanidino groups, a very high percentage of it reacts (25–85 %. The amount of reacted thiol groups and the rate of the reaction, the time for the reaction to reach equilibrium, the formation of a stable product and the contribution of thiol groups to protein cross-linking depend on the methylglyoxal concentration. The product formed in the reaction of thiol and an insufficient quantity of methylglyoxal (compared to the concentrations of the groups accessible for modification participates to a significant extent (4 % to protein cross-linking. Metformin applied in equimolar concentration with methylglyoxal prevents its reaction with amino and guanidino groups but, however, not with thiol groups.

JELENA M. A?IMOVI?

2009-08-01

156

Studies on the Non-Protein Thiols of a Human Prostatic Cancer Cell Line: Glutathione Content  

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Full Text Available The low molecular weight thiol (-SH content of a human prostate carcinoma cell line (LNCap, important to the cellular resistance to drugs and irradiation, was investigated using three forms of thiol assay each utilizing different chemistries. The composition of the mixture was examined by derivatization of the thiols with a three-fold excess of the Ellman reagent to give mixed aromatic disulfides. The components were isolated by chromatography on C18 reverse phase silica gel followed by DE52 anion exchange separation, and then analyzed by capillary electrophoresis against prepared standards. The glutathione adduct (GSSE and an unknown disulfide (RSSE were the major components isolated on DE52 together with two minor ones. However, from the absorbance at 325 nm, it was found that the GSSE isolated (1.5 ± 0.2 femtomoles/cell could only account for 28.5 ± 4.3% of the total ASF thiols. It appeared that the bulk of the thiol material had not formed a stable mixed disulfide with Ellman’s reagent, and this was confirmed by 35S labeling of the cells. A large proportion of the 35S labeled components, obtained after reaction of the ASF thiols with the Ellman reagent, did not form mixed aromatic disulfides and could therefore not be identified by this labeling method.

Michael Gronow

2010-06-01

157

Human erythrocyte thiol methyltransferase: radiochemical microassay and biochemical properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiochemical microassay for the measurement of thiol methyltransferase (TMT) activity in human red blood cell (RBC) membranes has been developed. Both 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol were used as substrates for the enzyme. The pH optimum of the reaction was approximately 9.0 when glycine-NaOH was used as a buffer. The apparent Michaelis-Menten (Ksub(M)) value for the methyl donor for the reaction, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, was 43 ?mol/l. Human RBC TMT activity was neither activated nor inhibited by Ca2+, Mg2+, or tropolone, but the enzyme was inhibited by SKF 525A and by reagents that react with sulfhydryl grcups. The mean TMT activity in blood from 289 randomly selected adult white subjects was 10.93 +- 3.22 units per mg protein (mean +- S.D.). The activity was the same in samples from men and women. The results of experiments in which TMT activity was measured in mixtures of RBC membranes with relatively ''low'' and relatively ''high'' activities provided no evidence that individual variations in the enzyme activity were due to variations in endogenous TMT activators or inhibitors. (Auth.)

158

Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopic imaging of patterned thiol monolayers  

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Full Text Available Full spectroscopic imaging by means of tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS was used to measure the distribution of two isomeric thiols (2-mercaptopyridine (2-PySH and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-PySH in a self-assembled monolayer (SAM on a gold surface. From a patterned sample created by microcontact printing, an image with full spectral information in every pixel was acquired. The spectroscopic data is in good agreement with the expected molecular distribution on the sample surface due to the microcontact printing process. Using specific marker bands at 1000 cm?1 for 2-PySH and 1100 cm?1 for 4-PySH, both isomers could be localized on the surface and semi-quantitative information was deduced from the band intensities. Even though nanometer size resolution information was not required, the large signal enhancement of TERS was employed here to detect a monolayer coverage of weakly scattering analytes that were not detectable with normal Raman spectroscopy, emphasizing the usefulness of TERS.

Johannes Stadler

2011-08-01

159

Thiol containing antioxidant drugs and the human immune system.  

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The over production of toxic oxygen species (TOS) by the phagocytic cells involved in inflammatory processes plays a crucial role in generating the immune defects which characterize both infections and neoplastic diseases. Since the thiol containing drugs, and N-acetylcysteine possess a high capacity for scavenging and inhibiting TOS, the question of whether these substances are able to protect, in vivo as well as in vitro, the function of lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood in patients suffering from chronic pulmonary diseases (CPD) was investigated. The lymphocytes isolated from healthy donors as well as those from CPD patients exposed in vitro to TOS showed a reduced viability and an impairment of functions in: (a) the ability to express HLA Class II and TAC antigens and (b) the capacity to stimulate and proliferate in allogenic (MLR) and autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions (AMLR). The presence of NAC or CAT blocked this toxicity. Cells isolated from healthy donors and patients following treatment with NAC were less sensitive to the in vitro toxicity of TOS. PMID:3690018

Stagnaro, R; Pierri, I; Piovano, P; Baracco, F; De Palma, M; Indiveri, F

1987-01-01

160

A new reagent for stable thiol-specific conjugation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many clinically used protein therapeutics are modified to increase their efficacy. Example modifications include the conjugation of cytotoxic drugs to monoclonal antibodies or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to proteins and peptides. Monothiol-specific conjugation can be efficient and is often accomplished using maleimide-based reagents. However, maleimide derived conjugates are known to be susceptible to exchange reactions with endogenous proteins. To address this limitation in stability, we have developed PEG-mono-sulfone 3, which is a latently reactive, monothiol selective conjugation reagent. Comparative reactions with PEG-maleimide and other common thiol-selective PEGylation reagents including vinyl sulfone, acrylate, and halo-acetamides show that PEG-mono-sulfone 3 undergoes more efficient conjugation under mild reaction conditions. Due to the latent reactivity of PEG-mono-sulfone 3, its reactivity can be tailored and, once conjugated, the electron-withdrawing ketone is easily reduced under mild conditions to prevent undesirable deconjugation and exchange reactions from occurring. We describe a comparative stability study demonstrating a PEG-maleimide conjugate to be more labile to deconjugation than the corresponding conjugate obtained using PEG-mono-sulfone 3. PMID:24512057

Badescu, George; Bryant, Penny; Swierkosz, Julia; Khayrzad, Farzad; Pawlisz, Estera; Farys, Monika; Cong, Yuehua; Muroni, Maurizio; Rumpf, Norbert; Brocchini, Steve; Godwin, Antony

2014-03-19

 
 
 
 
161

Magnetic properties of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles  

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We present the experimental results of magnetization measurements on thiol-capped gold nanoparticles (Au-SR NPs) synthesized in a two-phase liquid-liquid system. The size of particles ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 nm with an average size of 2.8 nm. The magnetic properties of Au-SR NPs were characterized by a mixture of ferromagnetic, paramagnetic and diamagnetic components. Magnetization curves showed the hysteresis behavior typical of a ferromagnet over the whole temperature ( T) range investigated (2 K to 300 K) whereas M( H) did not saturate, not even at low T, implying the existence of a paramagnetic component. The negative slope of M( H) observed at high T demonstrated that a diamagnetic component was also considerable. From a theoretical fit, we obtained effective values of parameters such as the paramagnetic effective moment, ? p = 5.7 ? B, and the diamagnetic susceptibility, ? d = -1.7 ×10-7 emu/gOe. In addition, the T-dependence of the ferromagnetic component M f ( T) was extracted from the experimental M( T), and its characteristics are discussed in the light of the mean field model.

Yoon, Sungwon; Han, K. H.; Suh, B. J.; Jang, Z. H.; Kim, J. H.; Jung, D.-Y.

2012-04-01

162

A chromogenic assay of substrate depletion by thiol dioxygenases.  

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A fast and easy method for enzyme activity assays using the chromogenic Ellman reagent, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), was developed. The method was used to measure the activity of the nonheme mono-iron enzyme cysteine dioxygenase. Quantifying the depletion of the substrate, cysteine, allowed standard kinetic parameters to be determined for the enzyme from Rattus norvegicus. The assay was also used to quickly test the effects of ionic strength, pH, enzyme storage conditions, and potential inhibitors and activators. This assay facilitates a higher throughput than available HPLC-based assays, as it enjoys the advantages of fewer sample handling steps, implementation in a 96-well format, and speed. In addition, the relative specificity of Ellman's reagent, coupled with its reaction with a wide range of thiols, means that this assay is applicable to many enzymes. Finally, the use of readily available reagents and instrumentation means that this assay can be used by practically any research group to compare results with those of other groups. PMID:24857787

Fellner, Matthias; Doughty, Laura M; Jameson, Guy N L; Wilbanks, Sigurd M

2014-08-15

163

Thiol-redox antioxidants protect against lung vascular endothelial cytoskeletal alterations caused by pulmonary fibrosis inducer, bleomycin: comparison between classical thiol-protectant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, and novel thiol antioxidant, N,N?-bis-2-mercaptoethyl isophthalamide  

Science.gov (United States)

Lung vascular alterations and pulmonary hypertension associated with oxidative stress have been reported to be involved in idiopathic lung fibrosis (ILF). Therefore, here, we hypothesize that the widely used lung fibrosis inducer, bleomycin, would cause cytoskeletal rearrangement through thiol-redox alterations in the cultured lung vascular endothelial cell (EC) monolayers. We exposed the monolayers of primary bovine pulmonary artery ECs to bleomycin (10 µg) and studied the cytotoxicity, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and the macromolecule (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, 70,000 mol. wt.) paracellular transport in the absence and presence of two thiol-redox protectants, the classic water-soluble N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and the novel hydrophobic N,N?-bis-2-mercaptoethyl isophthalamide (NBMI). Our results revealed that bleomycin induced cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase leak), morphological alterations (rounding of cells and filipodia formation), and cytoskeletal rearrangement (actin stress fiber formation and alterations of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin) in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, our study demonstrated the formation of reactive oxygen species, loss of thiols (glutathione, GSH), EC barrier dysfunction (decrease of transendothelial electrical resistance), and enhanced paracellular transport (leak) of macromolecules. The observed bleomycin-induced EC alterations were attenuated by both NAC and NBMI, revealing that the novel hydrophobic thiol-protectant, NBMI, was more effective at µM concentrations as compared to the water-soluble NAC that was effective at mM concentrations in offering protection against the bleomycin-induced EC alterations. Overall, the results of the current study suggested the central role of thiol-redox in vascular EC dysfunction associated with ILF. PMID:22409285

Patel, Rishi B.; Kotha, Sainath R.; Sauers, Lynn A.; Malireddy, Smitha; Gurney, Travis O.; Gupta, Niladri N.; Elton, Terry S.; Magalang, Ulysses J.; Marsh, Clay B.; Haley, Boyd E.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.

2012-01-01

164

The role of ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin m in seed germination and the connection between this system and copper ion toxicity.  

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Seed germination is highly sensitive to changes in the surrounding environment. This work examined the impact of imbibition with copper solution on the germination rate and behavior of some enzyme capacities involved in stress response. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds were germinated at 25°C in the dark for 7 days of imbibition with distilled water or an aqueous solution of chloride salt of 100 or 500?M CuCl2. The exposure of seeds to copper (Cu(2+)) induced changes in the antioxidant status. In Cu-treated seeds, the non-protein thiols (SHNP) pool and ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) expression and activity increased. Cysteinyl sulfurs in the thioredoxin (Trx) function as ligands for metal ions. The accumulation of Cu(2+) inhibited seed germination and embryo growth. It appears that the FTR system mediates a novel form of redox signaling in plants under copper excess. PMID:25173453

Smiri, M; Missaoui, T

2014-11-01

165

Molecular modeling of the reductase domain to elucidate the reaction mechanism of reduction of peptidyl thioester into its corresponding alcohol in non-ribosomal peptide synthetases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs are multienzymatic, multidomain megasynthases involved in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important nonribosomal peptides. The peptaibol synthetase from Trichoderma virens (TPS is an important member of the NRPS family that exhibits antifungal properties. The majority of the NRPSs terminate peptide synthesis with the thioesterase (TE domain, which either hydrolyzes the thioester linkage, releasing the free peptic acid, or catalyzes the intramolecular macrocyclization to produce a macrolactone product. TPS is an important NRPS that does not encompass a TE domain, but rather a reductase domain (R domain to release the mature peptide product reductively with the aid of a NADPH cofactor. However, the catalytic mechanism of the reductase domain has not yet been elucidated. Results We present here a three-dimensional (3D model of the reductase domain based on the crystal structure of vestitone reductase (VR. VR belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR superfamily and is responsible for the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH-dependent reduction of the substrate into its corresponding secondary alcohol product. The binding sites of the probable linear substrates, alamethicin, trichotoxin, antiamoebin I, chrysopermin C and gramicidin, were identified within the modeled R domain using multiple docking approaches. The docking results of the ligand in the active site of the R domain showed that reductase side chains have a high affinity towards ligand binding, while the thioester oxygen of each substrate forms a hydrogen bond with the OH group of Tyr176 and the thiol group of the substrate is closer to the Glu220. The modeling and docking studies revealed the reaction mechanism of reduction of thioester into a primary alcohol. Conclusion Peptaibol biosynthesis incorporates a single R domain, which appears to catalyze the four-electron reduction reaction of a peptidyl carrier protein (PCP-bound peptide to its corresponding primary alcohol. Analysis of R domains present in the non-redundant (nr database of the NCBI showed that the R domain always resides in the last NRPS module and is involved in either a two or four-electron reduction reaction.

Lee Gwang

2010-01-01

166

Electrochemistry behavior of endogenous thiols on fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes  

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Highlights: > The first time that fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes are used for the electrooxidation of endogenous thiols. > Low potentials of electrooxidation were obtained for the different thiols. > The electrochemical behavior of thiols depends on the pH and the ionic electroactive species, the electrooxidation proceeds for a process of adsorption of electroactive species on FTO and high values the heterogeneous electron tranfer rate constant of the reaction were obtained. - Abstract: In this work the electrochemical behavior of different thiols on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes is reported. To this end, the mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (HCys) and acetyl-cysteine (ACys) at different pH was investigated. FTO showed electroactivity for the oxidation of the first three thiols at pH between 2.0 and 4.0, but under these conditions no acetyl-cysteine oxidation was observed on FTO. Voltammetric studies of the electro-oxidation of GSH, Cys and HCys showed peaks at about 0.35, 0.29, and 0.28 V at optimum pH 2.4, 2.8 and 3.4, respectively. In addition, this study demonstrated that GSH, Cys and HCys oxidation occurs when the zwitterion is the electro-active species that interact by adsorption on FTO electrodes. The overall reaction involves 4e{sup -}/4H{sup +} and 2e{sup -}/2H{sup +}, respectively, for HCys and for GSH and Cys and high heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants. Besides, the use of FTO for the determination of different thiols was evaluated. Experimental square wave voltammetry shows a linear current vs. concentrations response between 0.1 and 1.0 mM was found for HCys and GSH, indicating that these FTO electrodes are promising candidates for the efficient electrochemical determination of these endogenous thiols.

Rojas, Luciana; Molero, Leonard; Tapia, Ricardo A.; Rio, Rodrigo del; Valle, M. Angelica del; Antilen, Monica [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Armijo, Francisco, E-mail: jarmijom@uc.cl [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

2011-10-01

167

Electrochemistry behavior of endogenous thiols on fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The first time that fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes are used for the electrooxidation of endogenous thiols. ? Low potentials of electrooxidation were obtained for the different thiols. ? The electrochemical behavior of thiols depends on the pH and the ionic electroactive species, the electrooxidation proceeds for a process of adsorption of electroactive species on FTO and high values the heterogeneous electron tranfer rate constant of the reaction were obtained. - Abstract: In this work the electrochemical behavior of different thiols on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes is reported. To this end, the mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (HCys) and acetyl-cysteine (ACys) at different pH was investigated. FTO showed electroactivity for the oxidation of the first three thiols at pH between 2.0 and 4.0, but under these conditions no acetyl-cysteine oxidation was observed on FTO. Voltammetric studies of the electro-oxidation of GSH, Cys and HCys showed peaks at about 0.35, 0.29, and 0.28 V at optimum pH 2.4, 2.8 and 3.4, respectively. In addition, this study demonstrated that GSH, Cys and HCys oxidation occurs when the zwitterion is the electro-active species that interact by adsorption on FTO electrodes. The overall reaction involves 4e-/4H+ and 2e-/2H+, respectively, for HCys and for GSH and Cys and high heterogeneous electron transfer rate conrogeneous electron transfer rate constants. Besides, the use of FTO for the determination of different thiols was evaluated. Experimental square wave voltammetry shows a linear current vs. concentrations response between 0.1 and 1.0 mM was found for HCys and GSH, indicating that these FTO electrodes are promising candidates for the efficient electrochemical determination of these endogenous thiols.

168

Au-thiol interaction chemistry to influence the structural transformation of semiconductor nanocrystals and formation of giant nanostructures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giant nanostructures which are difficult to design by the classical growth process can be fabricated in a facilitated and well programmed surface ligand removal protocol employing the thiol-gold strong interaction chemistry. When thiol capped small ZnSe seed nanocrystals are treated with amine capped gold particles, gold snatches the thiol ligands from ZnSe and forces them to agglomerate leading to the giant crystalline ZnSe nanostructures. PMID:24339360

Bose, Riya; Manna, Goutam; Pradhan, Narayan

2014-04-01

169

RAPID PERMANENT HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC PATTERNING OF POLYMER SURFACES VIA OFF-STOICHIOMETRY THIOL-ENE (OSTE) PHOTOGRAFTING  

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In this work we have developed a simple and robust method to permanently pattern alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces in off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) polymer microchannels. By being able to tune the number of unreacted thiol surface groups of the OSTE Thiol polymers and by taking advantage of spatially photo-controlled surface grafting of methacrylate monomers we achieve defined areas with contact angles from 20° to 115° within one single channel. The surface modification ...

Carlborg, Fredrik; Moraga, Francesca; Saharil, Farizah; Wijngaart, Wouter; Haraldsson, Tommy

2012-01-01

170

Enhancement of Nitrate Reductase Activity by Benzyladenine in Agrostemma githago.  

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Nitrate reductase activity in excised embryos of Agrostemma githago increases in response to both NO(3) (-) and cytokinins. We asked the question whether cytokinins affected nitrate reductase activity directly or through NO(3) (-), either by amplifying the effect of low endogenous NO(3) (-) levels, or by making NO(3) (-) available for induction from a metabolically inactive compartment. Nitrate reductase activity was enhanced on the average by 50% after 1 hour of benzyladenine treatment. In some experiments, the cytokinin response was detectable as early as 30 minutes after addition of benzyladenine. Nitrate reductase activity increased linearly for 4 hours and began to decay 13 hours after start of the hormone treatment. When embryos were incubated in solutions containing mixtures of NO(3) (-) and benzyladenine, additive responses were obtained. The effects of NO(3) (-) and benzyladenine were counteracted by abscisic acid. The increase in nitrate reductase activity was inhibited at lower abscisic acid concentrations in embryos which were induced with NO(3) (-), as compared to embryos treated with benzyladenine. Casein hydrolysate inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity. The response to NO(3) (-) was more susceptible to inhibition by casein hydrolysate than the response to the hormone. When NO(3) (-) and benzyladenine were withdrawn from the medium after maximal enhancement of nitrate reductase activity, the level of the enzyme decreased rapidly. Nitrate reductase activity increasd again as a result of a second treatment with benzyladenine but not with NO(3) (-). At the time of the second exposure to benzyladenine, no NO(3) (-) was detectable in extracts of Agrostemma embryos. This is taken as evidence that cytokinins enhance nitrate reductase activity directly and not through induction by NO(3) (-). PMID:16657864

Kende, H; Hahn, H; Kays, S E

1971-12-01

171

Enhancement of nitrate reductase activity by benzyladenine in Agrostemma githago  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nitrate reductase activity in excised embryos of Agrostemma githago increases in response to both NO/sub 3//sup -/ and cytokinins. Discussed was whether cytokinins affected nitrate reductase activity directly or through NO/sub 3//sup -/, either by amplifying the effect of low endogenous NO/sub 3//sup -/ levels, or by making NO/sub 3//sup -/ available for induction from a metabolically inactive compartment. Nitrate reductase activity was enhanced on the average by 50% after 1 hour of benzyladenine treatment. In some experiments, the cytokinin response was detectable as early as 30 minutes after addition of benzyladenine. Nitrate reductase activity increased linearly for 4 hours and began to decay 13 hours after start of the hormone treatment. When embryos were incubated in solutions containing mixtures of NO/sub 3//sup -/ and benzyladenine, additive responses were obtained. The effects of NO/sub 3//sup -/ and benzyladenine were counteracted by abscisic acid. The increase in nitrate reductase activity was inhibited at lower abscisic acid concentrations in embryos which were induced with NO/sub 3//sup -/, as compared to embryos treated with benzyladenine. Casein hydrolysate inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity. The response to NO/sub 3//sup -/ was more susceptible to inhibition by casein hydrolysate than the response to the hormone. When NO/sub 3//sup -/ and benzyladenine were withdrawn from the medium after maximal enhancement of nitrate reductase activity, the level of the enzyme decreased rapidly. Nitrate reductase activity increased again as a result of a second treatment with benzyladenine but not with NO/sub 3//sup -/. At the time of the second exposure to benzyladenine, no NO/sub 3//sup -/ was detectable in extracts of Agrostemma embryos. This is taken as evidence that cytokinins enhance nitrate reductase activity directly and not through induction by NO/sub 3//sup -/. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Kende, H.; Hahn, H.; Kays, S.E.

1971-01-01

172

Dynamics of trimethoprim bound to dihydrofolate reductase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conformation of a small molecule in its binding site on a protein is a major factor in the specificity of the interaction between them. In this paper, the authors report the use of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy to study the fluctuations in conformation of the anti-bacterial drug trimethoprim when it is bound to its target, dihydrofolate reductase. 13C relaxation measurements reveal dihedral angle changes of ±25 degree to ±35 degree on the subnanosecond time scale, while 13C line-shape analysis demonstrates dihedral angle changes of at least ±65 degree on the millisecond time scale. 1H NMR shows that a specific hydrogen bond between the inhibitor and enzyme, which is believed to make an important contribution to binding, makes and breaks rapidly at room temperature

173

Dynamics of trimethoprim bound to dihydrofolate reductase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conformation of a small molecule in its binding site on a protein is a major factor in the specificity of the interaction between them. In this paper, the authors report the use of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy to study the fluctuations in conformation of the anti-bacterial drug trimethoprim when it is bound to its target, dihydrofolate reductase. {sup 13}C relaxation measurements reveal dihedral angle changes of {plus minus}25{degree} to {plus minus}35{degree} on the subnanosecond time scale, while {sup 13}C line-shape analysis demonstrates dihedral angle changes of at least {plus minus}65{degree} on the millisecond time scale. {sup 1}H NMR shows that a specific hydrogen bond between the inhibitor and enzyme, which is believed to make an important contribution to binding, makes and breaks rapidly at room temperature.

Searle, M.S.; Forster, M.J.; Birdsall, B.; Roberts, G.C.K.; Feeney, J.; Cheung, H.T.A.; Kompis, I.; Geddes, A.J. (National Institute for Medical Research, London (England))

1988-06-01

174

Conformational analysis of oxidized peptide fragments of the C-terminal redox center in thioredoxin reductases by NMR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vicinal disulfide rings (VDRs) occur when a disulfide bond forms between adjacent cysteine residues in a protein and results in a rare eight-membered ring structure. This eight-membered ring has been found to exist in four major conformations in solution, divided between cis and trans conformers. Some selenoenzymes use a special type of VDR in which selenium replaces sulfur, generating a vicinal selenosulfide ring (VSeSR). Here, we provide evidence that this substitution reduces ring strain, resulting in a strong preference for the trans conformation relative to cis in a VSeSR (cis:trans - 9:91). This was determined by using the '?-gauche effect', which makes use of both (1) H-NMR and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques for determining the amide bond conformeric ratio. The presence of selenium in a VSeSR also lowers the dihedral strain energy (DSE) of the selenosulfide bond relative to the disulfide bond of VDRs. While cis amide geometry decreases strain on the amide bond, it increases strain on the scissile disulfide bond of the VDR found in thioredoxin reductase from Drosophila melanogaster (DmTR). We hypothesize that the cis conformation of the VDR is the catalytically competent conformer for thiol/disulfide exchange. This hypothesis was investigated by computing the DSE of VDR and VSeSR conformers, the structure of which was determined by 2D NMR spectroscopy and energy minimization. The computed values of the VDR from DmTR are 16.5?kJ/mol DSE and 14.3?kJ/mol for the C+ and T- conformers, respectively, supporting the hypothesis that the enzyme uses the C+ conformer for thiol/disulfide exchange. PMID:24599608

Ruggles, Erik L; Deker, P Bruce; Hondal, Robert J

2014-05-01

175

Functionalization of embedded thiol-ene waveguides for evanescent wave induced fluorescence detection in a microfluidic device  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We demonstrate the use of functional surface groups inherently present on off-stoichiometric thiol?ene polymers, for site-specific immobilization of biomolecules and detection by evanescent wave-induced fluorescence. An optofluidic chip featuring an embedded thiol?ene waveguide was selectively functionalized with biotin using photografting. The biotin was used for immobilization of fluorescently labelled streptavidin, and experiments revealed a linear correlation between streptavidin concentration and fluorescent intensity. To further demonstrate the attractiveness of using thiol?ene for optofluidic devices, the optical properties of thiol?ene was evaluated by determining the transparency and refractive index of the cured polymer.

Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

2013-01-01

176

Visible light cured thiol-vinyl hydrogels with tunable degradation for 3D cell culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report here a synthetically simple yet highly tunable and diverse visible light mediated thiol-vinyl gelation system for fabricating cell-instructive hydrogels. Gelation was achieved via a mixed-mode step-and-chain-growth photopolymerization using functionalized 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) as backbone macromer, eosin-Y as photosensitizer, and di-thiol containing molecule as dual purpose co-initiator/cross-linker. N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) was used to accelerate gelation kinetics and to adjust the stiffness of the hydrogels. Visible light (wavelength: 400-700 nm) was used to initiate rapid gelation (gel points: ~20s) that reached completion within a few minutes. The major differences between current thiol-vinyl gelation and prior visible light mediated photopolymerization are that: (1) the co-initiator triethanolamine (TEA) used in the previous systems was replaced with multifunctional thiols and (2) mixed-mode polymerized gels contain less network heterogeneity. The gelation kinetics and gel properties at the same PEG macromer concentration could be tuned by changing the identity of vinyl groups and di-thiol cross-linkers, as well as concentration of cross-linker and NVP. Specifically, acrylate-modified PEG afforded the fastest gelation rate, followed by acrylamide and methacrylate-functionalized PEG. Increasing NVP concentration also accelerated gelation and led to a higher network cross-linking density. Further, increasing di-thiol peptide concentration in the gel formulation increased hydrogel swelling and decreased gel stiffness. Due to the formation of thiol-ether-ester bonds following thiol-acrylate reaction, the gels degraded hydrolytically following a pseudo first order degradation kinetics. Degradation rate was controlled by adjusting thiol or NVP content in the polymer precursor solution. The cytocompatibility and utility of this hydrogel system were evaluated using in situ encapsulation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Encapsulated hMSCs remained alive (>90%) throughout the duration of the study and the cells were differentiated down osteogenic lineage with varying degrees by controlling the rate and mode of gel degradation. PMID:24021231

Hao, Yiting; Shih, Han; Mu?oz, Zachary; Kemp, Arika; Lin, Chien-Chi

2014-01-01

177

Oxidation of the albumin thiol to sulfenic acid and its implications in the intravascular compartment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in the intravascular compartment. It possesses a single thiol, Cys34, which constitutes ~80% of the total thiols in plasma. This thiol is able to scavenge plasma oxidants. A central intermediate in this potential antioxidant activity of human se [...] rum albumin is sulfenic acid (HSA-SOH). Work from our laboratories has demonstrated the formation of a relatively stable sulfenic acid in albumin through complementary spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric approaches. Recently, we have been able to obtain quantitative data that allowed us to measure the rate constants of sulfenic acid reactions with molecules of analytical and biological interest. Kinetic considerations led us to conclude that the most likely fate for sulfenic acid formed in the plasma environment is the reaction with low molecular weight thiols to form mixed disulfides, a reversible modification that is actually observed in ~25% of circulating albumin. Another possible fate for sulfenic acid is further oxidation to sulfinic and sulfonic acids. These irreversible modifications are also detected in the circulation. Oxidized forms of albumin are increased in different pathophysiological conditions and sulfenic acid lies in a mechanistic junction, relating oxidizing species to final thiol oxidation products.

L., Turell; S., Carballal; H., Botti; R., Radi; B., Alvarez.

178

Thiol-independent activity of a cholesterol-binding enterohemolysin produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Enterohemolysin produced by Escherichia coli associated with infant diarrhea showed characteristics similar to those of thiol-activated hemolysins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, including inactivation by cholesterol, lytic activity towards eukaryotic cells and thermoinstability. However, entero [...] hemolysin activity was not inactivated by oxidation or by SH group-blocking agents (1 mM HgCl2, 1 mM iodoacetic acid) and the hemolysin (100 µg/ml) was not lethal to mice, in contrast to the lethality of the thiol-activated hemolysin family to animals. Earlier reports showed that intravenous injection of partially purified streptolysin O preparations (0.2 µg) was rapidly lethal to mice. These results suggest that E. coli enterohemolysin is not a thiol-activated hemolysin, despite its ability to bind cholesterol, probably due to the absence of free thiol-group(s) that characterize the active form of the thiol-activated hemolysin molecule.

P.M.S., Figueirêdo; C.F., Catani; T., Yano.

