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Sample records for gamma-ifn-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase

  1. How important are glutathione and thiol reductases to oyster hemocyte function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Danielle Ferraz; Arl, Miriam; Trevisan, Rafael; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2015-10-01

    Bivalves are animals with worldwide distribution. Although they play key roles in economic activities, human feeding and environmental studies, there is a considerable lack of knowledge about the relationship between their immune system and antioxidant defenses. Here, we performed an in vitro experiment where Crassostrea gigas hemocytes were exposed to the electrophilic compound 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB, 0.1-50 ?M) for one hour. CDNB treatment clearly disturbed thiol homeostasis, causing a concentration-dependent decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and a decrease in the activity of two thiol reductases, glutathione reductase (GR - 2.5 and 50 ?M CDNB) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR - only 50 ?M CDNB). The MTT reduction assay showed that none of the CDNB concentrations tested significantly altered cell viability. However, there was a decrease in the hemocyte's ability to uptake the neutral red dye, which indicates lysosomal impairment (?12.5 ?M CDNB). Cellular immunocompetence was further investigated and, despite the lower GSH content, GR activity and impairment in lysosome integrity, hemocyte functions (adhesion capacity, phagocytosis of latex beads and laminarin-induced ROS production) were preserved in the 2.5 and 12.5 ?M CDNB treatments. These results suggest a minor importance of thiol pools and GR activity in C. gigas hemocyte's immunocompetence, in an in vitro acute exposure model. The 50 ?M CDNB treatment, however, significantly compromised all the measured hemocyte functions. This response was associated with TrxR inhibition, increased lysosome impairment, decreased GSH content, and lower GR activity. Therefore, it seems that TrxR may be particularly important for the hemocyte function, or, alternatively, it is only affected when a deeply aggravated scenario in thiol homeostasis is set up. Such findings point out the need for further studies towards a better understanding of antioxidant and immune defenses interactions in bivalve cellular systems. PMID:26210700

  2. Crystal structure of the YffB protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggests a glutathione-dependent thiol reductase function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauter Zbigniew

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yffB (PA3664 gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an uncharacterized protein of 13 kDa molecular weight with a marginal sequence similarity to arsenate reductase from Escherichia coli. The crystal structure determination of YffB was undertaken as part of a structural genomics effort in order to assist with the functional assignment of the protein. Results The structure was determined at 1.0 Å resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. The fold is very similar to that of arsenate reductase, which is an extension of the thioredoxin fold. Conclusion Given the conservation of the functionally important residues and the ability to bind glutathione, YffB is likely to function as a GSH-dependent thiol reductase.

  3. Location of the redox-active thiols of ribonucleotide reductase: sequences similarity between the Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus leichmannii enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox-active thiols of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase have been located by a procedure involving (1) prereduction of enzyme with dithiothreitol, (2) specific oxidation of the redox-active thiols by treatment with substrate in the absence of exogenous reductant, (3) alkylation of other thiols with iodoacetamide, and (4) reduction of the disulfides with dithiothreitol and alkylation with [1-14C]iodoacetamide. The dithiothreitol-reduce E. coli B1 subunit is able to convert 3 equiv of CDP to dCDP and is labeled with 5.4 equiv of 14C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 2.8 equiv of 14C is on cysteines-752 and -757 at the C-terminus of B1, while 1.0-1.5 equiv of 14C is on cysteines-222 and -227. It thus appears that two sets of redox-active dithiols are involved in substrate reduction. The L. leichmannii reductase is able to convert 1.1 equiv of CTP to dCTP and is labeled with 2.1 equiv of 14C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 1.4 equiv of 14C is located on the two cysteines of C-E-G-G-A-C-P-I-K. This peptide shows remarkable and unexpected similarity to the thiol-containing region of the C-terminal peptide of E. coli B1, C-E-S-G-A-C-K-I

  4. Identification of three IFN-? inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT)-like genes in mud crab Scylla paramamosain with distinct gene organizations and patterns of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Shu; Duan, Li-Peng; Huang, Bei; Zhou, Li-Hong; Liang, Ying; Tu, Chen-Ling; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Nie, Pin; Wang, Tiehui

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate gamma-interferon inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is an IFN-?-inducible protein and is involved in MHCII-restricted antigen processing and cross-presentation of MHCI-restricted antigens in adaptive immunity. Outside of the endocytic MHC pathway, GILT regulates the cellular redox state, inhibits T cell activation, neutralizes extracellular pathogens and is also a host factor of some bacterial pathogens. In this report, we isolated and characterized three divergent GILT-like genes, GILT1, GILT2 and GILT3, which share only 30.9-40.4% identities in a crustacean mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Whilst the crab GILT1 and GILT3 possess four and five exons, respectively, the GILT2 is intronless, suggesting that GILT2 may arise from a recent retroposition event. The invertebrate GILT-like genes have diverse gene organizations and may be evolved in a species/lineage-specific manner as suggested by phylogenetic tree analysis. The amino acid sequences equivalent to human mature GILT are well conserved, including the GILT signature and nine of the ten cysteine residues that potentially form 5 disulfide bonds in human GILT, across the animal kingdom. However, most invertebrate GILT-like molecules lack the human-type N-terminal propeptide, as well as the human-type C-terminal with a conserved cysteine residue, suggesting differences in post translational processing and mode of action. All the three GILT-like genes are highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and up-regulated by pathogenic bacterial infection suggesting a role in immune defense against bacterial diseases. This study may provide the basis for further investigation of the expanding functions of GILT-like molecules in immunity and other physiological processes in mud crabs and other animals. PMID:26051415

  5. Increase in Thiol Oxidative Stress via Glutathione Reductase Inhibition as a Novel Approach to Enhance Cancer Sensitivity to X-Ray Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yong; Seefeldt, Teresa; Chen, Wei; Carlson, Laura; Stoebner, Adam; Hanson, Sarah; Foll, Ryan; Matthees, Duane P.; Palakurthi, Srinath; Guan, Xiangming

    2009-01-01

    Depletion of reduced form glutathione (GSH) has been extensively studied for its effect on sensitizing cancer to radiation. However, little is known about the effect of thiol oxidative stress created through an increase in glutathione disulfide (GSSG) on cancer sensitivity to radiation. In this study, an increase in GSSG was effectively created by 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA), an irreversible glut...

  6. Thiol-disulfide exchange between the PDI family of oxidoreductases negates the requirement for an oxidase or reductase for each enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Ojore B V; Yeoh, Hui Y; Bulleid, Neil J

    2015-07-15

    The formation of disulfides in proteins entering the secretory pathway is catalysed by the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family of enzymes. These enzymes catalyse the introduction, reduction and isomerization of disulfides. To function continuously they require an oxidase to reform the disulfide at their active site. To determine how each family member can be recycled to catalyse disulfide exchange, we have studied whether disulfides are transferred between individual PDI family members. We studied disulfide exchange either between purified proteins or by identifying mixed disulfide formation within cells grown in culture. We show that disulfide exchange occurs efficiently and reversibly between specific PDIs. These results have allowed us to define a hierarchy for members of the PDI family, in terms of ability to act as electron acceptors or donors during thiol-disulfide exchange reactions and indicate that there is no kinetic barrier to the exchange of disulfides between several PDI proteins. Such promiscuous disulfide exchange negates the necessity for each enzyme to be oxidized by Ero1 (ER oxidoreductin 1) or reduced by a reductive system. The lack of kinetic separation of the oxidative and reductive pathways in mammalian cells contrasts sharply with the equivalent systems for native disulfide formation within the bacterial periplasm. PMID:25989104

  7. Thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The present studies have shown that GSH metabolism arose in the purple bacteria and cyanobacteria where it functions to protect against oxygen toxicity. Evidence was obtained indicating that GSH metabolism was incorporated into eucaryotes via the endosymbiosis giving rise to mitochrondria and chloroplasts. Aerobic bacteria lacking GSH utilize other thiols for apparently similar functions, the thiol being coenzyme A in Gram positive bacteria and chi-glutamylcysteine in the halobacteria. The thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes is thus seen to be much more highly diversified than that of eucaryotes and much remains to be learned about this subject.

  8. The orphan protein bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase joins the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide reductase family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhan; Copley, Shelley D.

    2014-01-01

    Facile DNA sequencing became possible decades after many enzymes had been purified and characterized. Consequently, there are still “orphan” enyzmes whose activity is known but the genes that encode them have not been identified. Identification of the genes encoding orphan enzymes is important because it allows correct annotation of genes of unknown function or with mis-assigned function. Bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase (GCR) is an orphan protein that was purified in 1988. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of bis-?-glutamylcystine. ?-Glutamylcysteine (?-Glu-Cys) is the major low molecular weight thiol in halobacteria. We purified GCR from Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and identified the sequence of 23 tryptic peptides by NanoLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. These peptides cover 62% of the protein predicted to be encoded by a gene in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 that is annotated as mercuric reductase. GCR and mercuric reductase activities were assayed using enzyme that was expressed in E. coli and re-folded from inclusion bodies. The enzyme had robust GCR activity, but no mercuric reductase activity. The genomes of most, but not all, halobacteria for which whole genome sequences are available have close homologs of GCR, suggesting that there is more to be learned about the low molecular weight thiols used in halobacteria. PMID:23560638

  9. Apoptosis induction in lymphoma cells: thiol deprivation versus thiol excess.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ková?, Jan; Štýbrová, Hana; Truksa, Jaroslav; Sp?váková, Kate?ina; Valenta, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 48, ?. 2 (2002), s. 58-68. ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA301/97/1029; GA ?R GA301/01/0041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Apoptosis induction * thiol deprivation * thiol excess Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.615, year: 2002

  10. A crucial role for thiol antioxidants in estrogen-deficiency bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Lean, Jenny M.; Davies, Julie T.; Fuller, Karen; Jagger, Christopher J.; Kirstein, Barrie; Partington, Geoffrey A.; Urry, Zoë L.; Chambers, Timothy J.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms through which estrogen prevents bone loss are uncertain. Elsewhere, estrogen exerts beneficial actions by suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS stimulate osteoclasts, the cells that resorb bone. Thus, estrogen might prevent bone loss by enhancing oxidant defenses in bone. We found that glutathione and thioredoxin, the major thiol antioxidants, and glutathione and thioredoxin reductases, the enzymes responsible for maintaining them in a reduced state, fell substantia...

  11. Quantification of thiols and disulfides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Jakob R.; Thorpe, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide bond formation is a key posttranslational modification, with implications for structure, function and stability of numerous proteins. While disulfide bond formation is a necessary and essential process for many proteins, it is deleterious and disruptive for others. Cells go to great lengths to regulate thiol-disulfide bond homeostasis, typically with several, apparently redundant, systems working in parallel. Dissecting the extent of oxidation and reduction of disulfides is an ongoing challenge due, in part, to the facility of thiol/disulfide exchange reactions.

  12. Cellular thiols as a determinant of responsiveness to menadione in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, W F; Chiou, T J; Wang, C P; Lee, J L; Chen, Y H

    1994-07-01

    The role of intracellular thiols in menadione-mediated toxicity was studied in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. The sensitivity of cardiomyocytes to menadione was greater than that of skeletal muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts. Before cell degeneration, menadione induced marked depletion of intracellular thiols and an increase of oxidized glutathione. The sensitivity of these cells to menadione correlated with the level of depletion of intracellular thiols. After incubation of cardiomyocytes with menadione, glutathione reductase activity was inhibited and lipid peroxidation was increased. Both dicumarol (an inhibitor of DT-diaphorase) and diethyldithiocarbamate (an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase) enhanced the capacity of menadione to induce cellular damage and to cause depletion of intracellular glutathione. Decreasing intracellular glutathione by pretreatment of cells with N-ethylmaleimide or buthionine sulphoximine also increased menadione-induced cell degeneration. Preincubation with cysteine or dithiothreitol suppressed the capacity of menadione to damage the cells. Menadione-induced lipid peroxidation was also suppressed by the same treatment. These results show that the oxidative stress induced by menadione in cardiomyocytes results in the depletion of glutathione and protein thiols. Both DT-diaphorase and superoxide dismutase can protect cells from the toxicity of menadione. Cellular thiols are determinants of the responsiveness to menadione. PMID:7966357

  13. Flow cytometric determination of cellular thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, C K; Roy, S; Packer, L

    1999-01-01

    Several biochemical techniques are based on chromatography or electrophoresis for the determination of thiols from biological samples. These techniques are indispensable for the accurate and sensitive detection of specific thiols. Flow cytometric determination of cellular thiols is a powerful technique that is perhaps best suited for clinical application, particularly for cells in blood or other body fluids. Information can be obtained from a small sample amount with a relatively little and quick sample treatment. This technique offers an unique advantage to study the thiol status of a subset of cells because data are collected from individual cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry allows the study of different subsets of immunotyped cells. A major drawback of the flow cytometric method is the lack of specificity for the determination of distinct thiols. The reaction between MBB and thiols is not specific for any particular intracellular thiol, although almost all of the entire thiol-reacted bimane emission is specific for thiols in general. This limitation can be partly overcome by the treatment of cells with known thiol regulatory agents as described in the section on the differential assessment of cellular thiols. PMID:9916203

  14. Synthesis of cyclic, multivalent Arg-Gly-Asp using sequential thiol-ene/thiol-yne photoreactions

    OpenAIRE

    Aimetti, Alex A.; Feaver, Kristen R.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2010-01-01

    A unique method has been developed for the formation of multivalent cyclic peptides. This procedure exploits on-resin peptide cyclization using a photoinitiated thiol-ene click reaction and subsequent clustering using thiol-yne photochemistry. Both reactions utilize the sulfhydryl group on natural cysteine amino acids to participate in the thiol-mediated reactions.

  15. Flow cytometry techniques for studying cellular thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, R E; Olive, P L

    1983-09-01

    Cellular thiols, and especially glutathione, act as scavenger nucleophiles and can protect against toxicity, mutagenicity, or transformation by ionizing radiation and many carcinogens. Development of a rapid assay to quantitate the cellular content of thiols could thus be useful in assessing or predicting cellular risk to damage. Several fluorescent thiol-reactive drugs, usually maleimide or bromobimane derivatives, have been described for use in histopathology. Most of these agents do not distinguish between protein and nonprotein thiols, and virtually all of these fluorescent stains have normally been used after fixation of the cells or tissues. We have found that some of the probes will, however, rapidly penetrate and bind within viable cells with little associated cytotoxicity; the amount bound can be easily quantified using flow cytometry. We have used several of these agents, in conjunction with fluorescence-activated cell sorting in V79 spheroids, to examine the thiol content of cells as a function of their depth or position in the spheroid. Additionally, the radiation response of cells from different depths has been assessed following addition of exogenous thiols including glutathione and WR-2721, or after treatment with thiol-depleting agents, including DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO), diethylmaleate (DEM), and dimethylfumarate (DMF). Our studies indicate that examination of the thiol content and radiation response of the sorted cells provides an improved understanding of the modes of action of these compounds. PMID:6193555

  16. Flow cytometry techniques for studying cellular thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular thiols, and especially glutathione, act as scavenger nucleophiles and can protect against toxicity, mutagenicity, or transformation by ionizing radiation and many carcinogens. Development of a rapid assay to quantitate the cellular content of thiols could thus be useful in assessing or predicting cellular risk to damage. Several fluorescent thiol-reactive drugs, usually maleimide or bromobimane derivatives, have been described for use in histopathology. Most of these agents do not distinguish between protein and nonprotein thiols, and virtually all of these fluorescent stains have normally been used after fixation of the cells or tissues. We have found that some of the probes will, however, rapidly penetrate and bind within viable cells with little associated cytotoxicity; the amount bound can be easily quantified using flow cytometry. We have used several of these agents, in conjunction with fluorescence-activated cell sorting in V79 spheroids, to examine the thiol content of cells as a function of their depth or position in the spheroid. Additionally, the radiation response of cells from different depths as been assessed following addition of exogenous thiols including glutathione and WR-2721, or after treatment with thiol-depleting agents, including DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO), diethylmaleate (DEM), and dimethylfumarate (DMF). Our studies indicate that examination of the thiol content and radiation response of the sorted cells provides an improved understanding of the modes of action of these compounds

  17. Flow cytometry techniques for studying cellular thiols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1983-09-01

    Cellular thiols, and especially glutathione, act as scavenger nucleophiles and can protect against toxicity, mutagenicity, or transformation by ionizing radiation and many carcinogens. Development of a rapid assay to quantitate the cellular content of thiols could thus be useful in assessing or predicting cellular risk to damage. Several fluorescent thiol-reactive drugs, usually maleimide or bromobimane derivatives, have been described for use in histopathology. Most of these agents do not distinguish between protein and nonprotein thiols, and virtually all of these fluorescent stains have normally been used after fixation of the cells or tissues. We have found that some of the probes will, however, rapidly penetrate and bind within viable cells with little associated cytotoxicity; the amount bound can be easily quantified using flow cytometry. We have used several of these agents, in conjunction with fluorescence-activated cell sorting in V79 spheroids, to examine the thiol content of cells as a function of their depth or position in the spheroid. Additionally, the radiation response of cells from different depths as been assessed following addition of exogenous thiols including glutathione and WR-2721, or after treatment with thiol-depleting agents, including DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO), diethylmaleate (DEM), and dimethylfumarate (DMF). Our studies indicate that examination of the thiol content and radiation response of the sorted cells provides an improved understanding of the modes of action of these compounds.

  18. Functional Analysis of Free Methionine-R-sulfoxide Reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae*S?

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Dung Tien; Lee, Byung Cheon; Marino, Stefano M.; Zhang, Yan; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Kaya, Alaattin; Hacioglu, Elise; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Koc, Ahmet; Kim, Hwa-Young; GLADYSHEV, Vadim N.

    2009-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are oxidoreductases that catalyze thiol-dependent reduction of oxidized methionines. MsrA and MsrB are the best known Msrs that repair methionine-S-sulfoxide (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxide (Met-R-SO) residues in proteins, respectively. In addition, an Escherichia coli enzyme specific for free Met-R-SO, designated fRMsr, was recently discovered. In this work, we carried out comparative genomic and experimental analyses to ex...

  19. Role of thiols in cellular response to radiation and drugs. Symposium: thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular nonprotein thiols (NPSH) consist of glutathione (GSH) and other low molecular weight species such as cysteine, cysteamine, and coenzyme. A GSH is usually less than the total cellular NPSH, and with thiol reactive agents, such as diethyl maleate (DEM), its rate of depletion is in part dependent upon the cellular capacity for its resynthesis. If resynthesis is blocked by buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine(BSO), the NPSH, including GSH, is depleted more rapidly, Cellular thiol depletion by diamide, N-ethylmaleimide, and BSO may render oxygenated cells more sensitive to radiation. These cells may or may not show a reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Human A549 lung carcinoma cells depleted of their NPSH either by prolonged culture or by BSO treatment do not show a reduced OER but do show increased aerobic responses to radiation. Other nitrocompounds, such as misonidazole, are activated under hypoxic conditions to radical intermediates. When cellular thiols are depleted peroxide is formed. Under hypoxic conditions thiols are depleted because metabolically reduced intermediates react with GSH instead of oxygen. Thiol depletion, under hypoxic conditions, may be the reason that misonidazole and other nitrocompounds show an extra enhancement ratio with hypoxic cells. Thiol depletion by DEM or BSO alters the radiation response of hypoxic cells to misonidazole. In conclusion, we propose an altered thiol model which includes a mechanism for thiol involvement in the aerobic radiation response of cells

  20. Reaction Kinetics and Reduced Shrinkage Stress of Thiol-Yne-Methacrylate and Thiol-Yne-Acrylate Ternary Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B.; Smith, Ian R.; Voigt, Katerina R.; Bowman, Christopher N

    2011-01-01

    Thiol-yne-methacrylate and thiol-yne-acrylate ternary systems were investigated for polymerization kinetics and material properties and compared to the analogous pure thiol-yne and (meth)acrylate systems. Both thiol-yne-methacrylate and thiol-yne-acrylate systems were demonstrated to reduce polymerization induced shrinkage stress while simultaneously achieving high glass transition temperatures (Tg) and modulius. Formulations with 70 wt% methacrylate increased the Tg from 51 ± 2 to 75 ± 1 °C ...

  1. Genomics and X-ray microanalysis indicate that Ca2+ and thiols mediate the aggregation and adhesion of Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Leite

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of the genome sequence of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis, is accelerating important investigations concerning its pathogenicity. Plant vessel occlusion is critical for symptom development. The objective of the present study was to search for information that would help to explain the adhesion of X. fastidiosa cells to the xylem. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion may occur without the fastidium gum, an exopolysaccharide produced by X. fastidiosa, and X-ray microanalysis demonstrated the presence of elemental sulfur both in cells grown in vitro and in cells found inside plant vessels, indicating that the sulfur signal is generated by the pathogen surface. Calcium and magnesium peaks were detected in association with sulfur in occluded vessels. We propose an explanation for the adhesion and aggregation process. Thiol groups, maintained by the enzyme peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, could be active on the surface of the bacteria and appear to promote cell-cell aggregation by forming disulfide bonds with thiol groups on the surface of adjacent cells. The enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase has been shown to be an auxiliary component in the adhesiveness of some human pathogens. The negative charge conferred by the ionized thiol group could of itself constitute a mechanism of adhesion by allowing the formation of divalent cation bridges between the negatively charged bacteria and predominantly negatively charged xylem walls.

  2. Genomics and X-ray microanalysis indicate that Ca2+ and thiols mediate the aggregation and adhesion of Xylella fastidiosa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Leite; M.L., Ishida; E., Alves; H., Carrer; S.F., Pascholati; E.W., Kitajima.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of the genome sequence of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis, is accelerating important investigations concerning its pathogenicity. Plant vessel occlusion is critical for symptom development. The objective of the present [...] study was to search for information that would help to explain the adhesion of X. fastidiosa cells to the xylem. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion may occur without the fastidium gum, an exopolysaccharide produced by X. fastidiosa, and X-ray microanalysis demonstrated the presence of elemental sulfur both in cells grown in vitro and in cells found inside plant vessels, indicating that the sulfur signal is generated by the pathogen surface. Calcium and magnesium peaks were detected in association with sulfur in occluded vessels. We propose an explanation for the adhesion and aggregation process. Thiol groups, maintained by the enzyme peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, could be active on the surface of the bacteria and appear to promote cell-cell aggregation by forming disulfide bonds with thiol groups on the surface of adjacent cells. The enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase has been shown to be an auxiliary component in the adhesiveness of some human pathogens. The negative charge conferred by the ionized thiol group could of itself constitute a mechanism of adhesion by allowing the formation of divalent cation bridges between the negatively charged bacteria and predominantly negatively charged xylem walls.

  3. [Wheat protein disulfide reductase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorpinchenko, T V; Vakar, A B; Kretovich, V L

    1975-01-01

    Proteindisulphide reductase is isolated and partially purified from wheat seedlings and some properties of the enzyme are studied: pH optimum is 7.4; temperature optimum - 37 degrees C; Km = 2.6-10(-4)M for the substrate (wheat albumin); Km = 7.5-10(-5) M for coenzyme (NADP-H). The enzyme is specific for NADP-H and is not active in the presence of NAD-H. Maximal activity of proteindisulphide reductase is developed in anaerobic conditions. A technique of the estimation of proteindisulphide reductase activity using wheat albumin as a substrate is worked out. The enzyme activity decreases regularly in the corn ripening and increases under germination. It is accompanied by the respective increase or decrease in the amount of disulphide bonds in gluten protein and by changes of physico-chemical characteristics of gluten. Incubation of gluten with the enzyme preparation affects reological properties of gluten (it becomes weaker) and decreases the gluten viscosity of gluten solution. PMID:1106

  4. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in inhibited by in vivo depletion of vascular thiol levels : role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, J B; Boesgaard, S

    2001-01-01

    Thiols like glutathione may serve as reducing cofactors in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and protect NO from inactivation by radical oxygen species. Depletion of thiol compounds reduces NO-mediated vascular effects in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms underlying these actions are not clear, but may involve decreased synthesis of NO and/or increased degradation of NO. This study investigates the effect of glutathione depletion on the response to NO-mediated vasodilation induced by acetylcholine (Ach, 10 micrograms/kg), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and potential markers of vascular superoxide anion (O2.-) production in conscious chronically catheterized rats. Thiol depletion induced by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 1 g i.p. within 24 h) decreased the hypotensive effect of Ach by 30% (MAP reduction before BSO 27 +/- 3 mmHg, 19 +/- 3 mmHg after BSO, (mean +/- SEM), p < .05, n = 8). The impaired effect of Ach was associated with a significant reduction in eNOS activity (control: 7.7 +/- 0.8, BSO: 3.9 +/- 0.4 pmol/min/mg protein (p < .05), n = 6). In contrast, neither NADH/NADPH driven membrane-associated oxidases nor lucigenin reductase activity were significantly (p < .05) affected by BSO (BSO: 4415 +/- 123, control: 4105 +/- 455 counts/mg; n = 6) in rat aorta. It is concluded that in vivo thiol depletion results in endothelial dysfunction and a reduced receptor-mediated vascular relaxation. This effect is caused by reduced endothelial NO formation.

  5. Improvement of oxidized glutathione fermentation by thiol redox metabolism engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Aoki, Naoko; Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Kiriyama, Kentaro; Nishida, Keiji; Araki, Michihiro; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-11-01

    Glutathione is a valuable tripeptide widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. In industrial fermentation, glutathione is currently produced primarily using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Intracellular glutathione exists in two forms; the majority is present as reduced glutathione (GSH) and a small amount is present as oxidized glutathione (GSSG). However, GSSG is more stable than GSH and is a more attractive form for the storage of glutathione extracted from yeast cells after fermentation. In this study, intracellular GSSG content was improved by engineering thiol oxidization metabolism in yeast. An engineered strain producing high amounts of glutathione from over-expression of glutathione synthases and lacking glutathione reductase was used as a platform strain. Additional over-expression of thiol oxidase (1.8.3.2) genes ERV1 or ERO1 increased the GSSG content by 2.9-fold and 2.0-fold, respectively, compared with the platform strain, without decreasing cell growth. However, over-expression of thiol oxidase gene ERV2 showed almost no effect on the GSSG content. Interestingly, ERO1 over-expression did not decrease the GSH content, raising the total glutathione content of the cell, but ERV1 over-expression decreased the GSH content, balancing the increase in the GSSG content. Furthermore, the increase in the GSSG content due to ERO1 over-expression was enhanced by additional over-expression of the gene encoding Pdi1, whose reduced form activates Ero1 in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results indicate that engineering the thiol redox metabolism of S. cerevisiae improves GSSG and is critical to increasing the total productivity and stability of glutathione. PMID:26239069

  6. Novel thiol- amine- and amino acid functional xylan derivatives synthesized by thiol-ene reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahimanolis, Nikolaos; Kilpeläinen, Petri; Master, Emma; Ilvesniemi, Hannu; Seppälä, Jukka

    2015-10-20

    In the present work, novel thioether xylans were synthesized via a simple procedure using water as solvent. First, allyl groups were introduced on the backbone of xylan by etherification of allyl chloride in aqueous alkaline conditions at 40°C, providing degree of substitution (DS) values up to 0.49. On the second step, the allyl groups were reacted with thioacetic acid, cysteamine hydrochloride or cysteine providing novel thiol-, amine- or amino acid functionalized xylans. The presented modular approach offers broad possibilities for developing new polysaccharide based materials. The thioacetic acid - ene reaction is reported for the first time for polysaccharide modification, yielding a protected thiol that can be stored at atmospheric conditions and can be deprotected by simple hydrolysis just prior to use, providing a versatile water soluble polythiol. The free thiol-groups were utilized for hydrogel formation through thiol-thiol oxidative coupling, allowing good control over the hydrogel shape, such as 3D hydrogel scaffolds and cross-linked foams. Further, the thiol-containing xylan was used to modify filter paper surface by a simple dipping method, which provides a novel and convenient way for introducing thiol-functionality on paper surface. PMID:26256199

  7. Roles of thiols in cellular radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular thiols appear to have two separable mechanisms for influencing cellular radiosensitivity: (1) a direct role, through radical scavenging and/or hydrogen donation processes, and (2) an indirect role, regulating the amount of oxygen (or other electron affinic sensitizer) able to reach the radiosensitive targets of the cell. The contribution of each is easily measured with multicell spheroids, using fluorescence activated cell sorting techniques for selective recovery of cells from any depth within spheroids. It was found that the region in the spheroid over which the transition from aerobic to anoxic conditions occurs is highly dependent on cellular thiol levels. Combining thiol depletion by DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) and electron affinic radiosensitization using misonidazole resulted in a markedly potentiated response to radiation

  8. Thiol modification in kidney: Implications for radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidney radiosensitivity is frequently a dose-limiting factor when planning abdominal radiation therapy. In addition to its clinical importance, the kidney has unusual transport and metabolic activity such as high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (Meister Methods in Enzymol, vol. 113, pg. 571-585, 1985), making it an ideal organ to study thiol modification. Although glutahione has been most extensively investigated, attention to other thiols may be also be of interest, since some thiols may be more effective as radioprotectors. Glutathione, glutathione ester, and cysteine concentrations in the kidney can be modified. The authors believe is cysteine is an attractive agent for kidney radioprotection. The data is used in conjunction with results from radiochemical studies with model systems to design strategies for kidney radioprotection

  9. Electrochemical Release of Fluorescently Labeled Thiols from Patterned Gold Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaly, Tammer; Wildt, Bridget E.; Peter C. Searson

    2010-01-01

    Reductive desorption of alkanethiols is a tool for spatially and temporally controlled release of small molecules or particles from individually addressable gold electrodes. Here we report on the dynamics of release using fluorophore-terminated C6 or C11 thiols. We show that the release kinetics for C6 thiols are determined solely by diffusive transport, whereas for C11 thiols the release kinetics are attenuated by the low solubility that limits the rate at which the desorbed thiols can diffu...

  10. Total Thiols: Biomedical Importance And Their Alteration In Various Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungli Prakash

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Thiols are the organic compounds that contain a sulphydryl group. Among all the antioxidants that are available in the body, thiols constitute the major portion of the total body antioxidants and they play a significant role in defense against reactive oxygen species. Total thiols composed of both intracellular and extracellular thiols either in the free form as oxidized or reduced glutathione, or thiols bound to proteins. Among the thiols that are bound to proteins, albumin makes the major portion of the protein bound thiols, which binds to sufhydryl group at its cysteine-34 portion. Apart from their role in defense against free radicals, thiols share significant role in detoxification, signal transduction, apoptosis and various other functions at molecular level. The thiol status in the body can be assessed easily by determining the serum levels of thiols. Decreased levels of thiols has been noted in various medical disorders including chronic renal failure and other disorders related to kidney, cardiovascular disorders, stroke and other neurological disorders, diabetes mellitus, alcoholic cirrhosis and various other disorders. Therapy using thiols has been under investigation for certain disorders.

  11. Comparative Genomics of Thiol Oxidoreductases Reveals Widespread and Essential Functions of Thiol-based Redox Control of Cellular Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fomenko, Dmitri E; GLADYSHEV, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Redox regulation of cellular processes is an important mechanism that operates in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Much of the redox control is provided by thiol oxidoreductases: proteins that employ cysteine residues for redox catalysis. We wanted to identify thiol oxidoreductases on a genome-wide scale and use this information to obtain insights into the general principles of thiol-based redox control. Results: Thiol oxidoreductases were identified by three independent methods that...

  12. Synthesis of polylactide with thiol end groups.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelka, Št?pán; Rypá?ek, František

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 68, ?. 6 (2003), s. 1131-1140. ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/99/0576 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : polylactides * thiol-functionalized polymers * end group modification Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  13. Functional and Structural Characterization of a Thiol Peroxidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho,B.; Hung, L.; Holton, J.; Vigil, D.; Kim, S.; Park, M.; Terwilliger, T.; Pedelacq, j.

    2006-01-01

    A thiol peroxidase (Tpx) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was functionally analyzed. The enzyme shows NADPH-linked peroxidase activity using a thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system as electron donor, and anti-oxidant activity in a thiol-dependent metal-catalyzed oxidation system. It reduces H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and cumene hydroperoxide, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. Mutational studies revealed that the peroxidatic (Cys60) and resolving (Cys93) cysteine residues are critical amino acids for catalytic activity. The X-ray structure determined to a resolution of 1.75 Angstroms shows a thioredoxin fold similar to that of other peroxiredoxin family members. Superposition with structural homologues in oxidized and reduced forms indicates that the M. tuberculosis Tpx is a member of the atypical two-Cys peroxiredoxin family. In addition, the short distance that separates the Ca atoms of Cys60 and Cys93 and the location of these cysteine residues in unstructured regions may indicate that the M. tuberculosis enzyme is oxidized, though the side-chain of Cys60 is poorly visible. It is solely in the reduced Streptococcus pneumoniae Tpx structure that both residues are part of two distinct helical segments. The M. tuberculosis Tpx is dimeric both in solution and in the crystal structure. Amino acid residues from both monomers delineate the active site pocket.

  14. Thiol oxidation and reduction in MHC-restricted antigen processing and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, P; Arunachalam, B; Bangia, N; Dick, T; Diedrich, G; Hughes, E; Maric, M

    1999-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a trimer of the class I heavy chain, beta2 microglobulin (beta2m), and a short peptide. Assembly occurs in a complex with additional noncovalently associated proteins, which include the thiol oxidoreductase, ERp57. This molecule facilitates the formation of the correct disulfide bonds in glycoproteins as they fold in the ER and may play a key role in assembling a stable MHC class I-peptide complex. In the endocytic pathway, reduction of protein disulfide bonds is important for the generation of MHC class II-peptide complexes. This process is catalyzed by a gamma-interferon-inducible thiol reductase (GILT). The possible requirement for catalysis of disulfide bond formation in MHC class I-restricted antigen processing and the known requirement for disulfide bond reduction in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing present interesting examples of the adaptation of cellular "housekeeping" functions to facilitate immune responses. PMID:10493173

  15. Thiol-ene-based monolithic microreactors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Jakub; Lafleur, J. P.; Kutter, J. P.

    Brno : Institute of Analytical Chemistry AS CR, 2014 - (Foret, F.; K?enková, J.; Drobníková, I.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.), s. 53-55 ISBN 978-80-904959-2-0. [CECE 2014. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /11./. Brno (CZ), 20.10.2014-22.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thiol-ene * monolith * enzyme immobilization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.ce-ce.org/CECE2014/CECE%202014%20proceedings_full.pdf

  16. Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

  17. Formate is the hydrogen donor for the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliez, E; Ollagnier, S; Fontecave, M; Eliasson, R; Reichard, P

    1995-09-12

    During anaerobic growth Escherichia coli uses a specific ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (class III enzyme) for the production of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. In its active form, the enzyme contains an iron-sulfur center and an oxygen-sensitive glycyl radical (Gly-681). The radical is generated in the inactive protein from S-adenosylmethionine by an auxiliary enzyme system present in E. coli. By modification of the previous purification procedure, we now prepared a glycyl radical-containing reductase, active in the absence of the auxiliary reducing enzyme system. This reductase uses formate as hydrogen donor in the reaction. During catalysis, formate is stoichiometrically oxidized to CO2, and isotope from [3H]formate appears in water. Thus E. coli uses completely different hydrogen donors for the reduction of ribonucleotides during anaerobic and aerobic growth. The aerobic class I reductase employs redox-active thiols from thioredoxin or glutaredoxin to this purpose. The present results strengthen speculations that class III enzymes arose early during the evolution of DNA. PMID:7568012

  18. CATALYTIC ADVANTAGES PROVIDED BY SELENOCYSTEINE IN METHIONINE-S-SULFOXIDE REDUCTASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Yoon, Yeo-Eun; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2008-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are key enzymes that repair oxidatively damaged proteins. Two distinct stereospecific enzyme families are responsible for this function: MsrA (methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase) and MsrB (methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase). In the present study, we identified multiple selenoprotein MsrA sequences in organisms from bacteria to animals. We characterized the selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Chlamydomonas MsrA and found that this protein exhibited 10–50-fold higher activity than either its cysteine (Cys) mutant form or the natural mouse Cys-containing MsrA, making this selenoenzyme the most efficient MsrA known. We also generated a selenoprotein form of mouse MsrA and found that the presence of Sec increased the activity of this enzyme when a resolving Cys was mutated in the protein. These data suggest that the presence of Sec improves the reduction of methionine sulfoxide by MsrAs. However, the oxidized selenoprotein could not always be efficiently reduced to regenerate the active enzyme. Overall, this study demonstrates that sporadically evolved Sec-containing forms of methionine sulfoxide reductases reflect catalytic advantages provided by Sec in these and likely other thiol-dependent oxidoreductases. PMID:17105189

  19. Catalytic advantages provided by selenocysteine in methionine-S-sulfoxide reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Yoon, Yeo-Eun; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2006-11-21

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are key enzymes that repair oxidatively damaged proteins. Two distinct stereospecific enzyme families are responsible for this function: MsrA (methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase) and MsrB (methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase). In the present study, we identified multiple selenoprotein MsrA sequences in organisms from bacteria to animals. We characterized the selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Chlamydomonas MsrA and found that this protein exhibited 10-50-fold higher activity than either its cysteine (Cys) mutant form or the natural mouse Cys-containing MsrA, making this selenoenzyme the most efficient MsrA known. We also generated a selenoprotein form of mouse MsrA and found that the presence of Sec increased the activity of this enzyme when a resolving Cys was mutated in the protein. These data suggest that the presence of Sec improves the reduction of methionine sulfoxide by MsrAs. However, the oxidized selenoprotein could not always be efficiently reduced to regenerate the active enzyme. Overall, this study demonstrates that sporadically evolved Sec-containing forms of methionine sulfoxide reductases reflect catalytic advantages provided by Sec in these and likely other thiol-dependent oxidoreductases. PMID:17105189

  20. Reaction Kinetics and Reduced Shrinkage Stress of Thiol-Yne-Methacrylate and Thiol-Yne-Acrylate Ternary Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B; Smith, Ian R; Voigt, Katerina R; Bowman, Christopher N

    2011-12-13

    Thiol-yne-methacrylate and thiol-yne-acrylate ternary systems were investigated for polymerization kinetics and material properties and compared to the analogous pure thiol-yne and (meth)acrylate systems. Both thiol-yne-methacrylate and thiol-yne-acrylate systems were demonstrated to reduce polymerization induced shrinkage stress while simultaneously achieving high glass transition temperatures (T(g)) and modulius. Formulations with 70 wt% methacrylate increased the T(g) from 51 ± 2 to 75 ± 1 °C and the modulus from 1800 ± 100 to 3200 ± 400 MPa (44% increase) over the pure thiol-yne system. Additionally, the shrinkage stress was 1.2 ± 0.2 MPa, which is lower than that of the pure methacrylate, binary thiol-yne and thiol-ene-methacrylate control systems which are all > 2 MPa. Interestingly, with increasing methacrylate or acrylate concentration, a decrease and subsequent increase in the shrinkage stress values were observed. A minimum shrinkage stress value (1.0 ± 0.2 MPa) was observed in the 50 wt% methacrylate and 70 wt% acrylate systems. This tunable behavior results from the competitive reaction kinetics of the methacrylate or acrylate homopolymerization versus chain transfer to thiol and the accompanying thiol-yne step-growth polymerization. The crosslinking density of the networks and the amount of volumetric shrinkage that occurs prior to gelation relative to the total volumetric shrinkage were determined as two key factors that control the final shrinkage stress of the ternary systems. PMID:22232561

  1. Regulation of yeast replicative life span by thiol oxidoreductases

    OpenAIRE

    Hacioglu, Elise; Esmer, Isil; Fomenko, Dmitri E; GLADYSHEV, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Thiol-based redox reactions are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological functions, such as protection against oxidative stress, signal transduction and protein folding. Some proteins involved in redox regulation have been shown to modulate life span in organisms from yeast to mammals. To assess the role of thiol oxidoreductases in aging on a genome-wide scale, we analyzed the replicative life span of yeast cells lacking known and candidate thiol oxidoreductases. The data suggest...

  2. Thiols and antioxidants in radiobiology: chemical and bioanalytical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiols may radioprotect by donating hydrogen atoms to a carbon-centred radical, but ascorbate (a better electron- than hydrogen-donor) can protect under some circumstances. The thiyl radical which may be produced is also reactive. Radioprotective efficiency may reflect both chemical reactivity and accessibility to DNA. Differences in uptake of thiols and thiol/disulphide exchange necessitate as much attention to chemical analysis of the test system as to its radiobiology. (author)

  3. Crystal-bound vs surface-bound thiols on nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turo, Michael J; Macdonald, Janet E

    2014-10-28

    The use of thiol ligands as a sulfur source for nanocrystal synthesis has recently come en vogue, as the products are often high quality. A comparative study was performed of dodecanethiol-capped Cu2S prepared with elemental sulfur and thiol sulfur reagents. XPS and TGA-MS provide evidence for differing binding modes of the capping thiols. Under conditions where the thiol acts only as a ligand, the capping thiols are "surface-bound" and bond to surface cations in low coordination number sites. In contrast, when thiols are used as a sulfur source, "crystal-bound" thiols result that sit in high coordination sites and are the terminal S layer of the crystal. A (1)H NMR study shows suppressed surface reactivity and ligand exchange with crystal-bound thiols, which could limit further application of the particles. To address the challenge and opportunity of nonlabile ligands, dodecyl-3-mercaptopropanoate, a molecule possessing both a thiol and an ester, was used as the sulfur source for the synthesis of Cu2S and CuInS2. A postsynthetic base hydrolysis cleaves the ester, leaving a carboxylate corona around the nanocrystals and rendering the particles water-soluble. PMID:25219599

  4. Thiols-Induced Rapid Photoluminescent Enhancement of Glutathione-Capped Gold Nanoparticles for Intracellular Thiols Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-10-20

    The rapid detection and imaging of intracellular thiols is of great importance during the occurrence and development of some chronic diseases. Here we demonstrate the rapid thiols-induced photoluminescence (PL) enhancement of the low luminescent glutathione (GSH) stabilized Au nanoparticles, AuGSH (low). The dynamic PL investigation reveals that the PL enhancement fits a first-order reaction model. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and mass spectroscopic results indicate that AuGSH (low) are mainly comprised of "thiols-insufficient" Au species and the additional thiols can efficiently attach to the "unsaturated" surface of Au nanoparticles, accompanied by significant PL enhancement. The noncytotoxic AuGSH (low) probe can be successfully applied for imaging of intracellular thiols. Generally, this work illustrates the great prospects of facile-prepared AuGSH (low) as a candidate for thiols labeling and imaging. PMID:26368068

  5. Studies on alterations of the 86-rubidium efflux from rat pancreatic islets caused by thiol and thiol oxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following findings were revealed by this study: 1) Oxidation-reduction (redox) of the intracellular system of glutathione influences the potassium efflux by way of an increase in the 86-rubidium efflux brought about by the oxidation of intracellular thiols. 2) The 86-rubidium efflux is not subject to change by oxidation of extracellular thiols located in the membrane, nor can it in any way be influenced by reduced glutathione of exogenous origin. 3) The potassium efflux from rat pancreatic islets, being generally known to trigger the electric activities of the beta-cell, is controlled by the oxidation-reduction of intracellular thiols rather than by that of extracellular thiols. (TRV)

  6. Thiol groups of gizzard myosin heavy chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteolysis of phosphorylated and 3H-labeled dinitrophenylated chicken gizzard myosin with trypsin released major fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000, 50,000 and 66,000 in a 1:1 ratio. They contained 57% of the dinitrophenyl (N2ph) group bound to thiols of the heavy chains; 28% of the label was bound to the light chains. The fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000 and M/sub r/ 66,000 were dinitrophenylated predominantly when the K+-ATPase activity was inhibited. Thiolysis of phosphorylated and dinitrophenylated myosin with 2-mercaptoethanol removed 60% and 25% of the N2ph group from the N-terminal and M/sub r/ 66,000 fragments of the heavy chain, respectively, when 48% of the K+-ATPase activity was restored. Papain proteolysis of the tryptic digest of modified myosin released a C-terminal segment from the fragment of M/sub r/ 66,000 and it contained most of the remaining label. Proteolysis of 3H-labeled dinitrophenylated myosin alone resulted in the same digestion pattern but less of the label was bound to the heavy chain fragments. In this case, restoration of enzymic activity occurred in thiolyzed dinitrophenylated myosin when the N2ph group was removed from the light chains, predominantly. Conformational changes in gizzard myosin, mediated by phosphorylation, altered the reactivity of the thiols in specific fragments of the heavy chain. Thiol groups of the N- and C-terminal heavy chain regions are involved in maintaining the ATPase activity of myosin

  7. The second naphthol reductase of fungal melanin biosynthesis in Magnaporthe grisea: tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J E; Fahnestock, S; Farrall, L; Liao, D I; Valent, B; Jordan, D B

    2000-11-10

    Mutants of Magnaporthe grisea harboring a defective gene for 1,3, 8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase retain the capability to produce scytalone, thus suggesting the existence of a second naphthol reductase that can catalyze the reduction of 1,3,6, 8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene to scytalone within the fungal melanin biosynthetic pathway. The second naphthol reductase gene was cloned from M. grisea by identification of cDNA fragments with weak homology to the cDNA of trihydroxynaphthalene reductase. The amino acid sequence for the second naphthol reductase is 46% identical to that of trihydroxynaphthalene reductase. The second naphthol reductase was produced in Esherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Substrate competition experiments indicate that the second reductase prefers tetrahydroxynaphthalene over trihydroxynaphthalene by a factor of 310; trihydroxynaphthalene reductase prefers trihydroxynaphthalene over tetrahydroxynaphthalene by a factor of 4.2. On the basis of the 1300-fold difference in substrate specificities between the two reductases, the second reductase is designated tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase. Tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase has a 200-fold larger K(i) for the fungicide tricyclazole than that of trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, and this accounts for the latter enzyme being the primary physiological target of the fungicide. M. grisea mutants lacking activities for both trihydroxynaphthalene and tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductases do not produce scytalone, indicating that there are no other metabolic routes to scytalone. PMID:10956664

  8. Organocatalytic enantioselective addition of thiols to ketimines derived from isatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shuichi; Takahashi, Shun; Nakane, Daisuke; Masuda, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    The first catalytic enantioselective addition of thiols to ketimines derived from isatins has been developed. Excellent yields and enantioselectivities were observed for the reaction of various ketimines and thiols using a cinchona alkaloid sulfonamide catalyst. Both enantiomers of products could be obtained by using pseudoenantiomeric chiral catalysts. PMID:25526427

  9. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88?µM and 1.9?s(-1); 45?µM and 12.6?s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3?µM and 0.96?s(-1); 4?µM and 1.62?s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I???=?3.25, 2.29?nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I???=?5.6, 25.4?nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase in T. solium, as has been described for very few other platyhelminths. PMID:25541385

  10. Cellular thiols: Importance in misonidazole metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiol depletion by buthionine S-R sulfoximine or diethyl mateate improves the effectiveness of Misonidazole as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer and cytoxic agent. For some time the authors have been concerned with the metabolic activation of miso via the pentose cycle to cytoxic intermediates under hypoxic conditions. The pentose cycle is also important for maintaining cellular glutathione and subsequent inactivation of miso linked aerobic H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production. Therefore it is of importance to know how thiol depletion affects metabolic activation of misonidazole and other sensitizers to potentially toxic intermediates under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. The authors have shown that nitro reduction can be monitored by measuring the stimulation of the pentose shunt, since NADPH which is formed in the shunt is a requirement for reduction of nitro compounds by tumor cells. Using A549 human lung carcinoma cells we have found that treatment with BSO under conditions that remove virtually 100% of the NPSH does not significantly affect the ability of miso to stimulate the pentose shunt. In addition, there is no effect of BSO on the response of the shunt to nitrofurazone, nor on the rate of hypoxic reduction of nitro-furazone. However, BSO does inhibit enzymes associated with inactivation of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ produced via miso metabolism

  11. The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2003-05-30

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases. PMID:12626517

  12. Inheritance of nitrite reductase and regulation of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and glutamine synthetase isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath-Pagliuso, S; Huffaker, R C; Allard, R W

    1984-10-01

    Banding patterns of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), and glutamine synthetase (GS) from leaves of diploid barley (Hordeum vulgare), tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum), hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), and tetraploid wild oats (Avena barbata) were compared following starch gel electrophoresis. Two NR isozymes, which appeared to be under different regulatory control, were observed in each of the three species. The activity of the more slowly migrating nitrate reductase isozyme (NR1) was induced by NO3- in green seedlings and cycloheximide inhibited induction. However, the activity of the faster NR isozyme (NR2) was unaffected by addition of KNO3, and it was not affected by treatments of cycloheximide or chloramphenicol. Only a single isozyme of nitrite reductase was detected in surveys of three tetraploid and 18 hexaploid wheat, and 48 barley accessions; however, three isozymes associated with different ecotypes were detected in the wild oats. Inheritance patterns showed that two of the wild oat isozymes were governed by a single Mendelian locus with two codominant alleles; however, no variation was detected for the third isozyme. Treatment of excised barely and wild oat seedlings with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol showed that induction of NiR activity was greatly inhibited by cycloheximide, but only slightly by chloramphenicol. Only a single GS isozyme was detected in extracts of green leaves of wheat, barley, and wild oat seedlings. No electrophoretic variation was observed within or among any of these three species. Thus, this enzyme appears to be the most structurally conserved of the three enzymes. PMID:11541965

  13. The roles of thiol oxidoreductases in yeast replicative aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacioglu, Elise; Esmer, Isil; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Koc, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Thiol-based redox reactions are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological functions, such as protection against oxidative stress, signal transduction and protein folding. Some proteins involved in redox regulation have been shown to modulate life span in organisms from yeast to mammals. To assess the role of thiol oxidoreductases in aging on a genome-wide scale, we analyzed the replicative life span of yeast cells lacking known and candidate thiol oxidoreductases. The data suggest the role of several pathways in controlling yeast replicative life span, including thioredoxin reduction, protein folding and degradation, peroxide reduction, PIP3 signaling, and ATP synthesis. PMID:20934449

  14. Regulation of yeast replicative life span by thiol oxidoreductases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacioglu, Elise; Esmer, Isil; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Thiol-based redox reactions are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological functions, such as protection against oxidative stress, signal transduction and protein folding. Some proteins involved in redox regulation have been shown to modulate life span in organisms from yeast to mammals. To assess the role of thiol oxidoreductases in aging on a genome-wide scale, we analyzed the replicative life span of yeast cells lacking known and candidate thiol oxidoreductases. The data suggest the role of several pathways in regulation of yeast aging, including thioredoxin reduction, protein folding and degradation, peroxide reduction, PIP3 signaling, and ATP synthesis. PMID:20934449

  15. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

  16. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food...Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used to determine the...

  17. Rapid photochemical surface patterning of proteins in thiol-ene based microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2013-01-01

    The suitable optical properties of thiol–ene polymers combined with the ease of modifying their surface for the attachment of recognition molecules make them ideal candidates in many biochip applications. This paper reports the rapid one-step photochemical surface patterning of biomolecules in microfluidic thiol–ene chips. This work focuses on thiol–ene substrates featuring an excess of thiol groups at their surface. The thiol–ene stoichiometric composition can be varied to precisely control the...

  18. Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shreedhar Bhata; Uday Maitra

    2008-11-01

    A series of bile acid-derived facially amphiphilic thiols have been used to cap sliver and gold nanoparticles. The self-assembling properties of these steroid-capped nanoparticles have been investigated and reported in this article.

  19. Mussel protein adhesion depends on thiol-mediated redox modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jing; Wei, Wei; Danner, Eric; Ashley, Rebekah K.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Mussel adhesion is mediated by foot proteins (mfp) rich in a catecholic amino acid, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), capable of forming strong bidentate interactions with a variety of surfaces. A facile tendency toward auto-oxidation, however, often renders dopa unreliable for adhesion. Mussels limit dopa oxidation during adhesive plaque formation by imposing an acidic, reducing regime based on thiol-rich mfp-6, which restores dopa by coupling the oxidation of thiols to dopaquinone reduction.

  20. Fast and Highly Efficient Solid State Oxidation of Thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Haghighat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A fast and efficient solid state method for the chemoselective room temperature oxidative coupling of thiols to afford their corresponding disulfides using inexpensive and readily available moist sodiumperiodate as the reagent is described. The reaction was applicable to a variety of thiols giving high yields after short reaction times. Comparison of yield/time ratios of this method with some of those reported in the literature shows the superiority of this reagent over others under these conditions.

  1. Fast and Highly Efficient Solid State Oxidation of Thiols

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Haghighat; Bahador Karami; Shiva Joohari; Morteza Montazerozohori

    2007-01-01

    A fast and efficient solid state method for the chemoselective room temperature oxidative coupling of thiols to afford their corresponding disulfides using inexpensive and readily available moist sodiumperiodate as the reagent is described. The reaction was applicable to a variety of thiols giving high yields after short reaction times. Comparison of yield/time ratios of this method with some of those reported in the literature shows the superiority of this reagent over others under these con...

  2. Short communication: Characterization of soluble thiols in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niero, G; De Marchi, M; Masi, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

    2015-09-01

    Antioxidants are molecules essential for the maintenance of cell homeostasis and their intake through the diet has positive effects on human health. Among antioxidants, low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols represent an important class of compounds. The aim of this study was to identify LMW thiols in bovine milk. A total of 96 individual milk samples from Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian, Alpine Grey, and Simmental cattle breeds were collected in 8 herds. The LMW thiols were extracted from the soluble fraction of milk and, following a derivatization protocol, they were separated by reverse phase HPLC and detected fluorimetrically. Six thiol species were detected and 2, glutathione (GSH) and cysteine-glycine (Cys-Gly), were identified and quantified. Regardless of the breed, the average concentration of Cys-Gly in milk was greater than that of GSH. Overall, milk from dual-purpose breeds (Simmental and Alpine Grey) was richer in LMW thiols than milk from dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss). Glutathione and Cys-Gly, closely linked metabolically, were strongly correlated. Pearson correlations of Cys-Gly with protein and casein contents were moderately low, and no relationship was found between GSH and milk chemical composition. Future research should focus on the identification of all detected LMW thiol species. PMID:26188581

  3. Protein Thiols as an Indication of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Rezaei Chianeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thiol is an organic compound that contain sulphhydryl group that have a critical role in preventing any involvement of oxidative stress in the cell. These defensive functions are generally considered to be carried out by the low molecular weight thiol glutathione and by cysteine residues in the active sites of proteins such as thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin. In addition, there are thiols exposed on protein surfaces that are not directly involved with protein function, although they can interact with the intracellular environment.The process of protection of the cell against an oxidative damage occur by thiol and cystein residue that has a low molecular weight. These residue are present in the active sites of a protein like, peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin. Apart from intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism by protein thiol, there are presence of thiol in outer surface of protein that are not involved with the function of protein, even though they can interact with intracellular part of the cell. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 443-456

  4. The Expanding Landscape of the Thiol Redox Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Carroll, Kate S; Liebler, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine occupies a unique place in protein chemistry. The nucleophilic thiol group allows cysteine to undergo a broad range of redox modifications beyond classical thiol-disulfide redox equilibria, including S-sulfenylation (-SOH), S-sulfinylation (-SO2H), S-sulfonylation (-SO3H), S-nitrosylation (-SNO), S-sulfhydration (-SSH), S-glutathionylation (-SSG), and others. Emerging evidence suggests that these post-translational modifications (PTM) are important in cellular redox regulation and protection against oxidative damage. Identification of protein targets of thiol redox modifications is crucial to understanding their roles in biology and disease. However, analysis of these highly labile and dynamic modifications poses challenges. Recent advances in the design of probes for thiol redox forms, together with innovative mass spectrometry based chemoproteomics methods make it possible to perform global, site-specific, and quantitative analyses of thiol redox modifications in complex proteomes. Here, we review chemical proteomic strategies used to expand the landscape of thiol redox modifications. PMID:26518762

  5. Introduction of thiol moieties, including their thiol-ene reactions and air oxidation, onto polyelectrolyte multilayer substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaan, Nitesh; Romriell, Naomi; Tuscano, Joshua; Schlaad, Helmut; Linford, Matthew R

    2015-12-01

    We describe the derivatization of uncross-linked and cross-linked layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies of polyelectrolytes (polyallylamine hydrochloride and polyacrylic acid) with sulfydryl groups via Traut's reagent (2-iminothiolane). This thiolation was optimized with regards to temperature, concentration, and pH. The stability of the resulting -SH groups in the air was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This air oxidation has obvious implications for the use of thiol-ene reactions in materials chemistry, and there appears to be little on this topic in the literature. Three main S 2s signals were observed by XPS: at 231.5eV (oxidized sulfur), 227.6eV (thiol groups), and 225.4eV (thiolate groups). Due to their rapid oxidation, we recommend that thiolated surfaces be used immediately after they are prepared. As driven by 254nm UV light, thiol groups on polyelectrolyte multilayers react with 1,2-polybutadiene (PBd), and residual carbon-carbon double bonds on adsorbed PBd similarly react with another thiol. In the case of a fluorinated thiol, surfaces with high water contact angles (ca. 120°) are obtained. Modest exposures to light result in derivatization, while longer exposures damage the assemblies. Polyelectrolyte-thiol-PBd-thiol assemblies delaminate from their substrates when immersed for long periods of time in water. Surface silanization with an amino silane prevents this delamination and leads to stable assemblies. These assemblies withstand various stability tests. Techniques used to analyze the materials in this study include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle goniometry. PMID:26295196

  6. Study of the thiol/disulfide redox systems of the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris points out pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase as a new target for thioredoxin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieulle, Laetitia; Stocker, Pierre; Vinay, Manon; Nouailler, Matthieu; Vita, Nicolas; Brasseur, Gaël; Garcin, Edwige; Sebban-Kreuzer, Corinne; Dolla, Alain

    2011-03-11

    Sulfate reducers have developed a multifaceted adaptative strategy to survive against oxidative stresses. Along with this oxidative stress response, we recently characterized an elegant reversible disulfide bond-dependent protective mechanism in the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) of various Desulfovibrio species. Here, we searched for thiol redox systems involved in this mechanism. Using thiol fluorescent labeling, we show that glutathione is not the major thiol/disulfide balance-controlling compound in four different Desulfovibrio species and that no other plentiful low molecular weight thiol can be detected. Enzymatic analyses of two thioredoxins (Trxs) and three thioredoxin reductases allow us to propose the existence of two independent Trx systems in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH). The TR1/Trx1 system corresponds to the typical bacterial Trx system. We measured a TR1 apparent K(m) value for Trx1 of 8.9 ?M. Moreover, our results showed that activity of TR1 was NADPH-dependent. The second system named TR3/Trx3 corresponds to an unconventional Trx system as TR3 used preferentially NADH (K(m) for NADPH, 743 ?M; K(m) for NADH, 5.6 ?M), and Trx3 was unable to reduce insulin. The K(m) value of TR3 for Trx3 was 1.12 ?M. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the TR1/Trx1 system was the only one able to reactivate the oxygen-protected form of Desulfovibrio africanus PFOR. Moreover, ex vivo pulldown assays using the mutant Trx1(C33S) as bait allowed us to capture PFOR from the DvH extract. Altogether, these data demonstrate that PFOR is a new target for Trx1, which is probably involved in the protective switch mechanism of the enzyme. PMID:21199874

  7. Protection by thiols against poisoning by radiomimetic agents. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of reports of studies aimed at detecting a protective effect of thiols against radiomimetic alkylating agents such as those used in cancer therapy (nitrogen mustards (HN2), sarcolysine, busulfan, etc.). Protection by thiols against alkylating agents has been observed in mammals, plant cells, bacteria, isolated mammalian cells and in model systems. The lack of correlation between the protective power of various thiols against radiomimetic agents and ionizing radiations indicates that different mechanisms are involved. Studies have been made of the toxicity of the protector and the competition factor, increased excretion of detoxication products of alkylating agents, decreased alkylation of DNA and RNA both in vivo and in vitro, the protection of hematopoietic tissues, tumours and the adrenal cortex, and the modification of the effects of nitrosoalkylamines, carbon tetrachloride and fungistatics by thiols. The restriction of DNA alkylation by the competitive removal of radiomimetic agents is thought to account for the protective effect of thiols against radiomimetic agents. (U.K.)

