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Sample records for gamma-ifn-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase

  1. Functional requirements for the lysosomal thiol reductase GILT in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, K Taraszka; Lackman, Rebecca L; Cresswell, Peter

    2006-12-15

    Ag processing and presentation via MHC class II is essential for activation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes. gamma-IFN-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is present in the MHC class II loading compartment and has been shown to facilitate class II Ag processing and recall responses to Ags containing disulfide bonds such as hen egg lysozyme (HEL). Reduction of proteins within the MHC class II loading compartment is hypothesized to expose residues for class II binding and protease trimming. In vitro analysis has shown that the active site of GILT involves Cys(46) and Cys(49), present in a CXXC motif that shares similarity with the thioredoxin family. To define the functional requirements for GILT in MHC class II Ag processing, a GILT-deficient murine B cell lymphoma line was generated and stably transduced with wild-type and cysteine mutants of GILT. Intracellular flow cytometric, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that wild-type and mutant GILT were expressed and maintained lysosomal localization. Transduction with wild-type GILT reconstituted MHC class II processing of a GILT-dependent HEL epitope. Mutation of either Cys(46) or Cys(49) abrogated MHC class II processing of a GILT-dependent HEL epitope. In addition, biochemical analysis of these mutants suggested that the active site facilitates processing of precursor GILT to the mature form. Precursor forms of GILT-bearing mutations in Cys(200) or Cys(211), previously found to display thiol reductase activity in vitro, could not mediate Ag processing. These studies demonstrate that the thiol reductase activity of GILT is its essential function in MHC class II-restricted Ag processing. PMID:17142755

  2. Role of the C-terminal propeptide in the activity and maturation of ?-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT)

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Uyen T.; Lackman, Rebecca L.; Cresswell, Peter

    2002-01-01

    ?-Interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is constitutively expressed in antigen-presenting cells. GILT facilitates unfolding of endocytosed antigens in MHC class II-containing compartments by enzymatically reducing disulfide bonds. The enzyme is synthesized as a 35-kDa precursor. Although a fraction of the precursor is secreted as a disulfide-linked dimer, the majority is directed via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor pathway to endocytic compartments where its N- and C-termina...

  3. Thioredoxin Reductase Is Essential for Thiol/Disulfide Redox Control and Oxidative Stress Survival of the Anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis? †

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Edson R.; Tzianabos, Arthur O.; Smith, C. Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Results of this study showed that the anaerobic, opportunistic pathogen Bacteroides fragilis lacks the glutathione/glutaredoxin redox system and possesses an extensive number of putative thioredoxin (Trx) orthologs. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed six Trx orthologs and an absence of genes required for synthesis of glutathione and glutaredoxins. In addition, it was shown that the thioredoxin reductase (TrxB)/Trx system is the major or sole redox system for thiol/disulfide cellular hom...

  4. Location of the redox-active thiols of ribonucleotide reductase: sequences similarity between the Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus leichmannii enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox-active thiols of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase have been located by a procedure involving (1) prereduction of enzyme with dithiothreitol, (2) specific oxidation of the redox-active thiols by treatment with substrate in the absence of exogenous reductant, (3) alkylation of other thiols with iodoacetamide, and (4) reduction of the disulfides with dithiothreitol and alkylation with [1-14C]iodoacetamide. The dithiothreitol-reduce E. coli B1 subunit is able to convert 3 equiv of CDP to dCDP and is labeled with 5.4 equiv of 14C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 2.8 equiv of 14C is on cysteines-752 and -757 at the C-terminus of B1, while 1.0-1.5 equiv of 14C is on cysteines-222 and -227. It thus appears that two sets of redox-active dithiols are involved in substrate reduction. The L. leichmannii reductase is able to convert 1.1 equiv of CTP to dCTP and is labeled with 2.1 equiv of 14C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 1.4 equiv of 14C is located on the two cysteines of C-E-G-G-A-C-P-I-K. This peptide shows remarkable and unexpected similarity to the thiol-containing region of the C-terminal peptide of E. coli B1, C-E-S-G-A-C-K-I

  5. Thiol-disulfide exchanges modulate aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 activity and sensitivity to inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Zhong, Linlin; Markwell, Stephen; Cao, Deliang

    2010-05-01

    The reversible thiol/disulfide exchange is an important regulatory mechanism of protein enzymatic activity. Many protein enzymes are susceptible to S-thiolation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS); and the glutathione (GSH) and free amino acid cysteine (Cys) are critical cellular thiol anti-oxidants, protecting proteins from irreversible oxidative damage. In this study, we found that aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) contains 4 Cys residues, i.e., Cys45, Cys187, Cys200, and Cys299. Exposing AKR1B10 to ROS mixtures resulted in significant decrease of its free sulfhydryl groups, up to 40-50% in the presence of physiological thiol cysteine at 0.5 or 1.0 mM; and accordingly, AKR1B10 enzymatic activity was reversibly decreased, in parallel with the oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups. ROS-induced thiolation also affected the sensitivity of AKR1B10 to inhibitors EBPC, epalrestat, and statil. Together our results showed for the first time that AKR1B10's enzymatic activity and inhibitor sensitivity are modulated by thiol/disulfide exchanges. PMID:20144905

  6. Glutathione Reductase from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T: Contribution to Oxygen Tolerance and Thiol Exchange Reactions in Wheat Sourdoughs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ja?nsch, Andre?; Korakli, Maher; Vogel, Rudi F.; Ga?nzle, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the glutathione reductase (GshR) activity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T on the thiol levels in fermented sourdoughs was determined, and the oxygen tolerance of the strain was also determined. The gshR gene coding for a putative GshR was sequenced and inactivated by single-crossover integration to yield strain L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451T?gshR. The gene disruption was verified by sequencing the truncated gshR and surrounding regions on the chromosome. The gshR act...

  7. Glutathione reductase from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T: contribution to oxygen tolerance and thiol exchange reactions in wheat sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, André; Korakli, Maher; Vogel, Rudi F; Gänzle, Michael G

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the glutathione reductase (GshR) activity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) on the thiol levels in fermented sourdoughs was determined, and the oxygen tolerance of the strain was also determined. The gshR gene coding for a putative GshR was sequenced and inactivated by single-crossover integration to yield strain L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR. The gene disruption was verified by sequencing the truncated gshR and surrounding regions on the chromosome. The gshR activity of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR was strongly reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain, demonstrating that gshR indeed encodes an active GshR enzyme. The thiol levels in wheat doughs fermented with L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451 increased from 9 microM to 10.5 microM sulfhydryl/g of dough during a 24-h sourdough fermentation, but in sourdoughs fermented with L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR and in chemically acidified doughs, the thiol levels decreased to 6.5 to 6.8 microM sulfhydryl/g of dough. Remarkably, the GshR-negative strains Lactobacillus pontis LTH2587 and Lactobacillus reuteri BR11 exerted effects on thiol levels in dough comparable to those of L. sanfranciscensis. In addition to the effect on thiol levels in sourdough, the loss of GshR activity in L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR resulted in a loss of oxygen tolerance. The gshR mutant strain exhibited a strongly decreased aerobic growth rate on modified MRS medium compared to either the growth rate under anaerobic conditions or that of the wild-type strain, and aerobic growth was restored by the addition of cysteine. Moreover, the gshR mutant strain was more sensitive to the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. PMID:17496130

  8. Characterization of Leishmania infantum thiol-dependent reductase 1 and evaluation of its potential to induce immune protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A M; Tavares, J; Silvestre, R; Ouaissi, A; Coombs, G H; Cordeiro-da-Silva, A

    2012-06-01

    The need to develop an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis to prevent the 2 million new cases each year led to the search for antigens able to elicit protection against infection with Leishmania. In this study, we have characterized a parasite-specific protein of Leishmania infantum named thiol-dependent reductase 1 (TDR1). The protein is present in both life cycle stages of L. infantum with a notable higher expression in the amastigote forms, suggesting a role in the interaction between the parasite and the mammalian host. Thiol-dependent reductase 1 is localized in the cytosol, although we were able to detect the protein in the culture medium of both promastigotes and axenic amastigotes, and consequently, TDR1 is considered an excreted/secreted molecule of the parasite. Therefore, we have evaluated the potential of TDR1 recombinant protein to protect against experimental challenge with L. infantum parasites using a murine model. Despite a reduction in spleen parasite load in the chronic phase of disease, TDR1 administration was not effective in the protection of Balb/c mice against visceral leishmaniasis and thus TDR1 do not have a crucial role in the modulation of mammalian host immune response, as observed with its protein counterpart Tc52 of Trypanosoma cruzi. PMID:22416787

  9. The first echinoderm gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunhua; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Yanhong; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) has been described as a key enzyme that facilitating the processing and presentation of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted antigen in mammals. In this study, the first echinoderm GILT named StmGILT was identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus). The StmGILT cDNA is 1529 bp in length, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 87 bp, a 3'-UTR of 674 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp that encoding a protein of 255 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 27.82 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 4.73. The putative StmGILT protein possesses all the main characteristics of known GILT proteins, including a signature sequence, a reductase active site CXXC, twelve conserved cysteines, and two potential N-linked glycosylation sites. For the gene structure, StmGILT contains four exons separated by three introns. In the promoter region of StmGILT gene, an NF-?B binding site and an IFN-? activation site were found. The thiol reductase activity of recombinant StmGILT protein was also demonstrated in this study. In addition, the highest level of mRNA expression was noticed in coelomocytes of S. monotuberculatus. In in vitro experiments performed in coelomocytes, the expression of StmGILT mRNA was significantly up-regulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), inactivated bacteria or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] challenge, suggested that the sea cucumber GILT might play critical roles in the innate immune defending against bacterial and viral infections. PMID:25449705

  10. Differential responses to salinity of two Atriplex halimus populations in relation to organic solutes and antioxidant systems involving thiol reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchenak, Fatima; Henri, Patricia; Benrebiha, Fatma-Zohra; Rey, Pascal

    2012-10-15

    Atriplex halimus L. is a xero-halophyte species widespread in the Mediterranean basin. The tolerance to water stress and high salinity of two Atriplex populations from semi-arid (Djelfa) and arid saline (Laghouat) Algerian regions has been investigated in relation with organic solutes and antioxidant systems. Whereas no noticeable difference was observed between the two populations under water stress resulting from withholding watering or PEG treatment, Laghouat plants display significantly higher fresh and dry weights than Djelfa plants when exposed to high salinity. At 300mM NaCl, Laghouat plants exhibit higher concentrations in Na(+), proline and quaternary ammonium compounds, and a higher catalase activity than Djelfa plants. We then analysed the involvement of recently characterized plastidial thiol reductases, peroxiredoxins (Prxs) and methionine sulphoxide reductases (MSRs), key enzymes scavenging organic peroxides and repairing oxidized proteins, respectively. Upon salt treatment (300mM NaCl), we observed higher amounts of PrxQ and over-oxidized 2-Cys Prx in Laghouat than in Djelfa. An increased abundance of plastidial MSRA and a higher total MSR activity were also noticed in Laghouat plants treated with 300mM NaCl compared to Djelfa ones. We propose that mechanisms based on organic solutes and antioxidant enzymes like catalases, peroxiredoxins and MSRs party underlie the better tolerance of the Laghouat population to high salt. PMID:22840322

  11. Role of the C-terminal propeptide in the activity and maturation of ?-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Uyen T.; Lackman, Rebecca L.; Cresswell, Peter

    2002-01-01

    ?-Interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is constitutively expressed in antigen-presenting cells. GILT facilitates unfolding of endocytosed antigens in MHC class II-containing compartments by enzymatically reducing disulfide bonds. The enzyme is synthesized as a 35-kDa precursor. Although a fraction of the precursor is secreted as a disulfide-linked dimer, the majority is directed via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor pathway to endocytic compartments where its N- and C-terminal propeptides are cleaved to generate the 30-kDa mature form. Both precursor and mature GILT reduce disulfide bonds with an acidic pH optimum. In this report, we show that the cysteine residues in the C-terminal propeptide, Cys-211 and Cys-222, serve key structural roles. Mutation of Cys-222 abolishes disulfide-linked dimerization of precursor GILT and decreases the efficiency of GILT maturation. Mutation of Cys-211 results in both impaired intracellular maturation and loss of enzymatic activity of the precursor form at an acidic pH. A similar phenotype was obtained upon mutation of Cys-200, which is retained in the mature form. Cys-200 and Cys-211 seem to form a disulfide bond that links the propeptide and the mature enzyme until reduction in the lysosome. This disulfide bridge is essential for stability of the enzyme at low pH and for its proper maturation in vivo. PMID:12198183

  12. Exposure of the promonocytic cell line THP-1 to Escherichia coli induces IFN-gamma-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase expression by inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackman, Rebecca L; Cresswell, Peter

    2006-10-01

    IFN-gamma-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT), which plays a role in MHC class II-restricted processing and presentation of Ags containing disulfide bonds, can be induced in various cell types by the cytokine IFN-gamma. APCs, including circulating macrophages, constitutively express high levels of GILT, although the pathways regulating its expression in these cells have not been characterized. In this study, we used the promonocytic cell line THP-1, an established model for monocyte to macrophage differentiation, to investigate the induction of GILT upon exposure to bacteria. We show that contact with LPS or intact Escherichia coli causes THP-1 cells to undergo programmed differentiation, characterized by adhesion, cytokine secretion, and up-regulation of Ag processing and presentation components, including GILT. Unlike GILT induction in response to IFN-gamma treatment, induction by bacteria is dependent on new protein synthesis, NF-kappaB signaling, and secretion of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1beta. Furthermore, we show that both cytokines are sufficient for GILT induction in the absence of a microbial stimulus. The majority of GILT synthesized by differentiated THP-1 cells is secreted as the precursor form rather than being transported to, and maturing in, lysosomes, suggesting a novel role for GILT in cells of the macrophage lineage. PMID:16982925

  13. Role of the C-terminal propeptide in the activity and maturation of gamma -interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Uyen T; Lackman, Rebecca L; Cresswell, Peter

    2002-09-17

    gamma-Interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is constitutively expressed in antigen-presenting cells. GILT facilitates unfolding of endocytosed antigens in MHC class II-containing compartments by enzymatically reducing disulfide bonds. The enzyme is synthesized as a 35-kDa precursor. Although a fraction of the precursor is secreted as a disulfide-linked dimer, the majority is directed via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor pathway to endocytic compartments where its N- and C-terminal propeptides are cleaved to generate the 30-kDa mature form. Both precursor and mature GILT reduce disulfide bonds with an acidic pH optimum. In this report, we show that the cysteine residues in the C-terminal propeptide, Cys-211 and Cys-222, serve key structural roles. Mutation of Cys-222 abolishes disulfide-linked dimerization of precursor GILT and decreases the efficiency of GILT maturation. Mutation of Cys-211 results in both impaired intracellular maturation and loss of enzymatic activity of the precursor form at an acidic pH. A similar phenotype was obtained upon mutation of Cys-200, which is retained in the mature form. Cys-200 and Cys-211 seem to form a disulfide bond that links the propeptide and the mature enzyme until reduction in the lysosome. This disulfide bridge is essential for stability of the enzyme at low pH and for its proper maturation in vivo. PMID:12198183

  14. Increase in Thiol Oxidative Stress via Glutathione Reductase Inhibition as a Novel Approach to Enhance Cancer Sensitivity to X-Ray Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yong; Seefeldt, Teresa; Chen, Wei; Carlson, Laura; Stoebner, Adam; Hanson, Sarah; Foll, Ryan; Matthees, Duane P.; Palakurthi, Srinath; Guan, Xiangming

    2009-01-01

    Depletion of reduced form glutathione (GSH) has been extensively studied for its effect on sensitizing cancer to radiation. However, little is known about the effect of thiol oxidative stress created through an increase in glutathione disulfide (GSSG) on cancer sensitivity to radiation. In this study, an increase in GSSG was effectively created by 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA), an irreversible glut...

  15. Cysteine reactivity and thiol-disulfide interchange pathways in AhpF and AhpC of the bacterial alkyl hydroperoxide reductase system†

    OpenAIRE

    Jo?nsson, Thomas J.; Ellis, Holly R.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2007-01-01

    AhpC and AhpF from Salmonella typhimurium undergo a series of electron transfers to catalyze the pyridine nucleotide-dependent reduction of hydroperoxide substrates. AhpC, the peroxide-reducing (peroxiredoxin) component of this alkyl hydroperoxidase system, is an important scavenger of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in bacteria and acts through a reactive, peroxidatic cysteine, Cys46, and a second cysteine, Cys165, that forms an active site disulfide bond. AhpF, a separate disulfide reductase p...

  16. Thiol metabolism of the trypanosomatids as potential drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Daniel J

    2002-01-01

    Trypanosomatids produce significant amounts of four major low molecular mass thiols, trypanothione, glutathionylspermidine, glutathione, and ovothiol A. Of these, only glutathione is present in cells of the host. All four low molecular mass thiols are directly or indirectly maintained in a reduced state by trypanothione reductase. Available evidence, from gene disruption studies, indicate that this is an essential enzyme. Attempts to exploit trypanothione reductase as a chemotherapeutic target lead to the design of competitive and irreversible inhibitors of the enzyme. A promising route involves the design of redox cyclers interacting specifically with trypanothione reductase as subversive substrates. Progress in studies on the biosynthesis of ovothiol A is summarized. PMID:12121003

  17. Thiols as peroxidase substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, B E; Gräslund, A; Ström, G; Moldeus, P

    1993-02-01

    The abilities of haem peroxidases to catalyse the oxidation of various thiols were studied using the spin-trapping electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Myeloperoxidase, a neutrophil and monocyte enzyme, catalysed the oxidation of cysteamine, cysteine methyl, and ethyl ester and to some extent 2-mercaptoethanol and thioglycollic acid. This peroxidase poorly catalysed the oxidation of cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, penicillamine, and glutathione under the same conditions. The dependence on pH of peroxidase-catalysed thiol oxidation may indicate that the thiolate anion form is the actual peroxidase substrate. Another leucocyte peroxidase, eosinophil peroxidase, had similar catalytic properties toward thiols as myeloperoxidase. Lactoperoxidase (found in milk, saliva, and tears) and the plant horseradish peroxidase were, however, different from the aforementioned leucocyte peroxidases in their abilities to catalyse the oxidation of thiols. PMID:8381104

  18. A comprehensive study of thiol reduction gene expression under stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, C; Bashandy, T; Cela, J; Delorme-Hinoux, V; Riondet, C; Reichheld, J P

    2015-02-01

    Thiol reduction proteins are key regulators of the redox state of the cell, managing development and stress response programs. In plants, thiol reduction proteins, namely thioredoxin (TRX), glutaredoxin (GRX), and their respective reducers glutathione reductase (GR) and thioredoxin reductase (TR), are organized in complex multigene families. In order to decipher the function of the different proteins, it is necessary to have a clear picture of their respective expression profiles. By collecting information from gene expression databases, we have performed a comprehensive in silico study of the expression of all members of different classes of thiol reduction genes (TRX, GRX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue expression profiles and response to many biotic and abiotic stress conditions have been studied systematically. Altogether, the significance of our data is discussed with respect to published biochemical and genetic studies. PMID:24428628

  19. Influence of thiol metabolism of lactobacilli on egg white proteins in wheat sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponen, Jussi; König, Katja; Wu, Jianping; Gänzle, Michael G

    2008-05-14

    In wheat sourdoughs, the degradation of gluten proteins is favored by acidification and reducing conditions. This study aimed to determine the proteolytic degradation of egg white proteins in wheat sourdoughs acidified with lactobacilli differing in their thiol metabolism. Ovotransferrin was the only major egg white protein that degraded during sourdough fermentations. An extensive degradation of ovotransferrin required a heterofermentative lactobacilli starter, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, with glutathione reductase activity. Ovotransferrin was more resistant to breakdown when sourdoughs were acidified with homofermentative lactobacilli or a mutant strain of L. sanfranciscensis lacking the glutathione reductase. Its susceptibility to proteolysis in L. sanfranciscensis sourdoughs is thus attributable to thiol accumulation by L. sanfranciscensis, which apparently altered the structure of ovotransferrin through a reduction of disulfide bonds. Proteolytic degradation of ovotransferrin was attributable to wheat aspartic proteinases. In addition to the susceptibility to proteolysis, other functional properties of egg proteins may be influenced by thiol-exchange reactions. PMID:18412365

  20. Thiols and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role played by non-protein (NPSH) and protein sulfhydryls (PSH) in hypoxic and aerated cell radiosensitivity was investigated using human skin fibroblasts derived from patients affected with 5-oxoprolinuria. These cells have lowered levels of the enzyme GSH-synthetase which results in a decreased concentration of glutathione. Six cell lines were studied; GM3877 and GM3878, SR and SUR from a single family and OB and AB from a French family. Only GM3877, with GSH levels of 0.6 nmoles/mg protein and NPSH levels of 4 nmoles/mg protein, was found to exhibit a reduced OER of 1.8. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the effect of depleting thiol levels with the ?-glutamyl cysteine synthetase inhibitor DL Buthionine-SR-sulfoximine to determine if the OER is further reduced, especially in the cell line which already has a lowered OER. The results are discussed with a view toward developing a model which takes into account the role of thiols and DNA repair processes in the resistance of hypoxic cells to ionizing radiation

  1. Low-molecular-mass thiol compounds from a free-living highly pathogenic amoeba, Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondarza, Raúl N; Iturbe, Angélica; Hernández, Eva; Hurtado, Gerardo

    2003-04-01

    Acid extracts labelled with the fluorescent reagent monobromobimane and separated by HPLC have enabled the detection of low-molecular-mass thiol compounds in Naegleria fowleri for the first time. The amounts detected are expressed in nmol/1 x 10(6) trophozoites cultivated at various stages of growth in the appropriate culture medium. N. fowleri is a highly pathogenic free-living amoeba, in which we found important thiol compounds, some of them in their reduced and oxidized forms. Unlike cysteine and glutathione, a number of these are not represented in normal human lymphocytes. Some of these thiol compounds from Naegleria must have their respective disulphide reductases, although the presence of thiol-disulphide exchange reactions must be considered. Ovothiol A, with antioxidant properties, is an example of a compound that is kept reduced by trypanothione in trypanosomatids, although no disulphide reductase for ovothiol A has yet been discovered. In our case we were unable to detect this biothiol in Naegleria. The presence of thiol compounds that seem to be particular to this pathogen and which are not present in human lymphocytes opens the possibility of searching for disulphide-reducing enzymes that can serve as drug targets. PMID:12630909

  2. Polythioethers by thiol-ene click polyaddition of ?,?-alkylene thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubel, Frank; Bretzler, Victor; Holzner, Richard; Helbich, Tobias; Nuyken, Oskar; Rieger, Bernhard; Jordan, Rainer

    2013-06-25

    The straightforward synthesis of a series of poly(thioether)s by photoinduced thiol-ene click polyaddition of ?,?-alkylene thiols is reported. It is found that linear and telechelic poly(thioether)s can be directly obtained from ?,?-alkylene thiols with, for example, alkyl chain length of m = 1,2,3, and 9. The reaction proceeds without additives such as (radical) initiators or metal compounds and can simply be carried out by UV-irradiation of the bulk monomer or monomer solution. Ex situ kinetic studies reveal that the reaction proceeds by a typical a step-growth polyaddition mechanism. As the homologue series of poly(thioether)s are now synthetically accessible, new direct pathways to tailored poly(alkyl sulphoxide)s and poly(alkyl sulfone)s are now possible. PMID:23649794

  3. Flow cytometry techniques for studying cellular thiols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1983-09-01

    Cellular thiols, and especially glutathione, act as scavenger nucleophiles and can protect against toxicity, mutagenicity, or transformation by ionizing radiation and many carcinogens. Development of a rapid assay to quantitate the cellular content of thiols could thus be useful in assessing or predicting cellular risk to damage. Several fluorescent thiol-reactive drugs, usually maleimide or bromobimane derivatives, have been described for use in histopathology. Most of these agents do not distinguish between protein and nonprotein thiols, and virtually all of these fluorescent stains have normally been used after fixation of the cells or tissues. We have found that some of the probes will, however, rapidly penetrate and bind within viable cells with little associated cytotoxicity; the amount bound can be easily quantified using flow cytometry. We have used several of these agents, in conjunction with fluorescence-activated cell sorting in V79 spheroids, to examine the thiol content of cells as a function of their depth or position in the spheroid. Additionally, the radiation response of cells from different depths as been assessed following addition of exogenous thiols including glutathione and WR-2721, or after treatment with thiol-depleting agents, including DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO), diethylmaleate (DEM), and dimethylfumarate (DMF). Our studies indicate that examination of the thiol content and radiation response of the sorted cells provides an improved understanding of the modes of action of these compounds.

  4. Flow cytometry techniques for studying cellular thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular thiols, and especially glutathione, act as scavenger nucleophiles and can protect against toxicity, mutagenicity, or transformation by ionizing radiation and many carcinogens. Development of a rapid assay to quantitate the cellular content of thiols could thus be useful in assessing or predicting cellular risk to damage. Several fluorescent thiol-reactive drugs, usually maleimide or bromobimane derivatives, have been described for use in histopathology. Most of these agents do not distinguish between protein and nonprotein thiols, and virtually all of these fluorescent stains have normally been used after fixation of the cells or tissues. We have found that some of the probes will, however, rapidly penetrate and bind within viable cells with little associated cytotoxicity; the amount bound can be easily quantified using flow cytometry. We have used several of these agents, in conjunction with fluorescence-activated cell sorting in V79 spheroids, to examine the thiol content of cells as a function of their depth or position in the spheroid. Additionally, the radiation response of cells from different depths as been assessed following addition of exogenous thiols including glutathione and WR-2721, or after treatment with thiol-depleting agents, including DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO), diethylmaleate (DEM), and dimethylfumarate (DMF). Our studies indicate that examination of the thiol content and radiation response of the sorted cells provides an improved of the sorted cells provides an improved understanding of the modes of action of these compounds

  5. An L-cysteine Dependent Nitrate Reductase Inactivating Factor in Synchronous Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, R; Schmidt, A

    1984-12-01

    Nitrate reductasee activity of cell-free Chlorella systems is inactivated in the presence of specific thiols. Out of 14 different thiols tested only L-cysteine and to a certain extent D-cysteine catalyzed an inactivation of the Chlorella nitrate reductase. This systeme was active only with reduced L-cysteine, since oxidized cystine had no effect, demonstrating that the reduced thiol group is necessary. A factor not identical with the nitrate reductase itself seems involved in this inactivation system. Evidence for this is that purified nitrate reductase is not inactivated by L-cysteine; however, when purified nitrate reductase was added to extracts inactivated by L-cysteine it was inactivated as well. The highest rate of degradation was found at a pH around 8. The data suggest that the inactivation factor from Chlorella is a proteinase, which has to be activated by L-cysteine. These results are discussed in relation to the regulation of assimilatory nitrate reduction. PMID:23195713

  6. Thiol-reactivity of the fungicide maneb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Roede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maneb (MB is a manganese-containing ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide that is implicated as an environmental risk factor for Parkinson's disease, especially in combination with paraquat (PQ. Dithiocarbamates inhibit aldehyde dehydrogenases, but the relationship of this to the combined toxicity of MB + PQ is unclear because PQ is an oxidant and MB activates Nrf2 and increases cellular GSH without apparent oxidative stress. The present research investigated the direct reactivity of MB with protein thiols using recombinant thioredoxin-1 (Trx1 as a model protein. The results show that MB causes stoichiometric loss of protein thiols, reversibly dimerizes the protein and inhibits its enzymatic activity. MB reacted at similar rates with low-molecular weight, thiol-containing chemicals. Together, the data suggest that MB can potentiate neurotoxicity of multiple agents by disrupting protein thiol functions in a manner analogous to that caused by oxidative stress, but without GSH depletion.

  7. Profiling patterns of glutathione reductase inhibition by the natural product illudin S and its acylfulvene analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaodan; Sturla, Shana J.

    2009-01-01

    Acylfulvenes (AFs) are a class of antitumor agents with favorable cytotoxic selectivity profiles compared to their natural product precursor, illudin S. Like many alkylating agents, illudin S and AFs readily react with thiol-containing small molecules such as cysteine, glutathione and cysteine-containing peptides; reduced cellular glutathione levels can affect illudin S toxicity. Glutathione reductase (GR) is a critical cellular anti-oxidant enzyme that regulates the intracellular ratio of re...

  8. Glucagon activation of the thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase in isolated, rat, hepatic microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase catalyzes the GSH reduction of protein disulfides to sulfhydryl groups. The authors determined this activity in washed rat hepatic microsomes (1) by a coupled reaction in which GSSG is reduced by GSH reductase and NADPH is oxidized and (2) by the cleavage of [125I]-insulin (insulinase). Physiological concentrations of glucagon (GLU)(1 nM) with GSH (1 mM) increased both activities (NADPH oxidae - 1.1 nmol/min-mg prot (control)(C) to 4.3 (GLU); insulinase - 36 (C) to 83 (GLU)). For both assays stimulation was only seen with low protein concentrations (< 100 ?g/ml), probably due to nonspecific GLU binding rather than proteolysis of the GLU since both reactions were linear for at least 30 min. The stimulation of NADPH oxidase had a P50 for GLU of 0.78 nM. GLU stimulation of insulinase was only observed in the presence of a GSH reducing system. Basal insulinase activity was unaffected by GSH reductase. These two observation suggest that the stimulation may be inhibited by the presence of GSSG. This effect was not due to depletion of GSH since the same effect was observed with higher GSH (5 mM). Although the effect on NADPH oxidase could represent activation of a GSH peroxidase, the insulinase data support the hypothesis that GLU may act by stimulating the thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase catalyzed reduction of protein disulfides

  9. Changes in plasma thiol levels induced by different phases of treatment in breast cancer; the role of commercial extract from black chokeberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K?dzierska, Magdalena; G?owacki, Rafa?; Czernek, Urszula; Szyd?owska-Pazera, Katarzyna; Potemski, Piotr; Piekarski, Janusz; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Olas, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Different low-molecular-weight thiols, including glutathione, cysteine, and cysteinylglycine are physiological free radical scavengers. On the other hand, homocysteine may play a role as an oxidant. The aim of our present study was to establish in vitro the effects of the commercial extract of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox(®)) on the amount of selected low-molecular-weight thiols and the activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in plasma obtained from patients with invasive breast cancer during different phases of treatment [before or after the surgery and patients after different phases of chemotherapy (doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide)] and from healthy subjects. Patients were hospitalized in Department of Oncological Surgery and Department of Chemotherapy, Medical University of Lodz, Poland. The level of low-molecular-weight thiols was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed that in the presence of the Aronia extract changes in amount of thiols in plasma from breast cancer patients (at all tested groups) were significantly reduced. Our results showed that tested commercial extract reduced modifications of antioxidative enzymes activity in plasma from patients during different phases of treatment, but this effect was not statistical significant. Our results suggest that the Aronia extract supplementation in breast cancer patients has a beneficial effect on thiols concentration in plasma. Plasma, as reported in this work, could be used as an experimental model to evaluate the beneficial action of plant supplements, including phenolic extracts on thiols or other molecules during different phases of treatment. PMID:22949034

  10. Reduction of mitochondrial protein mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters by human glutathione reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Aaron P; Cheng, Zishuo; Ding, Huangen

    2015-04-01

    The human mitochondrial outer membrane protein mitoNEET is a newly discovered target of the type 2 diabetes drug pioglitazone. Structurally, mitoNEET is a homodimer with each monomer containing an N-terminal transmembrane ? helix tethered to the mitochondrial outer membrane and a C-terminal cytosolic domain hosting a redox-active [2Fe-2S] cluster. Genetic studies have shown that mitoNEET has a central role in regulating energy metabolism in mitochondria. However, the specific function of mitoNEET remains largely elusive. Here we find that the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters can be efficiently reduced by Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase in an NADPH-dependent reaction. Purified human glutathione reductase has the same activity as E. coli thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase to reduce the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters. However, rat thioredoxin reductase, a human thioredoxin reductase homolog that contains selenocysteine in the catalytic center, has very little or no activity to reduce the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters. N-ethylmaleimide, a potent thiol modifier, completely inhibits human glutathione reductase from reducing the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters, indicating that the redox-active disulfide in the catalytic center of human glutathione reductase may be directly involved in reducing the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters. Additional studies reveal that the reduced mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters in mouse heart cell extracts can be reversibly oxidized by hydrogen peroxide without disruption of the clusters, suggesting that the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters may undergo redox transition to regulate energy metabolism in mitochondria in response to oxidative signals. PMID:25645953

  11. Impact properties of thiol-ene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Olivia D; Janisse, Andrew P; Krzeminski, David E; Brent, Davis E; Gould, Trenton E; Rawlins, James W; Savin, Daniel A

    2013-11-13

    In this study, a series of thiol-ene networks having glass transition temperatures ranging from -30 to 60 °C were synthesized utilizing several multifunctional thiols and two trifunctional alkenes. Thermomechanical properties were determined using dynamic mechanical analysis, and impact properties were determined using pendulum impact and drop impact testing protocols. The impact behavior was found to directly correlate to the glass transition temperature, except when the temperature at which the impact event occurs overlaps with the range of temperatures corresponding to the viscoelastic dissipation regime of the polymer. Additionally, we discuss insight into the spatial limitations of energy dissipation for thiol-ene network polymers and establish a platform for predictability in similar systems. PMID:24175583

  12. Molecular study of DNA radioprotection by thiols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoye, C.; Charlier, M.; Spotheim-Maurizot, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France); Swenberg, C. [ACRD, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda (United States); Sabattier, R. [Centre Hospitalier Regional d`Orleans, 45 (France)

    1997-03-01

    Polyamines (PA) are natural components of mammalian cells, essential for growth processes. Since a decrease of the cellular level of PA increases the effect of radiotherapy on tumour cells, we have supposed that PA may act as DNA radioprotectors. The search of non-toxic agents that protect specifically normal cells led to the discovery of the agent WR-2721 used now in cancer cancer therapy under the name Ethyol (Amifostine) and of the agent WR-151327. Both have a chemical structure close to that of natural PA. The main radioprotective metabolites of these agents are the thiols WR>61065 and WR-151326. We have compared here here the protective effects of these thiols to those of another simpler thiol, the cysteamine, and of a related PA, the putrescine, on the number and location of fast neutrons-induced DNA strand breaks. (authors)

  13. Cytoplasmic glutathione redox status determines survival upon exposure to the thiol-oxidant 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Thorsen, Michael; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C; Toledano, Michel B; Winther, Jakob R

    2007-05-01

    Dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) is a highly reactive thiol oxidant that functions as electron acceptor in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. DPS is very toxic to yeasts, impairing growth at low micromolar concentrations. The genes TRX2 (thioredoxin), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase), GSH1 (gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase) and, particularly, GLR1 (glutathione reductase) are required for survival on DPS. DPS is uniquely thiol-specific, and we found that the cellular mechanisms for DPS detoxification differ substantially from that of the commonly used thiol oxidant diamide. In contrast to this oxidant, the full antioxidant pools of glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin are required for resistance to DPS. We found that DPS-sensitive mutants display increases in the disulfide form of GSH (GSSG) during DPS exposure that roughly correlate with their more oxidizing GSH redox potential in the cytosol and their degree of DPS sensitivity. DPS seems to induce a specific disulfide stress, where an increase in the cytoplasmic/nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio results in putative DPS target(s) becoming sensitive to DPS. PMID:17253982

  14. Cytoplasmic glutathione redox status determines survival upon exposure to the thiol-oxidant 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Thorsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) is a highly reactive thiol oxidant that functions as electron acceptor in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. DPS is very toxic to yeasts, impairing growth at low micromolar concentrations. The genes TRX2 (thioredoxin), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase), GSH1 (gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase) and, particularly, GLR1 (glutathione reductase) are required for survival on DPS. DPS is uniquely thiol-specific, and we found that the cellular mechanisms for DPS detoxification differ substantially from that of the commonly used thiol oxidant diamide. In contrast to this oxidant, the full antioxidant pools of glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin are required for resistance to DPS. We found that DPS-sensitive mutants display increases in the disulfide form of GSH (GSSG) during DPS exposure that roughly correlate with their more oxidizing GSH redox potential in the cytosol and their degree of DPS sensitivity. DPS seems to induce a specific disulfide stress, where an increase in the cytoplasmic/nuclearGSSG/GSH ratio results in putative DPS target(s) becoming sensitive to DPS. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May

  15. Comparative Genomics of Thiol Oxidoreductases Reveals Widespread and Essential Functions of Thiol-based Redox Control of Cellular Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Redox regulation of cellular processes is an important mechanism that operates in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Much of the redox control is provided by thiol oxidoreductases: proteins that employ cysteine residues for redox catalysis. We wanted to identify thiol oxidoreductases on a genome-wide scale and use this information to obtain insights into the general principles of thiol-based redox control. Results: Thiol oxidoreductases were identified by three independent methods that...

  16. Microfluidic devices using thiol-ene polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Simon J. M. C.; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2013-12-01

    Here, a new polymeric microfluidic platform using off-stoichiometric thiol-ene (OSTE) polymers was developed. Thiolene polymers were chosen as they afford rapid UV curing, low volume shrinkage and optical transparency for use in microfluidic devices. Three different off-stoichiometric thiol-ene polymers with 30% excess allyl, 50% excess thiol and a 90% excess thiol (OSTE Allyl-30, OSTE-50 and OSTE-90, respectively) were fabricated. Attenuated reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and solid-state cross polarisation-magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed which functional groups (thiol or allyl) were present in excess in the OSTE polymers. The polymers were shown to have a more hydrophilic surface (water contact angle of 65°+/- 3) compared to polydimethylsiloxane (water contact angle of 105° +/- 5). Testing of the mechanical properties showed the glass transition temperatures to be 15.09 °C, 43.15 °C and, 57.48 °C for OSTE-90, OSTE Allyl-30 and, OSTE-50, respectively. The storage modulus was shown to be less than 10 MPa for the OSTE-90 polymer and approximately 1750 MPa for the OSTE Allyl-30 and OSTE-50 polymers. The polymers were then utilised to fabricate microfluidic devices via soft lithography practices and devices sealed using a one-step UV lamination "click" reaction technique. Finally, gold nanoparticles were used to form gold films on the OSTE-90 and OSTE-50 polymers as potential electrodes. Atomic force microscopy and sheet resistances were used to characterise the films.

  17. The 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase C Binds Heme and Participates in Its Intracellular Availability in Streptococcus agalactiae*

    OpenAIRE

    Lechardeur, Delphine; Fernandez, Annabelle; Robert, Bruno; Gaudu, Philippe; Trieu-cuot, Patrick; Lamberet, Gilles; Gruss, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Heme is a redox-reactive molecule with vital and complex roles in bacterial metabolism, survival, and virulence. However, few intracellular heme partners were identified to date and are not well conserved in bacteria. The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a heme auxotroph, which acquires exogenous heme to activate an aerobic respiratory chain. We identified the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase AhpC, a member of the highly conserved thiol-dependent 2-Cys p...

  18. Glutathione reductase: solvent equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutathione reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The kinetic mechanism is ping-pong, and we have investigated the rate-limiting nature of proton-transfer steps in the reactions catalyzed by the spinach, yeast, and human erythrocyte glutathione reductases using a combination of alternate substrate and solvent kinetic isotope effects. With NADPH or GSSG as the variable substrate, at a fixed, saturating concentration of the other substrate, solvent kinetic isotope effects were observed on V but not V/K. Plots of Vm vs mole fraction of D2O (proton inventories) were linear in both cases for the yeast, spinach, and human erythrocyte enzymes. When solvent kinetic isotope effect studies were performed with DTNB instead of GSSG as an alternate substrate, a solvent kinetic isotope effect of 1.0 was observed. Solvent kinetic isotope effect measurements were also performed on the asymmetric disulfides GSSNB and GSSNP by using human erythrocyte glutathione reductase. The Km values for GSSNB and GSSNP were 70 microM and 13 microM, respectively, and V values were 62 and 57% of the one calculated for GSSG, respectively. Both of these substrates yield solvent kinetic isotope effects greater than 1.0 on both V and V/K and linear proton inventories, indicating that a single proton-transfer step is still rate limiting. These data are discussed in relationship to the chemical mechanism of GSSG reduction and the identity of the protonG reduction and the identity of the proton-transfer step whose rate is sensitive to solvent isotopic composition. Finally, the solvent equilibrium isotope effect measured with yeast glutathione reductase is 4.98, which allows us to calculate a fractionation factor for the thiol moiety of GSH of 0.456

  19. Oxidative stress and the role of novel thiol compounds at fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B M; Turner, E

    1988-01-01

    A new class of thiols, the 1-methyl-4-mercaptohistidines, has been found in high concentrations in invertebrate eggs. This family, called the ovothiols, has unusual redox properties, including the ability to confer a CN- -resistant NAD(P)H oxidase activity on ovoperoxidase, the enzyme that catalyzes the physiological crosslinking of the fertilization envelope with dityrosine residues. Ovothiol has a redox potential of 44 mV positive to glutathione and thus is maintained in the reduced state in eggs by reduced glutathione, without the need for an ovothiol reductase. We propose that high concentrations of reduced ovothiol are present in eggs to protect them from the oxidative stress caused by the respiratory burst of fertilization. PMID:3076434

  20. Thiol methyltransferase activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Roediger, W.; Babidge, W.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Luminal anionic sulphide may contribute to epithelial damage in ulcerative colitis. Thiol methyltransferase (TMT) governs sulphide detoxification by the colonic mucosa and circulating erythrocytes.?AIMS—To measure levels of TMT activity in erythrocytes of surgically treated cases of colitis or in rectal biopsies of defined groups of colitis.?PATIENTS—Venepuncture blood was obtained from 37 blood donors and 27 subjects who had previously undergone a proctocolectomy for c...

  1. Thiol-derivatized minihepcidins retain biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Eileen; Chua, Kristine; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ruchala, Piotr

    2015-02-15

    Minihepcidins are small peptides that mimic biological activity of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Structurally, they contain thiol-free-cysteine residue in position 7 which is crucial for their bioactivity. Nonetheless, free sulfhydryl group is not desirable in pharmaceutical entities as it may lead to dermatological side effects. Moreover free thiol moiety is quite reactive and depending on conditions/reagents may be alkylated and/or oxidized giving various Cys-derivatives: S-alkyl cysteines, sulfoxides, sulfones, disulfides, cysteinesulfinic and cysteic acids. To limit such reactivity and maintain bioactivity of minihepcidin(s) we used thiol-protection strategy based on activated vinyl thioethers. Novel S-protected analogs of physiologically active minihepcidin PR73 were synthesized and tested in vitro showing activity comparable to parental molecule. The most active compound, PR73SH was also tested in vivo showing activity profile analogous to PR73. Collectively, our findings suggest that S-vinyl-derivatization of minihepcidin(s) may be a suitable approach in the development of physiologically active agonists of hepcidin. PMID:25599838

  2. Different-metal and thiol-thiol complexes of copper (indium) with 8-mercaptoquinoline (unithiol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different physicochemical methods were used to study the formation of two-metal complexes by the interaction of a binary Cu2+-In2+ (CH3COO-) mixture with 8-mercaptoquinoline and by thiol-thiol interaction in an RSH-H2Un--CH3COO--Cu2+ system. The reactions were proposed to be used in the analysis of Cu-In(Zn, Cd) binary mixtures in different technological processes as well as for for the differential determination of 8-mercaptoquinoline and unithiol by amperometric titration with a copper(2) solution

  3. Preparation of Novel Hydrolyzing Urethane Modified Thiol-Ene Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Confait, Bridget S.; Wynne, James H.; Paige Buchanan, J.; Mackey, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Novel tetra-functional hydrolyzing monomers were prepared from the reaction of TEOS and select alkene-containing alcohols, ethylene glycol vinyl ether or 2-allyloxy ethanol, and combined with trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate) (tri-thiol) in a thiol-ene “click” polymerization reaction to produce clear, colorless thiol-ene networks using both radiation and thermal-cure techniques. These networks were characterized for various mechanical characteristics, and found to posses Tg’...

  4. Crystal-bound vs surface-bound thiols on nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turo, Michael J; Macdonald, Janet E

    2014-10-28

    The use of thiol ligands as a sulfur source for nanocrystal synthesis has recently come en vogue, as the products are often high quality. A comparative study was performed of dodecanethiol-capped Cu2S prepared with elemental sulfur and thiol sulfur reagents. XPS and TGA-MS provide evidence for differing binding modes of the capping thiols. Under conditions where the thiol acts only as a ligand, the capping thiols are "surface-bound" and bond to surface cations in low coordination number sites. In contrast, when thiols are used as a sulfur source, "crystal-bound" thiols result that sit in high coordination sites and are the terminal S layer of the crystal. A (1)H NMR study shows suppressed surface reactivity and ligand exchange with crystal-bound thiols, which could limit further application of the particles. To address the challenge and opportunity of nonlabile ligands, dodecyl-3-mercaptopropanoate, a molecule possessing both a thiol and an ester, was used as the sulfur source for the synthesis of Cu2S and CuInS2. A postsynthetic base hydrolysis cleaves the ester, leaving a carboxylate corona around the nanocrystals and rendering the particles water-soluble. PMID:25219599

  5. Thiol groups of gizzard myosin heavy chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteolysis of phosphorylated and 3H-labeled dinitrophenylated chicken gizzard myosin with trypsin released major fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000, 50,000 and 66,000 in a 1:1 ratio. They contained 57% of the dinitrophenyl (N2ph) group bound to thiols of the heavy chains; 28% of the label was bound to the light chains. The fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000 and M/sub r/ 66,000 were dinitrophenylated predominantly when the K+-ATPase activity was inhibited. Thiolysis of phosphorylated and dinitrophenylated myosin with 2-mercaptoethanol removed 60% and 25% of the N2ph group from the N-terminal and M/sub r/ 66,000 fragments of the heavy chain, respectively, when 48% of the K+-ATPase activity was restored. Papain proteolysis of the tryptic digest of modified myosin released a C-terminal segment from the fragment of M/sub r/ 66,000 and it contained most of the remaining label. Proteolysis of 3H-labeled dinitrophenylated myosin alone resulted in the same digestion pattern but less of the label was bound to the heavy chain fragments. In this case, restoration of enzymic activity occurred in thiolyzed dinitrophenylated myosin when the N2ph group was removed from the light chains, predominantly. Conformational changes in gizzard myosin, mediated by phosphorylation, altered the reactivity of the thiols in specific fragments of the heavy chain. Thiol groups of the N- and C-terminal heavy chain regions are involved in maintaining the ATPase activity of myosin

  6. Purification and characterization of a novel enoyl coenzyme A reductase from Streptomyces collinus.

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, K. A.; Wang, P.; Fox, K. M.; Speedie, M. K.; Lam, Y.; Floss, H. G.

    1992-01-01

    A novel NADPH-dependent enoyl reductase, catalyzing the conversion of 1-cyclohexenylcarbonyl coenzyme A (1-cyclohexenylcarbonyl-CoA) to cyclohexylcarbonyl-CoA, was purified to homogeneity from Streptomyces collinus. This enzyme, a dimer with subunits of identical M(r) (36,000), exhibits a Km of 1.5 +/- 0.3 microM for NADPH and 25 +/- 3 microM for 1-cyclohexenylcarbonyl-CoA. It has a pH optimum of 7.5, is most active at 30 degrees C, and is inhibited by both divalent cations and thiol reagents...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus NrdH Redoxin Is a Reductant of the Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase? †

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinovitch, Inbal; Yanku, Michaela; Yeheskel, Adva; Cohen, Gerald; Borovok, Ilya; Aharonowitz, Yair

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococci contain a class Ib NrdEF ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) that is responsible, under aerobic conditions, for the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotide precursors for DNA synthesis and repair. The genes encoding that RNR are contained in an operon consisting of three genes, nrdIEF, whereas many other class Ib RNR operons contain a fourth gene, nrdH, that determines a thiol redoxin protein, NrdH. We identified a 77-amino-acid open reading frame in Staphylococcus aureus that resembles Nrd...

  8. Selection of thiol- and disulfide-containing proteins of Escherichia coli on activated thiol-Sepharose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wentao; Tedesco, Sara; McDonagh, Brian; Bárcena, José Antonio; Keane, Catherine; Sheehan, David

    2010-03-15

    Activated thiol-Sepharose (ATS) facilitates selection of thiol-containing proteins. In control- and menadione-treated Escherichia coli, batch selection performed under denaturing conditions revealed distinct two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) patterns. Using shotgun proteomics, 183 thiol-containing proteins were identified in control ATS-selected extracts and 126 were identified in menadione-treated E. coli, with 85 proteins being common to both. More than 90% of identified proteins contained one or more cysteines. Blocking with N-ethyl maleimide followed by reduction facilitated ATS-based selection of disulfide-containing proteins. In total, 62 proteins were unique to control cells and 164 were identified in menadione-treated E. coli cells, with 29 proteins being common to both. Proteins from menadione-treated cells were excised from 2DE gels, digested with trypsin, and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. This revealed 19 unique proteins, 14 of which were identified by shotgun proteomics. Outer membrane proteins A, C, W, and X and 30S ribosomal protein S1 were found in 2DE but not by shotgun proteomics. Foldases, ribosomal proteins, aminoacyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases, and metabolic and antioxidant enzymes were prominent among identified proteins, and many had previously been found to respond to, and be targets for, oxidative stress in E. coli. ATS provides a convenient and rapid way to select thiol-containing proteins. PMID:19903445

  9. Studies on alterations of the 86-rubidium efflux from rat pancreatic islets caused by thiol and thiol oxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following findings were revealed by this study: 1) Oxidation-reduction (redox) of the intracellular system of glutathione influences the potassium efflux by way of an increase in the 86-rubidium efflux brought about by the oxidation of intracellular thiols. 2) The 86-rubidium efflux is not subject to change by oxidation of extracellular thiols located in the membrane, nor can it in any way be influenced by reduced glutathione of exogenous origin. 3) The potassium efflux from rat pancreatic islets, being generally known to trigger the electric activities of the beta-cell, is controlled by the oxidation-reduction of intracellular thiols rather than by that of extracellular thiols. (TRV)

  10. Virus-Encoded Ribonucleotide Reductases

    OpenAIRE

    Bornemann, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases are encoded by many viruses, but without other enzymes of nucleotide metabolism of no obvious use. A look at the enzymes' molecular properties and their possible mutator action may give clues.

  11. A novel vanadium reductase, Vanabin2, forms a possible cascade involved in electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norifumi; Ueki, Tatsuya; Amata, Yusuke; Kanamori, Kan; Matsuo, Koichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Michibata, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    The unusual ascidian ability to accumulate high levels of vanadium ions at concentrations of up to 350 mM, a 10(7)-fold increase over that found in seawater, has been attracting interdisciplinary attention for a century. Accumulated V(V) is finally reduced to V(III) via V(IV) in ascidian vanadocytes. Reducing agents must therefore participate in the reduction. Previously, we identified a vanadium-binding protein, Vanabin2, in which all 18 cysteines form nine disulfide bonds. Here, we report that Vanabin2 is a novel vanadium reductase because partial cleavage of its disulfide bonds results in the reduction of V(V) to V(IV). We propose that Vanabin2 forms a possible electron transfer cascade from the electron donor, NADPH, via glutathione reductase, glutathione, and Vanabin2 to the acceptor, and vanadium ions conjugated through thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. PMID:19336037

  12. Effects of copper on induction of thiol-compounds and antioxidant enzymes by the fruiting body of Oudemansiella radicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Juan; Qin, Chuixin; Shu, Xueqin; Chen, Rong; Song, Haihai; Li, Qiao; Xu, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Oudemansiella radicata has been found to have ability to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals. In this study, to know about the metal tolerance and detoxification strategy of O. radicata, the tolerance responses in both cap and stipe of the fruiting body, including the copper content, the changes of thiol compounds production and antioxidant enzymes activities, caused by various copper stress (150-600 mg kg(-1)) during 2-6 days were investigated. Results showed that Cu content in the fruiting bodies increased with the increasing Cu concentrations and growing time, which was higher in cap than that in stipe. For thiols contents, the maximum level was in the sample at 300 mg kg(-1) Cu after 2 d both in cap and stipe, in accordance with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities. Guaicol peroxidase (POD) activities reached maximum at 150 mg kg(-1) Cu after 4 d and 6 d, respectively in cap and stipe, while the maximum of catalase (CAT) activities was recorded at 300 and 600 mg kg(-1) Cu after 4 d in the cap and stipe, respectively. As a whole, low concentration of Cu stimulated the production of thiols and activated the antioxidant enzymes activities in the fruiting body of O. radicata after 2/4 d, while high-level Cu decreased the thiols production and enzymes activities after 4/6 d. Furthermore, the cap was more sensitive than the stipe to Cu exposure. Different indicators showed different responses to copper accumulation and the different fruiting part (cap and stipe) of O. radicata had ability to response the oxidative stress caused by Cu. Considering the metal accumulation and its own detoxification with short growing time, mushroom might have the potential to be used as bio-accumulator to deal with Cu exposure in the Cu-contaminated farmland soil. PMID:25450915

  13. Long-term stabilization of maleimide-thiol conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Shaun D; Reid, Ralph; Robinson, Louise; Ashley, Gary W; Santi, Daniel V

    2015-01-21

    Michael-addition of a thiol to a maleimide is commonly used for bioconjugation of drugs to macromolecules. Indeed, both current FDA-approved antibody-drug conjugates-Brentuximab vedotin and Trastuzumab emtansine-and one approved PEGylated conjugate-Cimzia-contain a thiol-maleimide adduct. However, the ultimate in vivo fate of such adducts is to undergo disruptive cleavage by thiol exchange or stabilizing ring opening. Therapeutic efficacy of a conjugate can be compromised by thiol exchange and the released drug may show toxicities. However, if the succinimide moiety of a maleimide-thiol conjugate is hydrolyzed, the ring-opened product is stabilized toward cleavage. We determined rates of ring-opening hydrolysis and thiol exchange of a series of N-substituted succinimide thioethers formed by maleimide-thiol conjugation. Ring-opening of conjugates prepared with commonly used maleimides were too slow to serve as prevention against thiol exchange. However, ring-opening rates are greatly accelerated by electron withdrawing N-substituents, and ring-opened products have half-lives of over two years. Thus, conjugates made with electron-withdrawing maleimides may be purposefully hydrolyzed to their ring-opened counterparts in vitro to ensure in vivo stability. PMID:25494821

  14. Quantifying thiol-gold interactions towards the efficient strength control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yurui; Li, Xun; Li, Hongbin; Zhang, Wenke

    2014-07-01

    The strength of the thiol-gold interactions provides the basis to fabricate robust self-assembled monolayers for diverse applications. Investigation on the stability of thiol-gold interactions has thus become a hot topic. Here we use atomic force microscopy to quantify the stability of individual thiol-gold contacts formed both by isolated single thiols and in self-assembled monolayers on gold surface. Our results show that the oxidized gold surface can enhance greatly the stability of gold-thiol contacts. In addition, the shift of binding modes from a coordinate bond to a covalent bond with the change in environmental pH and interaction time has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, isolated thiol-gold contact is found to be more stable than that in self-assembled monolayers. Our findings revealed mechanisms to control the strength of thiol-gold contacts and will help guide the design of thiol-gold contacts for a variety of practical applications.

  15. Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

  16. Glutathione and the redox control system trypanothione/trypanothione reductase are involved in the protection of Leishmania spp. against nitrosothiol-induced cytotoxicity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.R.T., Romão; J., Tovar; S.G., Fonseca; R.H., Moraes; A.K., Cruz; J.S., Hothersall; A.A., Noronha-Dutra; S.H., Ferreira; F.Q., Cunha.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is the major intracellular antioxidant thiol protecting mammalian cells against oxidative stress induced by oxygen- and nitrogen-derived reactive species. In trypanosomes and leishmanias, trypanothione plays a central role in parasite protection against mammalian host defence systems by [...] recycling trypanothione disulphide by the enzyme trypanothione reductase. Although Kinetoplastida parasites lack glutathione reductase, they maintain significant levels of glutathione. The aim of this study was to use Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase gene mutant clones and different Leishmania species to examine the role of these two individual thiol systems in the protection mechanism against S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP), a nitrogen-derived reactive species donor. We found that the resistance to SNAP of different species of Leishmania was inversely correlated with their glutathione concentration but not with their total low-molecular weight thiol content (about 0.18 nmol/10(7) parasites, regardless Leishmania species). The glutathione concentration in L. amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, and L. braziliensis were 0.12, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.04 nmol/10(7) parasites, respectively. L. amazonensis, that have a higher level of glutathione, were less susceptible to SNAP (30 and 100 µM). The IC50 values of SNAP determined to L. amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, and L. braziliensis were 207.8, 188.5, 160.9, and 83 µM, respectively. We also observed that L. donovani mutants carrying only one trypanothione reductase allele had a decreased capacity to survive (~40%) in the presence of SNAP (30-150 µM). In conclusion, the present data suggest that both antioxidant systems, glutathione and trypanothione/trypanothione reductase, participate in protection of Leishmania against the toxic effect of nitrogen-derived reactive species.

  17. Glutathione and the redox control system trypanothione/trypanothione reductase are involved in the protection of Leishmania spp. against nitrosothiol-induced cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.T. Romão

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is the major intracellular antioxidant thiol protecting mammalian cells against oxidative stress induced by oxygen- and nitrogen-derived reactive species. In trypanosomes and leishmanias, trypanothione plays a central role in parasite protection against mammalian host defence systems by recycling trypanothione disulphide by the enzyme trypanothione reductase. Although Kinetoplastida parasites lack glutathione reductase, they maintain significant levels of glutathione. The aim of this study was to use Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase gene mutant clones and different Leishmania species to examine the role of these two individual thiol systems in the protection mechanism against S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP, a nitrogen-derived reactive species donor. We found that the resistance to SNAP of different species of Leishmania was inversely correlated with their glutathione concentration but not with their total low-molecular weight thiol content (about 0.18 nmol/10(7 parasites, regardless Leishmania species. The glutathione concentration in L. amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, and L. braziliensis were 0.12, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.04 nmol/10(7 parasites, respectively. L. amazonensis, that have a higher level of glutathione, were less susceptible to SNAP (30 and 100 µM. The IC50 values of SNAP determined to L. amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, and L. braziliensis were 207.8, 188.5, 160.9, and 83 µM, respectively. We also observed that L. donovani mutants carrying only one trypanothione reductase allele had a decreased capacity to survive (~40% in the presence of SNAP (30-150 µM. In conclusion, the present data suggest that both antioxidant systems, glutathione and trypanothione/trypanothione reductase, participate in protection of Leishmania against the toxic effect of nitrogen-derived reactive species.

  18. On radiation protection of cells in vitro with thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the mechanism of in vitro cells protection with thiols have been analyzed. It is shown that hypoxia, caused by thiol autooxidation (the maximum FDI is approximately 3), makes the main contribution to cell protection from reproductive mortality in the previosly conducted experiments. Oxygen-independent component of protective effect of certain thiols (the maximum FDI is approXimately 1.5) is conditioned by metabolic changes in cell caused by them, which results in the increase enzyme repair volume of potential injuries

  19. A highly chemoselective and practical alkynylation of thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Reto; Waser, Jérôme

    2013-07-01

    A thiol-alkynylation procedure utilizing the hypervalent iodine alkyne transfer reagent TIPS-ethynyl-benziodoxolone has been developed. This scalable reaction proceeds in five minutes at room temperature in an open flask using commercially available reagents. The scope of the reaction is broad, with a variety of phenolic, benzylic, heterocyclic, and aliphatic thiols undergoing alkynylation in excellent yield. The method is highly chemoselective as a vast array of functional groups are tolerated. The utility of the thiol-alkynylation in postsynthetic elaboration has been demonstrated through the facile installment of a fluorophore tag on a cysteine-containing peptide. PMID:23777551

  20. Ab initio studies of the properties of intracellular thiols ergothioneine and ovothiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Christine E; Taylor, Nicholas J; Honek, John F

    2005-03-01

    Intracellular naturally occurring aromatic thiols such as ergothioneine and the ovothiols have been shown to play a variety of roles in cellular function. A detailed ab initio electronic structure analysis of these thiols is reported evaluating the thermodynamics of the reactions of these intracellular thiols with alkyl thiols, HO*, H2O2, ascorbate and their disulfides. PMID:15713386

  1. DNA microarrays on silicon surfaces through thiol-ene chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Escorihuela Fuentes, Jorge; Ban?uls Polo, Mª Jose?; Puchades Pla, Rosa; Maquieira Catala, A?ngel

    2012-01-01

    The potential of thiol-ene chemistry as a selective strategy to functionalize silicon materials for DNA microarraying is demonstrated and applied to discriminate genetic variations. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. The thiol pool in human plasma: The central contribution of albumin to redox processes

    OpenAIRE

    Turell, Luci?a; Radi, Rafael; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The plasma compartment has particular features regarding the nature and concentration of low and high molecular weight thiols and oxidized derivatives. Plasma is relatively poor in thiol-based antioxidants; thiols are in lower concentrations than in cells and mostly oxidized. The different thiol-disulfide pairs are not in equilibrium and the steady-state concentrations of total thiols as well as reduced versus oxidized ratios are maintained by kinetic barriers, including the rates of reaction...