1495-14-01

179

Thiol-disulfide exchange in peptides derived from human growth hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disulfide bonds stabilize proteins by cross-linking distant regions into a compact three-dimensional structure. They can also participate in hydrolytic and oxidative pathways to form nonnative disulfide bonds and other reactive species. Such covalent modifications can contribute to protein aggregation. Here, we present experimental data for the mechanism of thiol-disulfide exchange in tryptic peptides derived from human growth hormone in aqueous solution. Reaction kinetics was monitored to investigate the effect of pH (6.0-10.0), temperature (4-50°C), oxidation suppressants [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N2 sparging], and peptide secondary structure (amide cyclized vs. open form). The concentrations of free thiol containing peptides, scrambled disulfides, and native disulfide-linked peptides generated via thiol-disulfide exchange and oxidation reactions were determined using reverse-phase HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentration versus time data were fitted to a mathematical model using nonlinear least squares regression analysis. At all pH values, the model was able to fit the data with R(2) ? 0.95. Excluding oxidation suppressants (EDTA and N2 sparging) resulted in an increase in the formation of scrambled disulfides via oxidative pathways but did not influence the intrinsic rate of thiol-disulfide exchange. In addition, peptide secondary structure was found to influence the rate of thiol-disulfide exchange. PMID:24549831

Chandrasekhar, Saradha; Epling, Daniel E; Sophocleous, Andreas M; Topp, Elizabeth M

2014-04-01

180

A Central Role for Thiols in Plant Tolerance to Abiotic Stress  

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Full Text Available Abiotic stress poses major problems to agriculture and increasing efforts are being made to understand plant stress response and tolerance mechanisms and to develop new tools that underpin successful agriculture. However, the molecular mechanisms of plant stress tolerance are not fully understood, and the data available is incomplete and sometimes contradictory. Here, we review the significance of protein and non-protein thiol compounds in relation to plant tolerance of abiotic stress. First, the roles of the amino acids cysteine and methionine, are discussed, followed by an extensive discussion of the low-molecular-weight tripeptide, thiol glutathione, which plays a central part in plant stress response and oxidative signalling and of glutathione-related enzymes, including those involved in the biosynthesis of non-protein thiol compounds. Special attention is given to the glutathione redox state, to phytochelatins and to the role of glutathione in the regulation of the cell cycle. The protein thiol section focuses on glutaredoxins and thioredoxins, proteins with oxidoreductase activity, which are involved in protein glutathionylation. The review concludes with a brief overview of and future perspectives for the involvement of plant thiols in abiotic stress tolerance.

Lyuben Zagorchev

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Influence of thiol stress on oxidative phosphorylation and generation of ROS in Streptomyces coelicolor  

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Full Text Available Thiols play very important role in the intracellular redox homeostasis. Imbalance in the redox status leads to changes in the intracellular metabolism including respiration. Thiol stress, a reductive type of stress can also cause redox imbalance. When Gram-positive bacterium Strep- tomyces coelicolor was exposed to thiol stress, catalaseA was induced. Induction of catalaseA is the consequence of elevation of ROS (reactive oxygen species. The two major sources of reactive oxygen species are Fenton reaction and slippage of electrons from electron transport chain during respiration. Hence, the effect of thiol stress was checked on the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in S. coelicolor. We found correlation in the increase of oxidative phosphorylation rate and the generation of ROS, subsequently leading to induction of catalase. It was observed that thiol stress does not affect the functionality of the individual complexes of the ETC, but still there was an increase in the overall respiration, which may lead to generation of more ROS leading to induction of catalase.

Hemendra J. Vekaria

2010-11-01

182

Radiosensitization, thiol oxidation, and inhibition of DNA repair by SR 4077  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of radiosensitization by diazenedicarboxylic acid bis(N),N-piperidide (SR 4077), a less toxic analog of diamide, was studied using Chinese hamster ovary cells. SR 4077 gave an average SER of 1.58 for postirradiation incubations of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 h. Intracellular GSH and protein thiols decreased rapidly following drug addition and GSSG increased. The GSH/GSSG ratio shifted to 1/1.6 after SR 4077 addition but returned to greater than 10/1 between 0.5 and 1.0 h. After 4 h, total intracellular GSH was only 58% of pretreatment level and extracellular GSSG increased. Protein thiols decreased to 18% of pretreatment values, recovered most rapidly between 0.5 and 1.0 h, and reached 87% of pretreatment level after 4 h. A decrease in DNA single-strand break repair as measured by alkaline filter elution rate over 0.5 h was seen, and the initial rate of repair was slower than in cells not treated with SR 4077. DNA double-strand break repair as measured by neutral filter elution rate was delayed during the first hour after irradiation when cells were treated with SR 4077. The times for maximum radiosensitization, GSH and protein thiol oxidation and recovery, and DNA strand break repair kinetics were closely linked. We propose that a protein thiol(s) required in repair processes was reversibly oxidized during SR 4077 treatment

183

Superoxide dismutase and media dependence of far-UV radiation resistance in thiol-treated cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pretreatment of wild-type Escherichia coli K12 cells with dithiothreitol (DTT) induces far-UV radiation resistance after the thiol is removed (Claycamp 1988). The present study shows that a 1 h treatment of cells with DTT in minimal medium followed by a 0.5 h incubation in buffer (370C) results in a dose reduction factor (DRF) calculated at F37 of 1.81. When the thio pretreatment was in rich medium, sensitization occurs with DRF = 0.729. This could be reversed to protection by inhibiting extracellular thiol oxidation in rich medium with the chelator, DETAPAC, such that thiol oxidation rate was equivalent to that of DTT in minimal medium. Both thiol-induced resistance and sensitization produced changes predominantly in the shoulders of survival curves. For either protection or sensitization, at least one form of endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) was required. These results suggest that different targets are involved in thiol-induced UV protection and sensitization: DNA and extracellular targets (e.g. the membrane), respectively. (author)

184

The synthesis of novel hybrid thiol-functionalized nano-structured SBA-15  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mesoporous thiol-functionalized SBA-15 has been directly synthesized by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with triblock copolymer P123 as-structure-directing agent under hydrothermal conditions. Surfactant removal was performed by Soxhlet ethanol extraction. These materials have been characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET model), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The main parameters, such as the initial molar ratio of MPTMS to TEOS, the time of adding MPTMS to synthesized gel and the Soxhlet ethanol extraction on the thiol functionalized SBA-15 with high thiol content and highly ordered hexagonal mesostructure, were investigated and evaluated. The adsorption capacity of the thiol-functionalized and non-functionalized SBA-15 materials for Pb2+ ion from aqueous solution was tested. It was found that the Pb2+ adsorption capacity of the thiol functionalized SBA-15 is three times higher than that of non-functionalized SBA-15

185

Oxidation of the albumin thiol to sulfenic acid and its implications in the intravascular compartment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in the intravascular compartment. It possesses a single thiol, Cys34, which constitutes ~80% of the total thiols in plasma. This thiol is able to scavenge plasma oxidants. A central intermediate in this potential antioxidant activity of human se [...] rum albumin is sulfenic acid (HSA-SOH). Work from our laboratories has demonstrated the formation of a relatively stable sulfenic acid in albumin through complementary spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric approaches. Recently, we have been able to obtain quantitative data that allowed us to measure the rate constants of sulfenic acid reactions with molecules of analytical and biological interest. Kinetic considerations led us to conclude that the most likely fate for sulfenic acid formed in the plasma environment is the reaction with low molecular weight thiols to form mixed disulfides, a reversible modification that is actually observed in ~25% of circulating albumin. Another possible fate for sulfenic acid is further oxidation to sulfinic and sulfonic acids. These irreversible modifications are also detected in the circulation. Oxidized forms of albumin are increased in different pathophysiological conditions and sulfenic acid lies in a mechanistic junction, relating oxidizing species to final thiol oxidation products.

L., Turell; S., Carballal; H., Botti; R., Radi; B., Alvarez.

2009-04-01

186

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND...activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or erythrocytes by such techniques as fluorescence and photometry....

2010-04-01

187

Characterization of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase from C. elegans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thioredoxin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the catalytic disulfide bond of thioredoxin. In mammals and other higher eukaryotes, thioredoxin reductases contain the rare amino acid selenocysteine at the active site. The mitochondrial enzyme from Caenorhabditis elegans, however, contains a cysteine residue in place of selenocysteine. The mitochondrial C. elegans thioredoxin reductase was cloned from an expressed sequence tag and then produced in Escherichia coli as an intein-fusion protein. The purified recombinant enzyme has a k cat of 610 min-1 and a K m of 610 ?M using E. coli thioredoxin as substrate. The reported k cat is 25% of the k cat of the mammalian enzyme and is 43-fold higher than a cysteine mutant of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. The enzyme would reduce selenocysteine, but not hydrogen peroxide or insulin. The flanking glycine residues of the GCCG motif were mutated to serine. The mutants improved substrate binding, but decreased the catalytic rate

188

COMPARISON OF THE METHYL REDUCTASE GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The DNA sequences encoding component C of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr genes) in Methanothermus fervidus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanococcus vannielii, and Methanosarcina barkeri have been published. omparisons of transcription initiation and termination site...

189

Oxidised- and total non-protein bound glutathione and related thiols in gallbladder bile of patients with various gastrointestinal disorders  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine, accomplishing a broad range of vital functions. Synthesis of glutathione and cysteine is performed mainly in the liver, whereas most other tissues are supplied with these thiols via sinusoidal efflux into the blood. Since canalicular efflux also occurs, thiols may be present in human bile. However, thiol composition of human gallbladder bile is largely unknown, which makes it difficult to speculate on the exact function of thiols in bile. In this study we report on the levels of non-protein bound thiols in gallbladder bile of patients with various gastrointestinal disorders. Methods Gallbladder bile was obtained after cholecystectomy from 30 patients who were operated for pancreatic cancer, duodenal cancer, chronic pancreatitis or cholecystolithiasis. Bile was analysed for non-protein bound total- and oxidised glutathione and related thiols, by high performance liquid chromatography. Results A more than 100-fold inter-individual variation in non-protein bound thiol levels was found in human gallbladder bile of patients with a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. Bile did contain high amounts of cysteine, whereas much lower levels of glutathione, cysteinylglycine and homocysteine were detected. Most thiols were present in their oxidised forms. Conclusion Thiols are present in considerable amounts in human gallbladder bile of patients with various gastrointestinal disorders, levels of cysteine being much higher than those of glutathione and other thiols. Most thiols were in their oxidised forms, which may indicate the presence of considerable chemical- or oxidative stress in the patients studied here.

Peters Joost H

2007-02-01

190

Aldose reductase inhibitors from the fruits of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aldose reductase inhibitors were isolated from an extract of the dry fruits of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Leguminosae). Compound 2 was identified as ellagic acid by comparison with a reference sample. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated as 2-(2,3,6-trihydroxy-4-carboxyphenyl) ellagic acid on the basis of spectral evidence, especially 2D-NMR data (HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). These two compounds inhibited aldose reductase in a non-competitive manner. PMID:11695881

Ueda, H; Tachibana, Y; Moriyasu, M; Kawanishi, K; Alves, S M

2001-09-01

191

Inversion of reactivity of thiols in Ad/sub N/ reactions of acetylenes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rate of the reaction of arenethiols with diarylpropynones in the presence of triethylamine is described by a second-order kinetic equation (first in each of the reagents). The effect of the substituent in the aromatic ring of the thiol on the reaction rate is opposite in the regions of low (/rho//sub 2/ > 0) and high (/rho//sub 2/ < 0) concentrations of the catalyst (inversion of the reactivity of the thiols). Here the sign of /rho//sub 1/ (with respect to the substrate) is not inverted. According to the quantum-chemical calculations, the inversion of the reactivity of the thiols is due to a change in the forms in which the reagent participates with variation in the concentration of the catalyst and an associated change in the ratio of the attractive and repulsive interactions between the orbitals of the reagents.

Bodrikov, I.V.; Korshunov, S.P.; Bazhan, L.I.; Statsyuk, V.E.; Korzhova, N.V.

1988-09-10

192

Thiol peptides induction in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex Koenig) in response to cadmium exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trace metal accumulation and thiol compounds synthesis as induced by cadmium exposure was studied in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Shoots were exposed for 24, 48, 96 and 144 h to several CdCl{sub 2} concentrations (0, 30, 50 and 70 {mu}M). Levels of cadmium, cysteine, glutathione (GSH), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine ({gamma}-EC), and phytochelatin-like peptides were determined in green blades, live sheaths and root/rhizomes tissues. Metal accumulation was dependent on Cd concentration and type of tissue, with green blades showing the highest content followed by live sheaths and root/rhizomes. All tissues experienced an increase in thiol-containing compounds as a response to cadmium exposure. Live sheaths showed the highest levels of cysteine, GSH and {gamma}-EC. This is the first report of induction of thiol peptides, presumably phytochelatins, by a trace metal in a sea grass species.

Alvarez-Legorreta, Teresa [Departamento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Merida, Apdo. Postal 73-Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan 97310 (Mexico); Mendoza-Cozatl, David; Moreno-Sanchez, Rafael [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Mexico D.F. 14080 (Mexico); Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo [Departamento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Merida, Apdo. Postal 73-Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan 97310 (Mexico)], E-mail: gold@mda.cinvestav.mx

2008-01-20

193

Synthesis of potential radioprotectors. 4 announcement. S-derivatives of (n-carboxymethyl) propionamid-2-thiol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have shown the way for synthesis of some S-substituted derivatives of the established radioprotector (N-carboxymethyl-propionamide-2-thiol ..cap alpha.. -mercaptopropionylglycine, meprin, thiol). Synthesised are thiosulphate (TSPG), thiophosphate (TPPG), isothyuronium (ITPG.HBr) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDCPG) analogues of ..cap alpha..-MPG. The synthesis is characterized with a reaction between the natrium salt of ..cap alpha..-Br propionylglycine with respectively Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/0/sub 3/, Na/sub 3/SPO/sub 3/, thiocarbamide and natrium diethyldithiocarbamate under different conditions. The isolation of the final products were carried out through repeated precipitation from water with ethyl alcohol (TCPG and TPPG), obtaining hydrobromide with 40% HBr and precipitation of the latter with either (ITPH.HBr) or precipitation from alcohol solution with ecetone (DDCPG). The replacement of the thiol group with thiosulphate and thiophosphate group leads to decreased toxicity and improvement of antiradiation properties.

Pantev, T.; Isakov, I. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

1983-01-01

194

Influence of volatile thiols in the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strong blackcurrant aroma was recently perceived in some red wines originating from the same appellation. Varietal thiols such as 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4MMP), 3-(mercapto)hexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercapto-1-hexanol (3MH) are compounds potentially responsible for the development of this aroma. In order to demonstrate the correlation between thiols concentrations in red wines and blackcurrant aroma intensity, a multiple variable analysis was realised with thiols concentrations obtained by chemical analysis and blackcurrant aroma intensities obtained by descriptive sensory analysis. The 4MMP concentration was very well correlated to the blackcurrant aroma, and 3MHA and 3MH present at high concentrations act as enhancers of the perception of this aroma. This correlation was further supported after performing a sensory comparison by classification test. The different factors that could impact on the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine were discussed. PMID:24001837

Rigou, Peggy; Triay, Aurélie; Razungles, Alain

2014-01-01

195

Competitive reduction of perferrylmyoglobin radicals by protein thiols and plant phenols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radical transfer from perferrylmyoglobin to other target species (myofibrillar proteins, MPI) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), extracts from green tea (GTE), maté (ME), and rosemary (RE), and three phenolic compounds, catechin, caffeic acid, and carnosic acid) was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to determine the concentrations of plant extracts required to protect against protein oxidation. Blocking of MPI thiol groups by N-ethylmaleimide was found to reduce the rate of reaction of MPI with perferrylmyoglobin radicals, signifying the importance of protein thiols as radical scavengers. GTE had the highest phenolic content of the three extracts and was most effective as a radical scavenger. IC50 values indicated that the molar ratio between phenols in plant extract and MPI thiols needs to be >15 in order to obtain efficient protection against protein-to-protein radical transfer in meat. Caffeic acid was found most effective among the plant phenols. PMID:25343706

Jongberg, Sisse; Lund, Marianne N; Skibsted, Leif H; Davies, Michael J

2014-11-19

196

Thiol peptides induction in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex Koenig) in response to cadmium exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trace metal accumulation and thiol compounds synthesis as induced by cadmium exposure was studied in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Shoots were exposed for 24, 48, 96 and 144 h to several CdCl2 concentrations (0, 30, 50 and 70 ?M). Levels of cadmium, cysteine, glutathione (GSH), ?-glutamylcysteine (?-EC), and phytochelatin-like peptides were determined in green blades, live sheaths and root/rhizomes tissues. Metal accumulation was dependent on Cd concentration and type of tissue, with green blades showing the highest content followed by live sheaths and root/rhizomes. All tissues experienced an increase in thiol-containing compounds as a response to cadmium exposure. Live sheaths showed the highest levels of cysteine, GSH and ?-EC. This is the first report of induction of thiol peptides, presumably phytochelatins, by a trace metal in a sea grass species

197

INHIBITION OF TYPE I 5?-REDUCTASE BY MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS  

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Full Text Available Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione, the activity of enzyme was determined using RIA for testosterone and ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione. It was found that methanolic extract of Embelia ribes was a potent inhibitor of type I 5?-reductase (IC50:100?g/mL. Extracts of Vitex negundo, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica which also inhibited type I 5?-reductase (IC50: 200-390 ?g /mL. Therefore herbal formulation of these plant extracts may be used in the treatment of skin disorders involving type I 5?-reductase.

Patil Vijaya

2011-03-01

198

Regeneration mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana methionine sulfoxide reductases B by glutaredoxins and thioredoxins.  

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Methionine oxidation leads to the formation of S- and R-diastereomers of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO), which are reduced back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs) A and B, respectively. MSRBs are classified in two groups depending on the conservation of one or two redox-active Cys; 2-Cys MSRBs possess a catalytic Cys-reducing MetSO and a resolving Cys, allowing regeneration by thioredoxins. The second type, 1-Cys MSRBs, possess only the catalytic Cys. The biochemical mechanisms involved in activity regeneration of 1-Cys MSRBs remain largely elusive. In the present work we used recombinant plastidial Arabidopsis thaliana MSRB1 and MSRB2 as models for 1-Cys and 2-Cys MSRBs, respectively, to delineate the Trx- and glutaredoxin-dependent reduction mechanisms. Activity assays carried out using a series of cysteine mutants and various reductants combined with measurements of free thiols under distinct oxidation conditions and mass spectrometry experiments show that the 2-Cys MSRB2 is reduced by Trx through a dithiol-disulfide exchange involving both redox-active Cys of the two partners. Regarding 1-Cys MSRB1, oxidation of the enzyme after substrate reduction leads to the formation of a stable sulfenic acid on the catalytic Cys, which is subsequently glutathionylated. The deglutathionylation of MSRB1 is achieved by both mono- and dithiol glutaredoxins and involves only their N-terminal conserved catalytic Cys. This study proposes a detailed mechanism of the regeneration of 1-Cys MSRB activity by glutaredoxins, which likely constitute physiological reductants for this type of MSR. PMID:19457862

Tarrago, Lionel; Laugier, Edith; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Marchand, Christophe; Le Maréchal, Pierre; Rouhier, Nicolas; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Rey, Pascal

2009-07-10

199

Regeneration Mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases B by Glutaredoxins and Thioredoxins*  

Science.gov (United States)

Methionine oxidation leads to the formation of S- and R-diastereomers of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO), which are reduced back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs) A and B, respectively. MSRBs are classified in two groups depending on the conservation of one or two redox-active Cys; 2-Cys MSRBs possess a catalytic Cys-reducing MetSO and a resolving Cys, allowing regeneration by thioredoxins. The second type, 1-Cys MSRBs, possess only the catalytic Cys. The biochemical mechanisms involved in activity regeneration of 1-Cys MSRBs remain largely elusive. In the present work we used recombinant plastidial Arabidopsis thaliana MSRB1 and MSRB2 as models for 1-Cys and 2-Cys MSRBs, respectively, to delineate the Trx- and glutaredoxin-dependent reduction mechanisms. Activity assays carried out using a series of cysteine mutants and various reductants combined with measurements of free thiols under distinct oxidation conditions and mass spectrometry experiments show that the 2-Cys MSRB2 is reduced by Trx through a dithiol-disulfide exchange involving both redox-active Cys of the two partners. Regarding 1-Cys MSRB1, oxidation of the enzyme after substrate reduction leads to the formation of a stable sulfenic acid on the catalytic Cys, which is subsequently glutathionylated. The deglutathionylation of MSRB1 is achieved by both mono- and dithiol glutaredoxins and involves only their N-terminal conserved catalytic Cys. This study proposes a detailed mechanism of the regeneration of 1-Cys MSRB activity by glutaredoxins, which likely constitute physiological reductants for this type of MSR. PMID:19457862

Tarrago, Lionel; Laugier, Edith; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Marchand, Christophe; Le Marechal, Pierre; Rouhier, Nicolas; Lemaire, Stephane D.; Rey, Pascal

2009-01-01

200

Cellular recovery of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and thiol status after exposure to hydroperoxides  

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The activity of the thiol-dependent enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD), in vertebrate cells, was modulated by a change in the intracellular thiol:disulfide redox status. Human lung carcinoma cells (A549) were incubated with 1-120 mM H2O2, 1-120 mM t-butyl hydroperoxide, 1-6 mM ethacrynic acid, or 0.1-10 mM N-ethylmaleimide for 5 min. Loss of reduced protein thiols, as measured by binding of the thiol reagent iodoacetic acid to GPD, and loss of GPD enzymatic activity occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of the cells, following oxidative treatment, in saline for 30 min or with 20 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) partially reversed both changes in GPD. The enzymatic recovery of GPD activity was observed either without addition of thiols to the medium or by incubation of a sonicated cell mixture with 2 mM cysteine, cystine, cysteamine, or glutathione (GSH); GSSG had no effect. Treatment of cells with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to decrease cellular GSH by varying amounts caused a dose-related increase in sensitivity of GPD activity to inactivation by H2O2 and decreased cellular ability for subsequent recovery. GPD responded in a similar fashion with oxidative treatment of another lung carcinoma cell line (A427) as well as normal lung tissue from human and rat. These findings indicate that the cellular thiol redox status can be important in determining GPD enzymatic activity.

Brodie, A.E.; Reed, D.J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA))

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Stretching of BDT-gold molecular junctions: thiol or thiolate termination?  

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It is often assumed that the hydrogen atoms in the thiol groups of a benzene-1,4-dithiol dissociate when Au-benzene-1,4-dithiol-Au junctions are formed. We demonstrate, by stability and transport property calculations, that this assumption cannot be made. We show that the dissociative adsorption of methanethiol and benzene-1,4-dithiol molecules on a flat Au(111) surface is energetically unfavorable and that the activation barrier for this reaction is as high as 1 eV. For the molecule in the junction, our results show, for all electrode geometries studied, that the thiol junctions are energetically more stable than their thiolate counterparts. Due to the fact that density functional theory (DFT) within the local density approximation (LDA) underestimates the energy difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital by several electron-volts, and that it does not capture the renormalization of the energy levels due to the image charge effect, the conductance of the Au-benzene-1,4-dithiol-Au junctions is overestimated. After taking into account corrections due to image charge effects by means of constrained-DFT calculations and electrostatic classical models, we apply a scissor operator to correct the DFT energy level positions, and calculate the transport properties of the thiol and thiolate molecular junctions as a function of the electrode separation. For the thiol junctions, we show that the conductance decreases as the electrode separation increases, whereas the opposite trend is found for the thiolate junctions. Both behaviors have been observed in experiments, therefore pointing to the possible coexistence of both thiol and thiolate junctions. Moreover, the corrected conductance values, for both thiol and thiolate, are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those calculated with DFT-LDA. This brings the theoretical results in quantitatively good agreement with experimental data. PMID:25347152

Souza, Amaury de Melo; Rungger, Ivan; Pontes, Renato Borges; Rocha, Alexandre Reily; da Silva, Antônio José Roque; Schwingenschlöegl, Udo; Sanvito, Stefano

2014-11-01

202

Studies of Aqueous U(IV) Complexation under Thiol-rich Conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organic thiol compounds and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are electron donors and metabolic products of sulfate reducing bacteria. In addition, they are among redox potential (Eh) determinants of groundwater systems due to their redox characteristics. The low values of acid dissociation constants for .SH (pKa, 7-9) compared to those of aliphatic or phenolic .OH, impart greater anionic and metal-binding properties to the molecules. Recently, we demonstrated that a thiol compound (i. e., thiosalicylate) enhances the solubility of U(VI) at higher pH levels (2 nanoparticles may explain the observed solubility increase

203

Liquid-phase thermal condensation of aromatic and heteroaromatic thiols with ?-chloro and ?-bromostyrene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aromatic thiols and 2-thiophenethiol react with ?-chloro- and ?-bromostyrene when heated to form the corresponding 1-phenyl-2-aryl(thienyl)thioethenes. The reaction begins at 800C and takes place effectively and strictly stereospecifically at 140-1600C. The yield of the respective vinyl sulfides amounts to 70-95%. ?-Bromostyrene reacts with thiophenol more slowly than ?-chlorostyrene, and this is due to the inhibiting action of the hydrogen bromide, which acts as a trap for the thiyl radicals and gives rise to decomposition of the obtained 1-phenyl-2-phenylthioethene. Among the investigated thiols 2-thiophenethiol has the lowest reactivity

204

Synthesis of Novel Hexathiolated Squalene and Its Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization with Unsaturated Monomers  

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Full Text Available In this work is described the synthesis of a multifunctional thiolated squalene. Thiol-ene coupling reactions were employed to functionalize the six double bonds of squalene, using thiolacetic acid. Hydrolysis of the resulting thioacetates, rendered the corresponding hexathiolated squalene SQ6SH. This compound was further photopolymerized separately with triallyl cyanurate, pentaerythritol triacrylate and diethyleneglycol divinyl ether. Real Time FTIR kinetics revealed that homopolymerization of the ene monomers took place in addition to the thiol-ene photopolymerization. Flexible films were obtained when SQ6SH was photopolymerized in bulk with the above mentioned unsaturated monomers.

Ramiro Guerrero Santos

2012-05-01

205

Orthogonal protection of peptides and peptoids for cyclization by the thiol-ene reaction and conjugation.  

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Cyclic peptides and peptoids were prepared using the thiol-ene Michael-type reaction. The linear precursors were provided with additional functional groups allowing for subsequent conjugation: an orthogonally protected thiol, a protected maleimide, or an alkyne. The functional group for conjugation was placed either within the cycle or in an external position. The click reactions employed for conjugation with suitably derivatized nucleoside or oligonucleotides were either cycloadditions (Diels-Alder, Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne) or the same Michael-type reaction as for cyclization. PMID:24617567

Elduque, Xavier; Pedroso, Enrique; Grandas, Anna

2014-04-01

206

[2-(Diphenyl-phosphan-yl)benzene-thiol-ato-?P,S](pyridine-2-thiol-ato-?S)(triphenyl-phosphine-?P)palladium(II).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the title compound, [Pd(C(5)H(4)NS)(C(18)H(14)PS)(C(18)H(15)P)], the Pd(II) atom has a slightly distorted square-planar environment. Two coordination sites are occupied by a P,S-chelating 2-(diphenyl-phosphan-yl)benzene-thiol-ate ligand and the other two by a P atom from a triphenyl-phosphine ligand and an S atom from a pyridine-2-thiol-ate ligand, exhibiting a trans arrangement of the two P-donor atoms. In the crystal structure, weak intra- and inter-molecular C-H?? and ?-? inter-actions are observed. The pyridyl ring is equally disordered over two positions. PMID:21588560

Ríos-Sanchez, Raúl; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Morales-Morales, David; Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives

2010-01-01

207

Control of Nitrite Reductase Activity in Excised Embryos of Agrostemma githago.  

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When excised embryos of Agrostemma githago were incubated with nitrate, the activities of both nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were enhanced. By contrast, benzyladenine induced nitrate reductase only. Our data suggest that nitrate affected nitrite reductase activity directly, without first being reduced to nitrite. When the endogenous nitrite production was increased by raising the level of nitrate reductase through simultaneous treatment with nitrate and benzyladenine, the activity of nitrite reductase was not higher than in embryos treated with nitrate alone. On the other hand, tungstate given together with nitrate drastically inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity without reducing the enhancement of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrite enhanced nitrite reductase activity, though less efficiently than nitrate. PMID:16658983

Dilworth, M F; Kende, H

1974-12-01

208

Control of Nitrite Reductase Activity in Excised Embryos of Agrostemma githago12  

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When excised embryos of Agrostemma githago were incubated with nitrate, the activities of both nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were enhanced. By contrast, benzyladenine induced nitrate reductase only. Our data suggest that nitrate affected nitrite reductase activity directly, without first being reduced to nitrite. When the endogenous nitrite production was increased by raising the level of nitrate reductase through simultaneous treatment with nitrate and benzyladenine, the activity of nitrite reductase was not higher than in embryos treated with nitrate alone. On the other hand, tungstate given together with nitrate drastically inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity without reducing the enhancement of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrite enhanced nitrite reductase activity, though less efficiently than nitrate. PMID:16658983

Dilworth, Machi Fukuyama; Kende, Hans

1974-01-01

209

Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus  

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Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

JohnHwa

2012-05-01

210

Aldose reductase inhibitors of plant origin.  

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Diabetic complications are attributed to hyperglycaemic condition which is in turn associated with the polyol pathway and advanced glycation end products. Aldose reductase (AR) is the principal enzyme of polyol pathway which plays a vital role in the development of diabetic complications. AR inhibitory activity can be screened by both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro assays for AR enzyme are further classified on the basis of the source of enzyme such as rat lens, rat kidney, cataracted human eye lens, bovine eyes and human recombinant AR enzymes, whereas the in vivo model is based on the determination of lens galactitol levels. A number of synthetic AR inhibitors (ARIs) including tolrestat and sorbinil have been developed, but all of these suffer from drawbacks such as poor permeation and safety issues. Therefore, pharmaceutical companies and many researchers have been carrying out research to find new, potent and safe ARIs from natural sources. Thus, many naturally occurring compounds have been reported to have AR inhibitory activity. The present review attempts to highlight phytochemicals and plant extracts with potential AR inhibitory activity. It also summarizes the classes of compounds which have proven AR inhibitory activity. Phytochemicals such as quercetin, kaempferol and ellagic acid are found to be the most promising ARIs. The exhaustive literature presented in this article clearly indicates the role of plant extracts and phytochemicals as potential ARIs. PMID:23674239

Veeresham, Ciddi; Rama Rao, Ajmeera; Asres, Kaleab

2014-03-01

211

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: biochemical characterization and medical significance.  

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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydofolate (CH2-H4folate) to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate). The enzyme employs a noncovalently-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which accepts reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H and transfers them to CH2-H4folate. The reaction provides the sole source of CH3-H4folate, which is utilized by methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. MTHFR plays a key role in folate metabolism and in the homeostasis of homocysteine; mutations in the enzyme lead to hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. A common C677T polymorphism in MTHFR has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression in adults, and of neural tube defects in the fetus. The mutation also confers protection for certain types of cancers. This review presents the current knowledge of the enzyme, its biochemical characterization, and medical significance. PMID:23116396

Trimmer, Elizabeth E

2013-01-01

212

Aldose reductase inhibitory compounds from Xanthium strumarium.  