  8. Identification, Characterization, and Classification of Genes Encoding Perchlorate Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Kelly S.; Shang, Ching; Chakraborty, Romy; Belchik, Sara M.; Coates, John D.; Achenbach, Laurie A.

    2005-01-01

    The reduction of perchlorate to chlorite, the first enzymatic step in the bacterial reduction of perchlorate, is catalyzed by perchlorate reductase. The genes encoding perchlorate reductase (pcrABCD) in two Dechloromonas species were characterized. Sequence analysis of the pcrAB gene products revealed similarity to ?- and ?-subunits of microbial nitrate reductase, selenate reductase, dimethyl sulfide dehydrogenase, ethylbenzene dehydrogenase, and chlorate reductase, all of which are type II m...

  9. Modification of regenerated cellulose membrane based on thiol dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M Isabel; Algarra, Manuel; Benavente, Juana

    2015-10-20

    This work describes the modification of a highly swollen commercial regenerated cellulose (RC) membrane with a dendritic molecule (thiol DAB dendrimer of generation 3) by the dip coating method, and its possible use in electrochemical systems with saline solutions fluxes. Moreover, cellulosic membrane modification with dendrimer covered-CdSe quantum dot was also performed, since it allows dendrimer assortment by fluorescence. Changes in electrical, mechanical and diffusive membrane parameters were determined by impedance spectroscopy, elasticity curves and diffusional permeability measurements. The results indicate a reduction in the free volume of the RC chains in the original membrane associated with the thiol dendrimer inclusion, which reduces diffusive permeability. This demonstrates the possibility of using the thiol dendrimer-modified membrane in low/medium concentration level (0.001M/0.01M) devices with NaCl and PbCl2 solutions. PMID:26256185

  10. 5-Furan-2yl[1,3,4]oxadiazole-2-thiol, 5-Furan-2yl-4H [1,2,4] triazole-3-thiol and Their Thiol-Thione Tautomerism

    OpenAIRE

    A. Cansız; A. Çetin; M. Koparır

    2005-01-01

    5-Furan-2-yl[1,3,4]oxadiazole-2-thiol (Ia) and 5-furan-2-yl-4H-[1,2,4]-triazole-3-thiol (Ib) were synthesized from furan-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide. Mannich basesand methyl derivatives were then prepared. The structures of the synthesized compoundswere confirmed by elemental analyses, IR and 1H-NMR spectra. Their thiol-thione tautomericequilibrium is described.

  11. 5-Furan-2yl[1,3,4]oxadiazole-2-thiol, 5-Furan-2yl-4H [1,2,4] triazole-3-thiol and Their Thiol-Thione Tautomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cansız

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available 5-Furan-2-yl[1,3,4]oxadiazole-2-thiol (Ia and 5-furan-2-yl-4H-[1,2,4]-triazole-3-thiol (Ib were synthesized from furan-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide. Mannich basesand methyl derivatives were then prepared. The structures of the synthesized compoundswere confirmed by elemental analyses, IR and 1H-NMR spectra. Their thiol-thione tautomericequilibrium is described.

  12. Periplasmic nitrate reductases: structural and spectroscopic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Gonzalez, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate reduction occurs in the cell in order to incorporate nitrogen into biomolecules(assimilatory ammonification), as the final electron acceptor when bacteria are grown in anaerobic conditions (denitrification/dissimilatory ammonification) and to eliminate energy excess generated by the cell metabolism (dissimilatory ammonification). Nitrate reductases are enzimes that catalize the conversion of nitrate to nitrite. Most nitrate reductases are mononuclear molybdenum-containing enzymes t...

  13. 5?-Reductase Isozymes in the Prostate

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU, YUAN-SHAN; Sun, Guang-Huan

    2005-01-01

    5?-reductases convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). There are two 5?-reductase isozymes, type 1 and type 2 in humans and animals. Mutations in type 2 isozyme with decreased enzymatic activity cause male pseudohermaphroditism. The affected 46XY individuals have high normal or elevated plasma testosterone levels with low normal or decreased DHT levels, resulting in an elevated testosterone/DHT ratios. They are born with ambiguous external genitalia and normal Wolffian differentiati...

  14. Surface functionalized thiol-ene waveguides for fluorescence biosensing in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj A; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2014-01-01

    Thiol-ene polymers possess physical, optical, and chemical characteristics that make them ideal substrates for the fabrication of optofluidic devices. In this work, thiol-ene polymers are used to simultaneously create microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in one simple moulding step. The reactive functional groups present at the surface of the thiol-ene polymer are subsequently used for the rapid, one step, site-specific functionalization of the waveguide with biological recognition molecules. It was found that while the bulk properties and chemical surface properties of thiol-ene materials vary considerably with variations in stoichiometric composition, their optical properties remain mostly unchanged with an average refractive index value of 1.566 ± 0.008 for thiol-ene substrates encompassing a range from 150% excess ene to 90% excess thiol. Microfluidic chips featuring thiol-ene waveguides were fabricated from 40% excess thiol thiol-ene to ensure the presence of thiol functional groups at the surface of the waveguide. Biotin alkyne was photografted at specific locations using a photomask, directly at the interface between the microfluidic channel and the thiol-ene waveguide prior to conjugation with fluorescently labeled streptavidin. Fluorescence excitation was achieved by launching light through the thiol-ene waveguide, revealing bright fluorescent patterns along the channel/waveguide interface.

  15. Surface functionalized thiol-ene waveguides for ?uorescence biosensing in micro?uidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2013-01-01

    Thiol-ene polymers possess physical, optical, and chemical characteristics thatmake them ideal substrates for the fabrication of optofluidic devices. In this work, thiol-ene polymers are used to simultaneously create microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in one simple moulding step. The reactive functional groups present at the surface of the thiol-ene polymer are subsequently used for the rapid, one step, site-specific functionalization of the waveguide with biological recognition molecules. It was found that while the bulk properties and chemical surface properties of thiol-ene materials vary considerably with variations in stoichiometric composition, their optical properties remain mostly unchanged with an average refractive index value of 1.566 ± 0.008 for thiol-ene substrates encompassing a range from 150% excess ene to 90% excess thiol. Microfluidic chips featuring thiol-ene waveguides were fabricated from 40% excess thiol thiol-ene to ensure the presence of thiol functional groups at the surface of the waveguide. Biotin alkyne was photografted at specific locations using a photomask, directly at the interface between the microfluidic channel and the thiol-ene waveguide prior to conjugation with fluorescently labeled streptavidin. Fluorescence excitation was achieved by launching light through the thiol-ene waveguide, revealing bright fluorescent patterns along the channel/waveguide interface

  16. Production of dithioselenides from thiols and selenium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have established that the slow addition of a methanol solution of selenium dioxide to solutions of thiols in dioxane (molar ratio 2:1) leads to the formation of the corresponding thioselenides without side compounds. Under the influence of bases, light, or heat above 1500C these compounds eliminate amorphous selenium and are converted quantitatively into the known disulfides

  17. Neutron-gamma irradiation and protein thiols: development of a protein thiol evaluation micro-method and application to irradiated baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential non-protein sulfhydryl compound implicated in cellular radioprotection is glutathione. Protein thiols seem to be also involved in this protection and might be scavengers for free radical injury. We developed an analytical procedure for protein thiols measurement and we applied this method in neutron-gamma irradiated baboons. Our results demonstrated the reliability and sensitivity of the procedure. They also a drastic decrease of in vivo protein thiols after irradiation. (author)

  18. Thiol-mediated redox regulation of apoptosis. Possible roles of cellular thiols other than glutathione in T cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N; Iwata, S; Nakamura, K; Hori, T; Mori, K; Yodoi, J

    1995-04-01

    Thiol redox status modulates various aspects of cellular function. We demonstrate that oxidation of cellular sulfhydryl (SH) groups induces apoptosis. In Jurkat T cells and human PBL blasts, the fraction of apoptotic nuclei increased after treatment with an SH-specific oxidant, diamide. Analysis of DNA fragmentation and nuclear morphology also indicated that SH oxidation could induce apoptosis. In the apoptosis induced by SH oxidation, the decrease of cellular glutathione was transient and the increase of glutathione disulfide was observed only after apoptotic changes had occurred. Depletion of cellular glutathione with buthionine sulfoximine failed to induce apoptosis, despite a marked decrease of cellular glutathione, which was greater than that observed in apoptosis induced by diamide. Thus, the changes of cellular glutathione or glutathione disulfide may not be the major cause of apoptosis induced by diamide. Intracellular adult T cell leukemia-derived factor/human thioredoxin, another thiol-related antioxidant protein, was oxidized by incubation with diamide. These results suggest that thiol redox status is one of the key factors of the apoptotic pathway in which thiols other than glutathione may play even more critical roles. PMID:7897207

  19. Adenanthin, a new inhibitor of thiol-dependent antioxidant enzymes, impairs the effector functions of human natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siernicka, Marta; Winiarska, Magdalena; Bajor, Malgorzata; Firczuk, Malgorzata; Muchowicz, Angelika; Bobrowicz, Malgorzata; Fauriat, Cyril; Golab, Jakub; Olive, Daniel; Zagozdzon, Radoslaw

    2015-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are considered critical components of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Deficiencies in NK cell activity are common, such as those that occur in cancer patients, and they can be responsible for dysfunctional immune surveillance. Persistent oxidative stress is intrinsic to many malignant tumours, and numerous studies have focused on the effects of reactive oxygen species on the anti-tumour activity of NK cells. Indeed, investigations in animal models have suggested that one of the most important thiol-dependent antioxidant enzymes, peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1), is essential for NK cell function. In this work, our analysis of the transcriptomic expression pattern of antioxidant enzymes in human NK cells has identified PRDX1 as the most prominently induced transcript out of the 18 transcripts evaluated in activated NK cells. The change in PRDX1 expression was followed by increased expression of two other enzymes from the PRDX-related antioxidant chain: thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. To study the role of thiol-dependent antioxidants in more detail, we applied a novel compound, adenanthin, to induce an abrupt dysfunction of the PRDX-related antioxidant chain in NK cells. In human primary NK cells, we observed profound alterations in spontaneous and antibody-dependent NK cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells, impaired degranulation, and a decreased expression of activation markers under these conditions. Collectively, our study pinpoints the unique role for the antioxidant activity of the PRDX-related enzymatic chain in human NK cell functions. Further understanding this phenomenon will prospectively lead to fine-tuning of the novel NK-targeted therapeutic approaches to human disease. PMID:26094816

  20. Control of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production.

    OpenAIRE

    Leys, E J; Kellems, R E

    1981-01-01

    We used methotrexate-resistant mouse cells in which dihydrofolate reductase levels are approximately 500 times normal to study the effect of growth stimulation on dihydrofolate reductase gene expression. As a result of growth stimulation, the relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase protein synthesis increased threefold, reaching a maximum between 25 and 30 h after stimulation. The relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production (i.e., the appearance of dihydrof...

  1. Evaluation of Nitrate Reductase Activity in Rhizobium japonicum†

    OpenAIRE

    Streeter, John G.; DeVine, Paul J.

    1983-01-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase.

  2. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe-S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  3. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864... reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used to determine the... fluorescence and photometry. The results of this assay are used in the diagnosis of liver disease,...

  4. Severe depletion of cellular thiols and glutathione-related enzymes of a carmustine-resistant L1210 strain associates with collateral sensitivity to cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institoris, E; Tretter, L; Gaál, D

    1993-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CPA) increased the life span of both carmustine (BCNU)-resistant (L1210/BCNU) and BCNU-sensitive L1210 (L1210/0) leukaemic mice; their sensitivity to CPA, however, was extremely different. The BCNU-resistant strain was much more sensitive (collaterally) to CPA than was its sensitive counterpart. The collateral sensitivity was accompanied by a severe reduction in the activity of glutathione-related enzymes and in protein thiol (SH) and non-protein SH levels in BCNU-resistant cells. The activity of glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) was 2 times higher in the L1210/0 cells than in the L1210/BCNU cells. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was also almost 2 times more active in the sensitive cells than in the resistant strain. To develop resistance against CPA with a single treatment (60 mg/kg) per passage, the L1210/BCNU strain needed 26 passages, whereas the L1210/0 strain required significantly fewer. The resistance developed against CPA was associated with a moderate elevation of thiols in the L1210/CPA cells, whereas this elevation was approximately 3 times more pronounced in the L1210/BCNU/CPA cells. The severely reduced activity of GST in the L1210/BCNU strain was markedly increased when these cells were made resistant to CPA; the GSSG-R activity, however, remained low, suggesting an irreversible injury of this enzyme by BCNU. PMID:8269595

  5. Structural formation of thiophene-2-thiol on gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kareh, Lydia; Beimborn, Axel; Mehring, Patrick; Handschak, Dominique [Experimentelle Physik 1 - TU Dortmund (Germany); Westphal, Carsten [Experimentelle Physik 1 - TU Dortmund (Germany); DELTA -TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In recent years self assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been extensively studied because of their well-defined structures resulting from simple dipping preparation. An ideal system for the understanding of self-organisation processes are alcanethiols that were widely examined during the last decades. These molecules can be prepared with different head groups leading to different applications in molecular electronics, nanotechnology, bio-sensing, and corrosion inhibition. One possible head group is thiophene. The orientation of thiophene-2-thiol adsorbed on Au(111) has been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Thiophene-2-thiol molecules are found forming highly ordered adlayers. High-resolution STM reveals well ordered molecular stripes of different length. On the gold surface the stripes arrange displaced with respect to the substrate lattice forming a two-dimensional molecular network.

  6. Water electrolyte promoted oxidation of functional thiol groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwers, K; Breynaert, E; Rombouts, I; Delcour, J A; Kirschhock, C E A

    2016-04-15

    The formation of disulfide bonds is of the utmost importance for a wide range of food products with gluten or globular proteins as functional agents. Here, the impact of mineral electrolyte composition of aqueous solutions on thiol oxidation kinetics was studied, using glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (CYS) as model systems. Interestingly, the oxidation rate of both compounds into their corresponding disulfides was significantly higher in common tap water than in ultrapure water. The systematic study of different electrolyte components showed that especially CaCl2 improved the oxidation rate of GSH. However, this effect was not observed for CYS, which indicated a strong impact of the local chemical environment on thiol oxidation kinetics. PMID:26675862

  7. Radical Scavenging Efficacy of Thiol Capped Silver Nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kumudini Chandraker; Sandeep Kumar Vaishanav; Rekha Nagwanshi; Manmohan L Satnami

    2015-12-01

    Radical scavenging efficacy of L-cysteine (L-Cys), glutathione (GSH) and thioctic acid (TA) in the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were determined by 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazil (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals as spectrophotometric assay. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging efficacy has been determined by titration method. Ascorbic acid has been used as standard for all radical scavenging efficacies. In general, antioxidant activity decreases in the presence of AgNPs. The covalent interactions of thiols (-SH) were found to be a key factor for the decreases in scavenging activity. The effect of thiol concentrations has been discussed. The size and shape of the nanoparticles and AgNP-SR interactions have been characterized through Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively.

  8. Role of thiol pathways in TF procoagulant regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    The generation of procoagulant Tissue Factor (TF) is crucial for thrombosis. TF contains a surface exposed allosteric disulfide bond that stabilizes the carboxyl-terminal domain involved in ligand interactions with coagulation factors VIIa and X. TF procoagulant activation typically occurs following cellular perturbations that also cause the appearance of procoagulant phosphatidylserine in the outer leaflet of cell membranes. However, thiol modifying agents, without suppressing phosphatidylse...

  9. Interaction of azobenzene thiol molecules with gold nanoparticles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dammer, Ond?ej; Pfleger, Ji?í; Vl?ková, B.; Procházka, M.; Špringer, T.; Sedláková, Zde?ka

    Brno : Czech Society for New Materials and Technologies, 2006. s. 69. ISBN 80-214-3308-6. [International Conference on Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies in the Czech Republic /5./. 13.11.2006-15.11.2006, Brno] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA4050406; GA ?R GD203/05/H001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : gold nanoparticles * SERS signal blinking * azobenzene thiol Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  10. Investigation of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticle sensors for gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jared S.

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air and exhaled breath by sensor array is a very useful testing technique. It can provide non-invasive, fast, inexpensive testing for many diseases. Breath analysis has been very successful in identifying cancer and other diseases by using a chemiresistor sensor or array with gold nanoparticles to detect biomarkers. Acetone is a biomarker for diabetes and having a portable testing device could help to monitor diabetic and therapeutic progress. An advantage to this testing method is it is conducted at room temperature instead of 200 degrees Celsius. 3. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticles based on sensor(s) detection of VOCs. The VOCs to be tested are acetone, ethanol, and a mixture of acetone and ethanol. Each chip is tested under all three VOCs and three concentration levels (0.1, 1, and 5.0 ppm). VOC samples are used to test the sensors' ability to detect and differentiate VOCs. Sensors (also referred to as a chip) are prepared using several types of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticles. The factors are: thiol compound and molar volume loading of the thiol in synthesis. The average resistance results are used to determine the VOC selectivity of the sensors tested. The results show a trend of increasing resistance as VOC concentration is increased relative to dry air; which is used as baseline for VOCs. Several sensors show a high selectivity to one or more VOCs. Overall the 57 micromoles of 4-methoxy-toluenethiol sensor shows the strongest selectivity for VOCs tested. 3. Gerfen, Kurt. 2012. Detection of Acetone in Air Using Silver Ion Exchanged ZSM-5 and Zinc Oxide Sensing Films. Master of Science thesis, University of Louisville.

  11. Substituent Effects on the Reactivity of Benzoquinone Derivatives with Thiols

    OpenAIRE

    Mbiya, Wilbes; Chipinda, Itai; Siegel, Paul D.; Mhike, Morgen; Simoyi, Reuben H.

    2012-01-01

    Benzoquinone (BQ) is an extremely potent electrophilic contact allergen that haptenates endogenous proteins through Michael addition (MA). It is also hypothesized that BQ may haptenate proteins via free radical formation. The objective of this study was to assess the inductive effects (activating and deactivating) of substituents on BQ reactivity and mechanistic pathway of covalent binding to a nucleophilic thiol. The BQ binding of Cys34 on human serum albumin was studied and for reactivity s...

  12. Odorant polyfunctional thiols issued from bottle beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nizet, Sabrina; Gros, Jacques; Collin, Sonia; XII Weurman flavour research symposium

    2011-01-01

    Bottle refermentation which imparts beer effervescence and resistance against infection and oxidation is also known to improve flavor profile and stability. By this process, some stale off-flavors exhaled by aldehydes (trans-2-nonenal, 3-methylthiopropionaldehyde, 3- methylbutanal ..) are reduced into alcohols (1, 2). Unfortunately, yeast esterases can also strongly affect the beer fruity character by hydrolyzing isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate (1, 2). Thiols are known to...

  13. Chiral liquid crystalline thiols for preparation of polybutadiene diols.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubnov, Alexej; Kašpar, Miroslav; Sedláková, Zde?ka; Ilavský, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 35, ?. 5 (2008), s. 653-660. ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA202/05/0431; GA MŠk OC 175; GA AV ?R IAA4112401; GA AV ?R IAA100100710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : monomers * liquid crystal * polybutadienes * chiral thiol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2008

  14. New chiral thiols and related side chain liquid crystalline polymers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubnov, Alexej; Kašpar, Miroslav; Sedláková, Zde?ka; Ilavský, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 465, - (2007), s. 93-107. ISSN 1542-1406 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA4112401; GA ?R GA202/05/0431 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chiral thiols * differential scanning calorimetry * diols * liquid crystals * polarizing optical microscopy * polybutadien Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2007

  15. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with [14C]iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined

  16. Cloning and sequence analysis of D-erythrulose reductase from chicken: its close structural relation to tetrameric carbonyl reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Miki; Kaku, Hanae; Shimada, Mikio; Nishioka, Takaaki

    2002-07-01

    Sequence analysis of a cDNA for D-erythrulose reductase from chicken liver showed that the deduced open reading frame encodes the protein with a molecular mass of 26 kDa consisting of 246 amino acids. Although the reductase shares more than 60% identity in the amino acid sequence with the mouse tetrameric carbonyl reductase, these two enzymes have many biochemical differences; their substrate specificity, subcellular localization, organ distribution, etc. A three-dimensional structure of D-erythrulose reductase was predicted by comparative modeling based on the structure of the tetrameric carbonyl reductase (PDB entry = 1CYD). Most of the residues at the active site (within 4 A from the ligand) of the carbonyl reductase were also conserved in the D-erythrulose reductase. Nevertheless, Val190 and Leu146 in the active site of the tetrameric carbonyl reductase were substituted in the D-erythrulose reductase by Asn192 and His148, respectively. The substitutions in the active sites may be related to the difference in substrate specificity of the two enzymes. The phylogenic analysis of D-erythrulose reductase and the other related proteins suggests that the protein described as a carbonyl reductase D-erythrulose reductase. PMID:12200544

  17. Organized thiol functional groups in mesoporous core shell colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchena, Martin H. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Granada, Mara [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Bordoni, Andrea V. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Joselevich, Maria [Asociacion Civil Expedicion Ciencia, Cabrera 4948, C1414BGP Buenos Aires (Argentina); Troiani, Horacio [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Williams, Federico J. [DQIAQyF-INQUIMAE FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wolosiuk, Alejandro, E-mail: wolosiuk@cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    The co-condensation in situ of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template results in the synthesis of multilayered mesoporous structured SiO{sub 2} colloids with 'onion-like' chemical environments. Thiol groups were anchored to an inner selected SiO{sub 2} porous layer in a bilayered core shell particle producing different chemical regions inside the colloidal layered structure. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows a preferential anchoring of the -SH groups in the double layer shell system, while porosimetry and simple chemical modifications confirm that pores are accessible. We can envision the synthesis of interesting colloidal objects with defined chemical environments with highly controlled properties. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous core shell SiO{sub 2} colloids with organized thiol groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double shell mesoporous silica colloids templated with CTAB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential deposition of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} layers with different chemistries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows the selective functionalization of mesoporous layers with thiol groups.

  18. Differential stress induced by thiol adsorption on facetted nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Moyu; McKendry, Rachel A; Vögtli, Manuel; Aeppli, Gabriel; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Shi, Xiaowen; Xiong, Gang; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K

    2011-11-01

    Polycrystalline gold films coated with thiol-based self-assembled monolayers (SAM) form the basis of a wide range of nanomechanical sensor platforms. The detection of adsorbates with such devices relies on the transmission of mechanical forces, which is mediated by chemically derived stress at the organic-inorganic interface. Here, we show that the structure of a single 300-nm-diameter facetted gold nanocrystal, measured with coherent X-ray diffraction, changes profoundly after the adsorption of one of the simplest SAM-forming organic molecules. On self-assembly of propane thiol, the crystal's flat facets contract radially inwards relative to its spherical regions. Finite-element modelling indicates that this geometry change requires large stresses that are comparable to those observed in cantilever measurements. The large magnitude and slow kinetics of the contraction can be explained by an intermixed gold-sulphur layer that has recently been identified crystallographically. Our results illustrate the importance of crystal edges and grain boundaries in interface chemistry and have broad implications for the application of thiol-based SAMs, ranging from nanomechanical sensors to coating technologies. PMID:21946612

  19. Identification of the thiol ester lipids in apolipoprotein B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human plasma low-density lipoproteins of 1.032-1.043 g/mL density were totally delipidized. The reduced and carboxymethylated apolipoprotein B was incubated with 50 mM [14C] methylamine at pH 8.5 at 30 0C. Covalent incorporation of [14C] methylamine was observed with concomitant generation of new sulfhydryl groups, which could be blocked with [3H]- or [14C]iodoacetic acid. One type of the [14C] methylamine-modified products was separated from the protein and was found to be lipid in nature. Its R/sub f/ on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was similar to that of the synthetic N-methyl fatty acyl amides. After purification with TLC and transesterification in 3 N methanolic HCl, methyl esters of C16 and C18 fatty acids at 1:1 ratio were identified by gas-liquid chromatography. The transesterification method was verified with the known N-methyl fatty acyl amides. These results suggest the presence of labile thiol ester linked palmitate and stearate in apolipoprotein B. Under mild alkaline conditions, the thiol ester bonds are broken by methylamine and form N-methyl fatty acyl amides and release new -SH groups. Intramolecular thiol ester bonds linked between cysteine side chains and acidic amino acid residues were also found present, which will be reported separately

  20. Identification of the thiol ester lipids in apolipoprotein B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G.; Lee, D.M.; Singh, S.

    1988-03-08

    Human plasma low-density lipoproteins of 1.032-1.043 g/mL density were totally delipidized. The reduced and carboxymethylated apolipoprotein B was incubated with 50 mM (/sup 14/C) methylamine at pH 8.5 at 30 /sup 0/C. Covalent incorporation of (/sup 14/C) methylamine was observed with concomitant generation of new sulfhydryl groups, which could be blocked with (/sup 3/H)- or (/sup 14/C)iodoacetic acid. One type of the (/sup 14/C) methylamine-modified products was separated from the protein and was found to be lipid in nature. Its R/sub f/ on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was similar to that of the synthetic N-methyl fatty acyl amides. After purification with TLC and transesterification in 3 N methanolic HCl, methyl esters of C/sub 16/ and C/sub 18/ fatty acids at 1:1 ratio were identified by gas-liquid chromatography. The transesterification method was verified with the known N-methyl fatty acyl amides. These results suggest the presence of labile thiol ester linked palmitate and stearate in apolipoprotein B. Under mild alkaline conditions, the thiol ester bonds are broken by methylamine and form N-methyl fatty acyl amides and release new -SH groups. Intramolecular thiol ester bonds linked between cysteine side chains and acidic amino acid residues were also found present, which will be reported separately.

  1. Identification of the thiol ester linked lipids in apolipoprotein B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G.; Lee, D.M.; Singh, S.

    1988-03-08

    Human plasma low-density lipoproteins of 1.032-1.043 g/mL density were totally delipidized. The reduced and carboxymethylated apolipoprotein B was incubated with 50 mM (/sup 14/C)methylamine at pH 8.5 at 30 degrees C. Covalent incorporation of (/sup 14/C)methylamine was observed with concomitant generation of new sulfhydryl groups, which could be blocked with (/sup 3/H)- or (/sup 14/C)iodoacetic acid. One type of the (/sup 14/C)methylamine-modified products was separated from the protein and was found to be lipid in nature. Its Rf on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was similar to that of the synthetic N-methyl fatty acyl amides. After purification with TLC and transesterification in 3 N methanolic HCl, methyl esters of C16 and C18 fatty acids at 1:1 ratio were identified by gas-liquid chromatography. The transesterification method was verified with the known N-methyl fatty acyl amides. These results suggest the presence of labile thiol ester linked palmitate and stearate in apolipoprotein B. Under mild alkaline conditions, the thiol ester bonds are broken by methylamine and form N-methyl fatty acyl amides and release new-SH groups. Intramolecular thiol ester bonds linked between cysteine side chains and acidic amino acid residues were also found present, which will be reported separately.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of cDNAs Encoding Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Anthocyanidin Reductase from Populus trichocarpa

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lijun; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Yuan, Li; Lu, Wanxiang; Yang, Li; Karim, Abdul; Luo, Keming

    2013-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) contribute to poplar defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcripts of PA biosynthetic genes accumulated rapidly in response to infection by the fungus Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi, treatments of salicylic acid (SA) and wounding, resulting in PA accumulation in poplar leaves. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) are two key enzymes of the PA biosynthesis that produce the main subunits: (+)-catechin and (?)-...

  3. Cellular thiols and redox-regulated signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, C K

    2000-01-01

    In contrast to the conventional notion that reactive oxygen is mostly a trigger for oxidative damage of biological structures, now we know that low physiologically relevant concentrations of ROS can regulate a variety of key molecular mechanisms that may be linked with important cell functions (Fig. 4). Redox-based regulation of gene expression has emerged as a fundamental regulatory mechanism in cell biology. Several proteins, with apparent redox-sensing activity, have been described. Electron flow through side-chain functional CH2-SH groups of conserved cysteinyl residues in these proteins account for the redox-sensing properties. Protein thiol groups with high thiol-disulfide oxidation potentials are likely to be redox-sensitive. The ubiquitous endogenous thiols thioredoxin and glutathione are of central importance in redox signaling. Signals are transduced from the cell surface to the nucleus through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation chain reactions of cellular proteins at tyrosine and serine/threonine. Protein phosphorylation, one of the most fundamental mediators of cell signaling, is redox-sensitive. DNA-binding proteins are involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as replication, recombination, viral integration and transcription. Several studies show that the interaction of certain transcription regulatory proteins with their respective cognate DNA sites is also redox-regulated. Changes in the concentration of Ca2+i control a wide variety of cellular functions, including transcription and gene expression; Ca(2+)-driven protein phosphorylation and proteolytic processing of proteins are two major intracellular events that are implicated in signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Intracellular calcium homeostasis is regulated by the redox state of cellular thiols, and it is evident that cell calcium may play a critical role in the activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-kappa B. Among the several thiol agents tested for their efficacy in modulating cellular redox status, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and alpha-lipoic acid hold most promise for human use. A strong therapeutic potential of strategies that would modulate the cellular thioredoxin system has been also evident. PMID:10842745

  4. Thiol switches in redox regulation of chloroplasts: balancing redox state, metabolism and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Hell, Rüdiger

    2015-05-01

    In photosynthesizing chloroplasts, rapidly changing energy input, intermediate generation of strong reductants as well as oxidants and multiple participating physicochemical processes and pathways, call for efficient regulation. Coupling redox information to protein function via thiol modifications offers a powerful mechanism to activate, down-regulate and coordinate interdependent processes. Efficient thiol switching of target proteins involves the thiol-disulfide redox regulatory network, which is highly elaborated in chloroplasts. This review addresses the features of this network. Its conditional function depends on specificity of reduction and oxidation reactions and pathways, thiol redox buffering, but also formation of heterogeneous milieus by microdomains, metabolite gradients and macromolecular assemblies. One major player is glutathione. Its synthesis and function is under feedback redox control. The number of thiol-controlled processes and involved thiol switched proteins is steadily increasing, e.g., in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, plastid transcription and plastid translation. Thus chloroplasts utilize an intricate and versatile redox regulatory network for intraorganellar and retrograde communication. PMID:25741945

  5. A fluorescent probe which allows highly specific thiol labeling at low pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas W.; Jensen, Kristine Steen

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the thiol-disulfide status in biological systems is challenging as redox pools are easily perturbed during sample preparation. This is particularly pertinent under neutral to mildly alkaline conditions typically required for alkylation of thiols. Here we describe the synthesis and properties of a thiol-specific reagent, fluorescent cyclic activated disulfide (FCAD), which includes the fluorescein moiety as fluorophore and utilizes a variation of thiol-disulfide exchange chemistry. The leaving-group character of FCAD makes it reactive at pH 3, allowing modification at low pH, limiting thiol-disulfide exchange. Different applications are demonstrated including picomolar thiol detection, determination of redox potentials, and in-gel detection of labeled proteins.

  6. Control of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leys, E.J.; Kellems, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    The authors used methotrexate-resistant mouse cells in which dihydrofolate reductase levels are approximately 500 times normal to study the effect of growth stimulation on dihydrofolate reductase gene expression. As a result of growth stimulation, the relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase protein synthesis increased threefold, reaching a maximum between 25 and 30 h after stimulation. The relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production (i.e., the appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm) increased threefold after growth stimulation and was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the relative steady-state level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid in the nucleus. However, the increase in the nuclear level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid was not accompanied by a significant increase in the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes. These data indicated that the relative rate of appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm depends on the relative stability of the dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid sequences in the nucleus and is not dependent on the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes.

  7. Fabrication and bonding of thiol-ene-based microfluidic devices : Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikanen, Tiina M; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the bonding strength of microchips fabricated by thiol-ene free-radical polymerization was characterized in detail by varying the monomeric thiol/allyl composition from the stoichiometric ratio (1:1) up to 100% excess of thiol (2:1) or allyl (1:2) functional groups. Four different thiol-ene to thiol-ene bonding combinations were tested by bonding: (i) two stoichiometric layers, (ii) two layers bearing complementary excess of thiols and allyls, (iii) two layers both bearing excess of thiols, or (iv) two layers both bearing excess of allyls. The results showed that the stiffness of the cross-linked polymer plays the most crucial role regarding the bonding strength. The most rigid polymer layers were obtained by using the stoichiometric composition or an excess of allyls, and thus, the bonding combinations (i) and (iv) withstood the highest pressures (up to the cut-off value of 6 bar). On the other hand, excess of thiol monomers yielded more elastic polymer layers and thus decreased the pressure tolerance for bonding combinations (ii) and (iii). By using monomers with more thiol groups (e.g. tetrathiol versus trithiol), a higher cross-linking ratio, and thus, greater stiffness was obtained. Surface characterization by infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the changes in the monomeric thiol/allyl composition were also reflected in the surface chemistry. The flexibility of being able to bond different types of thiol-enes together allows for tuning of the surface chemistry to yield the desired properties for each application. Here, a capillary electrophoresis separation is performed to demonstrate the attractive properties of stoichiometric thiol-ene microchips.

  8. Rapid photochemical surface patterning of proteins in thiol-ene based microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Jensen, Thomas G.; Kutter, Jörg P.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to immobilize biomolecules at specific locations on the surface of solid supports is central to many biochip applications. This paper reports the rapid one-step photochemical surface patterning of biomolecules in thiol-ene microfluidic chips. Adjusting the stoichiometric ratio of "thiol" and "ene" monomers present in the microfluidic chip bulk material provides a simple and efficient way of tuning the chip's surface chemistry. Here, thiol-ene chips displaying an excess of functional ...

  9. Rapid photochemical surface patterning of proteins in thiol-ene based microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2012-01-01

    The ability to immobilize biomolecules at specific locations on the surface of solid supports is central to many biochip applications. This paper reports the rapid one-step photochemical surface patterning of biomolecules in thiol-ene microfluidic chips. Adjusting the stoichiometric ratio of “thiol” and “ene” monomers present in the microfluidic chip bulk material provides a simple and efficient way of tuning the chip’s surface chemistry. Here, thiol-ene chips displaying an excess of functional ...

  10. Combined bead polymerization and Cinchona organocatalyst immobilization by thiol–ene addition

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Kim A; Tor E. Kristensen; Hansen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we report an unusually concise immobilization of Cinchona organocatalysts using thiol–ene chemistry, in which catalyst immobilization and bead polymerization is combined in a single step. A solution of azo initiator, polyfunctional thiol, polyfunctional alkene and an unmodified Cinchona-derived organocatalyst in a solvent is suspended in water and copolymerized on heating by thiol–ene additions. The resultant spherical and gel-type polymer beads have been evaluated as organocata...

  11. Combined bead polymerization and Cinchona organocatalyst immobilization by thiol–ene addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Fredriksen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report an unusually concise immobilization of Cinchona organocatalysts using thiol–ene chemistry, in which catalyst immobilization and bead polymerization is combined in a single step. A solution of azo initiator, polyfunctional thiol, polyfunctional alkene and an unmodified Cinchona-derived organocatalyst in a solvent is suspended in water and copolymerized on heating by thiol–ene additions. The resultant spherical and gel-type polymer beads have been evaluated as organocatalysts in catalytic asymmetric transformations.

  12. Combined bead polymerization and Cinchona organocatalyst immobilization by thiol–ene addition

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Kim A; Tor E. Kristensen; Tore Hansen

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we report an unusually concise immobilization of Cinchona organocatalysts using thiol–ene chemistry, in which catalyst immobilization and bead polymerization is combined in a single step. A solution of azo initiator, polyfunctional thiol, polyfunctional alkene and an unmodified Cinchona-derived organocatalyst in a solvent is suspended in water and copolymerized on heating by thiol–ene additions. The resultant spherical and gel-type polymer beads have been evaluated a...

  13. Operation of trans-thylakoid thiol-metabolizing pathways in photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Karamoko, Mohamed; Gabilly, Stéphane T.; Hamel, Patrice P.

    2013-01-01

    Thiol oxidation to disulfides and the reverse reaction, i.e., disulfide reduction to free thiols, are under the control of catalysts in vivo. Enzymatically assisted thiol-disulfide chemistry is required for the biogenesis of all energy-transducing membrane systems. However, until recently, this had only been demonstrated for the bacterial plasma membrane. Long considered to be vacant, the thylakoid lumen has now moved to the forefront of photosynthesis research with the realization that its p...

  14. Thiol?ene Coupling of Renewable Monomers : at the forefront of bio-based polymeric materials

    OpenAIRE

    Claudino, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Plant derived oils bear intrinsic double-bond functionality that can be utilized directly for the thiol–ene reaction. Although terminal unsaturations are far more reactive than internal ones, studies on the reversible addition of thiyl radicals to 1,2-disubstituted alkenes show that this is an important reaction. To investigate the thiol–ene coupling reaction involving these enes, stoichiometric mixtures of a trifunctional propionate thiol with monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (methyl...

  15. Solvent-Free Synthesis and Fluorescence of a Thiol-Reactive Sensor for Undergraduate Organic Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Anastasia L.; May, Mary D.; Visser, Bryan J.; Kislukhin, Alexander A.; Vosburg, David A.

    2013-01-01

    A green organic laboratory experiment was developed in which students synthesize a sensor for thiols using a microscale, solventless Diels–Alder reaction at room temperature or 37 °C. The molecular probe is easily purified by column chromatography in a Pasteur pipet and characterized by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. The thiol-reactive sensor becomes intensely fluorescent upon exposure to thiols from N-acetylcysteine, bovine serum albumin, or human hair (pretreated with a red...

  16. Integration between anticipatory blocking and redox signaling by the peroxiredoxin/thioredoxin/thioredoxin-reductase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggio, Gianluca; Coelho, Pedro M B M; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    Cells are occasionally exposed to high H2O2 concentrations, often preceding exposure to other electrophylic compounds. Both H2O2 and these compounds can irreversibly modify protein thiols, with deleterious consequences. Induction of enzymatic defenses against those agents is too slow to avoid significant damage. Cells may solve this conundrum by reversibly "blocking" the thiols once H2O2 concentrations begin to increase. We term this mechanism "anticipatory blocking" because it acts in anticipation of irreversible damage upon detection of early signs of stress. Here we examine the design requirements for the Peroxiredoxin/Thioredoxin/Thioredoxin-Reductase/Protein-Dithiol System (PTTRDS) to effectively integrate H2O2 signaling and anticipatory blocking of protein dithiols as disulfides, and we compared them to the designs found in cells. To that effect, we developed a minimal model of the PTTRDS, and we defined a set of quantitative performance criteria that embody the requirements for (a) efficient scavenging capacity, (b) low NADPH consumption, (c) effective signal propagation, and (d) effective anticipatory blocking. We then sought the design principles (relationships among rate constants and species concentrations) that warrant fulfillment of all these criteria. Experimental data indicates that the design of the PTTRDS in human erythrocytes fulfills these principles and thus accomplishes effective integration between anticipatory blocking, antioxidant protection and redox signaling. A more general analysis suggests that the same principles hold in a wide variety of cell types and organisms. We acknowledge grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014, PEst-OE/QUI/UI0612/2013, FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 (PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010) financed by FEDER through the "Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, COMPETE" and by national funds through "FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia". PMID:26461388

  17. Influence of nar (nitrate reductase) genes on nitrate inhibition of formate-hydrogen lyase and fumarate reductase gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, V.; Berg, B L

    1988-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, aerobiosis inhibits the synthesis of enzymes for anaerobic respiration (e.g., nitrate reductase and fumarate reductase) and for fermentation (e.g., formate-hydrogen lyase). Anaerobically, nitrate induces nitrate reductase synthesis and inhibits the formation of both fumarate reductase and formate-hydrogen lyase. Previous work has shown that narL+ is required for the effects of nitrate on synthesis of both nitrate reductase and fumarate reductase. Another gene, narK (whose...

  18. Solvent-Free Synthesis and Fluorescence of a Thiol-Reactive Sensor for Undergraduate Organic Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Anastasia L; May, Mary D; Visser, Bryan J; Kislukhin, Alexander A; Vosburg, David A

    2013-12-10

    A green organic laboratory experiment was developed in which students synthesize a sensor for thiols using a microscale, solventless Diels-Alder reaction at room temperature or 37 °C. The molecular probe is easily purified by column chromatography in a Pasteur pipet and characterized by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. The thiol-reactive sensor becomes intensely fluorescent upon exposure to thiols from N-acetylcysteine, bovine serum albumin, or human hair (pretreated with a reducing agent to reveal cysteine thiols in ?-keratin). This fluorescence is observable even with micrograms of probe. PMID:24415795

  19. Impact of thiol and amine functionalization on photoluminescence properties of ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we have investigated surface functionalization of ZnO films with dodecanethiol (Thiol) and trioctylamine (amine) by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle (CA) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The chemical bondings of thiol and amine with ZnO have been confirmed via the formation of Zn–S and Zn–N bonds by XPS measurements. AFM measurements on ZnO films before and after surface functionalization with thiol and amine provide evidence for the successful functionalization of thiol and amine on ZnO surfaces without any island formation. The CA measurements on ZnO films before and after surface functionalization with thiol and amine show the hydrophobic nature. PL measurements of thiol and amine functionalized ZnO show enhancements of UV emission and quenching of visible emission. The enhanced UV emissions in thiol and amine functionalized ZnO films suggest that the surface defects such as oxygen vacancies are passivated by thiol and amine functionalization. -- Highlights: ? Surface functionalization is a new approach to reduce surface dependent non-radiative process. ? Oxygen vacancies are passivated on surface functionalization. ? Thiol and amine functionalized ZnO show enhancements of UV emission

  20. Thermal and Chemical Stability of Thiol Bonding on Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenkov, Mykola; Chirico, Giuseppe; D'Alfonso, Laura; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; Cabrini, Elisa; Dacarro, Giacomo; Milanese, Chiara; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Taglietti, Angelo; Bernhard, Claire; Denat, Franck

    2015-07-28

    The stability of thiol bonding on the surface of star-shaped gold nanoparticles was studied as a function of temperature in water and in a set of biologically relevant conditions. The stability was evaluated by monitoring the release of a model fluorescent dye, Bodipy-thiol (BDP-SH), from gold nanostars (GNSs) cocoated with poly(ethylene glycol) thiol (PEG-SH). The increase in the BDP-SH fluorescence emission, quenched when bound to the GNSs, was exploited to this purpose. A maximum 15% dye release in aqueous solution was found when the bulk temperature of gold nanostars solutions was increased to T = 42 °C, the maximum physiological temperature. This fraction reduces 3-5% for temperatures lower than 40 °C. Similar results were found when the temperature increase was obtained by laser excitation of the near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonance of the GNSs, which are photothermally responsive. Besides the direct impact of temperature, an increased BDP-SH release was observed upon changing the chemical composition of the solvent from pure water to phosphate-buffered saline and culture media solutions. Moreover, also a significant fraction of PEG-SH was released from the GNS surface due to the increase in temperature. We monitored it with a different approach, that is, by using a coating of ?-mercapto-?-amino PEG labeled with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate on the amino group, that after heating was separated from GNS by ultracentrifugation and the released PEG was determined by spectrofluorimetric techniques on the supernatant solution. These results suggest some specific limitations in the use of the gold-thiolate bond for coating of nanomaterials with organic compounds in biological environments. These limitations come from the duration and the intensity of the thermal treatment and from the medium composition and could also be exploited in biological media to modulate the in vivo release of drugs. PMID:26154493

  1. Suspended hybrid films assembled from thiol-capped gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu Xin; Huang, Ming; Hao, Xiao Dong; Dong, Meng; Li, Xin Lu; Huang, Jia Mu

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored the formation processes of suspended hybrid thin films of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) inside metal oxide tubular structures. We found that a balance between in-film interactions of the AuNPs and boundary interactions with metal oxides is a key in making these special organic–inorganic thin films. The hybrid films process many processing advantages and flexibilities, such as controllable film thickness, interfacial shape and inter-AuNPs distance, tuning of p...

  2. Communication: vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption of interstellar icy thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Lo, Jen-Iu; Sekhar, B N Raja; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Pradeep, Thalappil; Mason, Nigel John

    2014-12-21

    Following the recent identification of ethanethiol in the interstellar medium (ISM) we have carried out Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) spectroscopy studies of ethanethiol (CH3CH2SH) from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. These results are compared with those of methanethiol (CH3SH), the lower order thiol also reported to be present in the ISM. VUV spectra recorded at higher temperature reveal conformational changes in the ice and phase transitions whilst evidence for dimer production is also presented. PMID:25527912

  3. Liquid crystalline polymers with chiral side-chain thiols.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubnov, Alexej M.; Kašpar, Miroslav; Sedláková, Zde?ka; Gari?, M.; Obadovi?, D. Ž.; Ilavský, Michal

    Warsaw : Military University of Technology, 2005, s. 11-19. ISBN N. [Conference on Liquid Crystals /16./. Stare Jablonki (PL), 18.09.2005-21.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ?R GP202/03/P011; GA ?R GA202/05/0431; GA AV ?R IAA4112401 Grant ostatní: COST(XE) D35 WG13 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chiral liquid crystals * polybutadiene diols * thiols * side-chain polymers * mesomorphis properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  4. Tinkering with a viral ribonucleotide reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Lembo, David

    2009-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), a crucial enzyme for nucleotide anabolism, is encoded by all living organisms and by large DNA viruses such as the herpesviruses. Surprisingly, the beta-herpesvirus subfamily RNR R1 subunit homologues are catalytically inactive and their function remained enigmatic for many years. Recent work sheds light on the function of M45, the murine cytomegalovirus R1 homologue; during viral evolution, M45 apparently lost its original RNR activity but gained the ability, ...

  5. A glutathione-specific aldose reductase of Leishmania donovani and its potential implications for methylglyoxal detoxification pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Jyoti; Gowri, V S; Chauhan, Swati C; Padmanabhan, Prasad K; Srinivasan, N; Madhubala, Rentala

    2009-01-15

    Methylglyoxal is mainly catabolized by two major enzymatic pathways. The first is the ubiquitous detoxification pathway, the glyoxalase pathway. In addition to the glyoxalase pathway, aldose reductase pathway also plays a crucial role in lowering the levels of methylglyoxal. The gene encoding aldose reductase (ALR) has been cloned from Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. DNA sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of approximately 855 bp encoding a putative protein of 284 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 31.7 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.85. The sequence identity between L. donovani ALR (LdALR) and mammals and plants is only 36-44%. The ORF is a single copy gene. A protein with a molecular mass that matched the estimated approximately 74 kDa according to the amino acid composition of LdALR with a maltose binding tag present at its N-terminal end was induced by heterologous expression of LdALR in Escherichia coli. In the presence of glutathione, recombinant LdALR reduced methylglyoxal with a K(m) of approximately 112 microM. Comparative structural analysis of the human ALR structure with LdALR model suggests that the active site anchoring the N-terminal end of the glutathione is highly conserved. However, the C-terminal end of the glutathione backbone is expected to be exposed in LdALR, as the residues anchoring the C-terminal end of the glutathione backbone come from the three loop regions in human, which are apparently shortened in the LdALR structure. Thus, the computational analysis provides clues about the expected mode of glutathione binding and its interactions with the protein. This is the first report of the role of an ALR in the metabolic disposal of methylglyoxal in L. donovani and of thiol binding to a kinetoplastid aldose reductase. PMID:18983902

  6. The role of thiols in cellular response to radiation and drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular nonprotein thiols (NPSH) consist of glutathione (GSH) and other low molecular weight species such as cysteine, cysteamine, and coenzyme A. GSH is usually less than the total cellular NPSH, and with thiol reactive agents, such as diethyl maleate (DEM), its rate of depletion is in part dependent upon the cellular capacity for its resynthesis. If resynthesis is blocked by buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine(BSO), the NPSH, including GSH, is depleted more rapidly, Cellular thiol depletion by diamide, N-ethylmaleimide, and BSO may render oxygenated cells more sensitive to radiation. These cells may or may not show a reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Human A549 lung carcinoma cells depleted of their NPSH either by prolonged culture or by BSO treatment do not show a reduced OER but do show increased aerobic responses to radiation. Some nitroheterocyclic radiosensitizing drugs also deplete cellular thiols under aerobic conditions. Such reactivity may be the reason that they show anomalous radiation sensitization (i.e., better than predicted on the basis of electron affinity). Other nitrocompounds, such as misonidazole, are activated under hypoxic conditions to radical intermediates. When cellular thiols are depleted peroxide is formed. Under hypoxic conditions thiols are depleted because metabolically reduced intermediates react with GSH instead of oxygen. Thiol depletion, under hypoxic conditions, may be the reason that misonidazole and other nitrocompounds show an extra enhancement ratio with hypoxic cells. Thiol depletion by DEM or BSO alters the radiation response of hypoxic cells to misonidazole

  7. Organo-soluble photoresponsive azo thiol monolayer-protected gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Jouliana M; Zhou, Xiaoli; Qu, Liangti; Dai, Liming; Urbas, Augustine; Li, Quan

    2009-04-28

    Organo-soluble photoresponsive azo thiol monolayer-protected gold nanorods were synthesized; the resulting gold nanorods encapsulated by thiols on their entire surface with strong covalent Au-S linkages were very stable in both organic solvents and in the solid state without aggregation or decomposition. PMID:19360162

  8. Direct Synthesis of Thioethers from Carboxylates and Thiols Catalyzed by FeCl3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesham, Kunuru; Bhujanga Rao, Chitturi; Dokuburra, Chanti Babu; Bunce, Richard A; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra

    2015-11-20

    A new and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of thioethers from carboxylates and thiols. The reaction proceeds via a Fe(III)-catalyzed direct displacement of carboxylates from benzylic or allylic esters by heterocyclic thiols. Short reaction times, good to excellent yields of products, and few side reactions are the significant features of the new protocol. PMID:26497695

  9. Antioxidant generation and regeneration in lipid bilayers: the amazing case of lipophilic thiosulfinates and hydrophilic thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng; Pratt, Derek A

    2013-09-25

    We demonstrate that the garlic-derived chemopreventive agent allicin and the related anamu-derived petivericin are poor radical-trapping antioxidants in lipid bilayers, but that the in situ reaction of a lipophilic analog and a hydrophilic thiol yields an extremely potent radical-trapping antioxidant that can be recycled in the presence of excess thiol. PMID:23938951

  10. Charge Transport of MoS2 Supported by Thiol-Decorated Self-Assembled Monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Doron; Artel, Vlada; Kirshner, Moshe

    2015-03-01

    Intrinsic charge transport in MoS2 supported by thiols was recently reported and was attributed to passivation of sulfur vacancies and suppression of charged impurities from the dielectric substrate. In this talk we will present the transport characteristics of single layer and few-layer MoS2 on thiol-decorated self-assembled alkyl-siloxane monolayer.

  11. Lithium BINOL phosphate catalyzed desymmetrization of meso-epoxides with aromatic thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Gajendrasingh; Mormino, Michael G; Antilla, Jon C

    2014-11-01

    A highly enantioselective method for desymmetrization of meso-epoxides using thiols is reported. This is the first example of epoxide activation achieved using metal BINOL phosphates. The reaction has a broad scope in terms of epoxide substrates and aromatic thiol nucleophiles. The resulting ?-hydroxyl sulfides are obtained in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. PMID:25317934

  12. Characterization of the chlorate reductase from Pseudomonas chloritidismutans

    OpenAIRE

    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.; Schiltz, E; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Hagen, W.R.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Stams, A. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    A chlorate reductase has been purified from the chlorate-reducing strain Pseudomonas chloritidismutans. Comparison with the periplasmic (per)chlorate reductase of strain GR-1 showed that the cytoplasmic chlorate reductase of P. chloritidismutans reduced only chlorate and bromate. Differences were also found in N-terminal sequences, molecular weight, and subunit composition. Metal analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements showed the presence of iron and molybdenum, which are al...

  13. Cloning and nitrate induction of nitrate reductase mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Dewdney, Julia; Kleinhofs, Andris; Goodman, Howard M.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrate is the major source of nitrogen taken from the soil by higher plants but requires reduction to ammonia prior to incorporation into amino acids. The first enzyme in the reducing pathway is a nitrate-inducible enzyme, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1). A specific polyclonal antiserum raised against purified barley nitrate reductase has been used to immunoprecipitate in vivo labeled protein and in vitro translation products, demonstrating that nitrate induction increases nitrate reductase p...

  14. INHIBITION OF TYPE I 5?-REDUCTASE BY MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Vijaya; Samuel Grace; Mirapurkar Shubhangi; R. Krishna Mohan; Dasgupta Debjani

    2011-01-01

    Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?4-a...

  15. Methionine sulfoxide reductase contributes to meeting dietary methionine requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hang; Kim, Geumsoo; Levine, Rodney L

    2012-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are present in all aerobic organisms. They contribute to antioxidant defenses by reducing methionine sulfoxide in proteins back to methionine. However, the actual in vivo roles of these reductases are not well defined. Since methionine is an essential amino acid in mammals, we hypothesized that methionine sulfoxide reductases may provide a portion of the dietary methionine requirement by recycling methionine sulfoxide. We used a classical bioassay, the growth o...

  16. Functional Diversity of Cysteine Residues in Proteins and Unique Features of Catalytic Redox-active Cysteines in Thiol Oxidoreductases

    OpenAIRE

    Fomenko, Dmitri E; Marino, Stefano M.; GLADYSHEV, Vadim N.

    2008-01-01

    Thiol-dependent redox systems are involved in regulation of diverse biological processes, such as response to stress, signal transduction, and protein folding. The thiol-based redox control is provided by mechanistically similar, but structurally distinct families of enzymes known as thiol oxidoreductases. Many such enzymes have been characterized, but identities and functions of the entire sets of thiol oxidoreductases in organisms are not known. Extreme sequence and structural divergence ma...