  3. Endogenous thiol content of budding and resting yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on the content of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of cells of diploid yeast culture Saccharomyces ellipsoideus Megri-139-B of the same age but of different budding cell content. Yeast cultures having a higher content of budding cells were shown to contain a larger number of endogenous thiols and to be more radioresistant than those having a smaller amount of budding cells

  4. Interfacial thiol-ene photoclick reactions for forming multilayer hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Han; Fraser, Andrew K; Lin, Chien-Chi

    2013-03-13

    Interfacial visible light-mediated thiol-ene photoclick reactions were developed for preparing step-growth hydrogels with multilayer structures. The effect of a noncleavage type photoinitiator eosin-Y on visible-light-mediated thiol-ene photopolymerization was first characterized using in situ photorheometry, gel fraction, and equilibrium swelling ratio. Next, spectrophotometric properties of eosin-Y in the presence of various relevant macromer species were evaluated using ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) spectrometry. It was determined that eosin-Y was able to reinitiate the thiol-ene photoclick reaction, even after light exposure. Because of its small molecular weight, most eosin-Y molecules readily leached out from the hydrogels. The diffusion of residual eosin-Y from preformed hydrogels was exploited for fabricating multilayer step-growth hydrogels. Interfacial hydrogel coating was formed via the same visible-light-mediated gelation mechanism without adding fresh initiator. The thickness of the thiol-ene gel coating could be easily controlled by adjusting visible light exposure time, eosin-Y concentration initially loaded in the core gel, or macromer concentration in the coating solution. The major benefits of this interfacial thiol-ene coating system include its simplicity and cytocompatibility. The formation of thiol-ene hydrogels and coatings neither requires nor generates any cytotoxic components. This new gelation chemistry may have great utilities in controlled release of multiple sensitive growth factors and encapsulation of multiple cell types for tissue regeneration. PMID:23384151

  5. Quantifying Reversible Oxidation of Protein Thiols in Photosynthetic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, William O.; Werth, Emily G.; McConnell, Evan W.; Alvarez, Sophie; Hicks, Leslie M.

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic organisms use dynamic post-translational modifications to survive and adapt, which include reversible oxidative modifications of protein thiols that regulate protein structure, function, and activity. Efforts to quantify thiol modifications on a global scale have relied upon peptide derivatization, typically using isobaric tags such as TMT, ICAT, or iTRAQ that are more expensive, less accurate, and provide less proteome coverage than label-free approaches—suggesting the need for improved experimental designs for studies requiring maximal coverage and precision. Herein, we present the coverage and precision of resin-assisted thiol enrichment coupled to label-free quantitation for the characterization of reversible oxidative modifications on protein thiols. Using C. reinhardtii and Arabidopsis as model systems for algae and plants, we quantified 3662 and 1641 unique cysteinyl peptides, respectively, with median coefficient of variation (CV) of 13% and 16%. Further, our method is extendable for the detection of protein abundance changes and stoichiometries of cysteine oxidation. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-principle for our method, and reveal that exogenous hydrogen peroxide treatment regulates the C. reinhardtii redox proteome by increasing or decreasing the level of oxidation of 501 or 67 peptides, respectively. As protein activity and function is controlled by oxidative modifications on protein thiols, resin-assisted thiol enrichment coupled to label-free quantitation can reveal how intracellular and environmental stimuli affect plant survival and fitness through oxidative stress.

  6. Protein Thiols as an Indication of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Rezaei Chianeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thiol is an organic compound that contain sulphhydryl group that have a critical role in preventing any involvement of oxidative stress in the cell. These defensive functions are generally considered to be carried out by the low molecular weight thiol glutathione and by cysteine residues in the active sites of proteins such as thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin. In addition, there are thiols exposed on protein surfaces that are not directly involved with protein function, although they can interact with the intracellular environment.The process of protection of the cell against an oxidative damage occur by thiol and cystein residue that has a low molecular weight. These residue are present in the active sites of a protein like, peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin. Apart from intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism by protein thiol, there are presence of thiol in outer surface of protein that are not involved with the function of protein, even though they can interact with intracellular part of the cell. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 443-456

  7. The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2003-05-30

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases. PMID:12626517

  8. Sequential thiol click reactions: formation of ternary thiourethane/thiol-ene networks with enhanced thermal and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Olivia D; Brent, Davis P; Sparks, Bradley J; Patton, Derek L; Savin, Daniel A

    2014-05-14

    We report the physical properties of thiol-ene networks modified with thiourethane or urethane linkages, either along the main chain or as a branched component in the network, respectively. Because of the robust and orthogonal nature of thiol-isocyanate and thiol-ene reactions, these networks can be formed in a two-step, one-pot synthesis. Resultant networks were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis, mechanical testing and other complementary techniques. It was found that incorporating (thio)urethanes into the networks increased Tg, but also increased strain at break and toughness while decreasing cross-link density. The changes in physical properties are discussed in terms of a proposed dual network morphology. These facile modifications to thiol-ene networks demonstrate how molecular-level, nanoscale changes can have a profound influence on the macroscale properties through hierarchical development of network morphology. PMID:24571167

  9. Evidence for the participation of Cys558 and Cys559 at the active site of mercuric reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercuric reductase, with FAD and a reducible disulfide at the active site, catalyzes the two-electron reduction of Hg(II) by NADPH. Addition of reducing equivalents rapidly produces a spectrally distinct EH2 form of the enzyme containing oxidized FAD and reduced active site thiols. Formation of EH2 has previously been reported to require only 2 electrons for reduction of the active site disulfide. The authors present results of anaerobic titrations of mercuric reductase with NADPH and dithionite showing that the equilibrium conversion of oxidized enzyme to EH2 actually requires 2 equiv of reducing agent or 4 electrons. Kinetic studies conducted both at 4 degree C and at 25 degree C indicate that reduction of the active site occurs rapidly, as previously reported; this is followed by a slower reduction of another redox group via reaction with the active site. [14C]Iodoacetamide labeling experiments demonstrate that the C-terminal residues, Cys558 and Cys559, are involved in this disulfide. The fluorescence, but not the absorbance, of the enzyme-bound FAD was found to be highly dependent on the redox state of the C-terminal thiols. Thus, Eox with Cys558 and Cys559 as thiols exhibits less than 50% of the fluorescence of Eox where these residues are present as a disulfide, indicating that the thiols remain intimately associated with the active site. Initial velociiated with the active site. Initial velocity measurements show that the auxiliary disulfide must be reduced before catalytic Hg(II) reduction can occur, consistent with the report of a preactivation phenomenon with NADPH or cysteine. A modified minimal catalytic mechanism is proposed as well as several chemical mechanisms for the Hg(II) reduction step

  10. Self-assembled monolayers of rigid thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, A; Kang, J F; Shnidman, Y; Liao, S; Jordan, R; Choi, G Y; Zaccaro, J; Myerson, A S; Rafailovich, M; Sokolov, J; Fleischer, C

    2000-09-01

    The preparation, structure, properties and applications of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of rigid 4-mercapto-biphenyls are briefly reviewed. The rigid character of the biphenyl moiety results in a molecular dipole moment that affects both the adsorption kinetics on gold surfaces, as well as the equilibrium structure of mixed SAMs. Due to repulsive intermolecular interaction, the Langmuir isotherm model does not fit the adsorption kinetics of these biphenyl thiols, and a new Ising model was developed to fit the kinetics data. The equilibrium structures of SAMs and mixed SAMs depend on the polarity of the solution from which they were assembled. Infrared spectroscopy suggests that biphenyl moieties in SAMs on gold have small tilt angles with respect to the surfaces normal. Wetting studies shows that surfaces of these SAMs are stable for months, thus providing stable model surfaces that can be engineered at the molecular level. Such molecular engineering is important for nucleation and growth studies. The morphology of glycine crystals grown on SAM surfaces depends on the structure of the nucleating glycine layer, which, in turn, depends on the H-bonding of these molecules with the SAM surface. Finally, the adhesion of PDMS cross-linked networks to SAM surfaces depends on the concentration of interfacial H-bonding. This non-linear relationship suggests that the polymeric nature of the elastomer results in a collective H-bonding effect. PMID:11143796

  11. Acetaminophen reactive intermediates target hepatic thioredoxin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Heck, Diane E; Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Gardner, Carol R; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2014-05-19

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is metabolized in the liver to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), an electrophilic metabolite known to bind liver proteins resulting in hepatotoxicity. Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a cellular antioxidant containing selenocysteine (Sec) in its C-terminal redox center, a highly accessible target for electrophilic modification. In the present study, we determined if NAPQI targets TrxR. Hepatotoxicity induced by APAP treatment of mice (300 mg/kg, i.p.) was associated with a marked inhibition of both cytosolic TrxR1 and mitochondrial TrxR2 activity. Maximal inhibition was detected at 1 and 6 h post-APAP for TrxR1 and TrxR2, respectively. In purified rat liver TrxR1, enzyme inactivation was correlated with the metabolic activation of APAP by cytochrome P450, indicating that enzyme inhibition was due to APAP-reactive metabolites. NAPQI was also found to inhibit TrxR1. NADPH-reduced TrxR1 was significantly more sensitive to NAPQI (IC50 = 0.023 ?M) than the oxidized enzyme (IC50 = 1.0 ?M) or a human TrxR1 Sec498Cys mutant enzyme (IC50 = 17 ?M), indicating that cysteine and selenocysteine residues in the redox motifs of TrxR are critical for enzyme inactivation. This is supported by our findings that alkylation of reduced TrxR with biotin-conjugated iodoacetamide, which selectively reacts with selenol or thiol groups on proteins, was inhibited by NAPQI. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed that NAPQI modified cysteine 59, cysteine 497, and selenocysteine 498 residues in the redox centers of TrxR, resulting in enzyme inhibition. In addition to disulfide reduction, TrxR is also known to mediate chemical redox cycling. We found that menadione redox cycling by TrxR was markedly less sensitive to NAPQI than disulfide reduction, suggesting that TrxR mediates these reactions via distinct mechanisms. These data demonstrate that APAP-reactive metabolites target TrxR, suggesting an additional mechanism by which APAP induces oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. PMID:24661219

  12. Molecular modeling, structural analysis and identification of ligand binding sites of trypanothione reductase from Leishmania mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Ozal Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Trypanothione reductase (TR) is a member of FAD-dependent NADPH oxidoreductase protein family and it is a key enzyme which connects the NADPH and the thiol-based redox system. Inhibition studies indicate that TR is an essential enzyme for parasite survival. Therefore, it is an attractive target enzyme for novel drug candidates. There is no structural model for TR of Leishmania mexicana (LmTR) in the protein databases. In this work, 3D structure of TR from L. mexicana ...

  13. Comparison of concentration changes in nonprotein SH-groups, reduced glutathione and glutathione reductase activity in some radioprotection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration dynamics of nonprotein SH-groups, reduced glutathione, and glutathione reductase activity were compared in different rat tissues in the course of the first hour following intraperitoneal administration of radioprotectively effective doses of cystamine or of a combination of cystamine with mexamine. The results obtained confirmed the participation of endogenous reduced glutathione in the radioprotective effect of cystamine in the rat organism, showing, however, that the increase in the concentration of reduced glutathione alone does not explain the total concentration increase of nonprotein thiols after the administration of radioprotective agents. With respect to the increase in the concentration of both SH-groups and reduced glutathione, the observed reduction in glutathione reductase activity may be due to the action of the regulatory mechanism. (author)

  14. Measurements of glutathione and other thiols in cells and tissues: a simplified procedure based on the HPLC separation of monobromobimane derivatives of thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there is intense interest in the role of thiols in controlling the efficiency of radiosensitizers, and in developing thiols (or pro-drugs liberating thiols) as radioprotectors, there is little information regarding the concentration of specific thiols in cells, tumors and normal tissues. Details are presented of a modified procedure using the thiol binding agent monobromobimane with separation using paired-ion reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This method has been extended to include measurements of the radiosensitizer misonidazole and its desmethylated metabolite Ro 05-9963 in tissues

  15. Thiol-disulfide proteins of stallion epididymal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G M; López, M L; Ferreira, A T S; Chapeaurouge, D A; Rodrigues, A; Perales, J; Retamal, C A

    2014-02-01

    Thiol groups of cysteine residues represent redox centers involved in multiple biological functions. It has been postulated that changes in the redox status of mammalian epididymal spermatozoa contribute to the sperm maturation process. The present work shows the thiol-disulfide protein profile of stallion epididymal spermatozoa achieved by two-dimension electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry of proteins labeled with a thiol-reactive fluorescent tag, monobromobimane. Our results have shown the formation of disulfide bonds in several sperm protein fractions during the epididymal maturation process. The majority of the oxidized thiol sperm proteins identified correspond to structural molecules of the flagellum (as the outer dense fiber-1 protein - ODF1), followed by glycolytic enzymes (as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase spermatogenic), antioxidant protectors (as glutathione S-transferase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase - PHGPx). The magnitude of the thiol oxidation differs between proteins, and was more drastic in polypeptides with molecular weights of up to 33kDa, identified as ODF1 and PHGPx. A kinase anchor protein, a voltage-dependent anion channel protein and a zona pellucida-binding protein were also found in the polypeptide samples that contained oxidized SH groups. These proteins may be modified or controlled by the mechanisms involved in the cysteine-redox changes, corroborating the belief that a correct degree of protein oxidation is required for the stabilization of sperm structure, protection against oxidative damage, induction of progressive sperm motility and fertilization. PMID:24418125

  16. Protection by thiols against poisoning by radiomimetic agents. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of reports of studies aimed at detecting a protective effect of thiols against radiomimetic alkylating agents such as those used in cancer therapy (nitrogen mustards (HN2), sarcolysine, busulfan, etc.). Protection by thiols against alkylating agents has been observed in mammals, plant cells, bacteria, isolated mammalian cells and in model systems. The lack of correlation between the protective power of various thiols against radiomimetic agents and ionizing radiations indicates that different mechanisms are involved. Studies have been made of the toxicity of the protector and the competition factor, increased excretion of detoxication products of alkylating agents, decreased alkylation of DNA and RNA both in vivo and in vitro, the protection of hematopoietic tissues, tumours and the adrenal cortex, and the modification of the effects of nitrosoalkylamines, carbon tetrachloride and fungistatics by thiols. The restriction of DNA alkylation by the competitive removal of radiomimetic agents is thought to account for the protective effect of thiols against radiomimetic agents. (U.K.)

  17. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

  18. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used...

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on thiol compounds in grapefruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 60Co ?-irradiation on thiol compounds in grapefruit was investigated. Thiols were separated by HPLC and measured with a fluorescence detector. Reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine (CySH), cysteinylglycine (CySGly), and a number of unknown peaks were observed in unirradiated grapefruit. GSH was the main thiol at an average concentration of 143.3 ?M. GSH content exponentially decreased with increased radiation doses, and after 100 krad only 80% of the original remained. The G value based on the result of 100 krad was 0.29. Authentic GSH in water or citrate buffer (pH 3) was converted mainly to its oxidized form (GSSG) with ?-irradiation. GSSG in irradiated grapefruits showed no equivalent increase, however. (author)

  20. Effect of thiol group on the curing process of alkaline developable photo-resists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosensitivity of a conventional radical photo-initiator in an alkaline developable photoresist is boosted by substitution with a thiol group. Evidence is presented that the thiol group acts via chain transfer mechanism

  1. Surface functionalized thiol-ene waveguides for ?uorescence biosensing in micro?uidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2013-01-01

    Thiol-ene polymers possess physical, optical, and chemical characteristics thatmake them ideal substrates for the fabrication of optofluidic devices. In this work, thiol-ene polymers are used to simultaneously create microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in one simple moulding step. The reactive functional groups present at the surface of the thiol-ene polymer are subsequently used for the rapid, one step, site-specific functionalization of the waveguide with biological recognition molecules. It was found that while the bulk properties and chemical surface properties of thiol-ene materials vary considerably with variations in stoichiometric composition, their optical properties remain mostly unchanged with an average refractive index value of 1.566 ± 0.008 for thiol-ene substrates encompassing a range from 150% excess ene to 90% excess thiol. Microfluidic chips featuring thiol-ene waveguides were fabricated from 40% excess thiol thiol-ene to ensure the presence of thiol functional groups at the surface of the waveguide. Biotin alkyne was photografted at specific locations using a photomask, directly at the interface between the microfluidic channel and the thiol-ene waveguide prior to conjugation with fluorescently labeled streptavidin. Fluorescence excitation was achieved by launching light through the thiol-ene waveguide, revealing bright fluorescent patterns along the channel/waveguide interface

  2. Structure and interactions in ?-crystallin probed through thiol group reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipa Saha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available a-Crystallin is the major structural protein of eye lens of vertebrates. In human lens, the ratio of aA-crystallin to aB-crystallin was found to be 3:1. aA-Crystallin contains two cysteine residues at positions 131 and 142, which are at the junction between the a-crystallin domain and the C-terminal tail. We used the accessibility of the thiol groups by Ellman’s reagent (DTNB as a tool to gain information about the various structural perturbations of hinge region of a-crystallin and during the binding with substrates. In the native condition, the cys-142 though reacted quite fast was not fully exposed. Several reagents were used to see the accessibility of cys-131. Rate constant for cys-131 was increased gradually with increase in the concentration of reagents. The bindings of substrates are affected by the accessibility of thiol indicating that the substrates bind to the hinge region of a-crystallin. By blocking of cys-142, it was observed that the accessibility of one thiol depends on the other thiol, and they are not independent. The hinge region of a-crystallin is very important as substrate binding site and from this study we have got various structural information about that region.

  3. Preparation of Novel Hydrolyzing Urethane Modified Thiol-Ene Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget S. Confait

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel tetra-functional hydrolyzing monomers were prepared from the reaction of TEOS and select alkene-containing alcohols, ethylene glycol vinyl ether or 2-allyloxy ethanol, and combined with trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate (tri-thiol in a thiol-ene “click” polymerization reaction to produce clear, colorless thiol-ene networks using both radiation and thermal-cure techniques. These networks were characterized for various mechanical characteristics, and found to posses Tg’s (DSC, hardness, tack, and thermal stability (TGA consistent with their molecular structures. A new ene-modified urethane oligomer was prepared based on the aliphatic polyisocyanate Desmodur® N 3600 and added to the thiol-ene hydrolyzable network series in increasing amounts, creating a phase-segregated material having two Tg’s. An increase in water absorption in the ene-modified urethane formulations leading to a simultaneous increase in the rate of hydrolysis was supported by TGA data, film hardness measurements, and an NMR study of closely related networks. This phenomenon was attributed to the additional hydrogen bonding elements and polar functionality brought to the film with the addition of the urethane segment. SEM was utilized for visual analysis of topographical changes in the film’s surface upon hydrolysis and provides support for surface-driven erosion. Coatings prepared in this study are intended for use as hydrolyzing networks for marine coatings to protect against ship fouling.

  4. Tumor rejection in experimental animals treated with radioprotective thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experimental animals, a systemic treatment with thiols of the mercaptoalkylamine type has affected all of five solid tumors so far investigated. There was either inhibition of growth or ''oncodieresis,'' i.e., a necrosis and sloughing of tumors conducive to full recovery and repair. Mercaptoalkylamines and derivatives of the type used in our experiments are known to bind to cellular sites by a two-point attachment involving both thiol and amino groups. One of these compounds, cysteamine, was active in its native, unsubstituted form, but did not bring about oncodieresis when either the amino or thiol group, or both, were alkylated. Mercaptopropylamine, the 3-carbon homolog of cysteamine, was less active. Cystamine, a disulfide dimer of cysteamine that has no free reactive sulfhydryl, did not induce any reaction. Thioglycerol, lacking a terminal amino group, had only negligible activity. Rejection was much more striking when treatment was started on the day of inoculation than when started 7 days later. Male mice rejected better than females. Results were inferior when two of the agents were given simultaneously or together with other radioprotectants, such as L-cysteine, glutathione, dimethyl sulfoxide, or reserpine. Tumor rejection was enhanced when the phosphorylated thiols, S- 2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid or S-(2-ethylguanidine)phosphorothioic acid, were given simultaneously with the radioprotective serotonin, but there was no synergy of serotootonin, but there was no synergy of serotonin with the nonphosphorylated compounds S-2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide or cysteamine. Serotonin alone did not affect the tumors. (U.S.)

  5. Production of dithioselenides from thiols and selenium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have established that the slow addition of a methanol solution of selenium dioxide to solutions of thiols in dioxane (molar ratio 2:1) leads to the formation of the corresponding thioselenides without side compounds. Under the influence of bases, light, or heat above 1500C these compounds eliminate amorphous selenium and are converted quantitatively into the known disulfides

  6. Fabrication of resonant subwavelength grating based on thiol-ene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling; Shi, Lifang; Li, Zhiwei; Pang, Hui; Zhang, Yukun; Yu, Jinqing; Hu, Song

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an approach used to fabricate resonant subwavelength grating based on thiol-ene material. First of all, polydimethylsiloxane soft imprint stamp with opposite structure of the subwavelength grating master mold is made by casting. Then, the desired subwavelength grating with UV-curable thiol-ene material grating structure is fabricated using the polydimethylsioxane soft stamp by UV-curable soft-lithography. Here, we fabricate a subwavelength grating with period of 300nm using the approach, which could reflect blue light with wavelength ranging from 448nm to 482nm at a specific angle and presents the excellent resonant characteristic. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation results, demonstrating that the approach proposed in this paper could effectively fabricate the thiol-ene material resonant subwavelength grating structure. The thiol-ene material is a new green UV-curable polymer material, including a number of advantages such as rapid UV-curing in the natural environment, low-cost, high resolution, and regulative performance characteristic. The fabrication technique in this paper is simple, low-cost, and easy to high throughput, which has broad application prospects in the preparation of micro and nano structures.

  7. The kinetics of thiol-mediated decomposition of S-nitrosothiols

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Teh-min; Chou, Ta-chuan

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of sulfhydryl (SH)-containing molecules (thiols) with S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) has been shown to be of biological importance. Biologically or therapeutically relevant thiols generally have a pKa value ranging from 8 to 10 for the SH group. In addition, some, of these thiols contain a carboxyl group and are acidic, which should be considered in studying the reaction between RSNO and thiols. In the present study, the kinetics of thiol-mediated decomposition of RSNO was investigated i...

  8. Rapid photochemical surface patterning of proteins in thiol-ene based microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw

    2013-01-01

    The suitable optical properties of thiol–ene polymers combined with the ease of modifying their surface for the attachment of recognition molecules make them ideal candidates in many biochip applications. This paper reports the rapid one-step photochemical surface patterning of biomolecules in microfluidic thiol–ene chips. This work focuses on thiol–ene substrates featuring an excess of thiol groups at their surface. The thiol–ene stoichiometric composition can be varied to precisely control the number of surface thiol groups available for surface modification up to an average surface density of 136 ! 17 SH nm"2. Biotin alkyne was patterned directly inside thiol–ene microchannels prior to conjugation with fluorescently labelled streptavidin. The surface bound conjugates were detected by evanescent waveinduced fluorescence (EWIF), demonstrating the success of the grafting procedure and its potential for biochip applications.

  9. Aldo-Keto Reductases in the Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanuprakesh Reddy, G.; Mark Petrash, J.; Theresa Harter; Ross Arjun Varma; Philip Ruzycki; Suryanarayana Palla; Shun Ping Huang

    2010-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AKR1B1) is an NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase best known as the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway. Accelerated glucose metabolism through this pathway has been implicated in diabetic cataract and retinopathy. Some human tissues contain AKR1B1 as well as AKR1B10, a closely related member of the aldo-keto reductase gene superfamily. This opens the possibility that AKR1B10 may also contribute to diabetic complications. The goal of the current study was to character...

  10. Induction Curing of Thiol-acrylate and Thiolene Composite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B.; Stevens, Blake E.; Sani, Robert L.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Induction curing is demonstrated as a novel type of in situ radiation curing that maintains most of the advantages of photocuring while eliminating the restriction of light accessibility. Induction curing is utilized to polymerize opaque composites comprised of thiol-acrylate and thiol-ene resins, nanoscale magnetic particles, and carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale magnetic particles are dispersed in the resin and upon exposure to the magnetic field, these particles lead to induction heating that rapidly initiates the polymerization. Heat transfer profiles and reaction kinetics of the samples are modeled during the reactions with varying induction heater power, species concentration, species type and sample thickness, and the model is compared with the experimental results. Thiol-ene polymerizations achieved full conversion between 1.5 minutes and 1 hour, depending on the field intensity and the composition, with the maximum reaction temperature decreasing from 146 – 87 °C when the induction heater power was decreased from 8 – 3 kW. The polymerization reactions of the thiol-acrylate system were demonstrated to achieve full conversion between 0.6 and 30 minutes with maximum temperatures from 139 to 86 °C. The experimental behavior was characterized and the temperature profile modeled for the thiol-acrylate composite comprised of sub100nm nickel particles and induction heater power in the range of 32 to 20 kW. A 9°C average deviation was observed between the modeling and experimental results for the maximum temperature rise. The model also was utilized to predict reaction temperatures and kinetics for systems with varying thermal initiator concentration, initiator half-life, monomer molecular weight and temperature gradients in samples with varying thickness, thereby demonstrating that induction curing represents a designable and tunable polymerization method. Finally, induction curing was utilized to cure thiol-acrylate systems containing carbon nanotubes where 1 wt% carbon nanotubes resulted in systems where the storage modulus increased from 17.6 ± 0.2 to 21.6 ± 0.1 MPa and an electrical conductivity that increased from <10?7 to 0.33 ± 0.5 S/m. PMID:21765552

  11. Adsorption of Dissolved Metals in the Berkeley Pit using Thiol-Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (Thiol-SAMMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley Pit in Butte, Montana, is heavily contaminated with dissolved metals. Adsorption and extraction of these metals can be accomplished through the use of a selective adsorbent. For this research, the adsorbent used was thiol-functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (thiol-SAMMS), which was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Thiol-SAMMS selectively binds to numerous types of dissolved metals. The objective of this research was to evaluate the loading and kinetics of aluminum, beryllium, copper, and zinc on thiol-SAMMS. For the loading tests, a series of Berkeley Pit water to thiol-SAMMS ratios (mL:g) were tested. These ratios were 1000:1, 500:1, 100:1, and 50:1. Berkeley Pit water is acidic (pH ? 2.5). This can affect the performance of SAMMS materials. Therefore, the effect of pH was evaluated by conducting parallel series of loading tests wherein the Berkeley Pit water was neutralized before or after addition of thiol-SAMMS, and a series of kinetics tests wherein the Berkeley Pit water was neutralized before addition of thiol-SAMMS for the first test and was not neutralized for the second test. For the kinetics tests, one Berkeley Pit water to thiol-SAMMS ratio was tested, which was 2000:1. The results of the loading and kinetics tests suggest that a significant decrease in dissolved metal concentration at Berkeley Pit could be realized through neutralization of Berkeley Pit water. Thiol-SAMMS technology has y Pit water. Thiol-SAMMS technology has a limited application under the highly acidic conditions posed by the Berkeley Pit. However, thiol-SAMMS could provide a secondary remedial technique which would complete the remedial system and remove dissolved metals from the Berkeley Pit to below drinking water standards.

  12. Fluorescence detection of glutathione reductase activity based on deoxyribonucleic acid-templated silver nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuyun; Zhao, Xian-en; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhongyuan; Qi, Wenjing; Anjum, Saima; Xu, Guobao

    2013-07-01

    Fluorescent silver nanoclusters stabilized by DNA (DNA-AgNCs) exhibit distinct response rates to thiol and disulfide. Glutathione reductase can catalyze the reduction of the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) quickly to reduced glutathione (GSH) in the presence of ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate (NADPH). Consequently, DNA-AgNCs can serve as a new fluorescent platform for assaying the glutathione reductase (GR) activity. This newly proposed assay has a high sensitivity and a good selectivity toward GR. The GR activity can be detected in the range of 0.2-2.0 mU mL(-1) with a minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 mU mL(-1). Pepsin, lysozyme, trypsin, avidin, thrombin, myoglobin, and BSA have little effect on the fluorescence intensity of DNA-AgNCs. The GR activity assay is successfully used to monitor the inhibition of GR activity by a typical inhibitor 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. PMID:23790299

  13. Functional graphene by thiol-ene click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Nguyen Dang; Sinh, Le Hoang; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Campell, Joseph; Seppälä, Jukka

    2015-02-16

    Thiol-ene click reaction was successfully employed for chemical modification of graphene oxide (GO) by one-step synthesis. Herein, 2,2-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) was used as thermal catalyst and cysteamine hydrochloride (HS-(CH2 )2 -NH2 HCl) was used as thiol-containing compound, which is incorporated to GO surface upon reaction with the C=C bonds. The hydrochloride acts as protecting group for the amine, which is finally eliminated by adding sodium hydroxide. The modified GO contains both S- and N-containing groups (NS-GO). We found that NS-GO sheets form good dispersion in water, ethanol, and ethylene glycol. These graphene dispersions can be processed into functionalized graphene film. Besides, it was demonstrated that NS-GO was proved to be an excellent host matrix for platinum nanoparticles. The developed method paves a new way for graphene modification and its functional nanocomposites. PMID:25580698

  14. Activities of Bismuth Thiols against Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico, Philip; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Schoch, Paul E.; Kaehler, Kristina; Sasatsu, Masanori; Cunha, Burke A.

    2001-01-01

    Indwelling medical devices are associated with infectious complications. Incorporating antimicrobials into indwelling materials may reduce bacterial colonization. Bismuth thiols are antibiofilm agents with up to 1,000-fold-greater antibacterial activity than other bismuth salts. Staphylococci are particularly sensitive, as determined by agar diffusion and broth dilution susceptibility testing. Bismuth-ethanedithiol inhibited 10 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains at 0.9 t...

  15. Investigation of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticle sensors for gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jared S.

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air and exhaled breath by sensor array is a very useful testing technique. It can provide non-invasive, fast, inexpensive testing for many diseases. Breath analysis has been very successful in identifying cancer and other diseases by using a chemiresistor sensor or array with gold nanoparticles to detect biomarkers. Acetone is a biomarker for diabetes and having a portable testing device could help to monitor diabetic and therapeutic progress. An advantage to this testing method is it is conducted at room temperature instead of 200 degrees Celsius. 3. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticles based on sensor(s) detection of VOCs. The VOCs to be tested are acetone, ethanol, and a mixture of acetone and ethanol. Each chip is tested under all three VOCs and three concentration levels (0.1, 1, and 5.0 ppm). VOC samples are used to test the sensors' ability to detect and differentiate VOCs. Sensors (also referred to as a chip) are prepared using several types of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticles. The factors are: thiol compound and molar volume loading of the thiol in synthesis. The average resistance results are used to determine the VOC selectivity of the sensors tested. The results show a trend of increasing resistance as VOC concentration is increased relative to dry air; which is used as baseline for VOCs. Several sensors show a high selectivity to one or more VOCs. Overall the 57 micromoles of 4-methoxy-toluenethiol sensor shows the strongest selectivity for VOCs tested. 3. Gerfen, Kurt. 2012. Detection of Acetone in Air Using Silver Ion Exchanged ZSM-5 and Zinc Oxide Sensing Films. Master of Science thesis, University of Louisville.

  16. 5?-Reductase Isozymes in the Prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Sun, Guang-huan

    2005-01-01

    5?-reductases convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). There are two 5?-reductase isozymes, type 1 and type 2 in humans and animals. Mutations in type 2 isozyme with decreased enzymatic activity cause male pseudohermaphroditism. The affected 46XY individuals have high normal or elevated plasma testosterone levels with low normal or decreased DHT levels, resulting in an elevated testosterone/DHT ratios. They are born with ambiguous external genitalia and normal Wolffian differentia...

  17. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in human erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, G. C.; Harris, S. C.; Phang, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, which converts pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline, has been identified in human erythrocytes. The level of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity in these cells is comparable to the activity levels of major erythrocyte enzymes. The physiologic function of the enzyme in erythrocytes cannot be related to its function in other tissues, i.e., producing proline for protein synthesis. We examined the kinetic properties of erythrocyte pyrroline-5-carboxylate re...

  18. Identification of the thiol ester lipids in apolipoprotein B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human plasma low-density lipoproteins of 1.032-1.043 g/mL density were totally delipidized. The reduced and carboxymethylated apolipoprotein B was incubated with 50 mM [14C] methylamine at pH 8.5 at 30 0C. Covalent incorporation of [14C] methylamine was observed with concomitant generation of new sulfhydryl groups, which could be blocked with [3H]- or [14C]iodoacetic acid. One type of the [14C] methylamine-modified products was separated from the protein and was found to be lipid in nature. Its R/sub f/ on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was similar to that of the synthetic N-methyl fatty acyl amides. After purification with TLC and transesterification in 3 N methanolic HCl, methyl esters of C16 and C18 fatty acids at 1:1 ratio were identified by gas-liquid chromatography. The transesterification method was verified with the known N-methyl fatty acyl amides. These results suggest the presence of labile thiol ester linked palmitate and stearate in apolipoprotein B. Under mild alkaline conditions, the thiol ester bonds are broken by methylamine and form N-methyl fatty acyl amides and release new -SH groups. Intramolecular thiol ester bonds linked between cysteine side chains and acidic amino acid residues were also found present, which will be reported separately

  19. Tailored thiol-functional polyamides: synthesis and functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommer, Stefan; Keul, Helmut; Möller, Martin

    2014-12-01

    In this article, a synthetic concept for the preparation of polyamides with functional side groups is described. First, the synthesis of a bis(thiolactone) monomer is shown in a concise three-step route from itaconic acid and DL-homocysteine thiolactone. The reactivity of the resulting bis(thiolactone) toward hexyl amine is examined. Next, the bis(thiolactone) is reacted as A,A-type monomer with different B,B-type comonomers (1,12-diaminododecane and 1,3-bis(aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane). Ring opening of the thiolactones by the diamines leads to polyamides with pendant thiol groups. Using two diamines in different ratios, the properties of the resulting polyamides are tuned (thermal properties are determined) and different molecular weights are acquired. Subsequently, the thiol groups are reacted with methyl acrylate via Michael addition to functionalize the polyamides. Functionalization of thiol-functional polyamides using poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (mPEG) acrylates (Mn = 480 and 1700 g mol(-1) ) results in water-soluble amphiphilic poly-amides with molecular weights higher than 10,000 g mol(-1) . PMID:25257791

  20. Analytical detection of biological thiols in a microchip capillary channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Rohit; Jha, Sandeep Kumar; Islam, Kamrul; Han, Dawoon; Shin, Ik-Soo; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2013-02-15

    Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as cysteine and homocysteine play crucial roles in biological systems for the diagnosis of medical states. In this regard, this paper deals with separation, aliquot and detection of amino thiols on a microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection in an inverted double Y-shaped microchannel. Unlike the conventional capillary electrophoresis, the modified microchannel design helps in storing the separated thiols in different reservoirs for further analysis, if required; and also eliminates the need of electrodes regeneration. The device was fabricated using conventional photolithographic technique which consisted of gold microelectrodes on a soda lime glass wafer and microchannels in PDMS mold. Multiple detections were performed using in-house fabricated dual potentiostat. Based on amperometric detection, cysteine and homocysteine were analyzed in 105 s and 120 s, respectively after diverting in branched channels. Repeated experiments proved the good reproducibility of the device. The device produced a linear response for both cysteine and homocysteine in electrochemical analysis. To prove the practicality of device, we also analyzed cysteine and homocysteine in real blood samples without any pre-treatment. Upon calculation, the device showed a very low limit of detection of 0.05 ?M. The modified microchip design shall find a broad range of analytical applications involving assays of thiols and other biological compounds. PMID:22940195

  1. Comparative proteomics profiling of a gentamicin-attenuated Leishmania infantum cell line identifies key changes in parasite thiol-redox metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Hamid; Wyllie, Susan; Phillips, Stephen; Hagan, Paul; Burchmore, Richard

    2012-02-16

    We have previously described an attenuated line of Leishmania infantum (H-line), selected by culturing promastigotes in vitro in the presence of gentamicin. To elucidate the molecular basis for this attenuation, we undertook a comparative proteomic analysis using multiplex 2-dimensional (2D) difference gel electrophoresis. Eighteen proteins that showed significant and reproducible changes in expression were identified. Many of these were components of the thiol-redox control system in Leishmania and this observation, validated by Western blot, prompted us to investigate the sensitivity of the attenuated line to oxidative stress. The attenuated line was found to be significantly more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide, a change which may explain the loss of virulence. In a direct assay of trypanothione-dependent peroxidase activity, hydrogen peroxide metabolism in the H-line was significantly lower than in wild type. Furthermore, trypanothione reductase activity was significantly lower in the H-line, suggesting that gentamicin selection may result in pleiotropic affects on thiol metabolism in Leishmania. A putative RNA-binding protein was very strongly up-regulated in the attenuated line, suggesting a possible target for gentamicin in Leishmania. PMID:22154982

  2. A fluorescent probe which allows highly specific thiol labeling at low pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas W.; Jensen, Kristine Steen

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the thiol-disulfide status in biological systems is challenging as redox pools are easily perturbed during sample preparation. This is particularly pertinent under neutral to mildly alkaline conditions typically required for alkylation of thiols. Here we describe the synthesis and properties of a thiol-specific reagent, fluorescent cyclic activated disulfide (FCAD), which includes the fluorescein moiety as fluorophore and utilizes a variation of thiol-disulfide exchange chemistry. The leaving-group character of FCAD makes it reactive at pH 3, allowing modification at low pH, limiting thiol-disulfide exchange. Different applications are demonstrated including picomolar thiol detection, determination of redox potentials, and in-gel detection of labeled proteins.

  3. Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raasch, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

  4. Photogenerated Lectin Sensors Produced by Thiol-Ene/Yne Photo-Click Chemistry in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Oscar; Lee, Irene H.; Aastrup, Teodor; Yan, Mingdi; Ramstro?m, Olof

    2012-01-01

    The photoinitiated radical reactions between thiols and alkenes/alkynes (thiol-ene and thiol-yne chemistry) have been applied to a functionalization methodology to produce carbohydrate-presenting surfaces for analyses of biomolecular interactions. Polymer-coated quartz surfaces were functionalized with alkenes or alkynes in a straightforward photochemical procedure utilizing perfluorophenylazide (PFPA) chemistry. The alkene/alkyne surfaces were subsequently allowed to react with carbohydrate ...

  5. Solvent-Free Synthesis and Fluorescence of a Thiol-Reactive Sensor for Undergraduate Organic Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Anastasia L.; May, Mary D.; Visser, Bryan J.; Kislukhin, Alexander A.; Vosburg, David A.

    2013-01-01

    A green organic laboratory experiment was developed in which students synthesize a sensor for thiols using a microscale, solventless Diels–Alder reaction at room temperature or 37 °C. The molecular probe is easily purified by column chromatography in a Pasteur pipet and characterized by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. The thiol-reactive sensor becomes intensely fluorescent upon exposure to thiols from N-acetylcysteine, bovine serum albumin, or human hair (pretreated with a ...

  6. In vivo modulation of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, reductase kinase, and reductase kinase kinase by mevalonolactone.

    OpenAIRE

    Beg, Z. H.; Stonik, J. A.; Brewer, H. B.

    1984-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that the enzymic activity of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; EC 1.1.1.34) is modulated in vitro and in vivo by a bicyclic cascade system involving reversible phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase and reductase kinase. In the present study, administration of mevalonolactone to rats caused a rapid inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The initial short-term (20-min) reversible inhibition (38%) of enzyme activit...

  7. Organized surface functional groups: cooperative catalysis via thiol/sulfonic acid pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margelefsky, Eric L; Zeidan, Ryan K; Dufaud, Véronique; Davis, Mark E

    2007-11-01

    The synthesis and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts containing surfaces functionalized with discrete pairs of sulfonic acid and thiol groups are reported. A catalyst having acid and thiol groups separated by three carbon atoms is ca. 3 times more active than a material containing randomly distributed acid and thiol groups in the condensation of acetone and phenol to bisphenol A and 14 times more active in the condensation of cyclohexanone and phenol to bisphenol Z. Increasing the acid/thiol distance in the paired materials decreases both the activity and selectivity. This work clearly reveals the importance of nanoscale organization of two disparate functional groups on the surface of heterogeneous catalysts. PMID:17929925

  8. Evaluation of Nitrate Reductase Activity in Rhizobium japonicum†

    OpenAIRE

    Streeter, John G.; Devine, Paul J.

    1983-01-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase.

  9. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe-S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  10. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  11. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with [14C]iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined

  12. A Mycothiol Synthase Mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis Produces Novel Thiols and Has an Altered Thiol Redox Status

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Gerald L.; Ta, Philong; Fahey, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacteria and other actinomycetes do not produce glutathione but make mycothiol (MSH; AcCys-GlcN-Ins) that has functions similar to those of glutathione and is essential for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycothiol synthase (MshD) catalyzes N acetylation of Cys-GlcN-Ins to produce MSH in Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155, and Cys-GlcN-Ins is maintained at a low level. The mycothiol synthase mutant, the mshD::Tn5 mutant, produces high levels of Cys-GlcN-Ins along with two novel thiols, ...

  13. Direct thiol-ene photocoating of polyorganosiloxane microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttner, Christian; Maier, Petra C; Kunert, Carmen; Schlaad, Helmut; Fery, Andreas

    2013-12-31

    This work presents the modification of polyorganosiloxane microparticles by surface-initiated thiol-ene photochemistry. By this photocoating, we prepared different core/shell particles with a polymeric shell within narrow size distributions (PDI = 0.041-0.12). As core particle, we used highly monodisperse spherical polyorganosiloxane particles prepared from (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with a radius of 0.49 ?m. We utilize the high surface coverage of mercaptopropyl functions to generate surface-localized radicals upon irradiation with UVA-light without additional photoinitiator. The continuous generation of radicals was followed by a dye degradation experiment (UV/vis spectroscopy). Surface-localized radicals were used as copolymer anchoring sites ("grafting-onto" deposition of different PB-b-PS diblock copolymers) and polymerization initiators ("grafting-from" polymerization of PS). Photocoated particles were characterized for their morphology (SEM, TEM), size, and size distribution (DLS). For PS-coated particles, the polymer content (up to 24% in 24 h) was controlled by the polymerization time upon UVA exposure. The coating thickness was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) using a simple analytical core/shell model. Raman spectroscopy was applied to directly follow the time-dependent consumption of thiols by photoinitiation. PMID:24320891

  14. Thiol-ene” click chemistry: A facile and versatile route to functionalization of porous polymer monoliths

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yongqin; Lin, Zhixing; Svec, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of porous polymer monoliths with dodecyl and zwitterionic functionalities via the “thiol-ene” click chemistry of thiol-containing monoliths with both hydrophobic and polar methacrylate “ene” monomers has been demonstrated. Selected separations confirmed the excellent potential of these monoliths in chromatography.

  15. The role of thiols in cellular response to radiation and drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biaglow, J.E.; Varnes, M.E.; Clark, E.P.; Epp, E.R.

    1983-09-01

    Cellular nonprotein thiols (NPSH) consist of glutathione (GSH) and other low molecular weight species such as cysteine, cysteamine, and coenzyme A. GSH is usually less than the total cellular NPSH, and with thiol reactive agents, such as diethyl maleate (DEM), its rate of depletion is in part dependent upon the cellular capacity for its resynthesis. If resynthesis is blocked by buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine(BSO), the NPSH, including GSH, is depleted more rapidly, Cellular thiol depletion by diamide, N-ethylmaleimide, and BSO may render oxygenated cells more sensitive to radiation. These cells may or may not show a reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Human A549 lung carcinoma cells depleted of their NPSH either by prolonged culture or by BSO treatment do not show a reduced OER but do show increased aerobic responses to radiation. Some nitroheterocyclic radiosensitizing drugs also deplete cellular thiols under aerobic conditions. Such reactivity may be the reason that they show anomalous radiation sensitization (i.e., better than predicted on the basis of electron affinity). Other nitrocompounds, such as misonidazole, are activated under hypoxic conditions to radical intermediates. When cellular thiols are depleted peroxide is formed. Under hypoxic conditions thiols are depleted because metabolically reduced intermediates react with GSH instead of oxygen. Thiol depletion, under hypoxic conditions, may be the reason that misonidazole and other nitrocompounds show an extra enhancement ratio with hypoxic cells. Thiol depletion by DEM or BSO alters the radiation response of hypoxic cells to misonidazole.

  16. Determination of acidity and nucleophilicity in thiols by reaction with monobromobimane and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Florencia; Manta, Bruno; Portillo-Ledesma, Stephanie; Knoops, Bernard; Comini, Marcelo A; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    A method based on the differential reactivity of thiol and thiolate with monobromobimane (mBBr) has been developed to measure nucleophilicity and acidity of protein and low-molecular-weight thiols. Nucleophilicity of the thiolate is measured as the pH-independent second-order rate constant of its reaction with mBBr. The ionization constants of the thiols are obtained through the pH dependence of either second-order rate constant or initial rate of reaction. For readily available thiols, the apparent second-order rate constant is measured at different pHs and then plotted and fitted to an appropriate pH function describing the observed number of ionization equilibria. For less available thiols, such as protein thiols, the initial rate of reaction is determined in a wide range of pHs and fitted to the appropriate pH function. The method presented here shows excellent sensitivity, allowing the use of nanomolar concentrations of reagents. The method is suitable for scaling and high-throughput screening. Example determinations of nucleophilicity and pK(a) are presented for captopril and cysteine as low-molecular-weight thiols and for human peroxiredoxin 5 and Trypanosoma brucei monothiol glutaredoxin 1 as protein thiols. PMID:23296042

  17. Long-term thiol monitoring in living cells using bioorthogonal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Zhang, Chi; Lei, Qi; Sun, Hua-Ling; Qin, Si-Yong; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular thiols play vital roles in living systems, and their in situ monitoring is of great importance. Here, we report on a bioorthogonal chemistry based fluorescent probe, which is capable of monitoring intracellular thiols in living cells for up to 36 hours with an obvious blue-to-green fluorescence change. PMID:25407796

  18. Thiol-independent activity of a cholesterol-binding enterohemolysin produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueirêdo P.M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemolysin produced by Escherichia coli associated with infant diarrhea showed characteristics similar to those of thiol-activated hemolysins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, including inactivation by cholesterol, lytic activity towards eukaryotic cells and thermoinstability. However, enterohemolysin activity was not inactivated by oxidation or by SH group-blocking agents (1 mM HgCl2, 1 mM iodoacetic acid and the hemolysin (100 µg/ml was not lethal to mice, in contrast to the lethality of the thiol-activated hemolysin family to animals. Earlier reports showed that intravenous injection of partially purified streptolysin O preparations (0.2 µg was rapidly lethal to mice. These results suggest that E. coli enterohemolysin is not a thiol-activated hemolysin, despite its ability to bind cholesterol, probably due to the absence of free thiol-group(s that characterize the active form of the thiol-activated hemolysin molecule.

  19. Combinatorial synthesis and screening of novel odorants such as polyfunctional thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Catherine; Collin, Sonia

    2006-09-01

    Combinatorial chemistry was shown to be an efficient tool for the preparation of new aroma-impact compounds. In this case, polyfunctional thiols were synthesized quickly using halide reagents or Bunte salt intermediates. They were separated by gas chromatography and then characterized using low resolution EI and CI mass spectrometry. The individual sensorial properties of the thiol products (i.e. odor and perception threshold) were determined by GC-O (olfactometry) which uses the human nose as detector. The thiols were characterized based on their particular odors. 3-Methyl-2-buten-1-thiol, a relevant flavor naturally present in beer and coffee, emerged as the most powerful of the thiol library. PMID:17017878

  20. Probing the thiol-gold planar interface by spin polarized tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports of induced magnetism at thiol-gold interface have generated considerable recent interest. In these studies, the sample magnetization was generally measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry which has limitation in determining surface and interface magnetism. In this work, we have fabricated planar tunnel junctions incorporating a thiol-gold interface. An observed room temperature humidity effect together with low temperature inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy confirmed the existence of a thiol-gold interface in the organic-inorganic hybrid heterostructure. Spin polarized tunneling measurements were performed to probe the spin polarization at the thiol-gold interface; however, the obtained spin polarized tunneling spectra indicate no measurable spin polarization at the thiol-gold interface

  1. Tethered bilayer lipid membranes on mixed self-assembled monolayers of a novel anchoring thiol: impact of the anchoring thiol density on bilayer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Hajra; Van der Heyden, Angéline; Gondran, Chantal; Nysten, Bernard; Dumy, Pascal; Labbé, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) are designed on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of a novel synthetic anchoring thiol, 2,3-di-o-palmitoylglycerol-1-tetraethylene glycol mercaptopropanoic acid ester (TEG-DP), and a new short dilution thiol molecule, tetraethylene glycol mercaptopropanoic acid ester (TEG). tBLM formation was accomplished by self-directed fusion of small unilamellar vesicles of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The influence of the dilution of the anchoring thiol molecule in the SAM on the vesicle fusion process and on the properties of the resulting tBLMs is studied. It is observed by quartz crystal microbalance that vesicle fusion is a one-step process for a pure TEG-DP SAM as well as for mixed SAMs containing a high concentration of the anchoring thiol. However, upon dilution of the anchoring thiol to moderate concentrations, this process is decelerated and possibly follows a pathway different from that observed on a pure TEG-DP SAM. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to qualitatively correlate the composition of the SAM to the electrical properties of the tBLM. In this paper we also delineate the necessity of a critical concentration of this anchoring TEG-DP thiol as a requisite for inducing the fusion of vesicles to form a tBLM. PMID:21962085

  2. Isolation and Characterization of cDNAs Encoding Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Anthocyanidin Reductase from Populus trichocarpa

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lijun; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Yuan, Li; Lu, Wanxiang; Yang, Li; Karim, Abdul; Luo, Keming

    2013-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) contribute to poplar defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcripts of PA biosynthetic genes accumulated rapidly in response to infection by the fungus Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi, treatments of salicylic acid (SA) and wounding, resulting in PA accumulation in poplar leaves. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) are two key enzymes of the PA biosynthesis that produce the main subunits: (+)-catechin and (?...

  3. Resolution of oxidative stress by thioredoxin reductase: Cysteine versus selenocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Cunniff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reductase (TR catalyzes the reduction of thioredoxin (TRX, which in turn reduces mammalian typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (PRXs 1–4, thiol peroxidases implicated in redox homeostasis and cell signaling. Typical 2-Cys PRXs are inactivated by hyperoxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine to cysteine-sulfinic acid, and regenerated in a two-step process involving retro-reduction by sulfiredoxin (SRX and reduction by TRX. Here transient exposure to menadione and glucose oxidase was used to examine the dynamics of oxidative inactivation and reactivation of PRXs in mouse C10 cells expressing various isoforms of TR, including wild type cytoplasmic TR1 (Sec-TR1 and mitochondrial TR2 (Sec-TR2 that encode selenocysteine, as well as mutants of TR1 and TR2 in which the selenocysteine codon was changed to encode cysteine (Cys-TR1 or Cys-TR2. In C10 cells endogenous TR activity was insensitive to levels of hydrogen peroxide that hyperoxidize PRXs. Expression of Sec-TR1 increased TR activity, reduced the basal cytoplasmic redox state, and increased the rate of reduction of a redox-responsive cytoplasmic GFP probe (roGFP, but did not influence either the rate of inactivation or the rate of retro-reduction of PRXs. In comparison to roGFP, which was reduced within minutes once oxidants were removed reduction of 2-Cys PRXs occurred over many hours. Expression of wild type Sec-TR1 or Sec-TR2, but not Cys-TR1 or TR2, increased the rate of reduction of PRXs and improved cell survival after menadione exposure. These results indicate that expression levels of TR do not reduce the severity of initial oxidative insults, but rather govern the rate of reduction of cellular factors required for cell viability. Because Sec-TR is completely insensitive to cytotoxic levels of hydrogen peroxide, we suggest TR functions at the top of a redox pyramid that governs the oxidation state of peroxiredoxins and other protein factors, thereby dictating a hierarchy of phenotypic responses to oxidative insults.

  4. Voltammetric, spectroelectrochemical, and electrocatalytic properties of thiol-derivatized phthalocyanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltammetric and spectroelectrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activities of thiol-derivatized phthalocyanine complexes for hydrogen production have been investigated. Voltammetric and spectroelectrochemical measurements show that while cobalt phthalocyanine complexes (CoPc) present well defined metal-based and ring-based redox processes, all other complexes give only ring-based reduction and oxidation processes. The redox processes are generally diffusion-controlled, reversible and one-electron transferred processes. The complexes bearing tetra(acetoxyethylthio) substituents represents aggregation tendency in DCM solution. Cobalt and nickel phthalocyanines are easily electrodeposited on the GCE working electrode during the repeating cycles of positive potentials. Electrocatalytic activities of electrodeposited complexes indicated that CoPc catalyzed the proton reduction via the electro-reduced [CoIPc2-]1- and/or [CoIPc3-]2- species depending on the pH of the aqueous solution

  5. Molecular modeling, structural analysis and identification of ligand binding sites of trypanothione reductase from Leishmania mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozal Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trypanothione reductase (TR is a member of FAD-dependent NADPH oxidoreductase protein family and it is a key enzyme which connects the NADPH and the thiol-based redox system. Inhibition studies indicate that TR is an essential enzyme for parasite survival. Therefore, it is an attractive target enzyme for novel drug candidates. There is no structural model for TR of Leishmania mexicana (LmTR in the protein databases. In this work, 3D structure of TR from L. mexicana was identified by template-based in silico homology modeling method, resultant model was validated, structurally analyzed and possible ligand binding pockets were identified. Methods: For computational molecular modeling study, firstly, template was identified by BLAST search against PDB database. Multiple alignments were achieved by ClustalW2. Molecular modeling of LmTR was done and possible drug targeting sites were identified. Refinement of the model was done by performing local energy minimization for backbone, hydrogen and side chains. Model was validated by web-based servers. Results: A reliable 3D model for TR from L. mexicana was modeled by using L. infantum trypanothione reductase (LiTR as a template. RMSD results according to C-alpha, visible atoms and backbone were 0.809 Å, 0.732 Å and 0.728 Å respectively. Ramachandran plot indicates that model shows an acceptable stereochemistry. Conclusion: Modeled structure of LmTR shows high similarity with LiTR based on overall structural features like domains and folding patterns. Predicted structure will provide a source for the further docking studies of various peptide-based inhibitors.

  6. Mercury binding sites in thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinge, Simon J L; McKimmy, Emily J; Shatnawi, Mouath; Kim, HyunJeong; Petkov, Valeri; Wermeille, Didier; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2005-06-15

    Thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica with anhydrous compositions of (SiO(2))(1)(-)(x)()(LSiO(1.5))(x)(), where L is a mercaptopropyl group and x is the fraction of functionalized framework silicon centers, are effective trapping agents for the removal of mercuric(II) ions from water. In the present work, we investigate the mercury-binding mechanism for representative thiol-functionalized mesostructures by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and by Raman spectroscopy. The mesostructures with wormhole framework structures and compositions corresponding to x = 0.30 and 0.50 were prepared by direct assembly methods in the presence of a structure-directing amine porogen. PDF analyses of five mercury-loaded compositions with Hg/S ratios of 0.50-1.30 provided evidence for the bridging of thiolate sulfur atoms to two metal ion centers and the formation of chain structures on the pore surfaces. We find no evidence for Hg-O bonds and can rule out oxygen coordination of the mercury at greater than the 10% level. The relative intensities of the PDF peaks corresponding to Hg-S and Hg-Hg atomic pairs indicate that the mercury centers cluster on the functionalized surfaces by virtue of thiolate bridging, regardless of the overall mercury loading. However, the Raman results indicate that the complexation of mercury centers by thiolate depends on the mercury loading. At low mercury loadings (Hg/S < or = 0.5), the dominant species is an electrically neutral complex in which mercury most likely is tetrahedrally coordinated to bridging thiolate ligands, as in Hg(SBu(t))(2). At higher loadings (Hg/S 1.0-1.3), mercury complex cations predominate, as evidenced by the presence of charge-balancing anions (nitrate) on the surface. This cationic form of bound mercury is assigned a linear coordination to two bridging thiolate ligands. PMID:15941284

  7. Purification and characterization of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci thioredoxin: insight into thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase (TGR) substrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; Sosa-Peinado, A; Del Arenal Mena, I P

    2015-04-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase central to redox homeostasis in cells and is involved in the regulation of protein activity through thiol/disulfide exchanges. Based on these facts, our goal was to purify and characterize cytosolic thioredoxin from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, as well as to study its behavior as a substrate of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR). The enzyme was purified >133-fold with a total yield of 9.7%. A molecular mass of 11.7kDa and a pI of 4.84 were measured. Native electrophoresis was used to identify the oxidized and reduced forms of the monomer as well as the presence of a homodimer. In addition to the catalytic site cysteines, cysticerci thioredoxin contains Cys28 and Cys65 residues conserved in previously sequenced cestode thioredoxins. The following kinetic parameters were obtained for the substrate of TGR: a Km of 3.1?M, a kcat of 10s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency of 3.2×10(6)M(-1)s(-1). The negative patch around the ?3-helix of Trx is involved in the interaction with TGR and suggests variable specificity and catalytic efficiency of the reductase toward thioredoxins of different origins. PMID:25523293

  8. Studies of Aqueous U(IV) Complexation under Thiol-rich Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wansik; Cho, Hyeryun; Jung, Euo Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Organic thiol compounds and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) are electron donors and metabolic products of sulfate reducing bacteria. In addition, they are among redox potential (Eh) determinants of groundwater systems due to their redox characteristics. The low values of acid dissociation constants for .SH (pK{sub a}, 7-9) compared to those of aliphatic or phenolic .OH, impart greater anionic and metal-binding properties to the molecules. Recently, we demonstrated that a thiol compound (i. e., thiosalicylate) enhances the solubility of U(VI) at higher pH levels (< ?9). In this study, to have a better knowledge of the behaviors of U(IV) species under anaerobic conditions, the U(IV)-OH complex formation in the presence of thiol was examined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and TRLFS (time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy). A TRLFS-based U(IV) quantification methodology developed earlier was applied to examine the effects of thiol species on the dissolution behaviors. Based on UV-Vis absorption monitoring, the presence of thiol does not result in a significant changes in the low-pH hydrolysis behaviors of U(IV). However, the concentration of U(IV) dissolved in bulk phase of aqueous solutions increased with the increase of thiol concentration. The formation of soluble thiol complexes or the stabilization of UO{sub 2} nanoparticles may explain the observed solubility increase.

  9. Thiol compounds from a free-living pathogenic opportunistic amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondarza, Raúl N; Iturbe, Angélica; Hernández, Eva; Hurtado, Gerardo

    2002-12-01

    New bimane-reacting compounds from perchloric acid extracts have been detected by HPLC from Acanthamoeba polyphaga. The main compounds detected are cysteine, glutathione and other novel thiol compounds. All of these compounds must be thiols, since they disappear or decrease substantially when treated by N -ethylmaleimide prior to acetonitrile/bimane derivatization. Cysteine and glutathione increase in quantity when dithiothreitol reduction is applied to the fresh extract. This means that they are likely to be present in their oxidized and reduced form and indicates the possible presence of a corresponding thiol/disulphide enzymic system. There are other compounds that have a different behaviour, since although they can react with bimane, they do not disappear if treated previously by N -ethylmaleimide. This shows that they are not thiols but can react with bimane. The main thiol compounds found to be present, in both the parasite and the host lymphocyte cells, were cysteine and glutathione. We were unable to detect ovothiol A in Acanthamoeba but instead we found another thiol compound that could be structurally related to trypanothione. The new thiol compounds unique to this parasite and not present in lymphocytes will permit the study of disulphide-reducing enzymes as potential drug targets. PMID:12452803

  10. Thiol synthesis and arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weihua; Cai Yong; Downum, Kelsey R.; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-10-01

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) has potential for phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. In this study, the synthesis of total thiols and acid-soluble thiols in P. vittata was investigated under arsenic exposure. The strong and positive correlation between As concentration and acid-soluble thiols in plant leaflets suggests that acid-soluble thiols may play a role in As detoxification. A major As-induced thiol was purified and characterized. A molecular ion (M+1) of 540 m/z suggests that the thiol was a phytochelatin (PC) with two base units (PC{sub 2}). However, the ratios of acid-soluble thiols to As in leaflets exposed to As ranged from 0.012 to 0.026, suggesting that only a very small part of As is complexed by PC{sub 2}. PCs could play a minor detoxification role in this hyperaccumulator. A PC-independent mechanism appears to be mainly involved in As tolerance, while PC-dependent detoxification seems to be a supplement.