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As part of our ongoing search for natural sources of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of components of the fruit of Xanthium strumarium (X. strumarium) on aldose reductase (AR) and galactitol formation in rat lenses with high levels of glucose. To identify the bioactive components of X. strumarium, 7 caffeoylquinic acids and 3 phenolic compounds were isolated and their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The abilities of 10 X. strumarium-derived components to counteract diabetic complications were investigated by means of inhibitory assays with rat lens AR (rAR) and recombinant human AR (rhAR). From the 10 isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed the most potent inhibition, with IC?? values of 0.30 and 0.67 ?M for rAR and rhAR, respectively. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed competitive inhibition of rhAR. Furthermore, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate inhibited galactitol formation in the rat lens and in erythrocytes incubated with a high concentration of glucose, indicating that this compound may be effective in preventing diabetic complications. PMID:23604720

Yoon, Ha Na; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

2013-09-01

213

The final step in methane formation. Investigations with highly purified methyl-CoM reductase (component C) from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (strain Marburg).  

Science.gov (United States)

Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (= component C) from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (strain Marburg) was highly purified via anaerobic fast protein liquid chromatography on columns of Mono Q and Superose 6. The enzyme was found to catalyze the reduction of methylcoenzyme M (CH3-S-CoM) with N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (H-S-HTP = component B) to CH4. The mixed disulfide of H-S-CoM and H-S-HTP (CoM-S-S-HTP) was the other major product formed. The specific activity was up to 75 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. In the presence of dithiothreitol and of reduced corrinoids or titanium(III) citrate the specific rate of CH3-S-CoM reduction to CH4 with H-S-HTP increased to 0.5-2 mumol min-1 mg protein-1. Under these conditions the CoM-S-S-HTP formed from CH3-S-CoM and H-S-HTP was completely reduced to H-S-CoM and H-S-HTP. Methyl-CoM reductase was specific for H-S-HTP as electron donor. Neither N-6-mercaptohexanoylthreonine phosphate (H-S-HxoTP) nor N-8-mercaptooctanoylthreonine phosphate (H-S-OcoTP) nor any other thiol compound could substitute for H-S-HTP. On the contrary, H-S-HxoTP (apparent Ki = 0.1 microM) and H-S-OcoTP (apparent Ki = 15 microM) were found to be effective inhibitors of methyl-CoM reductase, inhibition being non-competitive with CH3-S-CoM and competitive with H-S-HTP. PMID:3350018

Ellermann, J; Hedderich, R; Böcher, R; Thauer, R K

1988-03-15

214

Structural basis of substrate specificity in human glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase.  

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Human glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR) is a D-2-hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase that plays a critical role in the removal of the metabolic by-product glyoxylate from within the liver. Deficiency of this enzyme is the underlying cause of primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2) and leads to increased urinary oxalate levels, formation of kidney stones and renal failure. Here we describe the crystal structure of human GRHPR at 2.2 A resolution. There are four copies of GRHPR in the crystallographic asymmetric unit: in each homodimer, one subunit forms a ternary (enzyme+NADPH+reduced substrate) complex, and the other a binary (enzyme+NADPH) form. The spatial arrangement of the two enzyme domains is the same in binary and ternary forms. This first crystal structure of a true ternary complex of an enzyme from this family demonstrates the relationship of substrate and catalytic residues within the active site, confirming earlier proposals of the mode of substrate binding, stereospecificity and likely catalytic mechanism for these enzymes. GRHPR has an unusual substrate specificity, preferring glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate, but not pyruvate. A tryptophan residue (Trp141) from the neighbouring subunit of the dimer is projected into the active site region and appears to contribute to the selectivity for hydroxypyruvate. This first crystal structure of a human GRHPR enzyme also explains the deleterious effects of naturally occurring missense mutations of this enzyme that lead to PH2. PMID:16756993

Booth, Michael P S; Conners, R; Rumsby, Gill; Brady, R Leo

2006-06-30

215

Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation  

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The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with (/sup 14/C)iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined.

Droux, M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.; Crawford, N.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Buchanan, B.B.

1987-07-01

216

Tritium isotopic exchange between hydrogen sulfide and methyl thiol in gas phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium exchange reaction between HTS and CH3SH was carried out. The degree of tritium exchange was estimated. Its dependence on time of reaction is shown. The dependence of the rate of exchange on the concentrations of methyl thiol and hydrogen sulfide is presented too. (Z.R.)

217

Photogenerated Lectin Sensors Produced by Thiol-Ene/Yne Photo-Click Chemistry in Aqueous Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

The photoinitiated radical reactions between thiols and alkenes/alkynes (thiol-ene and thiol-yne chemistry) have been applied to a functionalization methodology to produce carbohydrate-presenting surfaces for analyses of biomolecular interactions. Polymer-coated quartz surfaces were functionalized with alkenes or alkynes in a straightforward photochemical procedure utilizing perfluorophenylazide (PFPA) chemistry. The alkene/alkyne surfaces were subsequently allowed to react with carbohydrate thiols in water under UV-irradiation. The reaction can be carried out in a drop of water directly on the surface without photoinitiator and any disulfide side products were easily washed away after the functionalization process. The resulting carbohydrate-presenting surfaces were evaluated in real-time studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions using a quartz crystal microbalance flow-through system with recurring injections of selected lectins with intermediate regeneration steps using low pH buffer. The resulting methodology proved fast, efficient and scalable to high-throughput analysis formats, and the produced surfaces showed significant protein binding with expected selectivities of the lectins used in the study. PMID:22341757

Norberg, Oscar; Lee, Irene H.; Aastrup, Teodor; Yan, Mingdi; Ramström, Olof

2012-01-01

218

Thiol redox transitions in cell signaling: a lesson from N-acetylcysteine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The functional status of cells is under the control of external stimuli affecting the function of critical proteins and eventually gene expression. Signal sensing and transduction by messengers to specific effectors operate by post-translational modification of proteins, among which thiol redox switches play a fundamental role that is just beginning to be understood. The maintenance of the redox status is, indeed, crucial for cellular homeostasis and its dysregulation towards a more oxidized intracellular environment is associated with aberrant proliferation, ultimately related to diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Redox transitions occur in sensitive cysteine residues of regulatory proteins relevant to signaling, their evolution to metastable disulfides accounting for the functional redox switch. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol-containing compound that is able to interfere with redox transitions of thiols and, thus, in principle, able to modulate redox signaling. We here review the redox chemistry of NAC, then screen possible mechanisms to explain the effects observed in NAC-treated normal and cancer cells; such effects involve a modification of global gene expression, thus of functions and morphology, with a leitmotif of a switch from proliferation to terminal differentiation. The regulation of thiol redox transitions in cell signaling is, therefore, proposed as a new tool, holding promise not only for a deeper explanation of mechanisms, but indeed for innovative pharmacological interventions. PMID:20602078

Parasassi, Tiziana; Brunelli, Roberto; Costa, Graziella; De Spirito, Marco; Krasnowska, Ewa; Lundeberg, Thomas; Pittaluga, Eugenia; Ursini, Fulvio

2010-01-01

219

Oxidoreductive coupling of thiols with aryl halides catalyzed by copper on iron.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthesis and utilization of a simple copper on iron catalyst in the coupling of aryl halides with thiols through disulfide intermediate is reported. The iron support of copper catalyst ensures reductive media for the coupling, allows easy removal of the metals by outer magnetic field and enables the recycling of the catalyst. PMID:21079878

Kovács, Szabolcs; Novák, Zoltán

2011-02-01

220

Quantitative interpretation of the transition voltages in gold-poly(phenylene) thiol-gold molecular junctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transition voltage of three different asymmetric Au/poly(phenylene) thiol/Au molecular junctions in which the central molecule is either benzene thiol, biphenyl thiol, or terphenyl thiol is investigated by first-principles quantum transport simulations. For all the junctions, the calculated transition voltage at positive polarity is in quantitative agreement with the experimental values and shows weak dependence on alterations of the Au-phenyl contact. When compared to the strong coupling at the Au-S contact, which dominates the alignment of various molecular orbitals with respect to the electrode Fermi level, the coupling at the Au-phenyl contact produces only a weak perturbation. Therefore, variations of the Au-phenyl contact can only have a minor influence on the transition voltage. These findings not only provide an explanation to the uniformity in the transition voltages found for ?-conjugated molecules measured with different experimental methods, but also demonstrate the advantage of transition voltage spectroscopy as a tool for determining the positions of molecular levels in molecular devices

 
 
 
 
221

Analysis of thiols by microchip capillary electrophoresis for in situ planetary investigations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection of thiols on extraterrestrial bodies could provide evidence for life, as well as a host of potential prebiological or abiological processes. Here, we report a novel protocol to analyze organic thiols by microchip CE with LIF detection. Thiols were labeled with Pacific Blue C5 maleimide and analyzed by MEKC. The separation buffer consisted of 15 mM tetraborate pH 9.2 and 25 mM SDS. The optimized method provided LODs ranging from 1.4 to 15 nM. The method was validated using samples collected from geothermal pools at Hot Creek Gorge, California, which were found to contain 2-propanethiol and 1-butanethiol in the nanomolar concentration range. These samples serve as chemical analogues to material potentially present in the reducing environment of primitive Earth and also at sulfurous regions of Mars. Hence, the protocol developed here enables highly sensitive thiol analysis in samples with complexity comparable to that expected in astrobiologically relevant extraterrestrial settings. This new protocol could be readily added to the existing suite of microfluidic chemical analyses developed for in situ planetary exploration; all that is required is the incorporation of two new reagents to the payload of an existing instrument concept. PMID:23161601

Mora, Maria F; Stockton, Amanda M; Willis, Peter A

2013-01-01

222

Sytematic Study of the Adsorption of Thiol Molecules on Noble-Metal Nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of the interaction between nanoparticles and different types of ligands has been intensively investigated in the last years due to the potential contribution of their properties to the nanotechnology device design. These properties have opened new research fields like plasmonics, with interesting applications in optics, electronics, biophysics, medicine, pharmacology and materials science. Self-assembly monolayers have been thoroughly studied at experimental and theoretical level on extended (111) gold and silver surfaces. However, nanoparticle and molecule properties after the adsorption are still not well understood due to the different factors involved in this process such as the adsorption sites, size and element type of the nanoparticle. In this work we have performed a systematic study of the adsorption of methyl-thiol molecules on Au55 and Ag55 clusters through density functional theory calculations with the SIESTA code. Different adsorption modes of the methyl-thiol molecule on Au55 and Ag55 were considered. In general, for both type of nanoparticles, the methyl-thiol molecule prefers to be adsorbed on the Bridge sites. These results provide valuable information of the structural and electronic properties of methyl-thiol passivated Au and Ag nanoparticles.

Barron, H.; Hidalgo, F.; Fernandez-Seivane, L.; Noguez, C.; Lopez-Lozano, X.

2012-03-01

223

Quantitative interpretation of the transition voltages in gold-poly(phenylene) thiol-gold molecular junctions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transition voltage of three different asymmetric Au/poly(phenylene) thiol/Au molecular junctions in which the central molecule is either benzene thiol, biphenyl thiol, or terphenyl thiol is investigated by first-principles quantum transport simulations. For all the junctions, the calculated transition voltage at positive polarity is in quantitative agreement with the experimental values and shows weak dependence on alterations of the Au-phenyl contact. When compared to the strong coupling at the Au-S contact, which dominates the alignment of various molecular orbitals with respect to the electrode Fermi level, the coupling at the Au-phenyl contact produces only a weak perturbation. Therefore, variations of the Au-phenyl contact can only have a minor influence on the transition voltage. These findings not only provide an explanation to the uniformity in the transition voltages found for ?-conjugated molecules measured with different experimental methods, but also demonstrate the advantage of transition voltage spectroscopy as a tool for determining the positions of molecular levels in molecular devices.

Wu, Kunlin; Bai, Meilin; Hou, Shimin, E-mail: smhou@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sanvito, Stefano [School of Physics, AMBER and CRANN Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

2013-11-21

224

Reactivities of some thiol collectors and their interactions with Ag (+1) ion by molecular modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

The most commonly used collectors for sulfide minerals in the mining industry are the thiol collectors for the recovery of these minerals from their associated gangues by froth flotation. For this reason, a great deal of attention has been paid to understand the attachment mechanism of thiol collectors to metal sulfide surfaces. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/3-21G* and B3LYP/6-31++G** levels were employed to propose the flotation responses of these thiol collectors, namely, diethyl dithiocarbamate, ethyl dithiocarbamate, ethyl dithiocarbonate, ethyl trithiocarbonate and ethyl dithiophosphate ions, and to study the interaction energies of these collectors with Ag (+1) ion in connection to acanthite (Ag 2S) mineral. The calculated interaction energies, ? E, were interpreted in terms of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies of the isolated collector ions. The results show that the HOMOs are strongly localized to the sulfur atoms and the HOMO energies can be used as a reactivity descriptor for the flotation ability of the thiol collectors. Using the HOMO and ? E energies, the reactivity order of the collectors is found to be (C 2H 5) 2NCS 2- > C 2H 5NHCS 2- > C 2H 5OCS 2- > C 2H 5SCS 2- > (C 2H 5O)(OH)PS 2-. The theoretically obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data reported.

Yekeler, Hulya; Yekeler, Meftuni

2004-09-01

225

Reactivities of some thiol collectors and their interactions with Ag (+1) ion by molecular modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most commonly used collectors for sulfide minerals in the mining industry are the thiol collectors for the recovery of these minerals from their associated gangues by froth flotation. For this reason, a great deal of attention has been paid to understand the attachment mechanism of thiol collectors to metal sulfide surfaces. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/3-21G* and B3LYP/6-31++G** levels were employed to propose the flotation responses of these thiol collectors, namely, diethyl dithiocarbamate, ethyl dithiocarbamate, ethyl dithiocarbonate, ethyl trithiocarbonate and ethyl dithiophosphate ions, and to study the interaction energies of these collectors with Ag (+1) ion in connection to acanthite (Ag2S) mineral. The calculated interaction energies, ?E, were interpreted in terms of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies of the isolated collector ions. The results show that the HOMOs are strongly localized to the sulfur atoms and the HOMO energies can be used as a reactivity descriptor for the flotation ability of the thiol collectors. Using the HOMO and ?E energies, the reactivity order of the collectors is found to be (C2H5)2NCS2- > C2H5NHCS2- > C2H5OCS2- > C2H5SCS2- > (C2H5O)(OH)PS2-5O)(OH)PS2-. The theoretically obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data reported

226

MERCURY(II) ADSORPTION FROM WASTEWATERS USING A THIOL FUNCTIONAL ADSORBENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The removal of mercury(II) from wastewaters (coal-fired utility plant scrubber solutions) using a thiol functional organoceramic composite (SOL-AD-IV) is investigated. A simulant is employed as a surrogate to demonstrate the removal of mercury from real waste solutions. Equilibri...

227

Thiol-disulfide organization in alliin lyase (alliinase) from garlic (Allium sativum)  

Science.gov (United States)

Alliinase, an enzyme found in garlic, catalyzes the synthesis of the well-known chemically and therapeutically active compound allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate). The enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein that belongs to the fold-type I family of pyridoxal-5?-phosphate-dependent enzymes. There are 10 cysteine residues per alliinase monomer, eight of which form four disulfide bridges and two are free thiols. Cys368 and Cys376 form a S—S bridge located near the C-terminal and plays an important role in maintaining both the rigidity of the catalytic domain and the substrate-cofactor relative orientation. We demonstrated here that the chemical modification of allinase with the colored —SH reagent N-(4-dimethylamino-3,5-dinitrophenyl) maleimide yielded chromophore-bearing peptides and showed that the Cys220 and Cys350 thiol groups are accesible in solution. Moreover, electron paramagnetic resonance kinetic measurements using disulfide containing a stable nitroxyl biradical showed that the accessibilities of the two —SH groups in Cys220 and Cys350 differ. Neither enzyme activity nor protein structure (measured by circular dichroism) were affected by the chemical modification of the free thiols, indicating that alliinase activity does not require free —SH groups. This allowed the oriented conjugation of alliinase, via the —SH groups, with low- or high-molecular-weight molecules as we showed here. Modification of the alliinase thiols with biotin and their subsequent binding to immobilized streptavidin enabled the efficient enzymatic production of allicin. PMID:19177363

Weiner, Lev; Shin, Irina; Shimon, Linda J W; Miron, Talia; Wilchek, Meir; Mirelman, David; Frolow, Felix; Rabinkov, Aharon

2009-01-01

228

The reverse of the 'repair' reaction of thiols: H-abstraction at carbon by thiyl radicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thiyl radicals (RS radical) formed by the reaction of radiolytically generated OH radicals with thiols, e.g. 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), react with cis- and trans-2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran by abstracting an H atom in the ?-position to the ether function (k approx.5 x 103dm3mol-1s-1). The so-formed planar ether radical is 'repaired' by the thiol (k = 6 x 108dm3mol-1s-1) thereby regenerating a cis-or trans-2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran molecule. In this reaction a thiyl radical is reproduced. Thus trans-2,5-Me2 THF from cis-2,5-Me2THF and vice versa are formed in a chain reaction: at a dose rate of 2.8 x 10-3Gy s-1 and a trans-2,5-Me2THF concentration of 1 x 10-2mol dm-3 using DTT as the thiol, G(cis-2,5-Me2THF) = 160 has been found. The chain reaction is very sensitive to impurities and also to disulphides such as those radiolytically formed. 2,5-Me2THF can be regarded as a model for the sugar moiety of DNA where the C(4')-radical is known to lead to DNA strand breakage. The possible role of cellular thiols in the repair of the C(4')DNA radical, and also the conceivable role of thiyl radicals inducing DNA strand breakage, are discussed. (author)

229

Synthesis and Microstructural Investigations of Organometallic Pd(II) Thiol-Gold Nanoparticles Hybrids  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles functionalized by a novel thiol-organometallic complex containing Pd(II) centers is presented. Pd(II) thiol, trans, trans-[dithiolate-dibis(tributylphosphine)dipalladium(II)-4,4'-diethynylbiphenyl] was synthesized and linked to Au nanoparticles by the chemical reduction of a metal salt precursor. The new hybrid made of organometallic Pd(II) thiol-gold nanoparticles, shows through a single S bridge a direct link between Pd(II) and Au nanoparticles. The size-control of the Au nanoparticles (diameter range 2-10 nm) was achieved by choosing the suitable AuCl4 -/thiol molar ratio. The size, strain, shape, and crystalline structure of these functionalized nanoparticles were determined by a full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analysis, high-resolution TEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements of the hybrid system show emission peaks at 418 and 440 nm. The hybrid was exposed to gaseous NO x with the aim to evaluate the suitability for applications in sensor devices; XPS measurements permitted to ascertain and investigate the hybrid -gas interaction.

Vitale, Floriana; Vitaliano, Rosa; Battocchio, Chiara; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Giannini, Cinzia; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Guagliardi, Antonella; Cervellino, Antonio; Polzonetti, Giovanni; Russo, Maria Vittoria; Tapfer, Leander

2008-11-01

230

Biomimetic studies on iodothyronine deiodinase intermediates: modeling the reduction of selenenyl iodide by thiols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enzyme mimetic studies on the crucial intermediate (E-SeI) of the iodothyronine deiodinase cycle have been carried out by using an areneselenenyl iodide stabilized by intramolecular Se.N interactions. Treatment of this compound with aromatic thiols and thiobenzoxazole in the presence of NEt(3) affords areneselenenyl sulfides that are stable towards disproportionation reactions. The structures of three of the areneselenenyl sulfides were determined by X-ray crystallography. In one case, in the absence of NEt(3), a diselenide can be formed rather than the selenenyl sulfide. The areneselenenyl iodide also reacts with a related selenol to produce the corresponding diselenide, and this reaction is found to be much faster than that with thiols. The high reactivity of the selenenyl iodide with the selenol suggests that a reduced selenol group (R'-SeH) may react with the E-SeI intermediate to produce a diselenide (E-Se-Se-R') without any thiol cosubstrate. The intermediacy of selenenyl sulfides during the reduction of selenenyl iodide by thiols and its possible relevance to the iodothyronine deiodinase catalytic cycle is also described. PMID:12007178

Mugesh, Govindasamy; du Mont, Wolf-Walther; Wismach, Cathleen; Jones, Peter G

2002-05-01

231

Thiol-ene reaction as tool for crosslinking of polynorbornene micelles in the nanoscale  

Science.gov (United States)

The thiol-ene reaction is a established photoreaction of multifunctional thiols and enes. Virtually any type of ene will participate in a free radical polymerisation process with a thiol. An advantage over many other photochemical reactions is that the reaction proceeds almost as rapidly in ambient conditions as in inert atmosphere. In this work we introduce the UV-crosslinking of polynorbornenes made by ring opening metathesis polymerization making use of the residual double bond in the polymer backbone. The crosslinking experiments were done in thin films and were followed by FTIR measurements, to proof the accessibility of double-bonds in the polymers for the addition of the thiols. As a result of these pre-experiments we created flexible and light transmitting films. To further increase the scope of this reaction, amphiphilic block copolymers were prepared and used to form block copolymer micelles in a selective solvent, which were subsequently crosslinked with pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP). FT-IR, DLS and SEM-measurements were used to prove the successful crosslinking and thus nanoparticle formation.

Rupp, Barbara; Bauer, Thomas; Slugovc, Christian

2009-08-01

232

Passivation of copper surfaces for selective-area ALD using a thiol self-assembled monolayer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 1-dodecanethiol (CH3(CH2)11SH) were prepared from the vapor phase and used as a passivation layer for selective-area ALD. Thiol SAMs have commonly been prepared by immersing the substrates into a solution containing alkyl thiols. Formation of SAMs from the vapor phase, however, has advantages compared to liquid phase preparation. Passivation of surface can be done as a part of the ALD process forming a SAM first and then continuing with the common ALD process. SAMs can also be applied to three-dimensional structures relying on chemical selectivity of the thiol SAM formation. For example in the copper damascene process the thiol SAMs should form only on the copper surface but not on the insulators. In this study, the SAMs were prepared by placing the substrate and the alkylthiol to the reaction chamber and heating the system to the temperature of 73 °C. Preparation time varied from 0.5 to 24 h. Passivation properties of SAMs were tested with ALD iridium and polyimide processes. Iridium was deposited at 250? ° C for 500 cycles and polyimide at 160? ° C for 20 cycles. (paper)

233

Aldose reductase inhibition suppresses airway inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Airway inflammation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors is the hallmark of asthma, a prevalent chronic respiratory disease. In various cellular and animal models, we have recently demonstrated that, in response to multiple stimuli, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) regulates the inflammatory signals via NF-kappa B activation. Since NF-?B activation is implicated in asthma pathogenesis, we investigated whether AKR1B1 inhibition could prevent ovalbumin (Ova)- and ragweed pollen extract (RWE)-induced airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in mice models and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-, lipopolysachharide (LPS)- and RWE-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory signals in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). Sensitization and challenge with Ova or RWE caused airway inflammation and production of inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of eosinophils in airways and sub-epithelial regions, mucin production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, airway hyperresponsiveness, elevated IgE levels and release of Th2 cytokines in the airway and treatment with AKR1B1 inhibitors markedly reduced these pathological changes in mice. In SAEC, treatment with TNF-?, LPS or RWE induced apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation, synthesis of inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 and activation of NF-?B and AP-1. Pharmacological inhibition prevented these changes suggesting that AKR1B1 mediates ROS induced inflammation in small airway epithelial cells. Our results indicate that AKR1B1 inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic approach to treat inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma. PMID:21334316

Yadav, Umesh C S; Ramana, Kota V; Srivastava, Satish K

2011-05-30

234

Relative adrenal insufficiency in mice deficient in 5?-reductase 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with critical illness or hepatic failure exhibit impaired cortisol responses to ACTH, a phenomenon known as 'relative adrenal insufficiency'. A putative mechanism is that elevated bile acids inhibit inactivation of cortisol in liver by 5?-reductases type 1 and type 2 and 5?-reductase, resulting in compensatory downregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenocortical atrophy. To test the hypothesis that impaired glucocorticoid clearance can cause relative adrenal insufficiency, we investigated the consequences of 5?-reductase type 1 deficiency in mice. In adrenalectomised male mice with targeted disruption of 5?-reductase type 1, clearance of corticosterone was lower after acute or chronic (eightfold, PNr3c1 (glucocorticoid receptor), Crh and Avp in pituitary or hypothalamus were altered, consistent with enhanced negative feedback. These findings confirm that impaired peripheral clearance of glucocorticoids can cause 'relative adrenal insufficiency' in mice, an observation with important implications for patients with critical illness or hepatic failure, and for patients receiving 5?-reductase inhibitors for prostatic disease. PMID:24872577

Livingstone, Dawn E W; Di Rollo, Emma M; Yang, Chenjing; Codrington, Lucy E; Mathews, John A; Kara, Madina; Hughes, Katherine A; Kenyon, Christopher J; Walker, Brian R; Andrew, Ruth

2014-08-01

235

Characterization of a sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A low-molecular-weight (M/sub r/ = 27,200) sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris was studied with Moessbauer, EPR, and chemical techniques. This sulfite reductase was found to contain one siroheme and one [4Fe-4S] cluster. As purified, the siroheme is low-spin ferric (S = 1/2) which exhibits characteristic EPR resonances at g = 2.44, 2.36, and 1.77. At 150 K, the observed Moessbauer parameters, ?E/sub Q/ = 2.49 +/- 0.02 mm/s and ? = 0.31 +/- 0.02 mm/s, for the siroheme are typical for low-spin ferric complexes. The [4Fe-4S] cluster is in the 2+ state. The Moessbauer parameters, ?E/sub Q/ = 0.95 +/- 0.02 mm/s and ? = 0.38 +/- 0.02 mm/s, for the cluster are almost identical to those observed for the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster in the hemoprotein subunit of the sulfite reductase from Escherichia coli. Similar to the hemoprotein subunit of E. coli sulfite reductase, low-temperature Moessbauer spectra of D. vulgaris sulfite reductase recorded with weak and strong applied fields also show evidence for an exchange-coupled siroheme-[4Fe-4S] unit. 31 references, 4 figures, 1 table

236

The role of biliverdin reductase in colorectal cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the effects of biliverdin and bilirubin have been studied extensively, and an inhibitory effect of bile pigments in cancer progression has been proposed. In this study we focused on the effects of biliverdin reductase, the enzyme that converts biliverdin to bilirubin, in colorectal cancer. For in vitro experiments we used a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and transfected it with an expression construct of shRNA specific for biliverdin reductase, to create cells with stable knock-down of enzyme expression. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the CASY model TT cell counting device. Western blot protein analysis was performed to study intracellular signaling cascades. Samples of human colorectal cancer were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. We were able to confirm the antiproliferative effects of bile pigments on cancer cells in vitro. However, this effect was attenuated in biliverdin reductase knock down cells. ERK and Akt activation seen under biliverdin and bilirubin treatment was also reduced in biliverdin reductase deficient cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples from patients with colorectal cancer showed elevated biliverdin reductase levels. High enzyme expression was associated with lower overall and disease free patient survival. We conclude that BVR is required for bile pigment mediated effects regarding cancer cell proliferation and modulation of intracellular signaling cascades. The role of BVR overexpression in vivo a. The role of BVR overexpression in vivo and its exact influence on cancer progression and patient survival need to be further investigated. (author)

237

Mediated electrochemistry of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrochemically driven catalysis of the bacterial enzyme dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase (Rhodobacter capsulatus) has been studied using the macrocyclic complex (trans-6,13-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-6,13-diamine)cobalt(III) as a mediator. In the presence of both DMSO and DMSO reductase, the normal transient Co(III/II) voltammetric response of the complex is transformed into an amplified and sigmoidal (steady-state) waveform characteristic of a catalytic EC' mechanism. At low concentrations of DMSO (approximately K (M)) or high mediator concentrations (more than the concentration of DMSO reductase), the steady-state character of the voltammetric response disappears and is replaced by more complicated waveforms that are a convolution of transient and steady-state behavior as different steps within the catalytic cycle become rate limiting. Through digital simulation of cyclic voltammetry performed under conditions where the sweep rate, DMSO concentration, DMSO reductase concentration and mediator concentration were varied systematically, we were able to model all voltammograms with a single set of rate and equilibrium constants which provide new insights into the kinetics of the DMSO reductase catalytic mechanism that have hitherto been inaccessible from steady state or stopped flow kinetic studies. PMID:19082848

Chen, Kuan-I; McEwan, Alastair G; Bernhardt, Paul V

2009-03-01

238

Partial vinylphenol reductase purification and characterization from Brettanomyces bruxellensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brettanomyces is the major microbial cause for wine spoilage worldwide and causes significant economic losses. The reasons are the production of ethylphenols that lead to an unpleasant taint described as 'phenolic odour'. Despite its economic importance, Brettanomyces has remained poorly studied at the metabolic level. The origin of the ethylphenol results from the conversion of vinylphenols in ethylphenol by Brettanomyces hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase. However, no information is available on the vinylphenol reductase responsible for the conversion of vinylphenols in ethylphenols. In this study, a vinylphenol reductase was partially purified from Brettanomyces bruxellensis that was active towards 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-vinylphenol only among the substrates tested. First, a vinylphenol reductase activity assay was designed that allowed us to show that the enzyme was NADH dependent. The vinylphenol reductase was purified 152-fold with a recovery yield of 1.77%. The apparent K(m) and V(max) values for the hydrolysis of 4-vinylguaiacol were, respectively, 0.14 mM and 1900 U mg(-1). The optimal pH and temperature for vinylphenol reductase were pH 5-6 and 30 degrees C, respectively. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 26 kDa. Trypsic digest of the protein was performed and the peptides were sequenced, which allowed us to identify in Brettanomyces genome an ORF coding for a 210 amino acid protein. PMID:18576949

Tchobanov, Iavor; Gal, Laurent; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Remize, Fabienne; Nardi, Tiziana; Guzzo, Jean; Serpaggi, Virginie; Alexandre, Hervé

2008-07-01

239

Thiol-vinyl systems as shape memory polymers and novel two-stage reactive polymer systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this research was to formulate, characterize and tailor the reaction methodologies and material properties of thiol-vinyl systems to develop novel polymer platforms for a range of engineering applications. Thiol-ene photopolymers were demonstrated to exhibit several advantageous characteristics for shape memory polymer systems for a range of biomedical applications. The thiol-ene shape memory polymer systems were tough and flexible as compared to the acrylic control systems with glass transition temperatures between 30 and 40 °C; ideal for actuation at body temperature. The thiol-ene polymers also exhibited excellent shape fixity and a rapid and distinct shape memory actuation response along with free strain recoveries of greater than 96% and constrained stress recoveries of 100%. Additionally, two-stage reactive thiol-acrylate systems were engineered as a polymer platform technology enabling two independent sets of polymer processing and material properties. There are distinct advantages to designing polymer systems that afford two distinct sets of material properties -- an intermediate polymer that would enable optimum handling and processing of the material (stage 1), while maintaining the ability to tune in different, final properties that enable the optimal functioning of the polymeric material (stage 2). To demonstrate the range of applicability of the two-stage reactive systems, three specific applications were demonstrated; shape memory polymers, lithographic impression materials, and optical materials. The thiol-acrylate reactions exhibit a wide range of application versatility due to the range of available thiol and acrylate monomers as well as reaction mechanisms such as Michael Addition reactions and free radical polymerizations. By designing a series of non-stoichiometeric thiol-acrylate systems, a polymer network is initially formed via a base catalyzed 'click' Michael addition reaction. This self-limiting reaction results in a Stage 1 polymer with excess acrylic functional groups within the network. At a later point in time, the photoinitiated, free radical polymerization of the excess acrylic functional groups results in a highly crosslinked, robust material system. By varying the monomers within the system as well as the stoichiometery of thiol to acrylate functional groups, the ability of the two-stage reactive systems to encompass a wide range of properties at the end of both the stage 1 and stage 2 polymerizations was demonstrated. The thiol-acrylate networks exhibited intermediate Stage 1 rubbery moduli and glass transition temperatures that range from 0.5 MPa and -10 ºC to 22 MPa and 22 ºC respectively. The same polymer networks can then attain glass transition temperatures that range from 5 ºC to 195 ºC and rubbery moduli of up to 200 MPa after the subsequent photocure stage. Two-stage reactive polymer composite systems were also formulated and characterized for thermomechanical and mechanical properties. Thermomechanical analysis showed that the fillers resulted in a significant increase in the modulus at both stage 1 and stage 2 polymerizations without a significant change in the glass transition temperatures (Tg). The two-stage reactive matrix composite formed with a hexafunctional acrylate matrix and 20 volume % silica particles showed a 125% increase in stage 1 modulus and 101% increase in stage 2 modulus, when compared with the modulus of the neat matrix. Finally, the two-stage reactive polymeric devices were formulated and designed as orthopedic suture anchors for arthroscopic surgeries and mechanically characterized. The Stage 1 device was designed to exhibit properties ideal for arthroscopic delivery and device placement with glass transition temperatures 25 -- 30 °C and rubbery moduli ˜ 95 MPa. The subsequent photopolymerization generated Stage 2 polymers designed to match the local bone environment with moduli ranging up to 2 GPa. Additionally, pull-out strengths of 140 N were demonstrated and are equivalent to the pull-strengths achieved by other commercially availab

Nair, Devatha P.