  17. Rapid and simple preparation of thiol-ene emulsion-templated monoliths and their application as enzymatic microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P; Senkbeil, Silja; Novotny, Jakub; Nys, Gwenaël; Bøgelund, Nanna; Rand, Kasper D; Foret, Frantisek; Kutter, Jörg P

    2015-01-01

    A novel, rapid and simple method for the preparation of emulsion-templated monoliths in microfluidic channels based on thiol-ene chemistry is presented. The method allows monolith synthesis and anchoring inside thiol-ene microchannels in a single photoinitiated step. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed that the methanol-based emulsion templating process resulted in a network of highly interconnected and regular thiol-ene beads anchored solidly inside thiol-ene microchannels. ...

  18. The association between plasma thiol levels and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patient with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkus, Musluhittin Emre; Altiparmak, Ibrahim Halil; Akyuz, Ali Riza; Demirbag, Recep; Sezen, Yusuf; Gunebakmaz, Ozgur; Neselioglu, Salim; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-12-01

    The balance of oxidant and antioxidant status plays an important role in the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients with hypertension (HT). Thiol is an important part of antioxidant system in the body. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma thiol levels and LVDD in patients with HT. A total of 138 patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertensive and 20 age-gender matched subjects as control group enrolled in the study. After echocardiographic assessment, the hypertensive patients were divided into three groups: Group 1: without LVDD (n = 41); group 2: with LVDD grade 1 (n = 57); and group 3: with LVDD grade 2 (n = 40). Plasma thiol, lipid and glucose levels were measured in all subjects. Plasma thiol levels were significantly different between the groups (all of p role in the pathogenesis of diastolic function. Increased thiol levels may provide protection against the development of diastolic dysfunction. PMID:26252832

  19. Thiol-independent activity of a cholesterol-binding enterohemolysin produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueirêdo P.M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemolysin produced by Escherichia coli associated with infant diarrhea showed characteristics similar to those of thiol-activated hemolysins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, including inactivation by cholesterol, lytic activity towards eukaryotic cells and thermoinstability. However, enterohemolysin activity was not inactivated by oxidation or by SH group-blocking agents (1 mM HgCl2, 1 mM iodoacetic acid and the hemolysin (100 µg/ml was not lethal to mice, in contrast to the lethality of the thiol-activated hemolysin family to animals. Earlier reports showed that intravenous injection of partially purified streptolysin O preparations (0.2 µg was rapidly lethal to mice. These results suggest that E. coli enterohemolysin is not a thiol-activated hemolysin, despite its ability to bind cholesterol, probably due to the absence of free thiol-group(s that characterize the active form of the thiol-activated hemolysin molecule.

  20. Thiol-independent activity of a cholesterol-binding enterohemolysin produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.M.S., Figueirêdo; C.F., Catani; T., Yano.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemolysin produced by Escherichia coli associated with infant diarrhea showed characteristics similar to those of thiol-activated hemolysins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, including inactivation by cholesterol, lytic activity towards eukaryotic cells and thermoinstability. However, entero [...] hemolysin activity was not inactivated by oxidation or by SH group-blocking agents (1 mM HgCl2, 1 mM iodoacetic acid) and the hemolysin (100 µg/ml) was not lethal to mice, in contrast to the lethality of the thiol-activated hemolysin family to animals. Earlier reports showed that intravenous injection of partially purified streptolysin O preparations (0.2 µg) was rapidly lethal to mice. These results suggest that E. coli enterohemolysin is not a thiol-activated hemolysin, despite its ability to bind cholesterol, probably due to the absence of free thiol-group(s) that characterize the active form of the thiol-activated hemolysin molecule.

  1. Widespread occurrence of bacterial thiol methyltransferases and the biogenic emission of methylated sulfur gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drotar, A.; Burton, G.A. Jr.; Tavernier, J.E.; Fall, R.

    1987-07-01

    A majority of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from soil, water, sediment, vegetation, and marine algae cultures methylated sulfide, producing methanethiol. This was demonstrated (i) with intact cells by measuring the emission of methanethiol with a sulfur-selective chemiluminescence detector, and (ii) in cell extracts by detection of sulfide-dependent thiol methyltransferase activity. Extracts of two Pseudomonas isolates were fractionated by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography, and with sulfide as the substrate a single peak of thiol methyltransferase activity was seen in each case. Extracts of several bacterial strains also contained thiol methyltransferase activity with organic thiols as substrates. Thus, S-adenosylmethionine-dependent thiol methyltransferase activities are widespread in bacteria and may contribute to biogenic emissions of methylated sulfur gases and to the production of methyl thioethers.

  2. Moderate physical exercise induces the oxidation of human blood protein thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayama, Takayo; Oka, Jun; Kashiba, Misato; Saito, Makoto; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Umegaki, Keizo; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Matsuda, Mitsuo

    2002-03-15

    Exercise is known to induce the oxidation of blood low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols such as reduced glutathione (GSH). We previously reported that full-marathon running induced a decrease in human plasma levels of protein-bound sulfhydryl groups (p-SHs). Moderate exercise, a 30-min running at the intensity of the individual ventilatory threshold, performed by untrained healthy females caused a significant decrease in erythrocyte levels of p-SHs (mostly hemoglobin cysteine residues) and LMW thiols, but their levels returned to each baseline by 2 h. No significant change in plasma LMW thiols was observed. However, plasma levels of p-SHs significantly decreased after running and remained unchanged after 24 h. These results suggest that moderate exercise causes the oxidation of blood thiols, especially protein-bound thiols. PMID:12148696

  3. Rapid photochemical surface patterning of proteins in thiol-ene based microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw

    2012-01-01

    The ability to immobilize biomolecules at specific locations on the surface of solid supports is central to many biochip applications. This paper reports the rapid one-step photochemical surface patterning of biomolecules in thiol-ene microfluidic chips. Adjusting the stoichiometric ratio of “thiol” and “ene” monomers present in the microfluidic chip bulk material provides a simple and efficient way of tuning the chip’s surface chemistry. Here, thiol-ene chips displaying an excess of functional thiol groups at their surfaces are functionalized with biotin and streptavidin in a controlled fashion using photolithography. We also present quantitative data on the number of functional groups available for surface modification on thiol-ene substrates and their stability.

  4. Distribution and immunological characterization of microbial aldehyde reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, M; Shimizu, S; Yamada, H

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of microbial aldo-keto reductases was examined and their immunochemical characterization was performed. p-Nitrobenzaldehyde, pyridine-3-aldehyde and ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate reductase activities were found to be widely distributed in a variety of microorganisms. In immunodiffusion studies, most yeasts belonging to the genera Sporobolomyces, Sporidiobolus and Rhodotorula formed precipitin bands with anti-Sporobolomyces salmonicolor aldehyde reductase serum. Furthermore, the results of immunotitration experiments suggested that Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AKU 4429 contains other enzyme(s) which can reduce p-nitrobenzaldehyde, pyridine-3-aldehyde and/or ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate, and which are inactivated by anti-Sporobolomyces salmonicolor aldehyde reductase serum. PMID:1510561

  5. Sepiapterin reductase deficiency - Genetics Home Reference [Genetics Home Reference (Conditions)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Sepiapterin reductase deficiency Relate ... Movement abnormalities are often worse late in the day . Most affected individuals have delayed developmen ...

  6. SCREENING OF HMG CO A REDUCTASE INHIBITOR PRODUCING MARINE ACTINOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRINU, PHANI BHUSHAN,MOGES, SRILAKSHMI, SANKAR, PRABHAKAR,LAKSHMINARAYANA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was screening of 3-hydroxy-3- methyl glutaryl Co A (HMG CoA reductase inhibitor producing marine actinomycetes. A total of 65 morphologically different actinomycetes were screened for HMG CoA reductase inhibitor production in a two stage submerged fermentation and evaluated for HMG CoA reductase inhibitor activity by agar diffusion and thin layer chromatography technique using lovostatin as a control. Among 65 marine Actinomycete strains, only one strain produced HMG Co A reductase inhibitor

  7. Photo-curable siloxane hybrid material fabricated by a thiol-ene reaction of sol-gel synthesized oligosiloxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Soo; Yang, SeungCheol; Park, HyungJin; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2011-06-01

    The thiol-ene reaction of a sol-gel synthesized oligosiloxane thiol-ene mixture was processed through UV irradiation, resulting in transparency, high refractive index, good thermal stability and especially excellent electrical insulation materials. It provides new strong potential of the thiol-ene system for application in dielectric materials. PMID:21537501

  8. Modifications of cellular thiols during growth and squamous differentiation of cultured human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, L; Dypbukt, J M; Hybbinette, S S; Moldéus, P; Grafström, R C

    1994-03-01

    Thiol modifications during growth and differentiation of cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells was studied by analysis of their content and redox state of low-molecular-weight thiols and protein thiols. Subculture of the cells with trypsin decreased the cellular content of the major low-molecular-weight thiol, i.e., reduced glutathione, although the glutathione content had returned to levels comparable to those before subculture already after 4 h in conjunction with cell attachment. During subsequent culture, increases in the cellular contents of glutathione, total cysteine equivalents, and total protein thiols occurred. These modifications in the amounts and redox balance of thiols were transient and preceded the major growth phase. Exposure of cells at clonal density to either diethylmaleate, a thiol-depleting agent, or buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, decreased the proliferative ability of the cells as demonstrated by a markedly decreased colony forming efficiency. Moreover, in mass cultures exposed to buthionine sulfoximine, a marked depletion of the glutathione content was again accompanied by inhibition of growth. Exposure of the cells to agents known to induce growth arrest and terminal squamous differentiation, i.e., fetal bovine serum, Ca2+, or transforming growth factor-beta 1, resulted in increased levels of reduced glutathione. No consistent alteration in the contents of the other thiols was noted. Overall, the results demonstrate consistent variations in the amounts and redox state of cellular thiols, particularly reduced glutathione, supporting a role of thiols in regulation of growth and squamous differentiation of human bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:8125149

  9. Structure and function of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and nitric oxide synthase reductase domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reductase domains are members of the FAD-FMN family of proteins. The FAD accepts two reducing equivalents from NADPH (dehydrogenase flavin) and FMN acts as a one-electron carrier (flavodoxin-type flavin) for the transfer from NADPH to the heme protein, in which the FMNH ·/FMNH2 couple donates electrons to cytochrome P450 at constant oxidation-reduction potential. Although the interflavin electron transfer between FAD and FMN is not strictly regulated in CPR, electron transfer is activated in neuronal NOS reductase domain upon binding calmodulin (CaM), in which the CaM-bound activated form can function by a similar mechanism to that of CPR. The oxygenated form and spin state of substrate-bound cytochrome P450 in perfused rat liver are also discussed in terms of stepwise one-electron transfer from CPR. This review provides a historical perspective of the microsomal mixed-function oxidases including CPR and P450. In addition, a new model for the redox-linked conformational changes during the catalytic cycle for both CPR and NOS reductase domain is also discussed

  10. The narL gene product activates the nitrate reductase operon and represses the fumarate reductase and trimethylamine N-oxide reductase operons in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Iuchi, S; Lin, E C

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli, which can utilize O2, nitrate, fumarate, or trimethylamine N-oxide (Me3NO) as terminal electron acceptor, preferentially utilizes the one with the highest redox potential. Thus O2 prevents induction of nitrate, fumarate, and Me3NO reductases, and nitrate curtails the induction of fumarate and Me3NO reductases. Under anaerobic conditions the narL gene product, in the presence of nitrate, is known to activate transcription of the narC operon, which encodes nitrate reductase. T...

  11. Studies of Aqueous U(IV) Complexation under Thiol-rich Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wansik; Cho, Hyeryun; Jung, Euo Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Organic thiol compounds and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) are electron donors and metabolic products of sulfate reducing bacteria. In addition, they are among redox potential (Eh) determinants of groundwater systems due to their redox characteristics. The low values of acid dissociation constants for .SH (pK{sub a}, 7-9) compared to those of aliphatic or phenolic .OH, impart greater anionic and metal-binding properties to the molecules. Recently, we demonstrated that a thiol compound (i. e., thiosalicylate) enhances the solubility of U(VI) at higher pH levels (< ?9). In this study, to have a better knowledge of the behaviors of U(IV) species under anaerobic conditions, the U(IV)-OH complex formation in the presence of thiol was examined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and TRLFS (time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy). A TRLFS-based U(IV) quantification methodology developed earlier was applied to examine the effects of thiol species on the dissolution behaviors. Based on UV-Vis absorption monitoring, the presence of thiol does not result in a significant changes in the low-pH hydrolysis behaviors of U(IV). However, the concentration of U(IV) dissolved in bulk phase of aqueous solutions increased with the increase of thiol concentration. The formation of soluble thiol complexes or the stabilization of UO{sub 2} nanoparticles may explain the observed solubility increase.

  12. Biodegradation of malodorous thiols by a Brevibacillus sp. strain isolated from a Tunisian phosphate factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, Alif; Mhiri, Najla; Rezgui, Fatma; Ammar, Najoua; Maalej, Amina; Sayadi, Sami; Chamkha, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and thiols (RSH) generated by the phosphate industry cause harmful effects on human health and quality of life. The present study aims to investigate and evaluate a bacterial strain CAT37 isolated from gas-washing wastewaters in terms of its properties and ability to degrade malodorous thiols. Gas-washing wastewater samples were submitted to physicochemical analyses and used for the isolation of thiol-degrading bacteria. The results from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the isolated strain CAT37 was able to oxidize ?99% of each thiol, decanethiol and dodecanethiol used as sole carbon and energy sources after 30 days of incubation at 37°C. The strain CAT37 displayed a biodegradative potential on several thiols known by their toxicity and odors. The results from phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis revealed that the CAT37 isolate belonged to the genus Brevibacillus, showing the highest sequence similarity to Brevibacillus agri. Overall, the results indicated that the strain CAT37 exhibited a number of attractive biodegradation abilities against thiols and could be considered a promising candidate for industrial application in future thiol biodeodorization strategies. PMID:26085487

  13. Disulfide-Linked Dinitroxides for Monitoring Cellular Thiol Redox Status through Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenzov, Eric A; Sims, Stephen J; Dirda, Nathaniel D A; Rosen, Gerald M; Kao, Joseph P Y

    2015-12-01

    Intracellular thiol-disulfide redox balance is crucial to cell health, and may be a key determinant of a cancer's response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The ability to assess intracellular thiol-disulfide balance may thus be useful not only in predicting responsiveness of cancers to therapy, but in assessing predisposition to disease. Assays of thiols in biology have relied on colorimetry or fluorimetry, both of which require UV-visible photons, which do not penetrate the body. Low-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is an emerging magnetic imaging technique that uses radio waves, which penetrate the body well. Therefore, in combination with tailored imaging agents, EPRI affords the opportunity to image physiology within the body. In this study, we have prepared water-soluble and membrane-permeant disulfide-linked dinitroxides, at natural isotopic abundance, and with D,(15)N-substitution. Thiols such as glutathione cleave the disulfides, with simple bimolecular kinetics, to yield the monomeric nitroxide species, with distinctive changes in the EPR spectrum. Using the D,(15)N-substituted disulfide-dinitroxide and EPR spectroscopy, we have obtained quantitative estimates of accessible intracellular thiol in cultured human lymphocytes. Our estimates are in good agreement with published measurements. This suggests that in vivo EPRI of thiol-disulfide balance is feasible. Finally, we discuss the constraints on the design of probe molecules that would be useful for in vivo EPRI of thiol redox status. PMID:26523485

  14. Serum Thiols as a Biomarker of Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Pritesh; de Souza, Giselle Katiane Bonfim Bacelar; de Lima, Domingos Savio Nunes; Passos, Luiz Fernando Souza; Boechat, Antonio Luiz; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2015-01-01

    Lupus Nephritis (LN) develops in more than half of the Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) patients. However, lack of reliable, specific biomarkers for LN hampers clinical management of patients and impedes development of new therapeutics. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with SLE is predictive of renal pathology. Serum biochemical and oxidative stress markers were measured in patients with inactive lupus, active lupus with and without nephritis and compared to healthy control group. To assess the predictive performance of biomarkers, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and cut-offs were used to identify SLE patients with nephritis. We observed an increased oxidative stress response in all SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Among the several biomarkers tested, serum thiols had a significant inverse association with SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Interestingly, thiols were able too aptly differentiate between SLE patients with and without renal pathology, and serum thiol levels were not affected by immunosuppressive drug therapy. The decreased thiols in SLE correlated significantly with serum creatinine and serum C3 levels. Further retrospective evaluation using serum creatinine or C3 levels in combination with thiol’s cutoff values from ROC analysis, we could positively predict chronicity of renal pathology in SLE patients. In summary, serum thiols emerge as an inexpensive and reliable indicator of LN, which may not only help in early identification of renal pathology but also aid in the therapeutic management of the disease, in developing countries with resource poor settings. PMID:25799079

  15. Voltammetric, spectroelectrochemical, and electrocatalytic properties of thiol-derivatized phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmanbas, Oemer A.; Koca, Atif [Marmara University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 34722 Goeztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Oezcesmeci, Ibrahim; Okur, Ali Ihsan; Guel, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-06-01

    Voltammetric and spectroelectrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activities of thiol-derivatized phthalocyanine complexes for hydrogen production have been investigated. Voltammetric and spectroelectrochemical measurements show that while cobalt phthalocyanine complexes (CoPc) present well defined metal-based and ring-based redox processes, all other complexes give only ring-based reduction and oxidation processes. The redox processes are generally diffusion-controlled, reversible and one-electron transferred processes. The complexes bearing tetra(acetoxyethylthio) substituents represents aggregation tendency in DCM solution. Cobalt and nickel phthalocyanines are easily electrodeposited on the GCE working electrode during the repeating cycles of positive potentials. Electrocatalytic activities of electrodeposited complexes indicated that CoPc catalyzed the proton reduction via the electro-reduced [Co{sup I}Pc{sup 2-}]{sup 1-} and/or [Co{sup I}Pc{sup 3-}]{sup 2-} species depending on the pH of the aqueous solution. (author)

  16. Herpes simplex virus ribonucleotide reductase mutants are hypersensitive to acyclovir.

    OpenAIRE

    Coen, D M; Goldstein, D J; Weller, S K

    1989-01-01

    Two mutants defective in herpes simplex virus-encoded ribonucleotide reductase activity exhibited the novel phenotype of hypersensitivity to acyclovir, aphidicolin, and to a lesser extent, phosphonoacetic acid. These results have implications for acyclovir resistance and the development of drugs that potentiate acyclovir action by inhibition of viral ribonucleotide reductase.

  17. Biliverdin reductase: a target for cancer therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Peter E. M; Miralem, Tihomir; Maines, Mahin D.

    2015-01-01

    Biliverdin reductase (BVR) is a multifunctional protein that is the primary source of the potent antioxidant, bilirubin. BVR regulates activities/functions in the insulin/IGF-1/IRK/PI3K/MAPK pathways. Activation of certain kinases in these pathways is/are hallmark(s) of cancerous cells. The protein is a scaffold/bridge and intracellular transporter of kinases that regulate growth and proliferation of cells, including PKCs, ERK and Akt, and their targets including NF-?B, Elk1, HO-1, and iNOS. ...

  18. Selenium and the Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase System

    OpenAIRE

    Jackob Moskovitz; Oien, Derek B.

    2009-01-01

    Selenium is a chemical element participating in the synthesis of selenocysteine residues that play a pivotal role in the enzymatic activity efficiency of selenoproteines. The methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) system that reduces methionine sulfoxide (MetO) to methionine comprises the selenoprotein MsrB (MsrB1) and the non-selenoprotein MsrA, which reduce the R- and the S- forms of MetO, respectively. The effects of a selenium deficient (SD) diet, which was administrated to wild type (WT) a...

  19. Determination of thiol functional groups on bacteria and natural organic matter in environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandha Rao, Balaji [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Organic thiols (R-SH) are known to react and form complexes with some toxic soft metals such as mercury (Hg) in both biotic and abiotic systems. However, a clear understanding of these interactions is currently limited because quantifying thiols in environmental matrices is difficult due to their low abundance, susceptibility to oxidation, and measurement interference by non-thiol compounds in samples. Here, we report a fluorescence-labeling method using a maleimide containing probe, ThioGlo-1 (TG-1), to determine total thiols directly on bacterial cells and natural organic matter (NOM). We systematically evaluated the optimal thiol labeling conditions and interference from organic compounds such as disulfide, methionine, thiourea, and amine, and inorganic ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, and SCN-, and found that the method is highly sensitive and selective. Only relatively high levels of sulfide (S2-) and sulfite (SO32-) significantly interfere with the thiol analysis. The method was successful in determining thiols in a bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and its mutants in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The measured value of ~2.1 104 thiols cell-1 (or ~0.07 mol g-1 wet cells) is in good agreement with that observed during reactions between Hg and PCA cells. Using the standard addition, we determined the total thiols of two reference NOM samples, the reduced Elliot soil humic acid and Suwanee River NOM, to be 3.6 and 0.7 mol g-1, respectively, consistent with those obtained based on their reactions with Hg.

  20. Preparation of macroporous thiol sorbents for the removal of toxic metal ion from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sorbent with thiol groups was prepared from a macroporous strongly basic anion exchange resin of styrene-divinylbenzene type (Lewatit MP 500). The key step of the synthesis is nucleophilic attack of the quaternary benzyltrimethylammonium groups on the resin by sulfur containing nucleophiles. In addition to traditional application of thiol sorbents to sorption of heavy metal cations, sorption of arsenate and other toxic oxo anions was studied. The unreacted hydrophilic quaternary ammonium groups promote more complete utilization of thiols and may pre-concentrate arsenic oxo-anions in the resin via electrostatic binding. The sorbents after sorption could be regenerated by an aqueous solution of sodium (poly)sulfide. (authors)

  1. Quinoline-2-thiol Derivatives as Fluorescent Sensors for Metals, pH and HNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphtali A. O’Connor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A tautomeric equilibrium exists for quinoline-2-thiol and quinoline-2(1H-thione. Quantum mechanical calculations predict the thione is the major tautomer and this is confirmed by the absorption spectra. The utility of quinolone-2-thiol/quinoline-2(1H-thione as a chromophore for developing fluorescent sensors is explored. No fluorescence is observed when excited at absorption maxima, however a fluorescence increase is observed when exposed to HNO, a molecule of import as a cardiovascular therapeutic. Alkylated quinoline-2-thiol derivatives are found to be fluorescent and show a reduction in fluorescence when exposed to metals and changes in pH.

  2. Preparation and Preliminary Dielectric Characterization of Structured C60-Thiol-Ene Polymer Nanocomposites Assembled Using the Thiol-Ene Click Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-containing materials have the ability to store and release electrical energy. Therefore, fullerenes may ultimately find use in high-voltage equipment devices or as super capacitors for high electric energy storage due to this ease of manipulating their excellent dielectric properties and their high volume resistivity. A series of structured fullerene (C60 polymer nanocomposites were assembled using the thiol-ene click reaction, between alkyl thiols and allyl functionalized C60 derivatives. The resulting high-density C60-urethane-thiol-ene (C60-Thiol-Ene networks possessed excellent mechanical properties. These novel networks were characterized using standard techniques, including infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The dielectric spectra for the prepared samples were determined over a broad frequency range at room temperature using a broadband dielectric spectrometer and a semiconductor characterization system. The changes in thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of these novel fullerene-thiol-ene composite films were measured as a function of the C60 content, and samples characterized by high dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss were produced. In this process, variations in chemical composition of the networks were correlated to performance characteristics.

  3. Molecular modeling of the reductase domain to elucidate the reaction mechanism of reduction of peptidyl thioester into its corresponding alcohol in non-ribosomal peptide synthetases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Gwang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs are multienzymatic, multidomain megasynthases involved in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important nonribosomal peptides. The peptaibol synthetase from Trichoderma virens (TPS is an important member of the NRPS family that exhibits antifungal properties. The majority of the NRPSs terminate peptide synthesis with the thioesterase (TE domain, which either hydrolyzes the thioester linkage, releasing the free peptic acid, or catalyzes the intramolecular macrocyclization to produce a macrolactone product. TPS is an important NRPS that does not encompass a TE domain, but rather a reductase domain (R domain to release the mature peptide product reductively with the aid of a NADPH cofactor. However, the catalytic mechanism of the reductase domain has not yet been elucidated. Results We present here a three-dimensional (3D model of the reductase domain based on the crystal structure of vestitone reductase (VR. VR belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR superfamily and is responsible for the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH-dependent reduction of the substrate into its corresponding secondary alcohol product. The binding sites of the probable linear substrates, alamethicin, trichotoxin, antiamoebin I, chrysopermin C and gramicidin, were identified within the modeled R domain using multiple docking approaches. The docking results of the ligand in the active site of the R domain showed that reductase side chains have a high affinity towards ligand binding, while the thioester oxygen of each substrate forms a hydrogen bond with the OH group of Tyr176 and the thiol group of the substrate is closer to the Glu220. The modeling and docking studies revealed the reaction mechanism of reduction of thioester into a primary alcohol. Conclusion Peptaibol biosynthesis incorporates a single R domain, which appears to catalyze the four-electron reduction reaction of a peptidyl carrier protein (PCP-bound peptide to its corresponding primary alcohol. Analysis of R domains present in the non-redundant (nr database of the NCBI showed that the R domain always resides in the last NRPS module and is involved in either a two or four-electron reduction reaction.

  4. Biliverdin reductase: a target for cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Peter E M; Miralem, Tihomir; Maines, Mahin D

    2015-01-01

    Biliverdin reductase (BVR) is a multifunctional protein that is the primary source of the potent antioxidant, bilirubin. BVR regulates activities/functions in the insulin/IGF-1/IRK/PI3K/MAPK pathways. Activation of certain kinases in these pathways is/are hallmark(s) of cancerous cells. The protein is a scaffold/bridge and intracellular transporter of kinases that regulate growth and proliferation of cells, including PKCs, ERK and Akt, and their targets including NF-?B, Elk1, HO-1, and iNOS. The scaffold and transport functions enable activated BVR to relocate from the cytosol to the nucleus or to the plasma membrane, depending on the activating stimulus. This enables the reductase to function in diverse signaling pathways. And, its expression at the transcript and protein levels are increased in human tumors and the infiltrating T-cells, monocytes and circulating lymphocytes, as well as the circulating and infiltrating macrophages. These functions suggest that the cytoprotective role of BVR may be permissive for cancer/tumor growth. In this review, we summarize the recent developments that define the pro-growth activities of BVR, particularly with respect to its input into the MAPK signaling pathway and present evidence that BVR-based peptides inhibit activation of protein kinases, including MEK, PKC?, and ERK as well as downstream targets including Elk1 and iNOS, and thus offers a credible novel approach to reduce cancer cell proliferation. PMID:26089799

  5. AFM-assisted fabrication of thiol SAM pattern with alternating quantified surface potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Bradley; Simons, Janet; Xu, Song; Leonenko, Zoya

    2011-12-01

    Thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are widely used in many nano- and bio-technology applications. We report a new approach to create and characterize a thiol SAMs micropattern with alternating charges on a flat gold-coated substrate using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). We produced SAMs-patterns made of alternating positively charged, negatively charged, and hydrophobic-terminated thiols by an automated AFM-assisted manipulation, or nanografting. We show that these thiol patterns possess only small topographical differences as revealed by AFM, and distinguished differences in surface potential (20-50 mV), revealed by KPFM. The pattern can be helpful in the development of biosensor technologies, specifically for selective binding of biomolecules based on charge and hydrophobicity, and serve as a model for creating surfaces with quantified alternating surface potential distribution.

  6. AFM-assisted fabrication of thiol SAM pattern with alternating quantified surface potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Janet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs are widely used in many nano- and bio-technology applications. We report a new approach to create and characterize a thiol SAMs micropattern with alternating charges on a flat gold-coated substrate using atomic force microscopy (AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM. We produced SAMs-patterns made of alternating positively charged, negatively charged, and hydrophobic-terminated thiols by an automated AFM-assisted manipulation, or nanografting. We show that these thiol patterns possess only small topographical differences as revealed by AFM, and distinguished differences in surface potential (20-50 mV, revealed by KPFM. The pattern can be helpful in the development of biosensor technologies, specifically for selective binding of biomolecules based on charge and hydrophobicity, and serve as a model for creating surfaces with quantified alternating surface potential distribution.

  7. Mechanism of misonidazole-linked cytotoxicity and altered radiation response: role of cellular thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are briefly presented of a study of the effect of different concentrations (1 mM, 5mM, and 15 mM) of misonidazole on the endogenous non-protein thiols (NPSH) of dense-cell suspensions of Ehrlich cells made hypoxic by their own metabolic consumption of oxygen. Thiol loss occurred at all drug concentrations. The effects of 15-minute incubations at different concentration of misonidazole on the thiol content of dense suspensions of hypoxic V79 lung-cells compared with Erhlich cells is also shown. There appeared to be no change in NPSH of EMT6 tumour, measured in vivo five hours following a 1 mg/kg dose of misonidazole. Removal of thiol in complete growth medium containing serum was greatest for misonidazole, followed by the nitroheterocyclic radiosensitizing compounds SR 2508 and SR 2555. (U.K.)

  8. Controlling Topological Entanglement in Engineered Protein Hydrogels with a Variety of Thiol Coupling Chemistries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BradleyOlsen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Topological entanglements between polymer chains are achieved in associating protein hydrogels through the synthesis of high molecular weight proteins via chain extension using a variety of thiol coupling chemistries, including disulfide formation, thiol-maleimide, thiol-bromomaleimide and thiol-ene. Coupling of cysteines via disulfide formation results in the most pronounced entanglement effect in hydrogels, while other chemistries provide versatile means of changing the extent of entanglement, achieving faster chain extension, and providing a facile method of controlling the network hierarchy and incorporating stimuli responsivities. The addition of trifunctional coupling agents causes incomplete crosslinking and introduces branching architecture to the protein molecules. The high-frequency plateau modulus and the entanglement plateau modulus can be tuned by changing the ratio of difunctional chain extender to the trifunctional branching unit. Therefore, these chain extension reactions show promise in delicately controlling the relaxation and mechanical properties of engineered protein hydrogels in ways that complement their design through genetic engineering.

  9. Redox Mediators in Visible Light Photocatalysis: Photocatalytic Radical Thiol–Ene Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetically useful radical thiol–ene reactions can be initiated by visible light irradiation in the presence of transition metal polypyridyl photocatalysts. The success of this method relies upon the use of p-toluidine as an essential additive. Using these conditions, high-yielding thiol–ene reactions of cysteine-containing biomolecules can be accomplished using biocompatibile wavelengths of visible light, under aqueous conditions, and with the thiol component as the limiting reagent. We present evidence that p-toluidine serves as a redox mediator that is capable of catalyzing the otherwise inefficient photooxidation of thiols to the key thiyl radical intermediate. Thus, we show that co-catalytic oxidants can be important in the design of synthetic reactions involving visible light photoredox catalysis. PMID:24428433

  10. Cellular thiols in rat liver cell lines possessing different growth characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, P; Riley, P A; Slater, T F

    1991-04-01

    Thiol levels were measured in three cell lines derived from rat hepatocytes with different growth rates and degrees of tumorigenicity: IAR20 having normal epithelial morphology and no tumour forming ability; IAR6.1 being a chemically-transformed malignant cell line; and IAR6.1RT7 derived from an epithelial tumour obtained after injection of IAR6.1 cells into a syngenic animal. The mean levels of GSH, GSSG, low molecular weight thiols (LMWT), macromolecular thiols (MT) and total reactive protein sulphur (TRPS), expressed as nmoles-SH mg-1 protein, were found to be 25.5, 7.5, 50.1, 114.5 and 143.6 respectively for IAR20; 37.6, 3.9, 65.4, 126.8 and 148.4 for IAR6.1; 17.2, 4.4, 52.3, 141.0 and 168.2 for IAR6.1RT7. Cultures were treated with D,L-buthionine-S,R-sulphoximine (BSO) to cause greater than 70 per cent depletion of GSH and the measurements of cellular thiols repeated. Although treatment with BSO caused a substantive decrease in the LMWT fraction, there were no major changes in macromolecular thiols or in total reactive protein sulphur. The respective mean values for LMWT, MT and TRPS (expressed as nmoles-SH mg-1 protein) were 19.4, 109.8, 136.3 for IAR20; 17.2, 119.3, 143.6 for IAR6.1; 21.6, 150.7 and 163.5 for IAR6.1RT7. It is concluded that significant differences in thiol levels exist between the three rat liver cell lines studied. However, severe acute depletion of GSH is not reflected by changes in the levels of macromolecular thiols which suggests that there is only a slow equilibrium between these two major thiol pools. PMID:1934313

  11. Can thiol compounds be used as biomarkers of aquatic ecosystem contamination by cadmium?

    OpenAIRE

    Ková?ová, Jana; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2009-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that an organism affected by cadmium (Cd) synthesize low molecular mass thiol compounds rich in cysteine (Cys), such as metallothioneins (MT) and glutathione (GSH/GSSG). The aim of this study was to summarize the effect of Cd on level of thiol compounds in aquatic organisms, and evalua...

  12. Mussel protein adhesion depends on interprotein thiol-mediated redox modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Wei, Wei; Danner, Eric; Ashley, Rebekah K; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2011-09-01

    Mussel adhesion is mediated by foot proteins (mfps) rich in a catecholic amino acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), capable of forming strong bidentate interactions with a variety of surfaces. A tendency toward facile auto-oxidation, however, often renders dopa unreliable for adhesion. We demonstrate that mussels limit dopa oxidation during adhesive plaque formation by imposing an acidic, reducing regime based on the thiol-rich mfp-6, which restores dopa by coupling the oxidation of thiols to dopaquinone reduction. PMID:21804534

  13. High catalase and low thiol levels in adult-ADHD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gokay alpak

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study may indicate that thiol levels may be decreased with in reaction of increased CAT levels and thiol act like a pro-oxidant. This study may be considered as one of the initial phase studies that lighten the relationship between oxidative stress and A-ADHD. There is a need for further studies that will prove this relationship exactly.

  14. Occurrence of polyfunctional thiols in sorghum beer "ikigage" made with Vernonia amygdalina "umubirizi"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2012-01-01

    Several polyfunctional thiols have been previously identified in beers made from barley and hops. These compounds have not been investigated in beers brewed with non-Western raw materials. Here we have performed a thiol-specific extraction with p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid on a traditional ikigage sorghum beer from Rwandese peasants (use of Vernonia amygdalina just for yeast propagation), and on two pilot beers with addition (or not) of V. amygdalina in the boiling kettle, instead of hops. G...

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction analysis of thiol peroxidase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant thiol peroxidase from Y. pseudotuberculosis has been purified and crystallized in three crystal forms. Thiol peroxidase is an atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin that reduces alkyl hydroperoxides. Wild-type and C61S mutant protein have been recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using nickel-affinity chromatography. Initial crystallization trials yielded three crystal forms in three different space groups (P21, P64 and P212121) both in the presence and the absence of DTT

  16. Optimization of Optical Properties of Polycarbonate Film with Thiol Gold-Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Larosa; Enrico Stura; Roberto Eggenhöffner; Claudio Nicolini

    2009-01-01

    A new nanostructured composite film based on thiol gold nanoparticles dispersed in polycarbonate and prepared by evaporating a solution of 1-dodecanthiol gold nanoparticles and polycarbonate was developed for applications as optical lenses. Lenses with superior mechanical properties, coloring and UV ray absorption and with the same transparency as the matrix were obtained. The supporting highly transparent polycarbonate matrix and the chloroform solution of thiol gold nanoparticles, 3 nm mean...

  17. Thiol peroxidases mediate specific genome-wide regulation of gene expression in response to hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Fomenko, Dmitri E; Koc, Ahmet; Agisheva, Natalia; Jacobsen, Michael; Kaya, Alaattin; Malinouski, Mikalai; Rutherford, Julian C.; Siu, Kam-Leung; Jin, Dong-Yan; Winge, Dennis R; GLADYSHEV, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is thought to regulate cellular processes by direct oxidation of numerous cellular proteins, whereas antioxidants, most notably thiol peroxidases, are thought to reduce peroxides and inhibit H2O2 response. However, thiol peroxidases have also been implicated in activation of transcription factors and signaling. It remains unclear if these enzymes stimulate or inhibit redox regulation and whether this regulation is widespread or limited to a few cellular components. Herein, w...

  18. The Role of Thiol on Degradation of Pentaerythrityl Tetranitrate and Isosorbide Dinitrate

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Pamudji; R.E. Kartasasmita; M.R. Suwitono; Ibrahim, S.

    2011-01-01

    Thiols such as N-acetylcystein (NAC) are used to replenish glutathione (GSH) level, with regard to their function in the maintenance of cellular reduction-oxidation balance and control of oxidative stress. Thiols play a role in the reductive metabolism of nitrates to NO, an important signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system as well as other systems throughout the body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NAC on decomposition of different organic nitrate esters according to it...

  19. Regulation of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase mRNA synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanke, P D; Fuchs, J A

    1983-01-01

    A RNA-DNA hybridization assay for ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (RDP reductase) mRNA was used to determine whether control of RDP reductase synthesis in Escherichia coli is at the level of RNA transcription. The correlation observed between the level of RDP reductase enzymatic activity and the rate of RDP reductase mRNA synthesis suggested that the control is at the level of RNA transcription. No increase in RDP reductase enzymatic activity or RDP reductase mRNA was observed during the...

  20. The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs): Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M

    2015-06-01

    The aldo-keto reductase (AKR) protein superfamily contains >190 members that fall into 16 families and are found in all phyla. These enzymes reduce carbonyl substrates such as: sugar aldehydes; keto-steroids, keto-prostaglandins, retinals, quinones, and lipid peroxidation by-products. Exceptions include the reduction of steroid double bonds catalyzed by AKR1D enzymes (5?-reductases); and the oxidation of proximate carcinogen trans-dihydrodiol polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; while the ?-subunits of potassium gated ion channels (AKR6 family) control Kv channel opening. AKRs are usually 37kDa monomers, have an (?/?)8-barrel motif, display large loops at the back of the barrel which govern substrate specificity, and have a conserved cofactor binding domain. AKRs catalyze an ordered bi bi kinetic mechanism in which NAD(P)H cofactor binds first and leaves last. In enzymes that favor NADPH, the rate of release of NADP(+) is governed by a slow isomerization step which places an upper limit on kcat. AKRs retain a conserved catalytic tetrad consisting of Tyr55, Asp50, Lys84, and His117 (AKR1C9 numbering). There is conservation of the catalytic mechanism with short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) even though they show different protein folds. There are 15 human AKRs of these AKR1B1, AKR1C1-1C3, AKR1D1, and AKR1B10 have been implicated in diabetic complications, steroid hormone dependent malignancies, bile acid deficiency and defects in retinoic acid signaling, respectively. Inhibitor programs exist world-wide to target each of these enzymes to treat the aforementioned disorders. Inherited mutations in AKR1C and AKR1D1 enzymes are implicated in defects in the development of male genitalia and bile acid deficiency, respectively, and occur in evolutionarily conserved amino acids. The human AKRs have a large number of nsSNPs and splice variants, but in many instances functional genomics is lacking. AKRs and their variants are now poised to be interrogated using modern genomic and informatics approaches to determine their association with human health and disease. PMID:25304492

  1. The orphan protein bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase joins the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide reductase family

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Juhan; Copley, Shelley D.

    2013-01-01

    Facile DNA sequencing became possible decades after many enzymes had been purified and characterized. Consequently, there are still “orphan” enyzmes whose activity is known but the genes that encode them have not been identified. Identification of the genes encoding orphan enzymes is important because it allows correct annotation of genes of unknown function or with mis-assigned function. Bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase (GCR) is an orphan protein that was purified in 1988. This enzyme catalyz...

  2. Oxidant-mediated modification of the cellular thiols is sufficient for arginase activation in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyamu, Efemwonkiekie W; Perdew, Harrison A; Woods, Gerald M

    2012-01-01

    Increased arginase activity in the vasculature has been implicated in the regulation of nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis, leading to the development of vascular disease and the promotion of tumor cell growth. Recently, we showed that cysteine, in the presence of iron, promotes arginase activity by driving the Fenton reaction. In the present report, we showed that induction of oxidative stress in erythroleukemic cells with the thiol-specific oxidant, diamide, led to an increase in arginase activity by 42% (P = 0.02; vs. control). By using specific antibodies, it was demonstrated that this increase correlated with an increase in arginase-1 levels in the cells and with corresponding decreases in glutathione and protein thiol levels. Treatment of cells with aurothiomalate (ATM), a protein thiol-complexing agent, diminished the activity of arginase and arginase-1 levels by 19.5 and 35.2%, respectively (vs. control) and significantly decreased both glutathione and protein thiol levels, further implicating the thiol redox system in the cellular activation of arginase. Furthermore, diamide significantly altered the kinetics of arginase, resulting in the doubling of its V(max) (vs. control). Our presented data demonstrate, for the first time that the intracellular arginase activation is may be enhanced in part, via a cellular thiol-mediated mechanism. PMID:21918827

  3. Oxidative stress and decreased thiol level in patients with migraine: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasemin; Dirik, Ebru; Ne?elio?lu, Salim; Erel, Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Although migraine is a neurological disorder known since long, its physiopathology remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that migraine is associated with oxidative stress; however, they report divergent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and serum thiol level in migraine patients with or without aura. The study group consisted of 141 migraine patients. The control group included 70 healthy subjects. TAS, TOS, OSI were evaluated using a method developed by Erel. Serum thiol level was measured using the Hu method. No difference was found in TAS, TOS, OSI between the patients and controls. The level of thiol was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Negative correlations were detected between thiol level and Migraine Disability Assessment score in patients. Although TAS, TOS, and OSI were similar to those of the control group, serum thiol level, an important marker of antioxidant capacity, was significantly lower in migraines compared with controls, and caused more serious disability. Novel treatment approaches may be developed based on these data, and compounds containing thiol, such as alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, may be used in prophylaxis. PMID:25595415

  4. Atmospheric reactivity of alcohols, thiols and fluoroalcohols with chlorine atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon Ruiz, Andres

    Alcohols, thiols and fluoroalcohols are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are emitted to the atmosphere from both natural (vegetation, oceans, volcanoes, etc.) and anthropogenic sources (fuels, solvents, wastewater, incinerators, refrigerants, etc.). These pollutants can be eliminated from the troposphere by deposition on the terrestrial surface, direct photolysis or reaction with different tropospheric oxidants. Reactions of VOCs with tropospheric oxidants are involved in the well-known atmospheric phenomenon of photochemical smog or the production of tropospheric ozone. The oxidation of these VOCs in the troposphere is mainly initiated by reaction with OH radicals during the daytime and with NO radicals at night. However, in recent years, the oxidation by chlorine atoms (Cl) has gained great importance in the study of atmospheric reactions because they may exert some influence in the boundary layer, particularly in marine and coastal environments. In general, Cl atoms are much more reactive species than OH and NO; radicals and therefore low concentrations of Cl may compete with OH and NO3 in hydrocarbon oxidation processes. The main source of tropospheric Cl atoms is believed to be the photolysis of chlorine-containing molecules generated by heterogeneous reactions of sea salt aerosols. It has also been proposed that Cl atoms, produced in the photolysis of Cl2 emitted from industrial processes, may enhance hydrocarbon oxidation rates and ozone production in urban environments. In this work, a kinetic, theoretical and mechanistic study of the reaction of several alcohols, thiols, and fluoroalcohols with Cl atoms has been carried out. Pulsed laser photolysis-fluorescence resonance (PLP-RF) technique was used for the kinetic study as a function of temperature and pressure. An environmental chamber-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) system was also employed in the kinetic studies. Tropospheric lifetimes of these pollutants were estimated using obtained kinetic data. Products of these reactions were determined by FTIR and derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and HPLC analysis. Finally, in order to determine the main reaction pathways a theoretical study at QCISD(T)/6-311G**//MP2(Full)(6-311C** level was performed for each reaction.

  5. Thioredoxin f1 and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C Have Overlapping Functions in Regulating Photosynthetic Metabolism and Plant Growth in Response to Varying Light Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormählen, Ina; Meitzel, Tobias; Groysman, Julia; Öchsner, Alexandra Bianca; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Naranjo, Belén; Cejudo, Francisco J; Geigenberger, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Two different thiol redox systems exist in plant chloroplasts, the ferredoxin-thioredoxin (Trx) system, which depends on ferredoxin reduced by the photosynthetic electron transport chain and, thus, on light, and the NADPH-dependent Trx reductase C (NTRC) system, which relies on NADPH and thus may be linked to sugar metabolism in the dark. Previous studies suggested, therefore, that the two different systems may have different functions in plants. We now report that there is a previously unrecognized functional redundancy of Trx f1 and NTRC in regulating photosynthetic metabolism and growth. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, combined, but not single, deficiencies of Trx f1 and NTRC led to severe growth inhibition and perturbed light acclimation, accompanied by strong impairments of Calvin-Benson cycle activity and starch accumulation. Light activation of key enzymes of these pathways, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, was almost completely abolished. The subsequent increase in NADPH-NADP(+) and ATP-ADP ratios led to increased nitrogen assimilation, NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation, and light vulnerability of photosystem I core proteins. In an additional approach, reporter studies show that Trx f1 and NTRC proteins are both colocalized in the same chloroplast substructure. Results provide genetic evidence that light- and NADPH-dependent thiol redox systems interact at the level of Trx f1 and NTRC to coordinately participate in the regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle, starch metabolism, and growth in response to varying light conditions. PMID:26338951

  6. Aldo keto reductases 1B in endocrinology and metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    AntoineMartinez

    2012-01-01

    The aldose reductase (human AKR1B1/mouse Akr1b3) has been the focus of many research because of its role in diabetic complications. The starting point of these alterations is the massive entry of glucose in polyol pathway where it is converted into sorbitol by this enzyme. However, the issue of aldose reductase function in non-diabetic condition remains unresolved. Aldose reductase-like enzymes (AKR1B10, Akr1b7 and Akr1b8) are highly related isoforms often co-expressed with bona fide aldose r...

  7. The Function of Cytoplasmic Flavin Reductases in the Reduction of Azo Dyes by Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Rainer; Rau, Jörg; Stolz, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    A flavin reductase, which is naturally part of the ribonucleotide reductase complex of Escherichia coli, acted in cell extracts of recombinant E. coli strains under aerobic and anaerobic conditions as an “azo reductase.” The transfer of the recombinant plasmid, which resulted in the constitutive expression of high levels of activity of the flavin reductase, increased the reduction rate for different industrially relevant sulfonated azo dyes in vitro almost 100-fold. The flavin reductase gene ...

  8. Tunable thiol-epoxy shape memory polymer foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellson, Gregory; Di Prima, Matthew; Ware, Taylor; Tang, Xiling; Voit, Walter

    2015-05-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are uniquely suited to a number of applications due to their shape storage and recovery abilities and the wide range of available chemistries. However, many of the desired performance properties are tied to the polymer chemistry which can make optimization difficult. The use of foaming techniques is one way to tune mechanical response of an SMP without changing the polymer chemistry. In this work, a novel thiol-epoxy SMP was foamed using glass microspheres (40 and 50% by volume Q-Cel 6019), using expandable polymer microspheres (1% 930 DU 120), and by a chemical blowing agent (1% XOP-341). Each approach created SMP foam with a differing density and microstructure from the others. Thermal and thermomechanical analysis was performed to observe the behavioral difference between the foaming techniques and to confirm that the glass transition (Tg) was relatively unchanged near 50 °C while the glassy modulus varied from 19.1 to 345 MPa and the rubbery modulus varied from 0.04 to 2.2 MPa. The compressive behavior of the foams was characterized through static compression testing at different temperatures, and cyclic compression testing at Tg. Constrained shape recovery testing showed a range of peak recovery stress from 5 MPa for the syntactic Q-Cel foams to ˜0.1 MPa for the chemically blown XOP-341 foam. These results showed that multiple foaming approaches can be used with a novel SMP to vary the mechanical response independent of Tg and polymer chemistry.

  9. D-erythrulose reductase can also reduce diacetyl: further purification and characterization of D-erythrulose reductase from chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M; Hosomi, S; Mizoguchi, T; Nishihara, T

    1998-04-01

    We have discovered new characteristics of D-erythrulose reductase, namely, that it can catalyze reduction of not only D-erythrulose but also such diketones as diacetyl. These substrates have a common structure with two neighboring carbonyls possibly in s-cis plane structure, showing that the enzyme may rigorously distinguish between substrates and other compounds. D-Erythrulose reductase was predominantly located in the kidney and the liver of the chicken. The obtained results suggest that D-erythrulose reductase plays an important role in metabolizing alpha-dicarbonyls in animal organs, because these diketones widely occur in natural foods. PMID:9538249

  10. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of thioredoxin reductase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thioredoxin reductase from S. coelicolor was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Thioredoxin reductases are homodimeric flavoenzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxidized thioredoxin substrate. Bacterial thioredoxin reductases represent a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. Recombinant thioredoxin reductase TrxB from Streptomyces coelicolor was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from cryocooled crystals to 2.4 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.9, b = 60.6, c = 135.4 Å, ? = ? = 90.0, ? = 96.5°

  11. Characterization of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase from C. elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thioredoxin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the catalytic disulfide bond of thioredoxin. In mammals and other higher eukaryotes, thioredoxin reductases contain the rare amino acid selenocysteine at the active site. The mitochondrial enzyme from Caenorhabditis elegans, however, contains a cysteine residue in place of selenocysteine. The mitochondrial C. elegans thioredoxin reductase was cloned from an expressed sequence tag and then produced in Escherichia coli as an intein-fusion protein. The purified recombinant enzyme has a k cat of 610 min-1 and a K m of 610 ?M using E. coli thioredoxin as substrate. The reported k cat is 25% of the k cat of the mammalian enzyme and is 43-fold higher than a cysteine mutant of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. The enzyme would reduce selenocysteine, but not hydrogen peroxide or insulin. The flanking glycine residues of the GCCG motif were mutated to serine. The mutants improved substrate binding, but decreased the catalytic rate

  12. Oxidised- and total non-protein bound glutathione and related thiols in gallbladder bile of patients with various gastrointestinal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Peters Joost H; van Schaik Annie; Peters Wilbert HM; Van Goor Harry

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine, accomplishing a broad range of vital functions. Synthesis of glutathione and cysteine is performed mainly in the liver, whereas most other tissues are supplied with these thiols via sinusoidal efflux into the blood. Since canalicular efflux also occurs, thiols may be present in human bile. However, thiol composition of human gallbladder bile is largely unknown, which makes it difficult to speculate on...

  13. Preparing mono-dispersed liquid core PDMS microcapsules from thiol–ene–epoxy-tailored flow-focusing microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Skolimowski, Maciej; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    An applied dual-cure system based on thiol–ene and thiol–epoxy “click chemistry” reactions was proved to be an extremely effective and easy to use tool for preparing microfluidic chips, thereby allowing for precise control over material properties and providing the possibility of covalently bonding chip wafers. Different thiol–ene–epoxy-based polymer compositions were tested with the help of DSC and ATR FTIR, in order to investigate their physical and chemical properties. Water contact angles we...

  14. Structure, thermal and dielectric properties of LC thiol with azobenzene mesogenic group and comb-like polybutadiene-diols modified with this thiol.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ilavský, Michal; Jigounov, A.; Nedbal, J.; Pissis, P.; Baldrian, Josef; Sedláková, Zde?ka

    Praha : Ústav makromolekulární chemie AS CR, v. v. i, 2007 - (Kahovec, J.). s. 61 ISBN 978-80-85009-55-2. [Microsymposium on Nanostructured Polymers and Polymer Nanocomposites /46./. 08.07.2007-12.07.2007, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA4112401 Keywords : LC thiol * polybutadiene- diols Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  15. Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase expression is cell cycle regulated.

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, L.; Fuchs, J A

    1992-01-01

    The expression of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in Escherichia coli was investigated in cultures synchronized by obtaining the smallest cells in a population after sucrose gradient centrifugation. Specific activity of ribonucleotide reductase and DNA initiation were found to increase in parallel, periodically as a function of the cell cycle. The expression of nrd was also determined in cells synchronized by periodic repeated doubling in a phosphate limited medium. Antibodies dir...

  16. Deletion of steroid 5?-reductase 2 gene in male pseudohermaphroditism

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Stefan; Berman, David M.; Jenkins, Elizabeth P.; RUSSELL, DAVID W.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone by steroid 5?-reductase is a key reaction in androgen action, and is essential both for the formation of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and for androgen-mediated growth of tissues such as the prostate1,2. Single gene defects that impair this conversion lead to pseudohermaphroditism in which 46 X, Y males have male internal urogenital tracts, but female external genitalia3. We have described the isolation of a human 5?-reductase ...

  17. Expression of bacterial mercuric ion reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Rensing, C; Kües, U; Stahl, U.; Nies, D H; Friedrich, B

    1992-01-01

    The gene merA coding for bacterial mercuric ion reductase was cloned under the control of the yeast promoter for alcohol dehydrogenase I in the yeast-Escherichia coli shuttle plasmid pADH040-2 and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae AH22. The resulting transformant harbored stable copies of the merA-containing hybrid plasmid, displayed a fivefold increase in the MIC of mercuric chloride, and synthesized mercuric ion reductase activity.

  18. Thiol involvement in the inhibition of DNA repair by metals in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously demonstrated that a number of metal salts have the capacity to inhibit the DNA repair process in human cells. We investigated repair of X-ray damage in metal-treated HeLa cells under normal conditions and conditions in which cellular thiols had been depleted by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and diethyl maleate (DEM). The combination reduced cellular TNPT by 92%, and cells so depleted became sensitized to X-ray-induced killing and exhibited retarded sealing of X-ray-induced DNA single-strand breaks. Thiol depletion also sensitized cells to the cytotoxicity of certain but not all metals tested. The sensitivity to copper was increased over 6000-fold, and significant enhancement of killing was also seen in cells treated with arsenic, lead, and mercury. Smaller effects were observed with cadmium and nickel, and sensitivity to manganese, magnesium, cobalt or zinc was not substantially altered. Enhanced sensitivity to X-ray killing was found in cells treated with nickel, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and copper under conditions in which thiols were not limiting. In thiol-depleted cells, sensitivity was not further increased in the case of nickel and arsenic but at least additively affected for copper, mercury and zinc. X-Ray-induced single-strand break repair was retarded by treatment of cells with mercury, nickel, zinc, arsenic, and copper in thiol-normal cells. In thiol-depleted cells, repair inhibition by zinc, arsenic, and copper was nearly complete, while little additional effect on repair was seen following mercury and nickel treatment. An examination of the effects of brief metal treatment on cellular TNPT revealed that copper strongly decreased thiol levels whereas the other metals tested either had no effect on TNPT or reduced TNPT levels to no less than 48% under the conditions employed

  19. Regulation of cellular thiols in human lymphocytes by alpha-lipoic acid: a flow cytometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, C K; Roy, S; Han, D; Packer, L

    1997-01-01

    Modulation of cellular thiols is an effective therapeutic strategy, particularly in the treatment of AIDS. Lipoic acid, a metabolic antioxidant, functions as a redox modulator and has proven clinically beneficial effects. It is also used as a dietary supplement. We utilized the specific capabilities of N-ethylmaleimide to block total cellular thiols, phenylarsine oxide to block vicinal dithiols, and buthionine sulfoximine to deplete cellular GSH to flow cytometrically investigate how these thiol pools are influenced by exogenous lipoate treatment. Low concentrations of lipoate and its analogue lipoamide increased Jurkat cell GSH in a dose-dependent manner between 10 (25 microM for lipoamide) to 100 microM. This was also observed in mitogenically stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Studies with Jurkat cells and its Wurzburg subclone showed that lipoate dependent increase in cellular GSH was similar in CD4+ and - cells. Chronic (16 week) exposure of cells to lipoate resulted in further increase of total cellular thiols, vicinal dithiols, and GSH. High concentration (2 and 5 mM) of lipoate exhibited cell shrinkage, thiol depletion, and DNA fragmentation effects. Based on similar effects of octanoic acid, the cytotoxic effects of lipoate at high concentration could be attributed to its fatty acid structure. In certain diseases such as AIDS and cancer, elevated plasma glutamate lowers cellular GSH by inhibiting cystine uptake. Low concentrations of lipoate and lipoamide were able to bypass the adverse effect of elevated extracellular glutamate. A heterogeneity in the thiol status of PBL was observed. Lipoate, lipoamide, or N-acetylcysteine corrected the deficient thiol status of cell subpopulations. Hence, the favorable effects of low concentrations of lipoate treatment appears clinically relevant. PMID:9098099

  20. The mechanism of Hg2+ toxicity in cultured human oral fibroblasts: the involvement of cellular thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Cotgreave, I; Atzori, L; Grafström, R C

    1992-11-30

    To study amalgam-related toxicity in a primary target cell type, human oral fibroblasts were grown in a low-serum medium containing 1.25% fetal bovine serum and exposed to Hg2+, a corrosion product of amalgam. A 1-h exposure to various concentrations of Hg2+ resulted in a dose-dependent loss of colony forming efficiency. Removal of the low-molecular-weight thiol cysteine from the medium increased the toxicity of Hg2+ almost 50-fold in comparison with complete medium or medium without fetal bovine serum. Accordingly, fetal bovine serum was not found to contain detectable levels of low-molecular-weight thiols. The levels of cellular free protein thiols were shown to be depleted Hg2+ at significantly lower concentrations of the metal ion than those required to decrease the levels of the major cellular low-molecular weight thiol glutathione. These decreases were dependent on the exposure conditions, i.e. the presence of serum and thiols, in a manner similar to the effect on colony forming efficiency. Other functions commonly related to cell viability, including the accumulation of the vital dye neutral red, the cytosolic retention of deoxyglucose and the mitochondrial reduction of tetrazolium were also inhibited by Hg2+, albeit at higher concentrations. Finally, the depletion of cellular glutathione, by pre-exposure of the cells to the glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine, somewhat increased the toxicity of Hg2+ and potentiated the depletion of protein thiols. Taken together, the toxicity of Hg2+ in human oral fibroblasts was demonstrated in several assays of which colony forming efficiency was the most sensitive, cell killing by this agent was related to its high affinity for protein thiols, whereas glutathione showed a significant, but limited, ability to protect the cells from Hg2+ toxicity. PMID:1458551

  1. Cloning, expression and antigenicity of the L. donovani reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A T; Kemp, K; Theander, T G; Handman, E

    2001-06-01

    The protozoan parasite Leishmania undergoes a morphological and biochemical transformation from the promastigote to the amastigote form during its life cycle, which is reflected in the expression of stage-specific proteins. One of these proteins shows homology to a superfamily of reductase proteins. We have cloned the reductase gene from L donovani and have shown that it differs in only one nucleotide from the L. major homologue, resulting in one amino acid change. A cytosine (C) to guanine (G) transposition in the coding sequence leads to a nonconserved substitution of asparagine (N) for lysine (K). Only 2 of 22 plasma samples from patients with visceral leishmaniasis were found to have detectable anti-reductase antibodies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from one of three individuals previously infected with visceral leishmaniasis proliferated in the presence of recombinant reductase protein. Interestingly, 6 of 10 PBMC isolated from Danish controls proliferated in the presence of the reductase protein. Intracellular IFNgamma was found in a significant percentage of cells in all the tested PBMC cultures from Danes, whereas IL4 was only found in a small proportion of cells, or not at all. The results indicate the presence of cross-reacting CD45R0 memory T-cells in individuals not exposed to Leishmania. Several previous studies have shown that T-cells from nonexposed individuals often respond to crude Leishmania antigen preparations. The present study suggests that this reactivity is partly caused by T-cells recognising L. donovani reductase. PMID:11506479

  2. INHIBITION OF TYPE I 5?-REDUCTASE BY MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Vijaya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione, the activity of enzyme was determined using RIA for testosterone and ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione. It was found that methanolic extract of Embelia ribes was a potent inhibitor of type I 5?-reductase (IC50:100?g/mL. Extracts of Vitex negundo, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica which also inhibited type I 5?-reductase (IC50: 200-390 ?g /mL. Therefore herbal formulation of these plant extracts may be used in the treatment of skin disorders involving type I 5?-reductase.