  11. Thiol synthesis and arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) has potential for phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. In this study, the synthesis of total thiols and acid-soluble thiols in P. vittata was investigated under arsenic exposure. The strong and positive correlation between As concentration and acid-soluble thiols in plant leaflets suggests that acid-soluble thiols may play a role in As detoxification. A major As-induced thiol was purified and characterized. A molecular ion (M+1) of 540 m/z suggests that the thiol was a phytochelatin (PC) with two base units (PC2). However, the ratios of acid-soluble thiols to As in leaflets exposed to As ranged from 0.012 to 0.026, suggesting that only a very small part of As is complexed by PC2. PCs could play a minor detoxification role in this hyperaccumulator. A PC-independent mechanism appears to be mainly involved in As tolerance, while PC-dependent detoxification seems to be a supplement

  12. Determination of sulfides and thiols in petroleum distillate usings solid-phase extraction and derivatization with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.S.; Green, J.B.; McWilliams, T.B. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-07-01

    An improved method for differentiating sulfides, thiophenes, and thiols in petroleum distillates is presented. Thiophenes are separated from sulfides and thiols via solid-phase extraction. Reaction with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride is employed to form thiol esters, while sulfides do not react. Thiol elution times increase sufficiently after derivatization to provide separation from sulfides during gas chromatographic analysis. In addition, electron impact mass spectra of derivatized thiols exhibit an intense, characteristic 195 fragment ion, which aids in their identification. 26 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Steroid 5alpha-reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Eugenio; Bratoeff, Eugene; Cabeza, Marisa; Ramirez, Elena; Quiroz, Alexandra; Heuze, Ivonne

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study is to synthesize new steroidal compounds based on the progesterone skeleton with a high inhibitory activity for the enzyme 5alpha-reductase. Presently similar compounds are being used for the treatment of androgen dependent diseases such as: hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, bening prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Dihydrotestosterone 2 (Fig. (1)), a 5alpha-reduced metabolite of testosterone 1 has been implicated as a causative factor in the progression of these diseases, largely through the clinical evaluation of males who are genetically deficient of steroid 5alpha-reductase enzyme. As a result of this study, the inhibition of this enzyme has become a pharmacological strategy for the design and synthesis of new antiandrogenic drugs. The advent of finasteride 8 (Fig. (4)) a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor has grately alleviated the symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In our laboratory we recently synthesized several new 16beta-methyl-pregnadiene-3,20-diones derivatives 27 (Fig.(6)), 38-42 (Fig. (11)), 16beta-phenyl-pregnadiene-3,17a-dione derivatives 32-33 (Fig. (7)), 16beta-phenyl-pregnatriene-3,17a-diones, 30, 31 (Fig. (7)) and 16beta-methyl-pregnatriene-3,20-diones 43-46 (Fig. (11)). These compounds were evaluated as 5alpha-reductase inhibitors in the following biological models: Penicillium crustosum broths, the flank organs of gonadectomized male hamsters, the incorporation of radiolabeled sodium acetate into lipids, the effect of the new steroids on the reduction of the weight of the seminal vesicles and on the in vitro metabolism of [(3)H]T to [(3)H]DHT in seminal vesicles homogenates of gonadectomized male hamsters. All trienones 30, 31, and 43-46 in all biological models showed consistently a higher 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity than the corresponding dienones 27, 32, 33 and 38-42. We believe that with these compounds the 5alpha-reductase enzyme is inactivated by an irreversible Michael type addition of the nucleophilic portion of the enzyme to the conjugated double bond of the steroid. The trienones having a more coplanar structure react faster with the enzyme and thus show a higher inhibitory activity. PMID:12570838

  14. Profiling of thiol-containing compounds by stable isotope labeling double precursor ion scan mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Huang, Yun-Qing; Cai, Wen-Jing; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-10-01

    Here we developed a novel strategy of isotope labeling in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-double precursor ion scan mass spectrometry (IL-LC-DPIS-MS) analysis for nontargeted profiling of thiol-containing compounds. In this strategy, we synthesized a pair of isotope labeling reagents (?-bromoacetonylquinolinium bromide, BQB; ?-bromoacetonylquinolinium-d7 bromide, BQB-d7) that contain a reactive group, an isotopically labeled moiety, and an ionizable group to selectively label thiol-containing compounds. The BQB and BQB-d7 labeled compounds can generate two characteristic product ions m/z 218 and 225, which contain an isotope tag and therefore were used for double precursor ion scans in mass spectrometry analysis. The peak pairs with characteristic mass differences can be readily extracted from the two precursor ion scan (PIS) spectra and assigned as potential thiol-containing candidates, which facilitates the identification of analytes. BQB and BQB-d7 labeled thiol-containing compounds can be clearly distinguished by generating two individual ion chromatograms. Thus, thiol-containing compounds from two samples labeled with different isotope reagents are ionized at the same time but recorded separately by mass spectrometry, offering good identification and accurate quantification by eliminating the MS response fluctuation and mutual interference from the two labeled samples. Using the IL-LC-DPIS-MS strategy, we profiled the thiol-containing compounds in beer and human urine, and 21 and 103 thiol candidates were discovered in beer and human urine, respectively. In addition, 9 and 17 thiol candidates in beer and human urine were successfully identified by further comparison with thiol standards or tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Taken together, the IL-LC-DPIS-MS method is demonstrated to be a promising strategy in the profiling of compounds with identical groups in metabolomics study. PMID:25222826

  15. Low molecular weight thiols in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata upon exposure to arsenic and other trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Yong; Su Jinhui; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-05-01

    Low molecular weight thiol-containing compounds have been reported to play an important role in metal detoxification and accumulation in some higher plants. The formation of these low molecular weight thiols in the recently discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Chinese Brake fern (Pteris vittata) upon exposure to arsenic and other trace metals was investigated. In addition to cysteine and glutathione, an unidentified thiol was observed in the plants exposed to arsenic, which was not found in the control. The concentration of the unidentified thiol showed a very strong and positive correlation with arsenic concentration in the leaflets. The unidentified thiol was low in rachises and undetectable in the roots for As-treated plants. Total and acid-soluble thiols were also measured and the results indicated that arsenic mainly stimulated the synthesis of acid-soluble thiol in Chinese Brake. The investigations of other trace elements (Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Hg, and Se) showed that these elements were not accumulated in Chinese Brake to high levels and the synthesis of the unidentified thiol in the plant was not observed. Our study suggests that the unidentified thiol was induced specifically by arsenic and the distribution patterns of the unidentified thiol and arsenic in the plant were consistent, indicating that the synthesis of this compound was related to As exposure. - Arsenic induces synthesis of low molecular weight thiols in the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

  16. Low molecular weight thiols in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata upon exposure to arsenic and other trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low molecular weight thiol-containing compounds have been reported to play an important role in metal detoxification and accumulation in some higher plants. The formation of these low molecular weight thiols in the recently discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Chinese Brake fern (Pteris vittata) upon exposure to arsenic and other trace metals was investigated. In addition to cysteine and glutathione, an unidentified thiol was observed in the plants exposed to arsenic, which was not found in the control. The concentration of the unidentified thiol showed a very strong and positive correlation with arsenic concentration in the leaflets. The unidentified thiol was low in rachises and undetectable in the roots for As-treated plants. Total and acid-soluble thiols were also measured and the results indicated that arsenic mainly stimulated the synthesis of acid-soluble thiol in Chinese Brake. The investigations of other trace elements (Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Hg, and Se) showed that these elements were not accumulated in Chinese Brake to high levels and the synthesis of the unidentified thiol in the plant was not observed. Our study suggests that the unidentified thiol was induced specifically by arsenic and the distribution patterns of the unidentified thiol and arsenic in the plant were consistent, indicating that the synthesis of this compound was related to As exposure. - Arsenic induces synthesis of low molecular weight thiols in the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittatae arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata

  17. Quinoline-2-thiol Derivatives as Fluorescent Sensors for Metals, pH and HNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphtali A. O’Connor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A tautomeric equilibrium exists for quinoline-2-thiol and quinoline-2(1H-thione. Quantum mechanical calculations predict the thione is the major tautomer and this is confirmed by the absorption spectra. The utility of quinolone-2-thiol/quinoline-2(1H-thione as a chromophore for developing fluorescent sensors is explored. No fluorescence is observed when excited at absorption maxima, however a fluorescence increase is observed when exposed to HNO, a molecule of import as a cardiovascular therapeutic. Alkylated quinoline-2-thiol derivatives are found to be fluorescent and show a reduction in fluorescence when exposed to metals and changes in pH.

  18. Aldose reductase inhibition suppresses airway inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Umesh C. S.; Ramana, Kota V.; Srivastava, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    Airway inflammation induced by reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors is the hallmark of asthma, a prevalent chronic respiratory disease. In various cellular and animal models, we have recently demonstrated that, in response to multiple stimuli, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) regulates the inflammatory signals via NF-kappa B activation. Since NF-?B activation is implicated in asthma pathogenesis, we investigated whether AKR1B1 inhibition could prevent...

  19. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and pre-eclampsia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sohda, S.; Arinami, T.; Hamada, H.; Yamada, N.; Hamaguchi, H.; Kubo, T.

    1997-01-01

    A common missense mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, a C to T substitution at nucleotide 677, is responsible for reduced MTHFR activity and associated with modestly increased plasma homocysteine concentrations. Since underlying maternal vascular disease increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, we had the working hypothesis that pre-eclampsia patients would have an increased T677 allele frequency compared with controls. The MTHFR genotypes were determined in 67 pre-e...

  20. Regulation of human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase by phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Kazuhiro; Strahler, John R.; Andrews, Philip C.; Matthews, Rowena G.

    2005-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of methylenetetrahydrofolate to methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Regulation of MTHFR activity is crucial for maintaining cellular concentrations of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Purified recombinant human MTHFR expressed in insect cells is multiply phosphorylated on an N-terminal extension of the protein that contains a highly conserved serine-rich regi...

  1. Ribonucleotide reductases: essential enzymes for bacterial life

    OpenAIRE

    Torrents, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is a key enzyme that mediates the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, the DNA precursors, for DNA synthesis in every living cell. This enzyme converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks for DNA replication, and repair. Clearly, RNR enzymes have contributed to the appearance of genetic material that exists today, being essential for the evolution of all organisms on Earth. The strict control of RNR activity and dNTP pool sizes is importan...

  2. Aldose Reductase, Oxidative Stress, and Diabetic Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    JohnHwa

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance (Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus, 2007). DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR; ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21), a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent reduction of ...

  3. Characterization of Nitrate Reductase Deficient Mutants of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, O; Tischner, R

    1989-03-01

    After x-ray irradiation, 13 mutants of Chlorella sorokiniana incapable of using NO(3) (-) as N source were isolated using a pinpoint method. Using immunoprecipitation and Western blot assays, no nitrate reductase was found in five strains while in eight mutants the enzyme was detected. The latter strains contained different patterns of nitrate reductase partial reactions. All isolates were of the nia-type as indicated by the inducibility of purine hydroxylase I and by complementation of nitrate reductase activity in the Neurospora crassa mutant Nit-1. A restoration of NADP-nitrate reductase in Nit-1 was also obtained with NH(4) (+)-grown cells indicating that Mo-cofactor is constitutive in Chlorella. Complementation experiments among the Chlorella mutants resulted in restoration of NADH-nitrate reductase activity. The characteristics of some of the Chlorella mutants are discussed in view of an improper orientation of Mo-cofactor in the residual nitrate reductase protein. PMID:16666622

  4. The intracellular redox stress caused by hexavalent chromium is selective for proteins that have key roles in cell survival and thiol redox control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds (e.g. chromates) are strong oxidants that readily enter cells where they are reduced to reactive Cr intermediates that can directly oxidize some cell components and can promote the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Inhalation is a major route of exposure which directly exposes the bronchial epithelium. Previous studies with non-cancerous human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) demonstrated that Cr(VI) treatment results in the irreversible inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the oxidation of thioredoxins (Trx) and peroxiredoxins (Prx). The mitochondrial Trx/Prx system is somewhat more sensitive to Cr(VI) than the cytosolic Trx/Prx system, and other redox-sensitive mitochondrial functions are subsequently affected including electron transport complexes I and II. Studies reported here show that Cr(VI) does not cause indiscriminant thiol oxidation, and that the Trx/Prx system is among the most sensitive of cellular protein thiols. Trx/Prx oxidation is not unique to BEAS-2B cells, as it was also observed in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Increasing the intracellular levels of ascorbate, an endogenous Cr(VI) reductant, did not alter the effects on TrxR, Trx, or Prx. The peroxynitrite scavenger MnTBAP did not protect TrxR, Trx, Prx, or the electron transport chain from the effects of Cr(VI), implying that peroxynitrite is not required for these effects. Nitration of tyrosine residues of TrxR was not observed following Cr(VI) treatment, further ruling out peroxynitrite as a significant contributor to the irreversible inhibition of TrxR. Cr(VI) treatments that disrupt the TrxR/Trx/Prx system did not cause detectable mitochondrial DNA damage. Overall, the redox stress that results from Cr(VI) exposure shows selectivity for key proteins which are known to be important for redox signaling, antioxidant defense, and cell survival.

  5. The intracellular redox stress caused by hexavalent chromium is selective for proteins that have key roles in cell survival and thiol redox control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Judith M; Antholine, William E; Myers, Charles R

    2011-03-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds (e.g. chromates) are strong oxidants that readily enter cells where they are reduced to reactive Cr intermediates that can directly oxidize some cell components and can promote the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Inhalation is a major route of exposure which directly exposes the bronchial epithelium. Previous studies with non-cancerous human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) demonstrated that Cr(VI) treatment results in the irreversible inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the oxidation of thioredoxins (Trx) and peroxiredoxins (Prx). The mitochondrial Trx/Prx system is somewhat more sensitive to Cr(VI) than the cytosolic Trx/Prx system, and other redox-sensitive mitochondrial functions are subsequently affected including electron transport complexes I and II. Studies reported here show that Cr(VI) does not cause indiscriminant thiol oxidation, and that the Trx/Prx system is among the most sensitive of cellular protein thiols. Trx/Prx oxidation is not unique to BEAS-2B cells, as it was also observed in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Increasing the intracellular levels of ascorbate, an endogenous Cr(VI) reductant, did not alter the effects on TrxR, Trx, or Prx. The peroxynitrite scavenger MnTBAP did not protect TrxR, Trx, Prx, or the electron transport chain from the effects of Cr(VI), implying that peroxynitrite is not required for these effects. Nitration of tyrosine residues of TrxR was not observed following Cr(VI) treatment, further ruling out peroxynitrite as a significant contributor to the irreversible inhibition of TrxR. Cr(VI) treatments that disrupt the TrxR/Trx/Prx system did not cause detectable mitochondrial DNA damage. Overall, the redox stress that results from Cr(VI) exposure shows selectivity for key proteins which are known to be important for redox signaling, antioxidant defense, and cell survival. PMID:21237240

  6. Mechanism of action of clostridial glycine reductase: Isolation and characterization of a covalent acetyl enzyme intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clostridial glycine reductase consists of proteins A, B, and C and catalyzes the reaction glycine + Pi + 2e- ? acetyl phosphate + NH4+. Evidence was previously obtained that is consistent with the involvement of an acyl enzyme intermediate in this reaction. The authors now demonstrate that protein C catalyzes exchange of [32P]Pi into acetyl phosphate, providing additional support for an acetyl enzyme intermediate on protein C. Furthermore, they have isolated acetyl protein C and shown that it is qualitatively, catalytically competent. Acetyl protein C can be obtained through the forward reaction from protein C and Se-(carboxymethyl)selenocysteine-protein A, which is generated by the reaction of glycine with proteins A and B. Acetyl protein C can also be generated through the reverse reaction by the addition of acetyl phosphate to protein C. Both procedures lead to the same acetyl enzyme. The acetyl enzyme reacts with Pi to give acetyl phosphate. When [14C]acetyl protein C is denaturated with TCA and redissolved with urea, radioactivity remained associated with the protein. Treatment with KBH4 removes all the radioactivity associated with protein C, resulting in the formation of [14C]ethanol. They conclude that a thiol group on protein C is acetylated. Proteins A and C together catalyze the exchange of tritium atoms from [3H]H2O into acem [3H]H2O into acetyl phosphate. This exchange reaction supports the proposal that an enol of the acetyl enzyme is an intermediate in the reaction sequence

  7. Design, synthesis and evaluation of fe-s targeted adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paritala, Hanumantharao; Suzuki, Yuta; Carroll, Kate S

    2015-03-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR) is an iron-sulfur enzyme that is vital for survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during dormancy and is an attractive target for the treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. The 4Fe-4S cluster is coordinated to APR by sulfur atoms of four cysteine residues, is proximal to substrate, adenosine 5'-phopsphosulfate (APS), and is essential for catalytic activity. Herein, we present an approach for the development of a new class of APR inhibitors. As an initial step, we have employed an improved solid-phase chemistry method to prepare a series of N(6)-substituted adenosine analogues and their 5'-phosphates as well as adenosine 5'-phosphate diesters bearing different Fe and S binding groups, such as thiols or carboxylic and hydroxamic acid moieties. Evaluation of the resulting compounds indicates a clearly defined spacing requirement between the Fe-S targeting group and adenosine scaffold and that smaller Fe-S targeting groups are better tolerated. Molecular docking analysis suggests that the S atom of the most potent inhibitor may establish a favorable interaction with an S atom in the cluster. In summary, this study showcases an improved solid-phase method that expedites the preparation of adenosine and related 5'-phosphate derivatives and presents a unique Fe-S targeting strategy for the development of APR inhibitors. PMID:25710356

  8. Studies toward novel peptidomimetic inhibitors of thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K?ossowski, Szymon; Muchowicz, Angelika; Firczuk, Ma?gorzata; Swiech, Marta; Redzej, Adam; Golab, Jakub; Ostaszewski, Ryszard

    2012-01-12

    Thioredoxins (Trx) are ubiquitous multifunctional low-molecular weight proteins that together with thioredoxin reductases (TrxR) participate in the maintenance of protein thiol homeostasis in NADPH-dependent reactions. An increasing number of data reveal that the Trx-TrxR system is an attractive target for anticancer therapies. In this work, we have elaborated a new and simple synthetic approach employing Ugi reaction to synthesize several new inhibitors of this system. The influence of various electrophilic fragments of this new class of compounds on the inhibition of the Trx-TrxR system was evaluated. As a result, a new compound 19a (SK053), which inhibits the activity of the Trx-TrxR system and exhibits antitumor activity, was obtained. Biologic analyses revealed that 19a inhibits induction of NF-?B and AP-1 and decreases H(2)O(2) scavenging capacity in tumor cells. Altogether, we show that 19a is a novel potential antitumor peptidomimetic inhibitor that can be used as a starting compound for further optimization. PMID:22128876

  9. NADH-Ferricyanide Reductase of Leaf Plasma Membranes : Partial Purification and Immunological Relation to Potato Tuber Microsomal NADH-Ferricyanide Reductase and Spinach Leaf NADH-Nitrate Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askerlund, P; Laurent, P; Nakagawa, H; Kader, J C

    1991-01-01

    Plasma membranes obtained by two-phase partitioning of microsomal fractions from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv Medania) and sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) contained relatively high NADH-ferricyanide reductase and NADH-nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) activities. Both of these activities were latent. To investigate whether these activities were due to the same enzyme, plasma membrane polypeptides were separated with SDS-PAGE and analyzed with immunoblotting methods. Antibodies raised against microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase (tentatively identified as NADH-cytochrome b(5) reductase, EC 1.6.2.2), purified from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Bintje) tuber microsomes, displayed one single band at 43 kilodaltons when reacted with spinach plasma membranes, whereas lgG produced against NR from spinach leaves gave a major band at 110 kilodaltons together with a few fainter bands of lower molecular mass. Immunoblotting analysis using inside-out and right-side-out plasma membrane vesicles strongly indicated that NR was not an integral protein but probably trapped inside the plasma membrane vesicles during homogenization. Proteins from spinach plasma membranes were solubilized with the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio] 1-propane-sulfonate and separated on a Mono Q anion exchange column at pH 5.6 with fast protein liquid chromatography. One major peak of NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity was found after separation. The peak fraction was enriched about 70-fold in this activity compared to the plasma membrane. When the peak fractions were analyzed with SDS-PAGE the NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity strongly correlated with a 43 kilodalton polypeptide which reacted with the antibodies against potato microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase. Thus, our data indicate that most, if not all, of the truly membrane-bound NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity of leaf plasma membranes is due to an enzyme very similar to potato tuber microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase (NADH-cytochrome b(5) reductase). PMID:16667982

  10. Enhancing effect of a cysteinyl thiol on the antioxidant activity of flavonoids and identification of the antioxidative thiol adducts of myricetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Toshiya; Miura, Yukari; Inai, Miyuki; Masuda, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The enhancing effect of a cysteinyl thiol N-benzoylcysteine methyl ester on the antioxidant activity of several flavonoids was investigated in a lipid oxidation system. Obvious enhancement was apparent for catechin, myricetin, quercetin, and taxifolin, the activity for myricetin being the most potent among them. An HPLC analysis of the products from the antioxidation reaction of myricetin in the presence of the thiol was carried out and the structures of the products were determined to clarify the enhancing effect chemically. The obtained data indicated that two thiol adducts on the B ring, and probably C-ring adducts, which were produced in the antioxidation process, exerted an enhancing effect on the antioxidant activity of myricetin. PMID:23924742

  11. Ketopantoyl-lactone reductase from Candida parapsilosis: purification and characterization as a conjugated polyketone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, H; Shimizu, S; Hattori, S; Yamada, H

    1989-02-24

    Ketopantoyl-lactone reductase (2-dehydropantoyl-lactone reductase, EC 1.1.1.168) was purified and crystallized from cells of Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708. The enzyme was found to be homogeneous on ultracentrifugation, high-performance gel-permeation liquid chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative molecular mass of the native and SDS-treated enzyme is approximately 40,000. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is 6.3. The enzyme was found to catalyze specifically the reduction of a variety of natural and unnatural polyketones and quinones other than ketopantoyl lactone in the presence of NADPH. Isatin and 5-methylisatin are rapidly reduced by the enzyme, the Km and Vmax values for isatin being 14 microM and 306 mumol/min per mg protein, respectively. Ketopantoyl lactone is also a good substrate (Km = 333 microM and Vmax = 481 mumol/min per mg protein). Reverse reaction was not detected with pantoyl lactone and NADP+. The enzyme is inhibited by quercetin, several polyketones and SH-reagents. 3,4-Dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione, cyclohexenediol-1,2,3,4-tetraone and parabanic acid are uncompetitive inhibitors for the enzyme, the Ki values being 1.4, 0.2 and 3140 microM, respectively, with isatin as substrate. Comparison of the enzyme with the conjugated polyketone reductase of Mucor ambiguus (S. Shimizu, H. Hattori, H. Hata and H. Yamada (1988) Eur. J. Biochem. 174, 37-44) and ketopantoyl-lactone reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggested that ketopantoyl-lactone reductase is a kind of conjugated polyketone reductase. PMID:2644973

  12. AFM-assisted fabrication of thiol SAM pattern with alternating quantified surface potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Janet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs are widely used in many nano- and bio-technology applications. We report a new approach to create and characterize a thiol SAMs micropattern with alternating charges on a flat gold-coated substrate using atomic force microscopy (AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM. We produced SAMs-patterns made of alternating positively charged, negatively charged, and hydrophobic-terminated thiols by an automated AFM-assisted manipulation, or nanografting. We show that these thiol patterns possess only small topographical differences as revealed by AFM, and distinguished differences in surface potential (20-50 mV, revealed by KPFM. The pattern can be helpful in the development of biosensor technologies, specifically for selective binding of biomolecules based on charge and hydrophobicity, and serve as a model for creating surfaces with quantified alternating surface potential distribution.

  13. Protection against ionising radiation and synergism with thiols by zinc aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-treatment with zinc aspartate protected mice against the lethal effects of radiation and raised the LD50 from 8 gy to 12.2 Gy. Zinc chloride and zinc sulphate were clearly less active. The radioprotective effect of zinc aspartate was equivalent to cysteamine and slightly inferior to S,2-aminoethylisothiourea (AET). Zinc aspartate displayed a similar therapeutic index to the thiols but could be applied at an earlier time before irradiation. Synergistic effects occurred with the combined administration of zinc aspartate and thiols. By giving zinc aspartate with cysteamine, the LD50 was increased to 13.25 Gy and, by combining it in the optimal protocol with AET, to 17.3 Gy. The radioprotection by zinc and its synergism with thiols is explained by the stabilisation of thiols through the formation of zinc complexes. (author)

  14. Mass spectrometry in studies of protein thiol chemistry and signaling: Opportunities and caveats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarie Baez, Nelmi O; Reisz, Julie A; Furdui, Cristina M

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful and widely utilized tool in the investigation of protein thiol chemistry, biochemistry, and biology. Very early biochemical studies of metabolic enzymes have brought to light the broad spectrum of reactivity profiles that distinguish cysteine thiols with functions in catalysis and protein stability from other cysteine residues in proteins. The development of MS methods for the analysis of proteins using electrospray ionization (ESI) or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) coupled with the emergence of high-resolution mass analyzers has been instrumental in advancing studies of thiol modifications, both in single proteins and within the cellular context. This article reviews MS instrumentation and methods of analysis employed in investigations of thiols and their reactivity toward a range of small biomolecules. A selected number of studies are detailed to highlight the advantages brought about by the MS technologies along with the caveats associated with these analyses. PMID:25261734

  15. Degradable thiol-acrylate hydrogels as tunable matrices for three-dimensional hepatic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yiting; Lin, Chien-Chi

    2014-11-01

    A degradable poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel system was developed using simple macromer formulations and visible light initiated thiol-acrylate photopolymerization. In addition to PEGDA, other components in this gelation system include eosin-Y as a photo-sensitizer, bi-functional thiol (dithiothreitol, DTT) as a dual-purpose co-initiator and cross-linker, and N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) as a co-monomer. Gelation was achieved through a mixed-mode step-chain growth polymerization mechanism under bright visible light exposure. Increasing photo-sensitizer or NVP concentrations accelerated photo-crosslinking and increased final gel stiffness. Increasing bi-functional thiol content in the prepolymer solution only increased gel stiffness to some degree. As the concentration of thiol surpassed certain range, thiol-mediated chain-transfer events caused thiol-acrylate gels to form with lower degree of cross-linking. Pendant peptide, such as integrin ligand RGDS, was more effectively immobilized in the network via a thiol-acrylate reaction (using thiol-bearing peptide Ac-CRGDS. Underline indicates cross-linkable motif) than through homo-polymerization of acrylated peptide (e.g., acryl-RGDS). The incorporation of pendant peptide comes with the expense of a lower degree of gel cross-linking, which was rectified by increasing co-monomer NVP content. Without the use of any readily degradable macromer, these visible light initiated mixed-mode cross-linked hydrogels degraded hydrolytically due to the formation of thiol-ether-ester bonds following thiol-acrylate reactions. An exponential growth relationship was identified between the hydrolytic degradation rate and bifunctional thiol content in the prepolymer solution. Finally, we evaluated the cytocompatibility of these mixed-mode cross-linked degradable hydrogels using in situ encapsulation of hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7 cells. Encapsulated Huh7 cells remained alive and proliferated as time to form cell clusters. The addition of NVP at a higher concentration (0.3%) did not affect Huh7 cell viability but resulted in reduction of cell metabolic activity, which was accompanied by an elevated urea secretion from the encapsulated cells. PMID:24288169

  16. Mercury Binding Sites in Thiol-Functionalized Mesostructured Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billinge, Simon J.L.; McKimmey, Emily J.; Shatnawi, Mouath; Kim, HyunJeong; Petkov, Valeri; Wermeille, Didier; Pinnavaia, Thomas J. (MSU); (CMU); (Iowa State)

    2010-07-13

    Thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica with anhydrous compositions of (SiO{sub 2}){sub 1-x}(LSiO{sub 1.5}){sub x}, where L is a mercaptopropyl group and x is the fraction of functionalized framework silicon centers, are effective trapping agents for the removal of mercuric(II) ions from water. In the present work, we investigate the mercury-binding mechanism for representative thiol-functionalized mesostructures by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and by Raman spectroscopy. The mesostructures with wormhole framework structures and compositions corresponding to x = 0.30 and 0.50 were prepared by direct assembly methods in the presence of a structure-directing amine porogen. PDF analyses of five mercury-loaded compositions with Hg/S ratios of 0.50-1.30 provided evidence for the bridging of thiolate sulfur atoms to two metal ion centers and the formation of chain structures on the pore surfaces. We find no evidence for Hg-O bonds and can rule out oxygen coordination of the mercury at greater than the 10% level. The relative intensities of the PDF peaks corresponding to Hg-S and Hg-Hg atomic pairs indicate that the mercury centers cluster on the functionalized surfaces by virtue of thiolate bridging, regardless of the overall mercury loading. However, the Raman results indicate that the complexation of mercury centers by thiolate depends on the mercury loading. At low mercury loadings (Hg/S {le} 0.5), the dominant species is an electrically neutral complex in which mercury most likely is tetrahedrally coordinated to bridging thiolate ligands, as in Hg(SBu{sup t}){sub 2}. At higher loadings (Hg/S 1.0-1.3), mercury complex cations predominate, as evidenced by the presence of charge-balancing anions (nitrate) on the surface. This cationic form of bound mercury is assigned a linear coordination to two bridging thiolate ligands.

  17. Atmospheric reactivity of alcohols, thiols and fluoroalcohols with chlorine atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon Ruiz, Andres

    Alcohols, thiols and fluoroalcohols are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are emitted to the atmosphere from both natural (vegetation, oceans, volcanoes, etc.) and anthropogenic sources (fuels, solvents, wastewater, incinerators, refrigerants, etc.). These pollutants can be eliminated from the troposphere by deposition on the terrestrial surface, direct photolysis or reaction with different tropospheric oxidants. Reactions of VOCs with tropospheric oxidants are involved in the well-known atmospheric phenomenon of photochemical smog or the production of tropospheric ozone. The oxidation of these VOCs in the troposphere is mainly initiated by reaction with OH radicals during the daytime and with NO radicals at night. However, in recent years, the oxidation by chlorine atoms (Cl) has gained great importance in the study of atmospheric reactions because they may exert some influence in the boundary layer, particularly in marine and coastal environments. In general, Cl atoms are much more reactive species than OH and NO; radicals and therefore low concentrations of Cl may compete with OH and NO3 in hydrocarbon oxidation processes. The main source of tropospheric Cl atoms is believed to be the photolysis of chlorine-containing molecules generated by heterogeneous reactions of sea salt aerosols. It has also been proposed that Cl atoms, produced in the photolysis of Cl2 emitted from industrial processes, may enhance hydrocarbon oxidation rates and ozone production in urban environments. In this work, a kinetic, theoretical and mechanistic study of the reaction of several alcohols, thiols, and fluoroalcohols with Cl atoms has been carried out. Pulsed laser photolysis-fluorescence resonance (PLP-RF) technique was used for the kinetic study as a function of temperature and pressure. An environmental chamber-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) system was also employed in the kinetic studies. Tropospheric lifetimes of these pollutants were estimated using obtained kinetic data. Products of these reactions were determined by FTIR and derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and HPLC analysis. Finally, in order to determine the main reaction pathways a theoretical study at QCISD(T)/6-311G**//MP2(Full)(6-311C** level was performed for each reaction.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of thiol-capped FePt nanomagnetic porous particles

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, X.; Tam, K.; Yu, Kmk; Tsang, Sc

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a thiol-capped FeOt magnetic alloy encapsulated within a thin porous silica overlayer with controlled dimensions using (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) as a precursor, is discussed. Elemental mapping of isolated nanoparticles by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis was carried out, in which isolated particles were randomly selected from the sample. A simple experiment of mixing the thiol-treated FePt nanoparticles with hydrazine indicated thei...

  19. Thiol-Blocking Electrophiles Interfere with Labeling and Detection of Protein Sulfenic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Reisz, Julie A.; Bechtold, Erika; King, S. Bruce; Poole, Leslie B.; Furdui, Cristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular exposure to reactive oxygen species induces the rapid oxidation of DNA, proteins, lipids, and other biomolecules. At the proteome level, cysteine thiol oxidation is a prominent post-translational process implicated in normal physiology and numerous pathologies. Methods for investigating protein oxidation include direct labeling with selective chemical probes and indirect tag-switch techniques. Common to both approaches is a chemical blocking of free thiols with reactive electrophiles...

  20. Interfacial thiol-ene photo-click reactions for forming multilayer hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Han; Fraser, Andrew K.; Lin, Chien-chi

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial visible light-mediated thiol-ene photo-click reactions were developed for preparing step-growth hydrogels with multilayer structures. The effect of a non-cleavage type photoinitiator eosin-Y on visible light-mediated thiol-ene photopolymerization was first characterized using in situ photo-rheometry, gel fraction, and equilibrium swelling ratio. Next, spectrophotometric properties of eosin-Y in the presence of various relevant macromer species were evaluated using UV/Vis spectrome...

  1. Redox Clamp Model for Study of Extracellular Thiols and Disulfides in Redox Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Go, Young-mi; Jones, Dean P.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular thiol/disulfide redox environments are highly regulated in healthy individuals and become oxidized in disease. This oxidation affects the function of cell surface receptors, ion channels, and structural proteins. Downstream signaling due to changes in extracellular redox potential can be studied using a redox clamp in which thiol and disulfide concentrations are varied to obtain a series of controlled redox potentials. Previous applications of this approach show that cell prolif...

  2. Content of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of gemmating cells of Saccharomyces ellipsoideus and Saccharomyces cerevisiale yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that gemmating cells of ''wild type'' yeasts are more radioresistant and contain more endogenous thiols, than resting cells. Gemmating cells of Saccharomyces cerevisial yeasts, carrying the mutation rad 51, as to radioresistance and content of SH groups do not differ from resting cells. The results obtained testify to a connec-- tion between increased radioresistance of the yeast gemmating cells and increased content of endogenous thiols in them

  3. Macromolecular design : UV-curable thiol-ene networks based on renewable resources

    OpenAIRE

    Claudino, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Plant oils and terpenes are ubiquitous natural renewable compounds. The double bonds contained in most of these monomers can be utilized via the photo-induced free-radical thiol–ene reaction to create novel bio-derived polymer thermosets representing a valuable ‘green’ alternative to petrochemical olefins and resulting synthetic plastic materials. Nevertheless, there are several factors limiting their applicability, the first one being the relatively slow reaction rates towards thiol–...

  4. Thiols of intracellular pathogens. Identification of ovothiol A in Leishmania donovani and structural analysis of a novel thiol from Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, H S; Steenkamp, D J

    1994-08-15

    Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniases, is an intracellular pathogen which proliferates within the host macrophages. Analysis of the thiol composition of L. donovani by means of the thiol-specific reagent, 7-diethylamino-3-(4'-maleimidylphenyl)-4-methylcoumarin, indicated that this organism produces substantial amounts of ovothiol A. This observation was further substantiated by HPLC of extracts of L. donovani after derivatization with bromobimane. L. donovani extracts contained a thiol, the bimane derivative of which had identical retention time and fluorescence quenching to a thiol from Crithidia fasciculata, which had previously been identified as ovothiol A. By comparison, the intracellular bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium bovis, contained only one major low-molecular-mass thiol, which was assigned the trivial name mycothiol. The structure of the bimane derivative of mycothiol was solved by a combination of one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Spatial relationships in the molecule were further refined by NOE experiments and allowed identification of mycothiol as 1-D-myo-inositol-2-(N-acetyl-L-cysteinyl)amino-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyra noside. This assignment was confirmed by positive-ion fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry which gave m/z = 677.6 Da and a sodiated species at 699.6 Da. Analysis of the dansylated hydrolysis products of performic-acid-oxidized mycothiol indicated the presence of 0.85 mol glucosamine and 1.02 mol cysteic acid/mol sulfhydryl groups. Crude extracts of M. bovis contained an enzyme which catalysed the NAD(P)H2-dependent reduction of mycothiol disulfide to the free thiol. Analysis of perchloric acid extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV indicated the presence of a thiol which comigrated with mycothiol, both as the free thiol and as the 7-diethylamino-3-(4'-maleimidylphenyl)-4-methylcoumarin and bimane derivatives, on reverse-phase HPLC. The significance of these findings in terms of the evasion of the host defense mechanisms by leishmania parasites and mycobacteria is considered. PMID:8076641

  5. “Turn-on” fluorescence probe integrated polymer nanoparticles for sensing biological thiol molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Chung Yen; Tan, Si Yu; Lu, Yunpeng; Bai, Linyi; Li, Menghuan; Li, Peizhou; Zhang, Quan; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Zhao, Yanli

    2014-11-01

    A ``turn-on'' thiol-responsive fluorescence probe was synthesized and integrated into polymeric nanoparticles for sensing intracellular thiols. There is a photo-induced electron transfer process in the off state of the probe, and this process is terminated upon the reaction with thiol compounds. Configuration interaction singles (CIS) calculation was performed to confirm the mechanism of this process. A series of sensing studies were carried out, showing that the probe-integrated nanoparticles were highly selective towards biological thiol compounds over non-thiolated amino acids. Kinetic studies were also performed to investigate the relative reaction rate between the probe and the thiolated amino acids. Subsequently, the Gibbs free energy of the reactions was explored by means of the electrochemical method. Finally, the detection system was employed for sensing intracellular thiols in cancer cells, and the sensing selectivity could be further enhanced with the use of a cancer cell-targeting ligand in the nanoparticles. This development paves a path for the sensing and detection of biological thiols, serving as a potential diagnostic tool in the future.

  6. The role of the thiol group in protein modification with methylglyoxal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA M. A?IMOVI?

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive ?-oxoaldehyde with elevated production in hyperglycemia. It reacts with nucleophilic Lys and Arg side-chains and N-terminal amino groups causing protein modification. In the present study, the importance of the reaction of the Cys thiol group with methylglyoxal in protein modification, the competitiveness of this reaction with those of amino and guanidine groups, the time course of these reactions and their role and contribution to protein cross-linking were investigated. Human and bovine serum albumins were used as model systems. It was found that despite the very low levels of thiol groups on the surface of the examined protein molecules (approx. 80 times lower than those of amino and guanidino groups, a very high percentage of it reacts (25–85 %. The amount of reacted thiol groups and the rate of the reaction, the time for the reaction to reach equilibrium, the formation of a stable product and the contribution of thiol groups to protein cross-linking depend on the methylglyoxal concentration. The product formed in the reaction of thiol and an insufficient quantity of methylglyoxal (compared to the concentrations of the groups accessible for modification participates to a significant extent (4 % to protein cross-linking. Metformin applied in equimolar concentration with methylglyoxal prevents its reaction with amino and guanidino groups but, however, not with thiol groups.

  7. Mercury distribution studies involving complexes of low-molecular weight thiols and methylmercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the metabolic roles of low molecular weight thiol compounds may be the formation of thiol-methylmercury complexes which can be preferentially translocated across cell membranes. The coadministration of equimolar amounts of the thiol, L-cysteine, with CH3Hg increased the short-term accumulation of CH3Hg in liver, kidneys and cerebrum, but reduced the level of CH3Hg found in plasma. This modification of the distribution pattern of CH3Hg by co-administering low molecular weight thiol compounds further suggests that thiol-methylmercury complexes may play a role in the tissue deposition process. In fact, treatment of rats with CH3Hg has produced a low molecular weight CH3Hg complex in cerebral cytosol. This complex accounted for approximately one-third of the soluble CH3Hg and was identified by column chromatography and electrophoresis to be methylmercury-glutathione. The object of this study is to determine if CH3Hg and thiol complexes of CH3Hg are absorbed and distributed in a manner dependent upon the status of a known ameliorative agent of CH3Hg toxicity, selenium

  8. Spectrophotometric method for the determination of total thiols in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwatko, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Thiols have been of enduring interest for many years because of their role in biological and pharmacological processes. Monitoring of total thiols content is very important in order to understand their function in living organisms. This paper describes the spectrophotometric method for the determination of total thiols concentration in urine. The method is based on derivatization with 1-benzyl-2-chloropyridinium bromide and ultraviolet detection of S-pyridinium derivatives at 316 nm. The analytical recovery and RSD values for precision within the calibration range were from 95.7 to 102.9% and from 2.1 to 8.4%, respectively. The concentration of total thiols normalized against creatinine for 38 apparently healthy subjects (19 women and 19 men) occurred in the range 17.2-73.7 and 25.7-83.6 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. There was no difference in the urinary excretion of thiols in men and women, but there was a significant statistical correlation between urine total thiols and age in the studied group. PMID:24247800

  9. Facile functionalization of PDMS elastomer surfaces using thiol-ene click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chen, Yang; Brook, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    A variety of methods have been developed for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer surface functionalization, particularly for the improvement of hydrophilicity. However, in addition to difficulties in avoiding undesired physical changes to the modified surface, including surface cracking, "hydrophobic recovery" frequently leads hydrophilically modified surfaces to completely return over time to their hydrophobic nature, with accompanying loss of accessible functional groups. Thiol-ene chemistry provides a mild and robust technology for synthetic elaboration. We demonstrate the introduction of thiol groups onto the PDMS surface via base-catalyzed equilibration of MTS ((MeO)3Si(CH2)3SH). Thiols in the product elastomer were shown to be located primarily at the air interface using EDX, XPS, and fluorescence labeling initially, and after extended periods of time: total thiol concentrations at the surface and in the bulk were established by complementary chemical titrations with DTDP (4,4'-dithiodipyridine) and iodine titrations in different solvents. The surface density of thiols was readily controlled by reaction conditions: the rate of hydrophobic recovery, which led to incomplete loss of accessible functional groups, was determined. Thiol-ene click chemistry was then used to introduce a variety of hydrophilic moieties onto the surface including a silicone surfactant and maleic anhydride, respectively. In the latter case, molecular functionalization with both small (fluorescent labels) and polymeric nucleophiles (poly(ethylene glycol), chitosan) could be subsequently induced by simple ring-opening nucleophilic attack leading to permanently functional surfaces. PMID:24010968

  10. Adlayers of dimannoside thiols on gold: surface chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Paul M; Horlacher, Tim; Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc; Gross, Thomas; Lippitz, Andreas; Min, Hyegeun; Wirth, Thomas; Castelli, Riccardo; Seeberger, Peter H; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-04-19

    Carbohydrate films on gold based on dimannoside thiols (DMT) were prepared, and a complementary surface chemical analysis was performed in detail by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), FT-IR, and contact angle measurements in order to verify formation of ?-carbohydrate-functionalized alkylthiol films. XPS (C 1s, O 1s, and S 2p) reveals information on carbohydrate specific alkoxy (C-O) and acetal moieties (O-C-O) as well as thiolate species attached to gold. Angle-resolved synchrotron XPS was used for chemical speciation at ultimate surface sensitivity. Angle-resolved XPS analysis suggests the presence of an excess top layer composed of unbound sulfur components combined with alkyl moieties. Further support for DMT attachment on Au is given by ToF-SIMS and FT-IR analysis. Carbon and oxygen K-edge NEXAFS spectra were interpreted by applying the building block model supported by comparison to data of 1-undecanethiol, poly(vinyl alcohol), and polyoxymethylene. No linear dichroism effect was observed in the angle-resolved C K-edge NEXAFS. PMID:21417247

  11. Oligomerization of Indole Derivatives with Incorporation of Thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl E.S. Wikberg

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two molecules of indole derivative, e.g. indole-5-carboxylic acid, reacted with one molecule of thiol, e.g. 1,2-ethanedithiol, in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid to yield adducts such as 3-[2-(2-amino-5-carboxyphenyl-1-(2-mercaptoethylthioethyl]-1Hindole-5-carboxylic acid. Parallel formation of dimers, such as 2,3-dihydro-1H,1'H-2,3'-biindole-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid and trimers, such as 3,3'-[2-(2-amino-5-carboxyphenyl ethane-1,1-diyl]bis(1H-indole-5-carboxylic acid of the indole derivatives was also observed. Reaction of a mixture of indole and indole-5-carboxylic acid with 2-phenylethanethiol proceeded in a regioselective way, affording 3-[2-(2-aminophenyl-1-(phenethylthioethyl]-1H-indole-5-carboxylic acid. An additional product of this reaction was 3-[2-(2-aminophenyl-1-(phenethylthioethyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H,1'H-2,3'-biindole-5'-carboxylic acid, which upon standing in DMSO-d6 solution gave 3-[2-(2-aminophenyl-1-(phenethylthioethyl]-1H,1'H-2,3'-biindole-5'-carboxylic acid. Structures of all compounds were elucidated by NMR, and a mechanism for their formation was suggested.

  12. Structure and mechanism of dimethylsulfoxide reductase, a molybdopterin-containing enzyme of DMSO reductase family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Apart from nitrogenase, enzymes containing molybdenum are members of a superfamily, the molybdopterin-containing enzymes. Most of these enzymes catalyse an oxygen atom transfer and two electron transfer reaction. During catalysis the Mo at the active site cycles between the Mo(VI) and Mo(IV) states. The DMSO reductase family of molybdopterin-containing enzymes all contain a bis(molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide)Mo cofactor and over thirty examples have now been described. Over the last five years crystal structures of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase and four other enzymes of the DMSO reductase family have revealed that enzymes of this family have a similar tertiary structure. The Mo atom at the active site is coordinated by four thiolate ligands provided by the dithiolene side chains of the two MGD molecules of the bis(MGD)Mo cofactor as well as a ligand provided by an amino acid side chain. In addition, an oxygen atom in the form of an oxo, hydroxo or aqua group is also coordinated to the Mo atom. In the case of dimethylsulfoxide reductase X-ray crystallography of the product-reduced species and Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated that the enzyme contains a single exchangeable oxo group that is H-bonded to W116

  13. Structure and function of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and nitric oxide synthase reductase domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reductase domains are members of the FAD-FMN family of proteins. The FAD accepts two reducing equivalents from NADPH (dehydrogenase flavin) and FMN acts as a one-electron carrier (flavodoxin-type flavin) for the transfer from NADPH to the heme protein, in which the FMNH ·/FMNH2 couple donates electrons to cytochrome P450 at constant oxidation-reduction potential. Although the interflavin electron transfer between FAD and FMN is not strictly regulated in CPR, electron transfer is activated in neuronal NOS reductase domain upon binding calmodulin (CaM), in which the CaM-bound activated form can function by a similar mechanism to that of CPR. The oxygenated form and spin state of substrate-bound cytochrome P450 in perfused rat liver are also discussed in terms of stepwise one-electron transfer from CPR. This review provides a historical perspective of the microsomal mixed-function oxidases including CPR and P450. In addition, a new model for the redox-linked conformational changes during the catalytic cycle for both CPR and NOS reductase domain is also discussed

  14. Genetic identification of a respiratory arsenate reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Saltikov, Chad W.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a decade, it has been recognized that arsenate [H2AsO41-; As(V)] can be used by microorganisms as a terminal electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration. Given the toxicity of arsenic, the mechanistic basis of this process is intriguing, as is its evolutionary origin. Here we show that a two-gene cluster (arrAB; arsenate respiratory reduction) in the bacterium Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3 specifically confers respiratory As(V) reductase activity. Mutants with in-frame deletions of...

  15. Nitrate reductase activity and protein concentration of two populas clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, G F

    1974-04-01

    Nitrate reductase activity and protein percentage of various tree parts of two Populus clones were determined in relation to nitrate ion activity. Nitrogen was supplied as NH(4)NO(3) in a nutriculture system. Wisconsin-5 had significantly greater nitrate reductase activity than Tristis No. 1. Protein percentages of leaf plastochron index 10 leaves (tenth leaf below first leaf lamina exceeding 20 mm in length), bottom leaves, and roots in relation to nitrate ion activity were not appreciably different between clones. The nitrate reductase activity and protein percentage of Tristis No. 1 apex started to level off at the same nitrate ion activity, about 0.09 mm. In Wisconsin-5 apex protein percentage continued to increase at nitrate ion activities where nitrate reductase activity decreases sharply, suggesting that protein nitrogen was being supplied by ammonium ion. The difference in nitrate reductase activity between clones was probably due to genetically determined ability to synthesize nitrate reductase in response to nitrate ion. The expression of nitrate reductase activity was not an index of nitrogen assimilation ability but may be a useful index of growth potential when nitrate ion does not limit nitrate reductase synthesis. PMID:16658755

  16. Sclerotiorin, from Penicillium frequentans, a potent inhibitor of aldose reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidananda, C; Rao, L Jagan Mohan; Sattur, A P

    2006-10-01

    Aldose reductase, the first key enzyme in the polyol pathway, is involved in complications of diabetes. Sclerotiorin, isolated and purified from the fermented broth of Penicillium frequentans, inhibited aldose reductase with an IC(50 )0.4 microM. The inhibitor also showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus spp. PMID:16900332

  17. RAPID PERMANENT HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC PATTERNING OF POLYMER SURFACES VIA OFF-STOICHIOMETRY THIOL-ENE (OSTE) PHOTOGRAFTING

    OpenAIRE

    Carlborg, Fredrik; Moraga, Francesca; Saharil, Farizah; Wijngaart, Wouter; Haraldsson, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have developed a simple and robust method to permanently pattern alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces in off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) polymer microchannels. By being able to tune the number of unreacted thiol surface groups of the OSTE Thiol polymers and by taking advantage of spatially photo-controlled surface grafting of methacrylate monomers we achieve defined areas with contact angles from 20° to 115° within one single channel. The surface modification ...

  18. Crosslinking and degradation of step-growth hydrogels formed by thiol-ene photo-click chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Han; Lin, Chien-chi

    2012-01-01

    Thiol-ene photo-click hydrogels have been used for a variety of tissue engineering and controlled release applications. In this step-growth photopolymerization scheme, multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol) norbornene (PEG4NB) was crosslinked with di-thiol containing crosslinkers to form chemically crosslinked hydrogels. While the mechanism of thiol-ene gelation was well described in the literature, its network ideality and degradation behaviors are not well-characterized. Here, we compared the netw...

  19. Thiol involvement in the inhibition of DNA repair by metals in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously demonstrated that a number of metal salts have the capacity to inhibit the DNA repair process in human cells. We investigated repair of X-ray damage in metal-treated HeLa cells under normal conditions and conditions in which cellular thiols had been depleted by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and diethyl maleate (DEM). The combination reduced cellular TNPT by 92%, and cells so depleted became sensitized to X-ray-induced killing and exhibited retarded sealing of X-ray-induced DNA single-strand breaks. Thiol depletion also sensitized cells to the cytotoxicity of certain but not all metals tested. The sensitivity to copper was increased over 6000-fold, and significant enhancement of killing was also seen in cells treated with arsenic, lead, and mercury. Smaller effects were observed with cadmium and nickel, and sensitivity to manganese, magnesium, cobalt or zinc was not substantially altered. Enhanced sensitivity to X-ray killing was found in cells treated with nickel, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and copper under conditions in which thiols were not limiting. In thiol-depleted cells, sensitivity was not further increased in the case of nickel and arsenic but at least additively affected for copper, mercury and zinc. X-Ray-induced single-strand break repair was retarded by treatment of cells with mercury, nickel, zinc, arsenic, and copper in thiol-normal cells. In thiol-depleted cells, repair inhibition by zinc, arsenic, and copper was nearly comy zinc, arsenic, and copper was nearly complete, while little additional effect on repair was seen following mercury and nickel treatment. An examination of the effects of brief metal treatment on cellular TNPT revealed that copper strongly decreased thiol levels whereas the other metals tested either had no effect on TNPT or reduced TNPT levels to no less than 48% under the conditions employed

  20. The role of ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin m in seed germination and the connection between this system and copper ion toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiri, M; Missaoui, T

    2014-11-01

    Seed germination is highly sensitive to changes in the surrounding environment. This work examined the impact of imbibition with copper solution on the germination rate and behavior of some enzyme capacities involved in stress response. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds were germinated at 25°C in the dark for 7 days of imbibition with distilled water or an aqueous solution of chloride salt of 100 or 500?M CuCl2. The exposure of seeds to copper (Cu(2+)) induced changes in the antioxidant status. In Cu-treated seeds, the non-protein thiols (—SHNP) pool and ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) expression and activity increased. Cysteinyl sulfurs in the thioredoxin (Trx) function as ligands for metal ions. The accumulation of Cu(2+) inhibited seed germination and embryo growth. It appears that the FTR system mediates a novel form of redox signaling in plants under copper excess. PMID:25173453

  1. Molecular modeling of the reductase domain to elucidate the reaction mechanism of reduction of peptidyl thioester into its corresponding alcohol in non-ribosomal peptide synthetases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Gwang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs are multienzymatic, multidomain megasynthases involved in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important nonribosomal peptides. The peptaibol synthetase from Trichoderma virens (TPS is an important member of the NRPS family that exhibits antifungal properties. The majority of the NRPSs terminate peptide synthesis with the thioesterase (TE domain, which either hydrolyzes the thioester linkage, releasing the free peptic acid, or catalyzes the intramolecular macrocyclization to produce a macrolactone product. TPS is an important NRPS that does not encompass a TE domain, but rather a reductase domain (R domain to release the mature peptide product reductively with the aid of a NADPH cofactor. However, the catalytic mechanism of the reductase domain has not yet been elucidated. Results We present here a three-dimensional (3D model of the reductase domain based on the crystal structure of vestitone reductase (VR. VR belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR superfamily and is responsible for the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH-dependent reduction of the substrate into its corresponding secondary alcohol product. The binding sites of the probable linear substrates, alamethicin, trichotoxin, antiamoebin I, chrysopermin C and gramicidin, were identified within the modeled R domain using multiple docking approaches. The docking results of the ligand in the active site of the R domain showed that reductase side chains have a high affinity towards ligand binding, while the thioester oxygen of each substrate forms a hydrogen bond with the OH group of Tyr176 and the thiol group of the substrate is closer to the Glu220. The modeling and docking studies revealed the reaction mechanism of reduction of thioester into a primary alcohol. Conclusion Peptaibol biosynthesis incorporates a single R domain, which appears to catalyze the four-electron reduction reaction of a peptidyl carrier protein (PCP-bound peptide to its corresponding primary alcohol. Analysis of R domains present in the non-redundant (nr database of the NCBI showed that the R domain always resides in the last NRPS module and is involved in either a two or four-electron reduction reaction.

  2. Functionalization of embedded thiol-ene waveguides for evanescent wave induced fluorescence detection in a microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of functional surface groups inherently present on off-stoichiometric thiol?ene polymers, for site-specific immobilization of biomolecules and detection by evanescent wave-induced fluorescence. An optofluidic chip featuring an embedded thiol?ene waveguide was selectively functionalized with biotin using photografting. The biotin was used for immobilization of fluorescently labelled streptavidin, and experiments revealed a linear correlation between streptavidin concentration and fluorescent intensity. To further demonstrate the attractiveness of using thiol?ene for optofluidic devices, the optical properties of thiol?ene was evaluated by determining the transparency and refractive index of the cured polymer.

  3. Quantification of protein thiols and dithiols in the picomolar range using sodium borohydride and 4,4'-dithiodipyridine.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa E; Østergaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Experimental determination of the number of thiols in a protein requires methodology that combines high sensitivity and reproducibility with low intrinsic thiol oxidation disposition. In detection of disulfide bonds, it is also necessary to efficiently reduce disulfides and to quantify the liberated thiols. Ellman's reagent (5,5'-dithiobis-[2-nitrobenzoic acid], DTNB) is the most widely used reagent for quantification of protein thiols, whereas dithiothreitol (DTT) is commonly used for disulfide reduction. DTNB suffers from a relatively low sensitivity, whereas DTT reduction is inconvenient because the reagent must be removed before thiol quantification. Furthermore, both reagents require a reaction pH > 7.0 where oxidation by ambient molecular oxygen is significant. Here we describe a quick and highly sensitive assay for protein thiol and dithiol quantification using the reducing agent sodium borohydride and the thiol reagent 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (4-DPS). Because borohydride is efficiently destroyed by the addition of acid, the complete reduction and quantification can be performed conveniently in one tube without desalting steps. Furthermore, the use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the thiol quantification by 4-DPS reduces the detection limit to the picomolar range (equivalent to 1 microg of a 50-kDa protein containing 1 thiol) while at the same time maintaining low pH throughout the procedure. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-1

  4. Protein thiols undergo reversible and irreversible oxidation during chill storage of ground beef as detected by 4,4'-dithiodipyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysman, Tine; Jongberg, Sisse; Van Royen, Geert; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; De Smet, Stefaan; Lund, Marianne N

    2014-12-10

    Quantification of protein thiols and disulfides in ground beef during storage under high-oxygen atmosphere at 4 °C was performed by thiol detection using 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (4-DPS) before and after disulfide reduction using sodium borohydride. Two independent storage trials were performed, and in trial 1, only reversible thiol oxidation was observed (thiol loss was 30%). In trial 2, irreversible thiol oxidation occurred during the first days of storage, while further loss of thiols was caused by reversible disulfide formation (thiol loss was 33%, of which ca. half was lost because of irreversible oxidation). The results were compared to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of cross-linked myosin heavy chain formed by disulfide bonding. Both methods confirmed increasing disulfide formation because of thiol oxidation in meat during storage, but the 4-DPS method showed higher disulfide percentages than the SDS-PAGE method (22.2 ± 0.3% and 8.5 ± 1.2%, respectively). The 4-DPS assay provides an accurate method to evaluate the thiol-disulfide redox state in meat. PMID:25382278

  5. Mercurochrom can be used for the histochemical demonstration and microphotometric quantitation of both protein thiols and protein (mixed) disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöhammer, G; Desoye, G

    1997-05-01

    Mercurochrom [2,7-dibromo-4-(hydroxymercuri)-fluorescein disodium salt] used for staining of protein thiols in addition binds to other groups of proteins. Experimental evidence is provided that mercurochrom bound to non-thiol groups forms a 1:1 adduct with protein (mixed) disulfides. The disulfide contents of three different types of cells determined biochemically correlated with the corresponding mean integrated optical densities determined microphotometrically after mercurochrom staining of groups other than thiols. Intracellular disulfide exchange has been studied, leading to a transformation of protein mixed disulfides to protein disulfides and an equimolar loss of protein thiols. Protein mixed disulfides were generated from protein thiols using both methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-6,6'-dinaphthyldisulfide (DDD). Loss of thiols as well as the equimolar increase of protein mixed disulfides were followed using both mercurochrom staining for thiols and for disulfides. Generation of protein mixed disulfides due to the DDD reaction was also followed by azocoupling with Fast blue B. On the basis of the observed stoichiometry between the loss of protein thiols and the quantity, increase or conversion of protein disulfides determined microphotometrically using both mercurochrom staining and DDD Fast blue B staining, we conclude that: (1) 1 mol of mercurochrom is bound per mol of protein (mixed) disulfide; and (2) the molar absorptivity of mercurochrom bound to disulfides is epsilon 520 = 34940. This study demonstrates that mercurochrom can be used for the quantitative determination of the oxidative status of protein thiols in cells. PMID:9208329

  6. Thiol dependent recovery of catalytic activity from oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zachary D.; Gates, Kent S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in the regulation of mammalian signal transduction. During some cell signaling processes, the generation of endogenous hydrogen peroxide inactivates selected PTPs via oxidation of the enzyme's catalytic cysteine thiolate group. Importantly, low molecular weight and protein thiols in the cell have the potential to regenerate the catalytically active PTPs. Here we examined the recovery of catalytic activity from two oxidatively-inactivated PTPs (PTP1B and SHP-2) by various low molecular weight thiols and the enzyme thioredoxin. All thiols examined regenerated the catalytic activity of oxidized PTP1B, with apparent rates constants that varied by a factor of approximately eight. In general, molecules bearing low pKa thiol groups were particularly effective. The biological thiol, glutathione repaired oxidized PTP1B with an apparent second-order rate constant of 0.023 ± 0.004 M?1 s?1, while the dithiol, DTT, displayed an apparent second-order rate constant of 0.325 ± 0.007 M?1 s?1. The enzyme thioredoxin regenerated the catalytic activity of oxidized PTP1B at a substantially faster rate than DTT. Thioredoxin (2 ?M) converted oxidized PTP1B to the active form with an observed rate constant of 1.4 × 10?3 s?1. The rates at which these agents regenerated oxidized PTP1B followed the trend Trx > DTT > GSH, with comparable values observed at 2 ?M Trx, 4 mM DTT and 60 mM GSH. Various disulfides that are byproducts of the reactivation process did not inactivate native PTP1B at concentrations of 1-20 mM. The common biochemical reducing agent tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) regenerates enzymatic activity from oxidized PTP1B somewhat faster than the thiol-based reagents, with a rate constant of 1.5 ± 0.5 M?1 s?1. We observed profound kinetic differences between the thiol-dependent regeneration of activity from oxidized PTP1B and SHP-2, highlighting the potential for structural differences in various oxidized PTPs to play a significant role in the rates at which low molecular weight thiols and thiol-containing enzymes such as thioredoxin and glutaredoxin return catalytic activity to these enzymes during cell signaling events. PMID:23957891

  7. Modular thiol-ene chemistry approach towards mesoporous silica monoliths with organically modified pore walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Ronald; Hesemann, Peter; Friedrich, Alwin; Rothe, Regina; Schlaad, Helmut; Taubert, Andreas

    2014-12-22

    The surface modification of mesoporous silica monoliths through thiol-ene chemistry is reported. First, mesoporous silica monoliths with vinyl, allyl, and thiol groups were synthesized through a sol-gel hydrolysis-polycondensation reaction from tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and vinyltriethoxysilane, allyltriethoxysilane, and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, respectively. By variation of the molar ratio of the comonomers TMOS and functional silane, mesoporous silica objects containing different amounts of vinyl, allyl, and thiol groups were obtained. These intermediates can subsequently be derivatized through radical photoaddition reactions either with a thiol or an olefin, depending on the initial pore wall functionality, to yield silica monoliths with different pore-wall chemistries. Nitrogen sorption, small-angle X-ray scattering, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and redox titration demonstrate that the synthetic pathway influences the morphology and pore characteristics of the resulting monoliths and also plays a significant role in the efficiency of functionalization. Moreover, the different reactivity of the vinyl and allyl groups on the pore wall affects the addition reaction, and hence, the degree of the pore-wall functionalization. This report demonstrates that thiol-ene photoaddition reactions are a versatile platform for the generation of a large variety of organically modified silica monoliths with different pore surfaces. PMID:25335454

  8. Strong Resistance of Citrate Anions on Metal Nanoparticles to Desorption under Thiol Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Won; Shumaker-Parry, Jennifer S

    2015-02-24

    Thiols are widely utilized to functionalize metal nanoparticles, including ubiquitous citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for fundamental studies and biomedical applications. For more than two decades, citrate-to-thiol ligand exchange has been used to introduce functionality to AuNPs in the 5-100 nm size regime. Contrary to conventional assumptions about the completion of ligand exchange processes and formation of a uniform self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the NP surface, coadsorption of thiols with preadsorbed citrates as a mixed layer on AuNPs is demonstrated. Hydrogen bonding between carboxyl moieties primarily is attributed to the strong adsorption of citrate, leading to the formation of a stabilized network that is challenging to displace. In these studies, adsorbed citrates, probed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, remain on the surface following thiol addition to the AuNPs, whereas acetoacetate anions are desorbed. XPS quantitative analysis indicates that the surface density of alkyl and aryl thiolates for AuNPs with an average diameter of ?40 nm is 50-65% of the value of a close-packed SAM on Au(111). We present a detailed citrate/thiolate coadsorption model that describes this final mixed surface composition. Intermolecular interactions between weakly coordinated oxyanions, such as polyprotic carboxylic acids, can lead to enhanced stability of the metal-ligand interactions, and this needs to be considered in the surface modification of metal nanoparticles by thiols or other anchor groups. PMID:25625548

  9. The electrophilic addition of thiols to olefins: A theoretical and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Yu. A.; Dyusengaliev, A. K.; Dyusengaliev, K. I.; Serikov, T. P.