240

Low amounts and high thiol oxidation of peroxiredoxins in spermatozoa from infertile men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seminal oxidative stress occurs when there is an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or a decrease of antioxidant activity, promoting impaired sperm function. Peroxiredoxins (PRDX) are abundant in human semen and are important antioxidant enzymes, which act as ROS scavengers and modulators in ROS-dependent signaling. Our aim was to determine whether the levels of PRDX1 and PRDX6 and their oxidation on thiol groups are associated with a decrease in sperm motility and DNA integrity. We evaluated the sperm and seminal PRDX level in men (13 healthy controls, 15 men with clinical varicocele, and 17 men with idiopathic infertility). We assessed conventional semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity (by the sperm chromatin structure assay), lipid peroxidation in seminal plasma and spermatozoa (by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay), and the amount and thiol oxidation of PRDX1 and PRDX6 (by immunoblotting). PRDXs were affected in seminal plasma (lower amounts) and in sperm samples (lower amounts and higher levels of thiol oxidation) characterized by lower sperm motility, higher lipid peroxidation, and sperm DNA damage. The thioloxidation ratio of PRDXs (thiol-oxidized PRDX/total PRDX) correlated negatively with sperm motility (total and progressive) and positively with sperm DNA damage and sperm lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, because of the lower amount of total PRDX1 and PRDX6 and the high thiol oxidation of these PRDXs, very little (less than 20%) protection due to PRDXs remains, and this is associated with impaired sperm function and poor DNA integrity and suggests an important role of PRDXs in the protection of human spermatozoa against oxidative stress. PMID:22492841

Gong, Shasha; San Gabriel, Maria C; Zini, Armand; Chan, Peter; O'Flaherty, Cristian

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Cooperative functions of manganese and thiol redox system against oxidative stress in human spermatozoa  

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Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the effects of 0.1 mM Mn 2+ on thiol components (total thiols [TSH], glutathione reduced [GSH], glutathione oxidized [GSSG] and redox ratio [GSH/ GSSG] have been determined in human spermatozoa. Settings and Design: The subjects of the study were healthy males having more than 75% motility and 80 x 10 6 sperms/mL. Materials and Methods: Fresh semen was suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (pH 7.2 and this suspension was divided into eight equal fractions. All fractions, control (containing PBS and experimental (treated/untreated with [ferrous ascorbate, FeAA - 200 FeSO 4 ?M, 1000 ?M ascorbic acid, nicotine (0.5 mM and FeAA + nicotine], supplemented/unsupplemented with Mn 2+ [0.1 mM], were incubated for 2 h at 378C. These fractions were assessed for determining the thiol components. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed by Students " t" test. Results and Conclusions: Ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and ferrous ascorbate + nicotine induced oxidative stress and decreased GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio but increased the TSH and GSSG levels. Mn 2+ supplementation improved TSH, GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG but decreased the GSSG level under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Thiol groups serve as defense mechanisms of sperm cells to fight against oxidative stress induced by stress inducers such as ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and their combination (ferrous ascorbate + nicotine. In addition, Mn 2+ supplementation maintains the thiol level by reducing oxidative stress.

Bansal Amrit

2009-01-01

242

Synthesis of hyperbranched polypeptide and PEO block copolymer by consecutive thiol-yne chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperbranched poly(?-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine) (HPlys) with multiple alkyne peripheries was synthesized through the click polycondensation of an AB2 type Plys macromonomer with ?-thiol and ?-alkyne terminal groups (thiol is the A unit, and each ? bond in alkyne is the B unit), and the resulting HPlys was further conjugated with thiol-termined poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to generate HPlys-b-PEO block copolymer by consecutive thiol-yne chemistry. Their molecular structures and physical properties were characterized in detail by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and polarized optical microscopy. HPlys and HPlys-b-PEO mainly assumed an ?-helix conformation similar to the linear precursors, while the liquid crystalline phase transition of Plys segment disappeared within HPlys and HPlys-b-PEO. HPlys-b-PEO self-assembled into nearly spherical micelles in aqueous solution, while it gave a 5-fold lower critical aggregation concentration (8.9 × 10(-3) mg/mL) than a linear counterpart (4.5 × 10(-2) mg/mL), demonstrating a dendritic topology effect. Compared with a linear counterpart, HPlys-b-PEO gave a higher drug-loading capacity and efficiency for the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) and a slower drug-release rate with an improved burst-release profile, enabling them useful for drug delivery systems. Importantly, this work provides a versatile strategy for the synthesis of hyperbranched polypeptides and related block copolymers by utilizing thiol-yne chemistry. PMID:23957555

Chang, Xiao; Dong, Chang-Ming

2013-09-01

243

The methionine sulfoxide reductases: Catalysis and substrate specificities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidation of Met residues in proteins leads to the formation of methionine sulfoxides (MetSO). Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) are ubiquitous enzymes, which catalyze the reduction of the sulfoxide function of the oxidized methionine residues. In vivo, the role of Msrs is described as essential in protecting cells against oxidative damages and to play a role in infection of cells by pathogenic bacteria. There exist two structurally-unrelated classes of Msrs, called MsrA and MsrB, with opposite stereoselectivity towards the S and R isomers of the sulfoxide function, respectively. Both Msrs present a similar three-step catalytic mechanism. The first step, called the reductase step, leads to the formation of a sulfenic acid on the catalytic Cys with the concomitant release of Met. In recent years, significant efforts have been made to characterize structural and molecular factors involved in the catalysis, in particular of the reductase step, and in structural specificities. PMID:18302927

Boschi-Muller, Sandrine; Gand, Adeline; Branlant, Guy

2008-06-15

244

Glutathione reductase activity with an oxidized methylated glutathione analog.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activity of glutathione reductase with an unnatural analog of oxidized glutathione was explored. The analog, L-?-glutamyl-2-methyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine disulfide, places an additional methyl group on the alpha position of each of the central cysteine residues, which significantly increases steric bulk near the disulfide bond. Glutathione reductase was completely unable to catalyze the sulfur-sulfur bond reduction of the analog. Additionally, enzyme kinetics experiments indicated that the analog acts as a competitive inhibitor of glutathione reductase. Computational studies confirm that the methylated analog fits within the active site of the enzyme but its disulphide bond geometry is altered, preventing reduction by the enzyme. The substitution of (R)-2-methylcysteine in place of natural (R)-cysteine in peptides constitutes a new strategy for stabilizing disulphide bonds from enzyme-catalyzed degradation. PMID:23808802

Kedrowski, Brant L; Gutow, Jonathan H; Stock, Gorman; Smith, Maureen; Jordan, Chondrea; Masterson, Douglas S

2014-08-01

245

Formation of Underbrushes on thiolated Poly (ethylene glycol) PEG monolayers by Oligoethylene glycol (OEG) terminated Alkane Thiols on Gold  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adding underbrushes of oligoethylene glycol (OEG) to monolayers of long chain PEG molecules on a surface is one of the strategies [1] in designing a suitable platform for antifouling purpose, where it is possible to have high graft density and molecular conformational freedom[4] simultaneously, there by maximal retention of activity of covalently immobilised antifouling enzyme [2] on PEG surfaces along with resistance to protein adsorption[3]. Here we present some our studies on the addition of OEG thiol molecules over a self assembled monolayer of PEG thiol on gold. The kinetics of addition of OEG thiol to monolayers of PEG thiol was followed using X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which indicated the time point of maximum graft density and beyond this time point there was predominant desorption of OEG thiol as indicated by the C/O ratio. The initial increase in graft density was reflected in the superior resistance towards non specific adsorption of proteins as shown by N 1s signal. We also performedprotein adsorption studies using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D). Studies involving addition of alkane thiol instead of OEG terminating alkane thiol showed the importance of OEG part of the molecule in superior resistance towards protein adsorption. The surfaces with underbrushes were imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to detect any changes in mechanical properties of PEG thiol covered surfaces upon addition of OEG thiol. References: 1. Katsumi Uchida, Yuki Hoshino, Atsushi Tamura, Keitaro Yoshimoto, Shuji Kojima and Keichiro Yamashita, Ichiro Yamanaka, Hidenori Otsuka, Kazunori Kataoka, Yukio Nagasaki, Biointerphases. 2007, 2, 4, 126. 2. L. Selan, F. Berluti, C. Passariello, M. R. Comodiballanti, M. C. Thaller, Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1993, 37, 12, 2618. 3. Susan J. Sofia, V. Premnath, and Edward W. Merrill, Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 15, 5059. 4. Hidenori Otsuka, Yukio Nagasaki, and Kazunori Kataoka, Langmuir, 2004, 20, 26, 11285

Lokanathan, Arcot R.

2011-01-01

246

Distinct redox behaviors of chloroplast thiol enzymes and their relationships with photosynthetic electron transport in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thiol/disulfide redox network mediated by the thioredoxin (Trx) system in chloroplasts ensures light-responsive control of diverse crucial functions. Despite the suggested importance of this system, the working dynamics against changing light environments remains largely unknown. Thus, we directly assessed the in vivo redox behavior of chloroplast Trx-targeted thiol enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana. In a time-course analysis throughout a day period that was artificially mimicked to natural light conditions, thiol enzymes showed a light-dependent shift in redox state, but the patterns were distinct among thiol enzymes. Notably, the ATP synthase CF(1-?) subunit was rapidly reduced even under low-light conditions, whereas the stromal thiol enzymes fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase, and NADP-malate dehydrogenase were gradually reduced/re-oxidized along with the increase/decrease in light intensity. Photo-reduction of thiol enzymes was suppressed by the impairment of photosynthetic linear electron transport using DCMU and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, but sensitivity to the impairment was uneven between CF(1-?) and other stromal thiol enzymes. These different dependencies of photo-reduction on electron transport, rather than the redox state of Trx and the circadian clock, could readily explain the distinct diurnal redox behaviors of thiol enzymes. In addition, our results indicate that the cyclic electron transport around PSI is also involved in redox regulation of some thiol enzymes. Based on these findings, we propose an in vivo working model of the redox regulation system in chloroplasts. PMID:24850837

Yoshida, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Yuta; Hara, Satoshi; Konno, Hiroki; Hisabori, Toru

2014-08-01

247

Photoluminescent and electrochemiluminescent dual-signaling probe for bio-thiols based on a ruthenium(II) complex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A unique ruthenium(II) complex-based probe for bio-thiols was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The probe can respond to bio-thiols to give PL and ECL dual-signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The probe was used for the PL and ECL detection of bio-thiols in aqueous media. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The endogenous intracellular thiols were luminously imaged using the probe. - Abstract: Photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection techniques are highly sensitive and widely used methods for clinical diagnostics and analytical biotechnology. In this work, a unique ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(DNBSO-bpy)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} (bpy: 2,2 Prime -bipyridine; DNBSO-bpy: 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonate of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime -bipyridine), has been designed and synthesized as a highly sensitive and selective PL and ECL dual-signaling probe for the recognition and detection of bio-thiols in aqueous media. As a thiol-responsive probe, the complex can specifically and rapidly react with bio-thiols in aqueous solutions to yield a bipyridine-Ru(II) complex derivative, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(HP-bpy)]{sup 2+} (HP-bpy: 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime -bipyridine), accompanied by the remarkable PL and ECL enhancements. The complex was used as a probe for the PL and ECL detections of cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH) in aqueous solutions. The dose-dependent PL and ECL enhancements showed good linear relationships against the Cys/GSH concentrations with the detection limits at nano-molar concentration level. Moreover, the complex-loaded HeLa cells were prepared for PL imaging of the endogenous intracellular thiols. The results demonstrated the practical utility of the complex as a cell-membrane permeable probe for PL imaging detection of bio-thiols in living cells.

Zhang Wenzhu, E-mail: wenzhuzhang@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang Run; Zhang Jingmei; Ye Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Jin Dayong [MQ Photonics Centre, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Sydney (Australia); Yuan Jingli, E-mail: jingliyuan@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-08-31

248

Regulation of aldehyde reductase expression by STAF and CHOP.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aldehyde reductase is involved in the reductive detoxification of reactive aldehydes that can modify cellular macromolecules. To analyze the mechanism of basal regulation of aldehyde reductase expression, we cloned the murine gene and adjacent regulatory region and compared it to the human gene. The mouse enzyme exhibits substrate specificity similar to that of the human enzyme, but with a 2-fold higher catalytic efficiency. In contrast to the mouse gene, the human aldehyde reductase gene has two alternatively spliced transcripts. A fragment of 57 bp is sufficient for 25% of human promoter activity and consists of two elements. The 3' element binds transcription factors of the Sp1 family. Gel-shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation as well as deletion/mutation analysis reveal that selenocysteine tRNA transcription activating factor (STAF) binds to the 5' element and drives constitutive expression of both mouse and human aldehyde reductase. Aldehyde reductase thus becomes the fourth protein-encoding gene regulated by STAF. The human, but not the mouse, promoter also binds C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), which competes with STAF for the same binding site. Transfection of the human promoter into ethoxyquin-treated mouse 3T3 cells induces a 3.5-fold increase in promoter activity and a CHOP-C/EBP band appears on gel shifts performed with the 5' probe from the human aldehyde reductase promoter. Induction is attenuated in similar transfection studies of the mouse promoter. Mutation of the CHOP-binding site in the human promoter abolishes CHOP binding and significantly reduces ethoxyquin induction, suggesting that CHOP mediates stimulated expression in response to antioxidants in the human. This subtle difference in the human promoter suggests a further evolution of the promoter toward responsiveness to exogenous stress and/or toxins. PMID:14667815

Barski, Oleg A; Papusha, Victor Z; Kunkel, Gary R; Gabbay, Kenneth H

2004-01-01

249

Aldo keto reductases 1B in endocrinology and metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aldose reductase (human AKR1B1/mouse Akr1b3 has been the focus of many research because of its role in diabetic complications. The starting point of these alterations is the massive entry of glucose in polyol pathway where it is converted into sorbitol by this enzyme. However, the issue of aldose reductase function in non-diabetic condition remains unresolved. Aldose reductase-like enzymes (AKR1B10, Akr1b7 and Akr1b8 are highly related isoforms often co-expressed with bona fide aldose reductase, making functional analysis of one or the other isoform a challenging task. AKR1B/Akr1b members share at least 65% protein identity and the general ability to reduce many redundant substrates such as aldehydes provided from lipid peroxidation, steroids and their by-products and xenobiotics in vitro. Based on these properties, AKR1B/Akr1b are generally considered as detoxifying enzymes. Considering that divergences should be more informative than similarities to help understanding their physiological functions, we chose to review specific hallmarks of each human/mouse isoforms by focusing on tissue distribution and specific mechanisms of gene regulation. Indeed, although the aldose reductase shows ubiquitous expression, aldose reductase-like proteins exhibit tissue-specific patterns of expression. We focused on 3 organs where certain isoforms are enriched, the adrenal gland, enterohepatic and adipose tissues and tried to connect recent enzymatic and regulation data with endocrine and metabolic functions of these organs. We presented recent mouse models showing unsuspected physiological functions in the regulation of glucido-lipidic metabolism and adipose tissue homeostasis. Beyond the widely accepted idea that AKR1B/Akr1b are detoxification enzymes, these recent reports provide growing evidences that they are able to modify or generate signal molecules. This conceptually shifts this class of enzymes from unenviable status of scavenger to upper class of messengers.

AntoineMartinez

2012-08-01

250

Pleiotropic effects of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Christos G Mihos, Orlando SantanaColumbia University Division of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Heart Institute, Miami Beach, FL, USAAbstract: The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins are used extensively in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. They have also demonstrated a benefit in a variety of other disease processes. These secondary actions are known as pleiotropic effects. Our paper serves as a focused and updated discussion on the pleiotropy of statins and emphasizes the importance of randomized placebo-controlled trials to further elucidate this interesting phenomenon.Keywords: HMG-CoA inhibitors, pleiotropic, reductase, review, statins

Mihos CG

2011-04-01

251

NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY DURING HEAT SHOCK IN WINTER WHEAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nitrates are the basic source of nitrogen for the majority of plants. Absorption and transformation of nitrates in plants are determined by external conditions and, first of all, temperature and light intensity. The influence of the temperature increasing till +40 0? on activity of nitrate reductase was studied. It is shown, that the rise of temperature was accompanied by sharp decrease of activity nitrate reductase in leaves of winter wheat, what, apparently, occurred for the account deactivations of enzyme and due to its dissociation.

Klimenko S.B.

2006-03-01

252

Dependence of Optical and Microstructure Properties of Thiol-Capped Silver Nanoparticles Embedded in Polymeric Matrix  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thiol-capped silver nanoparticles were prepared by in situ thermal decomposition of different silver(I-thiolates precursors in a polymeric matrix. Depending on the structure of the organic coating, contact-free distribution of metal nanoparticles or nanoparticles aggregates were achieved. The structure and morphology of nanocomposites was analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Nanoparticles’ interaction was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. In particular, only silver nanoparticles coated by n-alkyl thiols aggregated, while a contact-free dispersion was obtained by cyclohexyl thiol-capped silver nanoparticles.

Sergio De Nicola

2011-10-01

253

Link between changes in endogenous thiol levels, antioxidant activity of lipids, and radiosensitivity of different animal species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Initial levels of total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and AOA (antioxidant activity) of lipids of the spleen and liver of intact animals of different species were measured. Animal radiosensitivity was evaluated according to value of LD /sub 50/ /sub 30/. No unequivocal correlation was demonstrated between base levels of endogenous thiols and AOA of organ lipids. A positive correlation was observed between AOA of spleen lipids and values of LD/sub 50/ /sub 30/, as well as between levels of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of the tested species. Perhaps the level of endogeneous thiols and lipid AOA reflect different aspects of cellular metabolism responsible for radioresistance of the organism.

Burlakova, E.B. (Inst. of Chemical Physics, Moscow, USSR); Graevskaya, B.M.; Ivanenko, G.F.; Shishkina, L.N.

1979-04-01

254

Reactions of thiols with individual DNA base radicals in DNA and DNA model systems: The effect of oxygen on radioprotection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thiol radioprotection of DNA in the living cell has been suggested to be a result of hydrogen or electron donation to free radicals generated on DNA resulting in a repair of the original radical lesion. Thus far there are no reports of reactions of DNA anion radicals with thiols. Oxygen involvement in thiol free radical reactions has been implicated in oxygen radiosensitization of cells to the lethal effects of radiation. A biological oxygen enhancement effect and a chemical oxygen enhancement effect have both been recognized. One hypothesis is that thiyl radical reactions with oxygen are the source of the chemical oxygen enhancement effect

255

Comparative Studies on Nitrate Reductase in Agrostemma githago Induced by Nitrate and Benzyladenine 12  

Science.gov (United States)

NADH-nitrate reductase activity in excised embryos of Agrostemma githago develops in response to nitrate as well as benzyladenine. Induction of nitrate reductase by benzyladenine was much more susceptible to inhibition by a mixture of amino acid analogues and by cordycepin than induction by nitrate. In contrast, only induction of nitrate-nitrate reductase was decreased by chloramphenicol. NADH-cytochrome c reductase and reduced flavin mono-nucleotide-nitrate reductase activities were found to be associated with NADH-nitrate reductase and were induced by both nitrate and benzyladenine. When a partially purified enzyme sample was centrifuged in a linear 5 to 20% sucrose density gradient, a minor and a major band of NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity were observed. NADH-nitrate reductase cosedimented with the major band. The characteristics of nitrate-nitrate reductase and benzyl-adenine-nitrate reductase were compared by four methods but no differences could be detected: (a) Both enzymes sedimented with the same velocity during sucrose density gradient centrifugation. (b) Their distribution among fractions obtained by differential precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 was identical. (c) The elution profile of nitrate-nitrate reductase and benzyl-adenine-nitrate reductase after chromatography on diethyl-aminoethyl Sephadex A-25 columns showed no significant difference. (d) On polyacrylamide gel, the electrophoretic migration of the two enzymes was also identical. PMID:16658982

Dilworth, Machi Fukuyama; Kende, Hans

1974-01-01

256

Comparative Studies on Nitrate Reductase in Agrostemma githago Induced by Nitrate and Benzyladenine.  

Science.gov (United States)

NADH-nitrate reductase activity in excised embryos of Agrostemma githago develops in response to nitrate as well as benzyladenine. Induction of nitrate reductase by benzyladenine was much more susceptible to inhibition by a mixture of amino acid analogues and by cordycepin than induction by nitrate. In contrast, only induction of nitrate-nitrate reductase was decreased by chloramphenicol.NADH-cytochrome c reductase and reduced flavin mono-nucleotide-nitrate reductase activities were found to be associated with NADH-nitrate reductase and were induced by both nitrate and benzyladenine. When a partially purified enzyme sample was centrifuged in a linear 5 to 20% sucrose density gradient, a minor and a major band of NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity were observed. NADH-nitrate reductase cosedimented with the major band.The characteristics of nitrate-nitrate reductase and benzyl-adenine-nitrate reductase were compared by four methods but no differences could be detected: (a) Both enzymes sedimented with the same velocity during sucrose density gradient centrifugation. (b) Their distribution among fractions obtained by differential precipitation with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was identical. (c) The elution profile of nitrate-nitrate reductase and benzyl-adenine-nitrate reductase after chromatography on diethyl-aminoethyl Sephadex A-25 columns showed no significant difference. (d) On polyacrylamide gel, the electrophoretic migration of the two enzymes was also identical. PMID:16658982

Dilworth, M F; Kende, H

1974-12-01

257

The interplay between thiol-compounds against chromium (VI) in the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum: Toxicology, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress at a glance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the multifaceted Cr(VI) toxicity over the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum was assessed by concomitantly monitoring thiol-dependent redox balances, photosynthesis activity and growth-survival scores. Control group showed exponential growth rate at (5.78 {+-} 0.29) division/day until 8th day with linear increasing chlorophyll a/protein ratios (CHLa/PROT) throughout the period. Cultures of M. convolutum were exposed for 5 days to Cr(VI) concentrations from 0 up to 100 mg/L showing that CHLa/PROT ratios were sensibly affected, in agreement to the calculated LC{sub 50,48h} (5.38 {+-} 0.72) mg/L from the concentration-response curve of cell mortality after 48 h. Regarding photosynthesis effects, Cr(VI) concentrations >1.0 mg/L showed significant increases in short-term (after 2 h) electron transfer rates (ETR) and quantum yields of photosystem II ({Phi}{sub PSII}), followed by subsequent decline of both parameters after 48 and 72 h. Biochemical analyses showed that maximal GSH concentrations in algal cultures were observed upon 1 mg Cr(VI)/L and higher dichromate concentrations dramatically increased the activity of antioxidant GSH-dependent enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. However, no variation was observed in the cellular GSH levels, whereas GSSG and lipid peroxidation indexes abruptly increased upon 10 mg Cr(VI)/L exposure. Altogether, plant physiology, photosynthesis and biochemical data suggest that the GSH-dependent antioxidant system is capable to sustain M. convolutum viability through efficient photosynthesis activity and adequate antioxidant responses up to Cr(VI) concentrations of 1.0 mg/L, when redox unbalances were first evidenced.

Takami, R. [Postgraduate Program in Environmental Chemistry, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Almeida, J.V. [Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ-USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vardaris, C.V. [Postgraduate Program in Environmental Chemistry, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colepicolo, P. [Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ-USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barros, M.P., E-mail: marcelo.barros@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Postgraduate Program in Environmental Chemistry, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2012-08-15

258

Rocket fuel for the quantification of S-nitrosothiols. Highly specific reduction of S-nitrosothiols to thiols by methylhydrazine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction of S-nitrosothiols to the corresponding thiol function is the key step in analyzing S-nitrosocysteinyl residues in proteins. Though it has been shown to give low yields, ascorbate-dependent reduction is commonly performed in the frequently used biotin-switch technique. We demonstrate that the compound methylhydrazine can act as a specific and efficient reducing agent for S-nitrosothiols. The corresponding thiol function is exclusively generated from low molecular weight and proteinaceous S-nitrosothiols while methylhydrazine failed to reduce disulfides. It was possible to optimize the experimental conditions so that thiol autoxidation is excluded, and high reaction yields (>90%) are obtained for the thiol function. The biotin-switch technique performed with methylhydrazine-dependent reduction shows remarkably improved sensitivity compared to the ascorbate-dependent procedure. PMID:23181469

Wiesweg, M; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U; Fandrey, J; Petrat, F; de Groot, H; Kirsch, M

2013-02-01

259

Modifying surface resistivity and liquid moisture management property of keratin fibers through thiol-ene click reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a new method for improving the antistatic and liquid moisture management properties of keratinous materials. The method involves the generation of thiols by controlled reduction of cystine disulfide bonds in keratin with tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride and subsequent grafting of hydrophilic groups onto the reduced keratin by reaction with an acrylate sulfonate or acrylamide sulfonate through thiol-ene click chemistry. The modified substrates were characterized with Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy and evaluated for their performance changes in liquid moisture management, surface resistivity, and wet burst strength. The results have revealed that the thiol-acrylate reaction is more efficient than the thiol-acrylamide reaction, and the keratinous substrate modified with an acrylate sulfonate salt exhibits significantly improved antistatic and liquid moisture management properties. PMID:24367993

Yu, Dan; Cai, Jackie Y; Church, Jeffrey S; Wang, Lijing

2014-01-22

260

Photochemical reactions of thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for micropatterning of gold nanoparticles and controlled surface functionality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reported a facile method for the patterning of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on SiO2/Si by combining photochemical reaction and self-assembly techniques, and the conversion of surface functionality through thiol-ene click chemistry. The oxidation of terminal thiols in self-assembled monolayer of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane upon exposure to 254 nm UV light under ambient atmosphere was investigated. Chemically well-defined microstructures were obtained by UV irradiation through a mask, and subsequent immersion of the substrate into a dispersion of AuNPs resulted in site-specific assembly of AuNPs via Au-S covalent bond in the unexposed area. Thiol-ene “click” reaction between surface thiol-group and alkene-containing molecules under illumination of 365 nm UV light was also demonstrated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study indicated the successful conversion of surface functionality.

 
 
 
 
261

Presence of aldose reductase inhibitors in tea leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water extract from commercial English tea has a potent inhibitory activity against human placenta aldose reductase (NADPH oxidoreductase, E.C.1.1.1.21.). Inhibitory activity was separated into five major fractions by one-step chromatography with a C-18 reverse phase column. The most active fraction was further subjected to reverse phase column chromatography. As a result, a well-known flavone-glycoside, isoquercitrin, was isolated as the most potent chemical. The inhibitory character of isoquercitrin for aldose reductase was a mix of uncompetitive and noncompetitive inhibitions, and its IC50 was 1 x 10(-6) M. In rat sciatic nerve tissue preparations, sorbitol accumulation in the presence of high concentrations of glucose (30 mM) was inhibited by 38% at 5 x 10(-4) M of isoquercitrin. The flavone-glycoside isoquercitrin is the active inhibitor of aldose reductase inhibitor present in English tea. Given the ability of aldose reductase inhibitors to prevent diabetic complications, an epidemiological study of the effect of tea consumption on the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications would be interesting. PMID:11325026

Sakai, I; Izumi, S I; Murano, T; Okuwaki, S; Makino, T; Suzuki, T

2001-03-01

262

ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES  

Science.gov (United States)

ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES. S. Lin1, L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo1, C. Wang2, W. R. Cullen2, and D.J. Thomas3. 1Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3National Health and En...

263

Chimeric 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-dihydrofolate reductase genes display bidirectional expression and unidirectional regulation in stably transfected cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have constructed hybrid dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes which are controlled by the sterol-responsive hamster 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase promoter. Stable transfection frequencies of these chimeric templates into a DHFR-deficient Chinese hamster cell line indicate that the HMG CoA reductase promoter fragment confers DHFR transformation irrespective of its orientation relative to a downstream murine DHFR cDNA. Sterol-regulated levels of DHFR RNA and protei...

Abrams, J. M.; Schimke, R. T.

1989-01-01

264

Chlorella vulgaris aldehyde reductase is capable of functioning as ferric reductase and of driving the fenton reaction in the presence of free flavin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The free flavin-dependent Fenton reaction was detected in cell-free extracts of Chlorella. The corresponding enzyme was purified to homogeneity, and its N-terminal sequence was highly homologous to those of aldo-keto reductase family enzymes. The purified enzyme displayed aldehyde reductase activity in the presence of NADPH. Additionally, it showed ferric reductase activity and drove the Fenton reaction in the presence of free FAD and NADH. PMID:20445323

Sato, Junichi; Takeda, Kouji; Nishiyama, Rika; Fusayama, Kouichi; Arai, Toshiaki; Sato, Takumi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Abe, Akira; Nakagawa, Junichi; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi

2010-01-01

265

Magnetically controlled bioelectrocatalytic system based on ferrocene-tagged magnetic nanoparticles by thiol-ene reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple and versatile method for the introduction of electrochemical moieties onto the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been developed based on UV-induced thiol-ene click chemistry. Thiol-terminated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized and further reacted with vinylferrocence under 365 nm UV. The functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were characterized using a powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The resulting nanocomposites possess of magnetism and electrochemical activity. Based on the superparamagnetism of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the electrocatalytic activity of ferrocene, a recyclable, magneto-controlled bioelectrocatalytic system for glucose oxidation is developed. The switching of the biocatalytic activity and recyclable usage of the ferrocene functionalized nanoparticles by means of the external magnet could provide a simple, green and convenient strategy for bioelectrosensing.