  3. Voltammetry and Electrocatalysis of Achrornobacter Xylosoxidans Copper Nitrite Reductase on Functionalized Au(111)-Electrode Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Anna C.; Zhang, Jingdong

    2007-01-01

    A long-standing issue in protein film voltammetry (PFV), particularly electrocatalytic voltammetry of redox enzyme monolayers, is the variability of protein adsorption modes, reflected in distributions of catalytic activity of the adsorbed protein/enzyme molecules. Use of well-defined, atomically planar electrode surfaces is a step towards the resolution of this central issue. We report here the voltammetry of copper nitrite reductase (CNiR, Achromobacter xylosoxidons) on Au(111)-electrode surfaces modified by monolayers of a broad variety of thiol-based linker molecules. These represent positively charged and electrostatically neutral, hydrophobic and hydrophilic, aliphatic and aromatic, and variable-length micro-environments, as well as their combinations. Optimal conditions for enzyme function seems to be a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface linker properties, which can lead to close to complete non-catalytic monolayer interfacial electron transfer function and electrocatalysis with activity approaching enzyme activity in homogeneous solution. Thiophenol (combined hydrophobic stacking and interdispersed water molecules), 4-methyl-thiophenol (hydrophobic and water molecules), and 3- and 4-aminothiophenol(hydrophilic, hydrophobic) offer the overall most efficient micro-environments. Subtle differences with even small structural linker differences, however, lead to widely different electrocatalytic properties, strikingly illuminated by the (omega-mercaptoamines. CuNiR thus shows highly efficient, close to ideal reversible electrocatalytic voltammetry on cysteamine-covered Au(111)-electrode surfaces, most likely due to two cysteamine orientations previously disclosed by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. Such a dual orientation exposes both a hydrophobic and a positively charged, hydrophilic surface feature. In contrast, the higher cysteamine homologues expose only the hydrophilic component with no electrocatalytic activity on these surfaces. These results offer a basis for rational surface design in forthcoming biological electrocatalysis useful both fundamentally and in novel biosensor technology.

  4. Functional Analysis of Free Methionine-R-sulfoxide Reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae*S?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Lee, Byung Cheon; Marino, Stefano M.; Zhang, Yan; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Kaya, Alaattin; Hacioglu, Elise; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Koc, Ahmet; Kim, Hwa-Young; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2009-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are oxidoreductases that catalyze thiol-dependent reduction of oxidized methionines. MsrA and MsrB are the best known Msrs that repair methionine-S-sulfoxide (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxide (Met-R-SO) residues in proteins, respectively. In addition, an Escherichia coli enzyme specific for free Met-R-SO, designated fRMsr, was recently discovered. In this work, we carried out comparative genomic and experimental analyses to examine occurrence, evolution, and function of fRMsr. This protein is present in single copies and two mutually exclusive subtypes in about half of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes but is missing in higher plants and animals. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae fRMsr homolog was found to reduce free Met-R-SO but not free Met-S-SO or dabsyl-Met-R-SO. fRMsr was responsible for growth of yeast cells on Met-R-SO, and the double fRMsr/MsrA mutant could not grow on a mixture of methionine sulfoxides. However, in the presence of methionine, even the triple fRMsr/MsrA/MsrB mutant was viable. In addition, fRMsr deletion strain showed an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and a decreased life span, whereas overexpression of fRMsr conferred higher resistance to oxidants. Molecular modeling and cysteine residue targeting by thioredoxin pointed to Cys101 as catalytic and Cys125 as resolving residues in yeast fRMsr. These residues as well as a third Cys, resolving Cys91, clustered in the structure, and each was required for the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The data show that fRMsr is the main enzyme responsible for the reduction of free Met-R-SO in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19049972

  5. Functional analysis of free methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Lee, Byung Cheon; Marino, Stefano M; Zhang, Yan; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Kaya, Alaattin; Hacioglu, Elise; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Koc, Ahmet; Kim, Hwa-Young; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2009-02-13

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are oxidoreductases that catalyze thiol-dependent reduction of oxidized methionines. MsrA and MsrB are the best known Msrs that repair methionine-S-sulfoxide (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxide (Met-R-SO) residues in proteins, respectively. In addition, an Escherichia coli enzyme specific for free Met-R-SO, designated fRMsr, was recently discovered. In this work, we carried out comparative genomic and experimental analyses to examine occurrence, evolution, and function of fRMsr. This protein is present in single copies and two mutually exclusive subtypes in about half of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes but is missing in higher plants and animals. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae fRMsr homolog was found to reduce free Met-R-SO but not free Met-S-SO or dabsyl-Met-R-SO. fRMsr was responsible for growth of yeast cells on Met-R-SO, and the double fRMsr/MsrA mutant could not grow on a mixture of methionine sulfoxides. However, in the presence of methionine, even the triple fRMsr/MsrA/MsrB mutant was viable. In addition, fRMsr deletion strain showed an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and a decreased life span, whereas overexpression of fRMsr conferred higher resistance to oxidants. Molecular modeling and cysteine residue targeting by thioredoxin pointed to Cys(101) as catalytic and Cys(125) as resolving residues in yeast fRMsr. These residues as well as a third Cys, resolving Cys(91), clustered in the structure, and each was required for the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The data show that fRMsr is the main enzyme responsible for the reduction of free Met-R-SO in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19049972

  6. The Polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, Methionine Synthase, Methionine Synthase Reductase, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Bo TANG; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C...

  7. Radiosensitization by misonidazole during recovery of cellular thiols following depletion by BSO or DEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, N.J.; Soranson, J.A.

    1989-05-01

    V79 cells have been depleted of their endogenous thiols by treatment with 100 microM BSO for 16-18 hr, or 0.5 mM DEM for 1 hr. The recovery of cellular thiols after removal of the drugs was determined by h.p.l.c. or flow cytometry and the sensitizer enhancement ratio for 100 microM misonidazole was measured as a function of time after removal of the drugs. The SER of 1.2 for control (hypoxic) cells increased to 1.8 for BSO treated (hypoxic) cells and 2.2 for DEM treated ones, when thiol levels were below 10% of controls. The SER and thiol levels returned to control values within 5 hr of removing DEM. After BSO there was little change during the first 5 hr and then a gradual return to normal values by 24 hrs. The major fall in the SER after removal of the drugs occurred as the cellular thiols increased to 60% of control values.

  8. Radiosensitization by misonidazole during recovery of cellular thiols following depletion by BSO or DEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, N J; Soranson, J A

    1989-05-01

    V79 cells have been depleted of their endogenous thiols by treatment with 100 microM BSO for 16-18 hr, or 0.5 mM DEM for 1 hr. The recovery of cellular thiols after removal of the drugs was determined by h.p.l.c. or flow cytometry and the sensitizer enhancement ratio for 100 microM misonidazole was measured as a function of time after removal of the drugs. The SER of 1.2 for control (hypoxic) cells increased to 1.8 for BSO treated (hypoxic) cells and 2.2 for DEM treated ones, when thiol levels were below 10% of controls. The SER and thiol levels returned to control values within 5 hr of removing DEM. After BSO there was little change during the first 5 hr and then a gradual return to normal values by 24 hrs. The major fall in the SER after removal of the drugs occurred as the cellular thiols increased to 60% of control values. PMID:2715087

  9. Radiosensitization by misonidazole during recovery of cellular thiols following depletion by BSO or DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V79 cells have been depleted of their endogenous thiols by treatment with 100 microM BSO for 16-18 hr, or 0.5 mM DEM for 1 hr. The recovery of cellular thiols after removal of the drugs was determined by h.p.l.c. or flow cytometry and the sensitizer enhancement ratio for 100 microM misonidazole was measured as a function of time after removal of the drugs. The SER of 1.2 for control (hypoxic) cells increased to 1.8 for BSO treated (hypoxic) cells and 2.2 for DEM treated ones, when thiol levels were below 10% of controls. The SER and thiol levels returned to control values within 5 hr of removing DEM. After BSO there was little change during the first 5 hr and then a gradual return to normal values by 24 hrs. The major fall in the SER after removal of the drugs occurred as the cellular thiols increased to 60% of control values

  10. Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of Diamondoid Thiol Monolayers on Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T.M.; Fabbri, J.D.; Lee, J.R.I.; Schreiner, P.R.; Fokin, A.A.; Tkachenko, B.A.; Fokina, N.A.; Dahl, J.E.P.; Carlson, R.M.K.; Vance, A.L.; Yang, W.; Terminello, L.J.; Buuren, T.van; Melosh, N.A.

    2009-05-26

    Diamondoids, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures, have unique properties with potential value for nanotechnology. The availability and ability to selectively functionalize this special class of nanodiamond materials opens new possibilities for surface modification, for high-efficiency field emitters in molecular electronics, as seed crystals for diamond growth, or as robust mechanical coatings. The properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of diamondoids are thus of fundamental interest for a variety of emerging applications. This paper presents the effects of thiol substitution position and polymantane order on diamondoid SAMs on gold using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A framework to determine both molecular tilt and twist through NEXAFS is presented and reveals highly ordered diamondoid SAMs, with the molecular orientation controlled by the thiol location. C 1s and S 2p binding energies are lower in adamantane thiol than alkane thiols on gold by 0.67 {+-} 0.05 and 0.16 {+-} 0.04 eV, respectively. These binding energies vary with diamondoid monolayer structure and thiol substitution position, consistent with different degrees of steric strain and electronic interaction with the substrate. This work demonstrates control over the assembly, in particular the orientational and electronic structure, providing a flexible design of surface properties with this exciting new class of diamond nanoparticles.

  11. Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of Diamondoid Thiol Monolayers on Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T M; Fabbri, J; Lee, J I; Schreiner, P; Fokin, A A; Tkachenko, B A; Fokina, N A; Dahl, J; Carlson, B; Vance, A L; Yang, W; Terminello, L J; van Buuren, T; Melosh, N

    2007-11-27

    Diamondoids, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures, have unique properties with potential value for nanotechnology. The availability and ability to selectively functionalize this special class of nanodiamond materials opens new possibilities for surface-modification, for high-efficiency field emitters in molecular electronics, as seed crystals for diamond growth, or as robust mechanical coatings. The properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of diamondoids are thus of fundamental interest for a variety of emerging applications. This paper presents the effects of thiol substitution position and polymantane order on diamondoid SAMs on gold using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A framework to determine both molecular tilt and twist through NEXAFS is presented and reveals highly ordered diamondoid SAMs, with the molecular orientation controlled by the thiol location. C 1s and S 2p binding energies are lower in adamantane thiol than alkane thiols on gold by 0.67 {+-} 0.05 eV and 0.16 {+-} 0.04 eV respectively. These binding energies vary with diamondoid monolayer structure and thiol substitution position, consistent with different amounts of steric strain and electronic interaction with the substrate. This work demonstrates control over the assembly, in particular the orientational and electronic structure, providing a flexible design of surface properties with this exciting new class of diamond clusters.

  12. Oxidation of the albumin thiol to sulfenic acid and its implications in the intravascular compartment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Turell; S., Carballal; H., Botti; R., Radi; B., Alvarez.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in the intravascular compartment. It possesses a single thiol, Cys34, which constitutes ~80% of the total thiols in plasma. This thiol is able to scavenge plasma oxidants. A central intermediate in this potential antioxidant activity of human se [...] rum albumin is sulfenic acid (HSA-SOH). Work from our laboratories has demonstrated the formation of a relatively stable sulfenic acid in albumin through complementary spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric approaches. Recently, we have been able to obtain quantitative data that allowed us to measure the rate constants of sulfenic acid reactions with molecules of analytical and biological interest. Kinetic considerations led us to conclude that the most likely fate for sulfenic acid formed in the plasma environment is the reaction with low molecular weight thiols to form mixed disulfides, a reversible modification that is actually observed in ~25% of circulating albumin. Another possible fate for sulfenic acid is further oxidation to sulfinic and sulfonic acids. These irreversible modifications are also detected in the circulation. Oxidized forms of albumin are increased in different pathophysiological conditions and sulfenic acid lies in a mechanistic junction, relating oxidizing species to final thiol oxidation products.

  13. The synthesis of novel hybrid thiol-functionalized nano-structured SBA-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Duc; Phuong Dang, Tuyet; Khieu Dinh, Quang; Phu Nguyen, Huu; Vu, Anh Tuan

    2010-09-01

    Mesoporous thiol-functionalized SBA-15 has been directly synthesized by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with triblock copolymer P123 as-structure-directing agent under hydrothermal conditions. Surfactant removal was performed by Soxhlet ethanol extraction. These materials have been characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET model), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The main parameters, such as the initial molar ratio of MPTMS to TEOS, the time of adding MPTMS to synthesized gel and the Soxhlet ethanol extraction on the thiol functionalized SBA-15 with high thiol content and highly ordered hexagonal mesostructure, were investigated and evaluated. The adsorption capacity of the thiol-functionalized and non-functionalized SBA-15 materials for Pb2+ ion from aqueous solution was tested. It was found that the Pb2+ adsorption capacity of the thiol functionalized SBA-15 is three times higher than that of non-functionalized SBA-15.

  14. The synthesis of novel hybrid thiol-functionalized nano-structured SBA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous thiol-functionalized SBA-15 has been directly synthesized by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with triblock copolymer P123 as-structure-directing agent under hydrothermal conditions. Surfactant removal was performed by Soxhlet ethanol extraction. These materials have been characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET model), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The main parameters, such as the initial molar ratio of MPTMS to TEOS, the time of adding MPTMS to synthesized gel and the Soxhlet ethanol extraction on the thiol functionalized SBA-15 with high thiol content and highly ordered hexagonal mesostructure, were investigated and evaluated. The adsorption capacity of the thiol-functionalized and non-functionalized SBA-15 materials for Pb2+ ion from aqueous solution was tested. It was found that the Pb2+ adsorption capacity of the thiol functionalized SBA-15 is three times higher than that of non-functionalized SBA-15

  15. Thiol peroxidases mediate specific genome-wide regulation of gene expression in response to hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenko, Dmitri E; Koc, Ahmet; Agisheva, Natalia; Jacobsen, Michael; Kaya, Alaattin; Malinouski, Mikalai; Rutherford, Julian C; Siu, Kam-Leung; Jin, Dong-Yan; Winge, Dennis R; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2011-02-15

    Hydrogen peroxide is thought to regulate cellular processes by direct oxidation of numerous cellular proteins, whereas antioxidants, most notably thiol peroxidases, are thought to reduce peroxides and inhibit H(2)O(2) response. However, thiol peroxidases have also been implicated in activation of transcription factors and signaling. It remains unclear if these enzymes stimulate or inhibit redox regulation and whether this regulation is widespread or limited to a few cellular components. Herein, we found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking all eight thiol peroxidases were viable and withstood redox stresses. They transcriptionally responded to various redox treatments, but were unable to activate and repress gene expression in response to H(2)O(2). Further studies involving redox transcription factors suggested that thiol peroxidases are major regulators of global gene expression in response to H(2)O(2). The data suggest that thiol peroxidases sense and transfer oxidative signals to the signaling proteins and regulate transcription, whereas a direct interaction between H(2)O(2) and other cellular proteins plays a secondary role. PMID:21282621

  16. Oxidised- and total non-protein bound glutathione and related thiols in gallbladder bile of patients with various gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Joost H

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine, accomplishing a broad range of vital functions. Synthesis of glutathione and cysteine is performed mainly in the liver, whereas most other tissues are supplied with these thiols via sinusoidal efflux into the blood. Since canalicular efflux also occurs, thiols may be present in human bile. However, thiol composition of human gallbladder bile is largely unknown, which makes it difficult to speculate on the exact function of thiols in bile. In this study we report on the levels of non-protein bound thiols in gallbladder bile of patients with various gastrointestinal disorders. Methods Gallbladder bile was obtained after cholecystectomy from 30 patients who were operated for pancreatic cancer, duodenal cancer, chronic pancreatitis or cholecystolithiasis. Bile was analysed for non-protein bound total- and oxidised glutathione and related thiols, by high performance liquid chromatography. Results A more than 100-fold inter-individual variation in non-protein bound thiol levels was found in human gallbladder bile of patients with a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. Bile did contain high amounts of cysteine, whereas much lower levels of glutathione, cysteinylglycine and homocysteine were detected. Most thiols were present in their oxidised forms. Conclusion Thiols are present in considerable amounts in human gallbladder bile of patients with various gastrointestinal disorders, levels of cysteine being much higher than those of glutathione and other thiols. Most thiols were in their oxidised forms, which may indicate the presence of considerable chemical- or oxidative stress in the patients studied here.

  17. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnHwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

  18. The Arabidopsis thaliana sulfiredoxin is a plastidic cysteine-sulfinic acid reductase involved in the photooxidative stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Pascal; Bécuwe, Noëlle; Barrault, Marie-Bénédicte; Rumeau, Dominique; Havaux, Michel; Biteau, Benoît; Toledano, Michel B

    2007-02-01

    The 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins (2-Cys-Prxs) are antioxidants that reduce peroxides through a thiol-based mechanism. During catalysis, these ubiquitous enzymes are occasionally inactivated by the substrate-dependent oxidation of the catalytic cysteine to the sulfinic acid (-SO2H) form, and are reactivated by reduction by sulfiredoxin (Srx), an enzyme recently identified in yeast and in mammal cells. In plants, 2-Cys-Prxs constitute the most abundant Prxs and are located in chloroplasts. Here we have characterized the unique Srx gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSrx) from a functional point of view, and analyzed the phenotype of two AtSrx knockout (AtSrx-) mutant lines. AtSrx is a chloroplastic enzyme displaying sulfinic acid reductase activity, as shown by the ability of the recombinant AtSrx to reduce the overoxidized 2-Cys-Prx form in vitro, and by the accumulation of the overoxidized Prx in mutant lines lacking Srx in vivo. Furthermore, AtSrx mutants exhibit an increased tolerance to photooxidative stress generated by high light combined with low temperature. These data establish that, as in yeast and in mammals, plant 2-Cys-Prxs are subject to substrate-mediated inactivation reversed by Srx, and suggest that the 2-Cys-Prx redox status and sulfiredoxin are parts of a signaling mechanism participating in plant responses to oxidative stress. PMID:17217469

  19. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droux, M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.; Crawford, N.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Buchanan, B.B.

    1987-07-01

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with (/sup 14/C)iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined.

  20. Characterization of volume holographic recording in photopolymerizable nanoparticle-(thiol-ene) polymer composites at 404 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Masaru; Takahashi, Jun-ichiro; Yasui, Satoru; Tomita, Yasuo

    2015-02-01

    We report on the photopolymerization dynamics and the volume holographic recording properties of a thiol-ene based nanoparticle-polymer composite (NPC) doped with a blue-sensitive photoinitiator, Darocur® TPO, by using a highly coherent blue diode laser operating at a wavelength of 404 nm. Our study indicates that volume gratings recorded in the NPC amount to meeting the material requirements of refractive index modulation and material recording sensitivity for holographic data storage media. It is also found that polymerization shrinkage of recorded NPC gratings is higher than that of the same thiol-ene based NPC with a green (523 nm)-sensitive photoinitiator, Irgacure® 784/BzO2. We attribute such a difference in shrinkage to the photopolymerization dynamics at these recording wavelengths. We show that this shrinkage increase at 404 nm can be mitigated to some extent by controlling the thiol-ene stoichiometry in the NPC.

  1. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, James B., E-mail: jim@jamessund.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Causey, Corey P. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wolter, Scott D. [Department of Physics, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Parker, Charles B., E-mail: charles.parker@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Stoner, Brian R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Toone, Eric J. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Glass, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  2. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis

  3. Enhancement in the Glass Transition Temperature in Latent Thiol-Epoxy Click Cured Thermosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailyn Guzmán

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tri and tetrafunctional thiol were used as curing agent for diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA catalyzed by a commercially available amine precursor, LC-80. Triglycidyl isocianurate (TGIC was added in different proportions to the mixture to increase rigidity and glass transition temperature (Tg. The cooperative effect of increasing functionality of thiol and the presence of TGIC in the formulation leads to an increased Tg without affecting thermal stability. The kinetics of the curing of mixtures was studied by calorimetry under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The latent characteristics of the formulations containing amine precursors were investigated by rheometry and calorimetry. The increase in the functionality of the thiol produces a slight decrease in the storage lifetime of the mixture. The materials obtained with tetrathiol as curing agent showed the highest values of Young’s modulus and Tg.

  4. Radiosensitization by oxygen and radioprotection by Thiols: Experimental evaluation of a theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general purpose of the investigations presented in this thesis was a further elucidation of the mechanism by which oxygen sensitizes cells and tissues to radiation. Recently, the 'X model' was put forward as an explanation for the oxygen effect. The model postulated that oxygen and cellular thiols compete for radiation induced target radicals, oxygen fixing and thiols repairing the radiation damage, the latter, however, with the reservation that only a certain proportion of the damage is reparable. The study summarized in the thesis was performed with the aim of testing the validity of the model by a comparative analysis of the theoretical predictions with experimental observations. Human fibroblasts and Chinese hamster cells in culture were used as experimental cell material. The thiol level of the cells varied either due to a genetic damage, or to treatment with buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) which decreased the thiol content, or to treatment with dithiothreitol or N-acetylcysteine which increased it. Exposures to radiation were made in severe hypoxia or in the presence of oxygen in varying concentrations. The yield of DNA breaks, expressing the effect of the initial radical reactions and, in a few cases, clonogenic survival, expressing also the effect of additional superimposed enzymatic repair processes, were chosen as measure of the radiation response. Four different predictions of the X model were tested experimentally. In all cases a good general agreement between the pattern of the radiation response, predicted by the X model, and the experimental observations was found. In contrast, major differences were noted between the experimental data and the prediction of an alternative model in which, as opposed to the X model, radiation induced radical damage is assumed to be reparable by thiols in full. The validity of the X model, indicated by these investigations suggests that, in general two types of damage are produced by radiation, only one of which can be repaired by thiols. (au)

  5. Stretching of BDT-gold molecular junctions: Thiol or thiolate termination?

    KAUST Repository

    Souza, Amaury De Melo

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the hydrogen atoms in the thiol groups of a benzene-1,4-dithiol dissociate when Au-benzene-1,4-dithiol-Au junctions are formed. We demonstrate, by stability and transport property calculations, that this assumption cannot be made. We show that the dissociative adsorption of methanethiol and benzene-1,4-dithiol molecules on a flat Au(111) surface is energetically unfavorable and that the activation barrier for this reaction is as high as 1 eV. For the molecule in the junction, our results show, for all electrode geometries studied, that the thiol junctions are energetically more stable than their thiolate counterparts. Due to the fact that density functional theory (DFT) within the local density approximation (LDA) underestimates the energy difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital by several electron-volts, and that it does not capture the renormalization of the energy levels due to the image charge effect, the conductance of the Au-benzene-1,4-dithiol-Au junctions is overestimated. After taking into account corrections due to image charge effects by means of constrained-DFT calculations and electrostatic classical models, we apply a scissor operator to correct the DFT energy level positions, and calculate the transport properties of the thiol and thiolate molecular junctions as a function of the electrode separation. For the thiol junctions, we show that the conductance decreases as the electrode separation increases, whereas the opposite trend is found for the thiolate junctions. Both behaviors have been observed in experiments, therefore pointing to the possible coexistence of both thiol and thiolate junctions. Moreover, the corrected conductance values, for both thiol and thiolate, are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those calculated with DFT-LDA. This brings the theoretical results in quantitatively good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of green tea polyphenols on cellular thiols in 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced oral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Periasamy; Sabitha, Kuruvimalai Ekambaram; Shyamaladevi, Chennam Srinivasulu

    2004-10-15

    In cancer, a high flux of oxidants not only depletes the cellular thiols, but damages the whole cell as well. Epidemiological studies suggest green tea may mitigate cancers in human and animal models for which several mechanisms have been proposed. In the present investigation, the levels of cellular thiols such as reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG), protein thiols (PSH), total thiols, lipid peroxidation product conjugated dienes and the activity of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were assessed in tongue and oral cavity. In 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide- (4-NQO) induced rats, there was a decrease in the levels of GSH, PSH and total thiols and an increase in the levels of GSSG, conjugated dienes and the activity of GGT. On supplementation of green tea polyphenols (GTP) for 30 days (200 mg/kg) for the oral cancer-induced rats, there was a moderate increase in the levels of GSH, PSH and total thiols and a decrease in the levels of GSSG, conjugated dienes and the activity of GGT. Thus, GTP reduces the oxidant production thereby maintains the endogenous low molecular weight cellular thiols in oral cancer-induced rats. From the results, it can be concluded that GTP supplementation enhances the cellular thiol status thereby mitigate oral cancer. PMID:15501430

  7. Tackling poison and leach: catalysis by dangling thiol-palladium functions within a porous metal-organic solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Bo; Yee, Ka-Kit; Wong, Yan-Lung; Yiu, Shek-Man; Zeller, Matthias; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Zhengta

    2015-04-25

    Self-standing thiol (-SH) groups within a Zr(IV)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) anchor Pd(II) atoms for catalytic applications: the spatial constraint prevents the thiol groups from sealing off/poisoning the Pd(II) center, while the strong Pd-S bond precludes Pd leaching, enabling multiple cycles of heterogeneous catalysis to be executed. PMID:25757538

  8. Mechanism of misonidazole linked cytotoxicity and altered radiation response: role of cellular thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of misonidazole as a hypoxic radiosensitizer of mammalian cells is increased by prolonged exposure of hypoxic cells to the drug. It was found that drug intermediates might react with endogenous non-protein thiols (NPSH). These thiols function to protect the cell against deleterious intermediates that could otherwise attach and modify critical macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and protein. This paper presents studies on the effects of misonidazole, as well as newly developed hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, in an attempt to (1) identify the alterations in the NPSH, and (2) elucidate the role that the changes in NPSH play in cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effects of nitro compounds

  9. Mercury impairment of mouse thymocyte survival in vitro: involvement of cellular thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Tapan K; Li, Daming; Swami, Kamal; Dean, J Kenneth; Hauer, Charles; Lawrence, David A

    2005-04-01

    Heavy metals are well known to be able to induce immunotoxicity, but comparative metal studies related to apoptosis have not been conducted. In the present study, the effects of arsenic, cadmium, gold, lead, manganese, and mercury on thymocytes from BALB/c mice were analyzed. Thymic cells were cultured for 3-24 h in vitro in the absence or presence of metal, and markers of apoptosis or cell death, including annexin V binding, DNA loss/oligonucleosomal fragmentation, 7-amino-actinomycin D uptake (loss of impermeance), changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1 fluorescence), and Western analysis of cellular thiols, were assayed. Mercury (Hg) was the only metal shown to be consistently toxic with the dose and times utilized. Cadmium (Cd) was the only other metal tested that also produced some significant level of DNA loss; however, the induction of apoptosis by Cd was not as consistent as that observed with Hg. When Hg was added with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), Hg produced greater toxicity. Endogenous DNA synthesis by thymocytes was immediately inhibited by Hg and Hg + 2-ME. The Hg + 2-ME-induced apoptosis appeared to be associated with altered levels of cellular thiols, in that glutathione (GSH) depletion was significant in comparison to the non-metal control and Hg alone. The increased Hg-induced toxicity in the presence of 2-ME likely was due to the ability of 2-ME to enhance (10- to 20-fold) the cellular uptake of Hg. Western analysis with biotin maleimide demonstrated that Hg + 2-ME and to a lesser extent the positive control dexamethasone eliminated many reactive thiols; the major thiol-reactive protein still reactive with the maleimide probe had an approximate Molecular Mass of 45 kD. Surprisingly, Hg alone enhanced the expression of this thiol-expressing protein, which by Mass Spectrometry (MS)/MS analysis was shown to be beta-actin. Hg also produced the appearance of yet to be identified new proteins. Based on the results with Hg + 2-ME, it is suggested that numerous protein thiols participate in maintenance of cell survival and their loss is associated with apoptosis. The increased expression of new thiol-reactive proteins or thiol-reactive proteins with altered electrophoretic profiles needs to be further investigated. However, the enhanced toxicity attributed to Hg + 2-ME suggests that increased intracellular oxidative stress, observed as increased depletion of GSH, is responsible for the accelerated cell death. PMID:15805047

  10. Synthesis of Biobased Polyols by Thiol-Ene Coupling from Vegetable Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Desroches, Myriam; Caillol, Sylvain; Lapinte, Vincent; Auvergne, Rémi; Boutevin, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    A model study of the radical addition of 2-mercaptoethanol onto oleic acid was performed under mild conditions (generation of radicals under UV light at room temperature without any photoinitiator). To evaluate the efficiency and the robustness of thiol-ene reaction, experimental parameters were varied, such as the irradiation intensity (ranging from 0.5 to 15.0 W/cm2), the thiol/double bond ratio (ranging from 1.2/1 to 5.0/1), the solvent/double bond ratio (ranging from 0/1 to 500/1), and th...

  11. Patterned Hydrophilization of Nanoporous 1,2?PB by Thiol?ene Photochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Anton; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Ndoni, Sokol

    2011-01-01

    We present an efficient method for functionalizing the large polymer–air interface of a gyroid nanoporous polymer. The hydrophilicity of nanoporous cross?linked 1,2?polybutadiene is tuned by thiol?ene photo?grafting of mercaptosuccinic acid or sodium 2?mercaptoethanesulfonate. The reaction is monitored by FT?IR, UV–Vis, contact angle, and gravimetry. Overall quantum yields are calculated for the two thiol?ene “click” reactions in nano?confinement, neatly revealing their chain?like nature. Top–do...

  12. POTENTIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF A GRAPHITE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH COBALT PHTHALOCYANINE FOR THIOLS AND DISULFIDES

    OpenAIRE

    José H. Zagal; JAIME J.H. HENRIQUEZ

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the potentiometric response of ordinary pyrolytic graphite electrodes (OPG) modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (Co-Pc) for thiols (R-SH) 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine and their corresponding disulfides (R-SS-R). Stable potentials are achieved after a few seconds of additions of different amounts of thiols to aqueous solutions of pH values between 11 and 4. Plots of potential vs. log [R-SH] give straight lines for all cases with slopes ca. -0.060 V with concentrations of ...

  13. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry - Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-05-01

    The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen-oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  14. Metal triflate-mediated coupling of allylgermanes with thiols: a facile route to thiogermanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuci?ski, K; Pawlu?, P; Hreczycho, G

    2015-06-28

    A novel coupling reaction of thiols with (2-methylallyl)germanes catalyzed by metal triflates has been developed. This reaction provides a direct and efficient method to afford thiogermanes and opens a valuable and general synthetic route for the Ge-S cross-coupling with the elimination of isobutylene as a single by-product. Scandium(iii) triflate demonstrates the highest catalytic activity among the tested triflates. All reactions were carried out under extremely mild conditions to give thiogermanes in excellent yields. This Ge-S coupling reaction shows high generality for the variety of thiols. PMID:26006777

  15. Characterization of a sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-molecular-weight (M/sub r/ = 27,200) sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris was studied with Moessbauer, EPR, and chemical techniques. This sulfite reductase was found to contain one siroheme and one [4Fe-4S] cluster. As purified, the siroheme is low-spin ferric (S = 1/2) which exhibits characteristic EPR resonances at g = 2.44, 2.36, and 1.77. At 150 K, the observed Moessbauer parameters, ?E/sub Q/ = 2.49 +/- 0.02 mm/s and ? = 0.31 +/- 0.02 mm/s, for the siroheme are typical for low-spin ferric complexes. The [4Fe-4S] cluster is in the 2+ state. The Moessbauer parameters, ?E/sub Q/ = 0.95 +/- 0.02 mm/s and ? = 0.38 +/- 0.02 mm/s, for the cluster are almost identical to those observed for the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster in the hemoprotein subunit of the sulfite reductase from Escherichia coli. Similar to the hemoprotein subunit of E. coli sulfite reductase, low-temperature Moessbauer spectra of D. vulgaris sulfite reductase recorded with weak and strong applied fields also show evidence for an exchange-coupled siroheme-[4Fe-4S] unit. 31 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  16. The role of biliverdin reductase in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the effects of biliverdin and bilirubin have been studied extensively, and an inhibitory effect of bile pigments in cancer progression has been proposed. In this study we focused on the effects of biliverdin reductase, the enzyme that converts biliverdin to bilirubin, in colorectal cancer. For in vitro experiments we used a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and transfected it with an expression construct of shRNA specific for biliverdin reductase, to create cells with stable knock-down of enzyme expression. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the CASY model TT cell counting device. Western blot protein analysis was performed to study intracellular signaling cascades. Samples of human colorectal cancer were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. We were able to confirm the antiproliferative effects of bile pigments on cancer cells in vitro. However, this effect was attenuated in biliverdin reductase knock down cells. ERK and Akt activation seen under biliverdin and bilirubin treatment was also reduced in biliverdin reductase deficient cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples from patients with colorectal cancer showed elevated biliverdin reductase levels. High enzyme expression was associated with lower overall and disease free patient survival. We conclude that BVR is required for bile pigment mediated effects regarding cancer cell proliferation and modulation of intracellular signaling cascades. The role of BVR overexpression in vivo and its exact influence on cancer progression and patient survival need to be further investigated. (author)

  17. Pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Schinko, Thorsten; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Amillis, Sotiris; Strauss, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    ? Constitutive phenotype in nitrate-reductase mutants depends on nitrate transporters. ? Intracellular nitrate derives from media components. ? Internal nitrate generation from nitric oxide. ? Nitrate transporters are functional in cells lacking nitrate reductase.

  18. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Erythrose Reductase from Candida magnoliae

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Kul; Kim, Sang-Yong; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jung-Hoe

    2003-01-01

    Erythritol biosynthesis is catalyzed by erythrose reductase, which converts erythrose to erythritol. Erythrose reductase, however, has never been characterized in terms of amino acid sequence and kinetics. In this study, NAD(P)H-dependent erythrose reductase was purified to homogeneity from Candida magnoliae KFCC 11023 by ion exchange, gel filtration, affinity chromatography, and preparative electrophoresis. The molecular weights of erythrose reductase determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-pol...

  19. Repression of nitrate reductase activity and loss of antigenically detectable protein in Neurospora crassa.

    OpenAIRE

    Amy, N K; Garrett, R H

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether conditions which cause the rapid loss of nitrate reductase activity in Neurospora crassa mycelia were accompanied by the loss of antigenically detectable nitrate reductase protein. When mycelia with nitrate reductase activity were transferred to ammonia media, there was a rapid loss in the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-nitrate reductase activity plus the parallel loss of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase and th...

  20. Identification of viral polypeptides involved in pseudorabies virus ribonucleotide reductase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, E A; H. Paradis; Gaudreau, P.; BRAZEAU, P.; Langelier, Y

    1987-01-01

    We studied pseudorabies virus-induced ribonucleotide reductase and found that it exhibited biochemical properties very similar to those of herpes simplex virus reductase. A polyclonal rabbit antiserum (P9) directed against the carboxy terminus of subunit H2 polypeptide (38,000 daltons) of herpes simplex virus reductase neutralized the pseudorabies virus reductase, as well as the herpes simplex virus isozyme. This serum recognized two pseudorabies virus-specified polypeptides of 34,000 and 110...

  1. Aldo keto reductases 1B in endocrinology and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AntoineMartinez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aldose reductase (human AKR1B1/mouse Akr1b3 has been the focus of many research because of its role in diabetic complications. The starting point of these alterations is the massive entry of glucose in polyol pathway where it is converted into sorbitol by this enzyme. However, the issue of aldose reductase function in non-diabetic condition remains unresolved. Aldose reductase-like enzymes (AKR1B10, Akr1b7 and Akr1b8 are highly related isoforms often co-expressed with bona fide aldose reductase, making functional analysis of one or the other isoform a challenging task. AKR1B/Akr1b members share at least 65% protein identity and the general ability to reduce many redundant substrates such as aldehydes provided from lipid peroxidation, steroids and their by-products and xenobiotics in vitro. Based on these properties, AKR1B/Akr1b are generally considered as detoxifying enzymes. Considering that divergences should be more informative than similarities to help understanding their physiological functions, we chose to review specific hallmarks of each human/mouse isoforms by focusing on tissue distribution and specific mechanisms of gene regulation. Indeed, although the aldose reductase shows ubiquitous expression, aldose reductase-like proteins exhibit tissue-specific patterns of expression. We focused on 3 organs where certain isoforms are enriched, the adrenal gland, enterohepatic and adipose tissues and tried to connect recent enzymatic and regulation data with endocrine and metabolic functions of these organs. We presented recent mouse models showing unsuspected physiological functions in the regulation of glucido-lipidic metabolism and adipose tissue homeostasis. Beyond the widely accepted idea that AKR1B/Akr1b are detoxification enzymes, these recent reports provide growing evidences that they are able to modify or generate signal molecules. This conceptually shifts this class of enzymes from unenviable status of scavenger to upper class of messengers.

  2. Intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cd(1) nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Brunori, Maurizio; Cutruzzolà, Francesca; Rinaldo, Serena; Wherland, Scot; Pecht, Israel

    2009-01-01

    The cd(1) nitrite reductases, which catalyze the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, are homodimers of 60 kDa subunits, each containing one heme-c and one heme-d(1). Heme-c is the electron entry site, whereas heme-d(1) constitutes the catalytic center. The 3D structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nitrite reductase has been determined in both fully oxidized and reduced states. Intramolecular electron transfer (ET), between c and d(1) hemes is an essential step in the catalytic cycle. In earlier s...

  3. Two transcripts encode rat cytochrome b5 reductase.

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrini, G.; Carrera, P.; Borgese, N

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA expression library in lambda gt11 was screened with affinity-purified polyclonal anti-rat cytochrome b5 reductase antibodies. One positive clone out of 450,000 clones was isolated and found to be incomplete. This clone was used to rescreen the library, and a second, overlapping clone that contained the entire coding sequence was isolated. RNA gel blots showed that the two overlapping clones contained approximately 90% of the reductase mRNA sequence. Sequencing data showed (i) that rat ...

  4. Spirulina ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase. The complete amino acid sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y; Tamura, T; Wada, K; Matsubara, H; Kodo, K

    1984-05-01

    The amino acid sequence of ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase [EC 1.18.1.2, FNR] from Spirulina sp., a blue-green alga, was determined. Spirulina ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase was composed of 294 amino acid residues and the molecular weight of the holoenzyme was 34,135. An apparent homology of the amino(N)-terminal region was found between ferredoxin-NADP+ reductases from Spirulina and spinach. We also found some sequence similarities in human erythrocyte glutathione reductase and p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens, both of which are NADPH-dependent FAD enzymes. PMID:6430889

  5. Quantitative interpretation of the transition voltages in gold-poly(phenylene) thiol-gold molecular junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition voltage of three different asymmetric Au/poly(phenylene) thiol/Au molecular junctions in which the central molecule is either benzene thiol, biphenyl thiol, or terphenyl thiol is investigated by first-principles quantum transport simulations. For all the junctions, the calculated transition voltage at positive polarity is in quantitative agreement with the experimental values and shows weak dependence on alterations of the Au-phenyl contact. When compared to the strong coupling at the Au-S contact, which dominates the alignment of various molecular orbitals with respect to the electrode Fermi level, the coupling at the Au-phenyl contact produces only a weak perturbation. Therefore, variations of the Au-phenyl contact can only have a minor influence on the transition voltage. These findings not only provide an explanation to the uniformity in the transition voltages found for ?-conjugated molecules measured with different experimental methods, but also demonstrate the advantage of transition voltage spectroscopy as a tool for determining the positions of molecular levels in molecular devices

  6. The reverse of the 'repair' reaction of thiols: H-abstraction at carbon by thiyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyl radicals (RS radical) formed by the reaction of radiolytically generated OH radicals with thiols, e.g. 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), react with cis- and trans-2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran by abstracting an H atom in the ?-position to the ether function (k approx.5 x 103dm3mol-1s-1). The so-formed planar ether radical is 'repaired' by the thiol (k = 6 x 108dm3mol-1s-1) thereby regenerating a cis-or trans-2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran molecule. In this reaction a thiyl radical is reproduced. Thus trans-2,5-Me2 THF from cis-2,5-Me2THF and vice versa are formed in a chain reaction: at a dose rate of 2.8 x 10-3Gy s-1 and a trans-2,5-Me2THF concentration of 1 x 10-2mol dm-3 using DTT as the thiol, G(cis-2,5-Me2THF) = 160 has been found. The chain reaction is very sensitive to impurities and also to disulphides such as those radiolytically formed. 2,5-Me2THF can be regarded as a model for the sugar moiety of DNA where the C(4')-radical is known to lead to DNA strand breakage. The possible role of cellular thiols in the repair of the C(4')DNA radical, and also the conceivable role of thiyl radicals inducing DNA strand breakage, are discussed. (author)

  7. Thimerosal exposure and the role of sulfation chemistry and thiol availability in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Janet K; Haley, Boyd E; Geier, David A; Sykes, Lisa K; King, Paul G; Geier, Mark R

    2013-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent studies suggest that children diagnosed with an ASD have abnormal sulfation chemistry, limited thiol availability, and decreased glutathione (GSH) reserve capacity, resulting in a compromised oxidation/reduction (redox) and detoxification capacity. Research indicates that the availability of thiols, particularly GSH, can influence the effects of thimerosal (TM) and other mercury (Hg) compounds. TM is an organomercurial compound (49.55% Hg by weight) that has been, and continues to be, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, particularly in developing countries. Thiol-modulating mechanisms affecting the cytotoxicity of TM have been identified. Importantly, the emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines. The purpose of the present critical review is provide mechanistic insight regarding how limited thiol availability, abnormal sulfation chemistry, and decreased GSH reserve capacity in children with an ASD could make them more susceptible to the toxic effects of TM routinely administered as part of mandated childhood immunization schedules. PMID:23965928

  8. Tritium isotopic exchange between hydrogen sulfide and methyl thiol in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium exchange reaction between HTS and CH3SH was carried out. The degree of tritium exchange was estimated. Its dependence on time of reaction is shown. The dependence of the rate of exchange on the concentrations of methyl thiol and hydrogen sulfide is presented too. (Z.R.)

  9. Coumarins give misleading absorbance with Ellman's reagent suggestive of thiol conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlich, Maik; Menge, Sieglinde; Bruns, Ina; Schmidt, Juergen; Schneider, Bernd; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim

    2002-03-01

    In the course of a screening for phytochelatins in cadmium-exposed bryophytes in the terrestrial mosses Polytrichum formosum and Atrichum undulatum we detected compounds with absorption properties and retention times similar to phytochelatins when applying the commonly used standard method RP-HPLC and post-column derivatization with thiol-specific DTNB (Ellman) reagent. Moreover, as with phytochelatins known in other plants, the concentrations of these compounds increased slightly after Cd stress. The concentration of the precursor glutathione (gamma-ECG), however, increased in the presence of Cd. In order to verify the identity of these putative phytochelatins we performed LC-ESI-MS analyses as well as 1H NMR on extracts from P. formosum and A. undulatum. Spectroscopic investigations indicated that the detected compounds were neither phytochelatins nor other thiol compounds. From the results of HPLC-1H NMR and mass spectrometry we concluded that at least one of these substances was a coumarin, probably a 5,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin-5-beta-glucopyranoside, which has already been described for A. undulatum and P. formosum. The results of our investigations prove that under the basic pH conditions essential for the Ellman test for thiol compounds, coumarins show comparable UV/VIS absorption properties. Therefore, a positive post-column Ellman reaction cannot unambiguously prove the presence of thiol-containing compounds in plants. PMID:11996355

  10. Topography of Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins. The order of reactivity of thiol groups*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakardjieva, Anastasia; Crichton, Robert R.

    1974-01-01

    1. 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli were treated with N-[2,3-14C]-ethylmaleimide and iodo[14C]acetamide. 2. The proteins in the native subunits which reacted with the reagents were S1,‡ S2, S12, S13, S18, S21, L2, L5, L6, L10, L11, L15, L17, L20, L26+28 and L27. 3. Several proteins, such as S1, S12, S14, S18, L2, L6, L10, L11 and either L26 or 28, had thiol groups in an oxidized form and reacted to a greater extent after reduction with ?-mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol. 4. The total number of thiol groups in 30S and 50S subunits was determined as 16–17 and 26–27 respectively. The total number of thiol groups in each ribosomal protein was also determined. 5. The reaction of 30S and 50S subunits with iodoacetamide under several different conditions established the order of reactivity of thiol groups. PMID:4618476

  11. GC/MS DETERMINATION OF 1-P-MENTHEN-8-THIOL IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    P-menthene-8-thiol is a very potent aroma compound found in grapefruit juice. It currently is not measured commercially because it is present in only trace quantities and due to the fact that it requires an expensive specialized detector. However, in this report, it is shown that utilizing a stand...

  12. Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Geier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent studies suggest that children diagnosed with an ASD have abnormal sulfation chemistry, limited thiol availability, and decreased glutathione (GSH reserve capacity, resulting in a compromised oxidation/reduction (redox and detoxification capacity. Research indicates that the availability of thiols, particularly GSH, can influence the effects of thimerosal (TM and other mercury (Hg compounds. TM is an organomercurial compound (49.55% Hg by weight that has been, and continues to be, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, particularly in developing countries. Thiol-modulating mechanisms affecting the cytotoxicity of TM have been identified. Importantly, the emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines. The purpose of the present critical review is provide mechanistic insight regarding how limited thiol availability, abnormal sulfation chemistry, and decreased GSH reserve capacity in children with an ASD could make them more susceptible to the toxic effects of TM routinely administered as part of mandated childhood immunization schedules.

  13. Influence cadmium ions on the synthesis of thiol compounds for flax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Krystofova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the effectiveness of phytoremediation technologies isvery difficult. One way to quickly and inexpensively identifyphytoremediation potential of plants is found easily detectablemarker. In our study, we examined the content of thiol compoundsin plants, of Flax effects of various concentrations of cadmium ions.

  14. Thiol peroxidase deficiency leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Alaattin; Lobanov, Alexei V; Gerashchenko, Maxim V; Koren, Amnon; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Koc, Ahmet; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-11-01

    Thiol peroxidases are critical enzymes in the redox control of cellular processes that function by reducing low levels of hydroperoxides and regulating redox signaling. These proteins were also shown to regulate genome stability, but how their dysfunction affects the actual mutations in the genome is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has eight thiol peroxidases of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin families, and the mutant lacking all these genes (?8) is viable. In this study, we employed two independent ?8 isolates to analyze the genome-wide mutation spectrum that results from deficiency in these enzymes. Deletion of these genes was accompanied by a dramatic increase in point mutations, many of which clustered in close proximity and scattered throughout the genome, suggesting strong mutational bias. We further subjected multiple lines of wild-type and ?8 cells to long-term mutation accumulation, followed by genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. ?8 lines showed a significant increase in nonrecurrent point mutations and indels. The original ?8 cells exhibited reduced growth rate and decreased life span, which were further reduced in all ?8 mutation accumulation lines. Although the mutation spectrum of the two independent isolates was different, similar patterns of gene expression were observed, suggesting the direct contribution of thiol peroxidases to the observed phenotypes. Expression of a single thiol peroxidase could partially restore the growth phenotype of ?8 cells. This study shows how deficiency in nonessential, yet critical and conserved oxidoreductase function, leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness. PMID:25173844

  15. Thiol-ene click chemistry: computational and kinetic analysis of the influence of alkene functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop, Brian H; Coffey, Roderick N

    2012-08-22

    The influence of alkene functionality on the energetics and kinetics of radical initiated thiol-ene click chemistry has been studied computationally at the CBS-QB3 level. Relative energetics (?H°, ?H(++), ?G°, ?G(++)) have been determined for all stationary points along the step-growth mechanism of thiol-ene reactions between methyl mercaptan and a series of 12 alkenes: propene, methyl vinyl ether, methyl allyl ether, norbornene, acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate, butadiene, methyl(vinyl)silanediamine, methyl crotonate, dimethyl fumarate, styrene, and maleimide. Electronic structure calculations reveal the underlying factors that control activation barriers for propagation and chain-transfer processes of the step-growth mechanism. Results are further extended to predict rate constants for forward and reverse propagation and chain-transfer steps (k(P), k(-P), k(CT), k(-CT)) and used to model overall reaction kinetics. A relationship between alkene structure and reactivity in thiol-ene reactions is derived from the results of kinetic modeling and can be directly related to the relative energetics of stationary points obtained from electronic structure calculations. The results predict the order of reactivity of alkenes and have broad implications for the use and applications of thiol-ene click chemistry. PMID:22853003

  16. Thiol-based antioxidants elicit mitochondrial oxidation via respiratory complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolossov, Vladimir L; Beaudoin, Jessica N; Ponnuraj, Nagendraprabhu; DiLiberto, Stephen J; Hanafin, William P; Kenis, Paul J A; Gaskins, H Rex

    2015-07-15

    Excessive oxidation is widely accepted as a precursor to deleterious cellular function. On the other hand, an awareness of the role of reductive stress as a similar pathological insult is emerging. Here we report early dynamic changes in compartmentalized glutathione (GSH) redox potentials in living cells in response to exogenously supplied thiol-based antioxidants. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular thiol-disulfide exchange via a genetically encoded biosensor targeted to cytosol and mitochondria revealed unexpectedly rapid oxidation of the mitochondrial matrix in response to GSH ethyl ester or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Oxidation of the probe occurred within seconds in a concentration-dependent manner and was attenuated with the membrane-permeable ROS scavenger tiron. In contrast, the cytosolic sensor did not respond to similar treatments. Surprisingly, the immediate mitochondrial oxidation was not abrogated by depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential or inhibition of mitochondrial GSH uptake. After detection of elevated levels of mitochondrial ROS, we systematically inhibited multisubunit protein complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and determined that respiratory complex III is a downstream target of thiol-based compounds. Disabling complex III with myxothiazol completely blocked matrix oxidation induced with GSH ethyl ester or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Our findings provide new evidence of a functional link between exogenous thiol-containing antioxidants and mitochondrial respiration. PMID:25994788

  17. Functional monolayers on oxide-free silicon surfaces via thiol-ene click chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Caipa Campos, M.A.; Paulusse, J.M.J.; Zuilhof, H.

    2010-01-01

    Thiol–ene click chemistry was used for the attachment of a variety of functional molecules onto oxide-free Si(111) surfaces using very mild conditions; the efficient nature of this coupling strategy allowed for successful light-induced micropatterning and thus provides a novel route towards biofunctional electronics

  18. Synthesis and Microstructural Investigations of Organometallic Pd(II Thiol-Gold Nanoparticles Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervellino Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles functionalized by a novel thiol-organometallic complex containing Pd(II centers is presented. Pd(II thiol,trans, trans-[dithiolate-dibis(tributylphosphinedipalladium(II-4,4?-diethynylbiphenyl] was synthesized and linked to Au nanoparticles by the chemical reduction of a metal salt precursor. The new hybrid made of organometallic Pd(II thiol-gold nanoparticles, shows through a single S bridge a direct link between Pd(II and Au nanoparticles. The size-control of the Au nanoparticles (diameter range 2–10 nm was achieved by choosing the suitable AuCl4 ?/thiol molar ratio. The size, strain, shape, and crystalline structure of these functionalized nanoparticles were determined by a full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analysis, high-resolution TEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements of the hybrid system show emission peaks at 418 and 440 nm. The hybrid was exposed to gaseous NO x with the aim to evaluate the suitability for applications in sensor devices; XPS measurements permitted to ascertain and investigate the hybrid –gas interaction.

  19. Metabolism of the Synthetic Progestogen Norethynodrel by Human Ketosteroid Reductases of the Aldo-Keto Reductase Superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yi; Duan, Ling; Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M.; Kloosterboer, Helenius J.

    2011-01-01

    Human ketosteroid reductases of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, i.e. AKR1C1-4, are implicated in the biotransformation of synthetic steroid hormones. Norethynodrel (NOR, 17?-ethynyl-17?-hydroxy-estra-5(10)-en-3-one), the progestin component of the first marketed oral contraceptive, is known to undergo rapid and extensive metabolism to 3?- and 3?-hydroxy metabolites. The ability of the four human AKR1C enzymes to catalyze the metabolism of NOR has now been characterized. AKR1C1 and ...

  20. Highly sensitive simultaneous detection of cultured cellular thiols by laser induced fluorescence-capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Posadino, Anna M; Pasciu, Valeria; Perino, Maria G; Tadolini, Bruna; Deiana, Luca; Carru, Ciriaco

    2005-03-01

    We have recently described a new method to determine physiological thiols, in which the quantification of plasma homocysteine, cysteine, cysteinylglycine, glutathione, and glutamylcysteine was achieved after derivatization with 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein. Samples were separated and measured by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence in an uncoated fused-silica capillary, using a phosphate/borate run buffer and the organic base N-Methyl-D-glucamine as effective electrolyte addictive to obtain a baseline peak separation. In this paper, we propose an improvement of our method useful for the analysis of the intracellular thiols in different cultured cells. In particular, we studied run buffer and injection conditions in order to increase the sensitivity of the assay and we found that, by incrementing two times the injected volume and using the water plug before the sample injection, the sensitivity of our previous method was increased by about ten times. To maintain a good resolution between peaks, particularly between homocysteine and the internal standard d-penicillamine, we lengthened the run time by incrementing the concentration of the electrolyte buffer and the organic base d-glucamine and by decreasing the cartridge temperature from 40 to 25 degrees C. After these changes in electrophoretical parameters, cellular thiols were baseline-resolved in less than 14 min instead of 9 min as in our previous method, but the limit of quantification is increased from 50 to 1 nmol/L. This new procedure allows also to measure the intracellular thiols commonly found at low concentration, such as cysteinylglycine, glutamylcysteine, and homocysteine. The new analytical method performance was assessed by measuring the intracellular thiols in three different cell lines, i.e., HUVEC, ECV304, and R1 stem cells. PMID:15706569

  1. Cooperative functions of manganese and thiol redox system against oxidative stress in human spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur Bansal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the effects of 0.1 mM Mn 2+ on thiol components (total thiols [TSH], glutathione reduced [GSH], glutathione oxidized [GSSG] and redox ratio [GSH/ GSSG] have been determined in human spermatozoa. Settings and Design: The subjects of the study were healthy males having more than 75% motility and 80 x 10 6 sperms/mL. Materials and Methods: Fresh semen was suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (pH 7.2 and this suspension was divided into eight equal fractions. All fractions, control (containing PBS and experimental (treated/untreated with [ferrous ascorbate, FeAA - 200 FeSO 4 ?M, 1000 ?M ascorbic acid, nicotine (0.5 mM and FeAA + nicotine], supplemented/unsupplemented with Mn 2+ [0.1 mM], were incubated for 2 h at 378C. These fractions were assessed for determining the thiol components. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed by Students " t" test. Results and Conclusions: Ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and ferrous ascorbate + nicotine induced oxidative stress and decreased GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio but increased the TSH and GSSG levels. Mn 2+ supplementation improved TSH, GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG but decreased the GSSG level under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Thiol groups serve as defense mechanisms of sperm cells to fight against oxidative stress induced by stress inducers such as ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and their combination (ferrous ascorbate + nicotine. In addition, Mn 2+ supplementation maintains the thiol level by reducing oxidative stress.