    2008-12-01

    Density functional theory with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G* basis set was used to study the geometric and electronic structure of H2C = CHR (R = H, CH3, C2H5, C3H7, C4H9, and C5H11) olefins, their carbocations formed in the addition of the proton to the olefins, R'-S-H aliphatic thiols (R' = H, CH3, C2H5, and C3H7), the products of the addition of thiols to carbocations, and the final products of the addition of thiols to olefins. The proton affinity of the olefins and the products of the addition of thiols to olefins was calculated. The conclusion was drawn that the limiting stage in the nonradical addition of thiols to olefins catalyzed by acids was proton transfer from the protonated reaction product to the olefin. The theoretical results were compared with the experimental data on the electrophilic addition of polymercaptan to heptene-1.

  10. Thiol-independent activity of a cholesterol-binding enterohemolysin produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.M.S., Figueirêdo; C.F., Catani; T., Yano.

    1495-14-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Enterohemolysin produced by Escherichia coli associated with infant diarrhea showed characteristics similar to those of thiol-activated hemolysins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, including inactivation by cholesterol, lytic activity towards eukaryotic cells and thermoinstability. However, entero [...] hemolysin activity was not inactivated by oxidation or by SH group-blocking agents (1 mM HgCl2, 1 mM iodoacetic acid) and the hemolysin (100 µg/ml) was not lethal to mice, in contrast to the lethality of the thiol-activated hemolysin family to animals. Earlier reports showed that intravenous injection of partially purified streptolysin O preparations (0.2 µg) was rapidly lethal to mice. These results suggest that E. coli enterohemolysin is not a thiol-activated hemolysin, despite its ability to bind cholesterol, probably due to the absence of free thiol-group(s) that characterize the active form of the thiol-activated hemolysin molecule.

  11. Convenient method to assess chemical modification of protein thiols by electrophilic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Takashi; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Although covalent modification of protein thiols by electrophilic metals is implicated in disruption of protein functions associated with toxicity, there are limited methods available to detect such modifications. In the present study, we established a convenient method to assess modification of protein thiols by electrophiles, referred to as a biotin-PEAC?-maleimide (BPM)-labeling assay. In this assay, protein S-modification by electrophiles can be estimated by a decrease in protein modification by BPM, a thiol reactive probe. Using methylmercury (MeHg) as a model electrophilic metal, thiol modification of cellular proteins was detected by the BPM-labeling assay in SH-SY5Y cell lysates and primary mouse hepatocytes. The sensitivity and reliability of the assay was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry with recombinant Keap1 as a model thiol protein. This assay was applied to not only MeHg but also to other metals such as cadmium and lead. We also established a BPM-precipitation assay with avidin-agarose beads to separate BPM-modified cellular proteins followed by detection with the individual antibodies. This assay was available for detecting MeHg-induced S-modification of cellular Keap1 in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, we have developed reliable simple methods to estimate protein S-modification by electrophilic metals. PMID:23719925

  12. Influence of thiol stress on oxidative phosphorylation and generation of ROS in Streptomyces coelicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemendra J. Vekaria

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Thiols play very important role in the intracellular redox homeostasis. Imbalance in the redox status leads to changes in the intracellular metabolism including respiration. Thiol stress, a reductive type of stress can also cause redox imbalance. When Gram-positive bacterium Strep- tomyces coelicolor was exposed to thiol stress, catalaseA was induced. Induction of catalaseA is the consequence of elevation of ROS (reactive oxygen species. The two major sources of reactive oxygen species are Fenton reaction and slippage of electrons from electron transport chain during respiration. Hence, the effect of thiol stress was checked on the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in S. coelicolor. We found correlation in the increase of oxidative phosphorylation rate and the generation of ROS, subsequently leading to induction of catalase. It was observed that thiol stress does not affect the functionality of the individual complexes of the ETC, but still there was an increase in the overall respiration, which may lead to generation of more ROS leading to induction of catalase.

  13. Fabrication of nano-pillar with sub-100nm resolution based on thiol-ene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling; Shi, Lifang; Pang, Hui; Cao, Axiu; Hu, Song

    2014-11-01

    This paper demonstrates an approach to fabricate nano-pillar based on thiol-ene via soft-lithography. The template is anodic aluminum oxygen (AAO) with ordered nano-holes with the diameter of 90nm.The nano-pillar consists of rigid thiol-ene features on an elastic poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) support. It is capable of patterning both flat and curved substrate. The thiol-ene is a new green UV-curable polymer material, including a number of advantages such as rapid UV-curing in the natural environment, low-cost, high resolution, and regulative performance characteristic. Here, we fabricated a two-layer structure, which included rigid thiol-ene nano-pillar with sub-100nm resolution and soft PDMS substrate. The experiment results show that this approach can be used to fabricate high-resolution features and the thiol-ene is an excellent imprint material. The fabrication technique in this paper is simple, low-cost, high-resolution and easy to high throughput, which has broad application prospects in the preparation of nanostructures.

  14. Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of Diamondoid Thiol Monolayers on Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T M; Fabbri, J; Lee, J I; Schreiner, P; Fokin, A A; Tkachenko, B A; Fokina, N A; Dahl, J; Carlson, B; Vance, A L; Yang, W; Terminello, L J; van Buuren, T; Melosh, N

    2007-11-27

    Diamondoids, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures, have unique properties with potential value for nanotechnology. The availability and ability to selectively functionalize this special class of nanodiamond materials opens new possibilities for surface-modification, for high-efficiency field emitters in molecular electronics, as seed crystals for diamond growth, or as robust mechanical coatings. The properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of diamondoids are thus of fundamental interest for a variety of emerging applications. This paper presents the effects of thiol substitution position and polymantane order on diamondoid SAMs on gold using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A framework to determine both molecular tilt and twist through NEXAFS is presented and reveals highly ordered diamondoid SAMs, with the molecular orientation controlled by the thiol location. C 1s and S 2p binding energies are lower in adamantane thiol than alkane thiols on gold by 0.67 {+-} 0.05 eV and 0.16 {+-} 0.04 eV respectively. These binding energies vary with diamondoid monolayer structure and thiol substitution position, consistent with different amounts of steric strain and electronic interaction with the substrate. This work demonstrates control over the assembly, in particular the orientational and electronic structure, providing a flexible design of surface properties with this exciting new class of diamond clusters.

  15. Oxidation of the albumin thiol to sulfenic acid and its implications in the intravascular compartment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Turell; S., Carballal; H., Botti; R., Radi; B., Alvarez.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in the intravascular compartment. It possesses a single thiol, Cys34, which constitutes ~80% of the total thiols in plasma. This thiol is able to scavenge plasma oxidants. A central intermediate in this potential antioxidant activity of human se [...] rum albumin is sulfenic acid (HSA-SOH). Work from our laboratories has demonstrated the formation of a relatively stable sulfenic acid in albumin through complementary spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric approaches. Recently, we have been able to obtain quantitative data that allowed us to measure the rate constants of sulfenic acid reactions with molecules of analytical and biological interest. Kinetic considerations led us to conclude that the most likely fate for sulfenic acid formed in the plasma environment is the reaction with low molecular weight thiols to form mixed disulfides, a reversible modification that is actually observed in ~25% of circulating albumin. Another possible fate for sulfenic acid is further oxidation to sulfinic and sulfonic acids. These irreversible modifications are also detected in the circulation. Oxidized forms of albumin are increased in different pathophysiological conditions and sulfenic acid lies in a mechanistic junction, relating oxidizing species to final thiol oxidation products.

  16. Posttranslational glutathiolation of aldose reductase (AKR1B1); a possible mechanism of protein recovery from S-nitrosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Shahid Pervez; Wetzelberger, Karin; Hoetker, Joseph David; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of the catalytic activity of aldose reductase (AR). It reacts with the active site cysteines of AR and this reaction results in the formation of several kinetically distinct forms of the protein. The catalytic activity of AR is increased in the ischemic heart and this increase in activity is associated with NO-dependent modification of AR. During reperfusion, the enzyme reverts back to its un-activated form. Although, AR activation has been linked to thiol oxidation, the mechanisms of de-activation remain unclear. Here we report that treatment of recombinant human AR (AKR1B1) by a non-thiol based NO-donor (DEANO) results in activation and S-nitrosylation of the protein. The nitrosylated (ARSNO), but not the reduced (ARSH), protein reacted with reduced glutathione (GSH) and this reaction resulted in the formation of glutathiolated AR (ARSSG). The modification of AR by NO was site-specific at Cys-298 and was not affected by selective mutation of the neighboring residue, Cys303 to an alanine. Incubation of the glutathiolated AR (AR-SSG) with GSH resulted in the regeneration of the reduced form of the protein (ARSH). Treatment of nitrosylated AR (AR-SNO) with ascorbic acid also led to the conversion of the protein to its reduced form. These observations suggest that intracellular reductants such as GSH and ascorbate could convert the nitrosylated form of AR to its basal or reduced state. In general, such reductive reactions might represent a common mechanism for denitrosylating proteins or an “off” switch in NO-mediated signaling pathways involving protein S-nitrosylation reactions. PMID:19061876

  17. Modulation of the ribonucleotide reductase M1-gemcitabine interaction in vivo by N-ethylmaleimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Gemcitabine induces a RRM1 conformational change in tumor cell lines and xenografts. ? The 110 kDa RRM1 is unique to gemcitabine interaction among 12 cytotoxic agents. ? The 110 kDa RRM1 can be stabilized by the thiol alkylator N-ethylmaleimide. ? C218A, C429A, and E431A mutations in RRM1 abolished the conformational change. ? The 110 kDa RRM1 may be a specific biomarker of gemcitabine's therapeutic efficacy. -- Abstract: Ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) is the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Its function is indispensible in cell proliferation and DNA repair. It also serves as a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy of the antimetabolite drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine) in various malignancies. However, a mechanistic explanation remains to be determined. This study investigated how the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) interacts with the inhibitory activity of gemcitabine on its target protein RRM1 in vivo. We found, when cells were treated with gemcitabine in the presence of NEM, a novel 110 kDa band, along with the 90 kDa native RRM1 band, appeared in immunoblots. This 110 kDa band was identified as RRM1 by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and represented a conformational change resulting from covalent labeling by gemcitabine. It is specific to gemcitabine/NEM, among 11 other chemotherapy drugs tested. It was also detectable in human tumor xenografts in mice treated with gemcitabine. Among mutations of seven residues essential for RRM1 function, C218A, C429A, and E431A abolished the conformational change, while N427A, C787A, and C790A diminished it. C444A was unique since it was able to alter the conformation even in absence of gemcitabine treatment. We conclude that the thiol alkylator NEM can stabilize the gemcitabine-induced conformational change of RRM1, and this stabilized RRM1 conformation has the potential to serve as a specific biomarker of gemcitabine's therapeutic efficacy.

  18. Mutant AhpC peroxiredoxins suppress thiol-disulfide redox deficiencies and acquire deglutathionylating activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Ritz, Dani; Planson, Anne-gae?lle; Jo?nsson, Thomas J.; Faulkner, Melinda J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Poole, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial peroxiredoxin AhpC, a cysteine-dependent peroxidase, can be converted through a single amino acid insertion to a disulfide reductase, AhpC*, active in the glutathione and glutaredoxin pathway. Here we show that, whereas AhpC* is inactive as a peroxidase, other point mutants in AhpC can confer the in vivo disulfide reductase activity without abrogating peroxidase activity. Moreover, AhpC* and several point mutants tested in vitro exhibit an enhanced reductase activity toward mixe...

  19. The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs): Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M

    2014-10-01

    The aldo-keto reductase (AKR) protein superfamily contains >190 members that fall into 16 families and are found in all phyla. These enzymes reduce carbonyl substrates such as: sugar aldehydes; keto-steroids, keto-prostaglandins, retinals, quinones, and lipid peroxidation by-products. Exceptions include the reduction of steroid double bonds catalyzed by AKR1D enzymes (5?-reductases); and the oxidation of proximate carcinogen trans-dihydrodiol polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; while the ?-subunits of potassium gated ion channels (AKR6 family) control Kv channel opening. AKRs are usually 37kDa monomers, have an (?/?)8-barrel motif, display large loops at the back of the barrel which govern substrate specificity, and have a conserved cofactor binding domain. AKRs catalyze an ordered bi bi kinetic mechanism in which NAD(P)H cofactor binds first and leaves last. In enzymes that favor NADPH, the rate of release of NADP(+) is governed by a slow isomerization step which places an upper limit on kcat. AKRs retain a conserved catalytic tetrad consisting of Tyr55, Asp50, Lys84, and His117 (AKR1C9 numbering). There is conservation of the catalytic mechanism with short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) even though they show different protein folds. There are 15 human AKRs of these AKR1B1, AKR1C1-1C3, AKR1D1, and AKR1B10 have been implicated in diabetic complications, steroid hormone dependent malignancies, bile acid deficiency and defects in retinoic acid signaling, respectively. Inhibitor programs exist world-wide to target each of these enzymes to treat the aforementioned disorders. Inherited mutations in AKR1C and AKR1D1 enzymes are implicated in defects in the development of male genitalia and bile acid deficiency, respectively, and occur in evolutionarily conserved amino acids. The human AKRs have a large number of nsSNPs and splice variants, but in many instances functional genomics is lacking. AKRs and their variants are now poised to be interrogated using modern genomic and informatics approaches to determine their association with human health and disease. PMID:25304492

  20. Thiol redox state and related enzymes in sclerotium-forming filamentous phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Georgiou, D Christos

    2008-05-01

    Thiol redox state (TRS) reduced and oxidized components form profiles characteristic of each of the four main types of differentiation in the sclerotiogenic phytopathogenic fungi: loose, terminal, lateral-chained, and lateral-simple, represented by Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Sclerotinia minor, respectively. A common feature of these fungi is that as their undifferentiated mycelium enters the differentiated state, it is accompanied by a decrease in the low oxidative stress-associated total reduced thiols and/or by an increase of the high oxidative stress-associated total oxidized thiols either in the sclerotial mycelial substrate or in its corresponding sclerotium, indicating a relationship between TRS-related oxidative stress and sclerotial differentiation. Moreover, the four studied sclerotium types exhibit high activities of TRS-related antioxidant enzymes, indicating the existence of antioxidant protection of the hyphae of the sclerotium medulla until conditions become appropriate for sclerotium germination. PMID:18400483

  1. Functionalizing Zn- and O-terminated ZnO with thiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, Patrick W.; Pearton, Stephen J.; Norton, David P.; Lambers, Eric; Ren, Fan

    2007-05-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of dodecanethiol on zinc- and oxygen-terminated ZnO surfaces. Strong enthalpic adsorption is demonstrated by the stability of sulfur on both ZnO surfaces for temperatures up to 400°C. The minimal presence of the S 2p3/2 170eV peak suggests absorption of the sulfur as an unoxidized thiol. The results indicate a higher surface coverage of the thiol on the zinc-terminated surface. Evidence from reflection high energy electron diffraction measurements for the surface ordering after thiol treatment of the oxygen-terminated ZnO surface suggests that the dodecanethiol molecules can adsorb in a highly ordered manner. These results further open the possibility for biofunctionalization of ZnO for biosensing applications.

  2. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis

  3. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, James B., E-mail: jim@jamessund.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Causey, Corey P. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wolter, Scott D. [Department of Physics, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Parker, Charles B., E-mail: charles.parker@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Stoner, Brian R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Toone, Eric J. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Glass, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  4. Competitive reduction of perferrylmyoglobin radicals by protein thiols and plant phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Lund, Marianne N; Skibsted, Leif H; Davies, Michael J

    2014-11-19

    Radical transfer from perferrylmyoglobin to other target species (myofibrillar proteins, MPI) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), extracts from green tea (GTE), maté (ME), and rosemary (RE), and three phenolic compounds, catechin, caffeic acid, and carnosic acid) was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to determine the concentrations of plant extracts required to protect against protein oxidation. Blocking of MPI thiol groups by N-ethylmaleimide was found to reduce the rate of reaction of MPI with perferrylmyoglobin radicals, signifying the importance of protein thiols as radical scavengers. GTE had the highest phenolic content of the three extracts and was most effective as a radical scavenger. IC50 values indicated that the molar ratio between phenols in plant extract and MPI thiols needs to be >15 in order to obtain efficient protection against protein-to-protein radical transfer in meat. Caffeic acid was found most effective among the plant phenols. PMID:25343706

  5. Competitive reduction of perferrylmyoglobin radicals by protein thiols and plant phenols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Lametsch, Marianne Lund

    2014-01-01

    Radical transfer from perferrylmyoglobin to other target species (myofibrillar proteins, MPI) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), extracts from green tea (GTE), maté (ME), and rosemary (RE), and three phenolic compounds, catechin, caffeic acid, and carnosic acid) was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to determine the concentrations of plant extracts required to protect against protein oxidation. Blocking of MPI thiol groups by N-ethylmaleimide was found to reduce the rate of reaction of MPI with perferrylmyoglobin radicals, signifying the importance of protein thiols as radical scavengers. GTE had the highest phenolic content of the three extracts and was most effective as a radical scavenger. IC50 values indicated that the molar ratio between phenols in plant extract and MPI thiols needs to be >15 in order to obtain efficient protection against protein-to-protein radical transfer in meat. Caffeic acid was found most effective among the plant phenols.

  6. Aldo keto reductases 1B in endocrinology and metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    AntoineMartinez

    2012-01-01

    The aldose reductase (human AKR1B1/mouse Akr1b3) has been the focus of many research because of its role in diabetic complications. The starting point of these alterations is the massive entry of glucose in polyol pathway where it is converted into sorbitol by this enzyme. However, the issue of aldose reductase function in non-diabetic condition remains unresolved. Aldose reductase-like enzymes (AKR1B10, Akr1b7 and Akr1b8) are highly related isoforms often co-expressed with bona fide aldose r...

  7. Stretching of BDT-gold molecular junctions: thiol or thiolate termination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Amaury De Melo; Rungger, Ivan; Pontes, Renato Borges; Rocha, Alexandre Reily; da Silva, Antônio José Roque; Schwingenschlöegl, Udo; Sanvito, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    It is often assumed that the hydrogen atoms in the thiol groups of a benzene-1,4-dithiol dissociate when Au-benzene-1,4-dithiol-Au junctions are formed. We demonstrate, by stability and transport property calculations, that this assumption cannot be made. We show that the dissociative adsorption of methanethiol and benzene-1,4-dithiol molecules on a flat Au(111) surface is energetically unfavorable and that the activation barrier for this reaction is as high as 1 eV. For the molecule in the junction, our results show, for all electrode geometries studied, that the thiol junctions are energetically more stable than their thiolate counterparts. Due to the fact that density functional theory (DFT) within the local density approximation (LDA) underestimates the energy difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital by several electron-volts, and that it does not capture the renormalization of the energy levels due to the image charge effect, the conductance of the Au-benzene-1,4-dithiol-Au junctions is overestimated. After taking into account corrections due to image charge effects by means of constrained-DFT calculations and electrostatic classical models, we apply a scissor operator to correct the DFT energy level positions, and calculate the transport properties of the thiol and thiolate molecular junctions as a function of the electrode separation. For the thiol junctions, we show that the conductance decreases as the electrode separation increases, whereas the opposite trend is found for the thiolate junctions. Both behaviors have been observed in experiments, therefore pointing to the possible coexistence of both thiol and thiolate junctions. Moreover, the corrected conductance values, for both thiol and thiolate, are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those calculated with DFT-LDA. This brings the theoretical results in quantitatively good agreement with experimental data.

  8. Metabolic coupling of two small-molecule thiols programs the biosynthesis of lincomycin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qunfei; Wang, Min; Xu, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Wen

    2015-02-01

    Low-molecular-mass thiols in organisms are well known for their redox-relevant role in protection against various endogenous and exogenous stresses. In eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, the primary thiol is glutathione (GSH), a cysteinyl-containing tripeptide. In contrast, mycothiol (MSH), a cysteinyl pseudo-disaccharide, is dominant in Gram-positive actinobacteria, including antibiotic-producing actinomycetes and pathogenic mycobacteria. MSH is equivalent to GSH, either as a cofactor or as a substrate, in numerous biochemical processes, most of which have not been characterized, largely due to the dearth of information concerning MSH-dependent proteins. Actinomycetes are able to produce another thiol, ergothioneine (EGT), a histidine betaine derivative that is widely assimilated by plants and animals for variable physiological activities. The involvement of EGT in enzymatic reactions, however, lacks any precedent. Here we report that the unprecedented coupling of two bacterial thiols, MSH and EGT, has a constructive role in the biosynthesis of lincomycin A, a sulfur-containing lincosamide (C8 sugar) antibiotic that has been widely used for half a century to treat Gram-positive bacterial infections. EGT acts as a carrier to template the molecular assembly, and MSH is the sulfur donor for lincomycin maturation after thiol exchange. These thiols function through two unusual S-glycosylations that program lincosamide transfer, activation and modification, providing the first paradigm for EGT-associated biochemical processes and for the poorly understood MSH-dependent biotransformations, a newly described model that is potentially common in the incorporation of sulfur, an element essential for life and ubiquitous in living systems. PMID:25607359

  9. [Stabilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash with the thiol collectors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Jun; Yu, Ying; Ni, Yu-Wen; Li, Yong-Xian; Wang, Shu-Qiu; Chen, Ji-Ping

    2007-08-01

    Three kinds of thiol collector, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), potassium ethyl xanthate (EXT) and ammonium dibutyl dithiphosphate (DDTP), were adopted to stabilize heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI fly ash). The concentration of the three thiol collectors was all 62.5 micromol x g(-1) fly ash. Scanning electron microscopic observation shows that, the thiol collectors evenly cover on the surface of fly ash which makes the angles of mineral crystal ambiguous. Furthermore, the leaching characteristics of heavy metal Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn in fly ash were analyzed according to the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the horizontal vibration method. Comparing with Na2S, thiol collectors present better stabilization effects for Cu and Pb when the extractant is 0.1 mol x L(-1) acetic acid. DDTC stabilizes almost all the acid-extractable Cu, and DDTP stabilizes 69.2% of acid-extractable Pb. When extracted by water, the stabilization ratios of the five heavy metals by DDTC, EXT and DDTP are 72.6%, 73.5% and 76.8%, respectively, significantly higher than that by Na2S (52.4%). The affinity preference of the thiol collectors for the five heavy metals is generally in the order of Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd > Zn. Also, over 60% of the collector participates in the chelating reaction with the acid-extractable heavy metals. Under neutral and alkali condition (pH > 6) the chelators of heavy metal-thiol collector are steady, but partly dissolved under acid condition (pH < 6). Evidently, in order to obtain better heavy metal stabilization effects, it is important to maintain the acid buffer capacity of stabilized fly ash at a higher level. PMID:17926431

  10. Thiol-dependent recovery of catalytic activity from oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zachary D; Gates, Kent S

    2013-09-17

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in the regulation of mammalian signal transduction. During some cell signaling processes, the generation of endogenous hydrogen peroxide inactivates selected PTPs via oxidation of the enzyme's catalytic cysteine thiolate group. Importantly, low-molecular weight and protein thiols in the cell have the potential to regenerate the catalytically active PTPs. Here we examined the recovery of catalytic activity from two oxidatively inactivated PTPs (PTP1B and SHP-2) by various low-molecular weight thiols and the enzyme thioredoxin. All monothiols examined regenerated the catalytic activity of oxidized PTP1B, with apparent rate constants that varied by a factor of approximately 8. In general, molecules bearing low-pKa thiol groups were particularly effective. The biological thiol glutathione repaired oxidized PTP1B with an apparent second-order rate constant of 0.023 ± 0.004 M(-1) s(-1), while the dithiol dithiothreitol (DTT) displayed an apparent second-order rate constant of 0.325 ± 0.007 M(-1) s(-1). The enzyme thioredoxin regenerated the catalytic activity of oxidized PTP1B at a substantially faster rate than DTT. Thioredoxin (2 ?M) converted oxidized PTP1B to the active form with an observed rate constant of 1.4 × 10(-3) s(-1). The rates at which these agents regenerated oxidized PTP1B followed the order Trx > DTT > GSHand comparable values observed at 2 ?M Trx, 4 mM DTT, and 60 mM GSH. Various disulfides that are byproducts of the reactivation process did not inactivate native PTP1B at concentrations of 1-20 mM. The common biochemical reducing agent tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine regenerates enzymatic activity from oxidized PTP1B somewhat faster than the thiol-based reagents, with a rate constant of 1.5 ± 0.5 M(-1) s(-1). We observed profound kinetic differences between the thiol-dependent regeneration of activity from oxidized PTP1B and SHP-2, highlighting the potential for structural differences in various oxidized PTPs to play a significant role in the rates at which low-molecular weight thiols and thiol-containing enzymes such as thioredoxin and glutaredoxin return catalytic activity to these enzymes during cell signaling events. PMID:23957891

  11. Thiol-Disulfide Interchange in the Tocinoic Acid/Glutathione System During Freezing and Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Thing, Mette; Zhang, Jun; Laurence, Jennifer; Topp, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Thiol-disulfide interchange (“disulfide scrambling”) is a common mechanism of covalent aggregation for protein drugs. Using tocinoic acid (cyclo-S-Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-(S); TA(ox)) and glutathione (?Glu-Cys-Gly; GSH), our previous work demonstrated that thiol/disulfide interchange is affected by lyophilization in a manner consistent with irreversible and regioselective loss of TA(ox) (Zhang et al., 2009, J Pharm Sci 98/9: 3312–3318). Here, we explore the contributions of stages of t...

  12. Synthesis of Biobased Polyols by Thiol-Ene Coupling from Vegetable Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Desroches, Myriam; Caillol, Sylvain; Lapinte, Vincent; Auvergne, Re?mi; Boutevin, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    A model study of the radical addition of 2-mercaptoethanol onto oleic acid was performed under mild conditions (generation of radicals under UV light at room temperature without any photoinitiator). To evaluate the efficiency and the robustness of thiol-ene reaction, experimental parameters were varied, such as the irradiation intensity (ranging from 0.5 to 15.0 W/cm2), the thiol/double bond ratio (ranging from 1.2/1 to 5.0/1), the solvent/double bond ratio (ranging from 0/1 to 500/1), and th...

  13. Studies of Aqueous U(IV) Complexation under Thiol-rich Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic thiol compounds and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are electron donors and metabolic products of sulfate reducing bacteria. In addition, they are among redox potential (Eh) determinants of groundwater systems due to their redox characteristics. The low values of acid dissociation constants for .SH (pKa, 7-9) compared to those of aliphatic or phenolic .OH, impart greater anionic and metal-binding properties to the molecules. Recently, we demonstrated that a thiol compound (i. e., thiosalicylate) enhances the solubility of U(VI) at higher pH levels (2 nanoparticles may explain the observed solubility increase

  14. Synthesis of non-linear protein dimers through a genetically encoded Thiol-ene reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Kolbus, Jessica; Chou, Chungjung; Liu, Jihe; Deiters, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific incorporation of bioorthogonal unnatural amino acids into proteins provides a useful tool for the installation of specific functionalities that will allow for the labeling of proteins with virtually any probe. We demonstrate the genetic encoding of a set of alkene lysines using the orthogonal PylRS/PylTCUA pair in Escherichia coli. The installed double bond functionality was then applied in a photoinitiated thiol-ene reaction of the protein with a fluorescent thiol-bearing probe, as well as a cysteine residue of a second protein, showing the applicability of this approach in the formation of heterogeneous non-linear fused proteins. PMID:25181502

  15. Tackling poison and leach: catalysis by dangling thiol-palladium functions within a porous metal-organic solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Bo; Yee, Ka-Kit; Wong, Yan-Lung; Yiu, Shek-Man; Zeller, Matthias; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Zhengta

    2015-04-25

    Self-standing thiol (-SH) groups within a Zr(iv)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) anchor Pd(ii) atoms for catalytic applications: the spatial constraint prevents the thiol groups from sealing off/poisoning the Pd(ii) center, while the strong Pd-S bond precludes Pd leaching, enabling multiple cycles of heterogeneous catalysis to be executed. PMID:25757538

  16. Volume holographic recording in photopolymerizable nanocomposite materials based on radical-mediated thiol-yne step-growth polymerizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsube, Ken; Nishimura, Yuki; Takayama, Shingo; Nagaya, Kohta; Tomita, Yasuo

    2013-05-01

    We propose the use of radical-mediated thiol-yne step-growth photopolymerizations for volume holographic recording in NPC films to overcome the drawback of low crosslinking densities but retain the advantage of low shrinkage in the thiol-ene photopolymerizations. The thiol-yne photopolymerization mechanism is different from the thiol-ene photopolymeriztions in the sense that each alkyne functional group can react consecutively with two thiol functional groups. We show that thiol-yne based NPC films dispersed with silica nanoparticles give the saturated refractive index change as large as 0.008 and the material recording sensitivity as high as 2005 cm/J at a wavelength of 532 nm, larger than the minimum acceptable values of 0.005 and 500 cm/J, respectively, for holographic data storage. We also show that the shrinkage of a recorded hologram can be as low as that of thiol-ene based NPC films and that the thermal stability is improved better. In addition, we demonstrate digital data page recording in thiol-yne based NPC films, showing a low symbol error rate and a high signal-to-noise ratio to be 2.8×10-4 and 8, respectively.

  17. Cu-catalyzed in situ generation of thiol using xanthate as a thiol surrogate for the one-pot synthesis of benzothiazoles and benzothiophenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, D J C; Sekar, G

    2013-02-13

    A new copper-catalyzed in situ generation of aryl thiolates strategy was successfully developed for the one-pot synthesis of substituted benzothiazoles from 2-iodoanilides using xanthate as a thiol precursor. A wide range of 2-iodoanilides with both electron-releasing and electron-withdrawing groups produced the corresponding benzothiazoles in good yields. Further, this one-pot protocol was successfully utilized for the synthesis of a potent antitumor agent 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-fluorobenzo[d]thiazole (PMX 610). Finally, the copper-catalyzed in situ generation of aryl thiolates strategy was successfully applied for the domino synthesis of substituted benzothiophenes from o-haloalkynyl benzenes using xanthate as a thiol precursor. PMID:23358646

  18. Characterization of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase from C. elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thioredoxin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the catalytic disulfide bond of thioredoxin. In mammals and other higher eukaryotes, thioredoxin reductases contain the rare amino acid selenocysteine at the active site. The mitochondrial enzyme from Caenorhabditis elegans, however, contains a cysteine residue in place of selenocysteine. The mitochondrial C. elegans thioredoxin reductase was cloned from an expressed sequence tag and then produced in Escherichia coli as an intein-fusion protein. The purified recombinant enzyme has a k cat of 610 min-1 and a K m of 610 ?M using E. coli thioredoxin as substrate. The reported k cat is 25% of the k cat of the mammalian enzyme and is 43-fold higher than a cysteine mutant of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. The enzyme would reduce selenocysteine, but not hydrogen peroxide or insulin. The flanking glycine residues of the GCCG motif were mutated to serine. The mutants improved substrate binding, but decreased the catalytic rate

  19. Nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human aldose reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, A.; Hedge, P.J.; Powell, S.J.; Riley, J.; Brown, L.; Gammack, A.; Carey, F.; Markham, A.F. (ICI Diagnosis, Cheshire (England))

    1989-10-25

    The sequence of human foetal liver aldose reductase cDNA obtained from a {lambda}-gt10 library is presented. This cDNA encodes a protein of 316 amino acids with a 45 bp 5{prime}-non coding region and a 356 bp 3{prime} non coding region. Aldose reductase is of wide clinical interest in that inhibitors may prevent the complications associated with diabetes mellitus. The cDNA clone was identified using oligonucleotides based on rat lens cDNA and bovine lens protein sequence. Aldose reductase constitutes one member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme family. The data herein confirm recent assignments of sequence to various members of this NADPH-dependent carbonyl oxidoreductase superfamily.

  20. Profiling patterns of glutathione reductase inhibition by the natural product illudin S and its acylfulvene analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Sturla, Shana J

    2009-09-01

    Acylfulvenes (AFs) are a class of antitumor agents with favorable cytotoxic selectivity profiles compared to their natural product precursor, illudin S. Like many alkylating agents, illudin S and AFs readily react with thiol-containing small molecules such as cysteine, glutathione and cysteine-containing peptides; reduced cellular glutathione levels can affect illudin S toxicity. Glutathione reductase (GR) is a critical cellular antioxidant enzyme that regulates the intracellular ratio of reduced-oxidized glutathione. In this study, we found that acylfulvene analogues are GR inhibitors, and evaluated aspects of the drug-enzyme interactions as compared with the structurally related natural product illudin S and the known irreversible GR inhibitor, carmustine. Acylfulvene analogues exhibited concentration-dependent GR inhibitory activity with micromolar IC(50)s; however, up to 2 mM illudin S did not inhibit GR activity. The absence of NADPH attenuates GR inhibition by AFs and the presence of glutathione disulfide (GSSG), the natural GR substrate, which binds to the enzyme active site, has a minimal effect in protecting GR from AFs. Furthermore, each compound can induce GR conformation changes independent of the presence of NADPH or GSSG. These results, together with gel-filtration analysis results and mass spectrometry data, indicate AF is a reversible inhibitor and HMAF an irreversible inhibitor that can form a bis-adduct with GR by reacting with active site cysteines. Finally in a cell-based assay, illudin S and HMAF were found to inhibit GR activity, but this inhibition was not associated with the reduction of GR levels in the cell. A model accounting for differences in mechanisms of GR inhibition by the series of compounds is discussed. PMID:19668867

  1. Glutathione and glutathione reductase: a boon in disguise for plant abiotic stress defense operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Anjum, Naser A; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Gill, Ritu; Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Ahmad, Iqbal; Pereira, Eduarda; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-09-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, clilling, heavy metal are the major limiting factors for crop productivity. These stresses induce the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are highly reactive and toxic, which must be minimized to protect the cell from oxidative damage. The cell organelles, particularly chloroplast and mitochondria are the major sites of ROS production in plants where excessive rate of electron flow takes place. Plant cells are well equipped to efficiently scavenge ROS and its reaction products by the coordinated and concerted action of antioxidant machinery constituted by vital enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant components. Glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and tripeptide glutathione (GSH, ?-Glutamyl-Cysteinyl-Glycine) are two major components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) pathway which play significant role in protecting cells against ROS and its reaction products-accrued potential anomalies. Both GR and GSH are physiologically linked together where, GR is a NAD(P)H-dependent enzymatic antioxidant and efficiently maintains the reduced pool of GSH - a cellular thiol. The differential modulation of both GR and GSH in plants has been widely implicated for the significance of these two enigmatic antioxidants as major components of plant defense operations. Considering recent informations gained through molecular-genetic studies, the current paper presents an overview of the structure, localization, biosynthesis (for GSH only), discusses GSH and GR significance in abiotic stress (such as salinity, drought, clilling, heavy metal)-exposed crop plants and also points out unexplored aspects in the current context for future studies. PMID:23792825

  2. Fungal denitrification and nitric oxide reductase cytochrome P450nor

    OpenAIRE

    Shoun, Hirofumi; Fushinobu, Shinya; Jiang, Li; Kim, Sang-wan; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that many fungi (eukaryotes) exhibit distinct denitrifying activities, although occurrence of denitrification was previously thought to be restricted to bacteria (prokaryotes), and have characterized the fungal denitrification system. It comprises NirK (copper-containing nitrite reductase) and P450nor (a cytochrome P450 nitric oxide (NO) reductase (Nor)) to reduce nitrite to nitrous oxide (N2O). The system is localized in mitochondria functioning during anaerobic respiration. So...

  3. Nitrogenase reductase: A functional multigene family in Rhizobium phaseoli

    OpenAIRE

    Quinto, Carmen; La Vega, Humberto; Flores, Margarita; Leemans, Jan; Cevallos, Miguel Angel; Pardo, Marco Aurelio; Azpiroz, Ricardo; Lourdes Girard, Maria; Calva, Edmundo; Palacios, Rafael

    1985-01-01

    The complete coding sequence of the nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) is present in three different regions of a Rhizobium phaseoli symbiotic plasmid. Homology between two of the regions containing nifH coding sequences extends over 5 kilobases. These in turn share 1.3 kilobases of homology with the third region. The nucleotide sequences of the three nitrogenase reductase genes were found to be identical. Site-directed insertion mutagenesis indicated that none of the three genes is indispensa...

  4. Aldose reductase inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of pomegranate extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Karasu, C?imen; Cumaog?lu, Ahmet; Gu?rpinar, Ali Rifat; Kartal, Murat; Kovacikova, Lucia; Milackova, Ivana; Stefek, Milan

    2012-01-01

    The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., has been the subject of current interest as a medicinal agent with wide-ranging therapeutic indications. In the present study, pomegranate ethanolic seed and hull extracts were tested, in comparison with a commercial sample, for the inhibition of aldose reductase, an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic complications. In vitro inhibition of rat lens aldose reductase was determined by a conventional method. Pomegranate ethanolic hull extract and comm...

  5. Cloning and sequence of the human adrenodoxin reductase gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, D.; Shi, Y. F.; Miller, W. L.

    1990-01-01

    Adrenodoxin reductase (ferrodoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.18.1.2) is a flavoprotein mediating electron transport to all mitochondrial forms of cytochrome P450. We cloned the human adrenodoxin reductase gene and characterized it by restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequencing. The entire gene is approximately 12 kilobases long and consists of 12 exons. The first exon encodes the first 26 of the 32 amino acids of the signal peptide, and the second exon encodes the remainder of signal ...

  6. Relative adrenal insufficiency in mice deficient in 5?-reductase 1

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Dawn E. W.; Di Rollo, Emma M.; Yang, Chenjing; Codrington, Lucy E.; Mathews, John A.; Kara, Madina; Hughes, Katherine A.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Walker, Brian R.; Andrew, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Patients with critical illness or hepatic failure exhibit impaired cortisol responses to ACTH, a phenomenon known as ‘relative adrenal insufficiency’. A putative mechanism is that elevated bile acids inhibit inactivation of cortisol in liver by 5?-reductases type 1 and type 2 and 5?-reductase, resulting in compensatory downregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and adrenocortical atrophy. To test the hypothesis that impaired glucocorticoid clearance can cause relative...

  7. Synthesis and degradation of nitrate reductase in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, C. S.; Macgregor, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The biosynthesis, insertion, and in vivo stability of nitrate reductase were examined by following the amount of labeled enzyme present in both membranes and cytoplasm at varying times after a short pulse of radioactive sulfate. Nitrate reductase levels were measured by autoradiography of immunoprecipitated material after fractionation on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. These experiments demonstrated that subunits A and B were synthesized in the cytoplasm and subsequently inserted...

  8. INHIBITION OF TYPE I 5?-REDUCTASE BY MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Vijaya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione, the activity of enzyme was determined using RIA for testosterone and ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione. It was found that methanolic extract of Embelia ribes was a potent inhibitor of type I 5?-reductase (IC50:100?g/mL. Extracts of Vitex negundo, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica which also inhibited type I 5?-reductase (IC50: 200-390 ?g /mL. Therefore herbal formulation of these plant extracts may be used in the treatment of skin disorders involving type I 5?-reductase.

  9. Alkaloids as aldose reductase inhibitors, with special reference to berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sakshi; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Aldose reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway that leads to conversion of glucose to sorbitol. Its increased activity, which results in abnormal activation of the polyol pathway, is implicated in the development of long-term complications of diabetes mellitus. Different plant species and their active components have shown potent in vitro and in vivo aldose reductase inhibitory activity. Among different phyto-constituents, alkaloids that contain isoquinoline/bis(isoquinoline)and related ring structures (such as berberine, palmatine, coptisine, and jateorrhizine) have shown very potent aldose reductase inhibitory activity. The structural activity relationship has revealed the importance of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups of isoquinoline/bis(isoquinoline)for binding to an enzyme. The dioxymethylene group in the D ring (hydrophobic group) of these alkaloids binds tightly to the site adjacent to the anionic binding site (active site), while the methoxyl groups (polar) bind to the site adjacent to the nicotinamide ring of the coenzyme. On the basis of these findings, it may be proposed that the presence of isoquinoline/bis(isoquinoline)ring structures is the most important requirement for alkaloids to behave as potent aldose reductase inhibitors. Thus, other plants may also be screened for the same activity. The present review discusses these isoquinoline/bis(isoquinoline)-based alkaloids as aldose reductase inhibitors that may be used to manage diabetic complications and may substitute for the chemically synthesized aldose reductase inhibitors. PMID:24236461

  10. Identification and characterization of the Staphylococcus carnosus nitrate reductase operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, I; Lindgren, P E; Neubauer, H; Götz, F

    1998-07-01

    Physiological and genetic characterization of Staphylococcus carnosus nitrate reductase-negative mutants led to the identification of the nitrate reductase operon, narGHJI. Transcription from the nar promoter was stimulated by anaerobiosis, nitrate, and nitrite. This is in accordance with the nitrate reductase activities determined with benzyl viologen as electron donor. However, in the presence of oxygen and nitrate, high transcriptional initiation but low nitrate reductase activity was observed. Since the alphabeta complex of the nitrate reductase formed during anaerobic growth was insensitive to oxygen, other oxygen-sensitive steps (e.g., post-transcriptional mechanisms, molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis) must be involved. The nitrate-reducing system in S. carnosus displays similarities to the dissimilatory nitrate reductases of Escherichia coli. However, in the S. carnosus nar promoter, no obvious Fnr and integration host factor recognition sites are present; only one site that is related to the E. coli NarL consensus sequence was found. Studies to determine whether the E. coli proteins NarL and Fnr are functional at the S. carnosus narGHJI promoter indicated that the promoter is not functional in E. coli. PMID:9738886

  11. MERCURY(II) ADSORPTION FROM WASTEWATERS USING A THIOL FUNCTIONAL ADSORBENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The removal of mercury(II) from wastewaters (coal-fired utility plant scrubber solutions) using a thiol functional organoceramic composite (SOL-AD-IV) is investigated. A simulant is employed as a surrogate to demonstrate the removal of mercury from real waste solutions. Equilibri...

  12. Tritium isotopic exchange between hydrogen sulfide and methyl thiol in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium exchange reaction between HTS and CH3SH was carried out. The degree of tritium exchange was estimated. Its dependence on time of reaction is shown. The dependence of the rate of exchange on the concentrations of methyl thiol and hydrogen sulfide is presented too. (Z.R.)

  13. Quantitative interpretation of the transition voltages in gold-poly(phenylene) thiol-gold molecular junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition voltage of three different asymmetric Au/poly(phenylene) thiol/Au molecular junctions in which the central molecule is either benzene thiol, biphenyl thiol, or terphenyl thiol is investigated by first-principles quantum transport simulations. For all the junctions, the calculated transition voltage at positive polarity is in quantitative agreement with the experimental values and shows weak dependence on alterations of the Au-phenyl contact. When compared to the strong coupling at the Au-S contact, which dominates the alignment of various molecular orbitals with respect to the electrode Fermi level, the coupling at the Au-phenyl contact produces only a weak perturbation. Therefore, variations of the Au-phenyl contact can only have a minor influence on the transition voltage. These findings not only provide an explanation to the uniformity in the transition voltages found for ?-conjugated molecules measured with different experimental methods, but also demonstrate the advantage of transition voltage spectroscopy as a tool for determining the positions of molecular levels in molecular devices

  14. Modulation of neocarzinostatin-mediated DNA double strand damage by activating thiol: deuterium isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, S E; Ashley, G W

    1992-02-25

    The neocarzinostatin chromophore causes double-strand damage at AGC sequences on DNA by concomitant 1'-oxidation at C and 5'-oxidation at the T on the complementary strand. The extent of this damage is dependent upon the structure of the thiol used for activation. Deuterium isotope effects suggest that this dependence on thiol structure may be due to internal quenching of one radical site of the activated chromophore by the hydrogen atoms of the thiol sidechain. The 12-mer d[GCAAGCGCTTGC] is treated with the neocarzinostatin chromophore and either sodium thioglycolate or [2-2H2]-thioglycolate, and the distribution of strand breaks is determined by gel electrophoresis. Two isotope effects are noted: an overall sequence-independent effect in which deuterated thioglycolate increases total strand damage by a factor of 2, and a sequence-specific effect by which deuteration increases the proportion of alkali-sensitive strand damage at C6 by an additional factor of 1.5. Methyl thioglycolate shows essentially identical behavior to that of thioglycolate anion, ruling out electrostatic effects as major contributors to the effect of thiol structure on the mode of DNA damage observed. A model for NCSC action consistent with these results is discussed. PMID:1531872

  15. Enantiospecific synthesis of [2.2]paracyclophane-4-thiol and derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J. Rowlands

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple route to enantiomerically enriched [2.2]paracyclophane-4-thiol via the stereospecific introduction of a chiral sulfoxide to the [2.2]paracyclophane skeleton. The first synthesis of an enantiomerically enriched planar chiral benzothiazole is also reported.

  16. Flavin-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of sulfides and thiols with formic acid/triethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murahashi, Shun-Ichi; Zhang, Dazhi; Iida, Hiroki; Miyawaki, Toshio; Uenaka, Masaaki; Murano, Kenji; Meguro, Kanji

    2014-09-14

    An efficient and practical catalytic method for the aerobic oxidative transformation of sulfides into sulfoxides, and thiols into disulfides with formic acid/TEA in the presence of a new, readily available, and stable flavin catalyst 5d is described. PMID:25056359

  17. Thiol-ene click chemistry: computational and kinetic analysis of the influence of alkene functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop, Brian H; Coffey, Roderick N

    2012-08-22

    The influence of alkene functionality on the energetics and kinetics of radical initiated thiol-ene click chemistry has been studied computationally at the CBS-QB3 level. Relative energetics (?H°, ?H(++), ?G°, ?G(++)) have been determined for all stationary points along the step-growth mechanism of thiol-ene reactions between methyl mercaptan and a series of 12 alkenes: propene, methyl vinyl ether, methyl allyl ether, norbornene, acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate, butadiene, methyl(vinyl)silanediamine, methyl crotonate, dimethyl fumarate, styrene, and maleimide. Electronic structure calculations reveal the underlying factors that control activation barriers for propagation and chain-transfer processes of the step-growth mechanism. Results are further extended to predict rate constants for forward and reverse propagation and chain-transfer steps (k(P), k(-P), k(CT), k(-CT)) and used to model overall reaction kinetics. A relationship between alkene structure and reactivity in thiol-ene reactions is derived from the results of kinetic modeling and can be directly related to the relative energetics of stationary points obtained from electronic structure calculations. The results predict the order of reactivity of alkenes and have broad implications for the use and applications of thiol-ene click chemistry. PMID:22853003

  18. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of ?-terpineol thioacetate and thiol derivatives and their use as flavouring compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel-Rhlid, Rachid; Fleury Rey, Yvette; Welti, Dieter; Fumeaux, René; Moine, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Reaction of (R,S)-?-terpineol with thioacetic acid in food-grade n-hexane resulted into two ?-terpineol thioacetate derivatives with the same molecular weight. After 5?h of reaction time, (R,S)-?-terpineol was completely transformed and the mixture analysed by different chromatographic techniques. The aroma character of the ?-terpineol thioacetates was described as exotic, sweet, blackcurrant, roasted and sulphury. Of eight lipases and two esterases assayed, only non-immobilized pig liver esterase (PLE) hydrolysed ?-terpineol thioacetates into the corresponding ?-terpineol thiols. When reactions were performed in 0.2?m phosphate buffer at pH?8.0 and 30?°C with non-immobilized PLE, ?-terpineol thiols were produced in an optimal yield of 88% after 24?h of reaction time. The aroma character of ?-terpineol thiols was described as green, exotic and fresh grapefruit. Flavouring powders were prepared by freeze-drying the ?-terpineol thioacetates and ?-terpineol thiols in the presence of maltodextrine. Preliminary applications showed that these flavouring preparations could be used to improve the flavour quality of lighter cooked notes and tropical fruit aromas. PMID:25400090

  19. Aroma extraction dilution analysis of Sauternes wines. Key role of polyfunctional thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Collin, Sonia

    2006-09-20

    The aim of the present work was to investigate Sauternes wine aromas. In all wine extracts, polyfunctional thiols were revealed to have a huge impact. A very strong bacon-petroleum odor emerged at RI = 845 from a CP-Sil5-CB column. Two thiols proved to participate in this perception: 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal and 2-methylfuran-3-thiol. A strong synergetic effect was evidenced between the two compounds. The former, never mentioned before in wines, and not found in the musts of this study, is most probably synthesized during fermentation. 3-Methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol, 3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 3-sulfanylheptanal also contribute to the global aromas of Sauternes wines. Among other key odorants, the presence of a varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl isovalerate), carbonyls (trans-non-2-enal and beta-damascenone), and wood flavors (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and Furaneol) is worth stressing. PMID:16968087

  20. Functional monolayers on oxide-free silicon surfaces via thiol-ene click chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Caipa Campos, M. A.; Paulusse, J. M. J.; Zuilhof, H.

    2010-01-01

    Thiol–ene click chemistry was used for the attachment of a variety of functional molecules onto oxide-free Si(111) surfaces using very mild conditions; the efficient nature of this coupling strategy allowed for successful light-induced micropatterning and thus provides a novel route towards biofunctional electronics

  1. Reactivities of some thiol collectors and their interactions with Ag (+1) ion by molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeler, Hulya; Yekeler, Meftuni

    2004-09-01

    The most commonly used collectors for sulfide minerals in the mining industry are the thiol collectors for the recovery of these minerals from their associated gangues by froth flotation. For this reason, a great deal of attention has been paid to understand the attachment mechanism of thiol collectors to metal sulfide surfaces. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/3-21G* and B3LYP/6-31++G** levels were employed to propose the flotation responses of these thiol collectors, namely, diethyl dithiocarbamate, ethyl dithiocarbamate, ethyl dithiocarbonate, ethyl trithiocarbonate and ethyl dithiophosphate ions, and to study the interaction energies of these collectors with Ag (+1) ion in connection to acanthite (Ag 2S) mineral. The calculated interaction energies, ? E, were interpreted in terms of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies of the isolated collector ions. The results show that the HOMOs are strongly localized to the sulfur atoms and the HOMO energies can be used as a reactivity descriptor for the flotation ability of the thiol collectors. Using the HOMO and ? E energies, the reactivity order of the collectors is found to be (C 2H 5) 2NCS 2- > C 2H 5NHCS 2- > C 2H 5OCS 2- > C 2H 5SCS 2- > (C 2H 5O)(OH)PS 2-. The theoretically obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data reported.

  2. Development and validation of a cytochrome c-coupled assay for pteridine reductase 1 and dihydrofolate reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Shanks, Emma J.; Ong, Han B.; Robinson, David A.; Thompson, Stephen; Sienkiewicz, Natasha; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Frearson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Activity of the pterin- and folate-salvaging enzymes pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) and dihydrofolate reductase–thymidylate synthetase (DHFR-TS) is commonly measured as a decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, corresponding to oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Although this assay has been adequate to study the biology of these enzymes, it is not amenable to support any degree of routine inhibitor assessment because its restricted linearity is incompatible with enha...

  3. Intracellular thiols contribute to Th2 function via a positive role in IL-4 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monick, Martha M; Samavati, Lobelia; Butler, Noah S; Mohning, Michael; Powers, Linda S; Yarovinsky, Timur; Spitz, Douglas R; Hunninghake, Gary W

    2003-11-15

    A number of lung diseases, including many interstitial lung diseases and HIV infection, are associated with decreases in intracellular thiols. Altered Th1/Th2 T cell balance has also been associated with disease progression in many of the same diseases. IFN-gamma and IL-4 are critical effector cytokines of Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively. To determine the effect of thiols on the production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 by splenocytes, cells were incubated in the presence and the absence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and stimulated with alphaCD3 or alphaCD3 and IL-12. Augmenting intracellular soluble thiol pools ( approximately 2-fold) with 15 mM NAC blocked induction of IFN-gamma and increased production of IL-4 without causing significant changes in intracellular glutathione levels. The effect of NAC on IL-4 production was not linked to an increase in STAT6 phosphorylation, as STAT6 levels were decreased, nor did the increase in IL-4 occur with purified CD4 cells. We found that NAC increased splenocyte IL-4 production via an effect on APCs. We also found that NAC increased two IL-4 relevant transcription factors (AP-1) and NFATc. These studies suggest that increasing intracellular reduced thiol pools decreases IL-12 signaling and IFN-gamma production, while increasing IL-4 production. The sum of these effects may contribute to alterations in the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses in lung diseases associated alterations in intracellular thiol pools. PMID:14607909

  4. Cooperative functions of manganese and thiol redox system against oxidative stress in human spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Amrit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the effects of 0.1 mM Mn 2+ on thiol components (total thiols [TSH], glutathione reduced [GSH], glutathione oxidized [GSSG] and redox ratio [GSH/ GSSG] have been determined in human spermatozoa. Settings and Design: The subjects of the study were healthy males having more than 75% motility and 80 x 10 6 sperms/mL. Materials and Methods: Fresh semen was suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (pH 7.2 and this suspension was divided into eight equal fractions. All fractions, control (containing PBS and experimental (treated/untreated with [ferrous ascorbate, FeAA - 200 FeSO 4 ?M, 1000 ?M ascorbic acid, nicotine (0.5 mM and FeAA + nicotine], supplemented/unsupplemented with Mn 2+ [0.1 mM], were incubated for 2 h at 378C. These fractions were assessed for determining the thiol components. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed by Students " t" test. Results and Conclusions: Ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and ferrous ascorbate + nicotine induced oxidative stress and decreased GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio but increased the TSH and GSSG levels. Mn 2+ supplementation improved TSH, GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG but decreased the GSSG level under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Thiol groups serve as defense mechanisms of sperm cells to fight against oxidative stress induced by stress inducers such as ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and their combination (ferrous ascorbate + nicotine. In addition, Mn 2+ supplementation maintains the thiol level by reducing oxidative stress.

  5. Compensating for the absence of selenocysteine in high-molecular weight thioredoxin reductases: the electrophilic activation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothrop, Adam P; Snider, Gregg W; Flemer, Stevenson; Ruggles, Erik L; Davidson, Ronald S; Lamb, Audrey L; Hondal, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TR) is a pyridine disulfide oxidoreductase that uses the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) in place of the more commonly used amino acid cysteine (Cys). Selenium is a Janus-faced element because it is both highly nucleophilic and highly electrophilic. Cys orthologs of Sec-containing enzymes may compensate for the absence of a Sec residue by making the active site Cys residue more (i) nucleophilic, (ii) electrophilic, or (iii) reactive by increasing both S-nucleophilicity and S-electrophilicity. It has already been shown that the Cys ortholog TR from Drosophila melanogaster (DmTR) has increased S-nucleophilicity [Gromer, S., Johansson, L., Bauer, H., Arscott, L. D., Rauch, S., Ballou, D. P., Williams, C. H., Jr., Schrimer, R. H., and Arnér, E. S (2003) Active sites of thioredoxin reductases: Why selenoproteins? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12618-12623]. Here we present evidence that DmTR also enhances the electrophilicity of Cys490 through the use of an "electrophilic activation" mechanism. This mechanism is proposed to work by polarizing the disulfide bond that occurs between Cys489 and Cys490 in the C-terminal redox center by the placement of a positive charge near Cys489. This polarization renders the sulfur atom of Cys490 electron deficient and enhances the rate of thiol/disulfide exchange that occurs between the N- and C-terminal redox centers. Our hypothesis was developed by using a strategy of homocysteine (hCys) for Cys substitution in the Cys-Cys redox dyad of DmTR to differentiate the function of each Cys residue. The results show that hCys could substitute for Cys490 with little loss of thioredoxin reductase activity, but that substitution of hCys for Cys489 resulted in a 238-fold reduction in activity. We hypothesize that replacement of Cys489 with hCys destroys an interaction between the sulfur atom of Cys489 and His464 crucial for the proposed electrophilic activation mechanism. This electrophilic activation serves as a compensatory mechanism in the absence of the more electrophilic Sec residue. We present an argument for the importance of S-electrophilicity in Cys orthologs of selenoenzymes. PMID:24490974

  6. Recharging oxidative protein repair: catalysis by methionine sulfoxide reductases towards their amino acid, protein, and model substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrago, L; Gladyshev, V N

    2012-10-01

    The sulfur-containing amino acid methionine (Met) in its free and amino acid residue forms can be readily oxidized to the R and S diastereomers of methionine sulfoxide (MetO). Methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MSRA) and B (MSRB) reduce MetO back to Met in a stereospecific manner, acting on the S and R forms, respectively. A third MSR type, fRMSR, reduces the R form of free MetO. MSRA and MSRB are spread across the three domains of life, whereas fRMSR is restricted to bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes. These enzymes protect against abiotic and biotic stresses and regulate lifespan. MSRs are thiol oxidoreductases containing catalytic redox-active cysteine or selenocysteine residues, which become oxidized by the substrate, requiring regeneration for the next catalytic cycle. These enzymes can be classified according to the number of redox-active cysteines (selenocysteines) and the strategies to regenerate their active forms by thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. For each MSR type, we review catalytic parameters for the reduction of free MetO, low molecular weight MetO-containing compounds, and oxidized proteins. Analysis of these data reinforces the concept that MSRAs reduce various types of MetO-containing substrates with similar efficiency, whereas MSRBs are specialized for the reduction of MetO in proteins. PMID:23157290

  7. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droux, M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.; Crawford, N.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Buchanan, B.B.

    1987-07-01

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with (/sup 14/C)iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined.

  8. Comparison of thiol subproteome of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus from different Mid-Atlantic Ridge vent sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Rui; Torreblanca, Amparo; Cajaraville, Miren; Bebianno, Maria João; Sheehan, David

    2012-10-15

    Deep-sea hydrothermal mussels Bathymodiolus azoricus live in the mixing zone where hydrothermal fluid mixes with bottom seawater, creating large gradients in the environmental conditions and are one of the most studied hydrothermal species as a model of adaptation to extreme conditions. Thiol proteins, i.e. proteins containing a thiol or sulfhydryl group (SH) play major roles in intracellular stress defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are especially susceptible to oxidation. However, they are not particularly abundant, representing a small percentage of proteins in the total proteome and therefore are difficult to study by proteomic approaches. Activated thiol sepharose (ATS) was used for the rapid and quantitative selection of proteins comprising thiol- or disulfide-containing subproteomes. This study aims to isolate thiol-containing proteins from the gills of B. azoricus collected in distinct hydrothermal vents and to study the thiol-containing subproteome as a function of site-specific susceptibility to ROS. Results show that ATS is a powerful tool to isolate the thiol-containing sub-proteome and differently-expressed protein spots showed significant differences among the three vent sites, supporting previous findings that specific environmental conditions are crucial for ROS formation and that B. azoricus have different susceptibilities to oxidative stress depending on the vent site they inhabit. PMID:22964374

  9. Increased 5?-reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro, genital skin 5?-reductase activity (5?-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5?-RA. In vitro 5?-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with 14C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5?-androstane 3?-17?-estradiol (3?-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3?-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3?-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5?-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5?-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5?-RA

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Activity and Folate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursen Keser

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Folate is a vital B vitamin which is easily water-soluble. It is a natural source which is found in the herbal and animal foods. Folate has important duties in the human metabolism, one of them is the adjustment of the level of plasma homocysteine. Reduction in MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase,which is in charge of the metabolism of homocysteine activity affects the level of homocysteine. Therefore MTHFR is an important enzyme in folate metabolism. Some of the mutations occurring in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for various diseases and may be caused the hyperhomocysteinemia or the homocystinuria, and they also may lead to metabolic problems. MTHFR is effective in the important pathways such as DNA synthesis, methylation reactions and synthesis of RNA. C677T and A1298C are the most commonly occurring polymorphisms in the gene of MTHFR. The frequency of these polymorphisms show differences in the populations. MTHFR, folate distribution, metabolism of homocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine, by the MTHFR methylation the genetic defects have the potential of affecting the risk of disease in the negative or positive way.