266

Thiol-ene mediated neoglycosylation of collagen patches: a preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the relevance of carbohydrates as cues in eliciting specific biological responses, the covalent surface modification of collagen-based matrices with small carbohydrate epitopes has been scarcely investigated. We report thereby the development of an efficient procedure for the chemoselective neoglycosylation of collagen matrices (patches) via a thiol-ene approach, between alkene-derived monosaccharides and the thiol-functionalized material surface. Synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), and enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) confirmed the effectiveness of the collagen neoglycosylation. Preliminary biological evaluation in osteoarthritic models is reported. The proposed methodology can be extended to any thiolated surface for the development of smart biomaterials for innovative approaches in regenerative medicine. PMID:24443819

Russo, Laura; Battocchio, Chiara; Secchi, Valeria; Magnano, Elena; Nappini, Silvia; Taraballi, Francesca; Gabrielli, Luca; Comelli, Francesca; Papagni, Antonio; Costa, Barbara; Polzonetti, Giovanni; Nicotra, Francesco; Natalello, Antonino; Doglia, Silvia M; Cipolla, Laura

2014-02-11

267

Labeling Thiols on Proteins, Living Cells, and Tissues with Enhanced Emission Induced by FRET  

Science.gov (United States)

Using N-(2-Aminoethyl)maleimide-cysteine(StBu) (Mal-Cys) as a medium, protein thiols were converted into N-terminal cysteines. After a biocompatible condensation reaction between the N-terminal cysteine and fluorescent probe 2-cyanobenzothiazole-Gly-Gly-Gly-fluorescein isothiocyanate (CBT-GGG-FITC), a new fluorogenic structure Luciferin-GGG-FITC was obtained. The latter exhibits near one order of magnitude (7 folds) enhanced fluorescence emission compared to the precursor moiety due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) effect between the newly formed luciferin structure and the FITC motif. Theoretical investigations revealed the underlying mechanism that satisfactorily explained the experimental results. With this method, enhanced fluorescence imaging of thiols on proteins, outer membranes of living cells, translocation of membrane proteins, and endothelial cell layers of small arteries was successfully achieved.

Yuan, Yue; Wang, Xijun; Mei, Bin; Zhang, Dongxin; Tang, Anming; An, Linna; He, Xiaoxiao; Jiang, Jun; Liang, Gaolin

2013-12-01

268

Liquid-phase thermal condensation of aromatic and heteroaromatic thiols with. beta. -chloro and. beta. -bromostyrene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aromatic thiols and 2-thiophenethiol react with ..beta..-chloro- and ..beta..-bromostyrene when heated to form the corresponding 1-phenyl-2-aryl(thienyl)thioethenes. The reaction begins at 80/sup 0/C and takes place effectively and strictly stereospecifically at 140-160/sup 0/C. The yield of the respective vinyl sulfides amounts to 70-95%. ..beta..-Bromostyrene reacts with thiophenol more slowly than ..beta..-chlorostyrene, and this is due to the inhibiting action of the hydrogen bromide, which acts as a trap for the thiyl radicals and gives rise to decomposition of the obtained 1-phenyl-2-phenylthioethene. Among the investigated thiols 2-thiophenethiol has the lowest reactivity.

Kuznetsova, M.A.; Korchevin, N.A.; Deryagina, E.N.; Voronkov, M.G.

1987-11-20

269

The preparation and evaluation of bifunctional latent thiol radioisotope chelators for attachment to antibodies and peptides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of radioisotope chelators which can be attached to antibodies, proteins, or peptides have been reported in the scientific literature. Unfortunately, many of these systems contain thiol functionalities that may lead to stability problems when they are conjugated to peptides that contain sensitive disulfide linkages. The authors now wish to report the preparation of a series of bifunctional compounds which possess a single linking group for attachment to proteins or peptides and multiple latent thiol substituents that form complexes with radioisotopes. These systems have been bound to whole antibody and peptide residues to provide conjugates that chelate with a variety of medically useful radioactive metals. A discussion of the syntheses of these compounds and the results of their radiolabeling studies are presented

270

Field effect on digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied the digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles under simultaneous action of electric field and reflux heating in a silicone oil bath at 130?°C, using transmission electron microscopy. Observation revealed that a polydispersed gold nanoparticle system reached the state of nearly monodispersity under the action of an electric field and the thiol-capped gold nanoparticles carried negative charges. The electric field caused the increase of the particle size for the nearly monodispersed gold nanoparticle system. The self-assembly of the nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles under the action of an electric field of a high field intensity was observed. The gold nanoparticles tended to form self-assembled nanostructures of six-fold symmetry. This study provides a new route for system engineering to control the particle size of metallic nanoparticles by electric field and digestive ripening.

Lin, Meng-Lin; Peng, J. S.; Lee, Sanboh, E-mail: sblee@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

2014-02-07

271

Photocured thiol-ene based optical fluorescence sensor for determination of gold(III).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the preparation and the characterization of a new thiol-ene based polymeric fluorescence sensor by photo initiated polymerization of trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate), 2-hydroxyethylacrylate, and 2,4,6-triallyloxy-1,3,5-triazine which are used as monomers and also a photo initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone) for its usage as optical sensor for gold ions. The thiol-ene based polymeric membrane sensor was characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The response characteristics of the sensors including dynamic range, pH effect, response time, and the effect of foreign ions were investigated. Fluorescence spectra showed that the excitation/emission maxima of the membrane were at 379/425 nm, respectively. PMID:24491784

Cubuk, Soner; Kahraman, Memet Vezir; Yetimo?lu, Ece Kök; Kenan, Sibel

2014-02-17

272

Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. PMID:25053028

Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

2015-01-01

273

Synthesis and characterization of thiol-functionalized polymer as binder in conductive ink  

Science.gov (United States)

The technology of electrical printing has received industrial and scientific attention due to wide variety of application such as sensors, radio frequency identification cards (RFIDs), flexible display, and flexible solar cell. Especially a roll to roll gravure printing technique has been useful for mass production of electrical products. For the more high quality of conductive ink, the compatibility of organic binder and inorganic filler is very important. In this study, Thiol-functionalized polymer and core-shell conductive nanoparticles were used as the binder and filler. The thiol moieties in binder contribute to functionality of the synthesized polymer. Also, the conductivity and viscosity of synthesized ink and compatibility of filler with binder were characterized in various conditions.

Lee, Jungmin; Varadan, Vijay K.

2011-04-01

274

Tritium isotopic exchange between hydrogen sulfide and thiols in gas phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been established that the rate constant of tritium isotopic exchange between hydrogen sulfide and thiols within the temperature range 293-333K is given by k[dm3.mole-1.s-1]=p.exp[-6000[J.mole-1]/RT] where p are (6+-1.7)x10-2, (4.6+-0.5)x10-2, (3.8+-0.7)x10-2, (7.1+-1.2)x10-3 for methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl thiol, respectively. The total order of the reaction is equal to 2, and the partial orders in respect to H2S and thol are equal to 1. The mechanism of the isotopic exchange is discussed. (author)

275

Modification of porous silicon rugate filters through thiol-yne photochemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Porous silicon (PSi) has a considerable potential as biosensor platform. In particular, the ability to modify the surface chemistry of porous silicon is of interest. Here we present a generic method to modify the surface of porous silicon through thiol-yne photochemistry initiated by a radical initiator. Firstly, a freshly etched porous silicon substrate is modified through thermal hydrosilylation with 1,8-nonadiyne to passivate the surface and introduce alkyne functionalities. The alkyne functional surface could then be further reacted with thiol species in the presence of a radical initiator and UV light. Functionalization of the PSi rugate filter is followed with optical reflectivity measurements as well as high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

Soeriyadi, Alexander H., E-mail: alexander.soeriyadi@unsw.edu.au; Zhu, Ying, E-mail: alexander.soeriyadi@unsw.edu.au; Gooding, J. Justin, E-mail: justin.gooding@unsw.edu.au [Australian Centre for Nanomedicine and School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Reece, Peter [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

2014-02-24

276

Visible-light-mediated thiol-ene hydrogelation using eosin-Y as the only photoinitiator.  

Science.gov (United States)

The utility of visible-light-mediated polymerization in tissue engineering has been limited due to the necessary use of potentially cytotoxic coinitiator and comonomer. Here, we report a visible-light-mediated thiol-ene hydrogelation scheme using eosin-Y as the only photoinitiator. Under visible light exposure, rapid and highly tunable step-growth gelation is achieved using PEG-norbornene and a model cross-linker dithiothreitol. In addition to investigating the gelation kinetics and properties of thiol-ene hydrogels formed by this new gelation scheme, we also report high cytocompatibility of these hydrogels using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and pancreatic MIN6 ?-cells. PMID:23386583

Shih, Han; Lin, Chien-Chi

2013-02-12

277

Modification of porous silicon rugate filters through thiol-yne photochemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Porous silicon (PSi) has a considerable potential as biosensor platform. In particular, the ability to modify the surface chemistry of porous silicon is of interest. Here we present a generic method to modify the surface of porous silicon through thiol-yne photochemistry initiated by a radical initiator. Firstly, a freshly etched porous silicon substrate is modified through thermal hydrosilylation with 1,8-nonadiyne to passivate the surface and introduce alkyne functionalities. The alkyne functional surface could then be further reacted with thiol species in the presence of a radical initiator and UV light. Functionalization of the PSi rugate filter is followed with optical reflectivity measurements as well as high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

278

Pendant thiol groups-attached Pd(II) for initiating metal deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new activation method has been developed for initiating electroless metal deposition on silicon substrates without SnCl2 sensitization and roughening condition. Silicon wafers are first coated with thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and then catalyzed with a stable tin-free Pd(II)-based colloidal solution. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the step-by-step surfaces and study the binding mechanism of Pd(II) with SAMs onto surfaces. Results show that Pd(II) oligomer particles are chemisorbed on pendant thiol surfaces through S-Pd bonds. This process involves fewer steps than the conventional Sn/Pd combined activation one. Furthermore, the chemical bound initiator possesses longevity and can be stored for a long time before metallization

279

Field effect on digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles under simultaneous action of electric field and reflux heating in a silicone oil bath at 130?°C, using transmission electron microscopy. Observation revealed that a polydispersed gold nanoparticle system reached the state of nearly monodispersity under the action of an electric field and the thiol-capped gold nanoparticles carried negative charges. The electric field caused the increase of the particle size for the nearly monodispersed gold nanoparticle system. The self-assembly of the nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles under the action of an electric field of a high field intensity was observed. The gold nanoparticles tended to form self-assembled nanostructures of six-fold symmetry. This study provides a new route for system engineering to control the particle size of metallic nanoparticles by electric field and digestive ripening

280

Synthesis of novel perphenylcarbamated ?-cyclodextrin based chiral stationary phases via thiol-ene click chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel cyclodextrin (CD) chiral stationary phases (CD-CSPs) with well-defined structure have been successfully synthesized by immobilization of mono/di(10-undecenoyl)-perphenylaminocarbonyl ?-CD on the 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized silica gel via thiol-ene click chemistry. The phenyl carbamate groups on the rims of CD extended the cavity of CD-CSPs, which facilitated the formation of inclusion complex with various types of racemic compounds under RP mode, and also improved the ?-? stacking interaction, dipole-dipole interaction, and hydrogen bonding interaction with racemic compounds under normal phase mode. Fifteen racemic compounds were successfully separated on this CD-CSP with HPLC, and the chromatographic results also demonstrated that thiol-ene click chemistry affords a facile approach for preparation of CSPs. PMID:25043417

Huang, Guang; Ou, Junjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Ji, Yongsheng; Peng, Xiaojun; Zou, Hanfa

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

A versatile approach to high-throughput microarrays using thiol-ene chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Microarray technology has become extremely useful in expediting the investigation of large libraries of materials in a variety of biomedical applications, such as in DNA chips, protein and cellular microarrays. In the development of cellular microarrays, traditional high-throughput printing strategies on stiff, glass substrates and non-covalent attachment methods are limiting. We have developed a facile strategy to fabricate multifunctional high-throughput microarrays embedded at the surface of a hydrogel substrate using thiol-ene chemistry. This user-friendly method provides a platform for the immobilization of a combination of bioactive and diagnostic molecules, such as peptides and dyes, at the surface of poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels. The robust and orthogonal nature of thiol-ene chemistry allows for a range of covalent attachment strategies in a fast and reliable manner, and two complementary strategies for the attachment of active molecules are demonstrated.

Gupta, Nalini; Lin, Brian F.; Campos, Luis M.; Dimitriou, Michael D.; Hikita, Sherry T.; Treat, Neil D.; Tirrell, Matthew V.; Clegg, Dennis O.; Kramer, Edward J.; Hawker, Craig J.

2010-02-01

282

Patterned Hydrophilization of Nanoporous 1,2?PB by Thiol?ene Photochemistry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present an efficient method for functionalizing the large polymer–air interface of a gyroid nanoporous polymer. The hydrophilicity of nanoporous cross?linked 1,2?polybutadiene is tuned by thiol?ene photo?grafting of mercaptosuccinic acid or sodium 2?mercaptoethanesulfonate. The reaction is monitored by FT?IR, UV–Vis, contact angle, and gravimetry. Overall quantum yields are calculated for the two thiol?ene “click” reactions in nano?confinement, neatly revealing their chain?like nature. Top–down photolithographic patterning is demonstrated, realizing hydrophilic nanoporous “corridors” exclusively hosting water. The presented approach can be relevant for many applications where, e.g., high control and contrast in hydrophilicity, chemical functionality or refractive index are needed.

Berthold, Anton; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant

2011-01-01

283

Thiol- and Biotin-Labeled Probes for Oligonucleotide Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensors of Microalga Alexandrium Minutum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two quartz crystal microbalance oligonucleotide biosensors of a toxic microalga gene sequence (Alexandrium Minutum have been designed. Grafting on a gold surface of 20-base thiol- or biotin-labeled probe, and selective hybridization with the complementary 20-base target, have been monitored in situ with a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. The frequency of the set up is stable to within a few hertz, corresponding to the nanogram scale, for three hour experiments. DNA recognition by the two biosensors is efficient and selective. Hybridization kinetic curves indicate that the biosensor designed with the thiol-labeled probe is more sensitive, and that the biosensor designed with the biotin-labeled probe has a shorter time response and a higher hybridization efficiency.

Mathieu Lazerges

2012-07-01

284

The Role of Thiol on Degradation of Pentaerythrityl Tetranitrate and Isosorbide Dinitrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thiols such as N-acetylcystein (NAC are used to replenish glutathione (GSH level, with regard to their function in the maintenance of cellular reduction-oxidation balance and control of oxidative stress. Thiols play a role in the reductive metabolism of nitrates to NO, an important signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system as well as other systems throughout the body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NAC on decomposition of different organic nitrate esters according to its potential i.e., pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (PETN and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN. The results showed that NAC gives a rapid and significant decrease of PETN and ISDN during the incubation period. During the experiment, about 85% of PETN were decomposed, while the decomposition of ISDN was about 20%. Detection of nitrite and elucidation of disulphide bond of NAC gives evidence that confirms the presence of reactions.

J.S. Pamudji

2011-01-01

285

Effect of thione—thiol tautomerism on the inhibition of lactoperoxidase by anti-thyroid drugs and their analogues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The keto-enol type tautomerism in anti-thyroid drugs and their selenium analogues are described. The commonly used anti-thyroid drug methimazole exists predominantly in its thione form, whereas its selenium analogue exists in a zwitterionic form. To understand the effect of thione/thiol and selone/selenol tautomerism on the inhibition of peroxidase-catalysed reactions, we have synthesized some thiones and selones in which the formation of thiol/selenol forms are blocked by different substitue...

Jayaram, Pn; Roy, Gouriprasanna; Mugesh, Govindasamy

2008-01-01

286

Labelling by 3H-N-ethylmaleimide of diamide-oxidized thiol groups in sheep red blood cell (SRBC) membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of SRBC to the thiol oxidant diamide activates K:Cl cotransport, reversed upon metabolic restoration of cellular glutathione suggesting redox control of the K:Cl cotransporter, as well as by subsequent exposure to dithiothreitol (DTT). The thiols crucial for activation may be either on the transporter or on a membrane or cytoplasmic regulator. To test this hypothesis, the authors attempted to label with 3H-N-ethylmaleimide (3H-NEM) the thiols protected by diamide oxidation and reduced subsequently by DTT. SRBC were first treated with a diamide concentration activating K:Cl cotransport, followed by a second exposure to unlabeled (cold) NEM to block any non-oxidized thiol, and then hemolyzed to obtain white ghosts. The ghosts were again treated with cold NEM and after reduction by DTT exposed to 3H-NEM with and without cold NEM. Saturation labelling by 3H-NEM of diamide protected groups occurred in the range of CTT concentrations inactivating the diamide-stimulated K:Cl cotransport. Saturation labelling with 3H-NEM occurred at about 25?M NEM suggesting a Ki of less than 10?M NEM. The number of diamide protected thiols was about 5-10,000/cell membrane. At 100?M 3H-NEM, SRBC not treated with diamide possess at least 100,000 thiols cell and this number is likely to rise by tenfold at higher NEM concentrations. Thus, diamide protected about 1/1,000 of the membrane thiols in both genetically low and high K SRBC, assayed under conditions where K:Cl cotransport is activated in intact cells. Therefore, at least some of the thiols crucial for potential regulation of K:Cl cotransport reside within the plasma membrane

287

Ring-opening reactions of 2-alkoxy-3,4-dihydropyrans with thiols or thiophenols.  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrophilic ring-opening reaction of 2-alkoxy-3,4-dihydropyran with a thiophenol or thiol is developed for the first time. The generated product contains not only a 1,3-dicarbonyl moiety but also a fragment of bis(alkylthio)methane. A possible mechanism is also proposed on the basis of postulating a ring-opening monotransthioacetalization product, which was prepared by using LiBr as catalyst as an intermediate. PMID:21280618

Li, Minghao; Li, Haoquan; Li, Tao; Gu, Yanlong

2011-03-01

288

Gold(I)-catalyzed addition of thiols and thioacids to 3,3-disubstituted cyclopropenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gold(I)-catalyzed reactions of thiols, thiophenols, and thioacids with 3,3-disubstituted cyclopropenes occur in a regioselective and chemoselective manner to produce either vinyl thioethers or primary allylic thioesters in good yields. A survey of commonly used gold(I) catalysts shows Echavarren's cationic gold(I) catalyst to be most tolerant of deactivation by sulfur. A novel digold with bridging thiolate complex is characterized by X-ray crystallography, shedding light on a possible deactivation pathway. PMID:22840189

Mudd, Richard J; Young, Paul C; Jordan-Hore, James A; Rosair, Georgina M; Lee, Ai-Lan

2012-09-01

289

Hidden triplet states of aromatic thiols characterized by radiation-chemical sensitization  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of a complex reaction mechanism the first excited triplet states of aromatic thiols (ArSH) are difficult to identify in real-time UV laser photolysis. In this publication we report on a more promising approach via pulse radiolysis where ArSH(T1) formation is achieved by direct energy transfer from the triplet state of the solvent benzene. Energy levels of a variety of substituted thiophenols have been characterized by sensitization experiments with benzophenone, naphthalene and ?-carotene.

Riyad, Yasser M.; Hermann, Ralf; Brede, Ortwin

2003-07-01

290

A Novel Bifunctional Maleimido CHX-A” Chelator for Conjugation to Thiol-Containing Biomolecules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel bifunctional maleimido CHX-A”-DTPA chelator 5 was developed and conjugated to the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) and subsequently radiolabeled with 111In. The resulting 111In labeled immunoconjugate 2 was demonstrated to bind to SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells comparably to an isothiocyanato CHX-A” DTPA modified native trastuzumab, 1. Through efficient thiol-maleimide chemistry, antibodies, peptides or other targeting vectors can now be modified with an established radioac...

Xu, Heng; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Wong, Karen J.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2008-01-01

291

Electrocatalytic detection of thiols using an edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The first example of using an edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode in electroanalysis is reported as the determination of homocysteine, N-acetylcysteine, cysteine and glutathione is studied. The response of the electrode in the direct oxidation of thiol moieties is explored and found to be electrocatalytic producing a reduction in the overpotential while having enhanced signal-to-noise characteristics compared to glassy carbon and basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes. The effectivenes...

Moore, Rr; Banks, Ce; Compton, Rg

2004-01-01

292

Complexing behaviour of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol-5-amino  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complexes of Fe(II), Co(II), Ru(III), Ru(II), Rh(III), Pd(IV), Ir(III) and Pt(IV) with 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol-5-amino, have been prepared and characterised on the basis of chemical analyses, infrared and visible spectral and magnetic susceptibility data; crystal field parameters are calculated and probable structures assigned. The ligand acts as bidentate in all the complexes. (author)

293

Ruthenium(III Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ruthenium(III chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]. The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

Mingzhong Cai

2009-09-01

294

Reactivities of some thiol collectors and their interactions with Ag (+1) ion by molecular modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most commonly used collectors for sulfide minerals in the mining industry are the thiol collectors for the recovery of these minerals from their associated gangues by froth flotation. For this reason, a great deal of attention has been paid to understand the attachment mechanism of thiol collectors to metal sulfide surfaces. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/3-21G* and B3LYP/6-31++G** levels were employed to propose the flotation responses of these thiol collectors, namely, diethyl dithiocarbamate, ethyl dithiocarbamate, ethyl dithiocarbonate, ethyl trithiocarbonate and ethyl dithiophosphate ions, and to study the interaction energies of these collectors with Ag (+1) ion in connection to acanthite (Ag{sub 2}S) mineral. The calculated interaction energies, {delta}E, were interpreted in terms of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies of the isolated collector ions. The results show that the HOMOs are strongly localized to the sulfur atoms and the HOMO energies can be used as a reactivity descriptor for the flotation ability of the thiol collectors. Using the HOMO and {delta}E energies, the reactivity order of the collectors is found to be (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}NCS{sub 2}{sup -} > C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NHCS{sub 2}{sup -} > C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCS{sub 2}{sup -} > C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SCS{sub 2}{sup -} > (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}O)(OH)PS{sub 2}{sup -}. The theoretically obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data reported.

Yekeler, Hulya; Yekeler, Meftuni

2004-09-15

295

Characterization of thiol-functionalised silica films deposited on electrode surfaces  

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Thiol-functionalised silica films were deposited on various electrode surfaces (gold, platinum, glassy carbon) by spin-coating sol-gel mixtures in the presence of a surfactant template. Film formation occurred by evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) involving the hydrolysis and (co)condensation of silane and organosilane precursors on the electrode surface. The characterization of such material was performed by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), elemental analysis (EA), atomic force ...

Ivana Cesarino; Éder Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro

2008-01-01

296

Mitochondrial Sulfide Detoxification Requires a Functional Isoform O-Acetylserine(thiol)lyase C in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In non-cyanogenic species, the main source of cyanide derives from ethylene and camalexin biosyntheses. In mitochondria, cyanide is a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome c oxidase and is metabolised by the ?-Cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1, catalysing the conversion of cysteine and cyanide to hydrogen sulfide and ?- cyanoalanine. The hydrogen sulfide released also inhibits the cytochrome c oxidase and needs to be detoxified by the O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase mitochondrial isoform, OAS-C, which c...

A?lvarez, Consolacio?n; Garci?a, Irene; Romero, Luis C.; Gotor, Cecilia

2012-01-01

297

Non-thiol farnesyltransferase inhibitors: utilization of an aryl binding site by 5-arylacryloylaminobenzophenones.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently described a novel aryl binding site of farnesyltransferase. The 2-naphthylacryloyl residue was developed as an appropriate substituent for our benzophenone-based AAX-peptidomimetic capable of occupying this binding site, resulting in a non-thiol farnesyltransferase inhibitor with nanomolar activity. The activity of this inhibitor is readily explained on the basis of docking studies which show the 2-naphthyl residue fitting into the aryl binding site. PMID:12057654

Mitsch, Andreas; Böhm, Markus; Wissner, Pia; Sattler, Isabel; Schlitzer, Martin

2002-08-01

298

Purification and partial characterization of a thiol proteinase inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum beans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A thiol proteinase inhibitor was purified from Enterolobium contortisiliquum beans by affinity chromatography on carboxy-methylated-papain-Sepharose. The inhibitor represents a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 60 kDa and inactivates papain (Ki = 0.58 x 10(-9) M) and bromelain. The inhibitor shows activity in the pH range 2 to 10 and at temperatures up to 60 degrees C. PMID:3202965

Oliva, M L; Sampaio, M U; Sampaio, C A

1988-05-01

299

Spectro fluorimetric detection of glutathione and thiol-containing compounds in various environmental matrices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low-molecular-weight hydrophilic thiols (cysteine, glutathione-GSH-, thioglycolic acid, 3-mercaptopropionic acid,...) have received much attention owing to their biochemical and environmental importance. These compounds serve as a key step in the formation of high-molecular-weight organic matter fractions, as strong ligands for transition metals and are thus involved in mobilization of metals in vegetal (phyto remediation through phytochelatin synthesis, for instance), aquatic or terrestrial environments through complexation reactions. (Author)

Palacio-Barco, E.; Robert-Peillard, F.; Boudenne, J. L.; Dudal, Y.; Coulomb, B.

2009-07-01

300

Feedback Regulation of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase in Livers of Mice Treated with Mevinolin, a Competitive Inhibitor of the Reductase  

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Compactin (ML-236B) and the related compound, mevinolin, are competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase), the rate-controlling enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. Previous studies have shown that administration of compactin to cultured cells elicits a compensatory increase in the amount of HMG CoA reductase in the cells. A similar increase in HMG CoA reductase has been reported in livers of rats and mice that have been treated with compactin. In ...

Kita, Toru; Brown, Michael S.; Goldstein, Joseph L.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Immunoprotection in sheep against Haemonchus contortus using its thiol-purified excretory/secretory proteins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Excretory/Secretory antigen was prepared by culturing live adult worms of Haemonchus contortus in RPMI 1640 medium at a concentration of 50 worms per mL in a culture-flask at 37 ?C for 24 hr and the culture supernatant was used as antigen. The E/S antigen was purified by thiol-sepharose affinity chromatography. On western blot analysis, it was demonstrated that thiol-purified antigen showed a single reactive band at 66 kDa. In immunization trial, sheep were administered intramuscularly with 500 ?g of thiol-purified excretory/secretory antigen along with montanide as adjuvant on day 0, 30 and 60. On ELISA, it was observed that the mean absorbance values were significantly (p ? 0.01 higher up to 20 weeks post immunization in Group-I (purified antigen compared to Group- II (unimmunized control. Further, the mean EPG values was lower in Group I (200.00 ± 40.82 to 400.00 ± 91.29 than Group II (2200.00 ± 108.01 to 5100.00 ± 169.56 and the percentage reduction in mean fecal egg counts was 88.50%. Similarly, the mean abomasal worm counts was lower in Group I (808.33 ± 78.29 than Group II (3280.00 ± 147.19 and the percentage reduction in mean abomasal worm count was 75.40%.

Selvarayar Arunkumar

2012-12-01

302

The critical role of the cellular thiol homeostasis in cadmium perturbation of the lung extracellular matrix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium (Cd) inhalation can result in emphysema. Cd exposure of rat lung fibroblasts (RFL6) enhanced levels of metal scavenging thiols, e.g., metallothionein (MT) and glutathione (GSH), and the heavy chain of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS), a key enzyme for GSH biosynthesis, concomitant with downregulation of lysyl oxidase (LO), a copper-dependent enzyme for crosslinking collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cd downregulation of LO in treated cells was closely accompanied by suppression of synthesis of collagen, a major structure component of the lung ECM. Using rats intratracheally instilled with cadmium chloride (30 ?g, once a week) as an animal model, we further demonstrated that although 2-week Cd instillation induced a non-significant change in the lung LO activity and collagen synthesis, 4- and 6-week Cd instillation resulted in a steady decrease in the lung LO and collagen expression. The lung MT and total GSH levels were both upregulated upon the long-term Cd exposure. Emphysematous lesions were generated in lungs of 6-week Cd-dosed rats. Increases of cellular thiols by transfection of cells with MT-II expression vectors or treatment of cells with GSH monoethyl ester, a GSH delivery system, markedly inhibited LO mRNA levels and catalytic activities in the cell model. Thus, Cd upregulation of cellular thiols may be a critical cellular event facilitating downregulation of LO, a potential mechanism for Cd-induced emphysema.