  2. Rapid and simple preparation of thiol-ene emulsion-templated monoliths and their application as enzymatic microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P; Senkbeil, Silja

    2015-01-01

    A novel, rapid and simple method for the preparation of emulsion-templated monoliths in microfluidic channels based on thiol-ene chemistry is presented. The method allows monolith synthesis and anchoring inside thiol-ene microchannels in a single photoinitiated step. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed that the methanol-based emulsion templating process resulted in a network of highly interconnected and regular thiol-ene beads anchored solidly inside thiol-ene microchannels. Surface area measurements indicate that the monoliths are macroporous, with no or little micro- or mesopores. As a demonstration, galactose oxidase and peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) were immobilized at the surface of the synthesized thiol-ene monoliths via two different mechanisms. First, cysteine groups on the protein surface were used for reversible covalent linkage to free thiol functional groups on the monoliths. Second, covalent linkage was achieved via free primary amino groups on the protein surface by means of thiol-ene click chemistry and l-ascorbic acid linkage. Thus prepared galactose oxidase and PNGase F microreactors demonstrated good enzymatic activity in a galactose assay and the deglycosilation of ribonuclease B, respectively.

  3. Novel one-pot synthesis and characterization of bioactive thiol-silicate nanoparticles for biocatalytic and biosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel one-pot neutral synthesis using bioinspired polymers to fabricate thiol-nanoparticles is presented. The thiol-particles may be directly tethered to metal surfaces such as gold, allowing the production of self-assembled nanostructured biocatalytic or biosensor surfaces. This one-pot method has also been used to entrap enzymes within the thiol-nanoparticles; it is apparent that once enzyme entrapment is carried out a bimodal distribution of particles is formed, with particles of one mode being very similar in size to thiol-nanoparticles without enzyme entrapped, and particles of the other mode being much larger in size. To this end, efforts have been made to separate the two modes of particles for the sample containing enzyme and it has been observed that the larger mode thiol-nanoparticles do indeed contain significant amounts of enzyme in comparison to the smaller mode ones. As the enzyme-containing thiol-nanoparticles can now be isolated, this means that there are many future possibilities for the use of thiol-particles containing enzyme, as they may be used in a wide range of processes and devices which require catalytic functionalized surfaces, such as biosensors and biocatalytic reactors.

  4. Formation of Underbrushes on thiolated Poly (ethylene glycol) PEG monolayers by Oligoethylene glycol (OEG) terminated Alkane Thiols on Gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2011-01-01

    Adding underbrushes of oligoethylene glycol (OEG) to monolayers of long chain PEG molecules on a surface is one of the strategies [1] in designing a suitable platform for antifouling purpose, where it is possible to have high graft density and molecular conformational freedom[4] simultaneously, there by maximal retention of activity of covalently immobilised antifouling enzyme [2] on PEG surfaces along with resistance to protein adsorption[3]. Here we present some our studies on the addition of OEG thiol molecules over a self assembled monolayer of PEG thiol on gold. The kinetics of addition of OEG thiol to monolayers of PEG thiol was followed using X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which indicated the time point of maximum graft density and beyond this time point there was predominant desorption of OEG thiol as indicated by the C/O ratio. The initial increase in graft density was reflected in the superior resistance towards non specific adsorption of proteins as shown by N 1s signal. We also performedprotein adsorption studies using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D). Studies involving addition of alkane thiol instead of OEG terminating alkane thiol showed the importance of OEG part of the molecule in superior resistance towards protein adsorption. The surfaces with underbrushes were imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to detect any changes in mechanical properties of PEG thiol covered surfaces upon addition of OEG thiol. References: 1. Katsumi Uchida, Yuki Hoshino, Atsushi Tamura, Keitaro Yoshimoto, Shuji Kojima and Keichiro Yamashita, Ichiro Yamanaka, Hidenori Otsuka, Kazunori Kataoka, Yukio Nagasaki, Biointerphases. 2007, 2, 4, 126. 2. L. Selan, F. Berluti, C. Passariello, M. R. Comodiballanti, M. C. Thaller, Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1993, 37, 12, 2618. 3. Susan J. Sofia, V. Premnath, and Edward W. Merrill, Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 15, 5059. 4. Hidenori Otsuka, Yukio Nagasaki, and Kazunori Kataoka, Langmuir, 2004, 20, 26, 11285

  5. Photoluminescent and electrochemiluminescent dual-signaling probe for bio-thiols based on a ruthenium(II) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wenzhu, E-mail: wenzhuzhang@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang Run; Zhang Jingmei; Ye Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Jin Dayong [MQ Photonics Centre, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Sydney (Australia); Yuan Jingli, E-mail: jingliyuan@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A unique ruthenium(II) complex-based probe for bio-thiols was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The probe can respond to bio-thiols to give PL and ECL dual-signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The probe was used for the PL and ECL detection of bio-thiols in aqueous media. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The endogenous intracellular thiols were luminously imaged using the probe. - Abstract: Photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection techniques are highly sensitive and widely used methods for clinical diagnostics and analytical biotechnology. In this work, a unique ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(DNBSO-bpy)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} (bpy: 2,2 Prime -bipyridine; DNBSO-bpy: 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonate of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime -bipyridine), has been designed and synthesized as a highly sensitive and selective PL and ECL dual-signaling probe for the recognition and detection of bio-thiols in aqueous media. As a thiol-responsive probe, the complex can specifically and rapidly react with bio-thiols in aqueous solutions to yield a bipyridine-Ru(II) complex derivative, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(HP-bpy)]{sup 2+} (HP-bpy: 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime -bipyridine), accompanied by the remarkable PL and ECL enhancements. The complex was used as a probe for the PL and ECL detections of cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH) in aqueous solutions. The dose-dependent PL and ECL enhancements showed good linear relationships against the Cys/GSH concentrations with the detection limits at nano-molar concentration level. Moreover, the complex-loaded HeLa cells were prepared for PL imaging of the endogenous intracellular thiols. The results demonstrated the practical utility of the complex as a cell-membrane permeable probe for PL imaging detection of bio-thiols in living cells.

  6. Role of copper and ceruloplasmin in oxidative mutagenesis induced by the gluthathione-{gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase system and by other thiols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, A.A.; Glass, G.A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Ramat-Aviv (Israel)

    1997-10-01

    Glutathione is activated to a mutagen by {gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase. Other thiols, such as cysteine, penicillamine, cysteine ethylester, and cysteinylglycine, are direct mutagens in the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test. Thiol mutagenesis is oxidative in nature and involves H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and possibly hydroxyl radicals. Transition metals are crucial for thiol autoxidation. The role of copper and ceruloplasmin (CP) in thiol-dependent mutagenesis was studied in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 102. Cu and CP at low concentrations enhanced thiol-dependent mutagenesis in the presence, but not in the absence, and added Fe. The degree of enhancement depended on the type of thiol. At high Cu or CP concentrations, thiol mutagenesis was inhibited. Cu also decreased the mutagenicity of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Cu- and CP-enhanced mutagenesis were inhibited by radical scavengers, catalase, and peroxidase but not by superoxide dismutase. The effects of Cu and CP on thiol-dependent mutagenesis were similar to their effects on thiol-driven lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that the role of Cu and CP in the enhancement of thiol mutagenesis is the facilitation of the transfer of electrons from a thiol to iron, rather than in catalysis of the Fenton reaction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fatty Acyl-CoA Reductase 1 Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Swisher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Erlangen, Germany; Calgary, CA; and Kafranbel, Syria, identified mutations in the gene, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1 deficiency, adding to three other genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis, in two families affected by severe intellectual disability, early-onset epilepsy, microcephaly, congenital cataracts, growth retardation, and spasticity.

  8. Sucrose mimics the light induction of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Acedo, Gregoria N

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate reductase, the first enzyme in nitrate assimilation, is located at the crossroad of two energy-consuming pathways: nitrate assimilation and carbon fixation. Light, which regulates the expression of many higher-plant carbon fixation genes, also regulates nitrate reductase gene expression. Located in the cytosol, nitrate reductase obtains its reductant not from photosynthesis but from carbohydrate catabolism. This relationship prompted us to investigate the indirect role that light might play, via photosynthesis, in the regulation of nitrate reductase gene expression. We show that sucrose can replace light in eliciting an increase of nitrate reductase mRNA accumulation in dark-adapted green Arabidopsis plants. We show further that sucrose alone is sufficient for the full expression of nitrate reductase genes in etiolated Arabidopsis plants. Finally, using a reporter gene, we show that a 2.7-kilobase region of 5' flanking sequence of the nitrate reductase gene is sufficient to confer the light or the sucrose response.

  9. Pyridine Nucleotide Complexes with Bacillus anthracis Coenzyme A-Disulfide Reductase: A Structural Analysis of Dual NAD(P)H Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallen,J.; Paige, C.; Mallett, T.; Karplus, P.; Claiborne, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have recently reported that CoASH is the major low-molecular weight thiol in Bacillus anthracis, and we have now characterized the kinetic and redox properties of the B. anthracis coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (CoADR, BACoADR) and determined the crystal structure at 2.30 Angstroms resolution. While the Staphylococcus aureus and Borrelia burgdorferi CoADRs exhibit strong preferences for NADPH and NADH, respectively, B. anthracis CoADR can use either pyridine nucleotide equally well. Sequence elements within the respective NAD(P)H-binding motifs correctly reflect the preferences for S. aureus and Bo. burgdorferi CoADRs, but leave questions as to how BACoADR can interact with both pyridine nucleotides. The structures of the NADH and NADPH complexes at ca. 2.3 Angstroms resolution reveal that a loop consisting of residues Glu180-Thr187 becomes ordered and changes conformation on NAD(P)H binding. NADH and NADPH interact with nearly identical conformations of this loop; the latter interaction, however, involves a novel binding mode in which the 2'-phosphate of NADPH points out toward solvent. In addition, the NAD(P)H-reduced BACoADR structures provide the first view of the reduced form (Cys42-SH/CoASH) of the Cys42-SSCoA redox center. The Cys42-SH side chain adopts a new conformation in which the conserved Tyr367'-OH and Tyr425'-OH interact with the nascent thiol(ate) on the flavin si-face. Kinetic data with Y367F, Y425F, and Y367, 425F BACoADR mutants indicate that Tyr425' is the primary proton donor in catalysis, with Tyr367' functioning as a cryptic alternate donor in the absence of Tyr425'.

  10. The interplay between thiol-compounds against chromium (VI) in the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum: Toxicology, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress at a glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, R. [Postgraduate Program in Environmental Chemistry, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Almeida, J.V. [Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ-USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vardaris, C.V. [Postgraduate Program in Environmental Chemistry, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colepicolo, P. [Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ-USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barros, M.P., E-mail: marcelo.barros@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Postgraduate Program in Environmental Chemistry, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper, the multifaceted Cr(VI) toxicity over the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum was assessed by concomitantly monitoring thiol-dependent redox balances, photosynthesis activity and growth-survival scores. Control group showed exponential growth rate at (5.78 {+-} 0.29) division/day until 8th day with linear increasing chlorophyll a/protein ratios (CHLa/PROT) throughout the period. Cultures of M. convolutum were exposed for 5 days to Cr(VI) concentrations from 0 up to 100 mg/L showing that CHLa/PROT ratios were sensibly affected, in agreement to the calculated LC{sub 50,48h} (5.38 {+-} 0.72) mg/L from the concentration-response curve of cell mortality after 48 h. Regarding photosynthesis effects, Cr(VI) concentrations >1.0 mg/L showed significant increases in short-term (after 2 h) electron transfer rates (ETR) and quantum yields of photosystem II ({Phi}{sub PSII}), followed by subsequent decline of both parameters after 48 and 72 h. Biochemical analyses showed that maximal GSH concentrations in algal cultures were observed upon 1 mg Cr(VI)/L and higher dichromate concentrations dramatically increased the activity of antioxidant GSH-dependent enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. However, no variation was observed in the cellular GSH levels, whereas GSSG and lipid peroxidation indexes abruptly increased upon 10 mg Cr(VI)/L exposure. Altogether, plant physiology, photosynthesis and biochemical data suggest that the GSH-dependent antioxidant system is capable to sustain M. convolutum viability through efficient photosynthesis activity and adequate antioxidant responses up to Cr(VI) concentrations of 1.0 mg/L, when redox unbalances were first evidenced.

  11. The interplay between thiol-compounds against chromium (VI) in the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum: Toxicology, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the multifaceted Cr(VI) toxicity over the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium convolutum was assessed by concomitantly monitoring thiol-dependent redox balances, photosynthesis activity and growth-survival scores. Control group showed exponential growth rate at (5.78 ± 0.29) division/day until 8th day with linear increasing chlorophyll a/protein ratios (CHLa/PROT) throughout the period. Cultures of M. convolutum were exposed for 5 days to Cr(VI) concentrations from 0 up to 100 mg/L showing that CHLa/PROT ratios were sensibly affected, in agreement to the calculated LC50,48h (5.38 ± 0.72) mg/L from the concentration-response curve of cell mortality after 48 h. Regarding photosynthesis effects, Cr(VI) concentrations >1.0 mg/L showed significant increases in short-term (after 2 h) electron transfer rates (ETR) and quantum yields of photosystem II (?PSII), followed by subsequent decline of both parameters after 48 and 72 h. Biochemical analyses showed that maximal GSH concentrations in algal cultures were observed upon 1 mg Cr(VI)/L and higher dichromate concentrations dramatically increased the activity of antioxidant GSH-dependent enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. However, no variation was observed in the cellular GSH levels, whereas GSSG and lipid peroxidation indexes abruptly increased upon 10 mg Cr(VI)/L exposure. Altogether, plant physiology, photosynthesis and biochemical data suggest that the GSH-dependent antioxidant system is capable to sustain M. convolutum viability through efficient photosynthesis activity and adequate antioxidant responses up to Cr(VI) concentrations of 1.0 mg/L, when redox unbalances were first evidenced.

  12. Crystal structures of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases and their relationship to isoflavone reductases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Tongpil; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Bedgar, Diana L.; Youn, Buhyun; Lawrence, Paulraj K.; Gang, David R.; Halls, Steven C.; Park, HaJeung; Hilsenbeck, Jacqueline L.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.; Kang, ChulHee

    2003-01-01

    Despite the importance of plant lignans and isoflavonoids in human health protection (e.g. for both treatment and prevention of onset of various cancers) as well as in plant biology (e.g. in defense functions and in heartwood development), systematic studies on the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis have only recently begun. In this investigation, three NADPH-dependent aromatic alcohol reductases were comprehensively studied, namely pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR), phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and isoflavone reductase (IFR), which are involved in central steps to the various important bioactive lignans and isoflavonoids. Of particular interest was in determining how differing regio- and enantiospecificities are achieved with the different enzymes, despite each apparently going through similar enone intermediates. Initially, the three-dimensional x-ray crystal structures of both PLR_Tp1 and PCBER_Pt1 were solved and refined to 2.5 and 2.2 A resolutions, respectively. Not only do they share high gene sequence similarity, but their structures are similar, having a continuous alpha/beta NADPH-binding domain and a smaller substrate-binding domain. IFR (whose crystal structure is not yet obtained) was also compared (modeled) with PLR and PCBER and was deduced to have the same overall basic structure. The basis for the distinct enantio-specific and regio-specific reactions of PCBER, PLR, and IFR, as well as the reaction mechanism and participating residues involved (as identified by site-directed mutagenesis), are discussed.

  13. Photochemical reactions of thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for micropatterning of gold nanoparticles and controlled surface functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemingyue; Wu, Chong; Sun, Shuqing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reported a facile method for the patterning of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on SiO2/Si by combining photochemical reaction and self-assembly techniques, and the conversion of surface functionality through thiol-ene click chemistry. The oxidation of terminal thiols in self-assembled monolayer of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane upon exposure to 254 nm UV light under ambient atmosphere was investigated. Chemically well-defined microstructures were obtained by UV irradiation through a mask, and subsequent immersion of the substrate into a dispersion of AuNPs resulted in site-specific assembly of AuNPs via Au-S covalent bond in the unexposed area. Thiol-ene “click” reaction between surface thiol-group and alkene-containing molecules under illumination of 365 nm UV light was also demonstrated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study indicated the successful conversion of surface functionality.

  14. Photochemical reactions of thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for micropatterning of gold nanoparticles and controlled surface functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Xuemingyue; Wu Chong [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun Shuqing, E-mail: sun.shuqing@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Optical Imaging and Sensing, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2012-04-01

    This paper reported a facile method for the patterning of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on SiO{sub 2}/Si by combining photochemical reaction and self-assembly techniques, and the conversion of surface functionality through thiol-ene click chemistry. The oxidation of terminal thiols in self-assembled monolayer of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane upon exposure to 254 nm UV light under ambient atmosphere was investigated. Chemically well-defined microstructures were obtained by UV irradiation through a mask, and subsequent immersion of the substrate into a dispersion of AuNPs resulted in site-specific assembly of AuNPs via Au-S covalent bond in the unexposed area. Thiol-ene 'click' reaction between surface thiol-group and alkene-containing molecules under illumination of 365 nm UV light was also demonstrated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study indicated the successful conversion of surface functionality.

  15. Copper and ceruloplasmin levels in relation to total thiols and GST in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, A.(Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India); S. Dash; Barik, B. K.; Manjunatha S Muttigi; Kedage, V.; Shetty, J.K.; Prakash, M

    2010-01-01

    Presence of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is well proved. Current study was undertaken to know the relation between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and copper along with antioxidants like total thiols and ceruloplasmin, and antioxidant enzyme glutathione S transferase (GST). The study group consisted of a total of 201 subjects which included nondiabetic healthy control subjects (n = 78) and diabetic patients (n = 123). Plasma total thiols, GST, copper and ceruloplasmin levels...

  16. A study of oxidative stress, thiol proteins and role of vitamin E supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Raut

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid peroxide plays an important role in inflammatory lung disease. Increased epithelial permeability produced by cigarette smoke is likely to be mediated through depletion of thiol proteins. Imbalance between oxidants and thiol proteins is also an established fact in these patients. Materials & methods: In the present study 30 healthy non-smokers were served as controls and 20 patients with stable COPD were included. Their base line clinical examination, Malondialdehyde (MDA as an oxidant, alpha tocopherol and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD as an antioxidants and thiol proteins levels were measured. All above parameters were repeated after 12 weeks of supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin E daily. Results: We observed that the mean malondialdehyde levels in these patients at base line were high (p<0.001 than Control Plasma alpha-tocopherol, SOD and thiol proteins levels were low (p<0.001 in the patients compared to controls. Exogenous vitamin E (400 IU twice daily Supplementation did not bring about any significant change in plasma Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase and vitamin E. But slight increase in the plasma thiol proteins levels was seen. The present study shows that initially the plasma lipid peroxide (MDA levels were high antioxidant (alpha- tocopherol, SOD and thiol proteins were low in patients with COPD. Exogenous supplementation with vitamin E increases slightly thiol proteins levels and brings down the levels of MDA showing attenuation of further damage. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the existence of oxidative stress and and the augmentation of antioxidant defenses as shown by slight increase in thiol proteins level. The antioxidant therapy is adjunct in lung disease patients and opens a promising field in prevention of oxidative stress related complications in these patients.

  17. Beyond PDMS: off-stoichiometry thiol–ene (OSTE) based soft lithography for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Carlborg C.F.; Haraldsson T.; Oberg K.; Malkoch M.; van, der Wijngaart W.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we introduce a novel polymer platform based on off-stoichiometry thiol–enes (OSTEs), aiming to bridge the gap between research prototyping and commercial production of microfluidic devices. The polymers are based on the versatile UV-curable thiol–ene chemistry but takes advantage of off-stoichiometry ratios to enable important features for a prototyping system, such as one-step surface modifications, tuneable mechanical properties and leakage free sealing through direct UV-bon...

  18. Functionalization of embedded thiol-ene waveguides for evanescent wave induced fluorescence detection in a microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of functional surface groups inherently present on off-stoichiometric thiol?ene polymers, for site-specific immobilization of biomolecules and detection by evanescent wave-induced fluorescence. An optofluidic chip featuring an embedded thiol?ene waveguide was selectively functionalized with biotin using photografting. The biotin was used for immobilization of fluorescently labelled streptavidin, and experiments revealed a linear correlation between streptavidin concentrati...

  19. Functionalization of embedded thiol-ene waveguides for evanescent wave-induced fluorescence detection in a microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans, Nikolaj A.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kutter, Jörg P.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of functional surface groups inherently present on off-stoichiometric thiol-ene polymers, for site-specific immobilization of biomolecules and detection by evanescent wave-induced fluorescence. An optofluidic chip featuring an embedded thiol-ene waveguide was selectively functionalized with biotin using photografting. The biotin was used for immobilization of fluorescently labelled streptavidin, and experiments revealed a linear correlation between streptavidin concentrati...

  20. CxxS: Fold-independent redox motif revealed by genome-wide searches for thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase function

    OpenAIRE

    Fomenko, Dmitri E; GLADYSHEV, Vadim N.

    2002-01-01

    Redox reactions involving thiol groups in proteins are major participants in cellular redox regulation and antioxidant defense. Although mechanistically similar, thiol-dependent redox processes are catalyzed by structurally distinct families of enzymes, which are difficult to identify by available protein function prediction programs. Herein, we identified a functional motif, CxxS (cysteine separated from serine by two other residues), that was often conserved in redox enzymes, but rarely in ...

  1. Thiol-ene microfluidic devices for microchip electrophoresis: Effects of curing conditions and monomer composition on surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tähkä, Sari M; Bonabi, Ashkan; Nordberg, Maria-Elisa; Kanerva, Meeri; Jokinen, Ville P; Sikanen, Tiina M

    2015-12-24

    Thiol-ene polymer formulations are raising growing interest as new low-cost fabrication materials for microfluidic devices. This study addresses their feasibility for microchip electrophoresis (MCE) via characterization of the effects of UV curing conditions and aging on the surface charge and wetting properties. A detailed comparison is made between stoichiometric thiol-ene (1:1) and thiol-ene formulations bearing 50% molar excess of allyls ("enes"), both prepared without photoinitiator or other polymer modifiers. Our results show that the surface charge of thiol-ene 1:1 increases along with increasing UV exposure dose until a threshold (here, about 200J/cm(2)), whereas the surface charge of thiol-ene 2:3 decreases as a function of increasing UV dose. However, no significant change in the surface charge upon storage in ambient air was observed over a period of 14 days (independent of the curing conditions). The water contact angles of thiol-ene 2:3 (typically 70-75°) were found to be less dependent on the UV dose and storing time. Instead, water contact angles of thiol-ene 1:1 slightly decrease (from initial 90 to 95° to about 70°) as a function of UV increasing exposure dose and storing time. Most importantly, both thiol-ene formulations remain relatively hydrophilic over extended periods of time, which favors their use in MCE applications. Here, MCE separation of biologically active peptides and selected fluorescent dyes is demonstrated in combination with laser-induced fluorescence detection showing high separation efficiency (theoretical plates 8200 per 4cm for peptides and 1500-2700 per 4cm for fluorescent dyes) and lower limits of detection in the sub-?M (visible range) or low-?M (near-UV range) level. PMID:26654831

  2. Characterization of a salt-induced DhAHP, a gene coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, from the extremely halophilic yeast Debaryomyces hansenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku Maurice SB

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debaryomyces hansenii is one of the most salt tolerant species of yeast and has become a model organism for the study of tolerance mechanisms against salinity. The goal of this study was to identify key upregulated genes that are involved in its adaptation to high salinity. Results By using forward subtractive hybridization we have cloned and sequenced DhAHP from D. hansenii that is significantly upregulated during salinity stress. DhAHP is orthologous to the alkly hydroperoxide reductase of the peroxiredoxin gene family, which catalyzes the reduction of peroxides at the expense of thiol compounds. The full-lengthed cDNA of DhAHP has 674 bp of nucleotide and contains a 516 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a deduced protein of 172 amino acid residues (18.3 kDa. D. hansenii Ahp is a cytosolic protein that belongs to the Ahp of the 1-Cys type peroxiredoxins. Phylogentically, the DhAhp and Candida albicans Ahp11 (Swiss-Prot: Q5AF44 share a common ancestry but show divergent evolution. Silence of its expression in D. hansenii by RNAi resulted in decreased tolerance to salt whereas overexpression of DhAHP in D. hansenii and the salt-sensitive yeasts Saccharomyces cereviasiae and Pichia methanolica conferred a higher tolerance with a reduced level of reactive oxygen species. Conclusion In conclusion, for the first time our study has identified alkly hydroperoxide reductase as a key protein involved in the salt tolerance of the extremely halophilic D. hansenii. Apparently, this enzyme plays a multi-functional role in the yeast's adaptation to salinity; it serves as a peroxidase in scavenging reactive oxygen species, as a molecular chaperone in protecting essential proteins from denaturation, and as a redox sensor in regulating H2O2-mediated cell defense signaling.

  3. Tritium isotopic exchange between hydrogen sulfide and thiols in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been established that the rate constant of tritium isotopic exchange between hydrogen sulfide and thiols within the temperature range 293-333K is given by k[dm3.mole-1.s-1]=p.exp[-6000[J.mole-1]/RT] where p are (6+-1.7)x10-2, (4.6+-0.5)x10-2, (3.8+-0.7)x10-2, (7.1+-1.2)x10-3 for methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl thiol, respectively. The total order of the reaction is equal to 2, and the partial orders in respect to H2S and thol are equal to 1. The mechanism of the isotopic exchange is discussed. (author)

  4. Enantioselective syntheses and sensory properties of 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yifeng; Shao, Junqiang; Yang, Shaoxiang; Sun, Baoguo; Liu, Yongguo; Ning, Ting; Tian, Hongyu

    2015-01-21

    The enantioselective synthesis of four stereoisomers of 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetate was achieved. The two enantiomers of the important intermediate cis-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran were obtained by Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD), whereas the two enantiomers of trans-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran were derived from the corresponding optically active cis-isomers by Mitsunobu reaction. Each stereoisomer of 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran went through mesylation and nucleophilic substitution to afford the corresponding product with specific configuration. (2R,3S)- and (2R,3R)-2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetate were obtained in 80% ee, whereas the (2S,3R)- and (2S,3S)-isomers were in 62% ee. The odor properties of the synthesized four stereoisomers were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which revealed perceptible differences among stereoisomers both in odor features and in intensities. PMID:25560460

  5. Thiol- and Biotin-Labeled Probes for Oligonucleotide Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensors of Microalga Alexandrium Minutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lazerges

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two quartz crystal microbalance oligonucleotide biosensors of a toxic microalga gene sequence (Alexandrium Minutum have been designed. Grafting on a gold surface of 20-base thiol- or biotin-labeled probe, and selective hybridization with the complementary 20-base target, have been monitored in situ with a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. The frequency of the set up is stable to within a few hertz, corresponding to the nanogram scale, for three hour experiments. DNA recognition by the two biosensors is efficient and selective. Hybridization kinetic curves indicate that the biosensor designed with the thiol-labeled probe is more sensitive, and that the biosensor designed with the biotin-labeled probe has a shorter time response and a higher hybridization efficiency.

  6. Patterned Hydrophilization of Nanoporous 1,2?PB by Thiol?ene Photochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Anton; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant

    2011-01-01

    We present an efficient method for functionalizing the large polymer–air interface of a gyroid nanoporous polymer. The hydrophilicity of nanoporous cross?linked 1,2?polybutadiene is tuned by thiol?ene photo?grafting of mercaptosuccinic acid or sodium 2?mercaptoethanesulfonate. The reaction is monitored by FT?IR, UV–Vis, contact angle, and gravimetry. Overall quantum yields are calculated for the two thiol?ene “click” reactions in nano?confinement, neatly revealing their chain?like nature. Top–down photolithographic patterning is demonstrated, realizing hydrophilic nanoporous “corridors” exclusively hosting water. The presented approach can be relevant for many applications where, e.g., high control and contrast in hydrophilicity, chemical functionality or refractive index are needed.

  7. Field effect on digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Meng-Lin; Peng, J. S.; Lee, Sanboh, E-mail: sblee@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    We studied the digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles under simultaneous action of electric field and reflux heating in a silicone oil bath at 130?°C, using transmission electron microscopy. Observation revealed that a polydispersed gold nanoparticle system reached the state of nearly monodispersity under the action of an electric field and the thiol-capped gold nanoparticles carried negative charges. The electric field caused the increase of the particle size for the nearly monodispersed gold nanoparticle system. The self-assembly of the nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles under the action of an electric field of a high field intensity was observed. The gold nanoparticles tended to form self-assembled nanostructures of six-fold symmetry. This study provides a new route for system engineering to control the particle size of metallic nanoparticles by electric field and digestive ripening.

  8. Modification of porous silicon rugate filters through thiol-yne photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeriyadi, Alexander H., E-mail: alexander.soeriyadi@unsw.edu.au; Zhu, Ying, E-mail: alexander.soeriyadi@unsw.edu.au; Gooding, J. Justin, E-mail: justin.gooding@unsw.edu.au [Australian Centre for Nanomedicine and School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Reece, Peter [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-02-24

    Porous silicon (PSi) has a considerable potential as biosensor platform. In particular, the ability to modify the surface chemistry of porous silicon is of interest. Here we present a generic method to modify the surface of porous silicon through thiol-yne photochemistry initiated by a radical initiator. Firstly, a freshly etched porous silicon substrate is modified through thermal hydrosilylation with 1,8-nonadiyne to passivate the surface and introduce alkyne functionalities. The alkyne functional surface could then be further reacted with thiol species in the presence of a radical initiator and UV light. Functionalization of the PSi rugate filter is followed with optical reflectivity measurements as well as high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  9. Fabrication of gold micro- and nanostructures by photolithographic exposure of thiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuqing; Mendes, Paula; Critchley, Kevin; Diegoli, Sara; Hanwell, Marcus; Evans, Stephen D; Leggett, Graham J; Preece, Jon A; Richardson, Tim H

    2006-03-01

    Exposure of thiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles supported on silicon wafers to UV light leads to oxidation of the thiol molecules and coagulation of the nanoparticles, forming densified structures that are resistant to removal by solvent exposure. Unoxidized particles may, in contrast, readily be removed leaving gold structures behind at the surface. This process provides a convenient and simple route for the fabrication of gold structures with dimensions ranging from micrometers to nanometers. The use of masks enables micrometer-scale structures to be fabricated rapidly. Exposure of nanoparticles to light from a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) leads to the formation of gold nanowires. The dimensions of these nanowires depend on the method of preparation of the film: for spin-cast films, a width of 200 nm was achieved. However, this was reduced significantly, to 60 nm, for Langmuir-Schaeffer films. PMID:16522020

  10. The Role of Thiol on Degradation of Pentaerythrityl Tetranitrate and Isosorbide Dinitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Pamudji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiols such as N-acetylcystein (NAC are used to replenish glutathione (GSH level, with regard to their function in the maintenance of cellular reduction-oxidation balance and control of oxidative stress. Thiols play a role in the reductive metabolism of nitrates to NO, an important signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system as well as other systems throughout the body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NAC on decomposition of different organic nitrate esters according to its potential i.e., pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (PETN and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN. The results showed that NAC gives a rapid and significant decrease of PETN and ISDN during the incubation period. During the experiment, about 85% of PETN were decomposed, while the decomposition of ISDN was about 20%. Detection of nitrite and elucidation of disulphide bond of NAC gives evidence that confirms the presence of reactions.

  11. Superhydrophobic hybrid inorganic-organic thiol-ene surfaces fabricated via spray-deposition and photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Bradley J; Hoff, Ethan F T; Xiong, Li; Goetz, James T; Patton, Derek L

    2013-03-13

    We report a simple and versatile method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic inorganic-organic thiol-ene coatings via sequential spray-deposition and photopolymerization under ambient conditions. The coatings are obtained by spray-deposition of UV-curable hybrid inorganic-organic thiol-ene resins consisting of pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), triallyl isocyanurate (TTT), 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVSi), and hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles. The spray-deposition process and nanoparticle agglomeration/dispersion provide surfaces with hierarchical morphologies exhibiting both micro- and nanoscale roughness. The wetting behavior, dependent on the concentration of TMTVSi and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, can be varied over a broad range to ultimately provide coatings with high static water contact angles (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis, and low roll off angles (stone, and cotton fabric. PMID:23410965

  12. Determination of the potential of zero charge of Au(111) modified with thiol monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Pablo; Andreu, Rafael; Cuesta, Angel; Calzado, Carmen J; Calvente, Juan José

    2007-09-01

    A new method is proposed for the determination of the potential of zero charge of gold electrodes modified with thiol monolayers. It makes use of the immersion technique, in combination with a vapor deposition protocol to build the thiol monolayers. As compared to previous methods, the present approach provides more accurate results, particularly in the case of long-chain alkanethiol monolayers, and it is applicable to any monolayer irrespective of its degree of hydrophilicity. Results are presented for a series of 12 alkanethiol monolayers and for 11-mercaptoundecanol and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid monolayers. Good agreement is found between the variation of the potential of zero charge along the alkanethiol series with the corresponding change of the surface work function. The potential of zero charge of the 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid monolayer is shown to depend on the extent of dissociation of the acid, thus opening the possibility of applying this type of measurements to the study of surface ionization processes. PMID:17676927

  13. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori adhesin thiol peroxidase (HP0390) purified from Escherichia coli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huyen Thi Minh Nguyen; Kwang-Ho Nam; Yasar Saleem; Key-Sun Kim

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant protein, adhesin thiol peroxidase (HpTpx or HP0390), plays an important role in enabling Helicobacter pylori to survive gastric oxidative stress. The bacterium colonizes the host stomach and produces gastric cancer. However, little information is available about the biochemical characteristics of HpTpx. We expressed recombinant HpTpx in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and characterized it. The results showed that HpTpx existed in a monomeric hydrodynamic form and the enzyme fully retained its peroxidase and antioxidant activities. The catalytic reaction of the enzyme was similar to an atypical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin (Prx). The conformation of the enzyme was observed in the presence and absence of dithiothreitol (DTT); similar to other known thiol peroxidases, conformational change was observed in HpTpx by the addition of DTT.

  14. Electrochemical Properties of a Thiol Monolayers Coated Gold Electrode Modified with Osmium Gel Membrane as Enzyme Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabutani, Tomoki; Okada, Nobuyuki; Maruyama, Kenichi; Motonaka, Junko

    The electrochemical behavior of an enzyme sensor for glucose using a gold electrode modified with thiol self-assembled membrane and osmium complex gel as an electron transferring mediator has further been investigated by electrochemical analysis. The gold electrode was initially coated with aminomethanethiol self assembling mono layer membrane(thiol-SAM) and then immobilized with glucose oxidase using poly(vinylpyridine-co-allylamine) (PVP-co-AA), gel coordinated with osmium bipyridine complexes (GOD/Os-PVP-co-AA gel). The cleaning condition of the surface of the Au electrode prior to coating thiol SAM was optimized for reduction of interference caused by concomitant compounds. It was found that interfering influence was most efficiently reduced in the case of use of the Au electrode immersed into nitric acid. The current ratio with a thiol coated gold electrode modified with Os-PVP-co-AA gel in glucose solution in the presence to absence of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and uric acid (ID+I/II) was 1.006, 1.014, and 1.018, respectively. The peak current response of glucose in the electrode modified with thiol SAM was dropped to 60 98% as compared with that without thiol SAM.

  15. Inelastic Tunneling Spectroscopy of Gold-Thiol and Gold-Thiolate Interfaces in Molecular Junctions: The Role of Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Demir, Firuz

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that when a molecule with thiol (S-H) end groups bridges a pair of gold electrodes, the S atoms bond to the gold and the thiol H atoms detach from the molecule. However, little is known regarding the details of this process, its time scale, and whether molecules with and without thiol hydrogen atoms can coexist in molecular junctions. Here we explore theoretically how inelastic tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) can shed light on these issues. We present calculations of the geometries, low bias conductances and IETS of propanedithiol and propanedithiolate molecular junctions with gold electrodes. We show that IETS can distinguish between junctions with molecules having no, one or two thiol hydrogen atoms. We find that in most cases the single-molecule junctions in the IETS experiment of Hihath et al. [Nano Lett. 8, 1673 (2008)] had no thiol H atoms, but that a molecule with a single thiol H atom may have bridged their junction occasionally. We also consider the evolution of the IETS spectrum ...

  16. Functional diversity of cysteine residues in proteins and unique features of catalytic redox-active cysteines in thiol oxidoreductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenko, Dmitri E; Marino, Stefano M; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2008-09-30

    Thiol-dependent redox systems are involved in regulation of diverse biological processes, such as response to stress, signal transduction, and protein folding. The thiol-based redox control is provided by mechanistically similar, but structurally distinct families of enzymes known as thiol oxidoreductases. Many such enzymes have been characterized, but identities and functions of the entire sets of thiol oxidoreductases in organisms are not known. Extreme sequence and structural divergence makes identification of these proteins difficult. Thiol oxidoreductases contain a redox-active cysteine residue, or its functional analog selenocysteine, in their active sites. Here, we describe computational methods for in silico prediction of thiol oxidoreductases in nucleotide and protein sequence databases and identification of their redox-active cysteines. We discuss different functional categories of cysteine residues, describe methods for discrimination between catalytic and noncatalytic and between redox and non-redox cysteine residues and highlight unique properties of the redox-active cysteines based on evolutionary conservation, secondary and three-dimensional structures, and sporadic replacement of cysteines with catalytically superior selenocysteine residues. PMID:18648218

  17. Characterization of plasma thiol redox potential in a common marmoset model of aging?

    OpenAIRE

    Roede, James R.; Uppal, Karan; Liang, Yongliang; Promislow, Daniel E.L; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Jones, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its short lifespan, ease of use and age-related pathologies that mirror those observed in humans, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is poised to become a standard nonhuman primate model of aging. Blood and extracellular fluid possess two major thiol-dependent redox nodes involving cysteine (Cys), cystine (CySS), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Alteration in these plasma redox nodes significantly affects cellular physiology, and oxidation of the plasma Cys/CyS...

  18. Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    GEIER, Mark R.; King, Paul G; Lisa K. Sykes; Geier, David A.; Haley, Boyd E.; Janet K. Kern

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent studies suggest that children diagnosed with an ASD have abnormal sulfation chemistry, limited thiol availability, and decreased glutathione (GSH) reserve capacity, resulting in a compromised oxida...

  19. Liquid-Crystalline Thiol- and Disulfide-Based Dendrimers for the Functionalization of Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Frein, Stéphane; Boudon, Julien; Vonlanthen, Mireille; Scharf, Toral; Barberá, Joaquín; Süss-Fink, georg; Bürgi, Thomas; Deschenaux, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-crystalline dendrons carrying either a thiol or disulfide function which display nematic, smectic A, columnar, or chiral nematic phases have been synthesized. Their mesomorphic properties are in agreement with the nature of the mesogenic units and structure of the dendrons. The first-generation poly(aryl ester) dendron containing two cyanobiphenyl mesogenic units was used to functionalize gold nanoparticles. For full coverage, a smectic-like supramolecular organization on the nanometer...

  20. Photolithographic fabrication of solid–liquid core waveguides by thiol-ene chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Kristensen, Anders; Ndoni, Sokol

    2011-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate an efficient and cleanroom compatible method for the fabrication of solid–liquid core waveguides based on nanoporous polymers. We have used thiol-ene photo-grafting to tune and pattern the hydrophilicity of an originally hydrophobic nanoporous 1, 2-polybutadiene. The generated refractive index contrast between the patterned water-filled volume and the surrounding empty hydrophobic porous polymer allows for light confinement within the water-filled volume—the solid–liq...

  1. Mapping peptide thiol accessibility in membranes using a quaternary ammonium isotope-coded mass tag (ICMT)

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chiao-Yung; London, Erwin; Sampson, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    The plasma membrane contains a diverse array of proteins, including receptors, channels, and signaling complexes, that serve as decision-making centers. Investigation of membrane protein topology is important for understanding the function of these types of protein. Here, we report a method to determine protein topology in the membrane that utilizes labeling of cysteine with isotope-coded mass tags. The mass tags contain a thiol reactive moiety, linker, and a quaternary ammonium group to aid ...

  2. Thiol- and Biotin-Labeled Probes for Oligonucleotide Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensors of Microalga Alexandrium Minutum

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Lazerges; Hubert Perrot; Niriniony Rabehagasoa; Chantal Compère

    2012-01-01

    Two quartz crystal microbalance oligonucleotide biosensors of a toxic microalga gene sequence (Alexandrium Minutum) have been designed. Grafting on a gold surface of 20-base thiol- or biotin-labeled probe, and selective hybridization with the complementary 20-base target, have been monitored in situ with a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. The frequency of the set up is stable to within a few hertz, corresponding to the nanogram scale, for three hour...

  3. Synthesis of Non-spherical Glycopolymer-Decorated Nanoparticles: Combing Thiol-ene with Catecholic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Weidong; Chen, Gaojian

    2016-01-01

    Glycopolymers with carbohydrate side chains are currently being applied in many fields, with much potential for disease treatment. The shape of glycopolymer-bearing nanoparticles has obvious effects on the nanoparticle-cell interaction and is therefore important for the applications of glycopolymers in biological systems. Here a synthetic approach to prepare non-spherical glycopolymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles is provided, by combing the convenience of inorganic shape control, catecholic chemistry, and thiol-ene reaction. PMID:26537471

  4. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity by protein thiol-disulfide exchange.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, F H; Humphreys, J; Reed, L J

    1982-01-01

    Endogenous kinase activity of highly purified pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from bovine kidney is markedly inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and by certain disulfides. Inhibition by disulfides is highly specific and is reversed by thiols. 5,5'-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) is the most potent inhibitor, showing significant inhibition at a concentration as low as 1 microM. Cystamine, oxidized glutathione, pantethine, lipoic acid, lipoamide, ergothionine, insulin, oxytocin, and vasopressin were ineffe...

  5. Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Thiol-Derivatized Amphiphilic Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphilic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) with a thiol functionality in the PCL terminal has been prepared in a novel synthetic cascade. Initially, living anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) employing the difunctional initiator, 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, followed by esterification with 2,4-dinitrophenyl- or 4-monomethoxytrityl-protected mercaptoacetic acids (Prot-), provided well-defined PCL macroinitiators capp...

  6. Ruthenium(III Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium(III chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]. The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

  7. Protein Tyrosine Nitration and Thiol Oxidation by Peroxynitrite—Strategies to Prevent These Oxidative Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Münzel; Serge Bottari; Tadashi Tanabe; Masayuki Wada; Alexandra Megner; Patrick Schmidt; Sebastian Steven; Matthias Oelze; Stefan Schildknecht; Markus Bachschmid; Steffen Daub; Andreas Daiber; Volker Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    The reaction product of nitric oxide and superoxide, peroxynitrite, is a potent biological oxidant. The most important oxidative protein modifications described for peroxynitrite are cysteine-thiol oxidation and tyrosine nitration. We have previously demonstrated that intrinsic heme-thiolate (P450)-dependent enzymatic catalysis increases the nitration of tyrosine 430 in prostacyclin synthase and results in loss of activity which contributes to endothelial dysfunction. We here report the sensi...

  8. Hydrogen sulphide-related thiol metabolism and nutrigenetics in relation to hypertension in an elderly population

    OpenAIRE

    Lucock, Mark; Yates, Zoë; Martin, Charlotte; Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Boyd, Lyndell; Tang, Sa; Naumovski, Nenad; Roach, Paul; Veysey, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule that regulates blood flow and pressure. It is synthesised from cysteine via cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase. We examined whether thiol precursors of H2S, transsulphuration pathway gene variants (CBS-844ins68 and CTH-G1364T) and key B-vitamin cofactors might be critical determinants of hypertension in an elderly Australian population. An elderly Australian retirement village population (n = 228; age 65–96 years, 91 mal...

  9. Polarographic determination of europium(III) with 3-hydroxypyridine-2-thiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu, R.S.; Katyal, M.; Puri, B.K.

    1987-11-20

    The polarographic behavior of europium(III) has been studied in 3-hydroxypyridine-2-thiol (HPT) as the supporting electrolyte. The polarographic wave in this electrolyte is diffusion controlled, quasi-reversible, and well defined, and there is no need of a maximum suppressor. The interference of various ions has been studied in detail, and this method has been utilized for the quantitative determination of europium in various synthetic samples

  10. Soft metal thiol chemistry is not involved in the transport of arsenite by the Ars pump.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y; Dey, S; Rosen, B P

    1996-01-01

    The single cysteine in the ArsB protein subunit of the arsenite resistance pump was changed to serine and alanine residues. Resistance in cells expressing the two mutant arsB genes was the same as in the wild type, and the serine substitution had no effect on the arsenite transport properties. These results eliminate possible thiol chemistry in translocation. Thus, the pump uses soft metal chemistry for metalloactivation and nonmetal chemistry for oxyanion transport.

  11. Evaluation of serum thiol levels in patients with non ST elevation acute coronary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih TANRIVERD?; KAVAKLI, Havva ?AH?N; KURTO?LU ÇEL?K, Gülhan; ?ÇME, Ferhat; ?ENER, Alp; KARAKAYALI, Onur; Vural, Sevilay

    2014-01-01

    Imbalance between antioxidant and oxidant systems in the body play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis and its complications. The aim of this clinical study was to investigate total serum thiol (TS-H) levels in patients with non ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients and relationships between these results and cardiac markers. This study included 55 patients and a control group consisted of 50 healthy people. Samples for serum total TS-H levels ...

  12. Thiol-mediated multiple mechanisms centered on selenodiglutathione determine selenium cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Takao; Ueda, Koji; Ando, Motozumi; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Kojima, Nakao

    2015-06-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential antioxidative micronutrient but can exert cancer-selective cytotoxicity if the nutritional levels are too high. Selenodiglutathione (GSSeSG) is a primary Se metabolite conjugated with two glutathione (GSH) moieties. GSSeSG has been suggested to be an important molecule for cytotoxicity. Here, we propose the underlying mechanisms for the potent cytotoxicity of GSSeSG: cellular intake; reductive metabolism; production of reactive oxygen species; oxidative damage to DNA; apoptosis induction. GSSeSG rather than selenite decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis accompanied by increases in intracellular Se contents. Therefore, GSSeSG-specific cytotoxicity may be ascribed to its preferable incorporation. Base oxidation and strand fragmentation in genomic DNA preceded cell death, suggesting that oxidative stress (including DNA damage) is crucial for GSSeSG cytotoxicity. Strand breaks of purified DNA were caused by the coexistence of GSSeSG and thiols (GSH, cysteine, homocysteine), but not the oxidized form or non-thiol reductants. This implies the important role of intracellular thiols in the mechanism of Se toxicity. GSH-assisted DNA strand breaks were inhibited by specific scavengers for hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radicals. The GSSeSG metabolite selenide induced some DNA strand breaks without GSH, whereas elemental Se did so only with GSH. These observations suggest involvement of Fenton-type reaction in the absence of transition metals and reactivation of inert elemental Se. Overall, our results suggest that chemical interactions between Se and the sulfur of thiols are crucial for the toxicity mechanisms of Se. PMID:25783495

  13. Surface spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations of aromatic and heteroaromatic thiols on gold single crystal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Caroline

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of aromatic and heteroaromatic thiol selfassembly on Au single crystal surfaces. A range of surface spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques have been used to investigate the formation of complex assemblies in terms of the types of surface intermediates formed, adsórbate orientation and the mechanism of adsorption from the gas and liquid phases. The self-assembly process is reviewed, with particular emphasis on aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SA...

  14. Direct recognition and quantification by voltammetry of thiol/thioamide mixes in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laglera, Luis M; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio

    2012-01-30

    Thiols and thioamides form part of the pool of reduced sulfur substances (RSS) that modify the health of aquatic ecosystems acting as radical scavengers and heavy metal ligands. Their concentrations could be easily determined in seawater by cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) were it not be for the coalescence of their responses in a single peak. Here, we modified the traditional CSV method of RSS analysis to allow individual recognition and quantification in thiol/thioamide mixes. Glutathione, cysteine, thiourea and thioacetamide in UV digested seawater were repeatedly analyzed shifting the deposition potential (E(dep)) in the range +0.07 to -0.4V at high resolution. The representation of peak height (i(p)) and peak potential (E(p)) vs E(dep) resulted in different and distinctive profiles for each substance that allowed the selection of adequate E(dep) ranges for their separate quantification. Copper saturation modified thiol profiles and cancelled the response of thioamides. The vs E(dep) profiles explained the nature of the different thiols and thioamides present in the sample and permitted their individual quantification with excellent accuracy. The utility of the method was put to test with seawater modified with natural unknown RSS from pore waters and Posidonia oceanica exudates. Although both samples gave similar CSV signals, the vs E(dep) profiles unveiled completely different electrochemical behaviors incompatible with a similar nature. Based on those profiles we hypothesized that pore waters released a glutathione/thiourea mix and that one or several unidentified RSS formed part of P. oceanica exudates. The analytical scheme proposed here opens a new door to the use of direct voltammetry in the qualitative and quantitative determination of RSS in natural waters. PMID:22284523

  15. Characterization of plasma thiol redox potential in a common marmoset model of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Roede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its short lifespan, ease of use and age-related pathologies that mirror those observed in humans, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is poised to become a standard nonhuman primate model of aging. Blood and extracellular fluid possess two major thiol-dependent redox nodes involving cysteine (Cys, cystine (CySS, glutathione (GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG. Alteration in these plasma redox nodes significantly affects cellular physiology, and oxidation of the plasma Cys/CySS redox potential (EhCySS is associated with aging and disease risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine age-related changes in plasma redox metabolites and corresponding redox potentials (Eh to further validate the marmoset as a nonhuman primate model of aging. We measured plasma thiol redox states in marmosets and used existing human data with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS to model the relationships between age and redox metabolites. A classification accuracy of 70.2% and an AUC of 0.703 were achieved using the MARS model built from the marmoset redox data to classify the human samples as young or old. These results show that common marmosets provide a useful model for thiol redox biology of aging.

  16. Thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases are essential for the production of the lantibiotic sublancin 168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenbos, Ronald; Stein, Torsten; Kabel, Jorrit; Bruand, Claude; Bolhuis, Albert; Bron, Sierd; Quax, Wim J; Van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2002-05-10

    Thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases are required for disulfide bond formation in proteins that are exported from the cytoplasm. Four enzymes of this type, termed BdbA, BdbB, BdbC, and BdbD, have been identified in the Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus subtilis. BdbC and BdbD have been shown to be critical for the folding of a protein required for DNA uptake during natural competence. In contrast, no function has been assigned so far to the BdbA and BdbB proteins. The bdbA and bdbB genes are located in one operon that also contains the genes specifying the lantibiotic sublancin 168 and the ATP-binding cassette transporter SunT. Interestingly sublancin 168 contains two disulfide bonds. The present studies demonstrate that SunT and BdbB, but not BdbA, are required for the production of active sublancin 168. In addition, the BdbB paralogue BdbC is at least partly able to replace BdbB in sublancin 168 production. These observations show the unprecedented involvement of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases in the synthesis of a peptide antibiotic. Notably BdbB cannot complement BdbC in competence development, showing that these two closely related thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases have different, but partly overlapping, substrate specificities. PMID:11872755

  17. Modulation of tau phosphorylation within its microtubule-binding domain by cellular thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S M; Johnson, G V

    1999-11-01

    Tau is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that is functionally modulated by alterations in its phosphorylation state. Because phosphorylation regulates both normal and pathological tau functioning, it is of importance to identify the signaling pathways that regulate tau phosphorylation in vivo. The present study examined changes in tau phosphorylation and function in response to modulation of cellular thiol content. Treatment of cells with phenylarsine oxide, which reacts with vicinal thiols, selectively increased tau phosphorylation within its microtubule-binding domain, at the non-Ser/Thr-Pro sites Ser262/356, while decreasing tau phosphorylation at Ser/ Thr-Pro sites outside this region. This increase in tau phosphorylation correlated with a decrease in the amount of tau associated with the cytoskeleton and decreased microtubule stability. Phenylarsine oxide-induced tau phosphorylation was inhibited by oxidants and by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine. Although staurosporine completely eliminated the increase in tau phosphorylation at Ser262/356, as detected by immunostaining with 12E8, it had a comparatively minor effect on the changes in tau localization induced by phenylarsine oxide. The results suggest that regulation of cellular thiols is important for modulating tau phosphorylation and function in situ. Additionally, although phosphorylation of Ser262/356 decreases tau's interaction with the cytoskeleton, phosphorylation of these residues alone is not sufficient for the phenylarsine oxide-induced changes in tau localization. PMID:10537042

  18. Location of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced gastrointestinal tumors correlates with thiol distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the drinking water causes a high incidence of carcinomas of the glandular stomach in rats. Following a single oral dose of [14C-methyl]MNNG (80 p.p.m.; 2.5 mg/kg), the extent of DNA methylation in the glandular stomach was 9 and 20 times higher than that in the forestomach and oesophagus, respectively. The autoradiographic distribution of tissue-bound radioactivity within the glandular stomach of BONN/WIST rats coincides with strain-specific tumor location at the small curvature. Following intragastric administration of [14C-methyl]MNNG, alkylation levels in forestomach and glandular stomach were twice as high as those observed after oral exposure via the drinking water, whereas duodenal DNA showed a much lower extent of methylation. The regional differences in DNA alkylation correlated with tissue-specific variations in the concentration of cellular thiols which are known to accelerate the heterolytic decomposition of MNNG. When [14C-methyl]MNNG was given intragastrically together with the thiol-blocking agent, N-ethylmaleimide, covalent binding of the 14C-radioactivity to forestomach, glandular stomach and duodenum was almost completely abolished. This indicates that the preferential induction of glandular stomach tumors by MNNG relies on high concentrations of cellular thiols in the target tissue

  19. The critical role of the cellular thiol homeostasis in cadmium perturbation of the lung extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) inhalation can result in emphysema. Cd exposure of rat lung fibroblasts (RFL6) enhanced levels of metal scavenging thiols, e.g., metallothionein (MT) and glutathione (GSH), and the heavy chain of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS), a key enzyme for GSH biosynthesis, concomitant with downregulation of lysyl oxidase (LO), a copper-dependent enzyme for crosslinking collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cd downregulation of LO in treated cells was closely accompanied by suppression of synthesis of collagen, a major structure component of the lung ECM. Using rats intratracheally instilled with cadmium chloride (30 ?g, once a week) as an animal model, we further demonstrated that although 2-week Cd instillation induced a non-significant change in the lung LO activity and collagen synthesis, 4- and 6-week Cd instillation resulted in a steady decrease in the lung LO and collagen expression. The lung MT and total GSH levels were both upregulated upon the long-term Cd exposure. Emphysematous lesions were generated in lungs of 6-week Cd-dosed rats. Increases of cellular thiols by transfection of cells with MT-II expression vectors or treatment of cells with GSH monoethyl ester, a GSH delivery system, markedly inhibited LO mRNA levels and catalytic activities in the cell model. Thus, Cd upregulation of cellular thiols may be a critical cellular event facilitating downregulation of LO, a potential mechanism for Cd-induced emphysema.