  11. Aldose reductase inhibitors of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeresham, Ciddi; Rama Rao, Ajmeera; Asres, Kaleab

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic complications are attributed to hyperglycaemic condition which is in turn associated with the polyol pathway and advanced glycation end products. Aldose reductase (AR) is the principal enzyme of polyol pathway which plays a vital role in the development of diabetic complications. AR inhibitory activity can be screened by both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro assays for AR enzyme are further classified on the basis of the source of enzyme such as rat lens, rat kidney, cataracted human eye lens, bovine eyes and human recombinant AR enzymes, whereas the in vivo model is based on the determination of lens galactitol levels. A number of synthetic AR inhibitors (ARIs) including tolrestat and sorbinil have been developed, but all of these suffer from drawbacks such as poor permeation and safety issues. Therefore, pharmaceutical companies and many researchers have been carrying out research to find new, potent and safe ARIs from natural sources. Thus, many naturally occurring compounds have been reported to have AR inhibitory activity. The present review attempts to highlight phytochemicals and plant extracts with potential AR inhibitory activity. It also summarizes the classes of compounds which have proven AR inhibitory activity. Phytochemicals such as quercetin, kaempferol and ellagic acid are found to be the most promising ARIs. The exhaustive literature presented in this article clearly indicates the role of plant extracts and phytochemicals as potential ARIs. PMID:23674239

  12. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnHwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

  13. QSAR Study on Some Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Debnath

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR inhibitors have proved to be of value as antibacterial, antimalarial, and antitumor agents. Some 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-6-[(substituted anilinomethyl]pyrrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines were reported earlier as DHFR inhibitors. Using non-parabolic Hansch models, a QSAR study was performed in an attempt to find out the required physicochemical and structural features of these compounds for DHFR inhibition. This study revealed the importance of resonance effect at R2 and R3 positions and sum of molar refractivity (?MR at R2, R3, R4, and R5 positions of the ring C. Lipophilicity of the whole molecule (log P also played an important role. The presence of OCH3 group at R4 of the phenyl C ring and CH3 at R1 of anilino N might be advantageous to DHFR inhibition. This QSAR study is beneficial for future studies to carry out further tailoring of this type of compounds with an objective to increase DHFR inhibitory activity.

  14. Protein motions during catalysis by dihydrofolate reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemann, Rudolf K; Evans, Rhiannon M; Tey, Lai-hock; Maglia, Giovanni; Pang, Jiayun; Rodriguez, Robert; Shrimpton, Paul J; Swanwick, Richard S

    2006-08-29

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) maintains the intracellular pool of tetrahydrofolate through catalysis of hydrogen transfer from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to 7,8-dihydrofolate. We report results for pre-steady-state kinetic studies of the temperature dependence of the rates and the hydrogen/deuterium-kinetic isotope effects for the reactions catalysed by the enzymes from the mesophilic Escherichia coli and the hyperthermophilic Thermatoga maritima. We propose an evolutionary pattern in which catalysis progressed from a relatively rigid active site structure in the ancient thermophilic DHFR to a more flexible and kinetically more efficient structure in E. coli that actively promotes hydrogen transfer at physiological pH by modulating the tunnelling distance. The E. coli enzyme appeared relatively robust, in that kinetically severely compromised mutants still actively propagated the reaction. The reduced hydrogen transfer rates of the extensively studied Gly121Val mutant of DHFR from E. coli were most likely due to sterically unfavourable long-range effects from the introduction of the bulky isopropyl group. PMID:16873119

  15. Formation of Underbrushes on thiolated Poly (ethylene glycol) PEG monolayers by Oligoethylene glycol (OEG) terminated Alkane Thiols on Gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2011-01-01

    Adding underbrushes of oligoethylene glycol (OEG) to monolayers of long chain PEG molecules on a surface is one of the strategies [1] in designing a suitable platform for antifouling purpose, where it is possible to have high graft density and molecular conformational freedom[4] simultaneously, there by maximal retention of activity of covalently immobilised antifouling enzyme [2] on PEG surfaces along with resistance to protein adsorption[3]. Here we present some our studies on the addition of OEG thiol molecules over a self assembled monolayer of PEG thiol on gold. The kinetics of addition of OEG thiol to monolayers of PEG thiol was followed using X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which indicated the time point of maximum graft density and beyond this time point there was predominant desorption of OEG thiol as indicated by the C/O ratio. The initial increase in graft density was reflected in the superior resistance towards non specific adsorption of proteins as shown by N 1s signal. We also performedprotein adsorption studies using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D). Studies involving addition of alkane thiol instead of OEG terminating alkane thiol showed the importance of OEG part of the molecule in superior resistance towards protein adsorption. The surfaces with underbrushes were imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to detect any changes in mechanical properties of PEG thiol covered surfaces upon addition of OEG thiol. References: 1. Katsumi Uchida, Yuki Hoshino, Atsushi Tamura, Keitaro Yoshimoto, Shuji Kojima and Keichiro Yamashita, Ichiro Yamanaka, Hidenori Otsuka, Kazunori Kataoka, Yukio Nagasaki, Biointerphases. 2007, 2, 4, 126. 2. L. Selan, F. Berluti, C. Passariello, M. R. Comodiballanti, M. C. Thaller, Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1993, 37, 12, 2618. 3. Susan J. Sofia, V. Premnath, and Edward W. Merrill, Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 15, 5059. 4. Hidenori Otsuka, Yukio Nagasaki, and Kazunori Kataoka, Langmuir, 2004, 20, 26, 11285

  16. Exhaustive glycosylation, PEGylation, and glutathionylation of a [G4]-ene48 dendrimer via photoinduced thiol-ene coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Conte, Mauro; Robb, Maxwell J.; Hed, Yvonne; Marra, Alberto; Malkoch, Michael; Hawker, Craig J.; Dondoni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We report in this paper the use of free-radical thiol-ene coupling (TEC) for the introduction of carbohydrate, poly(ethylene glycol), and peptide fragments at the periphery of an alkene functional dendrimer. Four different sugar thiols including glucose, mannose, lactose and sialic acid, two PEGylated thiols and the natural tripeptide glutathione were reacted with a fourth generation alkene functional dendrimer [G4]-ene48 upon irradiation at ?max 365 nm. In all cases, the 1H NMR spectra of t...

  17. Human cytochrome b5 reductase: structure, function, and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahian, Fatemeh; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Moghimi, Bahareh; Mirzaei, Seyed Abbas

    2014-06-01

    Cytochrome b5 reductase is a flavoprotein that is produced as two different isoforms that have different localizations. The amphipathic microsomal isoform, found in all cell types with the exception of erythrocytes, consists of one hydrophobic membrane-anchoring domain and a larger hydrophilic flavin catalytic domain. The soluble cytochrome b5 reductase isoform, found in human erythrocytes, is a truncated protein that is encoded by an alternative transcript and consists of the larger domain only. Cytochrome b5 reductase is involved in the transfer of reducing equivalents from the physiological electron donor, NADH, via an FAD domain to the small molecules of cytochrome b5. This protein has received much attention from researchers due to its involvement in many oxidation and reduction reactions, such as the reduction of methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Autosomal cytochrome b5 reductase gene deficiency manifests with the accumulation of oxidized Fe+3 and recessive congenital methemoglobinemia in humans. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the structure and function of cytochrome b5 reductase from different eukaryotic sources and its potential use in the food industry, biosensor, and diagnostic areas. PMID:23113554

  18. The role of biliverdin reductase in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the effects of biliverdin and bilirubin have been studied extensively, and an inhibitory effect of bile pigments in cancer progression has been proposed. In this study we focused on the effects of biliverdin reductase, the enzyme that converts biliverdin to bilirubin, in colorectal cancer. For in vitro experiments we used a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and transfected it with an expression construct of shRNA specific for biliverdin reductase, to create cells with stable knock-down of enzyme expression. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the CASY model TT cell counting device. Western blot protein analysis was performed to study intracellular signaling cascades. Samples of human colorectal cancer were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. We were able to confirm the antiproliferative effects of bile pigments on cancer cells in vitro. However, this effect was attenuated in biliverdin reductase knock down cells. ERK and Akt activation seen under biliverdin and bilirubin treatment was also reduced in biliverdin reductase deficient cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples from patients with colorectal cancer showed elevated biliverdin reductase levels. High enzyme expression was associated with lower overall and disease free patient survival. We conclude that BVR is required for bile pigment mediated effects regarding cancer cell proliferation and modulation of intracellular signaling cascades. The role of BVR overexpression in vivo a. The role of BVR overexpression in vivo and its exact influence on cancer progression and patient survival need to be further investigated. (author)

  19. Relative adrenal insufficiency in mice deficient in 5?-reductase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Dawn E W; Di Rollo, Emma M; Yang, Chenjing; Codrington, Lucy E; Mathews, John A; Kara, Madina; Hughes, Katherine A; Kenyon, Christopher J; Walker, Brian R; Andrew, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    Patients with critical illness or hepatic failure exhibit impaired cortisol responses to ACTH, a phenomenon known as 'relative adrenal insufficiency'. A putative mechanism is that elevated bile acids inhibit inactivation of cortisol in liver by 5?-reductases type 1 and type 2 and 5?-reductase, resulting in compensatory downregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenocortical atrophy. To test the hypothesis that impaired glucocorticoid clearance can cause relative adrenal insufficiency, we investigated the consequences of 5?-reductase type 1 deficiency in mice. In adrenalectomised male mice with targeted disruption of 5?-reductase type 1, clearance of corticosterone was lower after acute or chronic (eightfold, Pdeficient male mice, although resting plasma corticosterone levels were maintained, corticosterone responses were impaired after ACTH administration (26% lower, P<0.05), handling stress (2.5-fold lower, P<0.05) and restraint stress (43% lower, P<0.05) compared with WT mice. mRNA levels of Nr3c1 (glucocorticoid receptor), Crh and Avp in pituitary or hypothalamus were altered, consistent with enhanced negative feedback. These findings confirm that impaired peripheral clearance of glucocorticoids can cause 'relative adrenal insufficiency' in mice, an observation with important implications for patients with critical illness or hepatic failure, and for patients receiving 5?-reductase inhibitors for prostatic disease. PMID:24872577

  20. Pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Schinko, Thorsten; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Amillis, Sotiris; Strauss, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    ? Constitutive phenotype in nitrate-reductase mutants depends on nitrate transporters. ? Intracellular nitrate derives from media components. ? Internal nitrate generation from nitric oxide. ? Nitrate transporters are functional in cells lacking nitrate reductase.

  1. The interplay between thiol-compounds against chromium (VI) in the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum: toxicology, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, R; Almeida, J V; Vardaris, C V; Colepicolo, P; Barros, M P

    2012-08-15

    In this paper, the multifaceted Cr(VI) toxicity over the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum was assessed by concomitantly monitoring thiol-dependent redox balances, photosynthesis activity and growth-survival scores. Control group showed exponential growth rate at (5.78±0.29) division/day until 8th day with linear increasing chlorophyll a/protein ratios (CHLa/PROT) throughout the period. Cultures of M. convolutum were exposed for 5 days to Cr(VI) concentrations from 0 up to 100mg/L showing that CHLa/PROT ratios were sensibly affected, in agreement to the calculated LC(50,48 h) (5.38±0.72) mg/L from the concentration-response curve of cell mortality after 48 h. Regarding photosynthesis effects, Cr(VI) concentrations >1.0 mg/L showed significant increases in short-term (after 2 h) electron transfer rates (ETR) and quantum yields of photosystem II (?(PSII)), followed by subsequent decline of both parameters after 48 and 72 h. Biochemical analyses showed that maximal GSH concentrations in algal cultures were observed upon 1mg Cr(VI)/L and higher dichromate concentrations dramatically increased the activity of antioxidant GSH-dependent enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. However, no variation was observed in the cellular GSH levels, whereas GSSG and lipid peroxidation indexes abruptly increased upon 10 mg Cr(VI)/L exposure. Altogether, plant physiology, photosynthesis and biochemical data suggest that the GSH-dependent antioxidant system is capable to sustain M. convolutum viability through efficient photosynthesis activity and adequate antioxidant responses up to Cr(VI) concentrations of 1.0mg/L, when redox unbalances were first evidenced. PMID:22522782

  2. The interplay between thiol-compounds against chromium (VI) in the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum: Toxicology, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress at a glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, R. [Postgraduate Program in Environmental Chemistry, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Almeida, J.V. [Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ-USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vardaris, C.V. [Postgraduate Program in Environmental Chemistry, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colepicolo, P. [Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ-USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barros, M.P., E-mail: marcelo.barros@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Postgraduate Program in Environmental Chemistry, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper, the multifaceted Cr(VI) toxicity over the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum was assessed by concomitantly monitoring thiol-dependent redox balances, photosynthesis activity and growth-survival scores. Control group showed exponential growth rate at (5.78 {+-} 0.29) division/day until 8th day with linear increasing chlorophyll a/protein ratios (CHLa/PROT) throughout the period. Cultures of M. convolutum were exposed for 5 days to Cr(VI) concentrations from 0 up to 100 mg/L showing that CHLa/PROT ratios were sensibly affected, in agreement to the calculated LC{sub 50,48h} (5.38 {+-} 0.72) mg/L from the concentration-response curve of cell mortality after 48 h. Regarding photosynthesis effects, Cr(VI) concentrations >1.0 mg/L showed significant increases in short-term (after 2 h) electron transfer rates (ETR) and quantum yields of photosystem II ({Phi}{sub PSII}), followed by subsequent decline of both parameters after 48 and 72 h. Biochemical analyses showed that maximal GSH concentrations in algal cultures were observed upon 1 mg Cr(VI)/L and higher dichromate concentrations dramatically increased the activity of antioxidant GSH-dependent enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. However, no variation was observed in the cellular GSH levels, whereas GSSG and lipid peroxidation indexes abruptly increased upon 10 mg Cr(VI)/L exposure. Altogether, plant physiology, photosynthesis and biochemical data suggest that the GSH-dependent antioxidant system is capable to sustain M. convolutum viability through efficient photosynthesis activity and adequate antioxidant responses up to Cr(VI) concentrations of 1.0 mg/L, when redox unbalances were first evidenced.

  3. The interplay between thiol-compounds against chromium (VI) in the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum: Toxicology, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the multifaceted Cr(VI) toxicity over the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum was assessed by concomitantly monitoring thiol-dependent redox balances, photosynthesis activity and growth-survival scores. Control group showed exponential growth rate at (5.78 ± 0.29) division/day until 8th day with linear increasing chlorophyll a/protein ratios (CHLa/PROT) throughout the period. Cultures of M. convolutum were exposed for 5 days to Cr(VI) concentrations from 0 up to 100 mg/L showing that CHLa/PROT ratios were sensibly affected, in agreement to the calculated LC50,48h (5.38 ± 0.72) mg/L from the concentration-response curve of cell mortality after 48 h. Regarding photosynthesis effects, Cr(VI) concentrations >1.0 mg/L showed significant increases in short-term (after 2 h) electron transfer rates (ETR) and quantum yields of photosystem II (?PSII), followed by subsequent decline of both parameters after 48 and 72 h. Biochemical analyses showed that maximal GSH concentrations in algal cultures were observed upon 1 mg Cr(VI)/L and higher dichromate concentrations dramatically increased the activity of antioxidant GSH-dependent enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. However, no variation was observed in the cellular GSH levels, whereas GSSG and lipid peroxidation indexes abruptly increased upon 10 mg Cr(VI)/L exposure. Altogether, plant physiology, photosynthesis and biochemical data suggest that the GSH-dependemical data suggest that the GSH-dependent antioxidant system is capable to sustain M. convolutum viability through efficient photosynthesis activity and adequate antioxidant responses up to Cr(VI) concentrations of 1.0 mg/L, when redox unbalances were first evidenced.

  4. Photochemical reactions of thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for micropatterning of gold nanoparticles and controlled surface functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Xuemingyue; Wu Chong [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun Shuqing, E-mail: sun.shuqing@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Optical Imaging and Sensing, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2012-04-01

    This paper reported a facile method for the patterning of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on SiO{sub 2}/Si by combining photochemical reaction and self-assembly techniques, and the conversion of surface functionality through thiol-ene click chemistry. The oxidation of terminal thiols in self-assembled monolayer of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane upon exposure to 254 nm UV light under ambient atmosphere was investigated. Chemically well-defined microstructures were obtained by UV irradiation through a mask, and subsequent immersion of the substrate into a dispersion of AuNPs resulted in site-specific assembly of AuNPs via Au-S covalent bond in the unexposed area. Thiol-ene 'click' reaction between surface thiol-group and alkene-containing molecules under illumination of 365 nm UV light was also demonstrated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study indicated the successful conversion of surface functionality.

  5. Photochemical reactions of thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for micropatterning of gold nanoparticles and controlled surface functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reported a facile method for the patterning of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on SiO2/Si by combining photochemical reaction and self-assembly techniques, and the conversion of surface functionality through thiol-ene click chemistry. The oxidation of terminal thiols in self-assembled monolayer of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane upon exposure to 254 nm UV light under ambient atmosphere was investigated. Chemically well-defined microstructures were obtained by UV irradiation through a mask, and subsequent immersion of the substrate into a dispersion of AuNPs resulted in site-specific assembly of AuNPs via Au-S covalent bond in the unexposed area. Thiol-ene “click” reaction between surface thiol-group and alkene-containing molecules under illumination of 365 nm UV light was also demonstrated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study indicated the successful conversion of surface functionality.

  6. Androgen Regulation of 5?-Reductase Isoenzymes in Prostate Cancer: Implications for Prostate Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jin; Ding, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhengxin; Lu, Jing-fang; Maity, Sankar N.; Navone, Nora M.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Mills, Gordon B.; Kim, Jeri

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme 5?-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), performs key functions in the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. The three isoenzymes of 5?-reductase identified to date are encoded by different genes: SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and SRD5A3. In this study, we investigated mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of 5?-reductase isoenzyme expression in human prostate cells. We found that androgen regulates the mRNA level of 5?-reductase isoenzymes in a cell ty...

  7. Repression of nitrate reductase activity and loss of antigenically detectable protein in Neurospora crassa.

    OpenAIRE

    Amy, N. K.; Garrett, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether conditions which cause the rapid loss of nitrate reductase activity in Neurospora crassa mycelia were accompanied by the loss of antigenically detectable nitrate reductase protein. When mycelia with nitrate reductase activity were transferred to ammonia media, there was a rapid loss in the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-nitrate reductase activity plus the parallel loss of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase and th...

  8. Enantioselective syntheses and sensory properties of 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yifeng; Shao, Junqiang; Yang, Shaoxiang; Sun, Baoguo; Liu, Yongguo; Ning, Ting; Tian, Hongyu

    2015-01-21

    The enantioselective synthesis of four stereoisomers of 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetate was achieved. The two enantiomers of the important intermediate cis-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran were obtained by Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD), whereas the two enantiomers of trans-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran were derived from the corresponding optically active cis-isomers by Mitsunobu reaction. Each stereoisomer of 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran went through mesylation and nucleophilic substitution to afford the corresponding product with specific configuration. (2R,3S)- and (2R,3R)-2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetate were obtained in 80% ee, whereas the (2S,3R)- and (2S,3S)-isomers were in 62% ee. The odor properties of the synthesized four stereoisomers were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which revealed perceptible differences among stereoisomers both in odor features and in intensities. PMID:25560460

  9. Field effect on digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles under simultaneous action of electric field and reflux heating in a silicone oil bath at 130?°C, using transmission electron microscopy. Observation revealed that a polydispersed gold nanoparticle system reached the state of nearly monodispersity under the action of an electric field and the thiol-capped gold nanoparticles carried negative charges. The electric field caused the increase of the particle size for the nearly monodispersed gold nanoparticle system. The self-assembly of the nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles under the action of an electric field of a high field intensity was observed. The gold nanoparticles tended to form self-assembled nanostructures of six-fold symmetry. This study provides a new route for system engineering to control the particle size of metallic nanoparticles by electric field and digestive ripening

  10. Modification of porous silicon rugate filters through thiol-yne photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeriyadi, Alexander H., E-mail: alexander.soeriyadi@unsw.edu.au; Zhu, Ying, E-mail: alexander.soeriyadi@unsw.edu.au; Gooding, J. Justin, E-mail: justin.gooding@unsw.edu.au [Australian Centre for Nanomedicine and School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Reece, Peter [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-02-24

    Porous silicon (PSi) has a considerable potential as biosensor platform. In particular, the ability to modify the surface chemistry of porous silicon is of interest. Here we present a generic method to modify the surface of porous silicon through thiol-yne photochemistry initiated by a radical initiator. Firstly, a freshly etched porous silicon substrate is modified through thermal hydrosilylation with 1,8-nonadiyne to passivate the surface and introduce alkyne functionalities. The alkyne functional surface could then be further reacted with thiol species in the presence of a radical initiator and UV light. Functionalization of the PSi rugate filter is followed with optical reflectivity measurements as well as high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  11. Highly stretchable thermoset fibers and nonwovens using thiol-ene photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Elliot, Steven M; Lane, Austin P; Ellison, Christopher J

    2014-08-27

    In this report, we describe the preparation and characterization of a new class of thermoset fibers with high elongation and elastic recovery. Integrating UV-activated thiol-ene photopolymerization and electrospinning, we demonstrate an environmentally friendly single step approach to convert small monomeric precursor molecules into highly elastic fibers and nonwoven mats. The fibers were derived by in situ photopolymerization of a trifunctional vinyl ether monomer and a tetrafunctional thiol. Although thermosets often offer good chemical and thermal stability, these fibers also have a high average elongation at break of 62%. The elastomeric nature of these vinyl-ether based fibers can be partly attributed to their subambient Tg and partly to the cross-link density, monomer structure, and resulting network homogeneity. Nonwoven mats of these fibers were also stretchable and exhibited a much higher elongation at break of about 85%. These thermoset stretchable fibers could have potential applications as textile, biomedical, hot chemical filtration, and composite materials. PMID:25075754

  12. Reactive superhydrophobic surface and its photoinduced disulfide-ene and thiol-ene (bio)functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junsheng; Li, Linxian; Du, Xin; Feng, Wenqian; Welle, Alexander; Trapp, Oliver; Grunze, Michael; Hirtz, Michael; Levkin, Pavel A

    2015-01-14

    Reactive superhydrophobic surfaces are highly promising for biotechnological, analytical, sensor, or diagnostic applications but are difficult to realize due to their chemical inertness. In this communication, we report on a photoactive, inscribable, nonwettable, and transparent surface (PAINTS), prepared by polycondensation of trichlorovinylsilane to form thin transparent reactive porous nanofilament on a solid substrate. The PAINTS shows superhydrophobicity and can be conveniently functionalized with the photoclick thiol-ene reaction. In addition, we show for the first time that the PAINTS bearing vinyl groups can be easily modified with disulfides under UV irradiation. The effect of superhydrophobicity of PAINTS on the formation of high-resolution surface patterns has been investigated. The developed reactive superhydrophobic coating can find applications for surface biofunctionalization using abundant thiol or disulfide bearing biomolecules, such as peptides, proteins, or antibodies. PMID:25486338

  13. Eucalyptus tolerance mechanisms to lanthanum and cerium: subcellular distribution, antioxidant system and thiol pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yichang; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Sen; Xu, Xiaoxun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

    2014-12-01

    Guanglin 9 (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophlla) and Eucalyptus grandis 5 are two eucalyptus species which have been found to grow normally in soils contaminated with lanthanum and cerium, but the tolerance mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of the eucalyptus to lanthanum and cerium. Cell walls stored 45.40-63.44% of the metals under lanthanum or cerium stress. Peroxidase and catalase activities enhanced with increasing soil La or Ce concentrations up to 200 mg kg(-1), while there were no obvious changes in glutathione and ascorbate concentrations. Non-protein thiols concentrations increased with increasing treatment levels up to 200 mg kg(-1), and then decreased. Phytochelatins concentrations continued to increase under La or Ce stress. Therefore, the two eucalyptus species are La and Ce tolerant plants, and the tolerance mechanisms include cell wall deposition, antioxidant system response, and thiol compound synthesis. PMID:25303462

  14. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Benzothiazole-2-thiol Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo-Ting Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel benzothiazole-2-thiol derivatives were synthesized and their structures determined by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HRMS (ESI. The effects of all compounds on a panel of different types of human cancer cell lines were investigated. Among them, pyridinyl-2-amine linked benzothiazole-2-thiol compounds 7d, 7e, 7f and 7i exhibited potent and broad-spectrum inhibitory activities. Compound 7e displayed the most potent anticancer activity on SKRB-3 (IC50 = 1.2 nM, SW620 (IC50 = 4.3 nM, A549 (IC50 = 44 nM and HepG2 (IC50 = 48 nM and was found to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cancer cells.

  15. Thiol- and Biotin-Labeled Probes for Oligonucleotide Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensors of Microalga Alexandrium Minutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lazerges

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two quartz crystal microbalance oligonucleotide biosensors of a toxic microalga gene sequence (Alexandrium Minutum have been designed. Grafting on a gold surface of 20-base thiol- or biotin-labeled probe, and selective hybridization with the complementary 20-base target, have been monitored in situ with a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. The frequency of the set up is stable to within a few hertz, corresponding to the nanogram scale, for three hour experiments. DNA recognition by the two biosensors is efficient and selective. Hybridization kinetic curves indicate that the biosensor designed with the thiol-labeled probe is more sensitive, and that the biosensor designed with the biotin-labeled probe has a shorter time response and a higher hybridization efficiency.

  16. Mitochondrial thiol oxidase Erv1: both shuttle cysteine residues are required for its function with distinct roles

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Swee kim; Zhang, Mengqi; Lodi, Tiziana; Lu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Erv1 (essential for respiration and viability 1), is an essential component of the MIA (mitochondrial import and assembly) pathway, playing an important role in the oxidative folding of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins. In the MIA pathway, Mia40, a thiol oxidoreductase with a CPC motif at its active site, oxidizes newly imported substrate proteins. Erv1 a FAD-dependent thiol oxidase, in turn reoxidizes Mia40 via its N-terminal Cys30–Cys33 shuttle disulfide. However, it is unclear ...

  17. A study of oxidative stress, thiol proteins and role of vitamin E supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Raut

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid peroxide plays an important role in inflammatory lung disease. Increased epithelial permeability produced by cigarette smoke is likely to be mediated through depletion of thiol proteins. Imbalance between oxidants and thiol proteins is also an established fact in these patients. Materials & methods: In the present study 30 healthy non-smokers were served as controls and 20 patients with stable COPD were included. Their base line clinical examination, Malondialdehyde (MDA as an oxidant, alpha tocopherol and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD as an antioxidants and thiol proteins levels were measured. All above parameters were repeated after 12 weeks of supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin E daily. Results: We observed that the mean malondialdehyde levels in these patients at base line were high (p<0.001 than Control Plasma alpha-tocopherol, SOD and thiol proteins levels were low (p<0.001 in the patients compared to controls. Exogenous vitamin E (400 IU twice daily Supplementation did not bring about any significant change in plasma Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase and vitamin E. But slight increase in the plasma thiol proteins levels was seen. The present study shows that initially the plasma lipid peroxide (MDA levels were high antioxidant (alpha- tocopherol, SOD and thiol proteins were low in patients with COPD. Exogenous supplementation with vitamin E increases slightly thiol proteins levels and brings down the levels of MDA showing attenuation of further damage. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the existence of oxidative stress and and the augmentation of antioxidant defenses as shown by slight increase in thiol proteins level. The antioxidant therapy is adjunct in lung disease patients and opens a promising field in prevention of oxidative stress related complications in these patients.

  18. Endogenous thiol content of budding and resting yeast cells. [Comparison of x radiosensitivity of budding and resting Saccharomyces ellipsoideus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonyan, N.V.; Avakyan, Ts.M.; Zhanpoladyan, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    Data are submitted on levels of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of cells in a culture of Saccharomyces ellipsoideus Megri 139-B diploid yeast of the same age, but with different amounts of budding cells. It was shown that the cells of yeast cultures with a high budding cell content have more endogenous thiols and are more radioresistant than cells in cultures with fewer budding cells.

  19. Influence of oxygen on the repair of direct radiation damage to DNA by thiols in model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.; Summerfield, S.; Gillich, S.; Sevilla, M.D. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-05-01

    Here the reactions of thiols with DNA primary radical intermediates formed after [gamma]-irradiation of frozen (77K) anoxic and oxic solutions of DNA/thiol mixtures are investigated. Through analysis of the experimental composite spectra at each annealing temperature, the relative concentrations of individual radicals present are estimated and reaction sequences inferred. In all samples the primary DNA radical anions and cations (DNA[sup [center dot

  20. Aldo keto reductases 1B in endocrinology and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AntoineMartinez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aldose reductase (human AKR1B1/mouse Akr1b3 has been the focus of many research because of its role in diabetic complications. The starting point of these alterations is the massive entry of glucose in polyol pathway where it is converted into sorbitol by this enzyme. However, the issue of aldose reductase function in non-diabetic condition remains unresolved. Aldose reductase-like enzymes (AKR1B10, Akr1b7 and Akr1b8 are highly related isoforms often co-expressed with bona fide aldose reductase, making functional analysis of one or the other isoform a challenging task. AKR1B/Akr1b members share at least 65% protein identity and the general ability to reduce many redundant substrates such as aldehydes provided from lipid peroxidation, steroids and their by-products and xenobiotics in vitro. Based on these properties, AKR1B/Akr1b are generally considered as detoxifying enzymes. Considering that divergences should be more informative than similarities to help understanding their physiological functions, we chose to review specific hallmarks of each human/mouse isoforms by focusing on tissue distribution and specific mechanisms of gene regulation. Indeed, although the aldose reductase shows ubiquitous expression, aldose reductase-like proteins exhibit tissue-specific patterns of expression. We focused on 3 organs where certain isoforms are enriched, the adrenal gland, enterohepatic and adipose tissues and tried to connect recent enzymatic and regulation data with endocrine and metabolic functions of these organs. We presented recent mouse models showing unsuspected physiological functions in the regulation of glucido-lipidic metabolism and adipose tissue homeostasis. Beyond the widely accepted idea that AKR1B/Akr1b are detoxification enzymes, these recent reports provide growing evidences that they are able to modify or generate signal molecules. This conceptually shifts this class of enzymes from unenviable status of scavenger to upper class of messengers.

  1. Identification and selective inhibition of an isozyme of steroid 5 alpha-reductase in human scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G; Azzolina, B; Baginsky, W; Cimis, G; Rasmusson, G H; Tolman, R L; Raetz, C R; Ellsworth, K

    1992-11-15

    Steroid 5 alpha-reductase (EC 1.3.1.22) catalyzes the reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The 5 alpha-reductase found in human scalp has been compared with the enzyme found in prostate. The scalp reductase has a broad pH optimum centered at pH 7.0. This is distinctly different from the pH optimum of 5.5 observed with the prostatic form of the enzyme. These enzymes also differ in the Km for testosterone, which is 25-fold higher for the scalp reductase. The most significant difference between the two enzymes is their affinity for inhibitors. Two 4-azasteroids and a 3-carboxyandrostadiene are potent inhibitors of the prostatic reductase but are weak inhibitors of the scalp reductase. In contrast, several N-4-methylazasteroids are good inhibitors of the scalp reductase. These findings support a proposal that different isozymes of 5 alpha-reductase may exist in scalp and prostate. The scalp reductase was also compared to 5 alpha-reductase 1, one of the two enzymes recently cloned from human prostate [Andersson, S. & Russell, D. W. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 3640-3644; and Andersson, S., Berman, D. M., Jenkins, E. P. & Russell, D. W. (1991) Nature (London) 354, 159-161]. The characteristics of the cloned reductase 1 are comparable to those of the scalp reductase. PMID:1438277

  2. Comparative Studies of Thiol-Sensitive Fluorogenic Probes for HAT Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Tielong; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Yujun George

    2012-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) catalyze the acetylation of specific lysine residues in histone and nonhistone proteins. Recent studies showed that acetylation is widely distributed among cellular proteins, suggestive of diverse functions of HATs in cellular pathways. Nevertheless, currently available assays for HAT activity study are still quite limited. Here we evaluated a series of thiol-sensitive fluorogenic compounds for the detection of the enzymatic activities of different HAT protei...

  3. Effect of thiol-containing monomer on the preparation of temperature-sensitive hydrogel microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, Franc?oise; Pichot, Christian; Elai?ssari, Abdelhamid

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to prepare, thermally, sensitive microgel particles bearing thiol groups via precipitation polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and vinylbenzylisothiouronium chloride (VBIC) using 2-2?-azobis(2-amidinopropane)-dihydrochloride (V50) as initiator. The influence of various parameters has been investigated as a systematic study to point out the role of each reactant on polymerization conversion, and consequently, on pa...

  4. Thiol dependent recovery of catalytic activity from oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Zachary D.; Gates, Kent S.

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in the regulation of mammalian signal transduction. During some cell signaling processes, the generation of endogenous hydrogen peroxide inactivates selected PTPs via oxidation of the enzyme's catalytic cysteine thiolate group. Importantly, low molecular weight and protein thiols in the cell have the potential to regenerate the catalytically active PTPs. Here we examined the recovery of catalytic activity from two oxidatively-inactiv...

  5. Soft metal thiol chemistry is not involved in the transport of arsenite by the Ars pump.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.; Dey, S.; Rosen, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The single cysteine in the ArsB protein subunit of the arsenite resistance pump was changed to serine and alanine residues. Resistance in cells expressing the two mutant arsB genes was the same as in the wild type, and the serine substitution had no effect on the arsenite transport properties. These results eliminate possible thiol chemistry in translocation. Thus, the pump uses soft metal chemistry for metalloactivation and nonmetal chemistry for oxyanion transport.

  6. Thiol- and Biotin-Labeled Probes for Oligonucleotide Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensors of Microalga Alexandrium Minutum

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Lazerges; Hubert Perrot; Niriniony Rabehagasoa; Chantal Compère

    2012-01-01

    Two quartz crystal microbalance oligonucleotide biosensors of a toxic microalga gene sequence (Alexandrium Minutum) have been designed. Grafting on a gold surface of 20-base thiol- or biotin-labeled probe, and selective hybridization with the complementary 20-base target, have been monitored in situ with a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. The frequency of the set up is stable to within a few hertz, corresponding to the nanogram scale, for three hour...

  7. Serum paraoxonase activity and protein thiols in chronic renal failure patients

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, M.; Shetty, J. K.; Rao, L.; Sharma, S.; Rodrigues, A.; Prabhu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase is known to prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation and atherogenesis. Association of paraoxonase with the oxidative status and lipid profile in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on conservative management and those on chronic maintenance hemodialysis was analyzed in the present study. Serum paraoxonase, protein thiols, lipid hydroperoxides, lipid profile, creatinine and albumin levels were estimated by spectrophotometric methods in CRF patients on conservative manageme...

  8. Low molecular weight thiol-dependent antioxidant and antinitrosative defenses in Salmonella pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Miryoung; Husain, Maroof; Jones-carson, Jessica; Liu, Lin; Henard, Calvin A.; Va?zquez-torres, Andre?s

    2012-01-01

    We found herein that the intracytoplasmic pool of the low-molecular weight (LMW) thiol glutathione (GSH) is readily oxidized in Salmonella exposed to nitric oxide (NO). The hypersusceptibility of gshA and gshB mutants lacking ?-glutamylcysteine and glutathione synthetases to NO and S-nitrosoglutathione indicates that GSH antagonizes the bacteriostatic activity of reactive nitrogen species. Metabolites of the GSH biosynthetic pathway do not affect the enzymatic activity of classical NO target...

  9. [Study on the spectroscopy of 5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Lian-he

    2006-12-01

    The title compound (5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol) was synthesized by the ring-closing reaction of isoniazide with carbon bisulfide, and the reaction course was discussed preliminarily. The mechanism of this reaction is nucleophilic addition. The compound was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The thermal analytical data indicate that the compound was decomposed completely at the temperature of 506 degrees C. PMID:17361717

  10. Thiol-based H2O2 signalling in microbial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boronat, Susanna; Dome?nech, Alba; Paulo, Esther; Calvo, Isabel A.; Garci?a-santamarina, Sarela; Garci?a, Patricia; Encinar Del Dedo, Javier; Barcons, Anna; Serrano, Erica; Carmona, Merce?; Hidalgo, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine residues, and in particular their thiolate groups, react not only with reactive oxygen species but also with electrophiles and with reactive nitrogen species. Thus, cysteine oxidation has often been linked to the toxic effects of some of these reactive molecules. However, thiol-based switches are common in protein sensors of antioxidant cascades, in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. We will describe here three redox sensors, the transcription factors OxyR, Yap1 and Pap1, whi...

  11. Synthesis of Cysteine-Rich Peptides by Native Chemical Ligation without Use of Exogenous Thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shugo; Yoshiya, Taku; Mochizuki, Masayoshi; Nishiuchi, Yuji

    2015-04-01

    Native chemical ligation (NCL) performed without resorting to the use of thiol additives was demonstrated to be an efficient and effective procedure for synthesizing Cys-rich peptides. This method using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) as a reducing agent facilitates the ligation reaction even at the Thr-Cys or Ile-Cys site and enables one-pot synthesis of Cys-rich peptides throughout NCL and oxidative folding. PMID:25789929

  12. Thiol-functionalized silica colloids, grains, and membranes for irreversible adsorption of metal(oxide) nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Claesson, E. M.; Philipse, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    Thiol-functionalization is described for silica surfaces from diverging origin, including commercial silica nanoparticles and Stöber silica as well as silica structures provided by porous glasses and novel polymer-templated silica membranes. The functionalization allows in all cases for the irreversible binding of metal(oxide) particles from a solution. Examples are the adsorption of CoFe2O4 particles for the preparation of magnetizable silica colloids and silica structures, and gold nanopar...

  13. Ruthenium(III Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium(III chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]. The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

  14. Chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides containing a free sulphydryl group and subsequent attachment of thiol specific probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, B. A.; Rider, P.

    1985-01-01

    Oligonucleotides containing a free sulphydryl group at their 5'-termini have been synthesised and further derivatised with thiol specific probes. The nucleotide sequence required is prepared using standard solid phase phosphoramidite techniques and an extra round of synthesis is then performed using the S-triphenylmethyl O-methoxymorpholinophosphite derivatives of 2-mercaptoethanol, 3-mercaptopropan (1) ol or 6-mercaptohexan (1) ol. After cleavage from the resin and removal of the phosphate a...

  15. Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Geier, Mark R.; King, Paul G.; Sykes, Lisa K.; Geier, David A.; Haley, Boyd E.; Kern, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent studies suggest that children diagnosed with an ASD have abnormal sulfation chemistry, limited thiol availability, and decreased glutathione (GSH) reserve capacity, resulting in a compromised oxida...

  16. Complexing behaviour of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol-5-amino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of Fe(II), Co(II), Ru(III), Ru(II), Rh(III), Pd(IV), Ir(III) and Pt(IV) with 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol-5-amino, have been prepared and characterised on the basis of chemical analyses, infrared and visible spectral and magnetic susceptibility data; crystal field parameters are calculated and probable structures assigned. The ligand acts as bidentate in all the complexes. (author)

  17. A Novel Strategy for Global Analysis of the Dynamic Thiol Redox Proteome*

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?nez-acedo, Pablo; Nu?n?ez, Estefani?a; Go?mez, Francisco J. Sa?nchez; Moreno, Margoth; Ramos, Elena; Izquierdo-a?lvarez, Alicia; Miro?-casas, Elisabet; Mesa, Raquel; Rodriguez, Patricia; Marti?nez-ruiz, Antonio; Dorado, David Garcia; Lamas, Santiago; Va?zquez, Jesu?s

    2012-01-01

    Nitroxidative stress in cells occurs mainly through the action of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) on protein thiol groups. Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species-mediated protein modifications are associated with pathophysiological states, but can also convey physiological signals. Identification of Cys residues that are modified by oxidative stimuli still poses technical challenges and these changes have never been statistically analyzed from a proteome-wide perspective. Here we sh...

  18. Biofunctional Silicon Nanoparticles by Means of Thiol-Ene Click Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ruizendaal, M. H.; Pujari, S. P.; Gevaerts, V.; Paulusse, J. M. J.; Zuilhof, H.

    2011-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of butylene-terminated silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) and their functionalization using thiol-ene chemistry is described, as well as the coupling of DNA strands. Bromide-terminated SiNPs were prepared by means of the oxidation of magnesium silicide and functionalized with butylene chains through treatment with the corresponding Grignard reagent. The successful coupling was confirmed by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. TEM measurements revealed a silicon-core diam...

  19. Reactivities of some thiol collectors and their interactions with Ag (+1) ion by molecular modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekeler, Hulya; Yekeler, Meftuni

    2004-09-15

    The most commonly used collectors for sulfide minerals in the mining industry are the thiol collectors for the recovery of these minerals from their associated gangues by froth flotation. For this reason, a great deal of attention has been paid to understand the attachment mechanism of thiol collectors to metal sulfide surfaces. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/3-21G* and B3LYP/6-31++G** levels were employed to propose the flotation responses of these thiol collectors, namely, diethyl dithiocarbamate, ethyl dithiocarbamate, ethyl dithiocarbonate, ethyl trithiocarbonate and ethyl dithiophosphate ions, and to study the interaction energies of these collectors with Ag (+1) ion in connection to acanthite (Ag{sub 2}S) mineral. The calculated interaction energies, {delta}E, were interpreted in terms of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies of the isolated collector ions. The results show that the HOMOs are strongly localized to the sulfur atoms and the HOMO energies can be used as a reactivity descriptor for the flotation ability of the thiol collectors. Using the HOMO and {delta}E energies, the reactivity order of the collectors is found to be (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}NCS{sub 2}{sup -} > C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NHCS{sub 2}{sup -} > C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCS{sub 2}{sup -} > C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SCS{sub 2}{sup -} > (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}O)(OH)PS{sub 2}{sup -}. The theoretically obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data reported.

  20. Selective Hg(II) Detection in Aqueous Solution with Thiol Derivatized Fluoresceins

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Elizabeth M.; Racine, Maryann E.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    The syntheses and photophysical properties of MS2 and MS3, two asymmetrically derivatized fluorescein-based dyes designed for Hg(II) detection, are described. These sensors each contain a single pyridyl-amine-thiol metal-binding moiety, form 1:1 complexes with Hg(II), and exhibit selectivity for Hg(II) over other Group 12 metals, alkali and alkaline earth metals, and most divalent first-row transition metals. Both dyes display superior brightness (? × ?) and fluorescence enhancement follow...

  1. Inhibition of Arabidopsis O-Acetylserine(thiol)lyase A1 by Tyrosine Nitration*

    OpenAIRE

    A?lvarez, Consolacio?n; Lozano-juste, Jorge; Romero, Lui?s C.; Garci?a, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Leo?n, Jose?

    2010-01-01

    The last step of sulfur assimilation is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) enzymes. OASTLs are encoded by a multigene family in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Cytosolic OASA1 enzyme is the main source of OASTL activity and thus crucial for cysteine homeostasis. We found that nitrating conditions after exposure to peroxynitrite strongly inhibited OASTL activity. Among OASTLs, OASA1 was markedly sensitive to nitration as demonstrated by the comparative analysis of OASTL acti...

  2. NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY DURING HEAT SHOCK IN WINTER WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenko S.B.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates are the basic source of nitrogen for the majority of plants. Absorption and transformation of nitrates in plants are determined by external conditions and, first of all, temperature and light intensity. The influence of the temperature increasing till +40 0? on activity of nitrate reductase was studied. It is shown, that the rise of temperature was accompanied by sharp decrease of activity nitrate reductase in leaves of winter wheat, what, apparently, occurred for the account deactivations of enzyme and due to its dissociation.

  3. Density functional study of a typical thiol tethered on a gold surface: ruptures under normal or parallel stretch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical and dynamical properties of a model Au(111)/thiol surface system were investigated by using localized atomic-type orbital density functional theory in the local density approximation. Relaxing the system gives a configuration where the sulfur atom forms covalent bonds to two adjacent gold atoms as the lowest energy structure. Investigations based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at 300, 350 and 370 K show that this tethering system is stable. The rupture behaviour between the thiol and the surface was studied by displacing the free end of the thiol. Calculated energy profiles show a process of multiple successive ruptures that account for experimental observations. The process features successive ruptures of the two Au-S bonds followed by the extraction of one S-bonded Au atom from the surface. The force required to rupture the thiol from the surface was found to be dependent on the direction in which the thiol was displaced, with values comparable with AFM measurements. These results aid the understanding of failure dynamics of Au(111)-thiol-tethered biosurfaces in microfluidic devices where fluidic shear and normal forces are of concern

  4. Nanoscale organization of thiol and arylsulfonic acid on silica leads to a highly active and selective bifunctional, heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margelefsky, Eric L; Bendjériou, Anissa; Zeidan, Ryan K; Dufaud, Véronique; Davis, Mark E

    2008-10-01

    Ordered mesoporous silicas functionalized with alkylsulfonic acid and thiol group pairs have been shown to catalyze the synthesis of bisphenols from the condensation of phenol and various ketones, with activity and selectivity highly dependent on the distance between the acid and thiol. Here, a new route to thiol/sulfonic acid paired catalysts is reported. A bis-silane precursor molecule containing both a disulfide and a sulfonate ester bond is grafted onto the surface of ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, followed by simultaneous disulfide reduction and sulfonate ester hydrolysis. The resulting catalyst, containing organized pairs of arylsulfonic acid and thiol groups, is significantly more active than the alkylsulfonic acid/thiol paired catalyst in the synthesis of bisphenol A and Z, and this increase in activity does not lead to a loss of regioselectivity. The paired catalyst has activity similar to that of a randomly bifunctionalized arylsulfonic acid/thiol catalyst in the bisphenol A reaction but exhibits greater activity and selectivity than the randomly bifunctionalized catalyst in the bisphenol Z reaction. PMID:18788738

  5. Analysis of thiols by microchip capillary electrophoresis for in situ planetary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maria F; Stockton, Amanda M; Willis, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Microchip capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (?CE-LIF) enables sensitive analyses of a wide range of analytes employing small volumes of sample and reagent (nL to ?L) on an instrument platform with minimal mass, volume, and power requirements. This technique has been used previously in the analysis of amino acids and other organic molecules of interest in the fields of astrobiology and planetary science. Here, we present a protocol for the analysis of thiols using ?CE-LIF. This protocol utilizes Pacific Blue C5-maleimide for fluorescent derivatization of thiols, enabling limits of detection in the low nM range (1.4-15 nM). Separations are conducted in micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode with 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate in 15 mM tetraborate, pH 9.2. This method allows analysis of 12 thiols in less than 2 min following a labeling step of 2 h. A step-by-step protocol, including tips on microchip capillary electrophoresis, is described here. PMID:25673481

  6. Electronic and structural studies of immobilized thiol-derivatized cobalt porphyrins on gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immobilisation of thiol-derivatized cobalt porphyrins on gold surfaces has been studied in detail by means of combined scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). S-thioacetyl has been used as a protective group for the thiol. Different routes for deprotection of the acetyl groups were performed in acidic and in basic conditions. The results show the formation of monolayer films for the different preparation schemes. The immobilisation of the molecules on the gold surface takes place through the thiol-linkers by the formation of multiple thiolate bonds. In the case of layers formed with protected porphyrins approximately 60% of the linkers are bonded to the gold surface whereas for deprotected layers the amount of bonded linkers is increased up to about 80%. STM measurements revealed that the molecules arrange in a disordered overlayer and do not exhibit mobility on the gold surface. Annealing experiments have been performed in order to test the stability of the porphyrin layers. Disordered patterns have been observed in the STM images after annealing at T = 400 oC. XPS revealed that the sulphur content disappeared completely after annealing at T = 180 oC and that the molecules did undergo significant modifications

  7. Thiol modified chitosan self-assembled monolayer platform for nucleic acid biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Maumita Das; Solanki, Pratima R; Sumana, Gajjala; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2014-10-01

    A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thiol modified chitosan (SH-CHIT), with thioglycolic acid (TGA) as a modifier to bestow thiol groups, has been prepared onto gold (Au)-coated glass plates for fabrication of the nucleic acid biosensor. The chemical modification of CHIT via TGA has been evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies, and the biocompatibility studies reveal that CHIT retains its biocompatible nature after chemical modification. The electrochemical studies conducted onto SH-CHIT/Au electrode reveal that thiol modification in CHIT amino end enhances the electrochemical behavior indicating that it may be attributed to delocalization of electrons in CHIT skeleton that participates in the resonance process. The carboxyl group modified end of DNA probe has been immobilized onto SH-CHIT/Au electrode using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry for detection of complementary, one-base mismatch and non-complementary sequence using electrochemical and optical studies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection. It has been found that DNA-SH-CHIT/Au bioelectrode can specifically detect 0.01 ?M of target DNA concentration with sensitivity of 1.69?×?10(-6) A ?M(-1). PMID:25205172

  8. Location of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced gastrointestinal tumors correlates with thiol distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the drinking water causes a high incidence of carcinomas of the glandular stomach in rats. Following a single oral dose of [14C-methyl]MNNG (80 p.p.m.; 2.5 mg/kg), the extent of DNA methylation in the glandular stomach was 9 and 20 times higher than that in the forestomach and oesophagus, respectively. The autoradiographic distribution of tissue-bound radioactivity within the glandular stomach of BONN/WIST rats coincides with strain-specific tumor location at the small curvature. Following intragastric administration of [14C-methyl]MNNG, alkylation levels in forestomach and glandular stomach were twice as high as those observed after oral exposure via the drinking water, whereas duodenal DNA showed a much lower extent of methylation. The regional differences in DNA alkylation correlated with tissue-specific variations in the concentration of cellular thiols which are known to accelerate the heterolytic decomposition of MNNG. When [14C-methyl]MNNG was given intragastrically together with the thiol-blocking agent, N-ethylmaleimide, covalent binding of the 14C-radioactivity to forestomach, glandular stomach and duodenum was almost completely abolished. This indicates that the preferential induction of glandular stomach tumors by MNNG relies on high concentrations of cellular thiols in the target tissue

  9. Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Thiol-Derivatized Amphiphilic Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, SØren

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphilic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) with a thiol functionality in the PCL terminal has been prepared in a novel synthetic cascade. Initially, living anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) employing the difunctional initiator, 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, followed by esterification with 2,4-dinitrophenyl- or 4-monomethoxytrityl-protected mercaptoacetic acids (Prot-), provided well-defined PCL macroinitiators capped with protected thiols. The macroinitiators allowed atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of tent-butyl acrylate (tBA) in a controlled fashion by use of NiBr2(PPh3)(2) catalyst to produce Prot-PCL-b-PtBA with narrow polydispersities (1.17-1.39). Subsequent mild deprotection protocols provided HS-PCL-b-PAA. Reduction of a gold salt in the presence of this macroligand under thiol-deficient conditions afforded stable, aggregation-free nanoparticles, as evidenced from UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the latter revealed nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 9.0 +/- 3.1 nm.

  10. Gold nanoparticles protected with thiol-derivatized amphiphilic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, Søren

    2009-01-12

    Amphiphilic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) with a thiol functionality in the PCL terminal has been prepared in a novel synthetic cascade. Initially, living anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) employing the difunctional initiator, 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, followed by esterification with 2,4-dinitrophenyl- or 4-monomethoxytrityl-protected mercaptoacetic acids (Prot-), provided well-defined PCL macroinitiators capped with protected thiols. The macroinitiators allowed atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) in a controlled fashion by use of NiBr2(PPh3)2 catalyst to produce Prot-PCL-b-PtBA with narrow polydispersities (1.17-1.39). Subsequent mild deprotection protocols provided HS-PCL-b-PAA. Reduction of a gold salt in the presence of this macroligand under thiol-deficient conditions afforded stable, aggregation-free nanoparticles, as evidenced from UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the latter revealed nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 9.0+/-3.1 nm. PMID:19053294

  11. Preconcentration and Extraction of Copper ion on Activated Carbon using ?-Benzoinoxime and Pyrimidin 2-Thiole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated carbon modified methods were used for preconcentration and determination of copper in some real sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The copper was adsorbed quantitatively on activated carbon due to their complexation with ?-benzoinoxime and pyrimidin 2-thiole. The adsorbed copper on solid phase was eluted quantitatively using nitric acid. The important parameters such as pH, amount of carrier, flow rate, amount of activated carbon and type and concentration of eluting agent for obtaining maximum recovery was optimized. The methods based on ?- benzoinoxime and pyrimidin 2-thiole at optimum conditions is linear over concentration range of 0.05-1.3 ug mL and 0.06-1.2 ug mL of copper with correlation coefficient of 0.9997 and 0.9994 and both detection limit of 1.2 ngmL, respectively. The preconcentration leads to enrichment factor of 200 and 240 and break through volume of 1200 mL for methods based on ?- benzoinoxime and pyrimidin 2-thiole, respectively. The methods have good tolerance limit of interfering ion and selectivity that has been successfully applied for determination of copper content in real sample such as blood, wastewater and river sample. (author)

  12. Low-molecular-weight thiol-dependent antioxidant and antinitrosative defences in Salmonella pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miryoung; Husain, Maroof; Jones-Carson, Jessica; Liu, Lin; Henard, Calvin A; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés

    2013-02-01

    We found herein that the intracytoplasmic pool of the low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiol glutathione (GSH) is readily oxidized in Salmonella exposed to nitric oxide (NO). The hypersusceptibility of gshA and gshB mutants lacking ?-glutamylcysteine and glutathione synthetases to NO and S-nitrosoglutathione indicates that GSH antagonizes the bacteriostatic activity of reactive nitrogen species. Metabolites of the GSH biosynthetic pathway do not affect the enzymatic activity of classical NO targets such as quinol oxidases. In contrast, LMW thiols diminish the nitrosative stress experienced by enzymes, such as glutamine oxoglutarate amidotransferase, that contain redox active cysteines. LMW thiols also preserve the transcription of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 gene targets from the inhibitory activity of nitrogen oxides. These findings are consistent with the idea that GSH scavenges reactive nitrogen species (RNS) other than NO. Compared with the adaptive response afforded by inducible systems such as the hmp-encoded flavohaemoprotein, gshA, encoding the first step of GSH biosynthesis, is constitutively expressed in Salmonella. An acute model of salmonellosis has revealed that the antioxidant and antinitrosative properties associated with the GSH biosynthetic pathway represent a first line of Salmonella resistance against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species engendered in the context of a functional NRAMP1(R) divalent metal transporter. PMID:23217033

  13. Characterization of plasma thiol redox potential in a common marmoset model of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Roede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its short lifespan, ease of use and age-related pathologies that mirror those observed in humans, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is poised to become a standard nonhuman primate model of aging. Blood and extracellular fluid possess two major thiol-dependent redox nodes involving cysteine (Cys, cystine (CySS, glutathione (GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG. Alteration in these plasma redox nodes significantly affects cellular physiology, and oxidation of the plasma Cys/CySS redox potential (EhCySS is associated with aging and disease risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine age-related changes in plasma redox metabolites and corresponding redox potentials (Eh to further validate the marmoset as a nonhuman primate model of aging. We measured plasma thiol redox states in marmosets and used existing human data with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS to model the relationships between age and redox metabolites. A classification accuracy of 70.2% and an AUC of 0.703 were achieved using the MARS model built from the marmoset redox data to classify the human samples as young or old. These results show that common marmosets provide a useful model for thiol redox biology of aging.

  14. Thiol-reactive compounds from garlic inhibit the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Patrick; Giraldez, Teresa; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin; Althaus, Mike

    2012-07-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a key factor in the transepithelial movement of sodium, and consequently salt and water homeostasis in various organs. Dysregulated activity of ENaC is associated with human diseases such as hypertension, the salt-wasting syndrome pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary oedema or intestinal disorders. Therefore it is important to identify novel compounds that affect ENaC activity. This study investigated if garlic (Allium sativum) and its characteristic organosulfur compounds have impact on ENaCs. Human ENaCs were heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and their activity was measured as transmembrane currents by the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. The application of freshly prepared extract from 5g of fresh garlic (1% final concentration) decreased transmembrane currents of ENaC-expressing oocytes within 10 min. This effect was dose-dependent and irreversible. It was fully sensitive to the ENaC-inhibitor amiloride and was not apparent on native control oocytes. The effect of garlic was blocked by dithiothreitol and l-cysteine indicating involvement of thiol-reactive compounds. The garlic organosulsur compounds S-allylcysteine, alliin and diallyl sulfides had no effect on ENaC. By contrast, the thiol-reactive garlic compound allicin significantly inhibited ENaC to a similar extent as garlic extract. These data indicate that thiol-reactive compounds which are present in garlic inhibit ENaC. PMID:22668601

  15. Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong tolerance mechanisms to Cadmium: Subcellular distribution, chemical forms and thiol pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Cadmium tolerance mechanisms of Kandelia obovata was investigated systematacially. ? Thiol pool can play roles in cadmium detoxification mechanisms. ? Increasing cadmium treatment strength caused proportional increase of cadmium uptake. ? More than half of cadmium was localized in cell walls, and lowest in membranes. ? Sodium chloride and acetic acid extractable fractions were dominant. - Abstract: In order to explore the detoxification mechanisms adopted by mangrove under cadmium (Cd) stress, we investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd, in addition to the change of the thiol pools in Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong, which were cultivated in sandy culture medium treated with sequential Cd solution. We found that Cd addition caused a proportional increase of Cd in the organs of K. obovata. The investigation of subcellular distribution verified that most of the Cd was localized in the cell wall, and the lowest was in the membrane. Results showed sodium chloride and acetic acid extractable Cd fractions were dominant. The contents of non-protein thiol compounds, Glutathione and phytochelatins in K. obovata were enhanced by the increasing strength of Cd treatment. Therefore, K. obovata can be defined as Cd tolerant plant, which base on cell wall compartmentalization, as well as protein and organic acids combination.

  16. Enhanced electrochemical sensing of thiols based on cobalt phthalocyanine immobilized on nitrogen-doped graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiying; Xiao, Jingjing; Liu, Baohong; Griveau, Sophie; Bedioui, Fethi

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid nanocomposite based on cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) immobilized on nitrogen-doped graphene (N-G) (N-G/CoPc) has been developed to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the sensitive detection of thiols. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Cyclic voltammetric studies showed that cobalt phthalocyanine and nitrogen doped graphene have a synergic effect and significantly enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode towards thiols oxidation compared with electrodes modified with solely CoPc or N-G. The electrochemical oxidation responses were studied and the reaction mechanisms were discussed. The sensors exhibited a wide linear response range from 1?? to 16mM and a low detection limit of 1?? for the determination of l-cysteine, reduced l-glutathione and 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid in alkaline aqueous solution. The proposed N-G/CoPc hybrids contribute to the construction of rapid, convenient and low-cost electrochemical sensors for sensitive detection of thiols. PMID:25497984

  17. Liposome encapsulation of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots for enhancing the intracellular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Yong; Zhao, Jin-Feng; Wang, Pei-Nan; Yang, Wu-Li; Chen, Ji-Yao

    2011-07-01

    Although water soluble thiol-capped quantum dots (QDs) have been widely used as photoluminescence (PL) probes in various applications, the negative charges on thiol terminals limit the cell uptake hindering their applications in cell imaging. The commercial liposome complex (Sofast®) was used to encapsulate these QDs forming the liposome vesicles with the loading efficiency as high as about 95%. The cell uptakes of unencapsulated QDs and QD loaded liposome vesicles were comparatively studied by a laser scanning confocal microscope. We found that QD loaded liposome vesicles can effectively enhance the intracellular delivery of QDs in three cell lines (human osteosarcoma cell line (U2OS); human cervical carcinoma cell line (Hela); human embryonic kidney cell line (293 T)). The photobleaching of encapsulated QDs in cells was also reduced comparing with that of unencapsulated QDs, measured by the PL decay of cellular QDs with a continuous laser irradiation in the microscope. The flow cytometric measurements further showed that the enhancing ratios of encapsulated QDs on cell uptake are about 4-8 times in 293 T and Hela cells. These results suggest that the cationic liposome encapsulation is an effective modality to enhance the intracellular delivery of thiol-capped QDs. PMID:21409405

  18. A thiol-mediated active membrane transport of selenium by erythroid anion exchanger 1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Masafumi; Haratake, Mamoru; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Nakayama, Morio

    2012-06-28

    In this paper, we describe a thiol-mediated and energy-dependent membrane transport of selenium by erythroid anion exchanger 1 (AE1, also known as band 3 protein). The AE1 is the most abundant integral protein of red cell membranes and plays a critical role in the carbon dioxide transport system in which carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate in the plasma. This protein mediates the membrane transport of selenium, an essential antioxidant micronutrient, from red cells to the plasma in a manner that is distinct from the already known anion exchange mechanism. In this pathway, selenium bound to the cysteine 93 of the hemoglobin ? chain (Hb-Cys?93) is transported by the relay mechanism to the Cys317 of the amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the AE1 on the basis of the intrinsic interaction between the two proteins and is subsequently exported to the plasma via the Cys843 of the membrane-spanning domain. The selenium export did not occur in plain isotonic buffer solutions and required thiols, such as albumin, in the outer medium. Such a membrane transport mechanism would also participate in the export pathways of the nitric oxide vasodilator activity and other thiol-reactive substances bound to the Hb-Cys?93 from red cells to the plasma and/or peripherals. PMID:22580993

  19. The critical role of the cellular thiol homeostasis in cadmium perturbation of the lung extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) inhalation can result in emphysema. Cd exposure of rat lung fibroblasts (RFL6) enhanced levels of metal scavenging thiols, e.g., metallothionein (MT) and glutathione (GSH), and the heavy chain of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS), a key enzyme for GSH biosynthesis, concomitant with downregulation of lysyl oxidase (LO), a copper-dependent enzyme for crosslinking collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cd downregulation of LO in treated cells was closely accompanied by suppression of synthesis of collagen, a major structure component of the lung ECM. Using rats intratracheally instilled with cadmium chloride (30 ?g, once a week) as an animal model, we further demonstrated that although 2-week Cd instillation induced a non-significant change in the lung LO activity and collagen synthesis, 4- and 6-week Cd instillation resulted in a steady decrease in the lung LO and collagen expression. The lung MT and total GSH levels were both upregulated upon the long-term Cd exposure. Emphysematous lesions were generated in lungs of 6-week Cd-dosed rats. Increases of cellular thiols by transfection of cells with MT-II expression vectors or treatment of cells with GSH monoethyl ester, a GSH delivery system, markedly inhibited LO mRNA levels and catalytic activities in the cell model. Thus, Cd upregulation of cellular thiols may be a critical cellular event facilitating downregulation of LO, a potential mechanism for Cd-induced emphysema.