303

Versatile ene-thiol photoclick reaction for preparation of multimodal monolithic silica capillary columns.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a photografting process of monolithic silica capillary columns based on the ene-thiol click chemistry. This study is performed on a "generic" vinyl-functionalized silica monolith (Hmin 6±1?m). The photoclick reaction is investigated using different thiol monomers (octadecanethiol, cysteine and sodium mercaptoethanesulfonate) to prepare capillary columns dedicated to various chromatographic modes (reversed-phase, HILIC and strong cation exchange). Whatever the monomer used, the photografting reaction is achieved in less than 5min with a relatively high thiol monomer content. This allows preparing highly retentive and efficient monolithic columns while avoiding polymerization and/or column clogging. In addition to the aforementioned properties (duration, versatility, efficiency), this photo-triggered chemical reaction allows addressing several appropriate surface functionalizations inside a single monolithic column in order to prepare nanovolume multimodal capillary columns. A multimodal biphasic monolithic column with a 1cm length cation-exchange segment followed by a 9cm length reversed-phase segment (SCX-RP) is prepared through two successive photografting reactions using a UV-mask to localize the reactions. This multimodal biphasic column is investigated using a model sample for the selective fractionation and separation of cationic and neutral compounds and is applied to the on-line preconcentration and separation of ?-blockers. PMID:25249488

Marechal, A; Laaniste, A; El-Debs, R; Dugas, V; Demesmay, C

2014-10-24

304

Preconcentration and Extraction of Copper ion on Activated Carbon using ?-Benzoinoxime and Pyrimidin 2-Thiole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activated carbon modified methods were used for preconcentration and determination of copper in some real sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The copper was adsorbed quantitatively on activated carbon due to their complexation with ?-benzoinoxime and pyrimidin 2-thiole. The adsorbed copper on solid phase was eluted quantitatively using nitric acid. The important parameters such as pH, amount of carrier, flow rate, amount of activated carbon and type and concentration of eluting agent for obtaining maximum recovery was optimized. The methods based on ?- benzoinoxime and pyrimidin 2-thiole at optimum conditions is linear over concentration range of 0.05-1.3 ug mL and 0.06-1.2 ug mL of copper with correlation coefficient of 0.9997 and 0.9994 and both detection limit of 1.2 ngmL, respectively. The preconcentration leads to enrichment factor of 200 and 240 and break through volume of 1200 mL for methods based on ?- benzoinoxime and pyrimidin 2-thiole, respectively. The methods have good tolerance limit of interfering ion and selectivity that has been successfully applied for determination of copper content in real sample such as blood, wastewater and river sample. (author)

305

Highly oligomeric procyanidins from areca nut induce lymphocyte apoptosis via the depletion of intracellular thiols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Procyanidins are plant-derived polyphenolic compounds possessing a variety of biological activities, such as immunomodulation, and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. We previously reported that total extract of areca nut exhibited a suppressive effect on the metabolic activity and cytokine expression in normal splenic lymphocytes. As areca nut contains a rich amount of polyphenols, the objective of the present study was to investigate the pro-apoptotic effect of polyphenol-enriched areca nut extract (PANE) and its fractionated oligomeric procyanidins in splenic lymphocytes. Our data showed that PANE markedly induced lymphocyte apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Notably, the fractionated oligomeric procyanidins from pentamers to decamers were active in inducing the apoptosis, whereas monomers to tetramers were inactive. In addition, a marked diminishment in the level of intracellular thiols was revealed in lymphocytes treated with pentamers to decamers. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a precursor of glutathione, resulted in significant attenuation of both apoptosis and thiol diminishment induced by areca procyanidins. Taken together, our results indicated that highly oligomeric procyanidins derived from areca nut exhibited a chain length-dependent pro-apoptotic effect in primary lymphocytes, which is mediated, at least in part, by the diminishment of intracellular thiols. PMID:19654041

Wang, Chia-Chi; Huang, Pei-Ling; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Jan, Tong-Rong

2009-10-01

306

Investigation into the Effect of Molds in Grasses on Their Content of Low Molecular Mass Thiols  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of molds on levels of low molecular mass thiols in grasses. For this purpose, the three grass species Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare and Festulolium braunii were cultivated and sampled during four months, from June to September. The same species were also grown under controlled conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used for quantification of cysteine, reduced (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione, and phytochelatins (PC2, PC3, PC4 and PC5. Data were statistically processed and analyzed. Thiols were present in all examined grass species. The effect of fungicide treatments applied under field conditions on the content of the evaluated thiols was shown to be insignificant. Species influenced (p < 0.05 PC3 and GSSG content. F. pabulare, an intergeneric hybrid of drought- and fungi-resistant Festuca arundinacea, was comparable in PC3 content with L. perenne and F. braunii under field conditions. Under controlled conditions, however, F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05 PC3 content than did L. perenne and F. braunii. Under field conditions, differences between the evaluated species were recorded only in GSSG content, but only sampling in June was significant. F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05 GSSG content in June than did L. perenne and F. braunii.

Adam Nawrath

2012-10-01

307

Comparison of photopolymerizable thiol-ene PEG and acrylate-based PEG hydrogels for cartilage development.  

Science.gov (United States)

When designing hydrogels for tissue regeneration, differences in polymerization mechanism and network structure have the potential to impact cellular behavior. Poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were formed by free-radical photopolymerization of acrylates (chain-growth) or thiol-norbornenes (step-growth) to investigate the impact of hydrogel system (polymerization mechanism and network structure) on the development of engineered tissue. Bovine chondrocytes were encapsulated in hydrogels and cultured under free swelling or dynamic compressive loading. In the acrylate system immediately after encapsulation chondrocytes exhibited high levels of intracellular ROS concomitant with a reduction in hydrogel compressive modulus and higher variability in cell deformation upon compressive strain; findings that were not observed in the thiol-norbornene system. Long-term the quantity of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and total collagen was greater in the acrylate system, but the quality resembled that of hypertrophic cartilage with positive staining for aggrecan, collagens I, II, and X and collagen catabolism. The thiol-norbornene system led to hyaline-like cartilage production especially under mechanical loading with positive staining for aggrecan and collagen II and minimal staining for collagens I and X and collagen catabolism. Findings from this study confirm that the polymerization mechanism and network structure have long-term effects on the quality of engineered cartilage, especially under mechanical loading. PMID:24060418

Roberts, Justine J; Bryant, Stephanie J

2013-12-01

308

Transport through thiol SAMs: Effect of monolayer order, dynamics and temperature  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss the self assembly and charge transport of organic thiol molecules and discuss the influence of structure, order and dynamics in the monolayer [1] on the transport and also the effect of temperature by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S). Conjugated thiol molecular wires and organometals such as terpyridine metal complexes provide a new platform for molecular electronic devices. Molecular resolution STM imaging in vacuum reveals that the molecular wires adopt an incommensurate, almost vertical SAM structure with a rectangular unit cell, while terpyridine metal thiol complexes tend to lie flat on the Au(111) substrate. STS of the molecular wires show that inherent asymmetry in the molecular structure and asymmetric coupling to contacts results in asymmetric, weakly rectifying I-Vs. STS on alkanethiols do not show a marked temperature dependence down to 150K. We also show that packing and order greatly influence the transport measurements and that the presence of molecular order in the monolayer is very important for reproducible I-Vs. Thus a good control of the molecule-substrate interface needs to be ensured for device reliability. We also point out that molecular electronic devices need to be made tolerant to fluctuations as these cannot be totally eliminated in low dimensional soft systems. [1] Geetha R. Dholakia et. al, PHYSICAL REVIEW B 69, 153402 (2004).

Dholakia, Geetha

2005-03-01

309

Attachment of hydrogel microstructures and proteins to glass via thiol-terminated silanes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Micropatterning strategies often call for attachment of non-fouling biomaterials and immobilization of proteins in order to create biosensing surfaces or to control cell-surface interactions. Our laboratory has made frequent use of hydrogel photolithography - a micropatterning process for immobilizing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microstructures on glass surfaces. In the present study we explored the use of thiolsilane as a coupling layer for both covalent anchoring of hydrogel microstructures and covalent immobilization of proteins on glass. These new surfaces were compared to acryl-silane functionalized glass slides that allowed covalent attachment of gels but only physical adsorption of proteins as well as surfaces containing a mixture of both functional groups. We observed comparable attachment and retention of hydrogel microstructures on acryl and thiol-terminated silanes. Ellipsometry studies revealed presence of significantly higher level of proteins on thiol-functionalized glass. Overall, our studies demonstrate that thiol-silane functionalized glass surfaces may be used to create complex micropatterned surfaces comprised of covalently attached hydrogels and proteins. This simple and effective surface modification strategy will be broadly applicable in cellular engineering and biosensing studies employing hydrogel micropatterns. PMID:22652352

Seo, Jeong Hyun; Shin, Dong-Sik; Mukundan, Priam; Revzin, Alexander

2012-10-01

310

Investigation into the effect of molds in grasses on their content of low molecular mass thiols.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of molds on levels of low molecular mass thiols in grasses. For this purpose, the three grass species Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare and Festulolium braunii were cultivated and sampled during four months, from June to September. The same species were also grown under controlled conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used for quantification of cysteine, reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, and phytochelatins (PC2, PC3, PC4 and PC5). Data were statistically processed and analyzed. Thiols were present in all examined grass species. The effect of fungicide treatments applied under field conditions on the content of the evaluated thiols was shown to be insignificant. Species influenced (p Festuca arundinacea, was comparable in PC3 content with L. perenne and F. braunii under field conditions. Under controlled conditions, however, F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05) PC3 content than did L. perenne and F. braunii. Under field conditions, differences between the evaluated species were recorded only in GSSG content, but only sampling in June was significant. F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05) GSSG content in June than did L. perenne and F. braunii. PMID:23202817

Skladanka, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Zitka, Ondrej; Krystofova, Olga; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene; Havlicek, Zdenek; Slama, Petr; Nawrath, Adam

2012-11-01

311

Estimation of salivary protein thiols and total antioxidant power of saliva in brain tumor patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The role of oxidative stress in the genesis of various types of cancers is well established. Several chemical, cell culture and animal studies also indicate that antioxidants may slow or even prevent the development of cancer. Brain is considered abnormally sensitive to oxidative damage as brain tissue has high rate of oxygen consumption, high lipid content and relatively low antioxidant defenses, compared to other tissues. Materials and Methods: The study design chosen for the present study was cross sectional. The biochemical parameters that were estimated in saliva manually using spectrophotometric methods were ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay - a direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and protein thiols. The physical parameters of saliva that were also assessed were salivary flow rate, pH of the saliva and the osmolality of the saliva. Results: The mean values of salivary flow rate and pH were significantly decreased among malignant and benign tumor patients whereas the salivary osmolality was significantly increased in both the groups of patients. The mean values of salivary FRAP were significantly reduced among malignant and benign tumor patients. However, the salivary protein thiols were significantly increased in these patients. Conclusion: Hence with these observations it can be concluded that in saliva, besides the physical characteristics, salivary FRAP and protein thiol levels are appropriate indicators of the antioxidant status in brain tumor patients.

Suma H

2010-01-01

312

Thiol-disulfide interchange in the tocinoic acid/glutathione system during freezing and drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiol-disulfide interchange ("disulfide scrambling") is a common mechanism of covalent aggregation for protein drugs. Using tocinoic acid (cyclo-S-Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-(S); TA(ox)) and glutathione (?Glu-Cys-Gly; GSH), our previous work demonstrated that thiol/disulfide interchange is affected by lyophilization in a manner consistent with irreversible and regioselective loss of TA(ox) (Zhang et al., 2009, J Pharm Sci 98/9: 3312-3318). Here, we explore the contributions of stages of the lyophilization cycle to perturbations in thiol/disulfide interchange in the TA/GSH system. TA(ox) and GSH were co-lyophilized from phosphate buffer in the presence or absence of various excipients, then analyzed for TA(ox) and mixed disulfide products by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (rp-HPLC). Perturbations were found to occur primarily during freezing, before significant amounts of ice were removed by sublimation. Addition of a lyoprotectant (sucrose), a cryoprotectant (Tween-20) and flash-freezing influenced the product distribution only while ice was still present. Decreasing the redox potential by the addition of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) affected the product distribution differently in lyophilized samples and solution controls, but in neither case led to increased conservation of TA(ox). PMID:20821392

Thing, Mette; Zhang, Jun; Laurence, Jennifer; Topp, Elizabeth M

2010-12-01

313

Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Thiol-Derivatized Amphiphilic Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Amphiphilic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) with a thiol functionality in the PCL terminal has been prepared in a novel synthetic cascade. Initially, living anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) employing the difunctional initiator, 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, followed by esterification with 2,4-dinitrophenyl- or 4-monomethoxytrityl-protected mercaptoacetic acids (Prot-), provided well-defined PCL macroinitiators capped with protected thiols. The macroinitiators allowed atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of tent-butyl acrylate (tBA) in a controlled fashion by use of NiBr2(PPh3)(2) catalyst to produce Prot-PCL-b-PtBA with narrow polydispersities (1.17-1.39). Subsequent mild deprotection protocols provided HS-PCL-b-PAA. Reduction of a gold salt in the presence of this macroligand under thiol-deficient conditions afforded stable, aggregation-free nanoparticles, as evidenced from UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the latter revealed nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 9.0 +/- 3.1 nm.

Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, SØren

2009-01-01

314

Thiol-reactive compounds from garlic inhibit the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC).  

Science.gov (United States)

The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a key factor in the transepithelial movement of sodium, and consequently salt and water homeostasis in various organs. Dysregulated activity of ENaC is associated with human diseases such as hypertension, the salt-wasting syndrome pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary oedema or intestinal disorders. Therefore it is important to identify novel compounds that affect ENaC activity. This study investigated if garlic (Allium sativum) and its characteristic organosulfur compounds have impact on ENaCs. Human ENaCs were heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and their activity was measured as transmembrane currents by the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. The application of freshly prepared extract from 5g of fresh garlic (1% final concentration) decreased transmembrane currents of ENaC-expressing oocytes within 10 min. This effect was dose-dependent and irreversible. It was fully sensitive to the ENaC-inhibitor amiloride and was not apparent on native control oocytes. The effect of garlic was blocked by dithiothreitol and l-cysteine indicating involvement of thiol-reactive compounds. The garlic organosulsur compounds S-allylcysteine, alliin and diallyl sulfides had no effect on ENaC. By contrast, the thiol-reactive garlic compound allicin significantly inhibited ENaC to a similar extent as garlic extract. These data indicate that thiol-reactive compounds which are present in garlic inhibit ENaC. PMID:22668601

Krumm, Patrick; Giraldez, Teresa; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin; Althaus, Mike

2012-07-01

315

Thiol modified chitosan self-assembled monolayer platform for nucleic acid biosensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thiol modified chitosan (SH-CHIT), with thioglycolic acid (TGA) as a modifier to bestow thiol groups, has been prepared onto gold (Au)-coated glass plates for fabrication of the nucleic acid biosensor. The chemical modification of CHIT via TGA has been evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies, and the biocompatibility studies reveal that CHIT retains its biocompatible nature after chemical modification. The electrochemical studies conducted onto SH-CHIT/Au electrode reveal that thiol modification in CHIT amino end enhances the electrochemical behavior indicating that it may be attributed to delocalization of electrons in CHIT skeleton that participates in the resonance process. The carboxyl group modified end of DNA probe has been immobilized onto SH-CHIT/Au electrode using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry for detection of complementary, one-base mismatch and non-complementary sequence using electrochemical and optical studies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection. It has been found that DNA-SH-CHIT/Au bioelectrode can specifically detect 0.01 ?M of target DNA concentration with sensitivity of 1.69?×?10(-6) A ?M(-1). PMID:25205172

Mukherjee, Maumita Das; Solanki, Pratima R; Sumana, Gajjala; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Malhotra, Bansi D

2014-10-01

316

Interaction of neopentyl thiol with clean and dry oxygen-modified Fe(100) surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decomposition of neopentyl thiol on clean and oxygen-modified Fe(100) surfaces has been investigated under ultrahigh vacuum conditions using temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. On the clean Fe(100) surface upon adsorption at 100 K, the S-H and C-S bonds of the neopentyl thiol cleave, resulting in adsorbed S, H, and neopentyl alkyl fragments, in contrast to the formation of the alkyl thiolate observed on the adsorption of n-alkane thiols on this surface. Upon heating, some neopentyl alkyl fragments react with adsorbed surface hydrogen to evolve neopentane at 260 K. On the oxygen-modified surface, only S-H bond cleavage is observed, and a neopentyl thiolate surface species is formed. No initial neopentane evolution from the oxygen-modified surface is observed upon heating. However, on both surfaces, isobutene and trace amounts of neopentane are seen to desorb at 380 K as a result of an elimination reaction pathway for the majority of the remaining neopentyl hydrocarbon species. Small hydrocarbon fragments remain on the surface until they finally decompose to leave atomic carbon and sulfur on the iron surface at 500 K.

Meagher, K.K.; Bocarsly, A.B.; Bernasek, S.L.; Ramanarayanan, T.A.

2000-04-13

317

Proteome-wide Light/Dark Modulation of Thiol Oxidation in Cyanobacteria Revealed by Quantitative Site-specific Redox Proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reversible protein thiol oxidation is an essential regulatory mechanism of photosynthesis, metabolism, and gene expression in photosynthetic organisms. Herein, we present proteome-wide quantitative and site-specific profiling of in vivo thiol oxidation modulated by light/dark in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, an oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryote, using a resin-assisted thiol enrichment approach. Our proteomic approach integrates resin-assisted enrichment with isobaric tandem mass tag labeling to enable site-specific and quantitative measurements of reversibly oxidized thiols. The redox dynamics of ?2,100 Cys-sites from 1,060 proteins under light, dark, and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (a photosystem II inhibitor) conditions were quantified. In addition to relative quantification, the stoichiometry or percentage of oxidation (reversibly oxidized/total thiols) for ?1,350 Cys-sites was also quantified. The overall results revealed broad changes in thiol oxidation in many key biological processes, including photosynthetic electron transport, carbon fixation, and glycolysis. Moreover, the redox sensitivity along with the stoichiometric data enabled prediction of potential functional Cys-sites for proteins of interest. The functional significance of redox-sensitive Cys-sites in NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, peroxiredoxin (AhpC/TSA family protein Sll1621), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was further confirmed with site-specific mutagenesis and biochemical studies. Together, our findings provide significant insights into the broad redox regulation of photosynthetic organisms. PMID:25118246

Guo, Jia; Nguyen, Amelia Y; Dai, Ziyu; Su, Dian; Gaffrey, Matthew J; Moore, Ronald J; Jacobs, Jon M; Monroe, Matthew E; Smith, Richard D; Koppenaal, David W; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Qian, Wei-Jun

2014-12-01

318

Protein vicinal thiol oxidations in the healthy brain: not so radical links between physiological oxidative stress and neural cell activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reversible oxidations of protein thiols have emerged as alternatives to free radical-mediated oxidative damage with which to consider the impacts of oxidative stress on cellular activities but the scope and pathways of such oxidations in tissues, including the brain, have yet to be fully defined. We report here a characterization of reversible oxidations of glutathione and protein thiols in extracts from rat brains, from two sources, which had been (1) frozen quickly after euthanasia to preserve in vivo redox states and (2) subjected to alkylation upon tissue disruption to trap reduced thiols. Brains were defined, relatively, as Reduced and Moderately Oxidized based on measured ratios of reduced (GSH) to oxidized (GSSG) glutathione. Levels of protein disulfides formed by the cross-linking of closely-spaced (vicinal) protein thiols, but not protein S-glutathionylation, were higher in extracts from the Moderately Oxidized brains compared to the Reduced brains. Moreover, the oxidized vicinal thiol proteome contains proteins that impact cellular energetics, signaling, neurotransmission, and cytoskeletal dynamics among others. These findings argue that kinetically-competent pathways for reversible, two-electron oxidations, of protein vicinal thiols can be activated in healthy brains in response to physiological oxidative stresses. We propose that such oxidations may link oxidative stress to adaptive, but also potentially deleterious, changes in neural cell activities in otherwise healthy brains. PMID:24997832

Foley, Timothy D; Cantarella, Kristen M; Gillespie, Paul F; Stredny, Edward S

2014-11-01

319

Sucrose mimics the light induction of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase gene transcription  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nitrate reductase, the first enzyme in nitrate assimilation, is located at the crossroad of two energy-consuming pathways: nitrate assimilation and carbon fixation. Light, which regulates the expression of many higher-plant carbon fixation genes, also regulates nitrate reductase gene expression. Located in the cytosol, nitrate reductase obtains its reductant not from photosynthesis but from carbohydrate catabolism. This relationship prompted us to investigate the indirect role that light might play, via photosynthesis, in the regulation of nitrate reductase gene expression. We show that sucrose can replace light in eliciting an increase of nitrate reductase mRNA accumulation in dark-adapted green Arabidopsis plants. We show further that sucrose alone is sufficient for the full expression of nitrate reductase genes in etiolated Arabidopsis plants. Finally, using a reporter gene, we show that a 2.7-kilobase region of 5' flanking sequence of the nitrate reductase gene is sufficient to confer the light or the sucrose response.

Cheng, Chi-Lien; Acedo, Gregoria N

1992-01-01

320

Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use  

Science.gov (United States)

Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

Lewis, Norman G. (Pullman, WA); Davin, Laurence B. (Pullman, WA); Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T. (Baltimore, MD); Fujita, Masayuki (Kagawa, JP); Gang, David R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Sarkanen, Simo (S. Minneapolis, MN); Ford, Joshua D. (Pullman, WA)

2001-04-03

 
 
 
 
321

Recominant Pinoresino-Lariciresinol Reductase, Recombinant Dirigent Protein And Methods Of Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided from source species Forsythia intermedia, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Eucommia ulmoides, Linum usitatissimum, and Schisandra chinensis, which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

Lewis, Norman G. (Pullman, WA); Davin, Laurence B. (Pullman, WA); Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T. (Baltimore, MD); Fujita, Masayuki (Kita-gun, JP), Gang; David R. (Ann Arbor, MI), Sarkanen; Simo (Minneapolis, MN), Ford; Joshua D. (Pullman, WA)

2003-10-21

322

Towards the phylogeny of APS reductases and sirohaem sulfite reductases in sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genes for adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase, aprBA, and sirohaem sulfite reductase, dsrAB, from the sulfur-oxidizing phototrophic bacterium Chromatium vinosum strain D (DSMZ 180(T)) were cloned and sequenced. Statistically significant sequence similarities and similar physicochemical properties suggest that the aprBA and dsrAB gene products from Chr. vinosum are true homologues of their counterparts from the sulfate-reducing chemotrophic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the sulfate-reducing chemotrophic bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Evidence for the proposed duplication of a common ancestor of the dsrAB genes is provided. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a greater evolutionary distance between the enzymes from Chr. vinosum and D. vulgaris than between those from A. fulgidus and D. vulgaris. The data reported in this study are most consistent with the concept of common ancestral protogenotic genes both for dissimilatory sirohaem sulfite reductases and for APS reductases. The aprA gene was demonstrated to be a suitable DNA probe for the identification of apr genes from organisms of different phylogenetic positions. PCR primers and conditions for the amplification of apr homologous regions are described. PMID:9308173

Hipp, W M; Pott, A S; Thum-Schmitz, N; Faath, I; Dahl, C; Trüper, H G

1997-09-01

323

Antimicrobial, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities of defensin from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. 'Tainong 57'] storage roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA encoding a small cysteine-rich protein designated defensin (SPD1) was isolated from sweet potato storage roots. On the basis of the amino acid sequence similarity and conserved residues, it is suggested that SPD1 is a member of the plant defensin family. Recombinant SPD1 protein overproduced in Escherichia coli was purified by Ni (2+)-chelated affinity chromatography. A recombinant protein from the storage root cDNA clone effectively inhibited the trypsin activity in a dose-dependent manner. Both the corresponding mRNA and protein level were found to be highest in the storage roots, followed by sprout. SPD1 reduced dehydroascorbate (DHA) in the presence of glutathione to regenerate l-ascorbic acid (AsA). However, without glutathione, SPD1 has very low DHA reductase activity, and AsA was oxidized by AsA oxidase to generate monodehydroascorbate (MDA) free radical. MDA was also reduced by SPD1 to AsA in the presence of NADH, mimicking the MDA reductase catalyzed reaction. These data suggest that SPD1 has both DHA reductase and MDA reductase activities. SPD1 was also shown to inhibit the growth of both fungi and bacteria. SPD1 is apparently the first reported plant defensin exhibiting DHA and MDA activities in vitro. PMID:18393437

Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Lu, Te-Ling; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lin, Yaw-Huei

2008-05-14

324

Pyridine Nucleotide Complexes with Bacillus anthracis Coenzyme A-Disulfide Reductase: A Structural Analysis of Dual NAD(P)H Specificity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have recently reported that CoASH is the major low-molecular weight thiol in Bacillus anthracis, and we have now characterized the kinetic and redox properties of the B. anthracis coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (CoADR, BACoADR) and determined the crystal structure at 2.30 Angstroms resolution. While the Staphylococcus aureus and Borrelia burgdorferi CoADRs exhibit strong preferences for NADPH and NADH, respectively, B. anthracis CoADR can use either pyridine nucleotide equally well. Sequence elements within the respective NAD(P)H-binding motifs correctly reflect the preferences for S. aureus and Bo. burgdorferi CoADRs, but leave questions as to how BACoADR can interact with both pyridine nucleotides. The structures of the NADH and NADPH complexes at ca. 2.3 Angstroms resolution reveal that a loop consisting of residues Glu180-Thr187 becomes ordered and changes conformation on NAD(P)H binding. NADH and NADPH interact with nearly identical conformations of this loop; the latter interaction, however, involves a novel binding mode in which the 2'-phosphate of NADPH points out toward solvent. In addition, the NAD(P)H-reduced BACoADR structures provide the first view of the reduced form (Cys42-SH/CoASH) of the Cys42-SSCoA redox center. The Cys42-SH side chain adopts a new conformation in which the conserved Tyr367'-OH and Tyr425'-OH interact with the nascent thiol(ate) on the flavin si-face. Kinetic data with Y367F, Y425F, and Y367, 425F BACoADR mutants indicate that Tyr425' is the primary proton donor in catalysis, with Tyr367' functioning as a cryptic alternate donor in the absence of Tyr425'.

Wallen,J.; Paige, C.; Mallett, T.; Karplus, P.; Claiborne, A.

2008-01-01

325

The effects of acrolein on peroxiredoxins, thioredoxins, and thioredoxin reductase in human bronchial epithelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inhalation is a common form of exposure to acrolein, a toxic reactive volatile aldehyde that is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Bronchial epithelial cells would be directly exposed to inhaled acrolein. The thioredoxin (Trx) system is essential for the maintenance of cellular thiol redox balance, and is critical for cell survival. Normally, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) maintains the cytosolic (Trx1) and mitochondrial (Trx2) thioredoxins in the reduced state, and the thioredoxins keep the peroxiredoxins (Prx) reduced, thereby supporting their peroxidase function. The effects of acrolein on TrxR, Trx and Prx in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells were determined. A 30-min exposure to 5 ?M acrolein oxidized both Trx1 and Trx2, although significant effects were noted for Trx1 at even lower acrolein concentrations. The effects on Trx1 and Trx2 could not be reversed by treatment with disulfide reductants. TrxR activity was inhibited 60% and >85% by 2.5 and 5 ?M acrolein, respectively. The endogenous electron donor for TrxR, NADPH, could not restore its activity, and activity did not recover in cells during a 4-h acrolein-free period in complete medium. The effects of acrolein on TrxR and Trx therefore extend beyond the duration of exposure. While there was a strong correlation between TrxR inhibition and Trx1 oxidation, the irreversible effects on Trx1 suggest direct effects of acrolein rather than loss of reducing equivalents from TrxR. Trx2 did not become oxidized until ?90% of TrxR was inhibited, but irreversible effects on Trx2 also suggest direct effects of acrolein. Prx1 (cytosolic) and Prx3 (mitochondrial) shifted to a largely oxidized state only when >90 and 100% of their respective Trxs were oxidized. Prx oxidation was readily reversed with a disulfide reductant, suggesting that Prx oxidation resulted from lack of reducing equivalents from Trx and not direct reaction with acrolein. The effects of acrolein on the thioredoxin system and peroxiredoxins could have important implications for cell survival, redox-sensitive cell signaling, and tolerance to other oxidant insults

326

POTENTIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF A GRAPHITE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH COBALT PHTHALOCYANINE FOR THIOLS AND DISULFIDES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se ha investigado la respuesta potenciométrica the electrodos de grafito pirolítico ordinario (OPG) modificados con ftalocianina de cobalto (Co-Pc) frente a los tioles (R-SH) 2-mecaptoetanol y L-cisteína y los correspondientes disulfuros (R-SS-R). Al agregar pequeñas cantidades de estos tioles a sol [...] uciones acuosas con pH en el rango 11-4, se obtienen respuestas en potencial estables dentro de unos pocos segundos despues de las adiciones. Gráficas de potencial vs. log [R-SH] dan rectas para todos los casos, con pendientes cercanas a -0,060 V para concentraciones del tiol en el rango de 10-5 a 10-2 M. Estas medidas se efectuaron en presencia de aire u oxígeno. En atmósfera de nitrógeno, las pendientes de las gráficas suben a -0,14 V. El potencial de circuito abierto de los electrodos OPG/Co-Pc resultó ser independiente de la concentración de los disulfuros lo que indica que el potencial del electrodo modificado es sólo sensible al tiol. Los electrodos de grafito sin modificar frente a los tioles dan respuestas en potencial irreproducibles, lo que muestra la importancia de la presencia Co-Pc para obtener respuestas potenciométricas estables Abstract in english We have investigated the potentiometric response of ordinary pyrolytic graphite electrodes (OPG) modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (Co-Pc) for thiols (R-SH) 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine and their corresponding disulfides (R-SS-R). Stable potentials are achieved after a few seconds of additions of [...] different amounts of thiols to aqueous solutions of pH values between 11 and 4. Plots of potential vs. log [R-SH] give straight lines for all cases with slopes ca. -0.060 V with concentrations of the thiol varying from 10-5 up to 10-2 M. These measurements were conducted in the presence of air or oxygen. Under nitrogen, the slopes increase to -0.14 V. The potential response of OPG/Co-Pc is independent of disulfide concentration, which shows that these modified electrodes are only sensitive to the thiol. Graphite electrodes without modification are not sensitive to the concentration of thiols in the solution and the potential response is erratic.

JOSÉ H., ZAGAL; JAIME J.H., HENRIQUEZ.