  20. Rapid approach to biobased telechelics through two one-pot thiol-ene click reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Cristina; Ronda, Joan C; Galià, Marina; Lligadas, Gerard; Cádiz, Virginia

    2010-06-14

    The application of environmentally friendly thiol-ene chemistry to the preparation of biobased telechelics is presented in this work. This methodology is based on two one-pot photoinitiated thiol-ene click processes: step-growth polymerization using a 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol and end-group postpolymerization modification with three functional thiols: 2-mercaptoethanol, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. We applied this approach to a potentially 100% biomass-derived monomer, allyl ester of 10-undecenoic acid (UDA). To show the generality and scope of this methodology, a series of well-defined telechelics with molecular weight ranging from 1000-3000 g/mol and hydroxyl, carboxyl, or trimethoxysilyl groups at the polymer terminus were prepared. An exhaustive (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF MS analyses demonstrates the highly end-group fidelity of this methodology being an interesting procedure for the accelerated preparation of telechelics derived from divinyl monomers. UDA-based thelechelic diol prepared using this methodology was reacted with 4,4'-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) and 1,4-butanediol as the chain extender to obtain multiblock poly(ester urethane). PMID:20462176

  1. Thiol proteinase inhibitor - Oryzacystatin. Molecular cloning and expression in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect depredation is a major reason for the reduction in crop yields world-wide. Promising results have already been achieved with transgenic plants expression cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) genes and modified delta-endotoxin genes. Insects, in general, hydrolyse ingested proteins with a variety of proteinase. The effect of the serine proteinase inhibitor against Lepidopteran insects is probably caused by the preponderance of serine type gut proteinase and a luminal pH in the neutral to alkaline range. On the other hand, the insect orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera have gut pHs in the mildly acidic range and commonly have thiol type gut proteinases. Plant transformation with a gene coding for a thiol proteinase inhibitor has been suggested as a strategy for interfering with the digestive physiology of Coleopteran and Hemipteran insects. Co-transformation of both the serine proteinase inhibitor and the thiol proteinase inhibitor genes might result in a broader spectrum of activity and increased durability of protection

  2. Optimization of Optical Properties of Polycarbonate Film with Thiol Gold-Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Larosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new nanostructured composite film based on thiol gold nanoparticles dispersed in polycarbonate and prepared by evaporating a solution of 1-dodecanthiol gold nanoparticles and polycarbonate was developed for applications as optical lenses. Lenses with superior mechanical properties, coloring and UV ray absorption and with the same transparency as the matrix were obtained. The supporting highly transparent polycarbonate matrix and the chloroform solution of thiol gold nanoparticles, 3 nm mean size, was mixed according to a doping protocol employing different concentrations of thiol gold nanoparticles vs. polycarbonate. The presence of nanoparticles in the polymer films was confirmed by the spectrophotometric detection of the characteristic absorbance marker peak at 540–580 nm. The nanostructured films obtained show a better coverage in the UV-vis range (250–450 nm even at very low doping ratios, of the order of 1:1,000. These results offer a very promising approach towards the development of efficient nanostructured materials for applications to optical lenses.

  3. Thiol derivatization of Xanthan gum and its evaluation as a mucoadhesive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Meenakshi; Ahuja, Munish; Mehta, Heena

    2015-10-20

    Thiol-derivatization of xanthan gum polysaccharide was carried out by esterification with mercaptopropionic acid and thioglycolic acid. Thiol-derivatization was confirmed by Fourier-transformed infra-red spectroscopy. Xanthan-mercaptopropionic acid conjugate and xanthan-thioglycolic acid conjugate were found to possess 432.68mM and 465.02mM of thiol groups as determined by Ellman's method respectively. Comparative evaluation of mucoadhesive property of metronidazole loaded buccal pellets of xanthan and thiolated xanthan gum using chicken buccal pouch membrane revealed higher ex vivo bioadhesion time of thiolated xanthan gum as compared to xanthan gum. Improved mucoadhesive property of thiolated xanthan gum over the xanthan gum can be attributed to the formation of disulfide bond between mucus and thiolated xanthan gum. In vitro release study conducted using phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) revealed a sustained release profile of metronidazole from thiolated xanthan pellets as compared to xanthan pellets. In conclusion, thiolation of xanthan improves its mucoadhesive property and sustained the release of metronidazole over a prolonged period. PMID:26256167

  4. Quantification of Polyfunctional Thiols in Wine by HS-SPME-GC-MS Following Extractive Alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Musumeci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of key odorous polyfunctional volatile thiols in wines (3-mercaptohexanol (3-MH, 3-mercaptohexylacetate (3-MHA, and 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4-MMP are challenging due to their high reactivity and ultra-trace concentrations, especially when using conventional gas-chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS. We describe a method in which thiols are converted to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB derivatives by extractive alkylation and the organic layer is evaporated prior to headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and GC-EI-MS analysis. Optimal parameters were determined by response surface area modeling. The addition of NaCl solution to the dried SPME vials prior to extraction resulted in up to less than fivefold improvement in detection limits. Using 40 mL wine samples, limits of detection for 4-MMP, 3-MH, and 3-MHA were 0.9 ng/L, 1 ng/L, and 17 ng/L, respectively. Good recovery (90%–109% and precision (5%–11% RSD were achieved in wine matrices. The new method was used to survey polyfunctional thiol concentrations in 61 commercial California and New York State wines produced from V. vinifera (Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc and non-varietal rosé wines, V. labruscana (Niagara, and Vitis spp. (Cayuga White. Mean 4-MMP concentrations in New York Niagara (17 ng/L were not significantly different from concentrations in Sauvignon blanc, but were significantly higher than 4-MMP in other varietal wines.

  5. Synthesis of thiol-functionalized spent grain as a novel adsorbent for divalent metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Liyuan; Li, Qingzhu; Zhu, Yonghua; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Qingwei; Wang, Yunyan; Yang, Zhihui

    2010-08-01

    Spent grain (SG) was functionalized with thioglycolic acid in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) medium using sodium bisulfate monohydrate (NaHSO(4).H(2)O) as a catalyst, followed by treatment with sodium sulfide nonahydrate (Na(2)S.9H(2)O). Characterization of thiol-functionalized spent grain (TFSG) was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. These analytical results revealed the emergence of S-H and C=O groups after the chemical modification, indicating that thiol groups were successfully grafted onto TFSG. As compared with SG, TFSG showed significant improvement in terms of metal loading capacity. Typically, adsorption capacity for Zn(2+) was increased from 125.76 mg g(-1) of SG to 227.37 mg g(-1) of TFSG, which was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. This increase may be attributed to both the formation of ester linkage and the grafting of thiol groups onto TFSG. The experimental results indicate that TFSG is a promising adsorbent for removal heavy metals from contaminated water. PMID:20338755

  6. Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Thiol-Derivatized Amphiphilic Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, SØren

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphilic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) with a thiol functionality in the PCL terminal has been prepared in a novel synthetic cascade. Initially, living anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) employing the difunctional initiator, 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, followed by esterification with 2,4-dinitrophenyl- or 4-monomethoxytrityl-protected mercaptoacetic acids (Prot-), provided well-defined PCL macroinitiators capped with protected thiols. The macroinitiators allowed atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of tent-butyl acrylate (tBA) in a controlled fashion by use of NiBr2(PPh3)(2) catalyst to produce Prot-PCL-b-PtBA with narrow polydispersities (1.17-1.39). Subsequent mild deprotection protocols provided HS-PCL-b-PAA. Reduction of a gold salt in the presence of this macroligand under thiol-deficient conditions afforded stable, aggregation-free nanoparticles, as evidenced from UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the latter revealed nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 9.0 +/- 3.1 nm.

  7. Investigation into the Effect of Molds in Grasses on Their Content of Low Molecular Mass Thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nawrath

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of molds on levels of low molecular mass thiols in grasses. For this purpose, the three grass species Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare and Festulolium braunii were cultivated and sampled during four months, from June to September. The same species were also grown under controlled conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used for quantification of cysteine, reduced (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione, and phytochelatins (PC2, PC3, PC4 and PC5. Data were statistically processed and analyzed. Thiols were present in all examined grass species. The effect of fungicide treatments applied under field conditions on the content of the evaluated thiols was shown to be insignificant. Species influenced (p < 0.05 PC3 and GSSG content. F. pabulare, an intergeneric hybrid of drought- and fungi-resistant Festuca arundinacea, was comparable in PC3 content with L. perenne and F. braunii under field conditions. Under controlled conditions, however, F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05 PC3 content than did L. perenne and F. braunii. Under field conditions, differences between the evaluated species were recorded only in GSSG content, but only sampling in June was significant. F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05 GSSG content in June than did L. perenne and F. braunii.

  8. Photoreactivation of nitrate reductase production in Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (254 nm) irradiation of liquid-cultured tobacco cells inhibited the production of nitrate reductase; subsequent illumination with white light allowed a partial restoration of the synthesis of the enzyme (photoreactivation). Ultraviolet irradiation of these same cells also inhibited their ability to incorporate labeled uridine and labeled amino acids. Subsequent illumination with white light gave a partial restoration of the ability of the cells to incorporate uridine while a similar post-ultraviolet-irradiation treatment failed to restore the amino acid incorporation. The system in tobacco known to repair ultraviolet-damaged viral RNA thus does not seem to repair ultraviolet damage to the protein-synthesizing system of the cell. The photoreactivation of nitrate reductase production is best explained by the action of a DNA photorepairing system

  9. S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase: An Important Regulator in Human Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Que, Loretta G.; Yang, Zhonghui; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Lugogo, Njira L.; Kraft, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Nitric oxide bioactivity, mediated through the formation of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), has a significant effect on bronchomotor tone. S-Nitrosoglutathione is an endogenous bronchodilator that is decreased in children with asthmatic respiratory failure and in adults with asthma undergoing segmental airway challenge. Recently we showed that S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) regulates endogenous SNOs. Mice with genetic deletion of GSNOR are protected from airway hyperresponsivity in...

  10. Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR): the 2002 update.

    OpenAIRE

    Oppermann, U; Filling, C; Hult, M; Shafqat, N; Wu, X; Lindh, M.; Shafqat, J.; Nordling, E; Kallberg, Y; Persson, B.; Jörnvall, H.

    2003-01-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) form a large, functionally heterogeneous protein family presently with about 3000 primary and about 30 3D structures deposited in databases. Despite low sequence identities between different forms (about 15-30%), the 3D structures display highly similar alpha/beta folding patterns with a central beta-sheet, typical of the Rossmann-fold. Based on distinct sequence motifs functional assignments and classifications are possible, making it possible to b...

  11. The mechanism of high Mr thioredoxin reductase from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Holger; Massey, Vincent; Arscott, L David; Schirmer, R Heiner; Ballou, David P; Williams, Charles H

    2003-08-29

    Drosophila melanogaster thioredoxin reductase-1 (DmTrxR-1) is a key flavoenzyme in dipteran insects, where it substitutes for glutathione reductase. DmTrxR-1 belongs to the family of dimeric, high Mr thioredoxin reductases, which catalyze reduction of thioredoxin by NADPH. Thioredoxin reductase has an N-terminal redox-active disulfide (Cys57-Cys62) adjacent to the flavin and a redox-active C-terminal cysteine pair (Cys489'-Cys490' in the other subunit) that transfer electrons from Cys57-Cys62 to the substrate thioredoxin. Cys489'-Cys490' functions similarly to Cys495-Sec496 (Sec = selenocysteine) and Cys535-XXXX-Cys540 in human and parasite Plasmodium falciparum enzymes, but a catalytic redox center formed by adjacent Cys residues, as observed in DmTrxR-1, is unprecedented. Our data show, for the first time in a high Mr TrxR, that DmTrxR-1 oscillates between the 2-electron reduced state, EH2, and the 4-electron state, EH4, in catalysis, after the initial priming reduction of the oxidized enzyme (Eox) to EH2. The reductive half-reaction consumes 2 eq of NADPH in two observable steps to produce EH4. The first equivalent yields a FADH--NADP+ charge-transfer complex that reduces the adjacent disulfide to form a thiolate-flavin charge-transfer complex. EH4 reacts with thioredoxin rapidly to produce EH2. In contrast, Eox formation is slow and incomplete; thus, EH2 of wild-type cannot reduce thioredoxin at catalytically competent rates. Mutants lacking the C-terminal redox center, C489S, C490S, and C489S/C490S, are incapable of reducing thioredoxin and can only be reduced to EH2 forms. Additional data suggest that Cys57 attacks Cys490' in the interchange reaction between the N-terminal dithiol and the C-terminal disulfide. PMID:12816954

  12. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria; Hansen, Thomas; Wang, August G; Djurovic, Srdjan; Rønningen, Kjersti S; Andreassen, Ole A; Agartz, Ingrid; Werge, Thomas; Terenius, Lars; Hall, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were inves...

  13. Aldose reductase inhibition abolishes glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekarová, Michaela; Chatzopoulou, M.; Nicolaou, I.; Demopoulos, V.; Lojek, Antonín; Papežíková, Ivana

    Tren?ianske Teplice, 2008. s. 105-106. ISSN 1337-6853. [TOXCON 2008, Integration of Toxicological Research Within V4, 13th Interdisciplinary Toxicology Conference. 27.05.2008-30.05.2008, Tren?ianske Teplice] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GP204/07/P539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : aldose reductase * endothelial dysfunction * hyperglycemia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE METHIONINE SULFOXIDE REDUCTASES OF SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Tolulope T.; Moskovitz, Jackob; David L. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, also known as Bilharzia, is an infectious disease caused by several species of Schistosoma. Twenty million individuals suffer severe symptoms and 200,000 people die annually from the disease. The host responds to the presence of S. mansoni by producing reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative stress. We hypothesized that schistosomes produce antioxidants in response to oxidative stress. A known antioxidant protein is methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Methionine residu...

  15. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A is a stereospecific methionine oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jung Chae; You, Zheng; Kim, Geumsoo; Levine, Rodney L

    2011-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) catalyzes the reduction of methionine sulfoxide to methionine and is specific for the S epimer of methionine sulfoxide. The enzyme participates in defense against oxidative stresses by reducing methionine sulfoxide residues in proteins back to methionine. Because oxidation of methionine residues is reversible, this covalent modification could also function as a mechanism for cellular regulation, provided there exists a stereospecific methionine oxidase....

  16. Current Status of 5?-Reductase Inhibitors in Prostate Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Dong Il; Chung, Jae Il

    2013-01-01

    The key enzyme in the androgen synthesis and androgen receptor pathways is 5?-reductase (5-AR), which occurs as three isoenzymes. Types I and II 5-ARs the most important clinically, and two different 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARIs), finasteride and dutasteride, have been developed. Several urology associations have recommended and upgraded the use of 5-ARIs for an enlarged prostate with lower urinary tract symptoms. In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate...

  17. Regulation of ribonucleotide reductase by Spd1 involves multiple mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Nestoras, Konstantinos; Mohammed, Asma Hadi; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Fleck, Oliver; Watson, Adam T.; Poitelea, Marius; O'Shea, Charlotte; Chahwan, Charly; Holmberg, Christian; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Nielsen, Olaf; Osborne, Mark; Carr, Antony M.; Liu, Cong

    2010-01-01

    The correct levels of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates and their relative abundance are important to maintain genomic integrity. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) regulation is complex and multifaceted. RNR is regulated allosterically by two nucleotide-binding sites, by transcriptional control, and by small inhibitory proteins that associate with the R1 catalytic subunit. In addition, the subcellular localization of the R2 subunit is regulated through the cell cycle and in response to DNA damag...

  18. Binding of Natural and Synthetic Polyphenols to Human Dihydrofolate Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    José Neptuno Rodríguez-López; Juan Cabezas-Herrera; Soledad Chazarra; Luís Sánchez-del-Campo; Magalí Sáez-Ayala

    2009-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the subject of intensive investigation since it appears to be the primary target enzyme for antifolate drugs. Fluorescence quenching experiments show that the ester bond-containing tea polyphenols (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) are potent inhibitors of DHFR with dissociation constants (KD) of 0.9 and 1.8 ?M, respectively, while polyphenols lacking the ester bound gallate moiety [e.g., (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-e...

  19. The occurrence of nitrate reductase in leaves of prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leece, D R; Dilley, D R; Kenworthy, A L

    1972-05-01

    Nitrate reductase was found in leaves of apricot Prunus armeniaca, sour cherry P. cerasus, sweet cherry P. avium, and plum P. domestica, but not in peach P. persica, from trees grown in sand culture receiving a nitrate containing nutrient solution. Nitrate was found in the leaves of all species. Nitrate and nitrate reductase were found in leaves of field-grown apricot, sour cherry, and plum trees. The enzyme-extracting medium contained insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, and including dithiothreitol or mercaptobenzothiazole did not improve enzyme recovery. Inclusion of cherry leaf extract diminished, and peach leaf extract abolished, recovery of nitrate reductase from oat tissue. Low molecular weight phenols liberated during extraction were probably responsible for inactivation of the enzyme. The enzyme from apricot was two to three times as active as from the other species. Both nicotine adenine diphosphopyridine nucleotide and flavin mononucleotide were effective electron donors. The enzyme was readily induced in apricot leaves by 10 mm nitrate supplied through the leaf petiole. PMID:16658037

  20. Nitrate reductase gene involvement in hexachlorobiphenyl dechlorination by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) degradation usually occurs through reductive dechlorination under anaerobic conditions and phenolic ring cleavage under aerobic conditions. In this paper, we provide evidence of nitrate reductase (NaR) mediated dechlorination of hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium under non-ligninolytic condition and the gene involved. The NaR enzyme and its cofactor, molybdenum (Mo), were found to mediate reductive dechlorination of PCBs even in aerobic condition. Tungsten (W), a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme, was found to suppress this dechlorination. Chlorine release assay provided further evidence of this nitrate reductase mediated dechlorination. Commercially available pure NaR enzyme from Aspergillus was used to confirm these results. Through homology search using TBLASTN program, NaR gene was identified, primers were designed and the RT-PCR product was sequenced. The NaR gene was then annotated in the P. chrysosporium genome (GenBank accession no. AY700576). This is the first report regarding the presence of nitrate reductase gene in this fungus with the explanation why this fungus can dechlorinate PCBs even in aerobic condition. These fungal inoculums are used commercially as pellets in sawdust for enhanced bioremediation of PCBs at the risk of depleting soil nitrates. Hence, the addition of nitrates to the pellets will reduce this risk as well as enhance its activity

  1. POTENTIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF A GRAPHITE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH COBALT PHTHALOCYANINE FOR THIOLS AND DISULFIDES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ H., ZAGAL; JAIME J.H., HENRIQUEZ.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha investigado la respuesta potenciométrica the electrodos de grafito pirolítico ordinario (OPG) modificados con ftalocianina de cobalto (Co-Pc) frente a los tioles (R-SH) 2-mecaptoetanol y L-cisteína y los correspondientes disulfuros (R-SS-R). Al agregar pequeñas cantidades de estos tioles a sol [...] uciones acuosas con pH en el rango 11-4, se obtienen respuestas en potencial estables dentro de unos pocos segundos despues de las adiciones. Gráficas de potencial vs. log [R-SH] dan rectas para todos los casos, con pendientes cercanas a -0,060 V para concentraciones del tiol en el rango de 10-5 a 10-2 M. Estas medidas se efectuaron en presencia de aire u oxígeno. En atmósfera de nitrógeno, las pendientes de las gráficas suben a -0,14 V. El potencial de circuito abierto de los electrodos OPG/Co-Pc resultó ser independiente de la concentración de los disulfuros lo que indica que el potencial del electrodo modificado es sólo sensible al tiol. Los electrodos de grafito sin modificar frente a los tioles dan respuestas en potencial irreproducibles, lo que muestra la importancia de la presencia Co-Pc para obtener respuestas potenciométricas estables Abstract in english We have investigated the potentiometric response of ordinary pyrolytic graphite electrodes (OPG) modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (Co-Pc) for thiols (R-SH) 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine and their corresponding disulfides (R-SS-R). Stable potentials are achieved after a few seconds of additions of [...] different amounts of thiols to aqueous solutions of pH values between 11 and 4. Plots of potential vs. log [R-SH] give straight lines for all cases with slopes ca. -0.060 V with concentrations of the thiol varying from 10-5 up to 10-2 M. These measurements were conducted in the presence of air or oxygen. Under nitrogen, the slopes increase to -0.14 V. The potential response of OPG/Co-Pc is independent of disulfide concentration, which shows that these modified electrodes are only sensitive to the thiol. Graphite electrodes without modification are not sensitive to the concentration of thiols in the solution and the potential response is erratic.

  2. POTENTIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF A GRAPHITE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH COBALT PHTHALOCYANINE FOR THIOLS AND DISULFIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ H. ZAGAL

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the potentiometric response of ordinary pyrolytic graphite electrodes (OPG modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (Co-Pc for thiols (R-SH 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine and their corresponding disulfides (R-SS-R. Stable potentials are achieved after a few seconds of additions of different amounts of thiols to aqueous solutions of pH values between 11 and 4. Plots of potential vs. log [R-SH] give straight lines for all cases with slopes ca. -0.060 V with concentrations of the thiol varying from 10-5 up to 10-2 M. These measurements were conducted in the presence of air or oxygen. Under nitrogen, the slopes increase to -0.14 V. The potential response of OPG/Co-Pc is independent of disulfide concentration, which shows that these modified electrodes are only sensitive to the thiol. Graphite electrodes without modification are not sensitive to the concentration of thiols in the solution and the potential response is erratic.Se ha investigado la respuesta potenciométrica the electrodos de grafito pirolítico ordinario (OPG modificados con ftalocianina de cobalto (Co-Pc frente a los tioles (R-SH 2-mecaptoetanol y L-cisteína y los correspondientes disulfuros (R-SS-R. Al agregar pequeñas cantidades de estos tioles a soluciones acuosas con pH en el rango 11-4, se obtienen respuestas en potencial estables dentro de unos pocos segundos despues de las adiciones. Gráficas de potencial vs. log [R-SH] dan rectas para todos los casos, con pendientes cercanas a -0,060 V para concentraciones del tiol en el rango de 10-5 a 10-2 M. Estas medidas se efectuaron en presencia de aire u oxígeno. En atmósfera de nitrógeno, las pendientes de las gráficas suben a -0,14 V. El potencial de circuito abierto de los electrodos OPG/Co-Pc resultó ser independiente de la concentración de los disulfuros lo que indica que el potencial del electrodo modificado es sólo sensible al tiol. Los electrodos de grafito sin modificar frente a los tioles dan respuestas en potencial irreproducibles, lo que muestra la importancia de la presencia Co-Pc para obtener respuestas potenciométricas estables

  3. Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Thiol-Derivatized Amphiphilic Poly( -caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, SØren

    2008-01-01

    Amphiphilic poly(c-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) bearing thiol functionality at the PCL terminal has been synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of c-caprolactone (c-CL), esterification of hydroxy chain end with protected mercaptoacetic acid, subsequent chain-extension by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), and final deprotection steps. ROP of c-CL initiated by 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, and catalysed by tin octoate afforded Br-PCL-OH with the degree of polymerization of 30 and narrow molecular weight distribution (1.09). The hydroxy chain end of Br-PCL-OR was modified by reacting with a-(2,4-dinitrophenylthio)acetic acid or a-(4methoxytritylthio) acetic acid resulting in heterotelechelic PCL incorporating protected thiol and bromoester functionalities. It was then employed as macroinitiator in NiBr2(PPh3)2 catalysed ATRP of tBA. ATRP of tBA provided diblock copolymers with low polydispersity index (1.17-1.39) while preserving the protected thiol function. Sequential or simultaneous removal of 2,4-dinitrophenyl or 4-methoxytrityl and tert-butyl ester groups resulted in HS-PCL-b-PAA. The PCL backbone remained intact after mild deprotection protocols. Thus, reversible masking of thiol functionality allows facile fusion of the controlled polymerization techniques employing dual initiator strategy, and furnishes RS-PCL-bPAA with well-defined chain architecture which has been assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), nuclear magnetic resonance eR NMR) and infrared (FT IR) spectroscopy. The capacity of the resulting block copolymer in preparation of monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles has been examined by reduction of a gold salt in the presence of this macroligand under thiol-deficient conditions. As a result stable, aggregation-free nanopaticles with moderate dispersity as estimated from UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data were obtained.

  4. Influence of extra-cellular and intra-cellular acting thiol oxidants on the 45calcium uptake by the islets of Langerhans of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glucose-stimulated calcium uptake by the islets of Langerhans is dependent on the intra-cellular GSH/GSSG ratios. The inhibition of calcium uptake is not the consequence of a direct oxidation of membrane-fixed thiol groups. In contrast, direct oxidation of extra cellular thiols leads to an increase in calcium uptake when intra-cellular oxidation is simultaneously prevented. Since this effect only occurs at high intra-cellular GSH/GSSG ratios it can be assumed that the redox state of extra-cellular thiols is dependent on the redox state of the intra-cellular GSH/GSSG ratios. These findings support the theory that the oxidation of extra-cellular thiols by thiol oxidants leads to an increase in calcium uptake and that the extent of uptake is higher, the more the redox state of the extra-cellular thiols tends towards the reduced state prior to oxidation. (orig./MG)

  5. Characterization and regulation of Leishmania major 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montalvetti, A; Pena Diaz, Javier; Hurtado, R; Ruiz-Pérez, L M; González-Pacanowska, D

    2000-01-01

    In eukaryotes the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyses the synthesis of mevalonic acid, a common precursor to all isoprenoid compounds. Here we report the isolation and overexpression of the gene coding for HMG-CoA reductase from Leishmania major. The protein from Leishmania lacks the membrane domain characteristic of eukaryotic cells but exhibits sequence similarity with eukaryotic reductases. Highly purified protein was achieved by ammonium sulphate precipitation...

  6. Localization of the cytochrome cd1 and copper nitrite reductases in denitrifying bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, M. S.; Arunakumari, A; Pankratz, H S; Tiedje, J M

    1990-01-01

    The locations of cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens and copper nitrite reductases in Achromobacter cycloclastes and Achromobacter xylosoxidans were identified. Immunogold labeling with colloidal-gold probes showed that the nitrite reductases were synthesized exclusively in anaerobically grown (denitrifying) cells. Little immunogold label occurred in the cytoplasm of these four strains; most was found in the periplasmic space or was associat...

  7. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marciniak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  8. Inhibition of ferredoxin: NADP+ reductase activity by the hexacyanochromate (III) ion.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, FA; Corbett, SG

    1986-01-01

    The small inorganic complex Cr(CN)6(3-) is a clean inhibitor of the ferredoxin: NADP+ reductase-catalysed oxidation of reduced spinach ferredoxin by NADP+. Independent spectrophotometric measurements show that millimolar additions of Cr(CN)6(3-) to mixtures of ferredoxin and ferredoxin NADP+ reductase give a marked attenuation of the difference spectrum characteristic of ferredoxin-ferredoxin: NADP+ reductase complex formation. Since there is no evidence, from NMR studies, for significant bin...

  9. Sucrose mimics the light induction of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase gene transcription.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, C. L.; Acedo, G N; Cristinsin, M; Conkling, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate reductase, the first enzyme in nitrate assimilation, is located at the crossroad of two energy-consuming pathways: nitrate assimilation and carbon fixation. Light, which regulates the expression of many higher-plant carbon fixation genes, also regulates nitrate reductase gene expression. Located in the cytosol, nitrate reductase obtains its reductant not from photosynthesis but from carbohydrate catabolism. This relationship prompted us to investigate the indirect role that light migh...

  10. Characterization and regulation of the gene encoding nitrite reductase in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.3.

    OpenAIRE

    Tosques, I E; Kwiatkowski, A V; Shi, J.; Shapleigh, J P

    1997-01-01

    Nitrite reductase catalyzes the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, the first step in denitrification to produce a gaseous product. We have cloned the gene nirK, which encodes the copper-type nitrite reductase from a denitrifying variant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, strain 2.4.3. The deduced open reading frame has significant identity with other copper-type nitrite reductases. Analysis of the promoter region shows that transcription initiates 31 bases upstream of the translation start codon....

  11. Expression Cloning and Regulation of Steroid 5?-Reductase, an Enzyme Essential for Male Sexual Differentiation*

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Stefan; Bishop, Richard W.; RUSSELL, DAVID W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, catalyzed by the enzyme steroid 5?-reductase, is required for the differentiation of male external genitalia. Here, we report the isolation of cDNA clones encoding the rat steroid 5?-reductase using expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes. DNA sequence analysis demonstrates that the liver and ventral prostate forms of steroid 5?-reductase are identical hydrophobic proteins of 29 kDa. The amount of steroid 5?-redu...

  12. CATALYTIC ADVANTAGES PROVIDED BY SELENOCYSTEINE IN METHIONINE-S-SULFOXIDE REDUCTASES

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Yoon, Yeo-Eun; GLADYSHEV, Vadim N.

    2006-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are key enzymes that repair oxidatively damaged proteins. Two distinct stereospecific enzyme families are responsible for this function: MsrA (methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase) and MsrB (methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase). In the present study, we identified multiple selenoprotein MsrA sequences in organisms from bacteria to animals. We characterized the selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Chlamydomonas MsrA and found that this protein exhibited 10–50-fold higher ac...

  13. Methionine Sulfoxide Reduction in Mammals: Characterization of Methionine-R-Sulfoxide Reductases

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2004-01-01

    Methionine residues in proteins are susceptible to oxidation by reactive oxygen species, but can be repaired via reduction of the resulting methionine sulfoxides by methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase (MsrA) and methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase (MsrB). However, the identity of all methionine sulfoxide reductases involved, their cellular locations and relative contributions to the overall pathway are poorly understood. Here, we describe a methionine-R-sulfoxide reduction system in mammals, in whi...

  14. Sucrose mimics the light induction of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Acedo, Gregoria N; Kristensen, Michael; Conkling, Mark A

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate reductase, the first enzyme in nitrate assimilation, is located at the crossroad of two energy-consuming pathways: nitrate assimilation and carbon fixation. Light, which regulates the expression of many higher-plant carbon fixation genes, also regulates nitrate reductase gene expression. Located in the cytosol, nitrate reductase obtains its reductant not from photosynthesis but from carbohydrate catabolism. This relationship prompted us to investigate the indirect role that light might p...

  15. Study of the Thiol/Disulfide Redox Systems of the Anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Points Out Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase as a New Target for Thioredoxin 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pieulle, Laetitia; Stocker, Pierre; Vinay, Manon; Nouailler, Matthieu; Vita, Nicolas; Brasseur, Gaël; Garcin, Edwige; Sebban-Kreuzer, Corinne; Dolla, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate reducers have developed a multifaceted adaptative strategy to survive against oxidative stresses. Along with this oxidative stress response, we recently characterized an elegant reversible disulfide bond-dependent protective mechanism in the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) of various Desulfovibrio species. Here, we searched for thiol redox systems involved in this mechanism. Using thiol fluorescent labeling, we show that glutathione is not the major thiol/disulfide balance-c...

  16. Identification of the 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase of the chlorophyll cycle in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Miki; Ito, Hisashi; Takabayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2011-09-01

    The interconversion of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, referred to as the chlorophyll cycle, plays a crucial role in the processes of greening, acclimation to light intensity, and senescence. The chlorophyll cycle consists of three reactions: the conversions of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b by chlorophyllide a oxygenase, chlorophyll b to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a by chlorophyll b reductase, and 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a to chlorophyll a by 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase. We identified 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase, which is the last remaining unidentified enzyme of the chlorophyll cycle, from Arabidopsis thaliana by genetic and biochemical methods. Recombinant 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase converted 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a to chlorophyll a using ferredoxin. Both sequence and biochemical analyses showed that 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase contains flavin adenine dinucleotide and an iron-sulfur center. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis elucidated the evolution of 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase from divinyl chlorophyllide vinyl reductase. A mutant lacking 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase was found to accumulate 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a and pheophorbide a. Furthermore, this accumulation of pheophorbide a in the mutant was rescued by the inactivation of the chlorophyll b reductase gene. The downregulation of pheophorbide a oxygenase activity is discussed in relation to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a accumulation. PMID:21934147

  17. Study on the method of 5?-reductase type 2 gene expression and its distribution in epididymis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the gene expression method of 5?-reductase isozymes type 2 and the distribution of mRNA in the regions of epididymis. Methods: The authors extracted the total RNA through guanidinium, synthesized ?-32P-cDNA probe of 5?-reductase type 2 and determined the changes of gene expression in the regions of epididymis using Northern blot. Results: All parts of the epididymis expressed 5?-reductase type 2 gene, but the expression levels of 5?-reductase in caput was higher than that of corpus and cauda. Conclusion: The higher level of expression in caput and corpus may be relative to its function

  18. Properties of the NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase from the xylosefermenting yeast Pichia stipitis:

    OpenAIRE

    Verduyn, C.; Van Kleef, R.; Frank Jzn, J.; Schreuder, H.; van Dijken, J P; Scheffers, W A

    1985-01-01

    Xylose reductase from the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis was purified to electrophoretic and spectral homogeneity via ion-exchange, affinity and highperformance gel chromatography. The enzyme was active with various aldose substrates, such as DL-glyceraldehyde, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-ribose, D-galactose and D-glucose. Hence the xylose reductase of Pichia stipitis is an aldose reductase (EC 1.1. 1.21). Unlike all aldose reductases characterized so far, the enzyme from this yeast ...

  19. Analysis of nitrate reductase mRNA expression and nitrate reductase activity in response to nitrogen supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Kavoosi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate is one of the major sources of nitrogen for the growth of plants. It is taken up by plant roots and transported to the leaves where it is reduced to nitrite in the. The main objective of this research was to investigate stimulatory effects of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonia and urea on the production/generation of the nitrate reductase mRNA in Triticum aestivum plants. The plants were grown in standard nutrient solution for 21 days and then starved in a media without nitrate for seven days. Starved plants were stimulated with various concentrations of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonia and urea, and the expression of nitrate reductase mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR. Our results indicated that starvation caused significant decrease in the production of nitrate reductase mRNA in the plant leaf. Sodium and potassium nitrate were capable of restoring the production of nitrate mRNA in a dose-dependent manner, since 50 mM of each produced the highest level of the mRNA. The stimulatory effect of potassium nitrate was higher than sodium nitrate, while ammonia and urea did not show such activity. At low concentrations, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate caused significant increase in the nitrate/nitrite mRNA production, whereas high concentrations of these salts suppressed the expression of this gene considerably.

  20. Hypothiocyanous acid reactivity with low-molecular-mass and protein thiols: absolute rate constants and assessment of biological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaff, Ojia; Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J

    2009-08-15

    MPO (myeloperoxidase) catalyses the oxidation of chloride, bromide and thiocyanate by H(2)O(2) to HOCl (hypochlorous acid), HOBr (hypobromous acid) and HOSCN (hypothiocyanous acid, also know as cyanosulfenic acid) respectively. Specificity constants indicate that thiocyanate, SCN-, is a major substrate for MPO. HOSCN is also a major oxidant generated by other peroxidases including salivary, gastric and eosinophil peroxidases. Whereas HOCl and HOBr are powerful oxidizing agents, HOSCN appears to be a less reactive, but more thiol-specific oxidant. Although it is established that HOSCN selectively targets thiols, absolute kinetic data for the reactions of thiols with HOSCN are absent from the literature. This study shows for the first time that the reactions of HOSCN with low-molecular-mass thiol residues occur with rate constants in the range from 7.3 x 10(3) M(-1).s(-1) (for N-acetyl-cysteine at pH 7.4) to 7.7 x 10(6) M(-1).s(-1) (for 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid at pH 6.0). An inverse relationship between the rate of reaction and the pKa of the thiol group was observed. The rates of reaction of HOSCN with thiol-containing proteins were also investigated for four proteins (creatine kinase, BSA, beta-lactoglobulin and beta-L-crystallins). The values obtained for cysteine residues on these proteins are in the range 1 x 10(4)- 7 x 10(4) M(-1).s(-1). These second-order rate constants indicate that HOSCN is a major mediator of thiol oxidation in biological systems exposed to peroxidase/H(2)O(2) systems at (patho)physiological concentrations of halide and SCN- ions, and that HOSCN may play an important role in inflammation-induced oxidative damage. PMID:19492988

  1. Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of thiols : formation of thiyl radicals and the role of sulfenyl chlorides as intermediates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, C L

    2000-01-01

    Activated phagocytic cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via release of hydrogen peroxide and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. HOCl plays an important role in bacterial cell killing, but excessive or misplaced production of HOCI is also known to cause tissue damage. Studies have shown that low-molecular-weight thiols such as reduced glutathione (GSH), and sulfur-containing amino acids in proteins, are major targets for HOCl. Radicals have not generally been implicated as intermediates in thiol oxidation by HOCl, though there is considerable literature evidence for the involvement of radicals in the metal ion-, thermal- or UV light-catalysed decomposition of sulfenyl or sulfonyl chlorides which are postulated intermediates in thiol oxidation. In this study we show that thiyl radicals are generated on reaction of a number of low-molecular-weight thiols with HOCl. With sub-stoichiometric amounts of HOCl, relative to the thiol, thiyl radicals are the major species detected by EPR spin trapping. When the HOCl is presentin excess over the thiol, additional radicals are detected with compounds which contain amine functions; these additional radicals are assigned to nitrogen-centered species. Evidence is presented for the involvement of sulfenyl chlorides (RSCl) in the formation of these radicals, and studies with an authentic sulfenyl chloride have demonstrated that this compound readily decomposes in thermal-, metal-ion- or light-catalysed reactions to give thiyl radicals. The formation of thiyl radicals on oxidation of thiols with HOCl appears to compete with non-radical reactions. The circumstances under which radical formation may be important are discussed.

  2. Determination of cellular thiols and glutathione-related enzyme activities: versatility of high-performance liquid chromatography-spectrofluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, C; Leroy, P; Wellman, M; Nicolas, A

    1998-11-20

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine the most important cellular thiols [reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine and cysteinylglycine] is described. Separation relies upon isocratic ion-pairing reversed-phase chromatography and detection is operated by spectrofluorimetry coupled with post-column derivatization reactions using either N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (NPM) or ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA). When OPA is used without co-reagent, only GSH and gamma-glutamylcysteine are detected (heterobifunctional reaction). However, either the OPA reaction in the presence of glycine in the mobile phase (thiol-selective reaction) or NPM allows the detection of all the cited thiols. The HPLC system has been validated as concerning linearity, accuracy and precision. The low detection limits reached (in the pmol range for each thiol injected) allow the screening and the quantification of thiols (as NPM derivatives) in V79cl and V79HGGT cells as well as the measurement of two cytosolic enzymes related to the glutathione synthesis, using the heterobifunctional OPA reaction. PMID:9869362

  3. Inkjet-printed thiol self-assembled monolayer structures on gold: quality control and microarray electrode fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianasari, Ina; Walder, Lorenz; Burchardt, Malte; Zawisza, Izabella; Wittstock, Gunther

    2008-08-19

    Laterally structured, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of different thiols (HS-R-X, R = (CH 2) 3-16, X = -CH 3, -COOH, -NH 2) on gold have been prepared by inkjet printing. The printer is a modified, low-cost desktop printer (Epson Stylus Photo R200), the ink is a 1 mM solution of the thiol in ethanol/glycerol (6:1). The quality of inkjet-printed large area SAMs obtained in this study is between that of a layer self-assembled from a thiol solution and that obtained by soft lithography, according to cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), and polarization-modulated Fourier transform infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM IRRAS). For the first time, simultaneous printing of two different thiols in a single print job as an alternative to sequential printing and backfilling is demonstrated. The smallest structures consisting of conductive disks of 40 microm diameter were analyzed as single spots by SECM and as random array electrodes with different average disk-disk distance. Conductive band electrodes with variable bandwidth (300 microm to 1 cm) are presented, as well as a pH switchable band structure. As compared to stamping, inkjet printing allows for simultaneous multiple thiol printing in a single print job with the resolution limited only by the droplet size and the precision of the translation stage. PMID:18616305

  4. Advantages and drawbacks of Thiol-ene based resins for 3D-printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonards, Holger; Engelhardt, Sascha; Hoffmann, Andreas; Pongratz, Ludwig; Schriever, Sascha; Bläsius, Jana; Wehner, Martin; Gillner, Arnold

    2015-03-01

    The technology of 3D printing is conquering the world and awakens the interest of many users in the most varying of applications. New formulation approaches for photo-sensitive thiol-ene resins in combination with various printing technologies, like stereolithography (SLA), projection based printing/digital light processing (DLP) or two-photon polymerization (TPP) are presented. Thiol-ene polymerizations are known for its fast and quantitative reaction and to form highly homogeneous polymer networks. As the resins are locally and temporally photo-curable the polymerization type is very promising for 3D-printing. By using suitable wavelengths, photoinitiator-free fabrication is feasible for single- and two photon induced polymerization. In this paper divinyl ethers of polyethylene glycols in combination with star-shaped tetrathiols were used to design a simple test-system for photo-curable thiol-ene resins. In order to control and improve curing depth and lateral resolution in 3D-polymerization processes, either additives in chemical formulation or process parameters can be changed. The achieved curing depth and resolution limits depend on the applied fabrication method. While two-/multiphoton induced lithography offers the possibility of micron- to sub-micron resolution it lacks in built-up speed. Hence single-photon polymerization is a fast alternative with optimization potential in sub-10-micron resolution. Absorber- and initiator free compositions were developed in order to avoid aging, yellowing and toxicity of resulting products. They can be cured with UV-laser radiation below 300 nm. The development at Fraunhofer ILT is focusing on new applications in the field of medical products and implants, technical products with respect to mechanical properties or optical properties of 3D-printed objects. Recent process results with model system (polyethylene glycol divinylether/ Pentaerithrytol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionat), Raman measurements of polymer conversion and surface modifications using bifunctional crosslinkers are presented with advantages, drawbacks and a general outlook.

  5. Protein Tyrosine Nitration and Thiol Oxidation by Peroxynitrite—Strategies to Prevent These Oxidative Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Münzel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The reaction product of nitric oxide and superoxide, peroxynitrite, is a potent biological oxidant. The most important oxidative protein modifications described for peroxynitrite are cysteine-thiol oxidation and tyrosine nitration. We have previously demonstrated that intrinsic heme-thiolate (P450-dependent enzymatic catalysis increases the nitration of tyrosine 430 in prostacyclin synthase and results in loss of activity which contributes to endothelial dysfunction. We here report the sensitive peroxynitrite-dependent nitration of an over-expressed and partially purified human prostacyclin synthase (3.3 ?M with an EC50 value of 5 ?M. Microsomal thiols in these preparations effectively compete for peroxynitrite and block the nitration of other proteins up to 50 ?M peroxynitrite. Purified, recombinant PGIS showed a half-maximal nitration by 10 ?M 3-morpholino sydnonimine (Sin-1 which increased in the presence of bicarbonate, and was only marginally induced by freely diffusing NO2-radicals generated by a peroxidase/nitrite/hydrogen peroxide system. Based on these observations, we would like to emphasize that prostacyclin synthase is among the most efficiently and sensitively nitrated proteins investigated by us so far. In the second part of the study, we identified two classes of peroxynitrite scavengers, blocking either peroxynitrite anion-mediated thiol oxidations or phenol/tyrosine nitrations by free radical mechanisms. Dithiopurines and dithiopyrimidines were highly effective in inhibiting both reaction types which could make this class of compounds interesting therapeutic tools. In the present work, we highlighted the impact of experimental conditions on the outcome of peroxynitrite-mediated nitrations. The limitations identified in this work need to be considered in the assessment of experimental data involving peroxynitrite.

  6. Use of thiols as protecting ligands in reflective surface films of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Luc; Borra, Ermanno F; Ritcey, Anna M

    2008-08-01

    We report the preparation of metal liquid-like films (MELLFs) of silver nanoparticles stabilized by thiolate surface ligands. These surface films, composed of particles with diameters of about 100 nm, are highly reflective and can be employed in the fabrication of liquid mirrors. A number of different thiols are considered as stabilizing ligands, including alkanethiols, aromatic thiols and dithiols. Under identical preparation conditions, some lead to the spontaneous formation of reflective surface films, whereas others do not. Shorter chain alkanethiols (C2 to C8), thiophene and thiophenol are found to be effective whereas longer chain alkanethiols (C10 and C12) and short dithiols (C2 and C3) do not produce reflective films. Ethanethiol and propanethiol protected particles form surface films with reflectivities in the near-IR that surpass those of a previous generation of MELLFs prepared with 1,10-dimethylphenanthroline as the ligand. This enhanced reflectivity is attributed to a more closely packed nanoparticle film with a higher metal volume fraction. The closer proximity of the particles, however, leads to enhanced coupling of their surface plasmon resonance and increased absorption in the visible region of the spectrum. Short chain dithiols do not produce MELLFs but rather provoke particle aggregation. In the case of 1,2-ethanedithiol, the particles are found to precipitate in a continuous organic matrix, presumably caused by oxidative polymerization of the dithiol to a polydisulfide. Finally, preliminary investigations indicate that a large variety of organic solvants can be employed in the preparation of thiol protected MELLFs. PMID:19049148

  7. Mapping peptide thiol accessibility in membranes using a quaternary ammonium isotope-coded mass tag (ICMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chiao-Yung; London, Erwin; Sampson, Nicole S

    2013-07-17

    The plasma membrane contains a diverse array of proteins, including receptors, channels, and signaling complexes, that serve as decision-making centers. Investigation of membrane protein topology is important for understanding the function of these types of protein. Here, we report a method to determine protein topology in the membrane that utilizes labeling of cysteine with isotope-coded mass tags. The mass tags contain a thiol reactive moiety, linker, and a quaternary ammonium group to aid ionization in the mass spectrometer and were synthesized in both light and heavy (deuterated) forms. The probes were found to be membrane impermeable when applied to lipid vesicles. To assess the utility of the probes for mapping peptide thiol topology, we employed a two-step labeling procedure. Vesicles containing ?-helical transmembrane peptides were labeled with heavy (or light) probe, solubilized by detergent, and then labeled by an excess of the complementary probe. Peptide for which the cysteine was oriented in the center of the lipid bilayer was not labeled until the lipid vesicles were lysed with detergent, consistent with the membrane impermeability of the probes and reduced ionization of the thiol in the hydrophobic membrane. Peptide for which the cysteine was positioned in the headgroup zone of the lipid bilayer was labeled rapidly. Peptide for which the cysteine was positioned below the headgroup abutting the hydrocarbon region was labeled at a reduced rate compared to the fully accessible cysteine. Moreover, the effect of lipid bilayer structure on the kinetics of peptide and lipid flipping in the bilayer was readily measured with our two-step labeling method. The small sample size required, the ease and rapidity of sample preparation, and the amenability of MALDI-TOF mass spectral analysis to the presence of lipids will enable future facile investigation of membrane proteins in a cellular context. PMID:23725486

  8. Protein Tyrosine Nitration and Thiol Oxidation by Peroxynitrite—Strategies to Prevent These Oxidative Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Andreas; Daub, Steffen; Bachschmid, Markus; Schildknecht, Stefan; Oelze, Matthias; Steven, Sebastian; Schmidt, Patrick; Megner, Alexandra; Wada, Masayuki; Tanabe, Tadashi; Münzel, Thomas; Bottari, Serge; Ullrich, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The reaction product of nitric oxide and superoxide, peroxynitrite, is a potent biological oxidant. The most important oxidative protein modifications described for peroxynitrite are cysteine-thiol oxidation and tyrosine nitration. We have previously demonstrated that intrinsic heme-thiolate (P450)-dependent enzymatic catalysis increases the nitration of tyrosine 430 in prostacyclin synthase and results in loss of activity which contributes to endothelial dysfunction. We here report the sensitive peroxynitrite-dependent nitration of an over-expressed and partially purified human prostacyclin synthase (3.3 ?M) with an EC50 value of 5 ?M. Microsomal thiols in these preparations effectively compete for peroxynitrite and block the nitration of other proteins up to 50 ?M peroxynitrite. Purified, recombinant PGIS showed a half-maximal nitration by 10 ?M 3-morpholino sydnonimine (Sin-1) which increased in the presence of bicarbonate, and was only marginally induced by freely diffusing NO2-radicals generated by a peroxidase/nitrite/hydrogen peroxide system. Based on these observations, we would like to emphasize that prostacyclin synthase is among the most efficiently and sensitively nitrated proteins investigated by us so far. In the second part of the study, we identified two classes of peroxynitrite scavengers, blocking either peroxynitrite anion-mediated thiol oxidations or phenol/tyrosine nitrations by free radical mechanisms. Dithiopurines and dithiopyrimidines were highly effective in inhibiting both reaction types which could make this class of compounds interesting therapeutic tools. In the present work, we highlighted the impact of experimental conditions on the outcome of peroxynitrite-mediated nitrations. The limitations identified in this work need to be considered in the assessment of experimental data involving peroxynitrite. PMID:23567270

  9. Protein tyrosine nitration and thiol oxidation by peroxynitrite-strategies to prevent these oxidative modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Andreas; Daub, Steffen; Bachschmid, Markus; Schildknecht, Stefan; Oelze, Matthias; Steven, Sebastian; Schmidt, Patrick; Megner, Alexandra; Wada, Masayuki; Tanabe, Tadashi; Münzel, Thomas; Bottari, Serge; Ullrich, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The reaction product of nitric oxide and superoxide, peroxynitrite, is a potent biological oxidant. The most important oxidative protein modifications described for peroxynitrite are cysteine-thiol oxidation and tyrosine nitration. We have previously demonstrated that intrinsic heme-thiolate (P450)-dependent enzymatic catalysis increases the nitration of tyrosine 430 in prostacyclin synthase and results in loss of activity which contributes to endothelial dysfunction. We here report the sensitive peroxynitrite-dependent nitration of an over-expressed and partially purified human prostacyclin synthase (3.3 ?M) with an EC50 value of 5 ?M. Microsomal thiols in these preparations effectively compete for peroxynitrite and block the nitration of other proteins up to 50 ?M peroxynitrite. Purified, recombinant PGIS showed a half-maximal nitration by 10 ?M 3-morpholino sydnonimine (Sin-1) which increased in the presence of bicarbonate, and was only marginally induced by freely diffusing NO2-radicals generated by a peroxidase/nitrite/hydrogen peroxide system. Based on these observations, we would like to emphasize that prostacyclin synthase is among the most efficiently and sensitively nitrated proteins investigated by us so far. In the second part of the study, we identified two classes of peroxynitrite scavengers, blocking either peroxynitrite anion-mediated thiol oxidations or phenol/tyrosine nitrations by free radical mechanisms. Dithiopurines and dithiopyrimidines were highly effective in inhibiting both reaction types which could make this class of compounds interesting therapeutic tools. In the present work, we highlighted the impact of experimental conditions on the outcome of peroxynitrite-mediated nitrations. The limitations identified in this work need to be considered in the assessment of experimental data involving peroxynitrite. PMID:23567270

  10. Convenient Test for Screening Metallo-?-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria by Using Thiol Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Arakawa, Yoshichika; Shibata, Naohiro; Shibayama, Keigo; Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Yagi, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Goto, Masafumi

    2000-01-01

    A simple disk diffusion test was constructed for detection of IMP-1-type metallo-?-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacteria. Two Kirby-Bauer disks containing ceftazidime (CAZ) and a filter disk containing a metallo-?-lactamase inhibitor were used in this test. Several IMP-1 inhibitors such as thiol compounds including 2-mercaptopropionic acid, heavy metal salts, and EDTA were evaluated for this test. Two CAZ disks were placed on a Mueller-Hinton agar plate on which a bacterial suspension wa...

  11. Subcellular Localization of Thiol-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Living Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ji-Yao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Internalization and dynamic subcellular distribution of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs in living cells were studied by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. These unfunctionalized QDs were well internalized into human hepatocellular carcinoma and rat basophilic leukemia cells in vitro. Co-localizations of QDs with lysosomes and Golgi complexes were observed, indicating that in addition to the well-known endosome-lysosome endocytosis pathway, the Golgi complex is also a main destination of the endocytosed QDs. The movement of the endocytosed QDs toward the Golgi complex in the perinuclear region of the cell was demonstrated.

  12. Biochemical Characterization of a Thiol-Activated, Oxidation Stable Keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12

    OpenAIRE

    Rinky Rajput; Richa Sharma; Rani Gupta

    2010-01-01

    An extracellular keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 was purified by DEAE ion exchange chromatography. It was a 45?kDa monomer as determined by SDS PAGE analysis. It was found to be an alkaline, serine protease with pH and temperature optima of 10 and 60C?, respectively. It was thiol activated with two- and eight-fold enhancement in presence of 10 mM DTT and ?-mercaptoethanol, respectively. In addition, its activity was stimulated in the presence of various surfactants,...

  13. Surface Modification of Polydivinylbenzene Microspheres with a Fluorinated Glycopolymer Using Thiol-Halogen Click Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wentao; Granville, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    Distillation-precipitation polymerization of divinylbenzene was applied to obtain uniform-sized polymeric microspheres. The microspheres were then modified with polypentafluorostyrene chains utilizing surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization techniques. The hydrophobic fluoropolymer-coated microsphere was then converted to a hydrophilic biopolymer by performing thiol-halogen click chemistry between polypentafluorostyrene and 1-thio-?-D-glucose sodium salt. The semi-fluorinated glycopolymer showed good binding ability with Concanavalin A as determined by confocal microscopy and turbidity experiments. PMID:26537469

  14. Characterization of thiol-functionalised silica films deposited on electrode surfaces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivana, Cesarino; Éder Tadeu Gomes, Cavalheiro.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiol-functionalised silica films were deposited on various electrode surfaces (gold, platinum, glassy carbon) by spin-coating sol-gel mixtures in the presence of a surfactant template. Film formation occurred by evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) involving the hydrolysis and (co)condensation [...] of silane and organosilane precursors on the electrode surface. The characterization of such material was performed by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), elemental analysis (EA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV).

  15. Monitoring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell proliferation on thiol-modified planar gold microelectrodes using impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Spegel, Christer F; Kostesha, Natalie; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Emnéus, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    An impedance spectroscopic study of the interaction between thiol-modified Au electrodes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae of strain EBY44 revealed that the cells formed an integral part of the interface, modulating the capacitive properties until a complete monolayer was obtained, whereas the charge transfer resistance (R-ct) to the redox process of [Fe(CN)6](3-14-) showed a linear relationship to the number of cells even beyond the monolayer coverage. R,, showed strong pH dependence upon increasing...

  16. Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Thiol-Derivatized Amphiphilic Poly( -caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Amphiphilic poly(c-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) bearing thiol functionality at the PCL terminal has been synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of c-caprolactone (c-CL), esterification of hydroxy chain end with protected mercaptoacetic acid, subsequent chain-extension by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), and final deprotection steps. ROP of c-CL initiated by 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, and catalysed by...

  17. Gold nanoparticles decorated with oligo(ethylene glycol) thiols: protein resistance and colloidal stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, F.; Skoda, MW; Jacobs, RM; Zorn, S; Martin, RA; Martin, CM; Clark, GF; Goerigk, G.; Schreiber, F.

    2007-01-01

    The interactions between proteins and gold colloids functionalized with protein-resistant oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) thiol, HS(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)6OMe (EG6OMe), in aqueous solution have been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The mean size, 2R, and the size distribution of the decorated gold colloids have been characterized by SAXS. The monolayer-protected gold colloids have no correlations due to the low volume fraction in solution and are stable in a wide ...

  18. Liquid crystalline polybutadiene diols with chiral thiol side-chain units.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, Miroslav; Bubnov, Alexej M.; Sedláková, Zde?ka; Stojanovi?, M.; Havlí?ek, J.; Obadovi?, D.; Ilavský, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 44, ?. 1 (2008), s. 233-243. ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP202/03/P011; GA ?R GA202/05/0431; GA MŠk OC 175; GA AV ?R IAA100100710; GA AV ?R IAA4112401 Grant ostatní: MSEP(CS) 141020; ESF-COST(XE) D35 WG13-05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chiral thiols * liquid crystal * polybutadiene * diols * side-chain polymer * polarizing optical microscopy * X-ray * dielectric spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.143, year: 2008

  19. Tailoring the physical properties of thiol-capped PbS quantum dots by thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the thermal annealing of thiol-capped PbS colloidal quantum dots provides a means of narrowing the nanoparticle size distribution, increasing the size of the quantum dots and facilitating their coalescence preferentially along the (100) crystallographic axes. We exploit these phenomena to tune the photoluminescence emission of an ensemble of dots and to narrow the optical linewidth to values that compare with those reported at room temperature for single PbS quantum dots. We probe the influence of annealing on the electronic properties of the quantum dots by temperature dependent studies of the photoluminescence and magneto-photoluminescence.

  20. biliverdin. Is there a role for biliverdin reductase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndreasDaiber

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and signaling events are involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and represent a major contribution to vascular regulation. Molecular signaling is highly dependent on reactive oxygen species. But depending on the amount of ROS production it might have toxic or protective effects. Despite a large number of negative outcomes in large clinical trials (e.g. HOPE, HOPE-TOO, antioxidant molecules and agents are important players to influence the critical balance between production and elimination of RONS. However, chronic systemic antioxidant therapy lacks clinical efficacy, probably by interfering with important physiological redox signaling pathways. Therefore, it may be a much more promising attempt to induce intrinsic antioxidant pathways in order to increase the antioxidants not systemically but at the place of oxidative stress and complications. Among others, heme oxygenase (HO has been shown to be important for attenuating the overall production of ROS in a broad range of disease states through its ability to degrade heme and to produce carbon monoxide (CO, biliverdin/bilirubin, and the release of free iron with subsequent ferritin induction. With the present review we would like to highlight the important antioxidant role of the heme oxygenase system and especially discuss the contribution of the biliverdin, bilirubin and biliverdin reductase to these beneficial effects. The bilierdin reductase was reported to confer an antioxidant redox amplification cycle by which low, physiological bilirubin concentrations confer potent antioxidant protection via recycling of biliverdin from oxidized bilirubin by the biliverdin reductase, linking this sink for oxidants to the NADPH pool. To date the existence and role of this antioxidant redox cycle is still under debate and we present and discuss the pros and cons as well as our own findings on this topic.