  20. Gating mechanisms for biological electron transfer: integrating structure with biophysics reveals the nature of redox control in cytochrome P450 reductase and copper-dependent nitrite reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leferink, Nicole G H; Pudney, Christopher R; Brenner, Sibylle; Heyes, Derren J; Eady, Robert R; Samar Hasnain, S; Hay, Sam; Rigby, Stephen E J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2012-03-01

    Biological electron transfer is a fundamentally important reaction. Despite the apparent simplicity of these reactions (in that no bonds are made or broken), their experimental interrogation is often complicated because of adiabatic control exerted through associated chemical and conformational change. We have studied the nature of this control in several enzyme systems, cytochrome P450 reductase, methionine synthase reductase and copper-dependent nitrite reductase. Specifically, we review the evidence for conformational control in cytochrome P450 reductase and methionine synthase reductase and chemical control i.e. proton coupled electron transfer in nitrite reductase. This evidence has accrued through the use and integration of structural, spectroscopic and advanced kinetic methods. This integrated approach is shown to be powerful in dissecting control mechanisms for biological electron transfer and will likely find widespread application in the study of related biological redox systems. PMID:21762695

  1. Riboflavin status modifies the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) polymorphisms on homocysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a-minguilla?n, Carlos J.; Fernandez-ballart, Joan D.; Ceruelo, Santiago; Ri?os, Li?dia; Bueno, Olalla; Berrocal-zaragoza, Maria Isabel; Molloy, Anne M.; Ueland, Per M.; Meyer, Klaus; Murphy, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), riboflavin-dependent enzymes, participate in homocysteine metabolism. Reported effects of riboflavin status on the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and homocysteine vary, and the effects of the MTRR 66A>G or MTRR 524C>T polymorphisms on homocysteine are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the effects of the MTHFR 677C>T, MTRR 66A>G and MTRR 524C>T polymorphisms on fasting plasma total hom...

  2. Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Thiol-Derivatized Amphiphilic Poly( -caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, SØren

    2008-01-01

    Amphiphilic poly(c-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) bearing thiol functionality at the PCL terminal has been synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of c-caprolactone (c-CL), esterification of hydroxy chain end with protected mercaptoacetic acid, subsequent chain-extension by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), and final deprotection steps. ROP of c-CL initiated by 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, and catalysed by tin octoate afforded Br-PCL-OH with the degree of polymerization of 30 and narrow molecular weight distribution (1.09). The hydroxy chain end of Br-PCL-OR was modified by reacting with a-(2,4-dinitrophenylthio)acetic acid or a-(4methoxytritylthio) acetic acid resulting in heterotelechelic PCL incorporating protected thiol and bromoester functionalities. It was then employed as macroinitiator in NiBr2(PPh3)2 catalysed ATRP of tBA. ATRP of tBA provided diblock copolymers with low polydispersity index (1.17-1.39) while preserving the protected thiol function. Sequential or simultaneous removal of 2,4-dinitrophenyl or 4-methoxytrityl and tert-butyl ester groups resulted in HS-PCL-b-PAA. The PCL backbone remained intact after mild deprotection protocols. Thus, reversible masking of thiol functionality allows facile fusion of the controlled polymerization techniques employing dual initiator strategy, and furnishes RS-PCL-bPAA with well-defined chain architecture which has been assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), nuclear magnetic resonance eR NMR) and infrared (FT IR) spectroscopy. The capacity of the resulting block copolymer in preparation of monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles has been examined by reduction of a gold salt in the presence of this macroligand under thiol-deficient conditions. As a result stable, aggregation-free nanopaticles with moderate dispersity as estimated from UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data were obtained.

  3. POTENTIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF A GRAPHITE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH COBALT PHTHALOCYANINE FOR THIOLS AND DISULFIDES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ H., ZAGAL; JAIME J.H., HENRIQUEZ.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se ha investigado la respuesta potenciométrica the electrodos de grafito pirolítico ordinario (OPG) modificados con ftalocianina de cobalto (Co-Pc) frente a los tioles (R-SH) 2-mecaptoetanol y L-cisteína y los correspondientes disulfuros (R-SS-R). Al agregar pequeñas cantidades de estos tioles a sol [...] uciones acuosas con pH en el rango 11-4, se obtienen respuestas en potencial estables dentro de unos pocos segundos despues de las adiciones. Gráficas de potencial vs. log [R-SH] dan rectas para todos los casos, con pendientes cercanas a -0,060 V para concentraciones del tiol en el rango de 10-5 a 10-2 M. Estas medidas se efectuaron en presencia de aire u oxígeno. En atmósfera de nitrógeno, las pendientes de las gráficas suben a -0,14 V. El potencial de circuito abierto de los electrodos OPG/Co-Pc resultó ser independiente de la concentración de los disulfuros lo que indica que el potencial del electrodo modificado es sólo sensible al tiol. Los electrodos de grafito sin modificar frente a los tioles dan respuestas en potencial irreproducibles, lo que muestra la importancia de la presencia Co-Pc para obtener respuestas potenciométricas estables Abstract in english We have investigated the potentiometric response of ordinary pyrolytic graphite electrodes (OPG) modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (Co-Pc) for thiols (R-SH) 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine and their corresponding disulfides (R-SS-R). Stable potentials are achieved after a few seconds of additions of [...] different amounts of thiols to aqueous solutions of pH values between 11 and 4. Plots of potential vs. log [R-SH] give straight lines for all cases with slopes ca. -0.060 V with concentrations of the thiol varying from 10-5 up to 10-2 M. These measurements were conducted in the presence of air or oxygen. Under nitrogen, the slopes increase to -0.14 V. The potential response of OPG/Co-Pc is independent of disulfide concentration, which shows that these modified electrodes are only sensitive to the thiol. Graphite electrodes without modification are not sensitive to the concentration of thiols in the solution and the potential response is erratic.

  4. POTENTIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF A GRAPHITE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH COBALT PHTHALOCYANINE FOR THIOLS AND DISULFIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ H. ZAGAL

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the potentiometric response of ordinary pyrolytic graphite electrodes (OPG modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (Co-Pc for thiols (R-SH 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine and their corresponding disulfides (R-SS-R. Stable potentials are achieved after a few seconds of additions of different amounts of thiols to aqueous solutions of pH values between 11 and 4. Plots of potential vs. log [R-SH] give straight lines for all cases with slopes ca. -0.060 V with concentrations of the thiol varying from 10-5 up to 10-2 M. These measurements were conducted in the presence of air or oxygen. Under nitrogen, the slopes increase to -0.14 V. The potential response of OPG/Co-Pc is independent of disulfide concentration, which shows that these modified electrodes are only sensitive to the thiol. Graphite electrodes without modification are not sensitive to the concentration of thiols in the solution and the potential response is erratic.Se ha investigado la respuesta potenciométrica the electrodos de grafito pirolítico ordinario (OPG modificados con ftalocianina de cobalto (Co-Pc frente a los tioles (R-SH 2-mecaptoetanol y L-cisteína y los correspondientes disulfuros (R-SS-R. Al agregar pequeñas cantidades de estos tioles a soluciones acuosas con pH en el rango 11-4, se obtienen respuestas en potencial estables dentro de unos pocos segundos despues de las adiciones. Gráficas de potencial vs. log [R-SH] dan rectas para todos los casos, con pendientes cercanas a -0,060 V para concentraciones del tiol en el rango de 10-5 a 10-2 M. Estas medidas se efectuaron en presencia de aire u oxígeno. En atmósfera de nitrógeno, las pendientes de las gráficas suben a -0,14 V. El potencial de circuito abierto de los electrodos OPG/Co-Pc resultó ser independiente de la concentración de los disulfuros lo que indica que el potencial del electrodo modificado es sólo sensible al tiol. Los electrodos de grafito sin modificar frente a los tioles dan respuestas en potencial irreproducibles, lo que muestra la importancia de la presencia Co-Pc para obtener respuestas potenciométricas estables

  5. Linked Expressions of nap and nos Genes in a Bradyrhizobium japonicum Mutant with Increased N2O Reductase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sa?nchez, Cristina; Itakura, Manabu; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2013-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms underlying the increased N2O reductase activity in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum 5M09 mutant from enrichment culture under N2O respiration, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding denitrification reductases and regulators. Our results suggest a common regulation of nap (encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase) and nos (encoding N2O reductase).

  6. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF DISULPHIDE REDUCTASES IN CAMPYLOBACTERALES: A BIOINFORMATICS INVESTIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disulphide reductases of host-colonising bacteria are involved in the expression of virulence factors, resistance to drugs, and elimination of compounds toxic to the microorganisms. The four species Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Wolinella succinogenes and Arcobacter butzleri of the orde...

  8. Influence of extra-cellular and intra-cellular acting thiol oxidants on the 45calcium uptake by the islets of Langerhans of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glucose-stimulated calcium uptake by the islets of Langerhans is dependent on the intra-cellular GSH/GSSG ratios. The inhibition of calcium uptake is not the consequence of a direct oxidation of membrane-fixed thiol groups. In contrast, direct oxidation of extra cellular thiols leads to an increase in calcium uptake when intra-cellular oxidation is simultaneously prevented. Since this effect only occurs at high intra-cellular GSH/GSSG ratios it can be assumed that the redox state of extra-cellular thiols is dependent on the redox state of the intra-cellular GSH/GSSG ratios. These findings support the theory that the oxidation of extra-cellular thiols by thiol oxidants leads to an increase in calcium uptake and that the extent of uptake is higher, the more the redox state of the extra-cellular thiols tends towards the reduced state prior to oxidation. (orig./MG)

  9. Thiols alter the partitioning of calicheamicin-induced deoxyribose 4'-oxidation reactions in the absence of DNA radical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Larraza, D M; Moore, K; Dedon, P C

    2001-05-01

    Cellular thiols have been proposed to play a protective role in oxidative DNA damage by quenching radical species in solution and by repairing deoxyribose and nucleobase radicals. There is also evidence for participation of thiols in reactions after formation of the DNA radical. Previous studies with neocarzinostatin, a thiol-dependent DNA-cleaving enediyne, revealed that the structure and charge of the activating thiol influence the partitioning of deoxyribose 4'-oxidation reactions between a 3'-phosphoglycolate residue and the alternative 4'-keto-1'-aldehyde abasic site [Kappen, L. S., et al. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 2034-2042; Dedon, P. C., et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1917-1927]. However, interpretation of these results is confounded by the formation of a neocarzinostatin-thiol conjugate that could alter the position of the activated drug in the minor groove and quench drug radicals. Using the DNA-cleaving enediynes calicheamicin gamma(1)(I) and Ø, which are identical except for their trigger moieties, we now present a more definitive study of the role of thiol structure in the partitioning of the deoxyribose 4'-oxidation reaction. In the absence of thiols, calicheamicin Ø, which can undergo hydrolytic or reductive activation, generated 4'-oxidation products consisting of 26% 3'-phosphoglycolate residues, 33% 3'-phosphate-ended fragments, and 41% abasic sites (determined as the 3'-phosphopyridazine derivative). Using a series of thiols of varying size and charge, we found that, at concentrations that do not quench drug or DNA radicals, the negatively charged thiols glutathione and thioglycolate did not significantly affect the baseline proportions of the 4'-oxidation products. However, neutral thiols (O-ethylglutathione, methyl thioglycolate, 2-mercaptoethanol, and dithiothreitol) and, to a greater extent, the positively charged aminoethanethiol inhibited the production of 3'-phosphoglycolate residues with a proportional increase in the number of abasic sites. The effect of the thiols on the quantities of single- and double-stranded DNA lesions produced by calicheamicin gamma(1)(I) was also investigated since 3'-phosphoglycolate residues produced by calicheamicin exist only in double-stranded DNA lesions, and the thiol effects could have resulted from quenching of drug or DNA radicals. These studies revealed that, at thiol concentrations found to alter deoxyribose 4'-oxidation reactions, there was no apparent quenching of drug radicals or repair of DNA radicals. Thus, the effects of the thiols on the deoxyribose 4'-oxidation chemistry are due to reactions with a key intermediate in the phosphoglycolate- and abasic site-generating pathways. These results also suggest that cellular glutathione plays a relatively minor role in the chemistry of deoxyribose 4'-oxidation, which has implications for other oxidative reactions occurring in the minor groove of DNA (e.g., deoxyribose 5'- and 1'-oxidation). PMID:11368551

  10. Effect of high glucose on gene expression in mesangial cells: upregulation of the thiol pathway is an adaptational response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jolean; Knoll, Kristen; Hessner, Martin J; Liang, Mingyu

    2004-05-19

    Pathological alterations in glomerular mesangial cells play a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Molecular mechanisms mediating such alterations, however, remain to be fully understood. The present study first examined the effect of high glucose on the mRNA expression profile in rat mesangial cells using cDNA microarray. Based on variation-weighted criteria and with a false discovery rate of 4.3%, 459 of 17,664 cDNA elements examined were found to be upregulated and 151 downregulated by exposure to 25 mM d-glucose for 5 days. A large number of differentially expressed genes belonged to several functional categories, indicating high glucose had a profound effect on mesangial cell proliferation, protein synthesis, energy metabolism, and, somewhat unexpectedly, protein sorting and the cytoskeleton. Interestingly, several thiol antioxidative genes (glutathione peroxidase 1, peroxiredoxin 6, and thioredoxin 2) were found by microarray and confirmed by real-time PCR to be upregulated by high glucose. These changes suggested that the oxidative stress known to be induced in mesangial cells by high glucose might be buffered by upregulation of the thiol antioxidative pathway. Upregulation of thiol antioxidative genes also occurred in high-glucose-treated human mesangial cells and in glomeruli isolated from rats after 1 wk of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, but not in human proximal tubule cells. High glucose slightly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased the amount of reduced thiols in rat and human mesangial cells. Disruption of the thiol antioxidative pathway by two different thiol-oxidizing agents resulted in a three- to fivefold increase in high-glucose-induced lipid peroxidation. In summary, the present study provided a global view of the short-term effect of high glucose on mesangial cells at the level of mRNA expression and identified the upregulation of the thiol antioxidative pathway as an adaptational response of mesangial cells to high glucose. PMID:15039483

  11. Identification and characterization of 2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A reductase, the prototype of a novel class of dearomatizing reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Christian; Estelmann, Sebastian; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Müller, Michael; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Boll, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The enzymatic dearomatization of aromatic ring systems by reduction represents a highly challenging redox reaction in biology and plays a key role in the degradation of aromatic compounds under anoxic conditions. In anaerobic bacteria, most monocyclic aromatic growth substrates are converted to benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), which is then dearomatized to a conjugated dienoyl-CoA by ATP-dependent or -independent benzoyl-CoA reductases. It was unresolved whether or not related enzymes are involved in the anaerobic degradation of environmentally relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this work, a previously unknown dearomatizing 2-naphthoyl-CoA reductase was purified from extracts of the naphthalene-degrading, sulphidogenic enrichment culture N47. The oxygen-tolerant enzyme dearomatized the non-activated ring of 2-naphthoyl-CoA by a four-electron reduction to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthoyl-CoA. The dimeric 150 kDa enzyme complex was composed of a 72 kDa subunit showing sequence similarity to members of the flavin-containing 'old yellow enzyme' family. NCR contained FAD, FMN, and an iron-sulphur cluster as cofactors. Extracts of Escherichia coli expressing the encoding gene catalysed 2-naphthoyl-CoA reduction. The identified NCR is a prototypical enzyme of a previously unknown class of dearomatizing arylcarboxyl-CoA reductases that are involved in anaerobic PAH degradation; it fundamentally differs from known benzoyl-CoA reductases. PMID:23646996

  12. Genetic Analysis of Trimethylamine N-Oxide Reductases in the Light Organ Symbiont Vibrio fischeri ES114?

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Anne K.; Stabb, Eric V.

    2008-01-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductases are widespread in bacteria and often function in anaerobic respiration. The regulation and expression of TMAO reductase operons have been well studied in model genera such as Escherichia, Shewanella, and Rhodobacter, although TMAO reductases are present in many other bacteria, including the marine Vibrio species. The genome sequence of Vibrio fischeri revealed three putative TMAO reductase operons, and a previous report identified TMAO reductase activi...

  13. Characterization of a salt-induced DhAHP, a gene coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, from the extremely halophilic yeast Debaryomyces hansenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku Maurice SB

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debaryomyces hansenii is one of the most salt tolerant species of yeast and has become a model organism for the study of tolerance mechanisms against salinity. The goal of this study was to identify key upregulated genes that are involved in its adaptation to high salinity. Results By using forward subtractive hybridization we have cloned and sequenced DhAHP from D. hansenii that is significantly upregulated during salinity stress. DhAHP is orthologous to the alkly hydroperoxide reductase of the peroxiredoxin gene family, which catalyzes the reduction of peroxides at the expense of thiol compounds. The full-lengthed cDNA of DhAHP has 674 bp of nucleotide and contains a 516 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a deduced protein of 172 amino acid residues (18.3 kDa. D. hansenii Ahp is a cytosolic protein that belongs to the Ahp of the 1-Cys type peroxiredoxins. Phylogentically, the DhAhp and Candida albicans Ahp11 (Swiss-Prot: Q5AF44 share a common ancestry but show divergent evolution. Silence of its expression in D. hansenii by RNAi resulted in decreased tolerance to salt whereas overexpression of DhAHP in D. hansenii and the salt-sensitive yeasts Saccharomyces cereviasiae and Pichia methanolica conferred a higher tolerance with a reduced level of reactive oxygen species. Conclusion In conclusion, for the first time our study has identified alkly hydroperoxide reductase as a key protein involved in the salt tolerance of the extremely halophilic D. hansenii. Apparently, this enzyme plays a multi-functional role in the yeast's adaptation to salinity; it serves as a peroxidase in scavenging reactive oxygen species, as a molecular chaperone in protecting essential proteins from denaturation, and as a redox sensor in regulating H2O2-mediated cell defense signaling.

  14. Determination of cellular thiols and glutathione-related enzyme activities: versatility of high-performance liquid chromatography-spectrofluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, C; Leroy, P; Wellman, M; Nicolas, A

    1998-11-20

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine the most important cellular thiols [reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine and cysteinylglycine] is described. Separation relies upon isocratic ion-pairing reversed-phase chromatography and detection is operated by spectrofluorimetry coupled with post-column derivatization reactions using either N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (NPM) or ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA). When OPA is used without co-reagent, only GSH and gamma-glutamylcysteine are detected (heterobifunctional reaction). However, either the OPA reaction in the presence of glycine in the mobile phase (thiol-selective reaction) or NPM allows the detection of all the cited thiols. The HPLC system has been validated as concerning linearity, accuracy and precision. The low detection limits reached (in the pmol range for each thiol injected) allow the screening and the quantification of thiols (as NPM derivatives) in V79cl and V79HGGT cells as well as the measurement of two cytosolic enzymes related to the glutathione synthesis, using the heterobifunctional OPA reaction. PMID:9869362

  15. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Thiol Functionalized CdSe/ZnS (Core/Shell) Quantum Dots by Ligand Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Huaping [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Shao, Lei [ORNL; Yu, Kui [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Dabestani, Reza T [ORNL; Zaman, Md. Badruz [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Liao, Dr. Shijun [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, PR China

    2014-01-01

    The colloidal photoluminescent quantum dots (QDs) of CdSe (core) and CdSe/ZnS (core/shell) were synthesized at different temperatures with different growth periods. The optical properties (i.e., UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescent emission spectra) of the resulting QDs were investigated. The CdSe/ZnS QDs exhibited higher photoluminescent (PL) efficiency and stability than their corresponding CdSe core QDs. Ligand exchange with various thiol molecules was performed to replace the initial surface passivation ligands, that is, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and trioctylphosphine (TOP), and the optical properties of the surface-modified QDs were studied. The thiol ligand molecules used included 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, 1,16-hexadecanedithiol, 1,11-undecanedithiol, 11-mercapto-1-undecanol, and 1,8 octanedithiol. After the thiol functionalization, the CdSe/ZnS QDs exhibited significantly enhanced PL efficiency and storage stability. Besides surface passivation effect, such enhanced performance of thiol-functionalized QDs could be due to self-assembly formation of dimer/trimer clusters, in which QDs are linked by dithiol molecules. Effects of ligand concentration, type of ligand, and heating on the thiol stabilization of QDs were also discussed.

  16. Plumbagin inhibits proliferative and inflammatory responses of T cells independent of ROS generation but by modulating intracellular thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K; Subrahmanyam, G; Krishnan, Sunil; Poduval, T B; Sainis, K B

    2010-08-01

    Plumbagin inhibited activation, proliferation, cytokine production, and graft-versus-host disease in lymphocytes and inhibited growth of tumor cells by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Plumbagin was also shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tumor cells via an unknown mechanism. Present report describes a novel role of cellular redox in modulation of immune responses in normal lymphocytes by plumbagin. Plumbagin depleted glutathione (GSH) levels that led to increase in ROS generation. The decrease in GSH levels was due to direct reaction of plumbagin with GSH as evinced by mass spectrometric and HPLC analysis. Further, addition of plumbagin to cells resulted in decrease in free thiol groups on proteins and increase in glutathionylation of proteins. The suppression of mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation and cytokine (IL-2/IL-4/IL-6/IFN-gamma) production by plumbagin was abrogated by thiol antioxidants but not by non-thiol antioxidants confirming that thiols but not ROS play an important role in biological activity of plumbagin. Plumbagin also abrogated mitogen-induced phosphorylation of ERK, IKK, and degradation of IkappaB-alpha. However, it did not affect phosphorylation of P38, JNK, and AKT. Our results for the first time show that antiproliferative effects of plumbagin are mediated by modulation of cellular redox. These results provide a rationale for application of thiol-depleting agents as anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20564204

  17. Tripodal Binding Units for Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold: A Comparison of Thiol and Thioether Headgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Tobias; Ballav, Nirmalya; Siemeling, Ulrich; Troegel, Dennis; Walter, Tim; Tacke, Reinhold; Castner, David G; Zharnikov, Michael

    2009-11-12

    Whereas thiols and thioethers are frequently used as binding units of oligodentate precursor molecules to fabricate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on coinage metal and semiconductor surfaces, their use for tridentate bonding configuration is still questionable. Against this background, novel tridentate thiol ligands, PhSi(CH(2)SH)(3) (PTT) and p-Ph-C(6)H(4)Si(CH(2)SH)(3) (BPTT), were synthesized and used as tripodal adsorbate molecules for the fabrication of SAMs on Au(111). These SAMs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The PTT and BPTT films were compared with the analogous systems comprised of same tripodal ligands with thioether instead of thiol binding units (anchors). XPS and NEXAFS data suggest that the binding uniformity, packing density, and molecular alignment of the thiol-based ligands in the respective SAMs is superior to their thioether counterparts. In addition, the thiol-based films showed significantly lower levels of contamination. Significantly, the quality of the PTT SAMs on Au(111) was found to be even higher than that of the films formed from the respective monodentate counterpart, benzenethiol. The results obtained allow for making some general conclusions on the specific character of molecular self-assembly in the case of tridentate ligands. PMID:21625327

  18. Interactions of peroxynitrite, tetrahydrobiopterin, ascorbic acid, and thiols: implications for uncoupling endothelial nitric-oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzkaya, Nermin; Weissmann, Norbert; Harrison, David G; Dikalov, Sergey

    2003-06-20

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) serves as a critical co-factor for the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS). A deficiency of BH4 results in eNOS uncoupling, which is associated with increased superoxide and decreased NO* production. BH4 has been suggested to be a target for oxidation by peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and ascorbate has been shown to preserve BH4 levels and enhance endothelial NO* production; however, the mechanisms underlying these processes remain poorly defined. To gain further insight into these interactions, the reaction of ONOO- with BH4 was studied using electron spin resonance and the spin probe 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine. ONOO- reacted with BH4 6-10 times faster than with ascorbate or thiols. The immediate product of the reaction between ONOO- and BH4 was the trihydrobiopterin radical (BH3.), which was reduced back to BH4 by ascorbate, whereas thiols were not efficient in recycling of BH4. Uncoupling of eNOS caused by peroxynitrite was investigated in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) by measuring superoxide and NO* using spin probe 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine and the NO*-spin trap iron-diethyldithiocarbamate. Bolus ONOO-, the ONOO- donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine, and an inhibitor of BH4 synthesis (2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine) uncoupled eNOS, increasing superoxide and decreasing NO* production. Exogenous BH4 supplementation restored endothelial NO* production. Treatment of BAECs with both BH4 and ascorbate prior to ONOO- prevented uncoupling of eNOS by ONOO-. This study demonstrates that endothelial BH4 is a crucial target for oxidation by ONOO- and that the BH4 reaction rate constant exceeds those of thiols or ascorbate. We confirmed that ONOO- uncouples eNOS by oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin and that ascorbate does not fully protect BH4 from oxidation but recycles BH3. radical back to BH4. PMID:12692136

  19. Iron and thiols as two major players in carcinogenesis: friends or foes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShinyaToyokuni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron is the most abundant metal in the human body and mainly works as a cofactor for proteins such as hemoglobin and various enzymes. No independent life forms on earth can survive without iron. However, excess iron is intimately associated with carcinogenesis by increasing oxidative stress via its catalytic activity to generate hydroxyl radicals. Biomolecules with redox-active sulfhydryl function(s (thiol compounds are necessary for the maintenance of mildly reductive cellular environments to counteract oxidative stress, and for the execution of redox reactions for metabolism and detoxification. Involvement of glutathione S-transferase and thioredoxin has long attracted the attention of cancer researchers. Here, I update recent findings on the involvement of iron and thiol compounds during carcinogenesis and in cancer cells. It is now recognized that the cystine/glutamate transporter (antiporter is intimately associated with ferroptosis, an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic form of cell death, observed in cancer cells, and also with cancer stem cells; the former with transporter blockage but the latter with its stabilization. Excess iron in the presence of oxygen appears the most common known mutagen. Ironically, the persistent activation of antioxidant systems via genetic alterations in Nrf2 and Keap1 also contributes to carcinogenesis. Therefore, it is difficult to conclude the role of iron and thiol compounds as friends or foes, which depends on the quantity/distribution and induction/flexibility, respectively. Avoiding further mutation would be the most helpful strategy for cancer prevention, and myriad of efforts are being made to sort out the weaknesses of cancer cells.

  20. Protein Tyrosine Nitration and Thiol Oxidation by Peroxynitrite—Strategies to Prevent These Oxidative Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Münzel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The reaction product of nitric oxide and superoxide, peroxynitrite, is a potent biological oxidant. The most important oxidative protein modifications described for peroxynitrite are cysteine-thiol oxidation and tyrosine nitration. We have previously demonstrated that intrinsic heme-thiolate (P450-dependent enzymatic catalysis increases the nitration of tyrosine 430 in prostacyclin synthase and results in loss of activity which contributes to endothelial dysfunction. We here report the sensitive peroxynitrite-dependent nitration of an over-expressed and partially purified human prostacyclin synthase (3.3 ?M with an EC50 value of 5 ?M. Microsomal thiols in these preparations effectively compete for peroxynitrite and block the nitration of other proteins up to 50 ?M peroxynitrite. Purified, recombinant PGIS showed a half-maximal nitration by 10 ?M 3-morpholino sydnonimine (Sin-1 which increased in the presence of bicarbonate, and was only marginally induced by freely diffusing NO2-radicals generated by a peroxidase/nitrite/hydrogen peroxide system. Based on these observations, we would like to emphasize that prostacyclin synthase is among the most efficiently and sensitively nitrated proteins investigated by us so far. In the second part of the study, we identified two classes of peroxynitrite scavengers, blocking either peroxynitrite anion-mediated thiol oxidations or phenol/tyrosine nitrations by free radical mechanisms. Dithiopurines and dithiopyrimidines were highly effective in inhibiting both reaction types which could make this class of compounds interesting therapeutic tools. In the present work, we highlighted the impact of experimental conditions on the outcome of peroxynitrite-mediated nitrations. The limitations identified in this work need to be considered in the assessment of experimental data involving peroxynitrite.

  1. Controlled manipulation of thiol-functionalised gold nanoparticles on Si (100) by dynamic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolicelli, G [CNR-INFM National Research Center S3, Via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy); Mougin, K [I.C.S.I. - C.N.R.S. - UPR 9069 15, Rue Jean Starcky B.P. 2488 - 68057 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Vanossi, A; Valeri, S [CNR-INFM National Research Center S3 and Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: paolicelli.guido@unimore.it

    2008-03-15

    Mechanical control of nanometer size objects and the dynamic behaviour at this length scale are subjects of growing interest. One promising approach to operate and perform quantitative measurements in this regime is to use dissipation processes in atomic force microscopy. We obtained a controlled manipulation of thiol-functionalised gold nanoparticles on silicon dioxide and a measurements of the energy depinning threshold as a function of nanoparticles characteristics by using the AFM microscope in a particular dynamic regime. Detailed procedure and preliminary results will be described in this contribution.

  2. Proximity-based Protein Thiol Oxidation by H2O2-scavenging Peroxidases*?

    OpenAIRE

    Gutscher, Marcus; Sobotta, Mirko C.; Wabnitz, Guido H.; Ballikaya, Seda; Meyer, Andreas J.; Samstag, Yvonne; Dick, Tobias P.

    2009-01-01

    H2O2 acts as a signaling molecule by oxidizing critical thiol groups on redox-regulated target proteins. To explain the efficiency and selectivity of H2O2-based signaling, it has been proposed that oxidation of target proteins may be facilitated by H2O2-scavenging peroxidases. Recently, a peroxidase-based protein oxidation relay has been identified in yeast, namely the oxidation of the transcription factor Yap1 by the peroxidase Orp1. It has remained unclear whether the protein oxidase functi...

  3. Thiol-based H2O2 signalling in microbial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Boronat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine residues, and in particular their thiolate groups, react not only with reactive oxygen species but also with electrophiles and with reactive nitrogen species. Thus, cysteine oxidation has often been linked to the toxic effects of some of these reactive molecules. However, thiol-based switches are common in protein sensors of antioxidant cascades, in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. We will describe here three redox sensors, the transcription factors OxyR, Yap1 and Pap1, which respond by disulfide bond formation to hydrogen peroxide stress, focusing specially on the differences among the three peroxide-sensing mechanisms.

  4. Dichloridobis(pyridine-2-thiol­ato-?2 N,S)tin(IV): a new polymorph

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaylova, Sheyda R.; Matsulevich, Zhanna V.; Borisova, Galina N.; Borisov, Alexander V.; Khrustalev, Victor N.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [SnCl2(C5H4NS)2], is the product of reaction of 2,2?-dipyridyl disulfide with tin tetra­chloride. The SnIV atom adopts a distorted octa­hedral geometry, with the two bidentate pyridine-2-thiol­ate ligands forming two planar four-membered chelate rings. The two Sn—Cl, two Sn—N and two Sn—S bonds are in cis, cis and trans configurations, respectively. The crystal grown from acetonitrile represents a new monoclinic polymorph in space group C2/c with the mol­ecule ...

  5. Controlled manipulation of thiol-functionalised gold nanoparticles on Si (100) by dynamic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical control of nanometer size objects and the dynamic behaviour at this length scale are subjects of growing interest. One promising approach to operate and perform quantitative measurements in this regime is to use dissipation processes in atomic force microscopy. We obtained a controlled manipulation of thiol-functionalised gold nanoparticles on silicon dioxide and a measurements of the energy depinning threshold as a function of nanoparticles characteristics by using the AFM microscope in a particular dynamic regime. Detailed procedure and preliminary results will be described in this contribution

  6. The oxidation of thiols by flavoprotein oxidases: a biocatalytic route to reactive thiocarbonyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tom A; Dijkman, Willem P; Vervoort, Jacques M; Fraaije, Marco W; van Berkel, Willem J H

    2014-11-24

    Flavoprotein oxidases are a diverse class of biocatalysts, most of which catalyze the oxidation of C-O, C-N, or C-C bonds. Flavoprotein oxidases that are known to catalyze the oxidation of C-S bonds are rare, being limited to enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of thioethers. Herein, we report that various flavoprotein oxidases, previously thought to solely act on alcohols, also catalyze the oxidation of thiols to thiocarbonyls. These results highlight the versatility of enzymatic catalysis and provide a potential biocatalytic route to reactive thiocarbonyl compounds, which have a variety of applications in synthetic organic chemistry. PMID:25284255

  7. Reactivity of vegetable oil macromonomers in thiol-ene, cationic, and emulsion polymerizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Micah Stephen

    Vegetable oils were, and continue, to be a mainstay in unsaturated polyester ("alkyd") technology. Our endeavor is to use vegetable oil-based polymers in environmentally-friendly coatings. The role of vegetable oil cis-unsaturation has not been fully explored in polymers. To that end, vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) in three different systems were investigated to determine the involvement of cis-unsaturation in chain transfer, auto-oxidation, and copolymerization reactions. VOMMs were incorporated into UV curable thiol-ene coatings, UV cationic coatings, and acrylic solution copolymers and fundamental studies were conducted to determine how and to what extent cis-unsaturation contributes to film performance properties. In thiol-ene UV curable coatings, cis-unsaturation was involved in the initial curing reaction and to lesser degrees, in postcure crosslinking. Its behavior was determined to be dependent on the ene component. Thiol-ene photopolymerization yielded homogeneous networks but formulations containing VOMMs exhibited greater heterogeneity due to non-uniformity in the VOMM chemical structures, and the concurrent reactions occurring during thiol-ene photopolymerization and "dark cure". Partially epoxidized soybean oil was synthesized to contain varying levels of residual cis-unsaturation. Cationic photopolymerization of partially epoxidized soybean oil yielded lightly crosslinked films, but the influence of free radical decomposition byproducts has not been fully investigated. The low involvement of the cis-unsaturation in photopolymerization was attributed to its low reactivity and/or radical combination with antioxidants and molecular oxygen dissolved in the films. When used in emulsion polymerization, VOMMs lower the minimum filming temperature during coalescence and increase the Tg after application via auto-oxidation. Free radical polymerization of VOMMs is accompanied by chain transfer reactions between polymer radicals and VOMMs that reduces molecular weight and the auto-oxidation potential of the film. Retardation in polymerization rate correlated directly with increase in amount of unsaturation and conjugated unsaturation. Vegetable oils containing significant amounts of fatty acids with bisallylic hydrogen atoms were found to be more reactive towards chain transfer than fatty acids containing monoallylic hydrogen atoms. Model polymers were produced by functionalizing methacrylic copolymers through a mild reaction pathway in the absence of radicals. Copolymers with large quantities of bisallylic hydrogen atoms showed increased auto-oxidation reactivity as evidenced by greater consumption of cis-unsaturation and higher gel fractions.

  8. Mapping Local Protein Electrostatics by EPR of pH-Sensitive Thiol-Specific Nitroxide† ¶

    OpenAIRE

    Voinov, Maxim A.; Ruuge, Andres; Reznikov, Vladimir A.; Grigor’ev, Igor A.; Smirnov, Alex I.

    2008-01-01

    A first thiol-specific pH-sensitive nitroxide spin label of the imidazolidine series -methanethiosulfonic acid S-(1-oxyl-2,2,3,5,5-pentamethylimidazolidin-4-ylmethyl) ester (IMTSL) - has been synthesized and characterized. X- (9 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) EPR spectral parameters of the new spin label in its free form and covalently attached to an amino acid cysteine and a tripeptide glutathione were studied as a function of pH and solvent polarity. pKa value of protonatable tertiary amino group...

  9. catena-Poly[[bis(pyridine)­lead(II)]bis(?-penta­fluoro­benzene­thiol­ato)

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Sarah E.; Briand, Glen G.; Decken, Andreas; Smith, Anita S.

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, [Pb(C6F5S)2(C5H5N)2]n, shows the PbII atom in a ?-trigonal bipyramidal S2N2 bonding environment. Pyridine N atoms occupy axial sites, while thiol­ate S atoms and a stereochemically active lone pair occupy equatorial sites. Very long inter­molecular Pb?S inter­actions [3.618?(4) and 3.614?(4)?Å] yield a weakly associated one-dimensional polymeric structure extending parallel to [010].

  10. A paramagnetic species with unique EPR characteristics in the active site of heterodisulfide reductase from methanogenic archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi-Kahkesh, S; Duin, E C; Heim, S; Albracht, S P; Johnson, M K; Hedderich, R

    2001-05-01

    Heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr) from methanogenic archaea is an iron-sulfur protein that catalyses the reversible reduction of the heterodisulfide (CoM-S-S-CoB) of the methanogenic thiol coenzymes, coenzyme M (H-S-CoM) and coenzyme B (H-S-CoB). In EPR spectroscopic studies with the enzyme from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, we have identified a unique paramagnetic species that is formed upon reaction of the oxidized enzyme with H-S-CoM in the absence of H-S-CoB. This paramagnetic species can be reduced in a one-electron step with a midpoint-potential of -185 mV but not further oxidized. A broadening of the EPR signal in the 57Fe-enriched enzyme indicates that it is at least partially iron based. The g values (gxyz = 2.013, 1.991 and 1.938) and the midpoint potential argue against a conventional [2Fe-2S]+, [3Fe-4S]+, [4Fe-4S]+ or [4Fe-4S]3+ cluster. This species reacts with H-S-CoB to form an EPR silent form. Hence, we propose that only a half reaction is catalysed in the presence of H-S-CoM and that a reaction intermediate is trapped. This reaction intermediate is thought to be a [4Fe-4S]3+ cluster that is coordinated by one of the cysteines of a nearby active-site disulfide or by the sulfur of H-S-CoM. A paramagnetic species with similar EPR properties was also identified in Hdr from Methanosarcina barkeri. PMID:11322875

  11. Preparing mono-dispersed liquid core PDMS microcapsules from thiol–ene–epoxy-tailored flow-focusing microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    An applied dual-cure system based on thiol–ene and thiol–epoxy “click chemistry” reactions was proved to be an extremely effective and easy to use tool for preparing microfluidic chips, thereby allowing for precise control over material properties and providing the possibility of covalently bonding chip wafers. Different thiol–ene–epoxy-based polymer compositions were tested with the help of DSC and ATR FTIR, in order to investigate their physical and chemical properties. Water contact angles were determined, thus verifying the high efficiency and selectivity of the chemical surface modification of compositions in relation to high hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. An obtained microfluidic device was subsequently used in order to produce PDMS microcapsules of very narrow size distribution and which contained various common liquids, such as water and ethanol, as well as an ionic liquid 2-hydroxyethylammonium formate.

  12. Preparing mono-dispersed liquid core PDMS microcapsules from thiol-ene-epoxy-tailored flow-focusing microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    An applied dual-cure system based on thiol-ene and thiol-epoxy "click chemistry" reactions was proved to be an extremely effective and easy to use tool for preparing microfluidic chips, thereby allowing for precise control over material properties and providing the possibility of covalently bonding chip wafers. Different thiol-ene-epoxy-based polymer compositions were tested with the help of DSC and ATR FTIR, in order to investigate their physical and chemical properties. Water contact angles were determined, thus verifying the high efficiency and selectivity of the chemical surface modification of compositions in relation to high hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. An obtained microfluidic device was subsequently used in order to produce PDMS microcapsules of very narrow size distribution and which contained various common liquids, such as water and ethanol, as well as an ionic liquid 2-hydroxyethylammonium formate.

  13. Photoreactivation of nitrate reductase production in Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (254 nm) irradiation of liquid-cultured tobacco cells inhibited the production of nitrate reductase; subsequent illumination with white light allowed a partial restoration of the synthesis of the enzyme (photoreactivation). Ultraviolet irradiation of these same cells also inhibited their ability to incorporate labeled uridine and labeled amino acids. Subsequent illumination with white light gave a partial restoration of the ability of the cells to incorporate uridine while a similar post-ultraviolet-irradiation treatment failed to restore the amino acid incorporation. The system in tobacco known to repair ultraviolet-damaged viral RNA thus does not seem to repair ultraviolet damage to the protein-synthesizing system of the cell. The photoreactivation of nitrate reductase production is best explained by the action of a DNA photorepairing system

  14. Aldose reductase structures: implications for mechanism and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kabbani, O; Ruiz, F; Darmanin, C; Chung, R P-T

    2004-04-01

    During chronic hyperglycaemia, elevated vascular glucose level causes increased flux through the polyol pathway, which induces functional and morphological changes associated with secondary diabetic complications. Inhibitors of aldose reductase (ARIs) have been widely investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but to date only epalrestat is successfully marketed for treatment of diabetic neuropathy, in Japan. Promising compounds during in vitro studies or in trials with animal models have failed to proceed beyond clinical trials and to everyday use, due to a lack of efficacy or adverse side effects attributed to lack of inhibitor specificity and likely inhibition of the related aldehyde reductase (ALR1). Knowledge of the catalytic mechanism and structures of the current inhibitors complexed with ALR2 are means by which more specific and tightly bound inhibitors can be discovered. This review will provide an overview of the proposed catalytic mechanism and the current state of structure-based drug design. PMID:15095000

  15. Comparison of Limulus alpha-macroglobulin with human alpha2-macroglobulin: thiol ester characterization, subunit organization, and conformational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, M E; Armstrong, P B; Quigley, J P; Gettins, P G

    1997-01-15

    The properties of the thiol ester-containing alpha-macroglobulin (alphaM) from the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) have been compared with those of the human analogue (alpha2M). Thiol ester accessibility was more restricted in Limulus alphaM than in human alpha2M. Fluorescent probes attached to the thiol ester cysteine indicated very similar local environments in the cleaved state of the two alphaMs. The separation between the two thiol ester cysteines in the cleaved state, determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, was also very similar for the two alphaMs. Differences were found in the oligomerization state and conformational changes of the two proteins. Whereas human alpha2M appears to be exclusively a dimer of dimers, Limulus alphaM can exist in both tetrameric and dimeric forms, although with marked preference for the dimer. Conformational change within a dimeric trapping unit, monitored by 6-(p-toluidino)-2-napthalene-sulfonic acid fluorescence change, showed that each monomer of the Limulus alphaM dimer appears to change conformation independently, whereas human alpha2M requires both thiol esters within a functional unit to be cleaved before the conformational change occurs. Taken together, these findings indicate that, whereas individual thiol esters in both types of alphaM are similar in properties, differences in subunit-subunit interaction result both in differences in state of oligomerization and in cooperativity of conformational change, which may reflect a fundamentally different organization of the subunits within a dimer in the two alphaMs. PMID:9016813

  16. Functional characterization of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin reductases

    OpenAIRE

    Nalvarte, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are homodimeric selenoproteins belonging to the nucleotide oxidoreductase family. They contain a C-terminal penultimate selenocysteine residue, which is kept reduced by the N-terminal redox active site, CVNVGC, of the adjacent subunit. The low pKa, of the selenocysteine residue, in combination with its Cterminal accessibility, gives TrxRs broad substrate specificity. The main substrates of TrxRs are thioredoxins (Trxs), which are redu...

  17. 5?-reductase-2 Deficiency’s Effect on Human Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hey-joo; Imperato-mcginley, Julianne; Zhu, Yuan-shan; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    A most interesting and intriguing male disorder of sexual differentiation is due to 5?-reductase-2 isoenzyme deficiency. These males are born with ambiguous external genitalia due to a deficiency in their ability to catalyze the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is a potent androgen responsible for differentiation of the urogenital sinus and genital tubercle into the external genitalia, urethra and prostate. Affected males are born with a clitoral-like phallus, bif...

  18. Targeting 5?-reductase for prostate cancer prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nacusi, Lucas P.; Tindall, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone is the most abundant circulating androgen, and can be converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a more potent androgen, by the 5?-reductase enzymes in target tissues. Current treatments for prostate cancer consist of reducing androgen levels by chemical or surgical castration or pure antiandrogen therapy that directly targets the androgen receptor (AR). Although these therapies reduce tumor burden and AR activity, the cancer inevitably recurs within 18–30 months. An approach tar...

  19. Structural Plasticity and Function in Cytochrome cd1 Nitrite Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Sjo?gren, Tove

    2001-01-01

    Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase is a bifunctional enzyme, which catalyses the one-electron reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, and the four-electron reduction of oxygen to water. The latter is a cytochrome oxidase reaction. Both reactions occur on the d1 haem iron of the enzyme. Time resolved crystallographic studies presented here show that the mechanisms of nitrite and oxygen reduction share common elements. This is of interest from an evolutionary point of view since aerobic respiratory...

  20. Inhibitory action on aldose reductase by soybean flavonoids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tânia Toledo de, Oliveira; Tanus Jorge, Nagem; Luiz Carlos Guedes de, Miranda; Vanderlúcia Fonseca de, Paula; Marco Antônio, Teixeira.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Os flavonóides kaempherol, genisteína, naringenina, quercetina, morina, rutina, e quercitrina isolados do cultivar de soja UFV-5’ foram testados como inibidores de aldose redutase. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos usando morina e quercitrina. [...] Abstract in english The flavonoids kaempherol, genistein, naringenin, quercetin, morin, rutin and quercitrin isolated from UFV-5’soybean’s cultivars were tested as inhibitors of aldose reductase. The best results were obtained by using morin and quercitrin. [...

  1. Intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia resulting from compound heterozygosity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, S. S.; Wong, P. W.; Bock, H. G.; Horwitz, A.; Grix, A.

    1991-01-01

    Four subjects with thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were discovered among 16 "obligate" heterozygotes for severe MTHFR deficiency and their family members. All four subjects had less than 25% of normal mean MTHFR specific activity in lymphocyte extracts. Three of them with normal serum folate and cyanocobalamin had intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia, and one with high serum folate and cyanocobalamin had no excessive accumulation of serum homocysteine. The biochemical fe...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE METHIONINE SULFOXIDE REDUCTASES OF SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Tolulope T.; Moskovitz, Jackob; Williams, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, also known as Bilharzia, is an infectious disease caused by several species of Schistosoma. Twenty million individuals suffer severe symptoms and 200,000 people die annually from the disease. The host responds to the presence of S. mansoni by producing reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative stress. We hypothesized that schistosomes produce antioxidants in response to oxidative stress. A known antioxidant protein is methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Methionine residu...

  3. Long term treatment with betaine in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Ronge, E.; Kjellman, B.

    1996-01-01

    A girl aged 7.5 years with deficiency of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase was treated from early infancy with betaine, 3-6 g daily. She has slight microcephaly, moderate developmental delay, and impaired vision but there have been no obvious signs of folate deficiency. From 4 years of age, she developed an unexplained extreme increase in appetite and weight. Recent magnetic resonance imaging of her brain was normal. The plasma methionine levels have been normal but in the lower range,...

  4. Early diagnosis and management of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Odame, I.; Donaldson, M. D.; Wallace, A. M.; Cochran, W.; Smith, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    Two siblings of Pakistani origin, karyotype 46 XY, were born with predominantly female external genitalia with minute phallus, bifid scrotum, urogenital sinus, and palpable gonads. The older sibling at the age of 8 days showed an adequate testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation. The diagnosis of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency was made at age 6 years when no 5 alpha-reduced glucocorticoid metabolites were detectable in urine even after tetracosactrin (Synacthen) ...

  5. Human aldose reductase expression accelerates diabetic atherosclerosis in transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Vikramadithyan, Reeba K.; Hu, Yunying; Noh, Hye-lim; Liang, Chien-ping; Hallam, Kellie; Tall, Alan R.; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2005-01-01

    Direct evidence that hyperglycemia, rather than concomitant increases in known risk factors, induces atherosclerosis is lacking. Most diabetic mice do not exhibit a higher degree of atherosclerosis unless the development of diabetes is associated with more severe hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that normal mice were deficient in a gene that accelerated atherosclerosis with diabetes. The gene encoding aldose reductase (AR), an enzyme that mediates the generation of toxic products from glucose,...

  6. Effects of galactose feeding on aldose reductase gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, R. R.; Lyons, P. A.; Wang, A.; Sainsbury, A. J.; Chung, S.; Palmer, T. N.

    1993-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of the diabetic complications and osmotic cataract. AR has been identified as an osmoregulatory protein, at least in the renal medulla. An outstanding question relates to the response of AR gene expression to diet-induced galactosemia in extrarenal tissues. This paper shows that AR gene expression in different tissues is regulated by a complex multifactorial mechanism. Galactose feeding in the rat is associated with a complex and, on occ...

  7. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar Akileshwari; Puppala Muthenna; Branislav Nastasijevi?; Gordana Joksi?; Mark Petrash, J.; Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The wate...

  8. Sepiapterin reductase regulation of endothelial tetrahydrobiopterin and nitric oxide bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Ling; Pung, Yuh-fen; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Ting; Li, Min; Meza, Miguel; Toro, Ligia; Cai, Hua

    2009-01-01

    Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the final step of tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) biosynthesis and the first step of H4B regeneration from an exogenous precursor sepiapterin. Despite the potential significance of SPR in regulating H4B-dependent nitric oxide (NO•) production, the endothelium-specific sequence and functions of SPR remain elusive. We first cloned endothelial SPR cDNA from bovine aortic endothelial cells (Genebank: DQ978331). In cells transiently transfected with SPR gene, SPR ...

  9. A Murine Model for Human Sepiapterin-Reductase Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Lee, Young Jae; Kim, Jin-man; Park, Sean; Peris, Joanna; Laipis, Philip; Park, Young Shik; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, S. Paul

    2006-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for several enzymes, including all three forms of nitric oxide synthases, the three aromatic hydroxylases, and glyceryl-ether mono-oxygenase. A proper level of BH4 is, therefore, necessary for the metabolism of phenylalanine and the production of nitric oxide, catecholamines, and serotonin. BH4 deficiency has been shown to be closely associated with diverse neurological psychiatric disorders. Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) is an enzyme that cata...

  10. Thermostable properties of the periplasmic selenate reductase from Thauera selenatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridge, Elizabeth J; Butler, Clive S

    2010-10-01

    Selenate reductase (SER) from Thauera selenatis is a member of a distinct class of the TAT-translocated type II molybdoenzymes and is closely related to a group of thermostable nitrate reductases (pNAR) found in hyperthermophilic archaea. In the present study the thermostable and thermo-active properties of SER, isolated with either molybdenum (Mo) or tungsten (W) at the active site, are reported. Results show that the purified Mo-SER complex is stable and active upon heat-shock incubation for 10 min at temperatures up to 60 °C. At temperatures greater than 65 °C all three subunits (SerABC) are readily denatured. The optimum temperature for maximum activity recorded was also determined to be 65 °C. T. selenatis can grow readily on a tungstate rich medium up to concentrations of 1 mM. SER isolated from periplasmic fractions from cells grown on 1 mM tungstate displayed selenate reductase activities with a 20-fold reduction in V(max) (0.01 ?mol [S]/min/mg) and a 23-fold increase in substrate binding affinity (K(m) 0.7 ?M). The thermo-stability and pH dependence of W-SER was shown to be similar to that observed for Mo-SER. By contrast, the optimum reaction temperature for W-SER exceeded the maximum temperature tested (>80 °C). The combined data from the kinetic analysis and thermal activity profiles provide evidence that W can substitute for Mo at the active site of SER and retain detectable selenate reductase activity. It is argued that despite the similarity in their catalytic and electron conducting subunits, the presence of a membrane anchor in the archaeal pNAR system appears pivotal to the enhanced hyperthermostability. The fact that Mo-SER is thermostable up to 65 °C however, could be advantageous when designing selenate contamination remediation strategies. PMID:20547201

  11. Current Status of 5?-Reductase Inhibitors in Prostate Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Dong Il; Chung, Jae Il

    2013-01-01

    The key enzyme in the androgen synthesis and androgen receptor pathways is 5?-reductase (5-AR), which occurs as three isoenzymes. Types I and II 5-ARs the most important clinically, and two different 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARIs), finasteride and dutasteride, have been developed. Several urology associations have recommended and upgraded the use of 5-ARIs for an enlarged prostate with lower urinary tract symptoms. In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostat...

  12. Polyamine and thiol metabolism in Trypanosoma granulosum: similarities with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastri, C; Thorborn, D E; Davies, A J; Ariyanayagam, M R; Hunter, K J

    2001-04-20

    Concentrations of free polyamines were investigated in Trypanosoma granulosum cultured in a semidefined medium containing traces of polyamines. Spermidine content peaked in early logarithmic growth while putrescine was not detectable. Unlike African trypanosomes and Leishmania, spermine was measured at equivalent amounts to spermidine in mid to late logarithmic stage cells. Addition of d,l-alpha-difluoromethylornithine to cultures did not decrease polyamine content nor was ornithine decarboxylase activity detected. In contrast, incubation of parasites with tritiated putrescine showed rapid uptake and subsequent conversion to spermidine and spermine. At late logarithmic growth, parasites contained glutathione (77% of total sulphydryl groups) and ovothiol A as major low molecular mass thiols with glutathionylpolyamine conjugates undetectable. However, the addition of exogenous putrescine elevated trypanothione and glutathionylspermidine content to 48% of total sulphydryl groups. Correspondingly, the addition of exogenous cadaverine increased homotrypanothione content. This first report of polyamines and low molecular mass thiols in Trypanosoma granulosum indicates intriguing similarities with the metabolism of the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi. PMID:11302739

  13. Photopolymerized cross-linked thiol-ene polyanhydrides: erosion, release, and toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetz, Katie L; Mohammed, Halimatu S; Snyder, Brittany L; Liddil, Garrett; Samways, Damien S K; Shipp, Devon A

    2014-07-14

    Several critical aspects of cross-linked polyanhydrides made using thiol-ene polymerization are reported, in particular the erosion, release, and solution properties, along with their cytotoxicity toward fibroblast cells. The monomers used to synthesize these polyanhydrides were 4-pentenoic anhydride and pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate). Techniques used to evaluate the erosion mechanism indicate a complex situation in which several phenomena, such as hydrolysis rates, local pH, water diffusion, and solubility, may be influencing the erosion process. The mass loss profile, the release rate of a hydrophilic dye, the rate of hydrolysis of the polyanhydride, the hydrolysis product solubility as a function of pH, average pK(a) and its cytotoxicity toward fibroblast cells were all determined. The solubility of the degradation product is low at pH values less than 6-7, and the average pKa was determined to be ~5.3. The cytotoxicity of the polymer and the degradation product was found to be low, with cell viabilities of >97% for the various samples studied at concentrations of ~1000-1500 ppm. These important parameters help determine the potential of the thiol-ene polyanhydrides in various biomedical applications. These polyanhydrides can be used as a delivery vehicle, and although the release profile qualitatively followed the mass loss profile for a hydrophilic dye, the release rate appears to be by both diffusion and mass loss mechanisms. PMID:24848134

  14. pH-sensitive photoluminescence for aqueous thiol-capped CdTe nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    pH-sensitive photoluminescence (PL) is an important property of aqueous nanocrystals (NCs) towards NCs-based intelligent applications. Previous works mainly focused on the effect of pH during NC growth process on PL of the aqueous NCs. The effect of pH during application process on PL of as-prepared NCs is still not fully understood. In this work, we brought out a general mechanism for the pH-sensitive PL behaviors of as-prepared aqueous CdTe NCs capped by aqueous thiol ligands, such as carboxylic-acid-terminated 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and thioglycolic acid (TGA) ligands, hydroxyl-terminated 1-thioglycerol (TG) ligands and amine-terminated 2-mercaptoethylamine (MA) ligands. A major contribution of this work is finding the key role of ligand terminal groups in the diffuse process of free Cd-ligand complexes toward NCs. This terminal group effect is the main reason for PL alteration of NCs during pH adjustment process. Besides the terminal group effect, PL of aqueous NCs is also affected by the aggregation effect, the thiol group effect and the counter ion effect. These effects make different contributions to PL of NCs at different pH ranges. By using this mechanism, we successfully explained the complex pH-sensitive PL behaviors of MPA, TGA, TG and MA-capped CdTe NCs.

  15. Adsorption characteristics of self-assembled thiol and dithiol layer on gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlili, A. [Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, BP51, La Marsa Tunis (Tunisia); Abdelghani, A. [Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, BP51, La Marsa Tunis (Tunisia)]. E-mail: aabdelghani@mailcity.com; Aguir, K. [L2MP, Faculte des Sciences de Saint Jerome, Aile 1-niveau 5, service 152, Avenue Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gillet, M. [L2MP, Faculte des Sciences de Saint Jerome, Aile 1-niveau 5, service 152, Avenue Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Jaffrezic-Renault, N. [CEGELY, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69131 Ecully (France)

    2007-05-16

    Monolayers of functional proteins are important in many fields related to pure and applied biochemistry and biophysics. The formation of extended uniform protein monolayers by single- or multiple-step self-chemisorption depends on the quality of the functionalized gold surface. The optical and the electrical properties of the 1-nonanethiol and 1,9-nonanedithiol deposited on gold with the self-assembled technique were investigated. We use cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy to characterize the insulating properties of the two layers. The analysis of the impedance spectra in terms of equivalent circuit of the gold/electrolyte and gold/SAM/electrolyte interface allows defining the thickness of the two thiols and the percentage of coverage area. Atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurement and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy have been used for homogeneity, hydrophobic properties and molecular structure of the formed thiols layer, respectively. The measured thickness with impedance spectroscopy fit well the results found with atomic force microscopy.

  16. Superhydrophobic hybrid inorganic-organic thiol-ene surfaces fabricated via spray-deposition and photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Bradley J; Hoff, Ethan F T; Xiong, Li; Goetz, James T; Patton, Derek L

    2013-03-13

    We report a simple and versatile method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic inorganic-organic thiol-ene coatings via sequential spray-deposition and photopolymerization under ambient conditions. The coatings are obtained by spray-deposition of UV-curable hybrid inorganic-organic thiol-ene resins consisting of pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), triallyl isocyanurate (TTT), 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVSi), and hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles. The spray-deposition process and nanoparticle agglomeration/dispersion provide surfaces with hierarchical morphologies exhibiting both micro- and nanoscale roughness. The wetting behavior, dependent on the concentration of TMTVSi and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, can be varied over a broad range to ultimately provide coatings with high static water contact angles (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis, and low roll off angles (demonstrate the versatility of the spray-deposition and UV-cure process on a variety of substrate surfaces including glass, paper, stone, and cotton fabric. PMID:23410965

  17. Monitoring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell proliferation on thiol-modified planar gold microelectrodes using impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Spegel, Christer F

    2008-01-01

    An impedance spectroscopic study of the interaction between thiol-modified Au electrodes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae of strain EBY44 revealed that the cells formed an integral part of the interface, modulating the capacitive properties until a complete monolayer was obtained, whereas the charge transfer resistance (R-ct) to the redox process of [Fe(CN)6](3-14-) showed a linear relationship to the number of cells even beyond the monolayer coverage. R,, showed strong pH dependence upon increasing the pH of the utilized buffer to 7.2. Upon addition of S. cerevisiae cells at pH 7.2, the obtained value of R,, showed over 560% increase with respect to the value obtained on the same thiol-modified electrode without cells. It was demonstrated that real-time monitoring of S. cerevisiae proliferation, with frequency-normalized imaginary admittance (real capacitance) as the indicator, was possible using a miniaturized culture system, ECIS Cultureware, with integrated planar cysteamine-modified Au microelectrodes. A monolayer coverage was reached after 20-28 h of cultivation, observed as an similar to 15% decrease in the real capacitance of the system.