327

POTENTIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF A GRAPHITE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH COBALT PHTHALOCYANINE FOR THIOLS AND DISULFIDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have investigated the potentiometric response of ordinary pyrolytic graphite electrodes (OPG modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (Co-Pc for thiols (R-SH 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine and their corresponding disulfides (R-SS-R. Stable potentials are achieved after a few seconds of additions of different amounts of thiols to aqueous solutions of pH values between 11 and 4. Plots of potential vs. log [R-SH] give straight lines for all cases with slopes ca. -0.060 V with concentrations of the thiol varying from 10-5 up to 10-2 M. These measurements were conducted in the presence of air or oxygen. Under nitrogen, the slopes increase to -0.14 V. The potential response of OPG/Co-Pc is independent of disulfide concentration, which shows that these modified electrodes are only sensitive to the thiol. Graphite electrodes without modification are not sensitive to the concentration of thiols in the solution and the potential response is erratic.Se ha investigado la respuesta potenciométrica the electrodos de grafito pirolítico ordinario (OPG modificados con ftalocianina de cobalto (Co-Pc frente a los tioles (R-SH 2-mecaptoetanol y L-cisteína y los correspondientes disulfuros (R-SS-R. Al agregar pequeñas cantidades de estos tioles a soluciones acuosas con pH en el rango 11-4, se obtienen respuestas en potencial estables dentro de unos pocos segundos despues de las adiciones. Gráficas de potencial vs. log [R-SH] dan rectas para todos los casos, con pendientes cercanas a -0,060 V para concentraciones del tiol en el rango de 10-5 a 10-2 M. Estas medidas se efectuaron en presencia de aire u oxígeno. En atmósfera de nitrógeno, las pendientes de las gráficas suben a -0,14 V. El potencial de circuito abierto de los electrodos OPG/Co-Pc resultó ser independiente de la concentración de los disulfuros lo que indica que el potencial del electrodo modificado es sólo sensible al tiol. Los electrodos de grafito sin modificar frente a los tioles dan respuestas en potencial irreproducibles, lo que muestra la importancia de la presencia Co-Pc para obtener respuestas potenciométricas estables

JOSÉ H. ZAGAL

2000-06-01

328

POTENTIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF A GRAPHITE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH COBALT PHTHALOCYANINE FOR THIOLS AND DISULFIDES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se ha investigado la respuesta potenciométrica the electrodos de grafito pirolítico ordinario (OPG) modificados con ftalocianina de cobalto (Co-Pc) frente a los tioles (R-SH) 2-mecaptoetanol y L-cisteína y los correspondientes disulfuros (R-SS-R). Al agregar pequeñas cantidades de estos tioles a sol [...] uciones acuosas con pH en el rango 11-4, se obtienen respuestas en potencial estables dentro de unos pocos segundos despues de las adiciones. Gráficas de potencial vs. log [R-SH] dan rectas para todos los casos, con pendientes cercanas a -0,060 V para concentraciones del tiol en el rango de 10-5 a 10-2 M. Estas medidas se efectuaron en presencia de aire u oxígeno. En atmósfera de nitrógeno, las pendientes de las gráficas suben a -0,14 V. El potencial de circuito abierto de los electrodos OPG/Co-Pc resultó ser independiente de la concentración de los disulfuros lo que indica que el potencial del electrodo modificado es sólo sensible al tiol. Los electrodos de grafito sin modificar frente a los tioles dan respuestas en potencial irreproducibles, lo que muestra la importancia de la presencia Co-Pc para obtener respuestas potenciométricas estables Abstract in english We have investigated the potentiometric response of ordinary pyrolytic graphite electrodes (OPG) modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (Co-Pc) for thiols (R-SH) 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine and their corresponding disulfides (R-SS-R). Stable potentials are achieved after a few seconds of additions of [...] different amounts of thiols to aqueous solutions of pH values between 11 and 4. Plots of potential vs. log [R-SH] give straight lines for all cases with slopes ca. -0.060 V with concentrations of the thiol varying from 10-5 up to 10-2 M. These measurements were conducted in the presence of air or oxygen. Under nitrogen, the slopes increase to -0.14 V. The potential response of OPG/Co-Pc is independent of disulfide concentration, which shows that these modified electrodes are only sensitive to the thiol. Graphite electrodes without modification are not sensitive to the concentration of thiols in the solution and the potential response is erratic.

JOSÉ H., ZAGAL; JAIME J.H., HENRIQUEZ.

2000-06-01

329

Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Thiol-Derivatized Amphiphilic Poly( -caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Amphiphilic poly(c-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) bearing thiol functionality at the PCL terminal has been synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of c-caprolactone (c-CL), esterification of hydroxy chain end with protected mercaptoacetic acid, subsequent chain-extension by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), and final deprotection steps. ROP of c-CL initiated by 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, and catalysed by tin octoate afforded Br-PCL-OH with the degree of polymerization of 30 and narrow molecular weight distribution (1.09). The hydroxy chain end of Br-PCL-OR was modified by reacting with a-(2,4-dinitrophenylthio)acetic acid or a-(4methoxytritylthio) acetic acid resulting in heterotelechelic PCL incorporating protected thiol and bromoester functionalities. It was then employed as macroinitiator in NiBr2(PPh3)2 catalysed ATRP of tBA. ATRP of tBA provided diblock copolymers with low polydispersity index (1.17-1.39) while preserving the protected thiol function. Sequential or simultaneous removal of 2,4-dinitrophenyl or 4-methoxytrityl and tert-butyl ester groups resulted in HS-PCL-b-PAA. The PCL backbone remained intact after mild deprotection protocols. Thus, reversible masking of thiol functionality allows facile fusion of the controlled polymerization techniques employing dual initiator strategy, and furnishes RS-PCL-bPAA with well-defined chain architecture which has been assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), nuclear magnetic resonance eR NMR) and infrared (FT IR) spectroscopy. The capacity of the resulting block copolymer in preparation of monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles has been examined by reduction of a gold salt in the presence of this macroligand under thiol-deficient conditions. As a result stable, aggregation-free nanopaticles with moderate dispersity as estimated from UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data were obtained.

Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, SØren

2008-01-01

330

Intracellular thiols and photo-illumination sequentially activate doubly locked molecular probes for long-term cell highlighting and tracking with precise spatial accuracy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel photoconvertible fluorescent probe, which can be activated by intracellular thiols, has been synthesized. Such a molecular probe comprises three parts: a 7-aminocoumarin phototrigger, a thiol-removable energy acceptor, and a caged fluorescein scaffold with intracellular thiols reactivity as the fluorescent reporter. Extracellularly, the energy acceptor blocks the emission of the coumarin that regulates the photocleavage and photoactivation of the fluorescein. Intracelluarly, the high concentration of thiols releases the energy acceptor, thus activating the S1 state of the phototrigger, which emits coumarin blue fluorescence for pre-visualization and liberates the caged green-fluorescent fluorescein to highlight the specific cell upon illumination. Compared to traditional photoactivated organic dyes, the intracellular thiols activated probe requires double activations: one by intracellular thiols and the other by light activation. The dual activations restrict fluorescence precisely inside live cells and at the particular spatial region of light activation, thus a probe with precise spatial accuracy in live cells. PMID:25308070

Lin, Qiuning; Du, Zengmin; Yang, Yunlong; Fang, Qian; Bao, Chunyan; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Linyong

2014-12-01

331

LmTDRM database: a comprehensive database on thiol metabolic gene/gene products in Listeria monocytogenes EGDe.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are a number of databases on the Listeria species and about their genome. However, these databases do not specifically address a set of network that is important in defence mechanism of the bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes EGDe is a well-established intracellular model organism to study host pathogenicity because of its versatility in the host environment. Here, we have focused on thiol disulphide redox metabolic network proteins, specifically in L. monocytogenes EGDe. The thiol redox metabolism is involved in oxidative stress mechanism and is found in all living cells. It functions to maintain the thiol disulphide balance required for protein folding by providing reducing power. Nevertheless, they are involved in the reversible oxidation of thiol groups in biomolecules by creating disulphide bonds; therefore, the term thiol disulphide redox metabolism (TDRM). TDRM network genes play an important role in oxidative stress mechanism and during host–pathogen interaction. Therefore, it is essential to have detailed information on these proteins with regard to other bacteria and its genome analysis to understand the presence of tRNA, transposons, and insertion elements for horizontal gene transfer. LmTDRM database is a new comprehensive web-based database on thiol proteins and their functions. It includes: Description, Search, TDRM analysis, and genome viewer. The quality of these data has been evaluated before they were aggregated to produce a final representation. The web interface allows for various queries to understand the protein function and their annotation with respect to their relationship with other bacteria. LmTDRM is a major step towards the development of databases on thiol disulphide redox proteins; it would definitely help researchers to understand the mechanism of these proteins and their interaction. Database URL: www.lmtdrm.com. PMID:25228549

Srinivas, Vanishree; Gopal, Shubha

2014-01-01

332

Characterization of a salt-induced DhAHP, a gene coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, from the extremely halophilic yeast Debaryomyces hansenii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Debaryomyces hansenii is one of the most salt tolerant species of yeast and has become a model organism for the study of tolerance mechanisms against salinity. The goal of this study was to identify key upregulated genes that are involved in its adaptation to high salinity. Results By using forward subtractive hybridization we have cloned and sequenced DhAHP from D. hansenii that is significantly upregulated during salinity stress. DhAHP is orthologous to the alkly hydroperoxide reductase of the peroxiredoxin gene family, which catalyzes the reduction of peroxides at the expense of thiol compounds. The full-lengthed cDNA of DhAHP has 674 bp of nucleotide and contains a 516 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a deduced protein of 172 amino acid residues (18.3 kDa. D. hansenii Ahp is a cytosolic protein that belongs to the Ahp of the 1-Cys type peroxiredoxins. Phylogentically, the DhAhp and Candida albicans Ahp11 (Swiss-Prot: Q5AF44 share a common ancestry but show divergent evolution. Silence of its expression in D. hansenii by RNAi resulted in decreased tolerance to salt whereas overexpression of DhAHP in D. hansenii and the salt-sensitive yeasts Saccharomyces cereviasiae and Pichia methanolica conferred a higher tolerance with a reduced level of reactive oxygen species. Conclusion In conclusion, for the first time our study has identified alkly hydroperoxide reductase as a key protein involved in the salt tolerance of the extremely halophilic D. hansenii. Apparently, this enzyme plays a multi-functional role in the yeast's adaptation to salinity; it serves as a peroxidase in scavenging reactive oxygen species, as a molecular chaperone in protecting essential proteins from denaturation, and as a redox sensor in regulating H2O2-mediated cell defense signaling.

Ku Maurice SB

2009-08-01

333

Tandem Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Thiol Peptides Modified by the Chemoselective Cationic Sulfhydryl Reagent (4-Iodobutyl)Triphenylphosphonium—. Effects of a Cationic Thiol Derivatization on Peptide Fragmentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Fixed charge chemical modifications on peptides and proteins can impact fragmentation behaviors in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In this study, we employed a thiol-specific cationic alkylation reagent, (4-iodobutyl)triphenylphosphonium (IBTP), to selectively modify cysteine thiol groups in mitochondrial proteome samples. Tandem mass spectrometric characteristics of butyltriphenylphosphonium (BTP)-modified peptides were evaluated by comparison to their carbamidomethylated (CAM) analogues using a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instrument under low energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) conditions. Introduction of the fixed charge modification resulted in the observation of peptide and fragment (bn and yn) ions with higher charge states than those observed for CAM-modified analogues. The charged BTP moiety had a significant effect on the neighboring amide bond fragmentation products. A decrease in relative abundances of the product ions at the corresponding cleavage sites was observed compared with those from the CAM-modified derivatives. This effect was particularly noticeable when an Xxx-Pro bond was in the vicinity of a BTP group. We hypothesized that the presence of a phosphonium moiety will reduce the tendency for protonation of the proximal amide bonds in the peptide backbone. Indeed, calculations indicated that proton affinities of backbone amide bonds close to the modified cysteine residues were generally 20-50 kcal/mol lower for BTP-modified peptides than for the unmodified or CAM-modified analogues with the sequence motif -Ala-Cys-Alan-Ala2-, -Ala-Cys-Alan-Pro-Ala-, and -Ala-Pro-Alan-Cys-Ala-, n = 0-3.

Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Arbogast, Brian; Maier, Claudia S.

2011-10-01

334

Kinetics of substrate inhibition of periplasmic nitrate reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periplasmic nitrate reductase catalyzes the reduction of nitrate into nitrite using a mononuclear molybdenum cofactor that has nearly the same structure in all enzymes of the DMSO reductase family. In previous electrochemical investigations, we found that the enzyme exists in several inactive states, some of which may have been previously isolated and mistaken for catalytic intermediates. In particular, the enzyme slowly and reversibly inactivates when exposed to high concentrations of nitrate. Here, we study the kinetics of substrate inhibition and its dependence on electrode potential and substrate concentration to learn about the properties of the active and inactive forms of the enzyme. We conclude that the substrate-inhibited enzyme never significantly accumulates in the EPR-active Mo(+V) state. This conclusion is relevant to spectroscopic investigations where attempts are made to trap a Mo(+V) catalytic intermediate using high concentrations of nitrate. PMID:24882638

Jacques, Julien G J; Burlat, Bénédicte; Arnoux, Pascal; Sabaty, Monique; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Léger, Christophe; Pignol, David; Fourmond, Vincent

2014-10-01

335

Aldose reductase structures: implications for mechanism and inhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

During chronic hyperglycaemia, elevated vascular glucose level causes increased flux through the polyol pathway, which induces functional and morphological changes associated with secondary diabetic complications. Inhibitors of aldose reductase (ARIs) have been widely investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but to date only epalrestat is successfully marketed for treatment of diabetic neuropathy, in Japan. Promising compounds during in vitro studies or in trials with animal models have failed to proceed beyond clinical trials and to everyday use, due to a lack of efficacy or adverse side effects attributed to lack of inhibitor specificity and likely inhibition of the related aldehyde reductase (ALR1). Knowledge of the catalytic mechanism and structures of the current inhibitors complexed with ALR2 are means by which more specific and tightly bound inhibitors can be discovered. This review will provide an overview of the proposed catalytic mechanism and the current state of structure-based drug design. PMID:15095000

El-Kabbani, O; Ruiz, F; Darmanin, C; Chung, R P-T

2004-04-01

336

The respiratory arsenate reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10  

Science.gov (United States)

The respiratory arsenate reductase from the Gram-positive, haloalkaliphile, Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10 was purified and characterized. It is a membrane bound heterodimer (150 kDa) composed of two subunits ArrA (110 kDa) and ArrB (34 kDa), with an apparent Km for arsenate of 34 ??M and Vmax of 2.5 ??mol min-1 mg-1. Optimal activity occurred at pH 9.5 and 150 g l-1 of NaCl. Metal analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) of the holoenzyme and sequence analysis of the catalytic subunit (ArrA; the gene for which was cloned and sequenced) indicate it is a member of the DMSO reductase family of molybdoproteins. ?? 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Afkar, E.; Lisak, J.; Saltikov, C.; Basu, P.; Oremland, R.S.; Stolz, J.F.

2003-01-01

337

Pleiotropic effects of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Christos G Mihos, Orlando SantanaColumbia University Division of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Heart Institute, Miami Beach, FL, USAAbstract: The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are used extensively in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. They have also demonstrated a benefit in a variety of other disease processes. These secondary actions are known as pleiotropic effects. Our paper serves as a focused and updated discussion on the pleiotropy of statins and emphasizes the importance of randomize...

Cg, Mihos; Santana O

2011-01-01

338

Inhibitory action on aldose reductase by soybean flavonoids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os flavonóides kaempherol, genisteína, naringenina, quercetina, morina, rutina, e quercitrina isolados do cultivar de soja UFV-5’ foram testados como inibidores de aldose redutase. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos usando morina e quercitrina. [...] Abstract in english The flavonoids kaempherol, genistein, naringenin, quercetin, morin, rutin and quercitrin isolated from UFV-5’soybean’s cultivars were tested as inhibitors of aldose reductase. The best results were obtained by using morin and quercitrin. [...

Tânia Toledo de, Oliveira; Tanus Jorge, Nagem; Luiz Carlos Guedes de, Miranda; Vanderlúcia Fonseca de, Paula; Marco Antônio, Teixeira.

339

A Detoxifying Oxygen Reductase in the Anaerobic Protozoan Entamoeba histolytica  

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We report the characterization of a bacterial-type oxygen reductase abundant in the cytoplasm of the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Upon host infection, E. histolytica is confronted with various oxygen tensions in the host intestine, as well as increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species at the site of local tissue inflammation. Resistance to oxygen-derived stress thus plays an important role in the pathogenic potential of E. histolytica. The genome of E. histolytica h...

Vicente, Joa?o B.; Tran, Vy; Pinto, Liliana; Teixeira, Miguel; Singh, Upinder

2012-01-01

340

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in myeloid leukemia patients from Northeastern Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR: EC 1.5.1.20) polymorphisms are associated to acute lymphoid leukemia in different populations. We used the polymerase chain reaction and the restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) to investigate MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphism frequencies in 67 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 27 with acute myeloid leukemia FAB subtype M3 (AML-M3) and 100 apparently healthy controls. The MTHFR mutant allele frequencies were as fo...

Cynara Gomes Barbosa; Claudio Lima Souza; José Pereira Moura Neto; Maria da Glória Bomfim Arruda; José Henrique Barreto; Mitermayer Galvão Reis; Marilda Souza Goncalves

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Structural and mechanistic mapping of a unique fumarate reductase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of the tetraheme flavocytochrome c3, Fcc3, provides the first mechanistic insight into respiratory fumarate reductases or succinate dehydrogenases. The multi-redox center, three-domain protein shows a 40 Å long ‘molecular wire’ allowing rapid conduction of electrons through a new type of cytochrome domain onto the active site flavin, driving the reduction of fumarate to succinate. In this structure a malate-like molecule is ...

Taylor, Paul; Pealing, Sara L.; Reid, Graeme A.; Chapman, Stephen K.; Walkinshaw, Malcolm

1999-01-01

342

Gold complexes inhibit mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase: consequences on mitochondrial functions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of gold(I) complexes (auranofin, triethylphosphine gold and aurothiomalate), gold(III) complexes ([Au(2,2?-diethylendiamine)Cl]Cl2, [(Au(2-(1,1-dimethylbenzyl)-pyridine) (CH3COO)2], [Au(6-(1,1-dimethylbenzyl)-2,2?-bipyridine)(OH)](PF6), [Au(bipydmb-H)(2,6-xylidine)](PF6)), metal ions (zinc and cadmium acetate) and metal complexes (cisplatin, zinc pyrithione and tributyltin) on mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase...

Rigobello, Maria Pia; Messori, Luigi; Marcon, Giordana; Cinellu, Maria Agostina; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Folda, Alessandra; Scutari, Guido; Bindoli, Alberto

2004-01-01

343

Plant thioredoxin CDSP32 regenerates 1-cys methionine sulfoxide reductase B activity through the direct reduction of sulfenic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous enzymes catalyzing the reduction of disulfide bonds, thanks to a CXXC active site. Among their substrates, 2-Cys methionine sulfoxide reductases B (2-Cys MSRBs) reduce the R diastereoisomer of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) and possess two redox-active Cys as follows: a catalytic Cys reducing MetSO and a resolving one, involved in disulfide bridge formation. The other MSRB type, 1-Cys MSRBs, possesses only the catalytic Cys, and their regeneration mechanisms by Trxs remain unclear. The plant plastidial Trx CDSP32 is able to provide 1-Cys MSRB with electrons. CDSP32 includes two Trx modules with one potential active site (219)CGPC(222) and three extra Cys. Here, we investigated the redox properties of recombinant Arabidopsis CDSP32 and delineated the biochemical mechanisms of MSRB regeneration by CDSP32. Free thiol titration and 4-acetamido-4'-maleimidyldistilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid alkylation assays indicated that the Trx possesses only two redox-active Cys, very likely the Cys(219) and Cys(222). Protein electrophoresis analyses coupled to mass spectrometry revealed that CDSP32 forms a heterodimeric complex with MSRB1 via reduction of the sulfenic acid formed on MSRB1 catalytic Cys after MetSO reduction. MSR activity assays using variable CDSP32 amounts revealed that MSRB1 reduction proceeds with a 1:1 stoichiometry, and redox titrations indicated that CDSP32 and MSRB1 possess midpoints potentials of -337 and -328 mV at pH 7.9, respectively, indicating that regeneration of MSRB1 activity by the Trx through sulfenic acid reduction is thermodynamically feasible in physiological conditions. PMID:20236937

Tarrago, Lionel; Laugier, Edith; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Marchand, Christophe H; Le Maréchal, Pierre; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Rey, Pascal

2010-05-14

344

Plant Thioredoxin CDSP32 Regenerates 1-Cys Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B Activity through the Direct Reduction of Sulfenic Acid*  

Science.gov (United States)

Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous enzymes catalyzing the reduction of disulfide bonds, thanks to a CXXC active site. Among their substrates, 2-Cys methionine sulfoxide reductases B (2-Cys MSRBs) reduce the R diastereoisomer of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) and possess two redox-active Cys as follows: a catalytic Cys reducing MetSO and a resolving one, involved in disulfide bridge formation. The other MSRB type, 1-Cys MSRBs, possesses only the catalytic Cys, and their regeneration mechanisms by Trxs remain unclear. The plant plastidial Trx CDSP32 is able to provide 1-Cys MSRB with electrons. CDSP32 includes two Trx modules with one potential active site 219CGPC222 and three extra Cys. Here, we investigated the redox properties of recombinant Arabidopsis CDSP32 and delineated the biochemical mechanisms of MSRB regeneration by CDSP32. Free thiol titration and 4-acetamido-4?-maleimidyldistilbene-2,2?-disulfonic acid alkylation assays indicated that the Trx possesses only two redox-active Cys, very likely the Cys219 and Cys222. Protein electrophoresis analyses coupled to mass spectrometry revealed that CDSP32 forms a heterodimeric complex with MSRB1 via reduction of the sulfenic acid formed on MSRB1 catalytic Cys after MetSO reduction. MSR activity assays using variable CDSP32 amounts revealed that MSRB1 reduction proceeds with a 1:1 stoichiometry, and redox titrations indicated that CDSP32 and MSRB1 possess midpoints potentials of ?337 and ?328 mV at pH 7.9, respectively, indicating that regeneration of MSRB1 activity by the Trx through sulfenic acid reduction is thermodynamically feasible in physiological conditions. PMID:20236937

Tarrago, Lionel; Laugier, Edith; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Marchand, Christophe H.; Le Marechal, Pierre; Lemaire, Stephane D.; Rey, Pascal

2010-01-01

345

Methyl-coenzyme M reductase from methanogenic archaea: isotope effects on the formation and anaerobic oxidation of methane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nickel enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes two important transformations in the global carbon cycle: methane formation and its reverse, the anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR uses the methyl thioether methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-S-CH2CH2-SO3(-), Me-S-CoM) and the thiol coenzyme B (CoB-SH) as substrates and converts them reversibly to methane and the corresponding heterodisulfide (CoB-S-S-CoM). The catalytic mechanism is still unknown. Here, we present isotope effects for this reaction in both directions, catalyzed by the enzyme isolated from Methanothermobacter marburgensis . For methane formation, a carbon isotope effect ((12)CH3-S-CoM/(13)CH3-S-CoM) of 1.04 ± 0.01 was measured, showing that breaking of the C-S bond in the substrate Me-S-CoM is the rate-limiting step. A secondary isotope effect of 1.19 ± 0.01 per D in the methyl group of CD3-S-CoM indicates a geometric change of the methyl group from tetrahedral to trigonal planar upon going to the transition state of the rate-limiting step. This finding is consistent with an almost free methyl radical in the highest transition state. Methane activation proceeds with a primary isotope effect of 2.44 ± 0.22 for the C-H vs C-D bond breakage and a secondary isotope effect corresponding to 1.17 ± 0.05 per D. These values are consistent with isotope effects reported for oxidative cleavage/reductive coupling occurring at transition metal centers during C-H activation but are also in the range expected for the radical substitution mechanism proposed by Siegbahn et al. The isotope effects presented here constitute boundary conditions for any suggested or calculated mechanism. PMID:24004388

Scheller, Silvan; Goenrich, Meike; Thauer, Rudolf K; Jaun, Bernhard

2013-10-01

346

Thiol-inducing and immunoregulatory effects of flavonoids in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cellular thiol status and its relationship to T-cell activation and cytokine synthesis of mononuclear cells was investigated in patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy (ESDN) undergoing dialysis treatment. The functional effects of thiol repair by in vitro and in vivo treatment with flavonoids were elucidated. The thiol status of peripheral blood lymphocytes from 30 ESDN patients on hemodialysis and healthy controls was determined by flow cytometry. T-cell activation in response to pokeweed mitogen was analyzed by CD69 expression; cytokines were determined in cell culture supernatants. In result, compared to age-matched healthy subjects, a significant thiol deficiency in ESDN patients was obvious. The lowered total intracellular thiol levels correlated directly to a significant diminished T-cell activation and an elevated synthesis of TNF-alpha in the patient group. The treatment with flavonoids led to a restoration of the thiol status within 72 h in vitro and in vivo. This effect showed a biphasic kinetic that first utilized cell surface thiols and secondly intracellular thiols. In parallel, the T-cell activation was improved substantially along with a significant decrease in TNF-alpha release. These data provide the rational for clinical trials using flavonoids in ESDN to normalize immunoregulatory defects via restoration of the cellular thiol status. PMID:12419466

Dietzmann, Jörn; Thiel, Ute; Ansorge, Siegfried; Neumann, Klaus Hinrich; Täger, Michael

2002-11-15

347

Early diagnosis and management of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two siblings of Pakistani origin, karyotype 46 XY, were born with predominantly female external genitalia with minute phallus, bifid scrotum, urogenital sinus, and palpable gonads. The older sibling at the age of 8 days showed an adequate testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation. The diagnosis of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency was made at age 6 years when no 5 alpha-reduced glucocorticoid metabolites were detectable in urine even after tetracosactrin (Synacthen) stimulation. In the younger sibling the diagnosis of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency was provisionally made at the early age of 3 days on the basis of high urinary tetrahydrocortisol (THF)/allotetrahydrocortisol (5 alpha-THF) ratio and this ratio increased with age confirming the diagnosis. Plasma testosterone: dihydrotestosterone (DHT) ratio before and after hCG stimulation was within normal limits at age 3 days but was raised at age 9 months. Topical DHT cream application to the external genitalia promoted significant phallic growth in both siblings and in the older sibling corrective surgery was facilitated. In prepubertal male pseudohermaphrodites with normal or raised testosterone concentrations, phallic growth in response to DHT cream treatment could be an indirect confirmation of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. PMID:1626992

Odame, I; Donaldson, M D; Wallace, A M; Cochran, W; Smith, P J

1992-06-01

348

Fungal denitrification and nitric oxide reductase cytochrome P450nor.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown that many fungi (eukaryotes) exhibit distinct denitrifying activities, although occurrence of denitrification was previously thought to be restricted to bacteria (prokaryotes), and have characterized the fungal denitrification system. It comprises NirK (copper-containing nitrite reductase) and P450nor (a cytochrome P450 nitric oxide (NO) reductase (Nor)) to reduce nitrite to nitrous oxide (N(2)O). The system is localized in mitochondria functioning during anaerobic respiration. Some fungal systems further contain and use dissimilatory and assimilatory nitrate reductases to denitrify nitrate. Phylogenetic analysis of nirK genes showed that the fungal-denitrifying system has the same ancestor as the bacterial counterpart and suggested a possibility of its proto-mitochondrial origin. By contrast, fungi that have acquired a P450 from bacteria by horizontal transfer of the gene, modulated its function to give a Nor activity replacing the original Nor with P450nor. P450nor receives electrons directly from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to reduce NO to N(2)O. The mechanism of this unprecedented electron transfer has been extensively studied and thoroughly elucidated. Fungal denitrification is often accompanied by a unique phenomenon, co-denitrification, in which a hybrid N(2) or N(2)O species is formed upon the combination of nitrogen atoms of nitrite with a nitrogen donor (amines and imines). Possible involvement of NirK and P450nor is suggested. PMID:22451104

Shoun, Hirofumi; Fushinobu, Shinya; Jiang, Li; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wakagi, Takayoshi

2012-05-01

349

Cloning and sequence of the human adrenodoxin reductase gene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adrenodoxin reductase is a flavoprotein mediating electron transport to all mitochondrial forms of cytochrome P450. The authors cloned the human adrenodoxin reductase gene and characterized it by restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequencing. The entire gene is approximately 12 kilobases long and consists of 12 exons. The first exon encodes the first 26 of the 32 amino acids of the signal peptide, and the second exon encodes the remainder of signal peptide and the apparent FAD binding site. The remaining 10 exons are clustered in a region of only 4.3 kilobases, separated from the first two exons by a large intron of about 5.6 kilobases. Two forms of human adrenodoxin reductase mRNA, differing by the presence or absence of 18 bases in the middle of the sequence, arise from alternate splicing at the 5' end of exon 7. This alternately spliced region is directly adjacent to the NADPH binding site, which is entirely contained in exon 6. The immediate 5' flanking region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes; however, this region is rich in G+C and contains six copies of the sequence GGGCGGG, resembling promoter sequences of housekeeping genes. RNase protection experiments show that transcription is initiated from multiple sites in the 5' flanking region, located about 21-91 base pairs upstream from the AUG translational initiation codon

350

Nitrate reductase gene involvement in hexachlorobiphenyl dechlorination by Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) degradation usually occurs through reductive dechlorination under anaerobic conditions and phenolic ring cleavage under aerobic conditions. In this paper, we provide evidence of nitrate reductase (NaR) mediated dechlorination of hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium under non-ligninolytic condition and the gene involved. The NaR enzyme and its cofactor, molybdenum (Mo), were found to mediate reductive dechlorination of PCBs even in aerobic condition. Tungsten (W), a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme, was found to suppress this dechlorination. Chlorine release assay provided further evidence of this nitrate reductase mediated dechlorination. Commercially available pure NaR enzyme from Aspergillus was used to confirm these results. Through homology search using TBLASTN program, NaR gene was identified, primers were designed and the RT-PCR product was sequenced. The NaR gene was then annotated in the P. chrysosporium genome (GenBank accession no. AY700576). This is the first report regarding the presence of nitrate reductase gene in this fungus with the explanation why this fungus can dechlorinate PCBs even in aerobic condition. These fungal inoculums are used commercially as pellets in sawdust for enhanced bioremediation of PCBs at the risk of depleting soil nitrates. Hence, the addition of nitrates to the pellets will reduce this risk as well as enhance its activity.

De, Supriyo [Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059 (United States); Perkins, Michael [Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059 (United States); Dutta, Sisir K. [Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059 (United States)]. E-mail: sdutta@howard.edu

2006-07-31

351

Nitrate reductase gene involvement in hexachlorobiphenyl dechlorination by Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) degradation usually occurs through reductive dechlorination under anaerobic conditions and phenolic ring cleavage under aerobic conditions. In this paper, we provide evidence of nitrate reductase (NaR) mediated dechlorination of hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium under non-ligninolytic condition and the gene involved. The NaR enzyme and its cofactor, molybdenum (Mo), were found to mediate reductive dechlorination of PCBs even in aerobic condition. Tungsten (W), a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme, was found to suppress this dechlorination. Chlorine release assay provided further evidence of this nitrate reductase mediated dechlorination. Commercially available pure NaR enzyme from Aspergillus was used to confirm these results. Through homology search using TBLASTN program, NaR gene was identified, primers were designed and the RT-PCR product was sequenced. The NaR gene was then annotated in the P. chrysosporium genome (GenBank accession no. AY700576). This is the first report regarding the presence of nitrate reductase gene in this fungus with the explanation why this fungus can dechlorinate PCBs even in aerobic condition. These fungal inoculums are used commercially as pellets in sawdust for enhanced bioremediation of PCBs at the risk of depleting soil nitrates. Hence, the addition of nitrates to the pellets will reduce this risk as well as enhance its activity

352

Synthesis and characterization of thiol-ene functionalized siloxanes and evaluation of their polymerization kinetics, network properties, and dental applications  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored formation-structure-property relationships in thiol-ene functionalized oligosiloxanes to create crosslinked networks. Specifically, nine oligomers were synthesized, three with thiol-functional silane repeats and three with allyl-functional silane repeats. Structural variations in each oligomer were systematically induced through the incorporation of non-reactive repeats bearing either diphenyl or di-n-octyl moieties, and the oligomer molecular weight was limited by the presence of monofunctional silane condensation species. The molecular weights and chain compositions of all oligomers were ascertained and subsequently used in the evaluation of network properties formed upon photopolymerization of thiol- and ene-functional reactants. Polymerization kinetics of the thiol-ene functionalized siloxanes were also investigated using photoinitiation owing to the spatial and temporal control afforded by this technique. In particular, the effects of the viscosity of the ene-functionalized oligomer and the degree of thiol functionalization on the observed polymerization rate were determined. Results showed that the speed of polymerization varied with changes to the rate-limiting step, which was heavily influenced by neighboring non-reactive functionalities. Moreover, the thiol-ene reaction was found to exhibity unimolecular termination exclusively in siloxane-based systems. Proposed use of the thiol-ene functionalized siloxane system as a dental impression material necessitated the development of a redox initiation scheme. Evaluation of the benzoylperoxide/dimethyl-p-toluidine redox pair in traditional systems showed bulk thiol-ene polymerizations comparable to photoinitiation with the added advantage of uninhibited depth control, as also demonstrated in small molecule thiol-ene coupling reactions initiated by this same redox system. Application of the redox pair to the siloxane system allowed for the viscoelastic properties as well as the feature replication abilities to be compared against commercial impression materials. The siloxane system was found to match the commercial material for strain recovery and stress relaxation and exceed its replication properties though it would require greater overall strength to function adequately in the clinical setting.