  1. Characterization of the norB Gene, Encoding Nitric Oxide Reductase, in the Nondenitrifying Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC6803

    OpenAIRE

    Büsch, Andrea; Friedrich, Bärbel; Cramm, Rainer

    2002-01-01

    A norB gene encoding a putative nitric oxide reductase is present in the genome of the nondenitrifying cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. The gene product belongs to the quinol-oxidizing single-subunit class of nitric oxide reductases, discovered recently in the denitrifier Ralstonia eutropha. Heterologous complementation of a nitric oxide reductase-negative mutant of R. eutropha with norB from Synechocystis restored nitric oxide reductase activity. With reduced menadione as the...

  2. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  3. Celastrol inhibits Plasmodium falciparum enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallorin, Lorillee; Durrant, Jacob D; Nguyen, Quynh G; McCammon, J Andrew; Burkart, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR), a critical enzyme in type II fatty acid biosynthesis, is a promising target for drug discovery against hepatocyte-stage Plasmodium falciparum. In order to identify PfENR-specific inhibitors, we docked 70 FDA-approved, bioactive, and/or natural product small molecules known to inhibit the growth of whole-cell blood-stage P. falciparum into several PfENR crystallographic structures. Subsequent in vitro activity assays identified a noncompetitive low-micromolar PfENR inhibitor, celastrol, from this set of compounds. PMID:25284249

  4. Vibrio harveyi Nitroreductase Is Also a Chromate Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Young Hak; Lee, Dong Seok; Kim, Han Bok

    2003-01-01

    The chromate reductase purified from Pseudomonas ambigua was found to be homologous with several nitroreductases. Escherichia coli DH5? and Vibrio harveyi KCTC 2720 nitroreductases were chosen for the present study, and their chromate-reducing activities were determined. A fusion between glutathione S-transferase (GST) and E. coli DH5? NfsA (GST-EcNfsA), a fusion between GST and E. coli DH5? NfsB (GST-EcNfsB), and a fusion between GST and V. harveyi KCTC 2720 NfsA (GST-VhNfsA) were prepared f...

  5. delta1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase of Pseudomonas putida.

    OpenAIRE

    Payton, C W; Chang, Y. F.

    1982-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida metabolizes D-lysine to delta 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate and L-pipecolate. The second step of this catabolic pathway is catalyzed by delta 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase. This enzyme was isolated and purified from cells grown on DL-lysine as substrate. The enzyme was very unstable, resulting in low recovery of activity and low purity after a six-step purification procedure. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 8.0 to 8.3. The Km values for delta 1-piperideine-2-carboxylat...

  6. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency presenting as a rash.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    We report on the case of a 2-year-old girl recently diagnosed with Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency who originally presented in the neonatal period with a distinctive rash. At 11 weeks of age she developed seizures, she had acquired microcephaly and developmental delay. The rash deteriorated dramatically following commencement of phenobarbitone; both rash and seizures abated following empiric introduction of pyridoxine and folinic acid as treatment of possible vitamin responsive seizures. We postulate that phenobarbitone in combination with MTHFR deficiency may have caused her rash to deteriorate and subsequent folinic acid was helpful in treating the rash and preventing further acute neurological decline as commonly associated with this condition.

  7. The intramolecular electron transfer between copper sites of nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Eady, R R; Abraham, Z H; Pecht, I

    1998-01-01

    The intramolecular electron transfer (ET) between the type 1 Cu(I) and the type 2 Cu(II) sites of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans dissimilatory nitrite reductase (AxNiR) has been studied in order to compare it with the analogous process taking place in ascorbate oxidase (AO). This internal process is induced following reduction of the type 1 Cu(II) by radicals produced by pulse radiolysis. The reversible ET reaction proceeds with a rate constant kET = k(1-->2) + k(2-->1) of 450 +/- 30 s(-1) at pH 7.0 a...

  8. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE FROM TURKEY LIVER

    OpenAIRE

    liver, Purification and characterization of glu

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to purify glutathione reductase (GR) from turkey liver and investigate some of its characteristic features. The purification procedure comprised 2 steps: homogenate preparation and 2',5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity gel chromatography. Thanks to the 2 consecutive procedures, the enzyme, having the specific activity of 606.67 EU mg protein-1, was purified with a yield of 10.75% and 2476-fold, and, in order to control enzyme purity, SDS-PAGE was done. Optimal pH, stable ...

  9. Significance of Four Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vineet K.; Vaish, Manisha; Johansson, Trintje R.; Baum, Kyle R.; Ring, Robert P.; Singh, Saumya; Shukla, Sanjay K.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical staphylococcal isolates raises concerns about our ability to control these infections. Cell wall-active antibiotics cause elevated synthesis of methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs: MsrA1 and MsrB) in S. aureus. MsrA and MsrB enzymes reduce S-epimers and R-epimers of methionine sulfoxide, respectively, that are generated under oxidative stress. In the S. aureus chromosome, there are three msrA ...

  10. Antioxidative Mechanisms of Sulfite and Protein-Derived Thiols during Early Stages of Metal Induced Oxidative Reactions in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Krämer, Anna C; Andersen, Mogens L

    2015-09-23

    The radical-mediated reactions occurring during the early stages of beer storage were studied by following the rate of oxygen consumption, radical formation as detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and concentrations of the antioxidant compounds sulfite and thiols. Addition of either Fe(III) or Fe(II) had similar effects, indicating that a fast redox equilibrium is obtained between the two species in beer. Addition of iron in combination with hydrogen peroxide gave the most pronounced levels of oxidation due to a direct initiation of ethanol oxidation through generation of hydroxyl radicals by the Fenton reaction. The concentration of sulfite decreased more than the thiol concentration, suggesting that thiols play a secondary role as antioxidants by mainly quenching 1-hydroxyethyl radicals that are intermediates in the oxidation of ethanol. Increasing the temperature had a minor effect on the rate of oxygen consumption. PMID:26325117

  11. Synthesis of Some New 4,5-Substituted-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Demirdağ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study appropriate hydrazide compounds, furan-2-carboxylic acidhydrazide (1 and phenylacetic acid hydrazide (2 were converted into 1,4-substitutedthiosemicarbazides 4a-e and 5a-e and 4-amino-5-(furan-2-yl or benzyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols 7 and 10. The 1,4-substituted thiosemicarbazides were then converted into5-(furan-2-yl or benzyl-4-(aryl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols 8a-e and 9a-e. In addition, theazomethines 11a-d and 12a-d were prepared from the corresponding arylaldehydes and the4-amino-5-(furan-2-yl or benzyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols 7 and 10. The structures of allthe synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analyses, IR, 1H-NMR and13 C-NMR spectra.

  12. Preparing mono-dispersed liquid core PDMS microcapsules from thiol–ene–epoxy-tailored flow-focusing microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    An applied dual-cure system based on thiol–ene and thiol–epoxy “click chemistry” reactions was proved to be an extremely effective and easy to use tool for preparing microfluidic chips, thereby allowing for precise control over material properties and providing the possibility of covalently bonding chip wafers. Different thiol–ene–epoxy-based polymer compositions were tested with the help of DSC and ATR FTIR, in order to investigate their physical and chemical properties. Water contact angles were determined, thus verifying the high efficiency and selectivity of the chemical surface modification of compositions in relation to high hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. An obtained microfluidic device was subsequently used in order to produce PDMS microcapsules of very narrow size distribution and which contained various common liquids, such as water and ethanol, as well as an ionic liquid 2-hydroxyethylammonium formate.

  13. Preparing mono-dispersed liquid core PDMS microcapsules from thiol-ene-epoxy-tailored flow-focusing microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    An applied dual-cure system based on thiol-ene and thiol-epoxy "click chemistry" reactions was proved to be an extremely effective and easy to use tool for preparing microfluidic chips, thereby allowing for precise control over material properties and providing the possibility of covalently bonding chip wafers. Different thiol-ene-epoxy-based polymer compositions were tested with the help of DSC and ATR FTIR, in order to investigate their physical and chemical properties. Water contact angles were determined, thus verifying the high efficiency and selectivity of the chemical surface modification of compositions in relation to high hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. An obtained microfluidic device was subsequently used in order to produce PDMS microcapsules of very narrow size distribution and which contained various common liquids, such as water and ethanol, as well as an ionic liquid 2-hydroxyethylammonium formate.

  14. Relationship of non-protein thiol pools and accumulated Cd or Hg in the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maserti, B.E. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: bianca.elena.maserti@pi.ibf.cnr.it; Ferrillo, V. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Department of Agricultural Plant, Section of Genetics, Via Matteotti 1, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Avdis, O. [National Centre for Marine Research (N.C.M.R.), 16604 Hellenion (Greece); Nesti, U. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Central Institute for Marine Research (I.C.R.A.M.), Via di Casalotti, 300-00166 Rome (Italy); Di Garbo, A. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Catsiki, A. [National Centre for Marine Research (N.C.M.R.), 16604 Hellenion (Greece); Maestrini, P.L. [University of Pisa, Department of Agricultural Plant, Section of Genetics, Via Matteotti 1, 56100 Pisa (Italy)

    2005-11-10

    The accumulation of cadmium or mercury and the effect of these elements on the levels of non-protein thiols in the blades of the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica were investigated. A significant accumulation of cadmium or mercury, dependent on metal concentration supplied, was observed in metal-treated blades. In the blades treated either with cadmium or mercury, a significant increase in the levels of non-protein thiols (other than glutathione) and a marked depletion of the reduced glutathione content as a function of the metal, exposure time and metal concentration supplied were found. This investigation provides first experimental report on the relationship between non-protein thiol pools and accumulated cadmium or mercury in P. oceanica.

  15. Immunological identification and distribution of dissimilatory heme cd1 and nonheme copper nitrite reductases in denitrifying bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, M S; Arunakumari, A; Averill, B A; Tiedje, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were used to identify heme or copper nitrite reductases in the following groups: 23 taxonomically diverse denitrifiers from culture collections, 100 numerically dominant denitrifiers from geographically diverse environments, and 51 denitrifiers from a culture collection not selected for denitrification. Antisera were raised against heme nitrite reductases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri and against copper nitrite reductase from Achromobacter cyclocla...

  16. The effect of ionic and non-ionic surfactants on the growth, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Buczek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion into the medium of 5 mg•dm-3 of non-ionic (ENF or ionic (DBST surfactant caused 50-60% inhibition of nitrite reductase MR activity in S. polyrrhiza. At the same time, increased accumulation of NO2- in the plant tissues and lowering of the total and soluble protein contents were found. DBST also lowered the nitrate reductase (NR activity and the dry mass of the plants.

  17. Co-Expression of Monodehydroascorbate Reductase and Dehydroascorbate Reductase from Brassica rapa Effectively Confers Tolerance to Freezing-Induced Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sun-Young; Kim, Myung-hee; Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Hyang-Mi; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to various environmental stresses and have therefore developed antioxidant enzymes and molecules to protect their cellular components against toxicity derived from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ascorbate is a very important antioxidant molecule in plants, and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 1.8.5.1) are essential to regeneration of ascorbate for maintenance of ROS scavenging ability. The MDHAR and DHAR genes from ...

  18. Transgenic Tobacco Overexpressing Tea cDNA Encoding Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase and Anthocyanidin Reductase Induces Early Flowering and Provides Biotic Stress Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vinay; Nadda, Gireesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Flavan-3-ols contribute significantly to flavonoid content of tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) are known to be key regulatory enzymes of flavan-3-ols biosynthesis. In this study, we have generated the transgenic tobacco overexpressing individually tea cDNA CsDFR and CsANR encoding for DFR and ANR to evaluate their influence on developmental and protective abilities of plant against biotic stress. The transgenic lines of CsDFR and ...

  19. Irreversible inactivation of trypanothione reductase by unsaturated Mannich bases: a divinyl ketone as key intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brittany; Bauer, Holger; Melchers, Johannes; Ruppert, Thomas; Rattray, Lauren; Yardley, Vanessa; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise

    2005-11-17

    Trypanothione reductase is a flavoenzyme unique to trypanosomatid parasites. Here we show that unsaturated Mannich bases irreversibly inactivate trypanothione reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. The inhibitory potency of the compounds strongly increased upon storage of the DMSO stock solutions. HPLC, NMR, and mass spectrometry data of potential intermediates revealed a divinyl ketone as the active compound inactivating the enzyme. ESI- and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of trypanothione reductase modified by the Mannich base or the divinyl ketone showed specific alkylation of the active site Cys52 by a 5-(2'chlorophenyl)-3-oxo-4-pentenyl substituent. The reaction mechanism and the site of alkylation differ from those in Plasmodium falciparum thioredoxin reductase where the C-terminal redox active dithiol is modified. After deamination, unsaturated Mannich bases are highly reactive in polycondensation with trypanothione. Interaction of these compounds with both trypanothione and trypanothione reductase could account for their potent trypanocidal effect against Trypanosoma brucei. PMID:16279799

  20. The flavin inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium renders Trichomonas vaginalis resistant to metronidazole, inhibits thioredoxin reductase and flavin reductase, and shuts off hydrogenosomal enzymatic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsch, David; Kolarich, Daniel; Duchêne, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Infections with the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis are commonly treated with metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole drug. Metronidazole is selectively toxic to microaerophiles and anaerobes because reduction at the drug's nitro group, which is a precondition for toxicity, occurs only quantitatively in these organisms. In our previous work we identified the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase as an electron donor to 5-nitroimidazole drugs in T. vaginalis and observed that highly metronidazole-resistant cell lines lack thioredoxin reductase and flavin reductase activities. In this study we added the flavin inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) to T. vaginalis cultures in order to test our hypothesis that metronidazole reduction is catalyzed by flavin enzymes, e.g. thioredoxin reductase, and intracellular free flavins. Indeed, within hours, DPI rendered T. vaginalis insensitive to metronidazole concentrations as high as 1mM and prevented the formation of metronidazole adducts with proteins. Thioredoxin reductase activity was absent from DPI-treated cells and flavin reductase activity was sharply decreased. In addition, DPI-treated cells also upregulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. thioredoxin peroxidases and superoxide dismutases, and displayed a fundamentally altered metabolism caused by inactivation of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and concomitant upregulation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Thus, the disruption of the cellular flavin metabolism by DPI mediated metabolic steps which are similar to that of cells with metronidazole resistance induced in vitro. Finally, we present direct evidence that the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes is dispensable for acquiring resistance to metronidazole. PMID:20093143

  1. Liquid—liquid interface-mediated Au—ZnO composite membrane using ‘thiol-ene’ click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar

    2015-07-01

    A nanoparticle-decorated composite membrane has been devised at the water/CCl4 interface based on the self-assembly of ligand-stabilized gold and zinc oxide nanoparticles, exploiting the ‘thiol–ene’ click chemistry between the thiol groups of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-stabilized ZnO nanoparticles and the ene functionality of cinnamic acid attached to gold nanoparticles. The interfacial assembly of ultrasmall particles leads to a multilayer film that exhibits charge-dependent permeability of amino acid molecules across the membrane.

  2. Deciphering Glycan Linkages Involved in Jurkat Cell Interactions with Gold-coated Nanofibers via Sugar-Displayed Thiols

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jian; Che, Pao-lin; Aich, Udayanath; Tan, Elaine; Kim, Hyo Jun; Sampathkumar, Srinivasa-Gopalan; Yarema, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) provides a method to install novel chemical functional groups into the glycocalyx of living cells. In this paper we use this technology to compare the impact of replacing natural sialic acid, GalNAc, and GlcNAc with their thiol-bearing counterparts in Jurkat and HL-60 cells. When incubated in the presence of gold-coated nanofibers, only Jurkat cells incubated with Ac5ManNTGc – an analogue that installs thiols into sialosides – experienced a distinct...

  3. Synthesis of Some New 4,5-Substituted-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    A. Demirdağ; A. Cansız; M. Koparır

    2004-01-01

    In this study appropriate hydrazide compounds, furan-2-carboxylic acidhydrazide (1) and phenylacetic acid hydrazide (2) were converted into 1,4-substitutedthiosemicarbazides 4a-e and 5a-e and 4-amino-5-(furan-2-yl or benzyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols 7 and 10. The 1,4-substituted thiosemicarbazides were then converted into5-(furan-2-yl or benzyl)-4-(aryl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols 8a-e and 9a-e. In addition, theazomethines 11a-d and 12a-d were prepared from the corresponding arylaldehydes a...

  4. Stereoretentive palladium-catalyzed arylation, alkenylation, and alkynylation of 1-thiosugars and thiols using aminobiphenyl palladacycle precatalyst at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Alexandre; Roche, Maxime; Hamze, Abdallah; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Alami, Mouad; Messaoudi, Samir

    2015-06-01

    A general and efficient protocol for the palladium-catalyzed functionalization of mono- and polyglycosyl thiols by using the palladacycle precatalyst G3-XantPhos was developed. The C-S bond-forming reaction was achieved rapidly at room temperature with various functionalized (hetero)aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkynyl halides. The functional group tolerance on the electrophilic partner is typically high and anomer selectivities of thioglycosides are high in all cases studied. New sulfur nucleophiles such as thiophenols, alkythiols, and thioaminoacids (cysteine) were also successfully coupled to lead to the most general and practical method yet reported for the functionalization of thiols. PMID:25876554

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity in methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue and cyst amine: study on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals, on normal subjects and on riboflavin-treated subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Barraviera

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have standardized methods for evaluation of the activity of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and of glutathione reductase. The general principle of the first method was based on methemoglobin formation by sodium nitrite followed by stimulation of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with methylene blue. Forty six adults (23 males and 23 females were studied. Subjects were not G6PD deficient and were aged 20 to 30 years. The results showed that methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue was 154.40 and 139.90 mg/min (p<0.05 for males and females, respectively, in whole blood, and 221.10 and 207.85 mg/min (n.s., respectively, in washed red cells. These data showed that using washed red cells and 0.7g% sodium nitrite concentration produced no differences between sexes and also shortened reading time for the residual amount of methemoglobin to 90 minutes. Glutathione reductase activity was evaluated on the basis of the fact that cystamine (a thiol agent binds to the SH groups of hemoglobin, forming complexes. These complexes are reversed by the action of glutathione reductase, with methemoglobin reduction occurring simultaneously with this reaction. Thirty two adults (16 males and 16 females were studied. Subjects were not G6PD deficient and were aged 20 to 30 years. Methemoglobin reduction by cystamine was 81.27 and 91.13 mg/min (p<0.01 for males and females, respectively. These data showed that using washed red cells and 0.1 M cystamine concentration permits a reading of the residual amount of methemoglobin at 180 minutes of incubation. Glutathione reductase activity was evaluated by methemoglobin reduction by cystamine in 14 females before and after treatment with 10 mg riboflavin per day for 8 days. The results were 73.69 and 94.26 jug/min (p<0.01 before and after treatment, showing that riboflavin treatment increase glutathione reductase activity even in normal individuals. Three Black G6PD-deficient individuals (2 males and 1 female were also studied. The G6PD and glutathione reductase were partially activated, the change being more intense in males. On the basis of race and of the laboratory characteristics observed, it is possible to suggest that the G6PD deficiency of these individuals is of the African type and that the female is heterozygous for this deficiency. Analysis of the results as a whole permitted us to conclude that the methods proposed here were efficient for evaluating the activity of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and of glutathione reductase. The latter is dependent on the pentose pathway, which generates NADPH, and on riboflavin, a FAD precursor vitamin.

  6. Cellular thiols and reactive oxygen species in drug-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W; Ronai, Z; Tew, K D

    2001-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during respiration in mitochondria in the course of reduction of molecular oxygen as well as by distinct enzyme systems. ROS have been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular functions including defense against pathogens, intracellular signaling, transcriptional activation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The reduction-oxidation (redox) state of the cell is primarily a consequence of the precise balance between the levels of ROS and endogenous thiol buffers present in the cell, such as glutathione and thioredoxin, which protect cells from oxidative damage. Dramatic elevation of ROS, exceeding compensatory changes in the level of the endogenous thiol buffers, may result in the sustained activation of signaling pathways and expression of genes that induce apoptosis in affected cells. Many cytotoxic drugs function selectively to kill cancer cells by the abrogation of proliferative signals, leading to cell death, and numerous reports have demonstrated that ROS are generated following treatment with these drugs. In this review, we will summarize recent contributions to our understanding of the importance of cytotoxic drug-induced modulation of cellular redox status for signaling and transcription leading to activation of apoptotic effector mechanisms. PMID:11123355

  7. Reaction of [3H]-taurine maleimide with platelet surface thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurine Maleimide (2-maleimidoethanesulfonate, TM) was synthesized from [2-3H]-taurine and methoxycarbonylmaleimide (MCM). The yield of a 1 ?mol synthesis approached 100% (based on taurine) when MCM was used in 4-fold excess. The product (TM*) was purified by ion exchange chromatography. TM* reacted irreversibly with thiol groups on the surface of washed human platelets, leading to incorporation of radioactivity into platelet pellets. Incorporation was blocked by cysteine, mercuribenzenesulfonate (MBS), dithiobisnitrobenzoate, and N-ethylmaleimide, but not by taurine or by inhibitors of anion transport. Reaction of TM* with platelets showed the dependence on time and concentration characteristics of a bimolecular reaction. The number of reactive sites ranged from 1 to 5 x 105/platelet, and the apparent rate constant from 1 to 3 x 103/(M x min). TM was less effective than MBS as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by several agents. TM had no effect on the uptake of serotonin, taurine, or phosphate by the platelets, processes which are sensitive to MBS. These differences, considered with the similarity in size and charge of TM and MBS, suggest that classes of thiols defined as exofacial by their accessibility to MBS can differ substantially in their reactivity with other impermeant reagents

  8. Light-Driven Reversible Alignment Switching of Liquid Crystals Enabled by Azo Thiol Grafted Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chenming; Xiang, Jie; Nemati, Hossein; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Gutierrez-Cuevas, Karla; Wang, Ling; Gao, Min; Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Deng-ke; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Urbas, Augustine; Li, Quan

    2015-06-22

    Stimuli-directed alignment control of liquid crystals (LCs) with desired molecular orientation is currently in the limelight for the development of smart functional materials and devices. Here, photoresponsive azo thiol (AzoSH) was grafted onto gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The resulting hybrid GNPs were able to homogeneously mix with a commercially available nematic LC host, as evidenced by Cryo-TEM. Interestingly, the LC nanocomposites were found to undergo reversible alignment transition upon light irradiation as a consequence of the trans-cis photoisomerization of the azo groups on the GNP surface. LC molecules in either planar or bare glass cells were able to change their alignment to vertical upon UV irradiation, while the vertically aligned LC molecules returned to the planar or random orientation under visible irradiation. Neither the azo thiol molecules nor the unfunctionalized GNPs alone promoted the alignment of the LC molecules in the system upon light irradiation. The photoinduced vertical alignment without applied electric or magnetic field was very stable over time and with respect to temperature. Furthermore, an optically switchable device based on the photostimulated reversible alignment control of LCs was demonstrated. PMID:26097118

  9. Reaction of (/sup 3/H)-taurine maleimide with platelet surface thiols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, D.W.; Mills, D.C.B.

    1986-05-01

    Taurine Maleimide (2-maleimidoethanesulfonate, TM) was synthesized from (2-/sup 3/H)-taurine and methoxycarbonylmaleimide (MCM). The yield of a 1 ..mu..mol synthesis approached 100% (based on taurine) when MCM was used in 4-fold excess. The product (TM*) was purified by ion exchange chromatography. TM* reacted irreversibly with thiol groups on the surface of washed human platelets, leading to incorporation of radioactivity into platelet pellets. Incorporation was blocked by cysteine, mercuribenzenesulfonate (MBS), dithiobisnitrobenzoate, and N-ethylmaleimide, but not by taurine or by inhibitors of anion transport. Reaction of TM* with platelets showed the dependence on time and concentration characteristics of a bimolecular reaction. The number of reactive sites ranged from 1 to 5 x 10/sup 5//platelet, and the apparent rate constant from 1 to 3 x 10/sup 3//(M x min). TM was less effective than MBS as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by several agents. TM had no effect on the uptake of serotonin, taurine, or phosphate by the platelets, processes which are sensitive to MBS. These differences, considered with the similarity in size and charge of TM and MBS, suggest that classes of thiols defined as exofacial by their accessibility to MBS can differ substantially in their reactivity with other impermeant reagents.

  10. Mixing thiols on the surface of silver nanoparticles: preserving antibacterial properties while introducing SERS activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlling the surface composition of self-assembled monolayers is one of the major experimental challenges in nanotechnology. Despite the significant interest of the scientific community and the considerable number of publications related to this topic, the potential in this field is still far from being fully exploited.We present in this study a versatile method to coat silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) having average diameter of 7 nm with mixed monolayers of two thiols, achieving a precise control of surface composition. Different combinations of thiols have been investigated, and the nanomaterials obtained have been characterized by complementary experimental techniques, addressing the composition of the mixed monolayer. The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) effect on a Raman reporter (7-mercapto-4-methylcoumarine) introduced into the mixed monolayers has also been investigated. The antibacterial activity of the coated AgNPs was investigated, showing that the colloids were active against Escherichia coli and Staphilococcus aureus irrespective of the nature of the mixed monolayer. These materials are good candidates as SERS-tags for biological applications

  11. Detection of thiol-based redox switch processes in parasites - facts and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Mahsa; Diederich, Kathrin; Becker, Katja; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Jortzik, Esther

    2015-05-01

    Malaria and African trypanosomiasis are tropical diseases caused by the protozoa Plasmodium and Trypanosoma, respectively. The parasites undergo complex life cycles in the mammalian host and insect vector, during which they are exposed to oxidative and nitrosative challenges induced by the host immune system and endogenous processes. Attacking the parasite's redox metabolism is a target mechanism of several known antiparasitic drugs and a promising approach to novel drug development. Apart from this aspect, oxidation of cysteine residues plays a key role in protein-protein interaction, metabolic responses to redox events, and signaling. Understanding the role and dynamics of reactive oxygen species and thiol switches in regulating cellular redox homeostasis is crucial for both basic and applied biomedical approaches. Numerous techniques have therefore been established to detect redox changes in parasites including biochemical methods, fluorescent dyes, and genetically encoded probes. In this review, we aim to give an insight into the characteristics of redox networks in the pathogens Plasmodium and Trypanosoma, including a comprehensive overview of the consequences of specific deletions of redox-associated genes. Furthermore, we summarize mechanisms and detection methods of thiol switches in both parasites and discuss their specificity and sensitivity. PMID:25741735

  12. Thiol peroxidase-like activity of some intramolecularly coordinated diorganyl diselenides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sangit Kumar; Harkesh B Singh

    2005-11-01

    Several new diaryl diselenides having intramolecular coordinating groups have been synthesized by ortho-lithiation/Na2Se2 routes in good yield. Bis[2-(N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide)] diselenide (10), bis[2-(N-tert-butylferrocenecarboxamide)] diselenide (11), ()()-bis[2(--phenethylferrocenecarboxamide)] diselenide (12) were synthesized by the ortho-lithiation route. Bis[2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethylnaphthyl)] diselenide (13) was synthesized by lithium/bromide exchange reaction whereas bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl) diselenide (14) was prepared by the reaction of disodium diselenide with 2,4- dinitro-1-chlorobenzene. Thiol peroxidase-like activities of the diorganodiselenides have been evaluated by using H2O2 as substrate and PhSH as cosubstrate. Diselenides (13) and (14) with dimethylaminomethyl- or nitro-donor groups in close proximity to selenium, show much better thiol peroxidase-like activities compared to diselenides 10-12 with amide donor groups. Cyclic voltammetry study of diselenides 10-12 derived from redox-active ferrocenamide has been carried out.

  13. Modulating the physicochemical and structural properties of gold-functionalized protein nanotubes through thiol surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño-Fuentes, Liliana; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Palomares, Laura A; Moya, Sergio E; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2014-12-16

    Biomolecules are advantageous scaffolds for the synthesis and ordering of metallic nanoparticles. Rotavirus VP6 nanotubes possess intrinsic affinity to metal ions, a property that has been exploited to synthesize gold nanoparticles over them. The resulting nanobiomaterials have unique properties useful for novel applications. However, the formed nanobiomaterials lack of colloidal stability and flocculate, limiting their functionality. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to synthesize thiol-protected gold nanoparticles over VP6 nanotubes, which resulted in soluble nanobiomaterials. With this strategy, it was possible to modulate the size, colloidal stability, and surface plasmon resonance of the synthesized nanoparticles by controlling the content of the thiolated ligands. Two types of water-soluble ligands were tested, a small linear ligand, sodium 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate (MPS), and a bulky ligand, 5-mercaptopentyl ?-D-glucopyranoside (GlcC5SH). The synthesized nanobiomaterials had a higher stability in suspension, as determined by Z-potential measurements. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first time that a rational strategy is developed to modulate the particular properties of metal nanoparticles in situ synthesized over a protein bioscaffold through thiol coating, achieving a high spatial and structural organization of nanoparticles in a single integrative hybrid structure. PMID:25409000

  14. An XPS study of heterocyclic thiol self-assembly on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Caroline M.; Smyth, Malcolm R.; Barnes, Colin J.; Brown, Norman M. D.; Anderson, Colin A.

    1998-09-01

    The adsorption of the heterocyclic thiol 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2MBI) self-assembled on Au(111) from the liquid phase has been studied using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). On the basis of chemical shifts of the nitrogen (1s) and sulphur (2p) electron binding energies for liquid assembled layers, it is concluded that the molecule bonds to Au in the thiol form. A secondary co-ordination with the surface via the unprotonated nitrogen heteroatom is also possible. Angular dependence of core level intensities and a packing density/layer thickness estimation is consistent with a single monolayer of 2MBI adopting a `flat-lying' orientation, although slight inclination of the plane of the molecule cannot be ruled out. Liquid phase self-assembly resulted in films which also contained oxygen and excess carbon. Direct in situ sublimation of 2MBI onto Au(111) yielded oxygen-free layers, however, partial decomposition of the molecule occurs resulting in the formation of atomic sulphur. In the case of ex situ sublimed films, atomic and higher oxidation state sulphur are observed.

  15. Developments in Dynamic Covalent Chemistries from the Reaction of Thiols with Hexahydrotriazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtecki, Rudy J; Jones, Gavin O; Yuen, Alexander Y; Chin, Willy; Boday, Dylan J; Nelson, Alshakim; García, Jeannette M; Yang, Yi Yan; Hedrick, James L

    2015-11-18

    Dynamic covalent chemistries have garnered significant attention for their potential to revolutionize technologies in the material fields (engineering, biomedical, and sensors) and synthetic design strategies as they provide access to stimuli responsiveness and adaptive behaviors. However, only a limited number of molecular motifs have been known to display this dynamic behavior under mild conditions. Here, we identified a dynamic covalent motif-thioaminals-that is produced from the reaction of hexahydrotriazines (HTs) with thiols. Furthermore, we report on the synthesis of a new family of step-growth polymers based on this motif. The condensation efficiently proceeds to quantitative yields within a short time frame and offers versatility in functional group tolerance; thus, it can be exploited to synthesize both small molecule thioaminals as well as high molecular weight polymers from the step-growth polymerization of HTs with dithiols. Careful evaluation of substituted HTs and organic thiols supported by DFT calculations led to a chemically diverse library of polymers based on this motif. Finally, dynamic substitution reactions were employed toward the facile preparation of functional oligomers and macromolecules. This dynamic covalent motif is particularly attractive for a range of applications that include material design and drug delivery due to the economic feasibility of synthesis. PMID:26505551

  16. Redox biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: protein-protein interaction between GlgB and WhiB1 involves exchange of thiol-disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Saurabh; Alam, Md Suhail; Bajpai, Richa; Kishan, KV Radha; Agrawal, Pushpa

    2009-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen encounters redox stress throughout its life inside the host. In order to protect itself from the redox onslaughts of host immune system, M. tuberculosis appears to have developed accessory thioredoxin-like proteins which are represented by ORFs encoding WhiB-like proteins. We have earlier reported that WhiB1/Rv3219 is a thioredoxin like protein of M. tuberculosis and functions as a protein disulfide reductase. Generally thioredoxins have many substrate proteins. The current study aims to identify the substrate protein(s) of M. tuberculosis WhiB1. Results Using yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified alpha (1,4)-glucan branching enzyme (GlgB) of M. tuberculosis as a interaction partner of WhiB1. In vitro GST pull down assay confirmed the direct physical interaction between GlgB and WhiB1. Both mass spectrometry data of tryptic digests and in vitro labeling of cysteine residues with 4-acetamido-4' maleimidyl-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid showed that in GlgB, C95 and C658 are free but C193 and C617 form an intra-molecular disulfide bond. WhiB1 has a C37XXC40 motif thus a C40S mutation renders C37 to exist as a free thiol to form a hetero-disulfide bond with the cysteine residue of substrate protein. A disulfide mediated binary complex formation between GlgB and WhiB1C40S was shown by both in-solution protein-protein interaction and thioredoxin affinity chromatography. Finally, transfer of reducing equivalent from WhiB1 to GlgB disulfide was confirmed by 4-acetamido-4' maleimidyl-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid trapping by the reduced disulfide of GlgB. Two different thioredoxins, TrxB/Rv1471 and TrxC/Rv3914 of M. tuberculosis could not perform this reaction suggesting that the reduction of GlgB by WhiB1 is specific. Conclusion We conclude that M. tuberculosis GlgB has one intra-molecular disulfide bond which is formed between C193 and C617. WhiB1, a thioredoxin like protein interacts with GlgB and transfers its electrons to the disulfide thus reduces the intra-molecular disulfide bond of GlgB. For the first time, we report that GlgB is one of the in vivo substrate of M. tuberculosis WhiB1. PMID:19121228

  17. Redox biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: protein-protein interaction between GlgB and WhiB1 involves exchange of thiol-disulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan KV Radha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen encounters redox stress throughout its life inside the host. In order to protect itself from the redox onslaughts of host immune system, M. tuberculosis appears to have developed accessory thioredoxin-like proteins which are represented by ORFs encoding WhiB-like proteins. We have earlier reported that WhiB1/Rv3219 is a thioredoxin like protein of M. tuberculosis and functions as a protein disulfide reductase. Generally thioredoxins have many substrate proteins. The current study aims to identify the substrate protein(s of M. tuberculosis WhiB1. Results Using yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified alpha (1,4-glucan branching enzyme (GlgB of M. tuberculosis as a interaction partner of WhiB1. In vitro GST pull down assay confirmed the direct physical interaction between GlgB and WhiB1. Both mass spectrometry data of tryptic digests and in vitro labeling of cysteine residues with 4-acetamido-4' maleimidyl-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid showed that in GlgB, C95 and C658 are free but C193 and C617 form an intra-molecular disulfide bond. WhiB1 has a C37XXC40 motif thus a C40S mutation renders C37 to exist as a free thiol to form a hetero-disulfide bond with the cysteine residue of substrate protein. A disulfide mediated binary complex formation between GlgB and WhiB1C40S was shown by both in-solution protein-protein interaction and thioredoxin affinity chromatography. Finally, transfer of reducing equivalent from WhiB1 to GlgB disulfide was confirmed by 4-acetamido-4' maleimidyl-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid trapping by the reduced disulfide of GlgB. Two different thioredoxins, TrxB/Rv1471 and TrxC/Rv3914 of M. tuberculosis could not perform this reaction suggesting that the reduction of GlgB by WhiB1 is specific. Conclusion We conclude that M. tuberculosis GlgB has one intra-molecular disulfide bond which is formed between C193 and C617. WhiB1, a thioredoxin like protein interacts with GlgB and transfers its electrons to the disulfide thus reduces the intra-molecular disulfide bond of GlgB. For the first time, we report that GlgB is one of the in vivo substrate of M. tuberculosis WhiB1.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of dihydropteridine reductase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dihydropteridine reductase from D. discoideum has been crystallized. Diffraction data were collected from a rectangular-shaped crystal to 2.16 Å resolution. Dihydropteridine reductase from Dictyostelium discoideum (dicDHPR) can produce d-threo-BH4 [6R-(1?R,2?R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin], a stereoisomer of l-erythro-BH4, in the last step of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) recycling. In this reaction, DHPR uses NADH as a cofactor to reduce quinonoid dihydrobiopterin back to BH4. To date, the enzyme has been purified to homogeneity from many sources. In this report, the dicDHPR–NAD complex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 3350 as a precipitant. Rectangular-shaped crystals were obtained. Crystals grew to maximum dimensions of 0.4 × 0.6 × 0.1 mm. The crystal belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.81, b = 129.90, c = 78.76 Å, ? = 100.00°, and contained four molecules in the asymmetric unit, forming two closely interacting dicDHPR–NAD dimers. Diffraction data were collected to 2.16 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal structure has been determined using the molecular-replacement method

  19. Poly(ethylene glycol)-based thiol-ene hydrogel coatings-curing chemistry, aqueous stability, and potential marine antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pontus; Bruin, Anouk; Klijnstra, Job W; Nyström, Andreas M; Johansson, Mats; Malkoch, Michael; Hult, Anders

    2010-03-01

    Photocured thiol-ene hydrogel coatings based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were investigated for marine antifouling purposes. By varying the PEG length, vinylic end-group, and thiol cross-linker, a library of hydrogel coatings with different structural composition was efficiently accomplished, with or without ester linkages. The thiol-methacrylate and thiol-allyl systems were evaluated with respect to curing, degradation, as well as antifouling properties. Methacrylate-based systems exhibited homopolymerization, whereas allyl-based systems reacted more selectively through thiol-ene couplings reaction. The ester-free hydrogels elucidated higher hydrolytic stability whereas longer PEG chains accelerated the degradation process. The antifouling properties were evaluated by protein adsorption with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bioassays with the marine bacteria, Cobetia marina, and the marine diatom, Amphora coffeaeformis; in all tests, longer PEG lengths improved the antifouling properties. PMID:20356297

  20. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana is structurally distinct from the yeast and animal enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Learned, R M; Fink, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated the Arabidopsis thaliana gene (HMG1) encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase [HMG-CoA reductase; (S)-mevalonate:NAD+ oxido-reductase (CoA-acylating), EC 1.1.1.88], the catalyst of the first committed step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. cDNA copies of the plant gene were identified by hybridization with a short, highly conserved segment of yeast HMG-CoA reductase as probe. DNA sequence analysis reveals that the COOH-terminal domain of the Arabidopsis HMG-CoA reductase (...

  1. Curcumin is a tight-binding inhibitor of the most efficient human daunorubicin reductase--Carbonyl reductase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzpeter, Jan; Hornung, Jan; Ebert, Bettina; Martin, Hans-Jörg; Maser, Edmund

    2015-06-01

    Curcumin is a major component of the plant Curcuma longa L. It is traditionally used as a spice and coloring in foods and is an important ingredient in curry. Curcuminoids have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and gained increasing attention as potential neuroprotective and cancer preventive compounds. In the present study, we report that curcumin is a potent tight-binding inhibitor of human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1, Ki=223 nM). Curcumin acts as a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate 2,3-hexandione as revealed by plotting IC50-values against various substrate concentrations and most likely as a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH. Molecular modeling supports the finding that curcumin occupies the cofactor binding site of CBR1. Interestingly, CBR1 is one of the most effective human reductases in converting the anthracycline anti-tumor drug daunorubicin to daunorubicinol. The secondary alcohol metabolite daunorubicinol has significantly reduced anti-tumor activity and shows increased cardiotoxicity, thereby limiting the clinical use of daunorubicin. Thus, inhibition of CBR1 may increase the efficacy of daunorubicin in cancer tissue and simultaneously decrease its cardiotoxicity. Western-blots demonstrated basal expression of CBR1 in several cell lines. Significantly less daunorubicin reduction was detected after incubating A549 cell lysates with increasing concentrations of curcumin (up to 60% less with 50 ?M curcumin), suggesting a beneficial effect in the co-treatment of anthracycline anti-tumor drugs together with curcumin. PMID:25541467

  2. Monodehydroascorbate reductase 2 and dehydroascorbate reductase 5 are crucial for a mutualistic interaction between Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Tripathi, Swati; Prasad, Ram; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2009-08-15

    Ascorbate is a major antioxidant and radical scavenger in plants. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) are two enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that maintain ascorbate in its reduced state. MDAR2 (At3g09940) and DHAR5 (At1g19570) expression was upregulated in the roots and shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings co-cultivated with the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica, or that were exposed to a cell wall extract or a culture filtrate from the fungus. Growth and seed production were not promoted by Piriformospora indica in mdar2 (SALK_0776335C) and dhar5 (SALK_029966C) T-DNA insertion lines, while colonized wild-type plants were larger and produced more seeds compared to the uncolonized controls. After 3 weeks of drought stress, growth and seed production were reduced in Piriformospora indica-colonized plants compared to the uncolonized control, and the roots of the drought-stressed insertion lines were colonized more heavily by the fungus than were wild-type plants. Upregulation of the message for the antimicrobial PDF1.2 protein in drought-stressed insertion lines indicated that MDAR2 and DHAR5 are crucial for producing sufficient ascorbate to maintain the interaction between Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis in a mutualistic state. PMID:19386380

  3. Polymorphisms in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase reductase genes and their correlation with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to explore the correlation between unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion and polymorphisms in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) genes. A case control study was conducted in 118 patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (abortion group) and 174 healthy women (control group). The genetic material was extracted from the oral mucosal epithelial cells obtained from all subjects. The samples were subjected to fluorescence quantitative PCR to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and MTRR (A66G) gene loci. The distribution frequency (18/118, 15.3%) of the MTHFR 677TT genotype was significantly higher in the abortion group (?2 = 11.006, P = 0.004) than in the control group (2/174, 1.1%); on the other hand, the distribution frequency of the MTHFR A1298C genotype did not significantly differ between the abortion and control groups (?(2) = 0.441, P = 0.507). The distribution frequency of the MTRR A66G genotype was also significantly higher in the abortion group (14/118, 11.9%; ?(2) = 10.503, P = 0.005) than in the control group (8/174, 4.6%). The MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms are significantly correlated with the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. PMID:26345779

  4. Rapid and simple preparation of thiol–ene emulsion-templated monoliths and their application as enzymatic microreactors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lafleur, J. P.; Senkbeil, S.; Novotný, Jakub; Nys, G.; Bøgelund, N.; Rand, K. D.; Foret, František; Kutter, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 15, ?. 10 (2015), s. 2162-2172. ISSN 1473-0197 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thiol-enes * mictoreactor * monolith * fabrication * protein s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.115, year: 2014

  5. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1998-01-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded alpha-hydroxy acid thioesters, the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters-intermediates capable of forming peptides. A pH 5.2 solution of 20 mM formaldehyde, 20 mM glycolaldehyde, 20 mM ammonium chloride, 23 mM 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 23 mM acetic acid that reacted for 35 days at 40 C yielded (based on initial formaldehyde) 1.8% alanine and 0.08% homoserine. In the absence of thiol catalyst, the synthesis of alanine and homoserine was negligible. Alanine synthesis required both formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, but homoserine synthesis required only glycolaldehyde. At 25 days the efficiency of alanine synthesis calculated from the ratio of alanine synthesized to formaldehyde reacted was 2.1%, and the yield (based on initial formaldehyde) of triose and tetrose intermediates involved in alanine and homoserine synthesis was 0.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Alanine synthesis was also seen in similar reactions containing only 10 mM each of aldehyde substrates, ammonia, and thiol. The prebiotic significance of these reactions that use the formose reaction to generate sugar intermediates that are converted to reactive amino acid thioesters is discussed.

  6. Removal of lead(II ions from aqueous solutions using cashew nut shell liquid-templated thiol-silica materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. G. Mdoe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A range of thiol-silica composites were prepared using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL or one of its phenolic constituents, cardanol, as templates. The procedure involved formation of a CNSL or cardanol emulsion in a water-ethanol system into which (3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate were simultaneously added at various ratios. The reaction mixture was aged at room temperature for 18 h followed by a Soxhlet extraction of the template and drying. The materials were characterized by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and acid titration. Results indicated that indeed the thiol-silica composites were successfully prepared, with thiol group loadings ranging from 1.6-2.5 mmol/g. The materials were tested for lead(II adsorption, and results showed that they had maximum adsorption capacities up to 66.7 mg/g, depending on the thiol group loading and type of template used in preparing the adsorbent. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i3.5

  7. Structure and physical properties of liquid-crystalline polybutadiene-diols modified with thiols containing mesogenic group.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ilavský, Michal; Sedláková, Zde?ka; Sp?vá?ek, Ji?í; Jigounov, A.

    Prague : Consortium for Research of Nanostructured and Crosslinked Polymeric Materials, 2005. s. 37. [Workshop Nanofun-Poly on Chemistry, Processing Structure, Properties and Applications of Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites, Life-Cycle Engineering, Gender Issues /3./. 11.11.2005-12.11.2005, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : thiols * Liquid crystalline polybutadiene diols Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. Reactions of thiyl radicals from thiols and disulphides with antioxidants. A pulse radiolytic study (Preprint No. RC-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute rate constants for the reactions of thiyl radicals generated from a variety of thiols and disulphides with 2,2'-azino bis-(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) and ascorbic acid (AH-) using pulse radiolysis technique have been evaluated. (author). 3 refs

  9. 13C NMR of tautomeric system of picoline-2-thiol and picoline-2,4-dithiol N-oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 13C NMR of picoline-2-thiol and picoline-2,4-dithiol N-oxides have been analysed provided to information of their structure. The observed spectra provide correct qualitative predictions concerning the equilibrium compositions of tautomeric forms, but they cannot afford any quantitative information since the differences in shifts of the corresponding carbon atoms in the model compounds are small

  10. Highly selective reactions of C60Cl6 with thiols for the synthesis of functionalized [60]fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakina, Ekaterina A; Yurkova, Anastasiya A; Peregudov, Alexander S; Troyanov, Sergey I; Trush, Vyacheslav V; Vovk, Andrey I; Mumyatov, Alexander V; Martynenko, Vyacheslav M; Balzarini, Jan; Troshin, Pavel A

    2012-07-21

    Chlorofullerene C(60)Cl(6) undergoes highly selective reactions with thiols forming compounds C(60)[SR](5)H with high yields. These reactions open up straightforward synthetic routes to many functionalized fullerene derivatives, e.g. water-soluble compounds showing interesting biological activities. PMID:22692299

  11. Thiol versus hydroxamate as zinc binding group in HDAC inhibition: An Ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenjing; Wu, Ruibo; Zhang, Yingkai

    2015-11-15

    Zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in transcriptional repression and gene silencing, and are among the most attractive targets for the development of new therapeutics against cancer and various other diseases. Two HDAC inhibitors have been approved by FDA as anti-cancer drugs: one is SAHA whose hydroxamate is directly bound to zinc, the other is FK228 whose active form may use thiol as the zinc binding group. In spite of extensive studies, it remains to be ambiguous regarding how thiol and hydroxamate are bound to the zinc active site of HDACs. In this work, our computational approaches center on Born-Oppenheimer ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics with umbrella sampling, which allow for modeling of the zinc active site with reasonable accuracy while properly including dynamics and effects of protein environment. Meanwhile, an improved short-long effective function (SLEF2) to describe non-bonded interactions between zinc and other atoms has been employed in initial MM equilibrations. Our ab initio QM/MM MD simulations have confirmed that hydroxamate is neutral when it is bound to HDAC8, and found that thiol is deprotonated when directly bound to zinc in the HDAC active site. By comparing thiol and hydroxamate, our results elucidated the differences in their binding environment in the HDAC active sites, and emphasized the importance of the linker design to achieve more specific binding toward class IIa HDACs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26452222

  12. The amido-pentadienoate-functionality of the rakicidins is a thiol reactive electrophile : development of a general synthetic strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Lise Lindkvist; Tsakos, Michail

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a unique class-defining functionality (mc-APD) found in macrocyclic natural products with potent anti-cancer activity, imparts these compounds with electrophilic reactivity. The mc-APD group represents an interesting structural hybrid between canonical biologically relevant Michael-acceptors. Further, a novel thiol-elimination method for preparation of the mc-APD group is outlined.

  13. Alterations in cytoskeletal organization and homeostasis of cellular thiols in cadmium-resistant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Kagan, H M; Chou, I N

    1994-05-01

    To understand further the mechanisms of cadmium toxicity, cytoskeletal organization and homeostasis of cellular thiols were examined in cadmium-resistant cells isolated from Swiss mouse 3T3 cells by incubation in graded concentrations of CdCl2 (Cd2+) in the culture medium. Cd(2+)-resistant cells displayed profound alterations in their cytoskeletal organization characterized by the appearance of many elongated, tadpole-shaped cells with a high density of microtubules (MT) and microfilaments (MF), with the former being mainly distributed along the long axis of the cell. Exposure of Cd(2+)-resistant cells to 50 microM Cd2+ for 16 hr did not cause apparent cytoskeletal perturbations, whereas treatment of parental cells with 5 microM Cd2+ for the same duration produced a severe loss of MT and smeared patches of MF. Thus, the cytoskeleton of Cd(2+)-resistant cells is markedly more preserved and protected against Cd2+ damage than that of their parental counterparts. Cd(2+)-resistant cells contained a higher basal level of protein sulfhydryls (PSH) in both the cytoskeletal and cytosolic fractions than the parental cells. Exposure to 50 microM Cd2+ further increased cellular PSH contents, reaching 192 and 215% of the basal levels for the cytoskeletal and cytosolic fractions, respectively. Although 5 microM Cd2+ exposure also elevated the amounts of PSH in parental cells, the "absolute" values were still below the corresponding basal levels in Cd(2+)-resistant cells. Furthermore, Cd(2+)-resistant cells also exhibited enhanced basal levels of metallothionein and cellular glutathione (GSH), amounting to 19- and 2.1-fold of the parental basal levels, respectively. Thus, the Cd(2+)-resistant cells produced larger quantities of both protein and nonprotein thiol-containing elements than the parental cells. Interestingly, exposure of Cd(2+)-resistant cells to 50 microM Cd2+ also further increased metallothionein and cellular GSH to 178 and 138% of the basal levels, respectively. Based on the affinity of Cd2+ for sulfhydryls as a mechanism of Cd2+ toxicity, we propose that the coordinately increased levels of metallothionein, GSH, and PSH in Cd(2+)-resistant cells would provide a mechanistic basis for the homeostasis of cellular thiols which may collectively contribute to the cytoskeletal preservation by protecting the cytoskeleton from Cd2+ insult. PMID:8184421

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of the Escherichia coli dimethyl sulfoxide reductase operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Bilous, P T; Weiner, J H

    1988-01-01

    The dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase operon coding for a membrane-bound iron-sulfur, molybdoenzyme, which functions as a terminal reductase in Escherichia coli, has been isolated and cloned from an E. coli gene bank. Two clones, MV12(pLC19-36) and MV12(pLC43-43), overexpressed both DMSO and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase activities 13- to 15-fold compared with wild-type cells. Amplification was highest in cells grown anaerobically on fumarate, while cells grown on DMSO or TMAO dis...

  15. X-ray structural studies of quinone reductase 2 nanomolar range inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Pegan, Scott D.; Sturdy, Megan; Ferry, Gilles; Delagrange, Philippe; Jean A. Boutin; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    Quinone reductase 2 (QR2) is one of two members comprising the mammalian quinone reductase family of enzymes responsible for performing FAD mediated reductions of quinone substrates. In contrast to quinone reductase 1 (QR1) which uses NAD(P)H as its co-substrate, QR2 utilizes a rare group of hydride donors, N-methyl or N-ribosyl nicotinamide. Several studies have linked QR2 to the generation of quinone free radicals, several neuronal degenerative diseases, and cancer. QR2 has been also identi...

  16. Regulation of ribonucleotide reductase by Spd1 involves multiple mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nestoras, Konstantinos; Mohammed, Asma Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The correct levels of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates and their relative abundance are important to maintain genomic integrity. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) regulation is complex and multifaceted. RNR is regulated allosterically by two nucleotide-binding sites, by transcriptional control, and by small inhibitory proteins that associate with the R1 catalytic subunit. In addition, the subcellular localization of the R2 subunit is regulated through the cell cycle and in response to DNA damage. We show that the fission yeast small RNR inhibitor Spd1 is intrinsically disordered and regulates R2 nuclear import, as predicted by its relationship to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dif1. We demonstrate that Spd1 can interact with both R1 and R2, and show that the major restraint of RNR in vivo by Spd1 is unrelated to R2 subcellular localization. Finally, we identify a new behavior for RNR complexes that potentially provides yet another mechanism to regulate dNTP synthesis via modulation of RNR complex architecture.

  17. Pulse radiolysis studies on superoxide reductase from Treponema pallidum

    CERN Document Server

    Nivière, V; Fontecave, M; Houée-Levin, C

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are small metalloenzymes, which catalyze reduction of O2*- to H2O2. The reaction of the enzyme from Treponema pallidum with superoxide was studied by pulse radiolysis methods. The first step is an extremely fast bi-molecular reaction of the ferrous center with O2, with a rate constant of 6 x 10 (8) M(-1) s(-1). A first intermediate is formed which is converted to a second one with a slower rate constant of 4800 s(-1). This latter value is 10 times higher than the corresponding one previously reported in the case of SOR from Desulfoarculus baarsii. The reconstituted spectra for the two intermediates are consistent with formation of transient iron-peroxide species.

  18. Treatment of diabetic autonomic neuropathy with an aldose reductase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, T J; Yff, G A; DeWeerdt, O; Lanting, P; Heimans, J J; Bertelsmann, F W

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the aldose reductase inhibitor Ponalrestat (Statil) on diabetic autonomic neuropathy, a double-blind placebo controlled trial was carried out on a group of 34 diabetic patients with documented cardiac autonomic neuropathy. After a 4-week, placebo run-in period, patients were randomised for treatment with 600 mg Statil or placebo for another 24 weeks. Moreover, the reliability of the autonomic nerve function tests was investigated by comparing the results at onset and at week 4. Fifteen patients treated with Statil and 12 with placebo completed the study. Neither symptom scores nor cardiovascular reflexes, pupil reflexes and skin vasomotor reflexes improved after Statil therapy, which led us to conclude that Statil is not effective in the treatment of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Reliability coefficients for cardiovascular reflexes and pupil reflex showed high values, ranging from 60% to 80%. Therefore these methods are recommended in future therapy trials. PMID:8482988

  19. Isolation and expression of the Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edman, J C; Edman, U

    1989-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate: NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3) cDNA sequences have been isolated by their ability to confer trimethoprim resistance to Escherichia coli. Consistent with the recent conclusion that P. carinii is a member of the Fungi, sequence analysis and chromosomal localization show that DHFR is neither physically nor genetically linked to thymidylate synthase. Expression of recombinant P. carinii DHFR in heterologous hosts provides an abundant source of the enzyme that may form a basis for the development of new therapies for this enigmatic pathogen. Studies with the recombinant enzyme show that trimethoprim is a very poor inhibitor of P. carinii DHFR and, in fact, is a more potent inhibitor of human DHFR.

  20. Mechanism of inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase with motexafin gadolinium (MGd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motexafin gadolinium (MGd) is an expanded porphyrin anticancer agent which selectively targets tumor cells and works as a radiation enhancer, with promising results in clinical trials. Its mechanism of action is oxidation of intracellular reducing molecules and acting as a direct inhibitor of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). This paper focuses on the mechanism of inhibition of RNR by MGd. Our experimental data present at least two pathways for inhibition of RNR; one precluding subunits oligomerization and the other direct inhibition of the large catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Co-localization of MGd and RNR in the cytoplasm particularly in the S-phase may account for its inhibitory properties. These data can elucidate an important effect of MGd on the cancer cells with overproduction of RNR and its efficacy as an anticancer agent and not only as a general radiosensitizer.

  1. A calibration curve for immobilized dihydrofolate reductase activity assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An assay was developed for measuring the active-site concentration, activity, and thereby the catalytic turnover rate (kcat of an immobilized dihydrofolate reductase model system (Singh et al., (2015, Anal. Biochem. This data article contains a calibration plot for the developed assay. In the calibration plot rate is plotted as a function of DHFR concentration and shows linear relationship. The concentration of immobilized enzyme was varied by using 5 different size mica chips. The dsDNA concentration was the same for all chips, assuming that the surface area of the mica chip dictates the resulting amount of bound enzyme (i.e. larger sized chip would have more bound DHFR. The activity and concentration of each chip was measured.