  18. Reaction of [3H]-taurine maleimide with platelet surface thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurine Maleimide (2-maleimidoethanesulfonate, TM) was synthesized from [2-3H]-taurine and methoxycarbonylmaleimide (MCM). The yield of a 1 ?mol synthesis approached 100% (based on taurine) when MCM was used in 4-fold excess. The product (TM*) was purified by ion exchange chromatography. TM* reacted irreversibly with thiol groups on the surface of washed human platelets, leading to incorporation of radioactivity into platelet pellets. Incorporation was blocked by cysteine, mercuribenzenesulfonate (MBS), dithiobisnitrobenzoate, and N-ethylmaleimide, but not by taurine or by inhibitors of anion transport. Reaction of TM* with platelets showed the dependence on time and concentration characteristics of a bimolecular reaction. The number of reactive sites ranged from 1 to 5 x 105/platelet, and the apparent rate constant from 1 to 3 x 103/(M x min). TM was less effective than MBS as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by several agents. TM had no effect on the uptake of serotonin, taurine, or phosphate by the platelets, processes which are sensitive to MBS. These differences, considered with the similarity in size and charge of TM and MBS, suggest that classes of thiols defined as exofacial by their accessibility to MBS can differ substantially in their reactivity with other impermeant reagents

  19. Individual interferon regulatory factor-3 thiol residues are not critical for its activation following virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchini, Nicolas; Williams, Virginie; Grandvaux, Nathalie

    2012-09-01

    The interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 transcription factor plays a central role in the capacity of the host to mount an efficient innate antiviral immune defense, mainly through the regulation of type I Interferon genes. A tight regulation of IRF-3 is crucial for an adapted intensity and duration of the response. Redox-dependent processes are now well known to regulate signaling cascades. Recent reports have revealed that signaling molecules upstream of IRF-3, including the mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein (MAVS) and the TNF receptor associated factors (TRAFs) adaptors, are sensitive to redox regulation. In the present study, we assessed whether redox regulation of thiol residues contained in IRF-3, which are priviledged redox sensors, play a role in its regulation following Sendai virus infection, using a combination of mutation of Cysteine (Cys) residues into Alanine and thiols alkylation using N-ethyl maleimide. Alkylation of IRF-3 on Cys289 appears to destabilize IRF-3 dimer in vitro. However, a detailed analysis of IRF-3 phosphorylation, dimerization, nuclear accumulation, and induction of target gene promoter in vivo led us to conclude that IRF-3 specific, individual Cys residues redox status does not play an essential role in its activation in vivo. PMID:22817838

  20. T3 fails to restore mitochondrial thiol redox status altered by experimental hypothyroidism in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sutapa; Choudhury, Supragyanshree; Roy, Anita; Chainy, Gagan B N; Samanta, Luna

    2010-10-01

    Oxidative stress impaired sperm function might lead to infertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of altered thyroid hormone levels on regulation of mitochondrial glutathione redox status and its dependent antioxidant defense system in adult rat testis and their correlation with testicular function. Adult male Wistar rats were rendered hypothyroid by administration of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil in drinking water for six weeks. At the end of the treatment period, a subset of the hypothyroid rats was treated with T(3) (20 ?g/100g body weight/day for 3 days). Mitochondria were isolated from euthyroid, hypothyroid and hypothyroid+T(3)-treated rat testes, and sub-fractionated into sub-mitochondrial particles and matrix fractions. Mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress indices and antioxidant defenses were assayed. The results were correlated with daily testicular sperm production and epididymal sperm viability. Increased pro-oxidant level and reduced antioxidant capacity rendered the hypothyroid mitochondria susceptible to oxidative injury. The extent of damage was more evident in the membrane fraction. This was reflected in higher degree of oxidative damages inflicted upon membrane lipids and proteins. While membrane proteins were more susceptible to carbonylation, thiol residue damage was evident in matrix fraction. Reduced levels of glutathione and ascorbate further weakened the antioxidant defenses and impaired testicular function. Hypothyroid condition disturbed intra-mitochondrial thiol redox status leading to testicular dysfunction. Hypothyroidism-induced oxidative stress condition could not be reversed with T(3) treatment. PMID:20678500

  1. Sensitivity of mitochondrial K+ and Mg++ influx rates to thiol reactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various thiol reactive compounds, including phenylarsine oxide (PheAsO) and mersalyl, activate K+ transport into respiring mitochondria. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibits K+ influx. In the present studies, unidirectional fluxes of K+ or Mg++ into respiring rat liver mitochondria were measured by means of 42K or 28Mg, with samples separated from incubation media by centrifugation through silicon. Experiments show that the % stimulation of K+ influx by PheAsO (8.5 nmol/mg protein) or by mersalyl (150 ?M) was the same (53-55%) for control mitochondria as for samples pretreated with DCCD (30 nmol/mg protein). This means that DCCD caused the same % inhibition of K+ flux into control mitochondria and mitochondria in the presence of PheAsO or mersalyl (36-37%). Thus, the DCCD reactive site associated with the K+ influx mechanism appears to be independent of the thiol groups(s) responsible for the observed activation. Earlier studies had shown a stimulatory effect of mersalyl on Mg++ influx quantitatively less than the effect of mersalyl on K+ influx. The present studies show substantial activation of Mg++ influx by PheAsO. For example, in one expt. PheAsO (8.5 nmol per mg protein) stimulated Mg++ in flux by approx. 64%

  2. Sensitivity of mitochondrial K/sup +/ and Mg/sup + +/ influx rates to thiol reactive compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwan, J.J.; Haley, T.; Moore, C.

    1986-05-01

    Various thiol reactive compounds, including phenylarsine oxide (PheAsO) and mersalyl, activate K/sup +/ transport into respiring mitochondria. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibits K/sup +/ influx. In the present studies, unidirectional fluxes of K/sup +/ or Mg/sup + +/ into respiring rat liver mitochondria were measured by means of /sup 42/K or /sup 28/Mg, with samples separated from incubation media by centrifugation through silicon. Experiments show that the % stimulation of K/sup +/ influx by PheAsO (8.5 nmol/mg protein) or by mersalyl (150 ..mu..M) was the same (53-55%) for control mitochondria as for samples pretreated with DCCD (30 nmol/mg protein). This means that DCCD caused the same % inhibition of K/sup +/ flux into control mitochondria and mitochondria in the presence of PheAsO or mersalyl (36-37%). Thus, the DCCD reactive site associated with the K/sup +/ influx mechanism appears to be independent of the thiol groups(s) responsible for the observed activation. Earlier studies had shown a stimulatory effect of mersalyl on Mg/sup + +/ influx quantitatively less than the effect of mersalyl on K/sup +/ influx. The present studies show substantial activation of Mg/sup + +/ influx by PheAsO. For example, in one expt. PheAsO (8.5 nmol per mg protein) stimulated Mg/sup + +/ in flux by approx. 64%.

  3. Selenite reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is mediated by fumarate reductase in periplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Bo; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Chao; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Na; Yang, Zong-Chuang; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In situ reduction of selenite to elemental selenium (Se(0)), by microorganisms in sediments and soils is an important process and greatly affects the environmental distribution and the biological effects of selenium. However, the mechanism behind such a biological process remains unrevealed yet. Here we use Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a widely-distributed dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium with a powerful and diverse respiration capability, to evaluate the involvement of anaerobic respiration system in the microbial selenite reduction. With mutants analysis, we identify fumarate reductase FccA as the terminal reductase of selenite in periplasm. Moreover, we find that such a reduction is dependent on central respiration c-type cytochrome CymA. In contrast, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and the Mtr electron transfer pathway do not work as selenite reductases. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of anaerobic respiration reductases of S. oneidensis MR-1 in selenite reduction and geochemical cycles of selenium in sediments and soils.

  4. The occurrence of nitrate reductase in leaves of prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leece, D R; Dilley, D R; Kenworthy, A L

    1972-05-01

    Nitrate reductase was found in leaves of apricot Prunus armeniaca, sour cherry P. cerasus, sweet cherry P. avium, and plum P. domestica, but not in peach P. persica, from trees grown in sand culture receiving a nitrate containing nutrient solution. Nitrate was found in the leaves of all species. Nitrate and nitrate reductase were found in leaves of field-grown apricot, sour cherry, and plum trees. The enzyme-extracting medium contained insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, and including dithiothreitol or mercaptobenzothiazole did not improve enzyme recovery. Inclusion of cherry leaf extract diminished, and peach leaf extract abolished, recovery of nitrate reductase from oat tissue. Low molecular weight phenols liberated during extraction were probably responsible for inactivation of the enzyme. The enzyme from apricot was two to three times as active as from the other species. Both nicotine adenine diphosphopyridine nucleotide and flavin mononucleotide were effective electron donors. The enzyme was readily induced in apricot leaves by 10 mm nitrate supplied through the leaf petiole. PMID:16658037

  5. Nitrate reductase gene involvement in hexachlorobiphenyl dechlorination by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) degradation usually occurs through reductive dechlorination under anaerobic conditions and phenolic ring cleavage under aerobic conditions. In this paper, we provide evidence of nitrate reductase (NaR) mediated dechlorination of hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium under non-ligninolytic condition and the gene involved. The NaR enzyme and its cofactor, molybdenum (Mo), were found to mediate reductive dechlorination of PCBs even in aerobic condition. Tungsten (W), a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme, was found to suppress this dechlorination. Chlorine release assay provided further evidence of this nitrate reductase mediated dechlorination. Commercially available pure NaR enzyme from Aspergillus was used to confirm these results. Through homology search using TBLASTN program, NaR gene was identified, primers were designed and the RT-PCR product was sequenced. The NaR gene was then annotated in the P. chrysosporium genome (GenBank accession no. AY700576). This is the first report regarding the presence of nitrate reductase gene in this fungus with the explanation why this fungus can dechlorinate PCBs even in aerobic condition. These fungal inoculums are used commercially as pellets in sawdust for enhanced bioremediation of PCBs at the risk of depleting soil nitrates. Hence, the addition of nitrates to the pellets will reduce this risk as well as enhance its activity

  6. Cloning and sequence of the human adrenodoxin reductase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrenodoxin reductase is a flavoprotein mediating electron transport to all mitochondrial forms of cytochrome P450. The authors cloned the human adrenodoxin reductase gene and characterized it by restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequencing. The entire gene is approximately 12 kilobases long and consists of 12 exons. The first exon encodes the first 26 of the 32 amino acids of the signal peptide, and the second exon encodes the remainder of signal peptide and the apparent FAD binding site. The remaining 10 exons are clustered in a region of only 4.3 kilobases, separated from the first two exons by a large intron of about 5.6 kilobases. Two forms of human adrenodoxin reductase mRNA, differing by the presence or absence of 18 bases in the middle of the sequence, arise from alternate splicing at the 5' end of exon 7. This alternately spliced region is directly adjacent to the NADPH binding site, which is entirely contained in exon 6. The immediate 5' flanking region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes; however, this region is rich in G+C and contains six copies of the sequence GGGCGGG, resembling promoter sequences of housekeeping genes. RNase protection experiments show that transcription is initiated from multiple sites in the 5' flanking region, located about 21-91 base pairs upstream from the AUG translational initiation codon

  7. EPR and Mössbauer studies of benzoyl-CoA reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, M; Fuchs, G; Meier, C; Trautwein, A; Lowe, D J

    2000-10-13

    Benzoyl-CoA reductase catalyzes the two-electron transfer from a reduced ferredoxin to the aromatic ring of benzoyl-CoA; this reaction is coupled to stoichiometrical ATP hydrolysis. A very low reduction potential (less than -1 V) is required for the first electron transfer to the aromatic ring. In this work the nature of the redox centers of purified benzoyl-CoA reductase from Thauera aromatica was studied by EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results obtained indicated the presence of three [4Fe-4S] clusters. Redox titration studies revealed that the reduction potentials of all three clusters were below -500 mV. The previously reported S = 7/2 state of the enzyme during benzoyl-CoA-independent ATPase activity (Boll, M., Albracht, S. J. P., and Fuchs, G. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem. 244, 840-851) was confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Inactivation by oxygen was associated with the irreversible conversion of part of the [4Fe-4S] clusters to [3Fe-4S] clusters. Acetylene stimulated the benzoyl-CoA-independent ATPase activity and induced novel EPR signals with g(av) >2. The presence of simple cubane clusters in benzoyl-CoA reductase as the sole redox-active metal centers demonstrates novel aspects of [4Fe-4S] clusters since they adopt the role of elemental sodium or lithium which are used as electron donors in the analogous chemical Birch reduction of aromatic rings. PMID:10903310

  8. Synthesis of glycerin carbonate-based intermediates using thiol-ene chemistry and isocyanate free polyhydroxyurethanes therefrom

    OpenAIRE

    Benyahya, Sofia; Desroches, Myriam; Auvergne, Re?mi; Carlotti, Ste?phane; Caillol, Sylvain; Boutevin, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    A new synthesis of 4-[(prop-2-en-1-yloxy)methyl]-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (AGC) was performed by Williamson ether synthesis from 4-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one. Dicyclocarbonates were synthesized by UV thiol-ene coupling of allyl-cyclocarbonate with a 2,20-oxydiethanethiol. This photochemical thiol-ene reaction was carried out under air, with neither solvent nor photoinitiator. The products, obtained with high yield, were characterized by 1H NMR and FTIR analysis. The synthesized dicyclocarbo...

  9. In vivo labeling of B16 melanoma tumor xenograft with a thiol-reactive gadolinium based MRI contrast agent

    OpenAIRE

    Aime, Silvio; Gianolio, Eliana; Carrera, Carla; Cittadino, Evelina; Digilio, Giuseppe; Catanzaro, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Murine melanoma B16 cells display on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane a large number of reactive protein thiols (exofacial protein thiols, EPTs). These EPTs can be chemically labeled with Gd-DO3A-PDP, a Gd(III)-based MRI contrast agent bearing a 2-pyridinedithio chemical function for the recognition of EPTs. Uptake of gadolinium up to 109 Gd atoms per cell can be achieved. The treatment of B16 cells ex vivo with a reducing agent such as tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) result...

  10. Tripodal Binding Units for Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold: A Comparison of Thiol and Thioether Headgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Weidner, Tobias; Ballav, Nirmalya; Siemeling, Ulrich; Troegel, Dennis; Walter, Tim; Tacke, Reinhold; Castner, David G.; Zharnikov, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Whereas thiols and thioethers are frequently used as binding units of oligodentate precursor molecules to fabricate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on coinage metal and semiconductor surfaces, their use for tridentate bonding configuration is still questionable. Against this background, novel tridentate thiol ligands, PhSi(CH2SH)3 (PTT) and p-Ph-C6H4Si(CH2SH)3 (BPTT), were synthesized and used as tripodal adsorbate molecules for the fabrication of SAMs on Au(111). These SAMs were characteriz...

  11. Synthesis and Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity of Atomic and Nanoparticle Gold on Thiol-Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Junhyung; Lee, Seung Woo; Chen, Shuo; Shao-horn, Yang

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated the self-assembly of atomic Au on thiol-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes through covalent bonding and the formation of Au nanoparticles (NPs) upon a subsequent thermal treatment. Au NPs of 3.4 nm were found to exhibit higher ORR activity than that of 1.9 nm, which can be attributed to removal of thiols from Au NP surfaces. This hypothesis is supported by decreasing intrinsic ORR activity with increasing alkanethiol-coverage on polycrystalline-Au. The understanding on ...

  12. Improved electronic coupling in hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites employing thiol-functionalized P3HT and bismuth sulfide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L.; Higuchi, S.; MacLachlan, A. J.; Stavrinadis, A.; Miller, N. C.; Diedenhofen, S. L.; Bernechea, M.; Sweetnam, S.; Nelson, J.; Haque, S. A.; Tajima, K.; Konstantatos, G.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we employ a thiol-functionalized polymer (P3HT-SH) as a leverage to tailor the nanomorphology and electronic coupling in polymer-nanocrystal composites for hybrid solar cells. The presence of the thiol functional group allows for a highly crystalline semiconducting polymer film at low thiol content and allows for improved nanomorphologies in hybrid organic-inorganic systems when employing non-toxic bismuth sulfide nanocrystals. The exciton dissociation efficiency and carrier dynamics at this hybrid heterojunction are investigated through photoluminescence quenching and transient absorption spectroscopy measurements, revealing a larger degree of polaron formation when P3HT-SH is employed, suggesting an increased electronic interaction between the metal chalcogenide nanocrystals and the thiol-functionalized P3HT. The fabricated photovoltaic devices show 15% higher power conversion efficiencies as a result of the improved nanomorphology and better charge transfer mechanism together with the higher open circuit voltages arising from the deeper energy levels of P3HT-SH.In this study, we employ a thiol-functionalized polymer (P3HT-SH) as a leverage to tailor the nanomorphology and electronic coupling in polymer-nanocrystal composites for hybrid solar cells. The presence of the thiol functional group allows for a highly crystalline semiconducting polymer film at low thiol content and allows for improved nanomorphologies in hybrid organic-inorganic systems when employing non-toxic bismuth sulfide nanocrystals. The exciton dissociation efficiency and carrier dynamics at this hybrid heterojunction are investigated through photoluminescence quenching and transient absorption spectroscopy measurements, revealing a larger degree of polaron formation when P3HT-SH is employed, suggesting an increased electronic interaction between the metal chalcogenide nanocrystals and the thiol-functionalized P3HT. The fabricated photovoltaic devices show 15% higher power conversion efficiencies as a result of the improved nanomorphology and better charge transfer mechanism together with the higher open circuit voltages arising from the deeper energy levels of P3HT-SH. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: 1H NMR images of P3HT-SH, transient absorption spectra measurements of P3HT and P3HT-SH, photoelectron spectroscopy and hole mobility studies of P3HT and P3HT-SH and optimization of the hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01679c

  13. Cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding rabbit liver carbonyl reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, B; Sapra, A; Rivera, H; Kaplan, W D; Yam, B; Forrest, G L

    1995-03-10

    Two cDNA sequences encoding rabbit carbonyl reductase (CBR) were cloned from a lambda gt10 rabbit liver cDNA library. The rabbit cDNAs coded for a protein with 84% identity to human CBR. Transient expression of the two rabbit cDNA sequences in COS7 cells increased both quinone reductase and aldo-keto reductase activities. These data demonstrate that CBR cDNAs from rabbit and human tissues code for similar proteins. PMID:7890182

  14. Engineering the substrate specificity of glutathione reductase toward that of trypanothione reduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, G. B.; Murgolo, N. J.; Kuriyan, J.; Osapay, K.; Kominos, D.; Berry, A.; Scrutton, N. S.; Hinchliffe, N. W.; Perham, R. N.; Cerami, A.

    1991-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2; CAS registry number 9001-48-3) and trypanothione reductase (CAS registry number 102210-35-5), which are related flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases, have marked specificities for glutathione and trypanothione, respectively. A combination of primary sequence alignments and molecular modeling, together with the high-resolution crystal structure of human glutathione reductase, identified certain residues as potentially being responsible for substrate discrim...

  15. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marciniak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  16. Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, K. N.; Sabharwal, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through i...

  17. Thianthrene is a novel inhibitor of Leishmania donovani pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1)

    OpenAIRE

    Neeloo Singh; Mr. Prashant Singh; Ravishankar Ramachandran; Divya Dube; Jaspreet Kaur *1

    2012-01-01

    Pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) from Leishmania donovani is a short chain reductase that catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of folates and pterins. It has gained attention as a therapeutic target because it acts as a metabolic bypass for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) targeting drugs and is thought to be responsible for the failure of conventional therapies against the trypanosomatids. In the present study, we report the identification of thianthrene as a potent inhibitor of L. donovani PTR...

  18. Sequences downstream of the transcription initiation site modulate the activity of the murine dihydrofolate reductase promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Farnham, P. J.; Means, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    The murine dihydrofolate reductase gene is regulated by a bidirectional promoter that lacks a TATA box. To identify the DNA sequences required for dihydrofolate reductase transcription, the activities of various templates were determined by in vitro transcription analysis. Our data indicate that sequences both upstream and downstream of the transcription initiation site modulate the activity of the dihydrofolate reductase promoter. We have focused on two regions downstream of the transcriptio...

  19. Structure and reactivity of Trypanosoma brucei pteridine reductase: inhibition by the archetypal antifolate methotrexate

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Alice; Gibellini, Federica; Sienkiewicz, Natasha; Tulloch, Lindsay B.; Fyfe, Paul K.; Mcluskey, Karen; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Hunter, William N.

    2006-01-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei has a functional pteridine reductase (TbPTR1), an NADPH-dependent short-chain reductase that participates in the salvage of pterins, which are essential for parasite growth. PTR1 displays broad-spectrum activity with pterins and folates, provides a metabolic bypass for inhibition of the trypanosomatid dihydrofolate reductase and therefore compromises the use of antifolates for treatment of trypanosomiasis. Catalytic properties of recombinant TbPTR1 and inhibit...

  20. Development and validation of a cytochrome c-coupled assay for pteridine reductase 1 and dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Emma J; Ong, Han B; Robinson, David A; Thompson, Stephen; Sienkiewicz, Natasha; Fairlamb, Alan H; Frearson, Julie A

    2010-01-15

    Activity of the pterin- and folate-salvaging enzymes pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) and dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthetase (DHFR-TS) is commonly measured as a decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, corresponding to oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Although this assay has been adequate to study the biology of these enzymes, it is not amenable to support any degree of routine inhibitor assessment because its restricted linearity is incompatible with enhanced throughput microtiter plate screening. In this article, we report the development and validation of a nonenzymatically coupled screening assay in which the product of the enzymatic reaction reduces cytochrome c, causing an increase in absorbance at 550 nm. We demonstrate this assay to be robust and accurate, and we describe its utility in supporting a structure-based design, small-molecule inhibitor campaign against Trypanosoma brucei PTR1 and DHFR-TS. PMID:19748480

  1. Poly(ethylene glycol)-based thiol-ene hydrogel coatings-curing chemistry, aqueous stability, and potential marine antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pontus; Bruin, Anouk; Klijnstra, Job W; Nyström, Andreas M; Johansson, Mats; Malkoch, Michael; Hult, Anders

    2010-03-01

    Photocured thiol-ene hydrogel coatings based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were investigated for marine antifouling purposes. By varying the PEG length, vinylic end-group, and thiol cross-linker, a library of hydrogel coatings with different structural composition was efficiently accomplished, with or without ester linkages. The thiol-methacrylate and thiol-allyl systems were evaluated with respect to curing, degradation, as well as antifouling properties. Methacrylate-based systems exhibited homopolymerization, whereas allyl-based systems reacted more selectively through thiol-ene couplings reaction. The ester-free hydrogels elucidated higher hydrolytic stability whereas longer PEG chains accelerated the degradation process. The antifouling properties were evaluated by protein adsorption with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bioassays with the marine bacteria, Cobetia marina, and the marine diatom, Amphora coffeaeformis; in all tests, longer PEG lengths improved the antifouling properties. PMID:20356297

  2. Seven novel mutations in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and genotype/phenotype correlations in severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyette, P.; Frosst, P.; Rosenblatt, D. S.; Rozen, R.

    1995-01-01

    5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, the major form of folate in plasma, is a carbon donor for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. This form of folate is generated from 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate through the action of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a cytosolic flavoprotein. Patients with an autosomal recessive severe deficiency of MTHFR have homocystinuria and a wide range of neurological and vascular disturbances. We have recently described the isolation of a cDNA fo...

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two functional genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase.

    OpenAIRE

    Basson, M. E.; Thorsness, M.; Rine, J.

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated two genes from yeast encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase [hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (NADPH); HMG-CoA reductase; EC 1.1.1.34], the rate-limiting enzyme of sterol biosynthesis. These genes, HMG1 and HMG2, were identified by hybridization to a cDNA clone encoding hamster HMG-CoA reductase. DNA sequence analysis reveals homology between the amino acid sequence of the proteins encoded by the two yeast genes and the carboxyl-terminal half of th...

  4. Structure of the Molybdenum Site of EEcherichia Coli Trimethylamine N-Oxide Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Nelson, K.Johnson; Rajagopalan, K.V.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-28

    We report a structural characterization of the molybdenum site of recombinant Escherichia coli trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The enzyme active site shows considerable similarity to that of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, in that, like DMSO reductase, the TMAO reductase active site can exist in multiple forms. Examination of the published crystal structure of TMAO oxidase from Shewanella massilia indicates that the postulated Mo coordination structure is chemically impossible. The presence of multiple active site structures provides a potential explanation for the anomalous features reported from the crystal structure.

  5. Identification and selective inhibition of an isozyme of steroid 5 alpha-reductase in human scalp.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, G.; Azzolina, B.; Baginsky, W.; Cimis, G.; Rasmusson, G. H.; Tolman, R. L.; Raetz, C. R.; Ellsworth, K.

    1992-01-01

    Steroid 5 alpha-reductase (EC 1.3.1.22) catalyzes the reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The 5 alpha-reductase found in human scalp has been compared with the enzyme found in prostate. The scalp reductase has a broad pH optimum centered at pH 7.0. This is distinctly different from the pH optimum of 5.5 observed with the prostatic form of the enzyme. These enzymes also differ in the Km for testosterone, which is 25-fold higher for the scalp reductase. The most significant differ...

  6. [Purification and properties of NADP-reductase of phototropic bacteria Thiocapsa roseopersicina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogotov, I N; Laurinavichene, T V

    1977-07-01

    The method of purification up to homogenous states and properties of NADP-reductase of purple bacteria Thiocapsa roseopersicina, strain BBS, are described. The molecular weight of NADP-reductase is about 47 000; it is flavoprotein consisting of two subunits. Atebrim and chloromercury bensoate inhibit the activity of NADP-reductase (34% and 33--60%, respectively). The enzyme is specific to NADPH; it catalyzes menadion-reductase reaction, diaphorase reaction of benzyl viologen reduction, oxidation of reduced benzyl viologen in the presence of NADP, reduction of ferredoxin and cytochrome c in the presence of NADPH, but it is not capable to catalyze transhydrogenase reaction. PMID:20166

  7. Pyrroloquinoline quinone modulates the kinetic parameters of the mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 and is an inhibitor of glutathione reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianqiang; Arnér, Elias S J

    2012-03-15

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a redox active cofactor for bacterial quinoproteins. Dietary PQQ also has prominent physiological effects in mammals although no mammalian quinoprotein has yet been conclusively identified. Here we found that PQQ has substantial effects on the redox active mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1). PQQ efficiently inhibited the activity of TrxR1 with its main native substrate thioredoxin and acted as a low efficiency substrate in a Sec-dependent TrxR1-catalyzed reduction. Interestingly, PQQ also stimulated redox cycling of TrxR1 with another quinone substrate, juglone, as much as 13-fold (k(cat)/K(m) increased from 105 min(-1) ?M(-1) to 1331 min(-1) ?M(-1) for juglone in the presence of 50 ?M PQQ, mainly through a lowered apparent K(m) for juglone). Glutathione reductase was also inhibited by PQQ but in contrast to the effects of PQQ on TrxR1, its quinone reduction was not further stimulated. These results reveal that glutathione reductase and the mammalian selenoprotein TrxR1 are direct PQQ protein targets, although not being genuine quinoproteins. These findings may help explain several of the effects of PQQ seen in mammals. PMID:22226931

  8. Thiol-catalysed radical-chain redox rearrangement reactions of benzylidene acetals derived from terpenoid diols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hai-Shan; Roberts, Brian P; Tocher, Derek A

    2003-11-21

    The thiol-catalysed radical-chain redox rearrangement of cyclic benzylidene acetals derived from 1,2- and 1,3-diols of terpene origin has been investigated from both synthetic and mechanistic standpoints. The redox rearrangement was carried out either at ca. 70 degrees C (using Bu(t)ON=NOBu(t) as initiator) or at ca. 130 degrees C (using Bu(t)OOBu(t) as initiator) in the presence of triisopropylsilanethiol or methyl thioglycolate as catalyst; the silanethiol was usually more effective. This general reaction affords the benzoate ester of the monodeoxygenated diol, unless rearrangement of intermediate carbon-centred radicals takes place prior to final trapping by the thiol to give the product, in which case structurally rearranged esters are obtained. For the benzylidene acetals of 1,2-diols prepared by vicinal cis-dihydroxylation of 2-carene, alpha-pinene or beta-pinene, intermediate cyclopropylcarbinyl or cyclobutylcarbinyl radicals are involved and ring opening of these leads ultimately to unsaturated monocyclic benzoates. 1,2-Migration of the benzoate group in the intermediate beta-benzoyloxyalkyl radical sometimes also competes with thiol trapping during the redox rearrangement of benzylidene acetals derived from 1,2-diols. Redox rearrangement of the benzylidene acetal from carane-3,4-diol, obtained by cis-dihydroxylation of 3-carene, does not involve intermediate cyclopropylcarbinyl radicals and leads to benzoate ester in which the bicyclic carane skeleton is retained. The inefficient redox rearrangement of the relatively rigid benzylidene acetal from exo,exo-norbornane-2,3-diol is attributed to comparatively slow chain-propagating beta-scission of the intermediate 2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl radical, probably caused by the development of adverse angle strain in the transition state for this cleavage. Similar angle strain effects are thought to influence the regioselectivities of redox rearrangement of bicyclic [4.4.0]benzylidene acetals resulting from selected 1,3-diols, themselves prepared by reduction of aldol adducts derived from reactions of aldehydes with the kinetic lithium enolates obtained from menthone and from isomenthone. PMID:14664397

  9. Antibiofouling hybrid dendritic Boltorn/star PEG thiol-ene cross-linked networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jeremy W; Imbesi, Philip M; Finlay, John A; Fidge, Christopher; Ma, Jun; Seppala, Jonathan E; Nystrom, Andreas M; Mackay, Michael E; Callow, James A; Callow, Maureen E; Wooley, Karen L

    2011-06-01

    A series of thiol-ene generated amphiphilic cross-linked networks was prepared by reaction of alkene-modified Boltorn polyesters (Boltorn-ene) with varying weight percent of 4-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tetrathiol (0-25 wt%) and varying equivalents of pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) (0-64 wt%). These materials were designed to present complex surface topographies and morphologies, with heterogeneity of surface composition and properties and robust mechanical properties, to serve as nontoxic antibiofouling coatings that are amenable to large-scale production for application in the marine environment. Therefore, a two-dimensional matrix of materials compositions was prepared to study the physical and mechanical properties, over which the compositions spanned from 0 to 25 wt% PEG tetrathiol and 0-64 wt% PETMP (the overall thiol/alkene (SH/ene) ratios ranged from 0.00 to 1.00 equiv), with both cross-linker weight percentages calculated with respect to the weight of Boltorn-ene. The Boltorn-ene components were prepared through the esterification of commercially available Boltorn H30 with 3-butenoic acid. The subsequent cross-linking of the Boltorn-PEG-PETMP films was monitored using IR spectroscopy, where it was found that near-complete consumption of both thiol and alkene groups occurred when the stoichiometry was ca. 48 wt% PETMP (0.75 equiv SH/ene, independent of PEG amount). The thermal properties of the films showed an increase in T(g) with an increase in 4-armed PEG-tetrathiol wt%, regardless of the PETMP concentration. Investigation of the bulk mechanical properties in dry and wet states found that the Young's modulus was the greatest at 48 wt% PETMP (0.75 equiv of SH/ene). The ultimate tensile strength increased when PETMP was constant and the PEG concentration was increased. The Young's modulus was slightly lower for wet films at constant PEG or constant PETMP amounts, than for the dry samples. The nanoscopic surface features were probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), where it was observed that the surface of the amphiphilic films became increasingly rough with increasing PEG wt%. On the basis of the physicochemical data from the diverse sample matrix, a focused compositional profile was then investigated further to determine the antifouling performance of the cross-linked Boltorn-PEG-PETMP networks. For these studies, a low, constant PETMP concentration of 16 wt% was maintained with variation in the PEG wt% (0-35 wt%). Antifouling and fouling-release activities were tested against the marine alga Ulva. Spore settlement densities were low on these films, compared to that on standards of polydimethylsiloxane and glass. PMID:21644572

  10. Thiol chelation of Cu2+ by dihydrolipoic acid prevents human low density lipoprotein peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, J K; Traber, M G; Packer, L

    1998-08-01

    Mono-thiols can act either as pro- or anti-oxidants during metal-catalyzed low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation, however investigation of the role of vicinal thiols has been neglected. Therefore dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), a vicinal dithiol, and lipoic acid, its oxidized form, were used to investigate Cu2+-mediated LDL peroxidation. We demonstrate here that DHLA inhibited Cu2+-dependent LDL peroxidation by chelating copper. DHLA (0-20 microM) increased lag-times of conjugated diene formation in LDL (100 microg/ml) oxidized with 5 microM Cu2+ in a concentration dependent manner, and this effect was saturated after 5 microM DHLA; enough to chelate all of the added Cu2+. In a similar fashion DHLA prevented LDL-mediated reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+. Lipoic acid had no effect in these systems. DHLA alone also reduced Cu2+, however this was inhibited when DHLA was in excess of the copper concentration. Hence there is complex formation between the two species. Copper:DHLA complex formation was further investigated and found to be dependent upon pH and the presence of oxygen. At low pH (chelation. As the pH is increased, the carboxylate group also participates in copper chelation, this results in a less stable complex which is susceptible to oxidation, and copper is eventually released. Electron spin resonance studies demonstrate the formation of hydroxyl, but not superoxide, radicals during Cu2+-catalyzed DHLA oxidation. Thus in our LDL experiments at physiological pH, DHLA is able to either reductively inactivate Cu2+ when Cu2+ is in excess, or effectively chelate Cu2+ when DHLA is in excess. The Cu2+:DHLA complex eventually undergoes copper-catalyzed oxidation, copper is released and LDL peroxidation proceeds. DHLA, thus, has both pro- and antioxidant properties depending upon the ratio of Cu2+:DHLA and the pH. These results provide an additional mechanism of thiol-mediated formation of radicals and metal chelation. PMID:9680174

  11. Removal of lead(II ions from aqueous solutions using cashew nut shell liquid-templated thiol-silica materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. G. Mdoe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A range of thiol-silica composites were prepared using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL or one of its phenolic constituents, cardanol, as templates. The procedure involved formation of a CNSL or cardanol emulsion in a water-ethanol system into which (3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate were simultaneously added at various ratios. The reaction mixture was aged at room temperature for 18 h followed by a Soxhlet extraction of the template and drying. The materials were characterized by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and acid titration. Results indicated that indeed the thiol-silica composites were successfully prepared, with thiol group loadings ranging from 1.6-2.5 mmol/g. The materials were tested for lead(II adsorption, and results showed that they had maximum adsorption capacities up to 66.7 mg/g, depending on the thiol group loading and type of template used in preparing the adsorbent. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i3.5

  12. Similarity and dissimilarity of thiols as anti-nitrosative agents in the nitric oxide-superoxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Teh-Min; Ho, Shan-Chu

    2011-01-21

    Concomitant production of nitric oxide and superoxide in biological systems has been proposed to generate numerous reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that cause oxidative and nitrosative stress. Thiols, especially glutathione, play an important role in cellular defense against radical species. In the present study, we investigated and compared the anti-nitrosative activity of a wide range of thiols in a simplified chemical system of co-generated nitric oxide and superoxide. Of the 13 thiols studied, three groups of thiols are distinguishable: (i) Group I includes cysteine and its four congeners (cysteine methyl ester, cysteine ethyl ester, homocysteine, cysteamine); they are subject to rapid oxidative decomposition and have the least anti-nitrosative activity. (ii) Group II consists of glutathione, penicillamine, tiopronin and mesna; they have the greatest effect on delaying the nitrosation reaction. (iii) Group III comprises N-acetylcysteine, N-acetylpenicillamine, captopril, and thioglycolate; they all have high pK(a) for the mercapto group and show the strongest inhibitory effect on the rate and extent of nitrosation in the system studied. PMID:21168387

  13. Spray-deposition and photopolymerization of organic-inorganic thiol-ene resins for fabrication of superamphiphobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Kendrick, Laken L; Heusser, Hannele; Webb, Jamie C; Sparks, Bradley J; Goetz, James T; Guo, Wei; Stafford, Christopher M; Blanton, Michael D; Nazarenko, Sergei; Patton, Derek L

    2014-07-01

    Superamphiphobic surfaces, exhibiting high contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis to both water and low surface tension liquids, have attracted a great deal attention in recent years because of the potential of these materials in practical applications such as liquid-resistant textiles, self-cleaning surfaces, and antifouling/anticorrosion coatings. In this work, we present a simple strategy for fabricating of superamphiphobic coatings based on photopolymerization of hybrid thiol-ene resins. Spray-deposition and UV photopolymerization of thiol-ene resins containing hydrophobic silica nanoparticles and perfluorinated thiols provide a multiscale topography and low-energy surface that endows the surface with superamphiphobicity. The wettability and chemical composition of the surfaces were characterized by contact-angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The hierarchical roughness features of the thiol-ene surfaces were investigated with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Droplet impact and sandpaper abrasion tests indicate the coatings respectively possess a robust antiwetting behavior and good mechanical durability. PMID:24911278

  14. Streptavidin binding as a model to characterize thiol-ene chemistry-based polyamine surfaces for reversible photonic protein biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Eva; Muellner, Paul; Bethge, Ole; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Hainberger, Rainer; Laemmerhofer, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Biotin- and iminobiotin-bonded surfaces obtained by thiol-ene chemistry and subsequent modification with polyamines were characterized with respect to streptavidin-binding capacity and reversibility for photonic biosensing using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Mach-Zehnder-interferometric sensors. The streptavidin-iminobiotin system was exploited for reversible multilayer deposition and determination of affinity constants on each layer. PMID:24448367

  15. Single molecular switch based on thiol tethered iron(II)clathrochelate on gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular electronics has been associated with high density nano-electronic devices. Developments of molecular electronic devices were based on reversible switching of molecules between the two conductive states. In this paper, self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol (DDT) and thiol tethered iron(II)clathrochelate (IC) have been prepared on gold film. The electrochemical and electronic properties of IC molecules inserted into the dodecanethiol monolayer (IC-DDT SAM) were investigated using voltammetric, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and cross-wire tunneling measurements. The voltage triggered switching behaviour of IC molecules on mixed SAM was demonstrated. Deposition of polyaniline on the redox sites of IC-DDT SAM using electrochemical polymerization of aniline was performed in order to confirm that this monolayer acts as nano-patterned semiconducting electrode surface.

  16. Transmission electron microscopy of thiol-capped Au clusters on C: Structure and electron irradiation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontard, Lionel C; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to study interactions between thiol-capped Au clusters and amorphous C support films. The morphologies of the clusters are found to depend both on their size and on the local structure of the underlying C. When the C is amorphous, larger Au clusters are crystalline, while smaller clusters are typically disordered. When the C is graphitic, the Au particles adopt either elongated shapes that maximize their contact with the edge of the C film or planar arrays when they contain few Au atoms. We demonstrate the influence of electron beam irradiation on the structure, shape and stability of the Au clusters, as well as on the formation of holes bounded by terraces of graphitic lamellae in the underlying C. PMID:25554918

  17. An excellent ozone-resistant polymethylvinylsiloxane coating on natural rubber by thiol-ene click chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Ning

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (NR as renewable resource is a kind of cheap and versatile elastomer. A disadvantage of NR is that the ozone resistance is not good, which needs to be improved for its wider application. In this study, polymethylvinylsiloxane (PMVS coating on natural rubber (NR was realized for the first time by using thiol-ene click reaction under UV irradiation, simultaniously realizing the fast crosslinking of PMVS layer and the covalent crosslinking between PMVS layer and NR layer. As a result, a good interphase adhesion between PMVS coating and NR was obtained. The coating of the crosslinked PMVS layer on NR resulted in an obvious increase in the ozone resistance of NR. Our study provides a new and high efficient strategy to prepare elastomer materials with good ozone resistance.

  18. An Improved Isotope Coded Affinity Tag Technology for Thiol Redox Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotope Coded Affinity Tag (ICAT is a gel-free technology for quantitative proteomics. In ICAT procedure, strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX using increased potassium chloride gradient is recommended for peptide fractionation. Here we report optimization of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC as an alternative strategy for peptide fractionation of ICAT samples. HILIC exhibits high separation efficiency and does not require any downstream desalting steps. Compared to SCX based ICAT, integration of HILIC into the ICAT technology has resulted in high rates of protein identification, cysteine mapping, and quantification of cysteine-containing peptides. The improved technology has shown utility in thiol redox proteomics. Interestingly, results from HILIC ICAT and SCX ICAT are complementary. Implementation of both provides high coverage analysis of a complex proteome.

  19. Polysiloxane-based luminescent elastomers prepared by thiol-ene "click" chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yujing; Lu, Haifeng; Xue, Lei; Wang, Xianming; Wu, Lianfeng; Feng, Shengyu

    2014-09-26

    Side-chain vinyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) has been modified with mercaptopropionic acid, methyl 3-mercaptopropionate, and mercaptosuccinic acid. Coordinative bonding of Eu(III) to the functionalized polysiloxanes was then carried out and crosslinked silicone elastomers were prepared by thiol-ene curing reactions of these composites. All these europium complexes could be cast to form transparent, uniform, thin elastomers with good flexibility and thermal stability. The networks were characterized by FTIR, NMR, UV/Vis, and luminescence spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The europium elastomer luminophores exhibited intense red light at 617?nm under UV excitation at room temperature due to the (5)D0 ?(7)F2 transition in Eu(III) ions. The newly synthesized luminescent materials offer many advantages, including the desired mechanical flexibility. They cannot be dissolved or fused, and so they have potential for use in optical and electronic applications. PMID:25168644

  20. Polymer brushes on carbon nanotubes by thiol-lactam initiated radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Md Harun-Or; Lee, Won-Ki; Hong, Seong-Soo; Park, Jong Myung; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2012-01-01

    Water-soluble polymer brushes with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as backbones were synthesized by grafting 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) from surface functionalized MWNTs via in situ surface thiol-lactam initiated radical polymerization. MWNTs were functionalized with 2-mercaptoethanol and used as initiators in the polymerization of HEMA in the presence of butyrolactam. FT-IR, XPS, 1H NMR, GPC and TGA were used to determine chemical structure and the grafted polymer quantities of the resulting product. The covalent bonding of PHEMA to the MWNTs dramatically improved the water dispersibility of MWNTs. The average thicknesses of the polymer brushes in the functionalized MWNTs were detected with electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and images indicated that the nanotubes were coated with polymer layer. PMID:22524067

  1. Zero-bias anomaly in thiol-bound molecular junction on Ag(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, Kees; Rossen, Erwin; Cerda, Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Single molecule transistors are widely regarded as the successor of current silicon-based technology. To investigate the electronic properties of single molecules, they must be connected to the macroscopic world via electrodes. The most used linker group to connect the molecule to the metal leads is a thiol group. One feature that is often observed in these systems is a significant reduction (10-20%) in the conductance in a narrow region around the Fermi-level. While most authors choose to ignore this feature, it is in general attributed to excitations of the metal-sulphur mode and phonon interactions in the metal leads. We will discuss the origin of this zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) by presenting ab-initio calculation results in a Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) geometry for thiophenol molecules adsorbed on Ag(111), indicating the important role of the inelastic contributions of low energy vibrational modes in charge transport.

  2. The irreversible alpha-blocker benextramine interacts with two different thiol groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, C; Gallucci, P

    1983-12-01

    beta-Haloalkylamines bind at two sites on the adrenergic alpha-receptor, one related to the noradrenaline-recognition site and the other possibly concerned with the calcium channel. In order to verify whether this might apply to other alpha-blockers the tetramine disulfide benextramine was selected owing to its unprecedented covalent selectivity towards the adrenergic alpha-receptor. The fast acting beta-haloalkylamine DMPEA and the "classical" calcium antagonist verapamil were used for protection experiments against benextramine blockade of rat vas deferens adrenergic alpha-receptor. It was demonstrated that two target thiols are probably involved in benextramine binding and one of them might possibly be located at the periphery of, or masked within, the calcium channel which may be connected physiologically to the adrenergic alpha-receptor. However, the hypothesis that the present results could indicate the selective interaction of benextramine with two different subtypes of the adrenergic alpha-receptor is also discussed. PMID:6141952

  3. Differential regulation of tissue thiol-disulfide redox status in a murine model of peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benton Shana M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione (GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG and cysteine (Cys/cystine (CySS are major redox pools with important roles in cytoprotection. We determined the impact of septic peritonitis on thiol-disulfide redox status in mice. Methods FVB/N mice (6–12 week old; 8/group underwent laparotomy with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP or laparotomy alone (control. Sections of ileum, colon, lung and liver were obtained and GSH, GSSG, Cys and CySS concentrations determined by HPLC 24 h after laparotomy. Redox potential [Eh in millivolts (mV] of the GSH/GSSG and Cys/CySS pools was calculated using the Nernst equation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (mean ± SE. Results GSH/GSSG Eh in ileum, colon, and liver was significantly oxidized in septic mice versus control mice (ileum: septic ?202±4 versus control ?228±2 mV; colon: -195±8 versus ?214±1 mV; and liver: -194±3 vs. -210±1 mV, all Ph was unchanged with CLP, while liver and lung Cys/CySS Eh became significantly more reducing (liver: septic = ?103±3 versus control ?90±2 mV; lung: -101±5 versus ?81±1 mV, each P Conclusions Septic peritonitis induced by CLP oxidizes ileal and colonic GSH/GSSG redox but Cys/CySS Eh remains unchanged in these intestinal tissues. In liver, CLP oxidizes the GSH/GSSG redox pool and CyS/CySS Eh becomes more reducing; in lung, CLP does not alter GSH/GSSG Eh, and Cys/CySS Eh is less oxidized. CLP-induced infection/inflammation differentially regulates major thiol-disulfide redox pools in this murine model.

  4. Potentiometric determination of trace amounts of volatile thiols in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potentiometric titration method was developed for the determination of volatile thiols in natural gas. An apparatus was devised for the quantitative absorption of volatile thiols. The measurements were performed in an ethanolic ammonium buffer solution containing a known amount of silver nitrate as supporting electrolyte. The excess silver was precipitated by a known amount of potassium iodide. The excess of iodide was back titrated potentiometrically with a standard solution of silver nitrate. The direct titration of the excess silver ions with a standard solution of potassium iodide gave a poor accuracy compared with the back titration method. Iodide selective electrode was employed as an indicator electrode and a silver-silver chloride electrode as reference electrode. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method were established by preparing several synthetic samples in which ethanthiol containing from 346.61 to 12.11 ?Ug mercaptan sulfur was taken as standard nitrogen as carrier gas with an optimum flow rate of 31.5 L/hr. The results obtained expressed in the form of Grans plot showed an error ranging from 0.16 to 2.39% by weight and the relative standard deviation did not exceed 2.20%. The amount of mercaptan sulfur determined in Iraqi natural gas taken directly in a cylinder from Dora refinery, Baghdad, Iraq, and after six months of storage we 23.15 Ug/L and 21.25 Ug/L respectively with a relative standard deviation not exceeded 1%. The interferences of hydrogen sulfide could be eliminated by absorption in cadimium acetate containing solution. Other sulfur containing compounds e.g. disulfides, sulfoxides which may be present in natural gas do not interfere with the analysis

  5. Versatile synthesis of thiol- and amine-bifunctionalized silica nanoparticles based on the ouzo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Wang, Su-Yuan; Chou, Hung-Chang; Liu, Ying-Ling; Hu, Teh-Min

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we report a novel, nanoprecipitation-based method for preparing silica nanoparticles with thiol and amine cofunctionalization. (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) were used as the organosilane precursors, which were subjected to acid-catalyzed polycondensation in an organic phase containing a water-miscible solvent (e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide). A pale colloidal solution could be immediately formed when the preincubated organic phase was directly injected into water. The initial composition ratio between MPTMS and APTMS is an important factor governing the formation of nanoparticles. Specifically, large, unstable micrometer-sized particles were formed for preparation using MPTMS as the sole silane source. In contrast, when APTMS was used alone, no particles could be formed. By reducing the fraction of APTMS (or increasing that of MPTMS) in the initial mixture of organosilanes, the formation of nanometer-sized particles occurred at a critical fraction of APTMS (i.e., 25%). Remarkably, a tiny fraction (e.g., 1%) of APTMS was sufficient to produce stable nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic diameter of about 200 nm. Other factors that would also affect particle formation were determined. Moreover, an interesting temperature effect on particle formation was observed. The TEM micrographs show spherical nanospheres with mean sizes of 130-150 nm in diameter. The solid-state (29)Si NMR spectra demonstrate that the hybrid silica materials contain fully and partially condensed silicon structures. The bifunctionalized silica nanoparticles have positive zeta potentials whose magnitudes are positively correlated with the amount of APTMS. The total thiol content, however, is negatively correlated with the amount of APTMS. The cationic nanoparticles can bind an antisense oligonucleotide in a composition-dependent manner. PMID:24927298

  6. Synergistic Effects of Bismuth Thiols and Various Antibiotics Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Varposhti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that takes advantages of some weaknesses in the immune system to initiate an infection. Biofilms of P. aeruginosa can cause chronic opportunistic infections in immunocompromised and elderly patients. This bacterium is considered as a model organism to study antibiotic resistance as well as biofilm formation. In the biofilm structures, bacteria are protected from many harmful environmental factors such as fluctuations in the level of oxygen and nutrients, and the alterations of pH as well as sensitivity to antibiotics. Decreased permeability of biofilms is one of the important reasons of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Objectives: In this study the anti-biofilm activity of bismuth thiols in combination with ciprofloxacin, imipenem and ceftazidime against the P. aeruginosa biofilm was investigated. Materials and Methods: Checkerboard method was used to test the susceptibility of biofilms against various antimicrobial combinations. The biofilm formation was measured by 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT colorimetric assay. The fractional bio-film inhibitory concentration was reported for each agent. Results: The combination of bismuth ethanedithiol with ciprofloxacin showed synergistic inhibitory effect on the P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. The combination of bismuth ethanedithiol ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and imipenem showed synergistic inhibitory effects on the biofilm formation. Furthermore, the combination of bismuth ethanedithiol, imipenem and ceftazidime did not show any synergistic inhibitory effect on biofilm formation. Conclusions: Our studies show that using appropriate concentrations of bismuth thiols in combination with various antibiotics can act synergistically against P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Keywords: Biofilms; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Antibacterial Agents

  7. [Mechanism of thiol-dependence of acute phase proteins and serology of monospecific antisera in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiushov, V V; Kostiushova, N V; Pavlovich, S I; Sakhno, Iu P; Tymchyshyn, O L

    2001-01-01

    For the donors and for the patients with inflammatory processes is thiol-dependent the gear of immune responses in vitro an antigen--antibody on dynamics(changes) of change (+/- delta) of the contents SH- and S-S-group reaction mixtures. Thus, is conducted the analysis of interplay of proteins of an acute phase (CRP, orosomucoid and transferin) serums of a blood of the donors and patients with serology by related diagnostic (complementary) monospecific serums (MSS) against CRP (Anti-CRP), against Oroso (Anti-Oroso) i against Transf (Anti-Transf). Is established, that as against the donors, for the patients with inflammatory processes these reacting are accompanied by a phenomenon of a liberation of energy of Ag(+)-sensing non proteins SH-groups and they occur in supernatants of deprotheinized of reaction mixtures. At the same time, both for the donors, and for the patients, these reacting are accompanied modification by changes kept in repair (+/- delta) proteins SH- and S-S-rpy[symbol: see text], in integral reaction mixtures (in which one protein did not deposit). Such data testify, that the inflammatory process, apparently, can be accompanied by such rearrangement of a structurally functional condition of proteins of an acute phase, that under operating MSS in reaction mixtures descends labelised blended disulfide of communications between them and low molecular weight thiols. As a result of it there is a liberation of energy of Ag(+)-sensing non proteins SH-groups. This parameter can be used for an estimation of functional activity of proteins of an acute phase. PMID:11296566

  8. Modification of nanoelectrode ensembles by thiols and disulfides to prevent non specific adsorption of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Complex nanostructures are built on the gold surface of ensembles of nanoelectrodes. ? Gold surface of nanoelectrodes was functionalized with SAM of organic sulphurs. ? The polycarbonate surrounding nanoelectrodes was functionalized with proteins. ? SAMs protect the nanoelectrodes from undesired proteins adsorption. - Abstract: The possibility to functionalize selectively with thiols or disulfides the surface of the gold nanoelectrodes of polycarbonate templated nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) is studied. It is shown that the Au nanoelectrodes can be coated by a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioctic acid (TA) or 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic (MES) acid. The study of the electrochemical behavior of SAM-modified NEEs by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different solution pH, using ferrocenecarboxylate as an anionic redox probe (FcCOO-) and (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium (FA+) as a cationic redox probe, demonstrate that the SAM-modified nanoelectrodes are permselective, in that only cationic or neutral probes can access the SAM-coated nanoelectrode surface. CV, AFM and FTIR-ATR data indicate that proteins such as casein or bovine serum albumin, which are polyanionic at pH 7, adsorb on the surface of NEEs untreated with thiols, tending to block the electron transfer of the ferrocenyl redox probes. On the contrary, the pre-treatment of the NEE with an anionic SAM protects the nanoelectrodes from protein fouling, allowing the detectotein fouling, allowing the detection of well shaped voltammetric patterns for the redox probe. Experimental results indicate that, in the case of MES treated NEEs, the protein is bound only onto the polycarbonate surface which surrounds the nanoelectrodes, while the tips of the gold nanoelectrodes remain protein free.

  9. Modification of nanoelectrode ensembles by thiols and disulfides to prevent non specific adsorption of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestrini, M. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Schiavuta, P.; Scopece, P. [Associazione CIVEN, via delle Industrie 5, 30175 Marghera - Venice (Italy); Pecchielan, G.; Moretto, L.M. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Ugo, P., E-mail: ugo@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Complex nanostructures are built on the gold surface of ensembles of nanoelectrodes. > Gold surface of nanoelectrodes was functionalized with SAM of organic sulphurs. > The polycarbonate surrounding nanoelectrodes was functionalized with proteins. > SAMs protect the nanoelectrodes from undesired proteins adsorption. - Abstract: The possibility to functionalize selectively with thiols or disulfides the surface of the gold nanoelectrodes of polycarbonate templated nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) is studied. It is shown that the Au nanoelectrodes can be coated by a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioctic acid (TA) or 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic (MES) acid. The study of the electrochemical behavior of SAM-modified NEEs by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different solution pH, using ferrocenecarboxylate as an anionic redox probe (FcCOO{sup -}) and (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium (FA{sup +}) as a cationic redox probe, demonstrate that the SAM-modified nanoelectrodes are permselective, in that only cationic or neutral probes can access the SAM-coated nanoelectrode surface. CV, AFM and FTIR-ATR data indicate that proteins such as casein or bovine serum albumin, which are polyanionic at pH 7, adsorb on the surface of NEEs untreated with thiols, tending to block the electron transfer of the ferrocenyl redox probes. On the contrary, the pre-treatment of the NEE with an anionic SAM protects the nanoelectrodes from protein fouling, allowing the detection of well shaped voltammetric patterns for the redox probe. Experimental results indicate that, in the case of MES treated NEEs, the protein is bound only onto the polycarbonate surface which surrounds the nanoelectrodes, while the tips of the gold nanoelectrodes remain protein free.

  10. biliverdin. Is there a role for biliverdin reductase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndreasDaiber

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and signaling events are involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and represent a major contribution to vascular regulation. Molecular signaling is highly dependent on reactive oxygen species. But depending on the amount of ROS production it might have toxic or protective effects. Despite a large number of negative outcomes in large clinical trials (e.g. HOPE, HOPE-TOO, antioxidant molecules and agents are important players to influence the critical balance between production and elimination of RONS. However, chronic systemic antioxidant therapy lacks clinical efficacy, probably by interfering with important physiological redox signaling pathways. Therefore, it may be a much more promising attempt to induce intrinsic antioxidant pathways in order to increase the antioxidants not systemically but at the place of oxidative stress and complications. Among others, heme oxygenase (HO has been shown to be important for attenuating the overall production of ROS in a broad range of disease states through its ability to degrade heme and to produce carbon monoxide (CO, biliverdin/bilirubin, and the release of free iron with subsequent ferritin induction. With the present review we would like to highlight the important antioxidant role of the heme oxygenase system and especially discuss the contribution of the biliverdin, bilirubin and biliverdin reductase to these beneficial effects. The bilierdin reductase was reported to confer an antioxidant redox amplification cycle by which low, physiological bilirubin concentrations confer potent antioxidant protection via recycling of biliverdin from oxidized bilirubin by the biliverdin reductase, linking this sink for oxidants to the NADPH pool. To date the existence and role of this antioxidant redox cycle is still under debate and we present and discuss the pros and cons as well as our own findings on this topic.

  11. Hydrogen-transfer and charge transfer in photochemical and high energy radiation induced reactions: effects of thiols. Final report, February 1, 1960-january 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of ultraviolet or visible light, or high energy radiation, may lead to highly reactive free radicals. Thiols affect the reactions of these radicals in the following ways: (1) transfer of hydrogen from sulfur of the thiol to a substrate radical, converting the radical to a stable molecule, and the thiol to a reactive thiyl radical; and (2) transfer of hydrogen from a substrate radical or molecule to thiyl, regenerating thiol. The thiol is thus used repeatedly and a single molecule may affect the consequences of many quanta. Three effects may ensue, depending upon the system irradiated: (1) the substrate radicals may be converted by thiol-thiyl to the original molecules, and protection against radiation damage is afforded. (2) The radicals may be converted to molecules not identical with the starting materials, and in both cases damage caused by radical combination processes is prevented. (3) Product yields may be increased where the initial radicals might otherwise regenerate starting materials. It was shown that rates of reaction of excited species can be correlated with triplet energies and reduction potentials, and with ionization potentials, that amines are very reactive toward excited carbonyl compounds of all types, and that yields of products from these reactions can be increased by thiols, leading to increased efficiency in utilization of light

  12. Conserved residues flanking the thiol/disulfide centers of protein disulfide isomerase are not essential for catalysis of thiol/disulfide exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X; Gilbert, H F; Harper, J W

    1992-05-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes the oxidative folding of proteins containing disulfide bonds by increasing the rate of disulfide bond rearrangements which normally occur during the folding process. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal redox active sites (PWCGHCK) in PDI are completely conserved from yeast to man and display considerable identity with the redox-active center of thioredoxin (EWCGPCK). Available data indicate that the two thiol/disulfide centers of PDI can function independently in the isomerase reaction and that the cysteine residues in each active site are essential for catalysis. To evaluate the role of residues flanking the active-site cysteines of PDI in function, a variety of mutations were introduced into the N-terminal active site of PDI within the context of both a functional C-terminal active site and an inactive C-terminal active site in which serine residues replaced C379 and C382. Replacement of non-cysteine residues (W34 to Ser, G36 to Ala, and K39 to Arg) resulted in only a modest reduction in catalytic activity in both the oxidative refolding of RNase A and the reduction of insulin (10-27%), independent of the status of the C-terminal active site. A somewhat larger effect was observed with the H37P mutation where approximately 80% of the activity attributable to the N-terminal domain (approximately 40%) was lost. However, the H37P mutant N-terminal site expressed within the context of an inactive C-terminal domain exhibits 30% activity, approximately 70% of the activity of the N-terminal site alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1567868

  13. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase-containing hepatocytes are distributed periportally in normal and mevinolin-treated rat livers.

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, I. I.; Kawka, D. W.; Kazazis, D. M.; Alberts, A. W.; Chen, J. S.; Huff, J. W.; Ness, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    Mevinolin is a potent inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; EC 1.1.1.34), an enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. We have been studying the hepatic distribution of reductase with immunofluorescence microscopy and liver ultrastructure with electron microscopy in normal and drug-treated rats. In control animals, only about 20% of the hepatocytes were reductase positive. These cells were localized in the periportal l...

  14. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase is present in peroxisomes in normal rat liver cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, G. A.; Barton, M. C.; Shapiro, D. J.; Singer, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    The location inside rat liver parenchymal cells of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; EC 1.1.1.34), the key regulatory enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis, has been examined by immunoelectron microscopy and by subcellular fractionation. Although HMG-CoA reductase is generally thought to be exclusively a microsomal enzyme, we find that a substantial portion of cellular HMG-CoA reductase is localized in peroxisomes. Immunoelectron microscopic labeling of ultrathi...

  15. Inhibition of aldose reductase prevents colon cancer metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Tammali, Ravinder; Reddy, Aramati B. M.; Saxena, Ashish; Rychahou, Piotr G.; Evers, B. Mark; Qiu, Suimin; Awasthi, Sanjay; Ramana, Kota V.; Srivastava, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common cause of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA. Although inhibition of aldose reductase (AR) is known to prevent human colon cancer cell growth in nude mice xenografts, the role of AR in the regulation of cancer metastasis is not known. We now demonstrate the mechanisms by which AR regulates colon cancer metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of AR prevented the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or fibroblast growth factor (F...

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency presenting as a rash.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    We report on the case of a 2-year-old girl recently diagnosed with Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency who originally presented in the neonatal period with a distinctive rash. At 11 weeks of age she developed seizures, she had acquired microcephaly and developmental delay. The rash deteriorated dramatically following commencement of phenobarbitone; both rash and seizures abated following empiric introduction of pyridoxine and folinic acid as treatment of possible vitamin responsive seizures. We postulate that phenobarbitone in combination with MTHFR deficiency may have caused her rash to deteriorate and subsequent folinic acid was helpful in treating the rash and preventing further acute neurological decline as commonly associated with this condition.

  17. Biofilm Modifies Expression of Ribonucleotide Reductase Genes in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Cendra, Maria Del Mar; Jua?rez, Antonio; Torrents, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential enzyme for all living organisms since is the responsible for the last step in the synthesis of the four deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs) necessary for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we have investigated the expression of the three-RNR classes (Ia, Ib and III) during Escherichia coli biofilm formation. We show the temporal and spatial importance of class Ib and III RNRs during this process in two different E. coli wild-type strains, the com...

  18. Aldo-Keto Reductases 1B in Endocrinology and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Pastel, Emilie; Pointud, Jean-christophe; Volat, Fanny; Martinez, Antoine; Lefranc?ois-martinez, Anne-marie

    2012-01-01

    The aldose reductase (AR; human AKR1B1/mouse Akr1b3) has been the focus of many research because of its role in diabetic complications. The starting point of these alterations is the massive entry of glucose in polyol pathway where it is converted into sorbitol by this enzyme. However, the issue of AR function in non-diabetic condition remains unresolved. AR-like enzymes (AKR1B10, Akr1b7, and Akr1b8) are highly related isoforms often co-expressed with bona fide AR, making functional analysis ...

  19. Vitamin K epoxide reductase: homology, active site and catalytic mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodstadt, L.; Ponting, Cp

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) recycles reduced vitamin K, which is used subsequently as a co-factor in the gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in blood coagulation enzymes. VKORC1, a subunit of the VKOR complex, has recently been shown to possess this activity. Here, we show that VKORC1 is a member of a large family of predicted enzymes that are present in vertebrates, Drosophila, plants, bacteria and archaea. Four cysteine residues and one residue, which is either serine or th...

  20. Vibrio harveyi Nitroreductase Is Also a Chromate Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Young Hak; Lee, Dong Seok; Kim, Han Bok

    2003-01-01

    The chromate reductase purified from Pseudomonas ambigua was found to be homologous with several nitroreductases. Escherichia coli DH5? and Vibrio harveyi KCTC 2720 nitroreductases were chosen for the present study, and their chromate-reducing activities were determined. A fusion between glutathione S-transferase (GST) and E. coli DH5? NfsA (GST-EcNfsA), a fusion between GST and E. coli DH5? NfsB (GST-EcNfsB), and a fusion between GST and V. harveyi KCTC 2720 NfsA (GST-VhNfsA) were prepare...

  1. Decrease in Activity of Glutathione Reductase Enhances Paraquat Sensitivity in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, M.; Saji, H.; Fujiyama, K.; Sugita, M.; Kondo, N.; Tanaka, K.