Cole, Megan A.

353

Multiparametric protocol for the determination of thiol redox state in living matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiol redox state (TRS) evaluation is mostly restricted to the estimation of GSH and GSSG. However, these TRS parameters can estimate the GSSG/GSH potential, which might be useful for indicating abnormalities in redox metabolism. Nonetheless, evaluation of the multiparameric nature of TRS is required for a more accurate assessment of its physiological role. The present protocol extends the partial assessment of TRS by current methodologies. It measures 15 key parameters of TRS by two modular subprotocols: one for the glutathione (GSH)- and cysteine (CSH)-based nonprotein (NP) thiols/mixed disulfides (i.e., GSH, GSSG, GSSNP, CSH, CSSNP, NPSH, NPSSNP, NP(x)SH(NPSSNP), NP(x)SH(NPSH)), and the other for their protein (P) thiols/mixed disulfides (i.e., PSH, PSSG, PSSC, PSSNP, PSSP, NP(x)SH(PSSNP)). The protocol eliminates autoxidation of GSH and CSH (and thus overestimation of GSSG and CSSNP). Its modularity allows the determination GSH and GSSG also by other published specific assays. The protocol uses three assays; two are based on the photometric reagents 4,4'-dithiopyridine (DTP) and ninhydrin (NHD), and the third on the fluorometric reagent o-phthaldialdehyde (OPT). The initial assays employing these reagents have been extensively modified and redesigned for increased specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity. TRS parameter values and their standard errors are estimated automatically by sets of Excel-adapted algebraic equations. Protocol sensitivity for NPSH, PSH, NPSSNP, PSSP, PSSNP, CSH, CSSNP, PSSC, NP(x)SH(NPSSNP), and NP(x)SH(NPSH) is 1 nmol -SH/CSH, for GSSNP 0.2 nmol, for GSH and GSSG 0.4 nmol, and for PSSG 0.6 nmol. The protocol was applied on human plasma, a sample of high clinical value, and can be also applied in any organism. PMID:24996203

Grintzalis, Konstantinos; Papapostolou, Ioannis; Zisimopoulos, Dimitris; Stamatiou, Irene; Georgiou, Christos D

2014-09-01

354

Thiopurine methyltransferase. Aromatic thiol substrates and inhibition by benzoic acid derivatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyzes the S-methylation of thiopurine and thiopyrimidine drugs. If potent TPMT inhibitors were available, studies of the regulation and properties of this drug-metabolizing enzyme would be facilitated. Each of a series of benzoic acid derivatives tested was found to inhibit purified human kidney TPMT. Concentrations required to inhibit TPMT by 50% ranged from 20 microM for 3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxybenzoic acid to 2.1 mM for acetylsalicylic acid. Inhibition was noncompetitive or mixed with respect to both S-adenosyl-L-methionine, the methyl donor for the enzyme, and 6-mercaptopurine, the methyl acceptor substrate. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis demonstrated that the benzoic acid structure was important for inhibitory activity, and that inhibition was enhanced by the addition of methoxy and/or phenolic hydroxyl groups to the ring. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis performed with additional benzoic acid derivatives showed that inhibitory activity could be modeled well by an equation that included the normal Hammett constant and a parameter, pi', related to lipophilicity. Several nonheterocyclic aromatic thiol compounds, including thiophenol and thiosalicylic acid, were discovered to be substrates for TPMT. Apparent Km constants for some of these aromatic thiol compounds were in the nanomolar range, several orders of magnitude lower than those of the thiopurines and thiopyrimidines previously thought to be the only substrates for TPMT. These observations suggested that "aryl thiol methyltransferase" might be a better name than "thiopurine methyltransferase" for this enzyme. Discovery of new classes of inhibitors and substrates for this important drug-metabolizing enzyme has implications for drug metabolism research and for clinical medicine. PMID:6633508

Woodson, L C; Ames, M M; Selassie, C D; Hansch, C; Weinshilboum, R M

1983-11-01

355

Iron and thiols as two major players in carcinogenesis: friends or foes?  

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Full Text Available Iron is the most abundant metal in the human body and mainly works as a cofactor for proteins such as hemoglobin and various enzymes. No independent life forms on earth can survive without iron. However, excess iron is intimately associated with carcinogenesis by increasing oxidative stress via its catalytic activity to generate hydroxyl radicals. Biomolecules with redox-active sulfhydryl function(s (thiol compounds are necessary for the maintenance of mildly reductive cellular environments to counteract oxidative stress, and for the execution of redox reactions for metabolism and detoxification. Involvement of glutathione S-transferase and thioredoxin has long attracted the attention of cancer researchers. Here, I update recent findings on the involvement of iron and thiol compounds during carcinogenesis and in cancer cells. It is now recognized that the cystine/glutamate transporter (antiporter is intimately associated with ferroptosis, an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic form of cell death, observed in cancer cells, and also with cancer stem cells; the former with transporter blockage but the latter with its stabilization. Excess iron in the presence of oxygen appears the most common known mutagen. Ironically, the persistent activation of antioxidant systems via genetic alterations in Nrf2 and Keap1 also contributes to carcinogenesis. Therefore, it is difficult to conclude the role of iron and thiol compounds as friends or foes, which depends on the quantity/distribution and induction/flexibility, respectively. Avoiding further mutation would be the most helpful strategy for cancer prevention, and myriad of efforts are being made to sort out the weaknesses of cancer cells.

ShinyaToyokuni

2014-08-01

356

Iron and thiols as two major players in carcinogenesis: friends or foes?  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron is the most abundant metal in the human body and mainly works as a cofactor for proteins such as hemoglobin and various enzymes. No independent life forms on earth can survive without iron. However, excess iron is intimately associated with carcinogenesis by increasing oxidative stress via its catalytic activity to generate hydroxyl radicals. Biomolecules with redox-active sulfhydryl function(s) (thiol compounds) are necessary for the maintenance of mildly reductive cellular environments to counteract oxidative stress, and for the execution of redox reactions for metabolism and detoxification. Involvement of glutathione S-transferase and thioredoxin has long attracted the attention of cancer researchers. Here, I update recent findings on the involvement of iron and thiol compounds during carcinogenesis and in cancer cells. It is now recognized that the cystine/glutamate transporter (antiporter) is intimately associated with ferroptosis, an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic form of cell death, observed in cancer cells, and also with cancer stem cells; the former with transporter blockage but the latter with its stabilization. Excess iron in the presence of oxygen appears the most common known mutagen. Ironically, the persistent activation of antioxidant systems via genetic alterations in Nrf2 and Keap1 also contributes to carcinogenesis. Therefore, it is difficult to conclude the role of iron and thiol compounds as friends or foes, which depends on the quantity/distribution and induction/flexibility, respectively. Avoiding further mutation would be the most helpful strategy for cancer prevention, and myriad of efforts are being made to sort out the weaknesses of cancer cells. PMID:25221514

Toyokuni, Shinya

2014-01-01

357

Activation of room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnO films by surface functionalization with thiol and amine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) is observed in surface functionalized ZnO films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface functionalization is a new approach to make ZnO as ferromagnetic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RTFM is attributed to the interaction between the adsorbates and the surface of ZnO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen vacancies are passivated upon surface functionalization. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the activation of room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnO films by surface functionalization with thiol and amine. The pure and surface functionalized ZnO films have been examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. XRD measurements show that all the films have single phase and (0 0 2) preferred orientation. The chemical bonding of ZnO with thiol and amine molecules has been confirmed by XPS measurements. The quenching of visible emission in PL spectra indicates that the surface defects are passivated by functionalization with thiol and amine. Surface functionalization of ZnO films with thiol and amine induces robust room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnO films as evidenced from VSM measurements. It is concluded that the observed ferromagnetic behavior in functionalized ZnO films is attributed to the different electronegativity of the atom in the thiol (or amine) and the surface of ZnO.

Jayalakshmi, G.; Gopalakrishnan, N. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Balasubramanian, T., E-mail: bala@nitt.edu [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

2013-02-25

358

Synthesis and Optical Properties of Thiol Functionalized CdSe/ZnS (Core/Shell) Quantum Dots by Ligand Exchange  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The colloidal photoluminescent quantum dots (QDs) of CdSe (core) and CdSe/ZnS (core/shell) were synthesized at different temperatures with different growth periods. The optical properties (i.e., UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescent emission spectra) of the resulting QDs were investigated. The CdSe/ZnS QDs exhibited higher photoluminescent (PL) efficiency and stability than their corresponding CdSe core QDs. Ligand exchange with various thiol molecules was performed to replace the initial surface passivation ligands, that is, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and trioctylphosphine (TOP), and the optical properties of the surface-modified QDs were studied. The thiol ligand molecules used included 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, 1,16-hexadecanedithiol, 1,11-undecanedithiol, 11-mercapto-1-undecanol, and 1,8 octanedithiol. After the thiol functionalization, the CdSe/ZnS QDs exhibited significantly enhanced PL efficiency and storage stability. Besides surface passivation effect, such enhanced performance of thiol-functionalized QDs could be due to self-assembly formation of dimer/trimer clusters, in which QDs are linked by dithiol molecules. Effects of ligand concentration, type of ligand, and heating on the thiol stabilization of QDs were also discussed.

Zhu, Huaping [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Shao, Lei [ORNL; Yu, Kui [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Dabestani, Reza T [ORNL; Zaman, Md. Badruz [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Liao, Dr. Shijun [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, PR China

2014-01-01

359

Radiation-induced micronucleus formation and DNA damage in human lymphocytes and their prevention by antioxidant thiols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiol family of antioxidants has been considered to be the most effective class of radio protective agents. Present study reports a comparative evaluation of antioxidant thiols, namely N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH) and thioproline (TP), on gamma radiation-induced damage to human lymphocytes DNA as assessed by micronucleus (MN) formation and comet assay parameters. Pretreatment of cells with NAC, GSH and TP showed significant protection against DNA damage and MN frequency in irradiated lymphocytes (2-4 Gy). The magnitude of DNA damage protection was found to be concentration dependent (100-300 microM) which followed the order GSH>NAC>TP. Further, antioxidant thiols mediated protection against DNA damage in irradiated lymphocyte showed significant correlation with their ability to decrease intracellular ROS but not to the increase in intracellular GSH. Experiments on the effect of antioxidant thiols on plasmid DNA irradiated under cell free aqueous conditions showed that NAC exerts greater protection than GSH against radiation damage. TP showed similar responses in cellular and plasmid DNA. Greater protection of plasmid DNA by NAC is ascribable to its more potential hydrogen donor ability as revealed by radical chromogen 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) photometric assay. Thus, present study indicated that radioprotection of lymphocytes DNA by antioxidant thiols are closely correlated to the reduction of cellular oxidative stress, which seems to involve multiple mechanisms. PMID:19486866

Tiwari, Prabha; Kumar, Amit; Balakrishnan, S; Kushwaha, H S; Mishra, K P

2009-05-31

360

Glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like antioxidant activity of the organoselenium drug ebselen: unexpected complications with thiol exchange reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors that are responsible for the relatively low glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like antioxidant activity of organoselenium compounds such as ebselen (1, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) in the reduction of hydroperoxides with aromatic thiols such as benzenethiol and 4-methylbenzenethiol as cosubstrates are described. Experimental and theoretical investigations reveal that the relatively poor GPx-like catalytic activity of organoselenium compounds is due to the undesired thiol exchange reactions that take place at the selenium center in the selenenyl sulfide intermediate. This study suggests that any substituent that is capable of enhancing the nucleophilic attack of thiol at sulfur in the selenenyl sulfide state would enhance the antioxidant potency of organoselenium compounds such as ebselen. It is proved that the use of thiol having an intramolecularly coordinating group would enhance the biological activity of ebselen and other organoselenium compounds. The presence of strong S...N or S...O interactions in the selenenyl sulfide state can modulate the attack of an incoming nucleophile (thiol) at the sulfur atom of the -Se-S- bridge and enhance the GPx activity by reducing the barrier for the formation of the active species selenol. PMID:16089478

Sarma, Bani Kanta; Mugesh, G

2005-08-17

 
 
 
 
361

Spectrofluorimetric determination of total free thiols based on formation of complexes of Ce(III) with disulfide bonds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple, rapid, and sensitive determination of total free thiol groups in biological samples using cerium (IV) as a fluorescence probe is reported. The protocol is based on the oxidation of thiols by Ce(IV) and the formation the Ce(III) disulfide complex, which gives a fluorescence enhancement of Ce(III) at 352 nm. Using glutathione (GSH) and cysteine as model compounds, incubation with Ce(IV) at 25 {sup o}C for 6 min results in fluorescence, whose intensity is proportional to the thiol concentration in the range of 1.00-160 nM. The detection limits for GSH and cysteine are 0.05 and 0.08 nM, respectively. Other common metal ions and amino acids have little interference to the thiol detection. Cu(II) was used as a fluorescence quencher to eliminate potential interference from tryptophan. The method has been successfully applied to assays of free thiol contents in pig liver tissue samples, with a RSD lower than 2.5% and recovery between 100.6% and 102.3%.

Han Guocheng; Peng Yong; Hao Yuanqiang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu Younian, E-mail: liuyoun@mail.csu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhou Feimeng, E-mail: fzhou@exchange.calstatela.edu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States)

2010-02-05

362

Yeast genes involved in sulfur and nitrogen metabolism affect the production of volatile thiols from Sauvignon Blanc musts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two volatile thiols, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), and 3-mercaptohexyl-acetate (3MHA), reminiscent of grapefruit and passion fruit respectively, are critical varietal aroma compounds in Sauvignon Blanc (SB) wines. These aromatic thiols are not present in the grape juice but are synthesized and released by the yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Single deletion mutants of 67 candidate genes in a laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for their thiol production after fermentation of SB grape juice. None of the deletions abolished production of the two volatile thiols. However, deletion of 17 genes caused increases or decreases in production by as much as twofold. These 17 genes, mostly related to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism in yeast, may act by altering the regulation of the pathway(s) of thiol production or altering substrate supply. Deleting subsets of these genes in a wine yeast strain gave similar results to the laboratory strain for sulfur pathway genes but showed strain differences for genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of two nitrogen sources, urea and di-ammonium phosphate, as well as two sulfur compounds, cysteine and S-ethyl-L-cysteine, increased 3MH and 3MHA concentrations in the final wines. Collectively these results suggest that sulfur and nitrogen metabolism are important in regulating the synthesis of 3MH and 3MHA during yeast fermentation of grape juice. PMID:22684328

Harsch, Michael J; Gardner, Richard C

2013-01-01

363

Selenite reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is mediated by fumarate reductase in periplasm  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ reduction of selenite to elemental selenium (Se(0)), by microorganisms in sediments and soils is an important process and greatly affects the environmental distribution and the biological effects of selenium. However, the mechanism behind such a biological process remains unrevealed yet. Here we use Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a widely-distributed dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium with a powerful and diverse respiration capability, to evaluate the involvement of anaerobic respiration system in the microbial selenite reduction. With mutants analysis, we identify fumarate reductase FccA as the terminal reductase of selenite in periplasm. Moreover, we find that such a reduction is dependent on central respiration c-type cytochrome CymA. In contrast, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and the Mtr electron transfer pathway do not work as selenite reductases. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of anaerobic respiration reductases of S. oneidensis MR-1 in selenite reduction and geochemical cycles of selenium in sediments and soils.

Li, Dao-Bo; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Chao; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Na; Yang, Zong-Chuang; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

2014-01-01

364

Identification, cloning and characterization of an aldo-keto reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi with quinone oxido-reductase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drugs currently used for treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the ethiological agent of Chagas' disease, have shown side effects and variable efficiency. With the aim to describe parasite enzymes involved in the mechanisms of action of trypanocidal drugs and since it has been reported that reductases are crucial in their metabolism, we attempted to identify novel NADPH-dependent oxido-reductases from T. cruzi. The percolation of a soluble fraction of epimastigote lysates through a Cibacron Blue-Sepharose column followed by elution by NADPH yielded a predominant protein with an apparent molecular weight of 32 kDa. This protein was identified by MALDI-TOF as an aldo-keto reductase (AKR) and hence denominated TcAKR. TcAKR was mainly localized in the cytosol and was also present in trypomastigote and amastigote lysates. The recombinant TcAKR (recTcAKR) showed NADPH-dependent reductase activity with the AKR substrates 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and 2-dihydroxyacetone. The saturation curves for both substrates were consistent with the Michaelis-Menten model. We also tested whether recTcAKR may reduce naphthoquinones (NQ), since many of these compounds have displayed important trypanocidal activity. recTcAKR reduced o-NQ (1,2-naphthoquinone, 9,10-phenanthrenquinone and beta-lapachone) with concomitant generation of free radicals but did not exhibit affinity for p-NQ (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, alpha-lapachone and menadione). The substrate saturation curve with o-NQ fitted to a sigmoidal curve, suggesting that recTcAKR presents a cooperative behavior. In addition, three peaks assigned to monomers, dimers and tetramers were obtained when recTcAKR was submitted to a Superose 12 gel chromatography column. TcAKR is the first member of the AKR family described in T. cruzi. Our results indicate that this enzyme may participate in the mechanisms of action of trypanocidal drugs. PMID:20595031

Garavaglia, Patricia A; Cannata, Joaquín J B; Ruiz, Andrés M; Maugeri, Dante; Duran, Rosario; Galleano, Mónica; García, Gabriela A

2010-10-01

365

[The role of thiol redox systems in the peroxide stress response of Escherichia coli].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of mutations in the genes encoding glutathione, glutaredoxin, thioredoxin, and thioredoxin reductase on the response of growing Escherichia coli to oxidative stress was studied. The gshA mutants defective in glutathione synthesis had the lowest resistance to high doses of H2O2, whereas the trxB mutants defective in thioredoxin reductase synthesis had the highest resistance to this oxidant, exceeding that of the parent strain. Among the studied mutants, the trxB cells demonstrated the highest basic levels of catalase activity and intracellular glutathione; they were able to rapidly reach the normal GSH level after oxidative stress. At the same time, these bacteria showed high frequency of induced mutations. The expression of the katG and sulA genes suggests that, having different sensitivity to high oxidant concentrations, the studied mutants differ primarily in their ability to induce the antioxidant genes of the OxyR and SOS regulons. PMID:18297866

Oktiabr'ski?, O N; Muzyka, N G; Ushakov, V Iu; Smirnova, G V

2007-01-01

366

Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases Are Essential for Virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of reactive oxygen species represents a fundamental innate defense against microbes in a diversity of host organisms. Oxidative stress, amongst others, converts peptidyl and free methionine to a mixture of methionine-S- (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxides (Met-R-SO). To cope with such oxidative damage, methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB are known to reduce MetSOs, the former being specific for the S-form and the latter being specific for the R-form. However, at present the role of methionine sulfoxide reductases in the pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial pathogens has not been fully detailed. Here we show that deletion of msrA in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella (S.) enterica serovar Typhimurium increased susceptibility to exogenous H2O2, and reduced bacterial replication inside activated macrophages, and in mice. In contrast, a ?msrB mutant showed the wild type phenotype. Recombinant MsrA was active against free and peptidyl Met-S-SO, whereas recombinant MsrB was only weakly active and specific for peptidyl Met-R-SO. This raised the question of whether an additional Met-R-SO reductase could play a role in the oxidative stress response of S. Typhimurium. MsrC is a methionine sulfoxide reductase previously shown to be specific for free Met-R-SO in Escherichia (E.) coli. We tested a ?msrC single mutant and a ?msrB?msrC double mutant under various stress conditions, and found that MsrC is essential for survival of S. Typhimurium following exposure to H2O2, as well as for growth in macrophages, and in mice. Hence, this study demonstrates that all three methionine sulfoxide reductases, MsrA, MsrB and MsrC, facilitate growth of a canonical intracellular pathogen during infection. Interestingly MsrC is specific for the repair of free methionine sulfoxide, pointing to an important role of this pathway in the oxidative stress response of Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:22073230

Rouf, Syed Fazle; Kitowski, Vera; Bohm, Oliver M.; Rhen, Mikael; Jager, Timo; Bange, Franz-Christoph

2011-01-01

367

Subcellular Localization of Thiol-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Living Cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Internalization and dynamic subcellular distribution of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs in living cells were studied by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. These unfunctionalized QDs were well internalized into human hepatocellular carcinoma and rat basophilic leukemia cells in vitro. Co-localizations of QDs with lysosomes and Golgi complexes were observed, indicating that in addition to the well-known endosome-lysosome endocytosis pathway, the Golgi complex is also a main destination of the endocytosed QDs. The movement of the endocytosed QDs toward the Golgi complex in the perinuclear region of the cell was demonstrated.

Chen Ji-Yao

2009-01-01

368

Characterization of thiol-functionalised silica films deposited on electrode surfaces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Thiol-functionalised silica films were deposited on various electrode surfaces (gold, platinum, glassy carbon) by spin-coating sol-gel mixtures in the presence of a surfactant template. Film formation occurred by evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) involving the hydrolysis and (co)condensation [...] of silane and organosilane precursors on the electrode surface. The characterization of such material was performed by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), elemental analysis (EA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV).

Ivana, Cesarino; Éder Tadeu Gomes, Cavalheiro.

369

Tailoring the physical properties of thiol-capped PbS quantum dots by thermal annealing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the thermal annealing of thiol-capped PbS colloidal quantum dots provides a means of narrowing the nanoparticle size distribution, increasing the size of the quantum dots and facilitating their coalescence preferentially along the (100) crystallographic axes. We exploit these phenomena to tune the photoluminescence emission of an ensemble of dots and to narrow the optical linewidth to values that compare with those reported at room temperature for single PbS quantum dots. We probe the influence of annealing on the electronic properties of the quantum dots by temperature dependent studies of the photoluminescence and magneto-photoluminescence.

370

Tailoring the physical properties of thiol-capped PbS quantum dots by thermal annealing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show that the thermal annealing of thiol-capped PbS colloidal quantum dots provides a means of narrowing the nanoparticle size distribution, increasing the size of the quantum dots and facilitating their coalescence preferentially along the (100) crystallographic axes. We exploit these phenomena to tune the photoluminescence emission of an ensemble of dots and to narrow the optical linewidth to values that compare with those reported at room temperature for single PbS quantum dots. We probe the influence of annealing on the electronic properties of the quantum dots by temperature dependent studies of the photoluminescence and magneto-photoluminescence.

Turyanska, L; Elfurawi, U; Patane, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Li, M; Mann, S [Centre for Organized Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Fay, M W [Nottingham Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Thomas, N R [Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Blokland, J H; Christianen, P C M [High Field Magnet Laboratory, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6525 ED (Netherlands)

2009-08-05

371

Tritium isotope fractionation between ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine and n-butane thiol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotope exchange between ammonia, methylamine and dimethylamine on one hand, and n-butane thiol on the other was studied and the tritium isotope fractionation factors were determined over the temperature range of 250-320 K. Theoretical values of the equilibrium isotope effects in these reactions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. There exist considerable differences between the values of the fractionation factors for the systems studied showing that the isotope effect depends on the substituent on the amino group. (author)

372

Tailoring the physical properties of thiol-capped PbS quantum dots by thermal annealing  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that the thermal annealing of thiol-capped PbS colloidal quantum dots provides a means of narrowing the nanoparticle size distribution, increasing the size of the quantum dots and facilitating their coalescence preferentially along the lang100rang crystallographic axes. We exploit these phenomena to tune the photoluminescence emission of an ensemble of dots and to narrow the optical linewidth to values that compare with those reported at room temperature for single PbS quantum dots. We probe the influence of annealing on the electronic properties of the quantum dots by temperature dependent studies of the photoluminescence and magneto-photoluminescence.

Turyanska, L.; Elfurawi, U.; Li, M.; Fay, M. W.; Thomas, N. R.; Mann, S.; Blokland, J. H.; Christianen, P. C. M.; Patanè, A.

2009-08-01

373

Benzamidomethylation with (Benzamidomethyltriethylammonium Chloride. 2. A Simple Method for Benzamidomethylation of Thiols, Amines and Carboxylic Acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thiols and amines were benzamidomethylated in water solution at room temperature with (benzamidomethyltriethylammonium chloride (1 in the presence of a small quantity of triethylamine (pH>9. Benzamidomethyl thioethers (3a-d and (benzamidomethyl amines or di(benzamidomethylamines (5 were obtained in high yields (>90% as well as S(CH2NHBz2 in a reaction of 1 with Na2S. Benzamidomethyl esters RCOOCH2NHBz were obtained (60-75% in reactions of carboxylic acids with 1 in chloroform or dioxane.

Emil Popovski

2000-07-01

374

An efficient thiol-ene chemistry for the preparation of amphiphilic PHA-based graft copolymers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a straightforward method to prepare amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of hydrophobic poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) backbone and hydrophilic ?-amino-?-methoxy poly(oxyethylene-co-oxypropylene) (Jeffamine®) units. Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)-co-(3-hydroxyundecenoate) (PHOU) was first methanolyzed to obtain the desired molar mass. The amino end groups of Jeffamine were converted into thiol by a reaction with N-acetylhomocysteine thiolactone and subsequently photografted. This "one-pot" functionalization prevents from arduous and time-consuming functionalization of the hydrophilic precursor or tedious modifications of PHAs, thus simplifying the process. The amphiphilic nature of modified PHAs leads to water-soluble copolymers exhibiting thermoresponsive behavior. PMID:22961806

Le Fer, Gaëlle; Babinot, Julien; Versace, Davy-Louis; Langlois, Valérie; Renard, Estelle

2012-12-13

375

The reaction of Grignard reagents with Bunte salts: a thiol-free synthesis of sulfides.  

Science.gov (United States)

S-Alkyl, S-aryl, and S-vinyl thiosulfate sodium salts (Bunte salts) react with Grignard reagents to give sulfides in good yields. The S-alkyl Bunte salts are prepared from odorless sodium thiosulfate by an SN2 reaction with alkyl halides. A Cu-catalyzed coupling of sodium thiosulfate with aryl and vinyl halides was developed to access S-aryl and S-vinyl Bunte salts. The reaction is amenable to a broad structural array of Bunte salts and Grignard reagents. Importantly, this route to sulfides avoids the use of malodorous thiol starting materials or byproducts. PMID:24512478

Reeves, Jonathan T; Camara, Kaddy; Han, Zhengxu S; Xu, Yibo; Lee, Heewon; Busacca, Carl A; Senanayake, Chris H

2014-02-21

376

A new colorimetric test for solid-phase amines and thiols.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new, efficient, sensitive, and reliable color test for the visual detection of resin-bound primary and secondary amines is described. The reaction between amines and 1-methyl-2-(4'-nitrophenyl)-imidazo[1,2- a]pyrimidinium perchlorate (DESC) provides the "on-bead generated" colored stable intermediate azadiene. The developed protocols allow detection of resin-bound primary amines in the presence of secondary amines. The test can also be used for the detection of resin bound thiols. PMID:18543976

Claerhout, Stijn; Ermolat'ev, Denis S; Van der Eycken, Erik V

2008-01-01

377

A novel bifunctional maleimido CHX-A'' chelator for conjugation to thiol-containing biomolecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel bifunctional maleimido CHX-A'' DTPA chelator 5 was developed and conjugated to the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) and subsequently radiolabeled with (111)In. The resulting (111)In labeled immunoconjugate 2 was demonstrated to bind to SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells comparably to an isothiocyanato CHX-A'' DTPA modified native trastuzumab, 1. Through efficient thiol-maleimide chemistry, antibodies, peptides or other targeting vectors can now be modified with an established radioactive metal chelating agent CHX-A'' DTPA for imaging and/or therapies of cancer. PMID:18359632

Xu, Heng; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Wong, Karen J; Brechbiel, Martin W

2008-04-15

378

Characterization of thiol-functionalised silica films deposited on electrode surfaces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Thiol-functionalised silica films were deposited on various electrode surfaces (gold, platinum, glassy carbon) by spin-coating sol-gel mixtures in the presence of a surfactant template. Film formation occurred by evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) involving the hydrolysis and (co)condensation [...] of silane and organosilane precursors on the electrode surface. The characterization of such material was performed by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), elemental analysis (EA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV).

Ivana, Cesarino; Éder Tadeu Gomes, Cavalheiro.

2008-12-01

379

Characterization of thiol-functionalised silica films deposited on electrode surfaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thiol-functionalised silica films were deposited on various electrode surfaces (gold, platinum, glassy carbon by spin-coating sol-gel mixtures in the presence of a surfactant template. Film formation occurred by evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA involving the hydrolysis and (cocondensation of silane and organosilane precursors on the electrode surface. The characterization of such material was performed by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG, elemental analysis (EA, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and cyclic voltammetry (CV.

Ivana Cesarino

2008-12-01

380

Oxidation of biological thiols by highly reactive disulfide-S-oxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress involves the generation of a number of reactive species, among them 'reactive oxygen species' and 'reactive nitrogen species'. Recent reports have indicated that disulfide-S-monoxides (thiosulfinates) and disulfide-S-dioxides (thiosulfonates) are formed under conditions of oxidative stress. We have now been able to demonstrate that these species are highly reactive and rapidly oxidise thiols. Glutathione and cysteine were oxidised to mixed disulfides by the action of disulfide-S-oxides. Oxidative attack on the zinc/sulfur protein metallothionein with concomitant zinc release was readily accomplished by these 'reactive sulfur species' whereas hydrogen peroxide showed minimal zinc release. PMID:12168727

Giles, G I; Tasker, K M; Jacob, C

2002-03-01