  2. A calibration curve for immobilized dihydrofolate reductase activity assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Morris, Holly; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-01-01

    An assay was developed for measuring the active-site concentration, activity, and thereby the catalytic turnover rate (kcat) of an immobilized dihydrofolate reductase model system (Singh et al., (2015), Anal. Biochem). This data article contains a calibration plot for the developed assay. In the calibration plot rate is plotted as a function of DHFR concentration and shows linear relationship. The concentration of immobilized enzyme was varied by using 5 different size mica chips. The dsDNA concentration was the same for all chips, assuming that the surface area of the mica chip dictates the resulting amount of bound enzyme (i.e. larger sized chip would have more bound DHFR). The activity and concentration of each chip was measured. PMID:26217755

  3. Synthesis and ribonucleotide reductase inhibitory activity of thiosemicarbazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kesavan; Prathiba, Kumari; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Basu, Arijit; Mishra, Nibha; Zhou, Bingsen; Hu, Shuya; Yen, Yun

    2008-12-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is an important therapeutic target for anticancer drugs. The structure of human RR features a 1:1 complex of two homodimeric subunits, hRRM1 and hRRM2. Prokaryotically expressed and highly purified recombinant human RR subunits, hRRM1 and hRRM2, were used for holoenzyme-based [(3)H]CDP reduction in vitro assay. Ten new thiosemicarbazones (7-16) were synthesized and screened for their RR inhibitory activity. Two thiosemicarbazones derived from p-hydroxy benzaldehyde (9 and 10) were found to be active but less potent than the standard, Hydroxyurea (HU). Guided by the activity of compounds 9 and 10, 11 new thiosemicarbazones (17-27) derived from p-hydroxy benzaldehyde were prepared and screened for their RR inhibitory activity. All the 11 compounds were more potent than HU. PMID:18976907

  4. Genetic Evidence for a Molybdopterin-Containing Tellurate Reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Joanne; Zylstra, Gerben J.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic identity and cofactor composition of the bacterial tellurate reductase are currently unknown. In this study, we examined the requirement of molybdopterin biosynthesis and molybdate transporter genes for tellurate reduction in Escherichia coli K-12. The results show that mutants deleted of the moaA, moaB, moaE, or mog gene in the molybdopterin biosynthesis pathway lost the ability to reduce tellurate. Deletion of the modB or modC gene in the molybdate transport pathway also resulted in complete loss of tellurate reduction activity. Genetic complementation by the wild-type sequences restored tellurate reduction activity in the mutant strains. These findings provide genetic evidence that tellurate reduction in E. coli involves a molybdoenzyme. PMID:23475618

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in myeloid leukemia patients from Northeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cynara Gomes, Barbosa; Claudio Lima, Souza; José Pereira de, Moura Neto; Maria da Glória Bomfim, Arruda; José Henrique, Barreto; Mitermayer Galvão, Reis; Marilda Souza, Goncalves.

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR: EC 1.5.1.20) polymorphisms are associated to acute lymphoid leukemia in different populations. We used the polymerase chain reaction and the restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) to investigate MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphism frequ [...] encies in 67 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 27 with acute myeloid leukemia FAB subtype M3 (AML-M3) and 100 apparently healthy controls. The MTHFR mutant allele frequencies were as follows: CML = 17.2% for C677T, 21.6% for A1298C; AML-M3 = 22.2% for C677T, 24.1% for A1298C; and controls = 20.5% for C677T, 21% for A1298C. Taken together, our results provide evidence that MTHFR polymorphisms have no influence on the development of CML or AML-M3.

  6. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis eliminates the adaptive response of ascitic hepatoma 22 cells to nedaplatin that targets thioredoxin reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yijun [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Lu, Hongjuan [Productivity Center of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dongxu; Li, Shengrong; Sun, Kang; Wan, Xiaochun [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Taylor, Ethan Will [Department of Nanoscience, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China)

    2012-12-15

    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a target for cancer therapy and the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin involves TrxR inhibition. We hypothesize that the anticancer drug nedaplatin (NDP), an analogue of cisplatin and a second-generation platinum complex, also targets TrxR. Furthermore, we investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of NDP can be enhanced by simultaneous modulation of 1) TrxR, via NDP, and 2) glutathione (GSH), via the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mice bearing ascitic hepatoma 22 (H22) cells were treated with NDP alone or NDP plus BSO. TrxR activity of H22 cells was inhibited by NDP in a dose-dependent manner. A high correlation between the inhibition of TrxR activity at 6 h and the inhibition of ascitic fluid volume at 72 h was established (r = 0.978, p < 0.01). As an adaptive response, the viable ascitic cancer cells after NDP treatment displayed an enlarged cell phenotype, assembled with several-fold more antioxidant enzymes and GSH-predominant non-protein free thiols. This adaptive response was largely eliminated when BSO was co-administered with NDP, leading to the decimation of the H22 cell population without enhancing renal toxicity, since at this dose, NDP did not inhibit renal TrxR activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological effect of NDP involves TrxR inhibition, and the adaptive response of NDP-treated ascitic H22 cells can be efficiently counteracted by BSO. Simultaneous modulation of TrxR and GSH on ascitic H22 cells using NDP plus BSO greatly enhances therapeutic efficacy as compared with the single modulation of TrxR using NDP alone. -- Highlights: ? Nedaplatin at a pharmacological dose inhibits TrxR in cancer cells but not in kidney. ? The nedaplatin-treated cancer cells exhibit adaptive response. ? Buthionine sulfoximine inhibits glutathione in both cancer cells and kidney. ? Buthionine sulfoximine counteracts the adaptive response to the nedaplatin treatment. ? Buthionine sulfoximine does not aggravate renal toxicity of the nedaplatin treatment.

  7. The synergistic effect of halide ions and some selected thiols as a combined corrosion inhibitor for pickling of mild steel in sulphuric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, M.T. [Assiut Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; El-Shatory, S.A. [Assiut Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; El-Said, A. [Chemistry Department, Sohag Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    1996-01-01

    The effect of halide ions on the electrochemical and corrosion behaviour of mild steel in sulphuric acid solution with and without some selected thiols, viz. 2-mercaptobenzoxazole, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, has been studied. Each of the halide ions and the investigated thiols were found to inhibit the corrosion process of mild steel when added separately to the corrosive medium, while the inhibition efficiency of thiols is higher than that of halides. It was found that the presence of halide ions together with the different thiols in the corrosive medium decreases the inhibition effect, specially at low concentrations. The surface coverage values which are obtained both from weight loss and polarization studies are approximately the same. The decrease in corrosion rate associated with an increase in the cathodic overvoltage and a positive shift in the corrosion potential, in the presence of the investigated thiols, denotes inhibition of a mixed type (predominantly anodic). Synergism of the investigated thiols and halides is discussed from the viewpoint of a model of co-adsorption of halide ions and thiols. Adsorption of the inhibitor was found to follow the Langmuir isotherm. (orig.)

  8. Fatty acyl-CoA reductases of birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellenbrand Janine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birds clean and lubricate their feathers with waxes that are produced in the uropygial gland, a holocrine gland located on their back above the tail. The type and the composition of the secreted wax esters are dependent on the bird species, for instance the wax ester secretion of goose contains branched-chain fatty acids and unbranched fatty alcohols, whereas that of barn owl contains fatty acids and alcohols both of which are branched. Alcohol-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR catalyze the reduction of activated acyl groups to fatty alcohols that can be esterified with acyl-CoA thioesters forming wax esters. Results cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl-CoA reductases were cloned from the uropygial glands of barn owl (Tyto alba, domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that they encode membrane associated enzymes which catalyze a NADPH dependent reduction of acyl-CoA thioesters to fatty alcohols. By feeding studies of transgenic yeast cultures and in vitro enzyme assays with membrane fractions of transgenic yeast cells two groups of isozymes with different properties were identified, termed FAR1 and FAR2. The FAR1 group mainly synthesized 1-hexadecanol and accepted substrates in the range between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, whereas the FAR2 group preferred stearoyl-CoA and accepted substrates between 16 and 20 carbon atoms. Expression studies with tissues of domestic chicken indicated that FAR transcripts were not restricted to the uropygial gland. Conclusion The data of our study suggest that the identified and characterized avian FAR isozymes, FAR1 and FAR2, can be involved in wax ester biosynthesis and in other pathways like ether lipid synthesis.

  9. Lactococcus lactis Thioredoxin Reductase Is Sensitive to Light Inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Viennet, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin, involved in numerous redox pathways, is maintained in the dithiol state by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent flavoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Here, TrxR from Lactococcus lactis is compared with the well-characterized TrxR from Escherichia coli. The two enzymes belong to the same class of low-molecular weight thioredoxin reductases and display similar kcat values (?25 s-1) with their cognate thioredoxin. Remarkably, however, the L. lactis enzyme is inactivated by visible light and furthermore reduces molecular oxygen 10 times faster than E. coli TrxR. The rate of light inactivation under standardized conditions (?max = 460 nm and 4 °C) was reduced at lowered oxygen concentrations and in the presence of iodide. Inactivation was accompanied by a distinct spectral shift of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that remained firmly bound. High-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of heat-extracted FAD from light-damaged TrxR revealed a mass increment of 13.979 Da, relative to that of unmodified FAD, corresponding to the addition of one oxygen atom and the loss of two hydrogen atoms. Tandem mass spectrometry confined the increase in mass of the isoalloxazine ring, and the extracted modified cofactor reacted with dinitrophenyl hydrazine, indicating the presence of an aldehyde. We hypothesize that a methyl group of FAD is oxidized to a formyl group. The significance of this not previously reported oxidation and the exceptionally high rate of oxygen reduction are discussed in relation to other flavin modifications and the possible occurrence of enzymes with similar properties.

  10. Single molecular switch based on thiol tethered iron(II)clathrochelate on gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular electronics has been associated with high density nano-electronic devices. Developments of molecular electronic devices were based on reversible switching of molecules between the two conductive states. In this paper, self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol (DDT) and thiol tethered iron(II)clathrochelate (IC) have been prepared on gold film. The electrochemical and electronic properties of IC molecules inserted into the dodecanethiol monolayer (IC-DDT SAM) were investigated using voltammetric, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and cross-wire tunneling measurements. The voltage triggered switching behaviour of IC molecules on mixed SAM was demonstrated. Deposition of polyaniline on the redox sites of IC-DDT SAM using electrochemical polymerization of aniline was performed in order to confirm that this monolayer acts as nano-patterned semiconducting electrode surface.

  11. Analysis of citrate-capped gold and silver nanoparticles by thiol ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the capillary electrophoretic behavior of citrate-capped gold and silver nanoparticles in aqueous medium when applying a ligand-exchange surface reaction with thiols. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of similar size (39?±?6 and 41?±?7 nm, respectively) and shape were synthesized, covered with a citrate shell, and characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The analysis of these NPs by CE was accomplished by using a buffer solution (pH 9.7; 40 mM SDS, 10 mM CAPS; 0.1 % methanol) containing the anions of thioctic acid or thiomalic acid. These are capable of differently interacting with the surface of the AuNPs and AgNPs and thus introducing additional negative charges. This results in different migration times due to the formation of differently charged nanoparticles. (author)

  12. An Improved Isotope Coded Affinity Tag Technology for Thiol Redox Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotope Coded Affinity Tag (ICAT is a gel-free technology for quantitative proteomics. In ICAT procedure, strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX using increased potassium chloride gradient is recommended for peptide fractionation. Here we report optimization of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC as an alternative strategy for peptide fractionation of ICAT samples. HILIC exhibits high separation efficiency and does not require any downstream desalting steps. Compared to SCX based ICAT, integration of HILIC into the ICAT technology has resulted in high rates of protein identification, cysteine mapping, and quantification of cysteine-containing peptides. The improved technology has shown utility in thiol redox proteomics. Interestingly, results from HILIC ICAT and SCX ICAT are complementary. Implementation of both provides high coverage analysis of a complex proteome.

  13. Differential labeling of free and disulfide-bound thiol functions in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiwert, Bettina; Hayen, Heiko; Karst, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of the number of free cysteine groups and disulfide-bound cysteine groups in proteins has been developed based on the sequential labeling of free and bound thiol functionalities with two ferrocene-based maleimide reagents. Liquid chromatography/electrochemistry/mass spectrometry was used to assign the N-(2-ferroceneethyl)maleimide (FEM) labeled free cysteine functionalities in a tryptic digest mixture, whereas a precursor ion scan enables the detection of peptides with ferrocenecarboxylic acid-(2-maleimidoyl)ethylamide (FMEA) labeled disulfide-bound cysteine groups after reduction. Fragment spectra of the labeled peptides yield an excellent coverage of b-type and y-type ions. The ferrocene labeled cysteines were fragmented as 412 Da (FEM) and 455 Da (FMEA). These fragment masses are significantly higher than unlabeled amino acids or dipeptides and are easily detected. The position of free and disulfide-bound cysteine may therefore be assigned in an amino acid sequence. PMID:17977013

  14. Conserved water-mediated H-bonding dynamics of catalytic Asn 175 in plant thiol protease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapas K Nandi; Hridoy R Bairagya; Bishnu P Mukhopadhyay; K Sekar; Dipankar Sukul; Asim K Bera

    2009-03-01

    The role of invariant water molecules in the activity of plant cysteine protease is ubiquitous in nature. On analysing the 11 different Protein DataBank (PDB) structures of plant thiol proteases, the two invariant water molecules W1 and W2 (W220 and W222 in the template 1PPN structure) were observed to form H-bonds with the Ob atom of Asn 175. Extensive energy minimization and molecular dynamics simulation studies up to 2 ns on all the PDB and solvated structures clearly revealed the involvement of the H-bonding association of the two water molecules in fixing the orientation of the asparagine residue of the catalytic triad. From this study, it is suggested that H-bonding of the water molecule at the W1 invariant site better stabilizes the Asn residue at the active site of the catalytic triad.

  15. Semifluorinated thiols in Langmuir monolayers - A study by nonlinear and linear vibrational spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpati, Diogo; Chachaj-Brekiesz, Anna; Souza, Adriano L; Rimoli, Caio Vaz; Miranda, Paulo B; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Dynarowicz-??tka, Patrycja

    2015-12-15

    A series of semifluorinated thiols of the general formula CmF2m+1CnH2nSH (abbr. FmHnSH) have been synthesized and characterized in Langmuir monolayers with surface pressure-area isotherms, complemented with polarization-modulated reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) techniques. A comparative analysis was performed for compounds having the same length of fluorinated segment (F10) and variable length of the hydrogenated part (H6, H10, H12), and having identical hydrogenated segment (H12) connected to a fluorinated moiety of different lengths (F6, F8, F10). For the sake of comparison, an alkanethiol (H18SH) was also examined, and F10H10COOH and F10H10OH molecules were used for helping the assignment of SFG spectra of CH stretches. SFG was applied to investigate the hydrocarbon chain and the terminal CF3 group, while PM-IRRAS was used to probe CF2 groups. The number of gauche defects in the hydrocarbon chain increased with the increasing length of the molecule, either by elongation of the hydrogenated or perfluorinated part. SFG measurements recorded at three polarization combinations (ppp, ssp, sps) enabled us to estimate the tilt angle of the terminal CF3 group in semifluorinated thiol molecules as ranging from 35° to 45°, which is consistent with nearly vertical fluorinated segments. Upon increasing the surface pressure, the fluorinated segment gets slightly more upright, but the hydrocarbon chain tilt increases while keeping the same average number of gauche defects. The extent of disorder in the hydrogenated segment may be controlled by varying the size of the fluorinated segment, and this could be exploited for designing functionalized surfaces with insertion of other molecules in the defect region. PMID:26364075

  16. Modification of nanoelectrode ensembles by thiols and disulfides to prevent non specific adsorption of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Complex nanostructures are built on the gold surface of ensembles of nanoelectrodes. ? Gold surface of nanoelectrodes was functionalized with SAM of organic sulphurs. ? The polycarbonate surrounding nanoelectrodes was functionalized with proteins. ? SAMs protect the nanoelectrodes from undesired proteins adsorption. - Abstract: The possibility to functionalize selectively with thiols or disulfides the surface of the gold nanoelectrodes of polycarbonate templated nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) is studied. It is shown that the Au nanoelectrodes can be coated by a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioctic acid (TA) or 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic (MES) acid. The study of the electrochemical behavior of SAM-modified NEEs by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different solution pH, using ferrocenecarboxylate as an anionic redox probe (FcCOO-) and (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium (FA+) as a cationic redox probe, demonstrate that the SAM-modified nanoelectrodes are permselective, in that only cationic or neutral probes can access the SAM-coated nanoelectrode surface. CV, AFM and FTIR-ATR data indicate that proteins such as casein or bovine serum albumin, which are polyanionic at pH 7, adsorb on the surface of NEEs untreated with thiols, tending to block the electron transfer of the ferrocenyl redox probes. On the contrary, the pre-treatment of the NEE with an anionic SAM protects the nanoelectrodes from protein fouling, allowing the detection of well shaped voltammetric patterns for the redox probe. Experimental results indicate that, in the case of MES treated NEEs, the protein is bound only onto the polycarbonate surface which surrounds the nanoelectrodes, while the tips of the gold nanoelectrodes remain protein free.

  17. Modification of nanoelectrode ensembles by thiols and disulfides to prevent non specific adsorption of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestrini, M. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Schiavuta, P.; Scopece, P. [Associazione CIVEN, via delle Industrie 5, 30175 Marghera - Venice (Italy); Pecchielan, G.; Moretto, L.M. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Ugo, P., E-mail: ugo@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Complex nanostructures are built on the gold surface of ensembles of nanoelectrodes. > Gold surface of nanoelectrodes was functionalized with SAM of organic sulphurs. > The polycarbonate surrounding nanoelectrodes was functionalized with proteins. > SAMs protect the nanoelectrodes from undesired proteins adsorption. - Abstract: The possibility to functionalize selectively with thiols or disulfides the surface of the gold nanoelectrodes of polycarbonate templated nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) is studied. It is shown that the Au nanoelectrodes can be coated by a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioctic acid (TA) or 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic (MES) acid. The study of the electrochemical behavior of SAM-modified NEEs by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different solution pH, using ferrocenecarboxylate as an anionic redox probe (FcCOO{sup -}) and (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium (FA{sup +}) as a cationic redox probe, demonstrate that the SAM-modified nanoelectrodes are permselective, in that only cationic or neutral probes can access the SAM-coated nanoelectrode surface. CV, AFM and FTIR-ATR data indicate that proteins such as casein or bovine serum albumin, which are polyanionic at pH 7, adsorb on the surface of NEEs untreated with thiols, tending to block the electron transfer of the ferrocenyl redox probes. On the contrary, the pre-treatment of the NEE with an anionic SAM protects the nanoelectrodes from protein fouling, allowing the detection of well shaped voltammetric patterns for the redox probe. Experimental results indicate that, in the case of MES treated NEEs, the protein is bound only onto the polycarbonate surface which surrounds the nanoelectrodes, while the tips of the gold nanoelectrodes remain protein free.

  18. Differential regulation of tissue thiol-disulfide redox status in a murine model of peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benton Shana M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione (GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG and cysteine (Cys/cystine (CySS are major redox pools with important roles in cytoprotection. We determined the impact of septic peritonitis on thiol-disulfide redox status in mice. Methods FVB/N mice (6–12 week old; 8/group underwent laparotomy with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP or laparotomy alone (control. Sections of ileum, colon, lung and liver were obtained and GSH, GSSG, Cys and CySS concentrations determined by HPLC 24 h after laparotomy. Redox potential [Eh in millivolts (mV] of the GSH/GSSG and Cys/CySS pools was calculated using the Nernst equation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (mean ± SE. Results GSH/GSSG Eh in ileum, colon, and liver was significantly oxidized in septic mice versus control mice (ileum: septic ?202±4 versus control ?228±2 mV; colon: -195±8 versus ?214±1 mV; and liver: -194±3 vs. -210±1 mV, all Ph was unchanged with CLP, while liver and lung Cys/CySS Eh became significantly more reducing (liver: septic = ?103±3 versus control ?90±2 mV; lung: -101±5 versus ?81±1 mV, each P Conclusions Septic peritonitis induced by CLP oxidizes ileal and colonic GSH/GSSG redox but Cys/CySS Eh remains unchanged in these intestinal tissues. In liver, CLP oxidizes the GSH/GSSG redox pool and CyS/CySS Eh becomes more reducing; in lung, CLP does not alter GSH/GSSG Eh, and Cys/CySS Eh is less oxidized. CLP-induced infection/inflammation differentially regulates major thiol-disulfide redox pools in this murine model.

  19. Foodomics platform for the assay of thiols in wines with fluorescence derivatization and ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Koichi; Nishimura, Maiko; Tsutsui, Haruhito; Min, Jun Zhe; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2013-02-13

    The presence of specific volatile and aminothiols in wine is associated with quality, worth, price, and taste. The identification of specific thiol-containing compounds in various wines has been reported in many valuable and interesting works. In this study, a novel foodomics assay of thiol-containing compounds, such as free aminothiols and related conjugates, was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence (FL) and electrospray (ESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF/MS) detections. FL specific derivatization was applied along with multivariate statistical analysis. First, the optimal experimental conditions were studied using representative thiols, such as l-cysteine, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, cysteamine, and l-glutathione, and then the UPLC-FL derivatization and separation steps were fixed for the subsequent screening of unknown thiol-containing compounds. The screening assay consisted of monitoring the UPLC-TOF/MS peaks of unknown thiols, which decreased due to the derivatization as compared to the nonderivatized thiols. The principal component analysis of the UPLC-TOF/MS data could be well-differentiated and categorized into two groups. The orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis, the so-called S-plot, showed that the quality differentiation is directly related to the decrease of native thiols and increase of derivatized thiols. With this strategy, the mass difference from the derivatization reagent (+m/z 198) could be utilized for the identification of these thiols using the FL peaks retention time and metabolomics-databases. The presence of l-glutathione in rice wine was for the first time reported on the basis of the available metabolomics-databases and standard matching. This novel concept based on foodomics could be applied in food analysis for the ready screening of specific functional compounds by exploiting the various derivatization modes available. PMID:23339461

  20. Molecular profiling and functional insights of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) thioredoxin reductase 3-like molecule: investigation of its transcriptional modulation in response to live pathogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2015-10-01

    The thioredoxin (Trx) system plays a significant role in cellular antioxidative defense by dismutating the surpluses of reactive oxygen species. Thus, the role of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) cannot be ignored, owing to its participation in initiating the Trx enzyme cascade. Here, we report the identification and molecular characterization of a teleostean TrxR (RbTrxR-3) ortholog that showed high similarity with the TrxR-3 isoforms of other vertebrates. The complete RbTrxR-3 coding sequence comprised 1800 nucleotides, encoding a 600-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of ~66 kDa. RbTrxR-3 consisted of 16 exons separated by 15 introns and had a total length of 12,658 bp. In silico analysis of the RbTrxR-3 protein sequence revealed that it possesses typical TrxR domain architecture. Moreover, using multiple sequence alignment and pairwise sequence alignment strategies, we showed that RbTrxR-3 has high overall sequence similarity to other teleostean TrxR-3 proteins, including highly conserved active site residues. Phylogenetic reconstruction of RbTrxR-3 affirmed its close evolutionary relationship with fish TrxR-3 orthologs, as indicated by its clustering pattern. RbTrxR-3 transcriptional analysis, performed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), showed that RbTrxR-3 was ubiquitously distributed, with the highest level of mRNA expression in the blood, followed by the gill, and liver. Live bacterial and viral stimuli triggered the modulation of RbTrxR-3 basal transcription in liver tissues that correlated temporally with that of its putative substrate, rock bream thioredoxin1 under the same conditions of pathogenic stress. Finally, resembling the typical function of TrxR protein, purified recombinant RbTrxR-3 showed detectable dose-dependent thiol reductase activity against 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic) acid. Taken together, these results suggest that RbTrxR-3 plays a role in the host Trx system under conditions of oxidative and pathogenic stress. PMID:26055087

  1. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gokcen, Cem; Kocak, Nadir; Pekgor, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a sample of Turkish children.

  2. PLACE OF 5?-REDUCTASE IN THE THERAPY FOR BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Novac

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years ago, finasteride, the first 5?-reductase inhibitor, was introduced as drug therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia, and more recently dutasteride has emerged as an alternative. The efficacy, safety and ability of these 5?-reductase inhibitors to reverse the natural progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia have been convincingly demonstrated and both drugs are now welt established in the medical armamentarium against the disease. Given the multifactorial etiology of benign hyperplasia, the usefulness of 5?-reductase inhibitors in combination with a adrenergic blockers has also been investigated and justified in select patients. Wider applications of 5?-reductase inhibitors are also emerging, though their perhaps most important new role as chemopreventive agents remains unclear.

  3. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds from??Zea mays L.

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Hyeon Kim; Jin Kyu Kim; Young-Hee Kang; Jae-Yong Lee; Il Jun Kang; Soon Sung Lim

    2013-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1–7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8–12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reducta...

  4. A soluble 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Montalvetti, A; Camacho, A; Gallego, C; Ruiz-Perez, L M; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, D

    1997-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of a genomic clone containing the open reading frame sequence for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. The protozoan gene encoded for a smaller polypeptide than the rest of the genes described from eukaryotic organisms and the deduced amino acid sequence could be aligned with the C-terminal half of animal and plant reductases exhibiting pronounced similarity to other eukaryo...

  5. LY191704: a selective, nonsteroidal inhibitor of human steroid 5 alpha-reductase type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, K S; Jones, C D; Audia, J E; Andersson, S.; McQuaid, L; Stamm, N B; Neubauer, B L; Pennington, P; Toomey, R E; Russell, D W

    1993-01-01

    Androgens, in particular dihydrotestosterone (DHT), play a key role in differentiation, growth, and maintenance of the mammalian prostate. Production of DHT from testosterone is catalyzed by two distinct membrane-bound steroid 5 alpha-reductase [5 alpha-reductase; 3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase; 3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid:(acceptor) delta 4-oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.99.5] isozymes designated types 1 and 2. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a disease that occurs almost universally in ma...

  6. Medium-chain and short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in retinoid metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Parés, X; Farrés, J.; Kedishvili, N; Duester, G.

    2008-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the most active retinoid, is synthesized in two steps from retinol. The first step, oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde, is catalyzed by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) superfamily and microsomal retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs) of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. The second step, oxidation of retinaldehyde to RA, is catalyzed by several aldehyde dehydrogenases. ADH1 and ADH2 are the major M...

  7. Nitrate reductase from squash: cDNA cloning and nitrate regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Nigel M; Campbell, Wilbur H.; Davis, Ronald W

    1986-01-01

    The assimilation of nitrate in plants involves the reduction of nitrate to ammonia in two steps. The first step requires nitrate reductase, a nitrate-inducible enzyme. When seedlings of squash (Cucurbita maxima L.) were treated with nitrate, both nitrate reductase activity and protein were induced in the cotyledons. Poly(A)+ RNA was prepared from cotyledons of nitrate-treated seedlings and was used to construct a ?gt11 cDNA library. Using antibodies from mice immunized against purified nitrat...

  8. Lactococcus lactis Thioredoxin Reductase Is Sensitive to Light Inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Viennet, Thibault; Skjoldager, Nicklas; Curovic, Aida; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Svensson, Birte; Hagglund, P.

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin, involved in numerous redox pathways, is maintained in the dithiol state by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent flavoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Here, TrxR from Lactococcus lactis is compared with the well-characterized TrxR from Escherichia coli. The two enzymes belong to the same class of low-molecular weight thioredoxin reductases and display similar kcat values (?25 s-1) with their cognate thioredoxin. Remarkably, however, the L. lactis enzyme is i...

  9. Metabolic control and autogenous regulation of nit-3, the nitrate reductase structural gene of Neurospora crassa.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Y. H.; Marzluf, G A

    1988-01-01

    In Neurospora crassa, the expression of nit-3, the structural gene which encodes nitrate reductase, is highly regulated and requires both nitrate induction and nitrogen catabolite derepression. The major nitrogen regulatory gene, nit-2, acts in a positive fashion to turn on the expression of nit-3 and other nitrogen-related genes during nitrogen derepression. A second regulatory gene, designated nmr, acts in a negative fashion to repress the expression of nitrate reductase and related enzymes...

  10. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii.

    OpenAIRE

    Booker, S; Stubbe, J.

    1993-01-01

    Ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (RTPR, EC 1.17.4.2) from Lactobacillus leichmannii, a monomeric adenosylcobalamin-requiring enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleoside triphosphates. The gene for this enzyme has been cloned and sequenced. In contrast to expectations based on mechanistic considerations, there is no statistically significant sequence homology with the Escherichia coli reductase that requires a dinuclear-iron center and tyrosyl radical c...

  11. Escherichia coli delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase: gene sequence, protein overproduction and purification.

    OpenAIRE

    Deutch, A H; Smith, C. J.; Rushlow, K E; Kretschmer, P J

    1982-01-01

    The sequence of the Escherichia coli proC gene which encodes for delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (PCA) reductase was determined. Overproduction of the proC gene product via an expression plasmid carrying the bacteriophage lambda PL promoter allowed the purification to homogeneity of PCA reductase by affinity adsorption chromatography. NH2 and COOH-terminal analysis and amino acid composition of the purified proC protein is consistent with the gene sequence reported. The molecular weight of th...

  12. Cloning and characterization of the methyl coenzyme M reductase genes from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The genes coding for methyl coenzyme M reductase were cloned from a genomic library of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg into Escherichia coli by using plasmid expression vectors. When introduced into E. coli, the reductase genes were expressed, yielding polypeptides identical in size to the three known subunits of the isolated enzyme, alpha, beta, and gamma. The polypeptides also reacted with the antibodies raised against the respective enzyme subunits. In M. thermoautotrophicum, ...

  13. Stable nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas using the Chlamydomonas gene for nitrate reductase

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a nuclear transformation system for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using micro-projectile bombardment to introduce the gene encoding nitrate reductase into a nit1 mutant strain which lacks nitrate reductase activity. By using either supercoiled or linear plasmid DNA, transformants were recovered consistently at a low efficiency, on the order of 15 transformants per microgram of plasmid DNA. In all cases the transforming DNA was integrated into the nuclear genome, usually in mult...

  14. Maturation of aldose reductase expression in the neonatal rat inner medulla.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, G. J.; Zavilowitz, B J; Radice, A D; Garcia-Perez, A; Sands, J M

    1992-01-01

    Newborns are less able to concentrate urine than adults are. With development of the concentrating system and a hypertonic medullary interstitium, there is a need to generate intracellular osmolytes such as sorbitol, which is produced in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aldose reductase. We sought to discriminate between two possible mechanisms of aldose reductase induction during development: (a) a response to an osmotic stimulus generated by the concentrating mechanism; or (b) part of the...

  15. Ammonification in Bacillus subtilis Utilizing Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Is Dependent on resDE

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Tamara; Frankenberg, Nicole; Marino, Marco; Jahn, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    During anaerobic nitrate respiration Bacillus subtilis reduces nitrate via nitrite to ammonia. No denitrification products were observed. B. subtilis wild-type cells and a nitrate reductase mutant grew anaerobically with nitrite as an electron acceptor. Oxygen-sensitive dissimilatory nitrite reductase activity was demonstrated in cell extracts prepared from both strains with benzyl viologen as an electron donor and nitrite as an electron acceptor. The anaerobic expression of the discovered ni...

  16. Protein Method for Investigating Mercuric Reductase Gene Expression in Aquatic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunseitan, O. A.

    1998-01-01

    A colorimetric assay for NADPH-dependent, mercuric ion-specific oxidoreductase activity was developed to facilitate the investigation of mercuric reductase gene expression in polluted aquatic ecosystems. Protein molecules extracted directly from unseeded freshwater and samples seeded with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21(Rip64) were quantitatively assayed for mercuric reductase activity in microtiter plates by stoichiometric coupling of mercuric ion reduction to a colorimetric redox chain through ...

  17. Sepiapterin reductase expression is increased in Parkinson’s disease brain tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Tobin, Jennifer E.; Cui, Jing; Wilk, Jemma B.; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Laramie, Jason M; McKee, Ann C.; Guttman, Mark; Karamohamed, Samer; DeStefano, Anita L.; Myers, Richard H

    2007-01-01

    The PARK3 locus on chromosome 2p13 has shown linkage to both the development and age of onset of Parkinson’s disease (PD). One candidate gene at this locus is sepiapterin reductase (SPR). Sepiapterin reductase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthetic pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for aromatic amino acid hydrolases including tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. The expression of SPR was assayed using semiquantitative real-time ...

  18. In vitro expression of rat lens aldose reductase in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Old, S E; Sato, S.; Kador, P F; Carper, D A

    1990-01-01

    Aldose reductase (alditol:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.21), an enzyme that converts glucose to sorbitol, the first step of the polyol pathway, has been implicated in secondary complications of diabetes, such as cataracts, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. Aldose reductase inhibitors have been observed to prevent or delay the onset of these complications; however, more potent and specific inhibitors are needed. Development of new inhibitors necessitates a better understanding of the ...

  19. Affinity Purifications of Aldose Reductase and Xylitol Dehydrogenase from the Xylose-Fermenting Yeast Pachysolen tannophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Bolen, Paul L.; Roth, Kelly A.; Freer, Shelby N.

    1986-01-01

    Although xylose is a major product of hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, few yeasts are able to convert it to ethanol. In Pachysolen tannophilus, one of the few xylose-fermenting yeasts found, aldose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase were found to be key enzymes in the metabolic pathway for xylose fermentation. This paper presents a method for the rapid and simultaneous purification of both aldose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from P. tannophilus. Preliminary studies indicate th...

  20. Cloning, expression and antigenicity of the L. donovani reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Kemp, K; Theander, T G; Handman, E

    2001-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Leishmania undergoes a morphological and biochemical transformation from the promastigote to the amastigote form during its life cycle, which is reflected in the expression of stage-specific proteins. One of these proteins shows homology to a superfamily of reductase proteins. We have cloned the reductase gene from L donovani and have shown that it differs in only one nucleotide from the L. major homologue, resulting in one amino acid change. A cytosine (C) to guanine (G) ...

  1. Purification and properties of dimethyl sulphoxide reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus. A periplasmic molybdoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, A G; Ferguson, S J; Jackson, J B

    1991-02-15

    Dimethyl sulphoxide reductase was purified from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. The enzyme is composed of a single polypeptide of Mr 82,000 and contains a pterin-type molybdenum cofactor as the only detectable prosthetic group. The oxidized molybdenum cofactor of dimethyl sulphoxide reductase is a weak chromophore and exhibits broad absorption bands in the u.v.-visible-absorption spectral region. A distinct spectrum was generated upon addition of dithionite. PMID:2001248

  2. Mutationally altered ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli: characterization of mutations isolated on multicopy plasmids.

    OpenAIRE

    Platz, A.; Sjöberg, B M

    1984-01-01

    The Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase genes (nrd genes) were mutagenized at random. Point mutations were introduced in vitro into a recombinant nrd plasmid. Transformants were initially screened for altered tolerance toward the drug hydroxyurea and further characterized by enzymatic and immunological methods. The screening procedure could pick out defects in either of the two subunits of ribonucleotide reductase. Cells carrying the nrd plasmid pPS2 were earlier shown to have levels of...

  3. Crystal structures of two tropinone reductases: Different reaction stereospecificities in the same protein fold

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Keiji; Yamashita, Atsuko; Akama, Hiroyuki; Nakatsu, Toru; KATO, HIROAKI; HASHIMOTO, TAKASHI; Oda, Jun’ichi; Yamada, Yasuyuki

    1998-01-01

    A pair of tropinone reductases (TRs) share 64% of the same amino acid residues and belong to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. In the synthesis of tropane alkaloids in several medicinal plants, the TRs reduce a carbonyl group of an alkaloid intermediate, tropinone, to hydroxy groups with different diastereomeric configurations. To clarify the structural basis for their different reaction stereospecificities, we determined the crystal structures of the two enzymes at 2.4- and 2.3...

  4. Comparison of the Stereospecificity and Immunoreactivity of NADH-Ferricyanide Reductases in Plant Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Fredlund, Kenneth M.; Struglics, André; Widell, Susanne; Askerlund, Per; Kader, Jean-Claude; Møller, Ian M.

    1994-01-01

    The substrate stereospecificity of NADH-ferricyanide reductase activities in the inner mitochondrial membrane and peroxisomal membrane of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaf plasma membrane, and red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) tonoplast were all specific for the [beta]-hydrogen of NADH, whereas the reductases in wheat root (Triticum aestivum L.) endoplasmic reticulum and potato tuber outer mitochondrial membrane were both [alpha]-hydrogen specific. In all...

  5. A soluble 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Montalvetti, A

    1997-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of a genomic clone containing the open reading frame sequence for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. The protozoan gene encoded for a smaller polypeptide than the rest of the genes described from eukaryotic organisms and the deduced amino acid sequence could be aligned with the C-terminal half of animal and plant reductases exhibiting pronounced similarity to other eukaryotic counterparts. Further examination of the 5' flanking region by cDNA analysis and establishment of the splice acceptor sites clearly indicated that the corresponding mRNA apparently lacks sequences encoding a membrane N-terminal domain. The reductase gene is a single copy and is located on a chromosome of 1.36 Mb as determined by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis. The overall cellular distribution of enzymic activity was investigated after differential centrifugation of Trypanosoma cell extracts. Reductase activity was primarily associated with the cellular soluble fraction because 95% of the total cellular activity was recovered in the supernatant and was particularly sensitive to proteolytic inactivation. Furthermore the enzyme can be efficiently overexpressed in a highly active form by using the expression vector pET-11c. Thus Trypanosoma cruzi HMG-CoA reductase is unique in the sense that it totally lacks the membrane-spanning sequences present in all eukaryotic HMG-CoA reductases so far characterized.

  6. Nitrate reductase activity and its relationship with applied nitrogen in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted to study the nitrate reductase activity and its relationship to nitrogen by using frame tests (pot without bottom), sand culture and 15N-urea at transplanting in soybean variety Suinong 14. Results showed that the activity of nitrate reductase in leaf changed as a signal peak curve with the soybean growth, lower in vegetative growth phase, higher in reproductive growth period and reached the peak in blooming period, then decreased gradually. Nitrogen application showed obvious effect on the nitrate reductase activity. The activities of nitrate reductase in leaves followed the order of N135 > N90 > N45 > N0 in vegetative growth stage, no clear regularity was found during the whole reproductive growth period. The activities of nitrate reductase in leaves were accorded with the order of upper leaves > mid leaves > lower leaves, and it was very significant differences (P15N labeling method during beginning seed stage and full seed stage shown that 15N abundance in various organs at different node position also followed the same order, suggesting that high level of nitrate reductase activity at upper leaves of soybean promoted the assimilation of NO3-. (authors)

  7. Substrate Recognition, Protein Dynamics, and Iron-Sulfur Cluster in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Adenosine 5?-Phosphosulfate Reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartron, Justin; Carroll, Kate S.; Shiau, Carrie; Gao, Hong; Leary, Julie A.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Stout, C. David

    2006-01-01

    APS reductase catalyzes the first committed step of reductive sulfate assimilation in pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and is a promising target for drug development. We report the 2.7 ? resolution crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa APS reductase in the thiosulfonate intermediate form of the catalytic cycle and with substrate bound. The structure, high-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry, and quantitative kinetic analysis, establish that the two chemically discrete steps of the overall reaction take place at distinct sites on the enzyme, mediated via conformational flexibility of the C-terminal 18 residues. The results address the mechanism by which sulfonucleotide reductases protect the covalent but labile enzyme-intermediate prior to release of sulfite by the protein cofactor thioredoxin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa APS reductase contains an [4Fe-4S] cluster that is essential for catalysis. The structure reveals an unusual mode of cluster coordination by tandem cysteines and suggests how this arrangement might facilitate conformational change and cluster interaction with substrate. Assimilatory PAPS reductases are evolutionarily related, homologous enzymes that catalyze the same overall reaction, but do so in the absence of an [Fe-S] cluster. The APS reductase structure reveals adaptive use of a phosphate-binding loop for recognition of the APS O3? hydroxyl, or alternatively, the PAPS 3?-phosphate. PMID:17010373

  8. Analysis of methionine/selenomethionine oxidation and methionine sulfoxide reductase function using methionine-rich proteins and antibodies against their oxidized forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Liang, Xinwen; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Raza, Ashraf S; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Carlson, Bradley A; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2008-06-24

    Methionine (Met) residues are present in most proteins. However, this sulfur-containing amino acid is highly susceptible to oxidation. In cells, the resulting Met sulfoxides are reduced back to Met by stereospecific reductases MsrA and MsrB. Reversible Met oxidation occurs even in the absence of stress, is elevated during aging and disease, but is notoriously difficult to monitor. In this work, we computationally identified natural Met-rich proteins (MRPs) and characterized three such proteins containing 21-33% Met residues. Oxidation of multiple Met residues in MRPs with H(2)O(2) and reduction of Met sulfoxides with MsrA/MsrB dramatically influenced the mobility of these proteins on polyacrylamide gels and could be monitored by simple SDS-PAGE. We further prepared antibodies enriched for reduced and Met sulfoxide forms of these proteins and used them to monitor Met oxidation and reduction by immunoblot assays. We describe applications of these reagents for the analysis of MsrA and MsrB functions, as well as the development of the assay for high-throughput analysis of their activities. We also show that all Met sulfoxide residues in an MRP can be reduced by MsrA and MsrB. Furthermore, we prepared a selenomethionine form of an MRP and found that selenomethionine selenoxide residues can be efficiently reduced nonenzymatically by glutathione and other thiol compounds. Selenomethionine selenoxide residues were not recognized by antibodies specific for the Met sulfoxide form of an MRP. These findings, reagents, assays, and approaches should facilitate research and applications in the area of Met sulfoxide reduction, oxidative stress, and aging. PMID:18505275

  9. Analysis of Methionine/Selenomethionine Oxidation and Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Function Using Methionine-Rich Proteins and Antibodies against Their Oxidized Forms†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Liang, Xinwen; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Raza, Ashraf S.; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2008-01-01

    Methionine (Met) residues are present in most proteins. However, this sulfur-containing amino acid is highly susceptible to oxidation. In cells, the resulting Met sulfoxides are reduced back to Met by stereospecific reductases MsrA and MsrB. Reversible Met oxidation occurs even in the absence of stress, is elevated during aging and disease, but is notoriously difficult to monitor. In this work, we computationally identified natural Met-rich proteins (MRPs) and characterized three such proteins containing 21–33% Met residues. Oxidation of multiple Met residues in MRPs with H2O2 and reduction of Met sulfoxides with MsrA/MsrB dramatically influenced the mobility of these proteins on polyacrylamide gels and could be monitored by simple SDS–PAGE. We further prepared antibodies enriched for reduced and Met sulfoxide forms of these proteins and used them to monitor Met oxidation and reduction by immunoblot assays. We describe applications of these reagents for the analysis of MsrA and MsrB functions, as well as the development of the assay for high-throughput analysis of their activities. We also show that all Met sulfoxide residues in an MRP can be reduced by MsrA and MsrB. Furthermore, we prepared a selenomethionine form of an MRP and found that selenomethionine selenoxide residues can be efficiently reduced nonenzymatically by glutathione and other thiol compounds. Selenomethionine selenoxide residues were not recognized by antibodies specific for the Met sulfoxide form of an MRP. These findings, reagents, assays, and approaches should facilitate research and applications in the area of Met sulfoxide reduction, oxidative stress, and aging. PMID:18505275

  10. Isobutyraldehyde production from Escherichia coli by removing aldehyde reductase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Gabriel M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing global demand and reliance on petroleum-derived chemicals will necessitate alternative sources for chemical feedstocks. Currently, 99% of chemical feedstocks are derived from petroleum and natural gas. Renewable methods for producing important chemical feedstocks largely remain unaddressed. Synthetic biology enables the renewable production of various chemicals from microorganisms by constructing unique metabolic pathways. Here, we engineer Escherichia coli for the production of isobutyraldehyde, which can be readily converted to various hydrocarbons currently derived from petroleum such as isobutyric acid, acetal, oxime and imine using existing chemical catalysis. Isobutyraldehyde can be readily stripped from cultures during production, which reduces toxic effects of isobutyraldehyde. Results We adopted the isobutanol pathway previously constructed in E. coli, neglecting the last step in the pathway where isobutyraldehyde is converted to isobutanol. However, this strain still overwhelmingly produced isobutanol (1.5?g/L/OD600 (isobutanol vs 0.14?g/L/OD600 (isobutyraldehyde. Next, we deleted yqhD which encodes a broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase known to be active toward isobutyraldehyde. This strain produced isobutanol and isobutyraldehyde at a near 1:1 ratio, indicating further native isobutyraldehyde reductase (IBR activity in E. coli. To further eliminate isobutanol formation, we set out to identify and remove the remaining IBRs from the E. coli genome. We identified 7 annotated genes coding for IBRs that could be active toward isobutyraldehyde: adhP, eutG, yiaY, yjgB, betA, fucO, eutE. Individual deletions of the genes yielded only marginal improvements. Therefore, we sequentially deleted all seven of the genes and assessed production. The combined deletions greatly increased isobutyraldehyde production (1.5?g/L/OD600 and decreased isobutanol production (0.4?g/L/OD600. By assessing production by overexpression of each candidate IBR, we reveal that AdhP, EutG, YjgB, and FucO are active toward isobutyraldehyde. Finally, we assessed long-term isobutyraldehyde production of our best strain containing a total of 15 gene deletions using a gas stripping system with in situ product removal, resulting in a final titer of 35?g/L after 5?days. Conclusions In this work, we optimized E. coli for the production of the important chemical feedstock isobutyraldehyde by the removal of IBRs. Long-term production yielded industrially relevant titers of isobutyraldehyde with in situ product removal. The mutational load imparted on E. coli in this work demonstrates the versatility of metabolic engineering for strain improvements.

  11. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and microstructural analysis of thiol-functionalized Au nanoparticles: role of chemical and structural parameters in the ferromagnetic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Estefanía; Muñoz-Márquez, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-Pinel, Enrique; Crespo, Patricia; Hernando, Antonio; Fernández-Camacho, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been stabilized with a variety of thiol-containing molecules in order to change their chemical and physical properties; among the possible capping systems, alkane chains with different lengths, a carboxylic acid and a thiol-containing biomolecule (tiopronin) have been selected as protecting shells for the synthesized NPs; the NPs solubility in water or organic solvents is determined by the protecting molecule. A full microstructural characterization of these NPs ...

  12. Influence of liposome forms of the rhenium compounds and cis-platin on thiol-disulfide coefficient in the rats’ blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Klenina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiol-disulfide coefficient (TDC and its different modifications in model in vivo were studied. Introduction of the liposome forms of cluster rhenium compounds with organic ligands (CROL leads to both TDC increasing and to the constancy of the TDC. Thus, CROLs aren’t toxic agents and some compounds could mobilize organisms’ thiol defence system. Liposome form of cis-platin leads to the TDC decreasing. Important CROL capacities for its future medical treatment practice were shown.

  13. Radical-Scavenging Activity of Thiols, Thiobarbituric Acid Derivatives and Phenolic Antioxidants Determined Using the Induction Period Method for Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Seiichiro Fujisawa; Yoshinori Kadoma

    2012-01-01

    The radical-scavenging activities of two thiols, eight (thio)barbituric acid derivatives and six chain-breaking phenolic antioxidants were investigated using the induction period method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2’-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) and monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The induction period (IP) for the thiols 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) and 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI) was about half that for pheno...

  14. Live-cell imaging of biothiols via thiol/disulfide exchange to trigger the photoinduced electron transfer of gold-nanodot sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ching-Ping; Wu, Te-Haw; Liu, Chia-Yeh; Lin, Shu-Yi, E-mail: shuyi@nhri.org.tw

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • The ultrasmall size, PAMAM dendrimer-entrapped Au{sub 8}-clusters were synthesized. • Thiol/disulfide exchange with biothiols to release 2-PyT resulted in quenching. • The sensing platform can detect both low and high molecular weight thiols. • Capable of imaging biothiols including protein thiols in living cells. - Abstract: Biothiols have been reported to involve in intracellular redox-homeostasis against oxidative stress. In this study, a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for sensing biothiols is explored by using an ultrasmall gold nanodot (AuND), the dendrimer-entrapped Au{sub 8}-cluster. This strategy relies upon a thiol/disulfide exchange to trigger the fluorescence change through a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process between the Au{sub 8}-cluster (as an electron donor) and 2-pyridinethiol (2-PyT) (as an electron acceptor) for sensing biothiols. When 2-PyT is released via the cleavage of disulfide bonds by biothiols, the PET process from the Au{sub 8}-cluster to 2-PyT is initiated, resulting in fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity was found to decrease linearly with glutathione (GSH) concentration (0–1500 ?M) at physiological relevant levels and the limit of detection for GSH was 15.4 ?M. Compared to most nanoparticle-based fluorescent probes that are limited to detect low molecular weight thiols (LMWTs; i.e., GSH and cysteine), the ultrasmall Au{sub 8}-cluster-based probe exhibited less steric hindrance and can be directly applied in selectively and sensitively detecting both LMWTs and high molecular weight thiols (HMWTs; i.e., protein thiols). Based on such sensing platform, the surface-functionalized Au{sub 8}-cluster has significant promise for use as an efficient nanoprobe for intracellular fluorescence imaging of biothiols including protein thiols in living cells whereas other nanoparticle-based fluorescent probes cannot.

  15. Live-cell imaging of biothiols via thiol/disulfide exchange to trigger the photoinduced electron transfer of gold-nanodot sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The ultrasmall size, PAMAM dendrimer-entrapped Au8-clusters were synthesized. • Thiol/disulfide exchange with biothiols to release 2-PyT resulted in quenching. • The sensing platform can detect both low and high molecular weight thiols. • Capable of imaging biothiols including protein thiols in living cells. - Abstract: Biothiols have been reported to involve in intracellular redox-homeostasis against oxidative stress. In this study, a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for sensing biothiols is explored by using an ultrasmall gold nanodot (AuND), the dendrimer-entrapped Au8-cluster. This strategy relies upon a thiol/disulfide exchange to trigger the fluorescence change through a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process between the Au8-cluster (as an electron donor) and 2-pyridinethiol (2-PyT) (as an electron acceptor) for sensing biothiols. When 2-PyT is released via the cleavage of disulfide bonds by biothiols, the PET process from the Au8-cluster to 2-PyT is initiated, resulting in fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity was found to decrease linearly with glutathione (GSH) concentration (0–1500 ?M) at physiological relevant levels and the limit of detection for GSH was 15.4 ?M. Compared to most nanoparticle-based fluorescent probes that are limited to detect low molecular weight thiols (LMWTs; i.e., GSH and cysteine), the ultrasmall Au8-cluster-based probe exhibited less steric hindrance and can be directly applied in selectively and sensitively detecting both LMWTs and high molecular weight thiols (HMWTs; i.e., protein thiols). Based on such sensing platform, the surface-functionalized Au8-cluster has significant promise for use as an efficient nanoprobe for intracellular fluorescence imaging of biothiols including protein thiols in living cells whereas other nanoparticle-based fluorescent probes cannot

  16. Activities of Aldo-Keto Reductase 1 Enzymes on Two Inhaled Corticosteroids: Implications for the Pharmacological Effects of Inhaled Corticosteroids*

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are a mainstay anti-inflammatory therapy for the management of asthma. ICS are synthetic glucocorticoids that are structurally similar to the natural active human glucocorticoid cortisol. Steroid transforming enzymes of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) family, namely AKR1D1 (5?-steroid reductase) and AKR1C1-4 (ketosteroid reductases) are implicated in the systemic metabolism of cortisol in liver. In this study, the activities of these AKR1 enzymes on cortisol and tw...

  17. Development of Transformation System of Verticillium lecanii (Lecanicillium spp.) (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) Based on Nitrate Reductase Gene of Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Saba; Singh, Rana Inder; Singh, Sandhu Sardul

    2011-01-01

    A heterologous transformation system was developed for V. lecanii based on the complementation of a nitrate reductase mutant. Nitrate reductase mutants were obtained by resistance to chlorate in a rate of 23.24% when compared to other mutations that lead to the chlorate resistance. Mutant no. 01 and 04 was chosen for the transformation experiments. Plasmid pBT was used as transformation vector containing the Aspergillus nidulans nitrate reductase gene. A frequency of approximately 3 transform...

  18. Repression of nitrate reductase in Neurospora studied by using L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine and glutamine auxotroph gln-1b.

    OpenAIRE

    Premakumar, R.; Sorger, G J; Gooden, D

    1980-01-01

    The effect of L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, on the formation of nitrate reductase in the wild-type strain of Neurospora in the presence of ammonium ions and of glutamine was studied. Under conditions in which glutamine synthetase was inactivated, it was found that only glutamine could repress nitrate reductase. In a mutant of Neurospora, gln-1b, which requires glutamine for growth, only glutamine could repress nitrate reductase. These results suggest a dir...

  19. Strategies for creating antifouling surfaces using selfassembled poly(ethylene glycol) thiol molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms are one of the most important parts of our ecosystem influencing the sustenance of human society. The beneficial microbes are of high relevance to food industry, development of antibiotics and processing of many raw materials. Mankind has indeed benefitted a lot from large number of microbial species, but then the environment is also teeming with pathogenic microbes that pose serious threat to human health. Hence the success of human survival not only depends on exploiting the useful microbes but also on our ability to defend ourselves against the pathogenic ones. Microbes such as bacteria can exist either in free floating planktonic form or as biofilm which can defined as adherent microbial colonies embedded in slime or extracellular polymeric substance. Microbial biofilms are responsible for a large number of problems posing a serious safety threat within our society. Biofilms have substantial impact on human health, as many bacterial infections are caused by or involve biofilms. Biofilm infections are for example often associated with medical implants, as artificial surfaces in the human body provide a safe haven where biofilms can form. The food industry daily combats biofilms forming on the surfaces of equipment to avoid contamination of their products. In addition to posing a health problem, biofilms also pose technical problems, such as corrosion and reduced water flow in technical water systems. Removal of a biofilm is very tedious and sometimes even impossible because bacteria in biofilms are resilient towards antibiotic and biocides. It is therefore desirable to be able to prevent biofilm formation, rather than attempting to eliminate biofilms after they form. The formation of a microbial biofilm on a surface can be prevented by creating unfavourable conditions for the reversible, initial attachment of microbial cells. This effect can be obtained by grafting hydrophilic polymeric chains onto surfaces and thereby provide a steric barrier between the substrate surface and the microbial cell. Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) is one of the most widely used polymers for making non-adhesive coatings. The work presented in this thesis involves grafting PEG chains onto surfaces using different modifications of the ‘grafting to’ technique. The main aim of studies presented in this thesis was to develop surfaces which would prevent bacteria from forming biofilm. The work focuses on novel strategies to self assemble PEG thiol monolayers with high graft density. One of the strategies investigated involved backfilling a self assembled layer of 2000 Da PEG thiol with shorter oligo (ethylene glycol) (OEG) thiol molecules to form a mixed monolayer. Detailed quantitative characterization of the backfilling process was carried out using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These studies helped in understanding the arrangement of backfilled molecules and the extent of desorption of PEG molecules during the backfilling process. The PEG SAM backfilled with OEG molecules was tested for resistance towards serum adsorption and bacterial attachment, and was found to better resist fouling compared to PEG SAM that had not been backfilled. The second strategy involved PEG grafting using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFC), which is known to possess robust solvation properties. The idea was to demonstrate ‘cloud point’ type grafting during self assembly using SFC, and produce PEG SAM of high graft density. The SFC based PEG grafting reported here is the first of its kind, and the results demonstrated that SFC is a good solvent for polymer grafting. The fouling properties of such layers were ascertained by quantitative protein adsorption studies and bacterial attachment studies. The detailed surface characterization of grafted polymeric layer and antifouling studies helped in development of novel ways to create antifouling surfaces which have the potential to counter problems caused by biofilms.

  20. SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ENZYME INHIBITION STUDIES ON 5-(2-NITROSTYRYL)-1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE-2-THIOL DERIVATIVES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MUHAMMAD ATHAR, ABBASI; ADNAN, AKHTAR; , AZIZ-UR-REHMAN; KHADIJA, NAFEESA; SABAHAT ZAHRA, SIDDIQUI; KHALID MOHAMMED, KHAN; MUHAMMAD, ASHRAF; SYEDA ABIDA, EJAZ.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, S-substituted derivatives of 5-(2-nitrostyryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (4) were synthesized by successive conversions of 3-(2-nitrophenyl) acrylic acid (1) into its respective ester, hydrazide and 1,3,4-oxadiazole. Finally the target compounds were obtained by reaction of 5-(2- [...] nitrostyryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (4) with a series of various electrophiles, (5a-I), in NN-dimethyl formamide (DMF) in the presence of sodium hydride (NaH). The structural characterization of these newly synthesized compounds was done by IR, ¹H-NMR, HR-MS and EI-MS spectral data. All these compounds were evaluated for their enzyme inhibitory potentials and found to exhibit broad range spectrum against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinestrase and lipoxygenase enzymes.