    1995-02-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv SR1) with decreased activity of glutathione reductase exhibited enhanced sensitivity to paraquat in the light as evaluated by chlorophyll destruction and electrolyte leakage from leaf discs. This result indicates the involvement of glutathione reductase in the tolerance of plants to photooxidative stress caused by the herbicide. PMID:12228389

  2. ACTIVITY OF NADH-TETRAZOLIUM REDUCTASE IN RAM SEMEN DURING LIQUID AND CRYOPRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossen STEFANOV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigations for the determination of NADH-tetrazolium reductase enzyme system activity in ram semen during liquid and cryopreservation in relation with their viability, were carried out. The semen samples with lower motility of spermatozoa after collection, possess lower values of mean cytochemical coefficient for NADH-tetrazolium reductase activity ( ?<0.5, ?<0.5 after liquid and cryopreservation.

  3. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  4. Nitrate Reductase Activity and Protein Concentration of Two Populas Clones 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Gary F.

    1974-01-01

    Nitrate reductase activity and protein percentage of various tree parts of two Populus clones were determined in relation to nitrate ion activity. Nitrogen was supplied as NH4NO3 in a nutriculture system. Wisconsin-5 had significantly greater nitrate reductase activity than Tristis No. 1. Protein percentages of leaf plastochron index 10 leaves (tenth leaf below first leaf lamina exceeding 20 mm in length), bottom leaves, and roots in relation to nitrate ion activity were not appreciably different between clones. The nitrate reductase activity and protein percentage of Tristis No. 1 apex started to level off at the same nitrate ion activity, about 0.09 mm. In Wisconsin-5 apex protein percentage continued to increase at nitrate ion activities where nitrate reductase activity decreases sharply, suggesting that protein nitrogen was being supplied by ammonium ion. The difference in nitrate reductase activity between clones was probably due to genetically determined ability to synthesize nitrate reductase in response to nitrate ion. The expression of nitrate reductase activity was not an index of nitrogen assimilation ability but may be a useful index of growth potential when nitrate ion does not limit nitrate reductase synthesis. PMID:16658755

  5. QTL analysis of ferric reductase activity in the model legume lotus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological and molecular studies have demonstrated that iron accumulation from the soil into Strategy I plants can be limited by ferric reductase activity. An initial study of Lotus japonicus ecotypes Miyakojima MG-20 and Gifu B-129 identified significant leaf chlorosis and ferric reductase activ...

  6. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  7. The effect of ionic and non-ionic surfactants on the growth, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Buczek

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion into the medium of 5 mg•dm-3 of non-ionic (ENF or ionic (DBST surfactant caused 50-60% inhibition of nitrite reductase MR activity in S. polyrrhiza. At the same time, increased accumulation of NO2- in the plant tissues and lowering of the total and soluble protein contents were found. DBST also lowered the nitrate reductase (NR activity and the dry mass of the plants.

  8. Aminoadipate reductase gene: a new fungal-specific gene for comparative evolutionary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura Yoshiharu

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fungi, aminoadipate reductase converts 2-aminoadipate to 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde. However, other organisms have no homologue to the aminoadipate reductase gene and this pathway appears to be restricted to fungi. In this study, we designed degenerate primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of a large fragment of the aminoadipate reductase gene for divergent fungi. Results Using these primers, we amplified DNA fragments from the archiascomycetous yeast Saitoella complicata and the black-koji mold Aspergillus awamori. Based on an alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences, we constructed phylogenetic trees. These trees are consistent with current ascomycete systematics and demonstrate the potential utility of the aminoadipete reductase gene for phylogenetic analyses of fungi. Conclusions We believe that the comparison of aminoadipate reductase among species will be useful for molecular ecological and evolutionary studies of fungi, because this enzyme-encoding gene is a fungal-specific gene and generally appears to be single copy.

  9. The antioxidant protein alkylhydroperoxide reductase of Helicobacter pylori switches from a peroxide reductase to a molecular chaperone function

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Ming-hong; Wu, Ming-shiang; Lo, Wan-lin; Lin, Jaw-town; Wong, Chi-huey; Chiou, Shyh-horng

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, an oxygen-sensitive microaerophilic bacterium, contains many antioxidant proteins, among which alkylhydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) is the most abundant. The function of AhpC is to protect H. pylori from a hyperoxidative environment by reduction of toxic organic hydroperoxides. We have found that the sequence of AhpC from H. pylori is more homologous to mammalian peroxiredoxins than to eubacterial AhpC. We have also found that the protein structure of AhpC could shift from...

  10. Structure and mutation analysis of archaeal geranylgeranyl reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Iwata, Yuki; Murakami, Motomichi; Yoshimura, Tohru; Hemmi, Hisashi; Miki, Kunio

    2011-06-17

    The crystal structure of geranylgeranyl reductase (GGR) from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was determined in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the catalytic reaction. The enzyme is a flavoprotein and is involved in saturation of the double bonds on the isoprenoid moiety of archaeal membranes. The structure determined in this study belongs to the p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase family in the glutathione reductase superfamily. GGR functions as a monomer and is divided into the FAD-binding, catalytic and C-terminal domains. The catalytic domain has a large cavity surrounded by a characteristic YxWxFPx(7-8)GxG motif and by the isoalloxazine ring of an FAD molecule. The cavity holds a lipid molecule, which is probably derived from Escherichia coli cells used for over-expression. One of the two forms of the structure clarifies the presence of an anion pocket holding a pyrophosphate molecule, which might anchor the phosphate head of the natural ligands. Mutational analysis supports the suggestion that the three aromatic residues of the YxWxFPx(7-8)GxG motif hold the ligand in the appropriate position for reduction. Cys47, which is widely conserved in GGRs, is located at the si-side of the isoalloxazine ring of FAD and is shown by mutational analysis to be involved in catalysis. The catalytic cycle, including the FAD reducing factor binding site, is proposed on the basis of the detailed analysis of the structure. PMID:21515284

  11. Interspecific variation for thermal dependence of glutathione reductase in sainfoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidambi, S P; Mahan, J R; Matches, A G

    1990-05-01

    Understanding the biochemical and physiological consequences of species variation would expedite improvement in agronomically useful genotypes of sainfoin (Onobrychis spp.) Information on variation among sainfoin species is lacking on thermal dependence of glutathione reductase (B.C. 1.6.4.2.), which plays an important role in the protection of plants from both high and low temperature stresses by preventing harmful oxidation of enzymes and membranes. Our objective was to investigate the interspecific variation for thermal dependency of glutathione reductase in sainfoin. Large variation among species was found for: (i) the minimum apparent Km (0.4-2.5 ?M NADPH), (ii) the temperature at which the minimum apparent Km was observed (15°-5°C), and (iii) the thermal kinetic windows (2°-30°C width) over a 15°-45°C temperature gradient. In general, tetraploid species had narrower (?17°C) thermal kinetic windows than did diploid species (?30°C), with one exception among the diploids. Within the tetraploid species, the cultivars of O. viciifolia had a broader thermal kinetic window (?7°C) than the plant introduction (PI 212241, >2 °C) itself. PMID:24226572

  12. Retrospective approach to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, I??l; Özçetin, Mustafa; Karaer, Hatice; Kurt, Semiha G; ?ahin, ?emsettin

    2011-07-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase reduces methyltetrahydrofolate, a cosubstrate in the remethylation of homocysteine, from methylenetetrahydrofolate. Congenital defects, hematologic tumors, and intrauterine growth retardation can occur during childhood. This study evaluated clinical and laboratory treatment approaches in children diagnosed with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations. Our group included 23 boys and 14 girls, aged 103.4 ± 70.8 months S.D. Clinical findings of patients and homocysteine, vitamin B12, folate, hemogram, electroencephalography, cranial magnetic resonance imaging, and echocardiography data were evaluated in terms of treatment approach. Our patients' findings included vitamin B12 at 400.4 ± 224.6 pg/mL S.D. (normal range, 300-700 pg/mL), folate at 10.1 ± 4.5 ng/mL S.D. (normal range, 1.8-9 ng/mL), and homocysteine at 8.4 ± 4.7 ?mol/L S.D. (normal range, 5.5-17 ?mol/L). Eighty-eight percent of patients demonstrated clinical findings. In comparisons involving categorical variables between groups, ?(2) tests were used. No relationship was evident between mutation type, laboratory data, and clinical severity. All mothers who had MTHFR mutations and had babies with sacral dimples had taken folate supplements during pregnancy. To avoid the risk of neural tube defects, pregnant women with a MTHFR mutation may require higher than normally recommended doses of folic acid supplementation for optimum health. PMID:21723457

  13. Targeting aldose reductase for the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammali, Ravinder; Srivastava, Satish K; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-06-01

    It is strongly established by numerous studies that oxidative stress-induced inflammation is one of the major causative agents in a variety of cancers. Various factors such as bacterial, viral, parasitic infections, chemical irritants, carcinogens are involved in the initiation of oxidative stress-mediated inflammation. Chronic and persistent inflammation promotes the formation of cancerous tumors. Recent investigations strongly suggest that aldose reductase [AR; AKR1B1], a member of aldo-keto reductase superfamily of proteins, is the mediator of inflammatory signals induced by growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, carcinogens etc. Further, AR reduced product(s) of lipid derived aldehydes and their metabolites such as glutathionyl 1,4-dihydroxynonanol (GS-DHN) have been shown to be involved in the activation of transcription factors such as NF-?B and AP-1 which transcribe the genes of inflammatory cytokines. The increased inflammatory cytokines and growth factors promote cell proliferation, a main feature involved in the tumorigenesis process. Inhibition of AR has been shown to prevent cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo models. In this review, we have described the possible association between AR with oxidative stress- and inflammation- initiated carcinogenesis. A thorough understanding of the role of AR in the inflammation -associated cancers could lead to the use of AR inhibitors as novel chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. PMID:21486217

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of Schistosoma japonicum aldose reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Jipeng; Wang, Shuqi; Xu, Bin; Liu, Xiufeng; Wang, Xiaoning; Hu, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidant defense is an essential mechanism for schistosomes to cope with damage from host immune-generated reactive oxygen species. The evaluation of the effects of aldose reductase, an important enzyme that may be involved in this system, has long been neglected. In the present study, aldose reductase of Schistosoma japonicum (SjAR) was cloned and characterized. The activity of SjAR was assessed in vitro and was suppressed by the reported inhibitor, epalrestat. RT-PCR analysis revealed that SjAR was expressed at each of the development stages analyzed with increased levels in cercariae. The results also showed that SjAR was expressed at higher levels in adult male worms than in adult female worms. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis indicated that the purified recombinant SjAR (rSjAR) protein displayed a significant level of antigenicity. Immunolocalization analysis revealed that SjAR was mainly distributed in the gynecophoral canal of adult male worms. BALB/c mice immunized with rSjAR induced a 32.91 % worm reduction compared to the adjuvant group (P 0.05) and a 42.75 % reduction in egg development in the fecal samples (P < 0.05) were also observed. These results suggested that SjAR may be a potential new drug target or vaccine candidate for schistosomes. PMID:23160889

  15. A mutant of barley lacking NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutant of barley, LaPr 88/29, deficient in peroxisomal NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) activity has been identified. Compared to the wild type the activities of NADH-HPR and NADPH-HPR were severely reduced but the mutant was still capable of fixing CO2 at rates equivalent to 75% of that of the wild type in air. Although lacking an enzyme in the main photorespiratory pathway, there appeared to be little disruption to photorespiratory metabolism as ammonia release, CO2 efflux and 14CO2 release from L-[U-14C] serine were similar in both mutant and wild type. LaPr 88/29 has been used to show that NADH-glyoxylate reductase (GR) and NADH-HPR are probably not catalyzed by the same enzyme in barley and that over 80% of the NADPH-HPR activity is due to the NADH-HPR enzyme. Immunological studies, using antibodies raised against spinach HPR, have shown that the NADH-dependent enzyme protein is absent in LaPr 88/29 but there appears to be enhanced synthesis of the NADPH-dependent enzyme protein

  16. Evaluation of the protective role of thiols and WR-2721 against biological effect of radiation 22-survival rate of mice bearing tumor and histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radioprotectors Thiols and WR-2721 on survival rate of unirradiated and total body irradiated female Swiss albino mice bearing Ehrlich tumor has been evaluated. Histopathological changes were also observed. Radioprotectors were administered i.p. 15 min prior to irradiation. Thiols was injected at dose levels 50,100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. 50 mg/kg Thiols was used daily for 4 days as fractionated dose was also used. WR-2721 injected i.p. at dose levels 100,200 and 400 mg/kg. A fractionated dose of 100 mg/kg WR-2721 x 4 for 4 days was used. 600 rad of gamma radiation induced complete mortality in animals bearing Ehrlich tumor after 31 days of tumor transplantation. Injection of thiols alone increased the survival rate in animals bearing Ehrlich carcinoma. 14 fig

  17. H14[NaP5W30O110] as a Heterogeneous Recyclable Catalyst for the Air Oxidation of Thiols Under Solvent Free Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bamoharram, Fatemeh F.; Heravi, Majid M.; Sodeh Sajadi; Rahim Hekmatshoar

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of thiols to the corresponding disulfides usingPreyssler’s catalyst H14[NaP5W30O110] has been studied. These highly selective oxidationsgave good yields of the target disulfides.

  18. Mechanism of the formation of ethane in the interaction of acetylene in the presence of molybdenum thiol catalysts. [Reduction with sodium borohydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorontsova, T.A.; Khrushch, A.P.; Shilov, A.E.

    1976-06-01

    It was shown that in the reduction of acetylene with sodium borohydride in the presence of molybdenum thiol complexes, ethane is formed directly from acetylene without the escape of ethylene from the coordination sphere of the complex into the solution.

  19. Thiol-mediated oxidation of nonphenolic lignin model compounds by manganese peroxidase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariishi, H; Valli, K; Renganathan, V; Gold, M H

    1989-08-25

    In the presence of MnII, H2O2, and glutathione (GSH), manganese peroxidase oxidized veratryl alcohol (I) to veratraldehyde (IV). Anisyl alcohol (II) and benzyl alcohol (III) were also oxidized by this system to their corresponding aldehydes (V and VI). In the presence of GSH, chemically prepared MnIII or gamma-irradiation also catalyzed the oxidation of I, II, and III to IV, V, and VI, respectively. GSH and dithiothreitol rapidly reduced MnIII to MnII in the absence of aromatic substrates and the dithiothreitol was oxidized to its disulfide (4,5-dihydroxyl-1,2-dithiane). These results indicate that the thiol is oxidized by enzyme-generated MnIII to a thiyl radical. The latter abstracts a hydrogen from the substrate, forming a benzylic radical which reacts with another thiyl radical to yield an intermediate which decomposes to the benzaldehyde product. In the presence of MnII, GSH, and H2O2, manganese peroxidase also oxidized 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4'-hydroxymethyl-2'-methoxyphenoxy)- 1,3-dihydroxypropane (XII) to yield vanillyl alcohol (VII), vanillin (VIII), 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dihydroxypropane (XVI), 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-oxo-3-hydroxypropane (XIX), and several C alpha oxidized dimeric products. Abstraction of the C alpha (A ring) hydrogen of the dimer (XII) yields a benzylic radical, leading to C beta oxygen ether cleavage. The resultant intermediates yield the ketone (XIX) and vanillyl alcohol (VII) or vanillin (VIII). Alternatively, benzylic radical formation at the C' alpha position (B ring) leads to radical cleavage, yielding a quinone methide and a C beta radical, which yield vanillin and the 1,3-diol (XVI), respectively. In these reactions, MnIII oxidizes a thiol to a thiyl radical which subsequently abstracts a hydrogen from the substrate to form a benzylic radical. The latter undergoes nonenzymatic reactions to yield the final products. PMID:2760063

  20. Stabilization of Nanoparticulate HgS by Thiols and Humic Substances During HgS Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu-Kim, H.; Deonarine, A.

    2008-12-01

    In the aquatic environment mercury has a strong affinity for reduced sulfur-containing ligands such as inorganic sulfides and thiolate functional groups in natural organic matter (NOM). Complexation of aqueous Hg(II) is particularly important because coordination to inorganic sulfide and humic compounds governs Hg(II) speciation (and subsequent bioavailability and mobility) in contaminated water and sediment. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential for NOM-coated HgS nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. HgS precipitation experiments were conducted in the presence of natural organic acids that are prevalent in surface water and sediment porewater. Dynamic light scattering was used to the monitor the size of HgS particles precipitating over time. The results indicated that humic substances decreased growth rates of precipitating HgS particles and stabilized particles with aggregate diameters smaller than 0.2 ?m for at least 8 hours. Thiol-containing low molecular weight acids such as cysteine and thioglycolate also decreased growth of HgS particles whereas the hydroxyl-containing acids (serine and glycolate) did not affect particle growth rates. As the humic and thiol concentration increased in solution, growth rates of HgS particles decreased. Growth rates of the aggregates increased in solutions with greater ionic strength. Nanoparticles of HgS would be possible in aquatic environments where HgS precipitation is possible. We conducted equilibrium speciation calculations to determine HgS(s) saturation indices under conditions typical for sediment porewater. The calculations indicated that the metacinnabar saturation index was 1 to 3 orders of magnitude above or below saturation, depending on Hg-(bi)sulfide and Hg-NOM binding constants, which vary by orders of magnitude. These insights suggest that HgS nanoparticles may exist in surface waters and porewater of contaminated sediments as a result of kinetically-hindered mineralization reactions. Hg(II) uptake rates by methylating organisms may be governed by rate-limited mineralization reactions, rather than equilibrium Hg(II) speciation in porewater. However, further studies are needed to directly quantify the bioavailability of nanoparticulate Hg to microbes.

  1. Monodentate, Bidentate and Photocrosslinkable Thiol Ligands for Improving Aqueous Biocompatible Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroko

    Water-soluble Quantum Dots (QDs) are highly sensitive fluorescent probes that are often used to study biological species. One of the most common ways to render QDs water-soluble for such applications is to apply hydrophilic thiolated ligands to the QD surface. However, these ligands are labile and can be easily exchanged on the QD surface, which can severely limit their application. As one way to overcome this limitation while maintaining a small colloidal size of QDs, we developed a method to stabilize hydrophilic thiolated ligands on the surface of QDs through the formation of a crosslinked shell using a photocrosslinking approach. This ligand is known to crosslink through ultraviolet (UV) light but, interestingly, our results showed that QD-mediated crosslinking by visible light led to enhanced colloidal stability of the QDs compared to UV light. This was confirmed through spectroscopic, photographic and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements. In order to maximize the biological applications of QDs, it is important to thoroughly investigate the binding and exchange mechanisms of ligands, and especially how these mechanisms affect the ability to control non-specific adsorption of biomolecules. To investigate this, we modified a near-infrared dye to contain a single thiol group to act as a highly sensitive spectroscopic probe for the binding and exchange of thiol groups to monodentate or bidentate ligand-coated QDs. Differences in how monodentate and bidentate ligands control binding of thiolated target (bio)molecules were discovered by fitting the data to the Hill equation. The results highlight how both the coordination geometry and the ligand packing density on the surface of QDs control the binding and exchange mechanisms. The proposed mechanistic scheme was then successfully tested by exposure to a reduced (i.e. -SH containing) antibody. Finally, Forster Resonance Energy Transfer of QD-dye conjugates was studied. At the single molecule level three species were identified: QD without a dye bound, QD with 1 dye attached, and QD with 2 or more dyes attached. The unusual statistical distribution of these different species suggests a highly complex process at the microscopic level. These discoveries will contribute to improving the applications of QDs in biophysical and biomedical studies.

  2. Electronic Transport through Self Assembled Thiol Molecules: Effect of Monolayer Order, Dynamics and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Geetha; Fan, Wendy; Meyyappan, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the charge transport and tunneling conductance of self assembled organic thiol molecules and discuss the influence of order and dynamics in the monolayer on the transport behavior and the effect of temperature. Conjugated thiol molecular wires and organometals such as terpyridine metal complexes provide a new platform for molecular electronic devices and we study their self assembly on Au(111) substrates by the scanning tunneling microscope. Determining the organization of the molecule and the ability to control the nature of its interface with the substrate is important for reliable performance of the molecular electronic devices. By concurrent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies on SAMs formed from oligo (phenelyne ethynelyne) monolayers with and without molecular order, we show that packing and order determine the response of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) to competing interactions. Molecular resolution STM imaging in vacuum shows that the OPES adopt an imcommensurate SAM structure on Au(111) with a rectangular unit cell. Tunneling spectroscopic measurements were performed on the SAM as a function of junction resistance. STS results show that the I-Vs are non linear and asymmetric due to the inherent asymmetry in the molecular structure, with larger currents at negative sample biases. The asymmetry increases with increasing junction resistance due to the asymmetry in the coupling to the leads. This is brought out clearly in the differential conductance, which also shows a gap at the Fermi level. We also studied the effect of order and dynamics in the monolayer on the charge transport and found that competing forces between the electric field, intermolecular interactions, tip-molecule physisorption and substrate-molecule chemisorption impact the transport measurements and its reliability and that the presence of molecular order is very important for reproducible transport measurements. Thus while developing new electronic platforms based on molecules, it is important to have a good control of the molecule-substrate interface, for the devices to perform reliably. While such a control would minimize fluctuations and dynamics in the ensemble, the real challenge is to develop device architectures that are tolerant to fluctuations, since they cannot be totally eliminated in these low dimensional soft systems. Results of temperature dependent STS measurements will also be discussed.

  3. Glyphosate inhibition of ferric reductase activity in iron deficient sunflower roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Levent; Yazici, Atilla; Eker, Selim; Gokmen, Ozgur; Römheld, Volker; Cakmak, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is increasingly being observed in cropping systems with frequent glyphosate applications. A likely reason for this is that glyphosate interferes with root uptake of Fe by inhibiting ferric reductase in roots required for Fe acquisition by dicot and nongrass species. This study investigated the role of drift rates of glyphosate (0.32, 0.95 or 1.89 mm glyphosate corresponding to 1, 3 and 6% of the recommended herbicidal dose, respectively) on ferric reductase activity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) roots grown under Fe deficiency conditions. Application of 1.89 mm glyphosate resulted in almost 50% inhibition of ferric reductase within 6 h and complete inhibition 24 h after the treatment. Even at lower rates of glyphosate (e.g. 0.32 mm and 0.95 mm), ferric reductase was inhibited. Soluble sugar concentration and the NAD(P)H oxidizing capacity of apical roots were not decreased by the glyphosate applications. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of glyphosate on ferric reductase activity. The nature of the inhibitory effect of glyphosate on ferric reductase could not be identified. Impaired ferric reductase could be a major reason for the increasingly observed Fe deficiency in cropping systems associated with widespread glyphosate usage. PMID:18179601

  4. MK386: a potent, selective inhibitor of the human type 1 5alpha-reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, K; Azzolina, B; Baginsky, W; Bull, H; Chang, B; Cimis, G; Mitra, S; Toney, J; Bakshi, R K; Rasmusson, G R; Tolman, R L; Harris, G S

    1996-07-01

    Steroid 5alpha-reductase is required for the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Localization of type 1 5alpha-reductase in the sebaceous gland of skin offers the possibility for selective inhibition of this isozyme as a treatment for acne. The goals of these studies are to demonstrate the mechanism of inhibition of MK386 and its selectivity for type 1 5alpha-reductase. The apparent potency of MK386 differed depending on the source of the enzyme (i.e. recombinant vs. native), yet selectivity for type 1 5alpha-reductase was unchanged. Our results indicate that the apparent potency of MK386 is modulated by the membrane concentration of the assay. These results suggest that MK386 has a high affinity for the lipid-rich membrane environment of 5alpha-reductase. MK386 was also found to be a slow binding inhibitor of type 1 5alpha-reductase. However, the cause of this time-dependent inhibition is unrelated to partitioning of the inhibitor into the membrane because similar studies with type 2 5alpha-reductase indicate that MK386 is a reversible, competitive inhibitor. A number of counterscreens were developed to demonstrate that MK386 is a poor inhibitor of other steroid metabolizing enzymes. PMID:8903421

  5. Acyl chloride-modified amorphous carbon substrates for the attachment of alcohol-, thiol-, and amine-containing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Matthew R; Carlisle, Justin C; Le, Dinh V; Smith, Lloyd M

    2009-05-01

    Amorphous carbon thin films are easily deposited at room temperature, readily functionalized with alkene-containing molecules through a UV photochemical reaction, and provide a robust surface capable of supporting array fabrication. Relatively few attachment chemistries for the fabrication of small organic molecule and/or biomolecule arrays on carbon substrates have been described to date. Here, acyl chloride-terminated amorphous carbon substrates were fabricated, characterized, and used to attach alcohol-, thiol-, and amine-containing small molecules. Oligonucleotide arrays of thiol- and amine-modified oligonucleotides were also prepared on these substrates. The hybridization density, average fluorescence signal of hybridized features, and average background fluorescence of oligonucleotide arrays prepared on acyl chloride-modified substrates were compared to the same parameters for oligonucleotide arrays prepared on maleimide- and aldehyde-modified substrates. PMID:19317418

  6. Glutamine synthetase isoforms in nitrogen-fixing soybean nodules: distinct oligomeric structures and thiol-based regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalkar, Pintu D; Roberts, Daniel M

    2015-01-16

    Legume root nodule glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the assimilation of ammonia produced by nitrogen fixation. Two GS isoform subtypes (GS1? and GS1?) are present in soybean nodules. GS1? isoforms differ from GS1? isoforms in terms of their susceptibility to reversible inhibition by intersubunit disulfide bond formation between C159 and C92 at the shared active site at subunit interfaces. Although nodule GS enzymes share 86% amino acid sequence identity, analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that GS1? is a dodecamer, whereas the GS1? is a decamer. It is proposed that this difference contributes to the differential thiol sensitivity of each isoform, and that GS1?1 may be a target of thiol-based regulation. PMID:25497014

  7. A simple automated procedure for thiol measurement in human serum samples Procedimento automatizado simples para determinação de tióis em amostras de soro humano

    OpenAIRE

    Da Costa, Carolina M.; Dos Santos, Rita C. C.; Lima, Emerson S.

    2006-01-01

    Thiol groups have been described as the main responsible for antioxidative effects of plasmatic proteins. Also, thiol serum levels have shown a positive correlation with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in many studies. Measurement of TAC by substract oxidation-based methods have been widely used as a reference to measure antioxidant status; however, in many cases these methods are inexact or imprecise, usually when performed by manual procedures. In this paper we describe a simple automated ...

  8. A Novel Arsenate Reductase from the Arsenic Hyperaccumulating Fern Pteris vittata1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Danielle R.; Gumaelius, Luke; Indriolo, Emily; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Banks, Jo Ann; Salt, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Pteris vittata sporophytes hyperaccumulate arsenic to 1% to 2% of their dry weight. Like the sporophyte, the gametophyte was found to reduce arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)] and store arsenic as free As(III). Here, we report the isolation of an arsenate reductase gene (PvACR2) from gametophytes that can suppress the arsenate sensitivity and arsenic hyperaccumulation phenotypes of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lacking the arsenate reductase gene ScACR2. Recombinant PvACR2 protein has in vitro arsenate reductase activity similar to ScACR2. While PvACR2 and ScACR2 have sequence similarities to the CDC25 protein tyrosine phosphatases, they lack phosphatase activity. In contrast, Arath;CDC25, an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of PvACR2 was found to have both arsenate reductase and phosphatase activities. To our knowledge, PvACR2 is the first reported plant arsenate reductase that lacks phosphatase activity. CDC25 protein tyrosine phosphatases and arsenate reductases have a conserved HCX5R motif that defines the active site. PvACR2 is unique in that the arginine of this motif, previously shown to be essential for phosphatase and reductase activity, is replaced with a serine. Steady-state levels of PvACR2 expression in gametophytes were found to be similar in the absence and presence of arsenate, while total arsenate reductase activity in P. vittata gametophytes was found to be constitutive and unaffected by arsenate, consistent with other known metal hyperaccumulation mechanisms in plants. The unusual active site of PvACR2 and the arsenate reductase activities of cell-free extracts correlate with the ability of P. vittata to hyperaccumulate arsenite, suggesting that PvACR2 may play an important role in this process. PMID:16766666

  9. High throughput identification of promiscuous inhibitors from screening libraries with the use of a thiol-containing fluorescent probe

    OpenAIRE

    Mccallum, Megan M.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Temmer, Jonathan J.; Eyermann, Charles; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Yasgar, Adam; Maloney, David; Arnold, Leggy A.

    2013-01-01

    Testing small molecules for their ability to modify cysteine residues of proteins in the early stages of drug discovery is expected to accelerate our ability to develop more selective drugs with lesser side effects. In addition, this approach also enables the rapid evaluation of the mode of binding of new drug candidates in respect to thiol-reactivity and metabolism by glutathione. Herein, we describe the development of a fluorescence-based high throughput assay that allows the identification...

  10. Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogels formed by Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization for Enzyme-Responsive Protein Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Aimetti, Alex A.; Machen, Alexandra J.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2009-01-01

    Degradable hydrogels have been extensively used in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, and recent interest has grown in hydrogels that degrade in recognition of a cellular response. This contribution describes a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel platform with human neutrophil elastase (HNE) sensitive peptide cross-links formed using thiol-ene photopolymerization rendering the gel degradable at sites of inflammation. Further, protein therapeutics can be physically entrapped withi...

  11. Effect of thiol modulators and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase inhibition on nitrergic relaxations in the rat gastric fundus.

    OpenAIRE

    Man, J. G.; Winter, B. Y.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Herman, A. G.; Pelckmans, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of superoxide anion generators before and after treatment with inhibitors of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and the effects of thiol-modulating agents were investigated on nitrergic relaxations to electrical stimulation of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) nerves of the rat gastric fundus and on relaxations to authentic nitric oxide (NO) and nitroglycerin. 2. The superoxide anion generators, pyrogallol (30 microM) and duroquinone (30-60 microM), significantly inhibi...

  12. Studies in hydride generation atomic fluorescence determination of selenium and tellurium. Part 2 — effect of thiourea and thiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, K.; Zamboni, R.; D'Ulivo, A.

    2001-04-01

    In determination of selenium and tellurium by continuous flow hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, the effect of thiourea and thiols was investigated in view of their potential to achieve mild reaction conditions and as masking agents of interference from foreign elements. The effect of thiourea and thiols was first tested in the absence of interfering species and using different addition modes to reaction system. In the absence of interfering species, thiols negatively influenced the hydride evolution of both selenium and tellurium and, in general, they did not produce the desired effects. Thiourea was well tolerated in the determination of both elements by appropriate choice of experimental conditions. Possible mechanisms producing the depressive effect of thiourea and thiols were also investigated and are discussed later. Compromise reaction conditions were identified by using on-line addition of a neutral thiourea solution to acidified sample, combined with KI addition to NaBH 4. Mild reaction conditions can be achieved by decreasing the NaBH 4 concentration but at the expense of a reduced linear dynamic range. In the presence of foreign elements, thiourea allowed good control of interferences generated by Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Au(III), Ag(I) and Bi(III). Tolerance limits could be improved by factors in the range of 7-2000, for both selenium and tellurium determination. The method has been successfully applied in the determination of traces of tellurium and selenium in copper, lead and molybdenum ores, stainless steel and pure copper metal without any additional steps other than sample dissolution.

  13. The preparation and physical properties of polysulfide-based elastomers through one-pot thiol-ene click reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Y. W.; Zhang, G. Z.; Fan, Z. K.; Chen, Q. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, polysulfide-based elastomers were successfully prepared through a simple one-pot thiol-ene click reaction of the liquid polysulfide oligomer with bisphenol-A diacrylate resin. Real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that the molecular weight of the liquid polysulfide oligomer had no effect on mercaptan functional group conversion. The obtained elastomers continued to keep low temperature flexibility of polysulfide except Elastomer-LP3, which was...

  14. Dependence of Optical and Microstructure Properties of Thiol-Capped Silver Nanoparticles Embedded in Polymeric Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio De Nicola; Angela Longo; Mariano Palomba; Gianfranco Carotenuto

    2011-01-01

    Thiol-capped silver nanoparticles were prepared by in situ thermal decomposition of different silver(I)-thiolates precursors in a polymeric matrix. Depending on the structure of the organic coating, contact-free distribution of metal nanoparticles or nanoparticles aggregates were achieved. The structure and morphology of nanocomposites was analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Nanoparticles’ interaction was investigated by differential scanning cal...

  15. A SABATH Methyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens catalyzes S-methylation of thiols and has a role in detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Moon, Hong S; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Stewart, C Neal; Gang, David R; Chen, Feng

    2012-09-01

    Known SABATH methyltransferases, all of which were identified from seed plants, catalyze methylation of either the carboxyl group of a variety of low molecular weight metabolites or the nitrogen moiety of precursors of caffeine. In this study, the SABATH family from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens was identified and characterized. Four SABATH-like sequences (PpSABATH1, PpSABATH2, PpSABATH3, and PpSABATH4) were identified from the P. patens genome. Only PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 showed expression in the leafy gametophyte of P. patens. Full-length cDNAs of PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were cloned and expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were tested for methyltransferase activity with a total of 75 compounds. While showing no activity with carboxylic acids or nitrogen-containing compounds, PpSABATH1 displayed methyltransferase activity with a number of thiols. PpSABATH2 did not show activity with any of the compounds tested. Among the thiols analyzed, PpSABATH1 showed the highest level of activity with thiobenzoic acid with an apparent Km value of 95.5?M, which is comparable to those of known SABATHs. Using thiobenzoic acid as substrate, GC-MS analysis indicated that the methylation catalyzed by PpSABATH1 is on the sulfur atom. The mechanism for S-methylation of thiols catalyzed by PpSABATH1 was partially revealed by homology-based structural modeling. The expression of PpSABATH1 was induced by the treatment of thiobenzoic acid. Further transgenic studies showed that tobacco plants overexpressing PpSABATH1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to thiobenzoic acid, suggesting that PpSABATH1 have a role in the detoxification of xenobiotic thiols. PMID:22795762

  16. Synthesis and biological studies of the thiols-triggered anticancer prodrug for a more effective cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhen; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Ya; Peng, Shoujiao; Gu, Xueyan; Sun, Meng; Gao, Kun; Fang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    A novel anticancer prodrug compound 1, which was designed to be triggered by thiols and release the chemotherapeutic agent mechlorethamine, was successfully prepared and evaluated for the first time. The activation of compound 1 was determined by NMR analysis and denaturing alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. A fluorescence image and comet assay indicated that the inducible reactivity of 1 could be accomplished in cell media. The anticancer activities are also discussed. PMID:25581090

  17. Iodine-catalyzed regioselective thiolation of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines using sulfonyl hydrazides as a thiol surrogate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdi, Avik Kumar; Mitra, Shubhanjan; Ghosh, Monoranjan; Hajra, Alakananda

    2015-03-01

    Iodine-catalyzed regioselective sulfenylation of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines via C(sp(2))-H bond functionalization has been achieved using sulfonyl hydrazides as a thiol surrogate. A library of 3-sulfanylimidazopyridines with broad functionalities was synthesized under metal and oxidant-free practical reaction conditions. This methodology is also applicable for the regioselective sulfenylation of imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole and benzo[d]imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole. PMID:25644749

  18. Influence of oxygen on the repair of direct radiation damage to DNA by thiols in model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D; Summerfield, S; Gillich, S; Sevilla, M D

    1994-05-01

    Here the reactions of thiols with DNA primary radical intermediates formed after gamma-irradiation of frozen (77 K) anoxic and oxic solutions of DNA/thiol mixtures are investigated. Through analysis of the experimental composite spectra at each annealing temperature, the relative concentrations of individual radicals present are estimated and reaction sequences inferred. In all samples the primary DNA radical anions and cations (DNA.+ and DNA.-) are suggested to be the predominant radicals at low temperatures. In anoxic samples, TH. (5,6-dihydrothym-5-yl radical), .RSSR.- and, in glutathione samples, .GSH [gamma-glu-NHC(CH2SH)CO-gly] radicals are observed as the temperature is increased. The presence of oxygen efficiently suppresses the formation of RSSR.- and .GSH; instead, in oxic samples, O2.-, DNAOO., RSOO. and RSO. are observed at higher temperatures. The photolytic conversion of RSOO. to RSO2. is used to verify the presence of RSOO. in gamma-irradiated DNA/thiol systems and confirm that the computer analysis employed yields reasonable estimates of the relative DNAOO. and RSOO. concentrations. From the relative concentrations of radicals present, it is clear that the radicals observed at higher temperatures originate from the radical reactions of the primary DNA.+ and DNA.- radicals. Based on the reaction sequences inferred and previous work with thiols alone, it is concluded that TH., DNAOO. and RSOO. (in part) originate largely with DNA.-, whereas RSSR.-, .GSH and RSOO. (in part) originate largely with DNA.+. The possible roles of DNAOO., RSOO., RSO., RSO2. and .OOGSH in the chemical oxygen enhancement effect at biologically realistic temperatures are discussed. PMID:7910193

  19. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis eliminates the adaptive response of ascitic hepatoma 22 cells to nedaplatin that targets thioredoxin reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a target for cancer therapy and the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin involves TrxR inhibition. We hypothesize that the anticancer drug nedaplatin (NDP), an analogue of cisplatin and a second-generation platinum complex, also targets TrxR. Furthermore, we investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of NDP can be enhanced by simultaneous modulation of 1) TrxR, via NDP, and 2) glutathione (GSH), via the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mice bearing ascitic hepatoma 22 (H22) cells were treated with NDP alone or NDP plus BSO. TrxR activity of H22 cells was inhibited by NDP in a dose-dependent manner. A high correlation between the inhibition of TrxR activity at 6 h and the inhibition of ascitic fluid volume at 72 h was established (r = 0.978, p < 0.01). As an adaptive response, the viable ascitic cancer cells after NDP treatment displayed an enlarged cell phenotype, assembled with several-fold more antioxidant enzymes and GSH-predominant non-protein free thiols. This adaptive response was largely eliminated when BSO was co-administered with NDP, leading to the decimation of the H22 cell population without enhancing renal toxicity, since at this dose, NDP did not inhibit renal TrxR activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological effect of NDP involves TrxR inhibition, and the adaptive response of NDP-treated ascitic H22 cells can be efficiently counteracted by BSO. Simultaneous modulation of TrxR and GSH on ascitic H22 cells using NDP plus BSO greatly enhances therapeutic efficacy as compared with the single modulation of TrxR using NDP alone. -- Highlights: ? Nedaplatin at a pharmacological dose inhibits TrxR in cancer cells but not in kidney. ? The nedaplatin-treated cancer cells exhibit adaptive response. ? Buthionine sulfoximine inhibits glutathione in both cancer cells and kidney. ? Buthionine sulfoximine counteracts the adaptive response to the nedaplatin treatment. ? Buthionine sulfoximine does not aggravate renal toxicity of the nedaplatin treatment.

  20. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis eliminates the adaptive response of ascitic hepatoma 22 cells to nedaplatin that targets thioredoxin reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yijun [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Lu, Hongjuan [Productivity Center of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dongxu; Li, Shengrong; Sun, Kang; Wan, Xiaochun [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Taylor, Ethan Will [Department of Nanoscience, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China)

    2012-12-15

    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a target for cancer therapy and the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin involves TrxR inhibition. We hypothesize that the anticancer drug nedaplatin (NDP), an analogue of cisplatin and a second-generation platinum complex, also targets TrxR. Furthermore, we investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of NDP can be enhanced by simultaneous modulation of 1) TrxR, via NDP, and 2) glutathione (GSH), via the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mice bearing ascitic hepatoma 22 (H22) cells were treated with NDP alone or NDP plus BSO. TrxR activity of H22 cells was inhibited by NDP in a dose-dependent manner. A high correlation between the inhibition of TrxR activity at 6 h and the inhibition of ascitic fluid volume at 72 h was established (r = 0.978, p < 0.01). As an adaptive response, the viable ascitic cancer cells after NDP treatment displayed an enlarged cell phenotype, assembled with several-fold more antioxidant enzymes and GSH-predominant non-protein free thiols. This adaptive response was largely eliminated when BSO was co-administered with NDP, leading to the decimation of the H22 cell population without enhancing renal toxicity, since at this dose, NDP did not inhibit renal TrxR activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological effect of NDP involves TrxR inhibition, and the adaptive response of NDP-treated ascitic H22 cells can be efficiently counteracted by BSO. Simultaneous modulation of TrxR and GSH on ascitic H22 cells using NDP plus BSO greatly enhances therapeutic efficacy as compared with the single modulation of TrxR using NDP alone. -- Highlights: ? Nedaplatin at a pharmacological dose inhibits TrxR in cancer cells but not in kidney. ? The nedaplatin-treated cancer cells exhibit adaptive response. ? Buthionine sulfoximine inhibits glutathione in both cancer cells and kidney. ? Buthionine sulfoximine counteracts the adaptive response to the nedaplatin treatment. ? Buthionine sulfoximine does not aggravate renal toxicity of the nedaplatin treatment.

  1. Thiol redox chemistry: role of protein cysteine oxidation and altered redox homeostasis in allergic inflammation and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sidra; Nolin, James; McMillan, David; Wouters, Emiel; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne; Reynaert, Niki

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is a pulmonary disorder, with an estimated 300 million people affected worldwide. While it is thought that endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, are important mediators of natural physiological processes, inflammatory cells recruited to the asthmatic airways have an exceptional capacity for producing a variety of highly reactive ROS and RNS believed to contribute to tissue damage and chronic airways inflammation. Antioxidant defense systems form a tightly regulated network that maintains the redox environment of the intra- as well as extracellular environment. Evidence for an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in asthmatic airways is demonstrated in a number of studies, revealing decreased total antioxidant capacity as well as lower levels of individual antioxidants. Thiols in the form of GSH and sulfhydryl groups of proteins are among the most susceptible oxidant-sensitive targets, and hence, studies investigating protein thiol redox modifications in biology and disease have emerged. This perspective offers an overview of the combined efforts aimed at the elucidation of mechanisms whereby cysteine oxidations contribute to chronic inflammation and asthma, as well as insights into potential cysteine thiol-based therapeutic strategies. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 884-892, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25565397

  2. Influence of aqueous environment on agglomeration and dissolution of thiol-functionalised mesoporous silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakami, Othman; Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present research work is to investigate the stability and dissolution of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) and thiol-functionalised mesoporous silica-coated magnetite NPs (TF-SCMNPs). The state of NPs in an aqueous environment was investigated under different pH conditions. Changes in the NPs' mean diameter due to aggregation were measured over a specific time. The effects of contact time and pH on the dissolution of NPs were also investigated. In order to avoid possible aggregation, Fe3O4 NPs were coated with silica and functionalised further with thiol organic groups. These methods imparted excellent stability to magnetite NPs in an aqueous medium over a wide range of pH values with reasonable hydrodynamic size. The organic group bound magnetite NPs allowed these particles to circulate over a long time in the aqueous system, and particle aggregation and sedimentation did not occur. The trend of decreasing zeta potential was observed after grafting thiol onto the surface of the SCMNPs. The results also revealed that silica exhibited a noteworthy efficient in eliminating the pH dependence and enhancing the NP stability of SCMNPs and SH-SCMNPs in aqueous medium. On the other hand, the dissolution of Fe3O4 NPs was found to be detrimental at pH 2.0 and 4.0 or had a long contact time. PMID:24898295

  3. Synthesis of antibacterial amphiphilic elastomer based on polystyrene-block-polyisoprene-block-polystyrene via thiol-ene addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of amphiphilic antibacterial elastomer has been described. Thermoplastic elastomer, polystyrene–block-polyisoprene–block-polystyrene (PS–b-PI–b-PS) triblock copolymer was functionalized in toluene solution by free radical mercaptan addition in order to obtain an amphiphilic antibacterial elastomer. Thiol terminated PEG was grafted through the double bonds of PS–b-PI–b-PS via free radical thiol-ene coupling reaction. The antibacterial properties of the amphiphilic graft copolymers were observed. The original and the modified polymers were used to create microfibers in an electro-spinning process. Topology of the electrospun micro/nanofibers were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical structures of the amphiphilic comb type graft copolymers were elucidated by the combination of elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GPC and FTIR. - Graphical abstract: Double bonds of polyisoprene units in polystyrene–block-polyisoprene–block-polystyrene triblock copolymer were partially capped with PEG containing mercapto end group via thiol-ene addition in order to obtain antibacterial amphiphilic elastomer. Nano fibers from amphiphilic graft polymers solution were produced by electrospinning. The PEG grafted copolymer inhibits very effectively bacterial growth. Highlights: ? A commercial synthetic elastomer was grafted with PEG to obtain amphiphilic elastomer. ? Amphiphilic elastomer shows antibacterial properties. ? Electrospun micro fibers of the amphiphilic elastomer tend to globular formation

  4. Formation and NMR spectroscopy of ?-thiol protected ?,?-alkanedithiol-coated gold nanoparticles and their usage in molecular charge transport junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Andreas; Jafri, S Hassan M; Blom, Tobias; Gogoll, Adolf; Leifer, Klaus; Baumgartner, Judith; Ottosson, Henrik

    2011-07-19

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated with stabilizing molecular monolayers are utilized in areas ranging from life sciences to nanoelectronics. Here we present a novel and facile one-pot single phase procedure for the preparation of stable AuNPs with good dispersity, which are coated with ?,?-alkanedithiols whose outer ?-thiol is protected by a triphenylmethyl group. Using dielectrophoresis we were able to trap these AuNPs, coated with ?-thiol protecting groups, in a 20 nm gold electrode nanogap. The ?-thiol group was then deprotected under acidic conditions in situ once the AuNPs were correctly positioned in the device. The subsequent deprotection resulted in an increase of conductance by up to 3 orders of magnitude, indicating that the isolated dithiol-coated AuNPs were fused into a covalently bonded network with AuNP-molecule-AuNP as well as electrode-molecule-AuNP linkages. Furthermore, complete characterization of the AuNP surface-bonded alkanedithiols was achieved using a series of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy techniques. Our spectra of the molecule-coated AuNPs show well-resolved signals, only slightly broader than for free molecules in solution, which is in contrast to many earlier reported NMR spectral data of molecules attached to AuNPs. Complementary diffusion NMR spectroscopic experiments were performed to prove that the observed alkanedithiols are definitely surface-bonded species and do not exist in free and unattached form. PMID:21667939

  5. Synthesis of a novel class of nitrido Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals with phosphino-thiol ligands showing transient heart uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel class of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals showing high heart uptake is described. These complexes were prepared through a simple and efficient procedure, and their molecular structure fully characterized. They are formed by a terminal Tc?N multiple bond and two bidentate phosphine-thiol ligands [R2P-(CH2)nSH, n=2,3] coordinated to the metal ion through the neutral phosphorus atom and the deprotonated thiol sulfur atom. The resulting geometry was trigonal bipyramidal. Biodistribution studies were carried out in rats. The complexes exhibited high initial heart uptake and elimination through liver and kidneys. The washout kinetic from heart was dependent on the nature of the lateral R groups on the phosphine-thiol ligands. When R=phenyl, heart activity was rapidly eliminated within 10-20 min. Instead, when R=tolyl,cyclohexyl, persistent heart uptake was observed. Extraction of activity from myocardium tissue showed that no change of the chemical identity of the tracer occurred after heart uptake. On the contrary, metabolization to more hydrophilic species occurred in liver and kidneys

  6. Synthesis of antibacterial amphiphilic elastomer based on polystyrene-block-polyisoprene-block-polystyrene via thiol-ene addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kele?, Elif, E-mail: elifkelesh@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak 67100 (Turkey); Hazer, Baki, E-mail: bhazer2@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak 67100 (Turkey); Cömert, Füsun B. [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bülent Ecevit University, 67600 Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-04-01

    A new type of amphiphilic antibacterial elastomer has been described. Thermoplastic elastomer, polystyrene–block-polyisoprene–block-polystyrene (PS–b-PI–b-PS) triblock copolymer was functionalized in toluene solution by free radical mercaptan addition in order to obtain an amphiphilic antibacterial elastomer. Thiol terminated PEG was grafted through the double bonds of PS–b-PI–b-PS via free radical thiol-ene coupling reaction. The antibacterial properties of the amphiphilic graft copolymers were observed. The original and the modified polymers were used to create microfibers in an electro-spinning process. Topology of the electrospun micro/nanofibers were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical structures of the amphiphilic comb type graft copolymers were elucidated by the combination of elemental analysis, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, GPC and FTIR. - Graphical abstract: Double bonds of polyisoprene units in polystyrene–block-polyisoprene–block-polystyrene triblock copolymer were partially capped with PEG containing mercapto end group via thiol-ene addition in order to obtain antibacterial amphiphilic elastomer. Nano fibers from amphiphilic graft polymers solution were produced by electrospinning. The PEG grafted copolymer inhibits very effectively bacterial growth. Highlights: ? A commercial synthetic elastomer was grafted with PEG to obtain amphiphilic elastomer. ? Amphiphilic elastomer shows antibacterial properties. ? Electrospun micro fibers of the amphiphilic elastomer tend to globular formation.

  7. Changes in the electronic structure of gold particles upon thiol adsorption as a function of the mean particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the interaction of adsorbed thiol molecules with gold nanoparticles as a function of the mean particle size. The results obtained from MXPS (monochromated X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) measurements showed that attachment of the thiol sulfur headgroup onto the cluster surface leads to a positive binding energy shift in the Au 4f core-level. The absence of line width broadening upon adsorption indicates that these changes affect the whole particle and not only the particle surface, where the actual Au-S bond is located. The positive binding energy shift depends on the cluster size and increases with decreasing diameter. A maximum shift of 0.41 eV could be measured for the smallest particles (?1 nm). The valence band exhibited positive binding energy shifts similar to the Au 4f core-levels, but smaller in absolute values. Changes in the valence band shape were interpreted as re-hybridization of Au 5d electrons due to the creation of Au-S bonds. Furthermore, we observed a disappearance of the Fermi edge upon thiol adsorption, which we attribute to a sulfur-induced metal-insulator-transition of the gold cluster

  8. Analytical approach for characterization of cadmium-induced thiol peptides--a case study using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräutigam, Anja; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim; Wesenberg, Dirk

    2009-11-01

    Phytochelatins (PC) were described earlier to play a role in metal detoxification in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii but were not clearly identified. The focus of this case study was to identify PC synthesized by C. reinhardtii exposed to Cd. Only low intracellular concentrations of cadmium (85 nmol g(-1) fresh weight) were sufficient to cause significant changes in thiol peptide pools. Thus, results showed a progressive decline of the glutathione content, accompanied by an induction of phytochelatins. Not only canonic phytochelatins but for the first time also the iso-phytochelatins CysPC(n) and PC(2)Ala were identified in this unicellular green alga using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally, CysPC(n)desGly, PC(n)desGly, CysPC(n)Glu, and PC(2)Glu were found throughout MS analysis. Also, low abundant PCs could be detected due to the high sample preconcentration combined with little sample amounts (0.3 microL min(-1)) necessary for electrospray. Identified PCs had a maximum number of 5 gamma-glutamyl cysteine (gamma-GluCys) units. Thiol peptides of higher molecular masses suggesting PC(n) with n > 5 could be identified as intermolecular oxidation products of smaller PCs. Thiols may easily be oxidized. Therefore, PCs were reduced prior to MS analysis. Dithiothreitol and tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine were compared concerning their reduction effort. PMID:19590857

  9. Synthesis of a novel class of nitrido Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals with phosphino-thiol ligands showing transient heart uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzati, Cristina; Uccelli, Licia; Boschi, Alessandra; Malago, Erica; Duatti, Adriano E-mail: dta@unife.it; Tisato, Francesco; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Pasqualini, Roberto; Piffanelli, Adriano

    2000-05-01

    A novel class of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals showing high heart uptake is described. These complexes were prepared through a simple and efficient procedure, and their molecular structure fully characterized. They are formed by a terminal Tc{identical_to}N multiple bond and two bidentate phosphine-thiol ligands [R{sub 2}P-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}SH, n=2,3] coordinated to the metal ion through the neutral phosphorus atom and the deprotonated thiol sulfur atom. The resulting geometry was trigonal bipyramidal. Biodistribution studies were carried out in rats. The complexes exhibited high initial heart uptake and elimination through liver and kidneys. The washout kinetic from heart was dependent on the nature of the lateral R groups on the phosphine-thiol ligands. When R=phenyl, heart activity was rapidly eliminated within 10-20 min. Instead, when R=tolyl,cyclohexyl, persistent heart uptake was observed. Extraction of activity from myocardium tissue showed that no change of the chemical identity of the tracer occurred after heart uptake. On the contrary, metabolization to more hydrophilic species occurred in liver and kidneys.

  10. Influence of oxygen on the repair of direct radiation damage to DNA by thiols in model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here the reactions of thiols with DNA primary radical intermediates formed after ?-irradiation of frozen (77K) anoxic and oxic solutions of DNA/thiol mixtures are investigated. Through analysis of the experimental composite spectra at each annealing temperature, the relative concentrations of individual radicals present are estimated and reaction sequences inferred. In all samples the primary DNA radical anions and cations (DNA· + and DNA· -) are suggested to be the predominant radicals at low temperatures. In anoxic samples, TH· (5,6-dihydrothym-5-yl radical), RSSR· - and, in glutathione samples, ·GSH [?-glu-NHC(CH2SH) CO-gly] radicals are observed as the temperature is increased. The presence of oxygen efficiently suppresses the formation of RSSR· - and ·GSH; instead, in oxic samples, O2· -, DNAOO· , RSOO· and RSO· are observed at higher temperatures. The photolytic conversion of RSOO· to RSO2· is used to verify the presence of RSOO· in ?-irradiated DNA/thiol systems and confirm that the computer analysis employed yields reasonable estimates of the relative DNAOO· and RSOO· concentrations. (Author)

  11. Quantifying changes in the cellular thiol-disulfide status during differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa Rebecca ErritzØe; Otsu, Mieko

    2013-01-01

    Plasma cells produce and secrete massive amounts of disulfide-containing antibodies. To accommodate this load on the secretory machinery, the differentiation of resting B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells is accompanied by a preferential expansion of the secretory compartments of the cells and by an up-regulation of enzymes involved in redox regulation and protein folding. We have quantified the absolute levels of protein thiols, protein disulfides, and glutathionylated proteins in whole cells. The results show that while the global thiol-disulfide state is affected to some extent by the differentiation, steady-state levels of glutathionylated protein thiols are less than 0.3% of the total protein cysteines, even in fully differentiated cells, and the overall protein redox state is not affected until late in differentiation, when large-scale IgM production is ongoing. A general expansion of the ER does not affect global protein redox status until an extensive production of cargo proteins has started.

  12. Symbiotic Bradyrhizobium japonicum Reduces N2O Surrounding the Soybean Root System via Nitrous Oxide Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Sameshima-saito, Reiko; Chiba, Kaori; Hirayama, Junta; Itakura, Manabu; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Eda, Shima; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2006-01-01

    N2O reductase activity in soybean nodules formed with Bradyrhizobium japonicum was evaluated from N2O uptake and conversion of 15N-N2O into 15N-N2. Free-living cells of USDA110 showed N2O reductase activity, whereas a nosZ mutant did not. Complementation of the nosZ mutant with two cosmids containing the nosRZDFYLX genes of B. japonicum USDA110 restored the N2O reductase activity. When detached soybean nodules formed with USDA110 were fed with 15N-N2O, they rapidly emitted 15N-N2 outside the ...

  13. Identification of a renal-specific oxido-reductase in newborn diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qiwei; Dixit, Bharat; Wada, Jun; Tian, Yufeng; Wallner, Elisabeth I.; Srivastva, Satish K.; Kanwar, Yashpal S.

    2000-01-01

    Aldose reductase (ALR2), a NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase (AKR), is widely distributed in mammalian tissues and has been implicated in complications of diabetes, including diabetic nephropathy. To identify a renal-specific reductase belonging to the AKR family, representational difference analyses of cDNA from diabetic mouse kidney were performed. A full-length cDNA with an ORF of 855 nt and yielding a ?1.5-kb mRNA transcript was isolated from a mouse kidney library. Human and rat homo...

  14. Virtual screening of plant derived compounds for aldose reductase inhibition using molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

    2012-01-01

    The role of the aldose reductase in type 2 diabetes is widely described. Therefore, it is of interest to identify plant derived compounds to inhibit its activity. We studied the protein-ligand interaction of 267 compounds from different parts of seven plants (Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Dacus carota, Murrayyakoneigii, Eucalyptus, Calendula officinalis and Lycopersicon esculentum) with aldose reductase as the target protein. Molecular docking and re-scoring of top ten compounds (using GOLD, AutoDock Vina, eHiTS, PatchDock and MEDock) followed by rank-sum technique identified compound allium38 with high binding affinity for aldose reductase. PMID:23275691

  15. Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A. (Harvard-Med); (HHMI)

    2010-03-19

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in myeloid leukemia patients from Northeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cynara Gomes, Barbosa; Claudio Lima, Souza; José Pereira de, Moura Neto; Maria da Glória Bomfim, Arruda; José Henrique, Barreto; Mitermayer Galvão, Reis; Marilda Souza, Goncalves.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR: EC 1.5.1.20) polymorphisms are associated to acute lymphoid leukemia in different populations. We used the polymerase chain reaction and the restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) to investigate MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphism frequ [...] encies in 67 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 27 with acute myeloid leukemia FAB subtype M3 (AML-M3) and 100 apparently healthy controls. The MTHFR mutant allele frequencies were as follows: CML = 17.2% for C677T, 21.6% for A1298C; AML-M3 = 22.2% for C677T, 24.1% for A1298C; and controls = 20.5% for C677T, 21% for A1298C. Taken together, our results provide evidence that MTHFR polymorphisms have no influence on the development of CML or AML-M3.

  17. Biofilm modifies expression of ribonucleotide reductase genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendra, Maria del Mar; Juárez, Antonio; Torrents, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential enzyme for all living organisms since is the responsible for the last step in the synthesis of the four deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs) necessary for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we have investigated the expression of the three-RNR classes (Ia, Ib and III) during Escherichia coli biofilm formation. We show the temporal and spatial importance of class Ib and III RNRs during this process in two different E. coli wild-type strains, the commensal MG1655 and the enteropathogenic and virulent E2348/69, the prototype for the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We have established that class Ib RNR, so far considered cryptic, play and important role during biofilm formation. The implication of this RNR class under the specific growth conditions of biofilm formation is discussed. PMID:23050019

  18. Regulation of ribonucleotide reductase by Spd1 involves multiple mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nestoras, Konstantinos; Mohammed, Asma Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The correct levels of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates and their relative abundance are important to maintain genomic integrity. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) regulation is complex and multifaceted. RNR is regulated allosterically by two nucleotide-binding sites, by transcriptional control, and by small inhibitory proteins that associate with the R1 catalytic subunit. In addition, the subcellular localization of the R2 subunit is regulated through the cell cycle and in response to DNA damage. We show that the fission yeast small RNR inhibitor Spd1 is intrinsically disordered and regulates R2 nuclear import, as predicted by its relationship to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dif1. We demonstrate that Spd1 can interact with both R1 and R2, and show that the major restraint of RNR in vivo by Spd1 is unrelated to R2 subcellular localization. Finally, we identify a new behavior for RNR complexes that potentially provides yet another mechanism to regulate dNTP synthesis via modulation of RNR complex architecture.

  19. Self-consistent GW calculations of electronic transport in thiol- and amine-linked molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, M.; Rostgaard, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The electronic conductance of a benzene molecule connected to gold electrodes via thiol, thiolate, or amino anchoring groups is calculated using nonequilibrium Green functions in combination with the fully self-consistent GW approximation for exchange and correlation. The calculated conductance of benzenedithiol and benzenediamine is one-fifth that predicted by standard density functional theory (DFT), in very good agreement with experiments. In contrast, the widely studied benzenedithiolate structure is found to have a significantly higher conductance due to the unsaturated sulfur bonds. These findings suggest that more complex gold-thiolate structures where the thiolate anchors are chemically passivated by Au adatoms are responsible for the measured conductance. Analysis of the energy level alignment obtained with DFT, Hartree-Fock, and GW reveals the importance of self-interaction corrections (exchange) on the molecule and dynamical screening at the metal-molecule interface. The main effect of the GW self-energy is to renormalize the level positions; however, its influence on the shape of molecular resonances also affects the conductance. Non-self-consistent G(0)W(0) calculations, starting from either DFT or Hartree-Fock, yield conductance values within 50% of the self-consistent GW results.

  20. Sensitivities of the alternative respiratory components of potato tuber mitochondria to thiol reagents and Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, André B; Valente, Caroline; Cadena, Silvia M S C; Rocha, Maria E M; de Oliveira, Maria B M; Carnieri, Eva G S

    2005-01-01

    Plant mitochondria differ from those of mammals, since they incorporate an alternative electron transport pathway, which branches at ubiquinol to an alternative oxidase (AOX), characteristically inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). Another feature of plant mitochondria is that besides complex I (EC 1.6.5.3) they possess alternative NAD(P)H-dehydrogenases insensitive to rotenone. Many stress conditions are known to alter the expression of the alternative electron transport pathway in plant mitochondria. In the present study we investigated the effects of some thiol reagents and Ca(2+) on potato mitochondrial respiratory chain presenting different activities of the alternative respiratory components AOX and external NADH dehydrogenase, a condition induced by previous treatment of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Bintje) to cold stress. The results showed that Ca(2+) presented an inhibitory effect on AOX pathway in potato mitochondria energized with NADH or succinate, which was only now observed when the cytochrome pathway was inhibited by cyanide. When the cytochrome pathway was functional, Ca(2+) stimulated the external NADH dehydrogenase. Diamide was a potent AOX inhibitor and this effect was only now observed when the cytochrome pathway was inactive, as was the case for the calcium ion. Mersalyl inhibited the externally located NADH dehydrogenase and had no effect on AOX activity. The results may represent an important function of Ca(2+) on the alternative mitochondrial enzymes NADH-DH(ext) and AOX. PMID:15763667